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Sample records for interpreting malaria age-prevalence

  1. Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartan malaria; Falciparum malaria; Biduoterian fever; Blackwater fever; Tertian malaria; Plasmodium ... now only suggested for use in areas where Plasmodium vivax , P. ... is becoming increasingly resistant to anti-malarial medications ...

  2. Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and can even be fatal. SymptomsWhat are the symptoms of malaria?The symptoms of malaria include:High fever (can often be 104° F ... give someone else malaria?If I do get malaria, should I travel while I have symptoms? Other organizationsInternational Society of Travel MedicineCenters for Disease ...

  3. Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupasquier, Isabelle

    1989-01-01

    Malaria, the greatest pandemia in the world, claims an estimated one million lives each year in Africa alone. While it may still be said that for the most part malaria is found in what is known as the world's poverty belt, cases are now frequently diagnosed in western countries. Due to resistant strains of malaria which have developed because of…

  4. Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupasquier, Isabelle

    1989-01-01

    Malaria, the greatest pandemia in the world, claims an estimated one million lives each year in Africa alone. While it may still be said that for the most part malaria is found in what is known as the world's poverty belt, cases are now frequently diagnosed in western countries. Due to resistant strains of malaria which have developed because of…

  5. Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, J E

    1991-03-01

    Human malaria is caused by four species of the genus plasmodium. The sexual stage of the parasite occurs in the mosquito and asexual reproduction occurs in man. Symptoms of fever, chills, headache, and myalgia result from the invasion and rupture of erythrocytes. Merozoites are released from erythrocytes and invade other cells, thus propagating the infection. The most vulnerable hosts are nonimmune travelers, young children living in the tropics, and pregnant women. P. falciparum causes the most severe infections because it infects RBCs of all ages and has the propensity to develop resistance to antimalarials. Rapid diagnosis can be made with a malarial smear, and treatment should be initiated promptly. In some regions (Mexico, Central America except Panama, and North Africa) chloroquine phosphate is effective therapy. In subsaharan Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia, chloroquine resistance has become widespread, and other antimalarials are necessary. The primary care physician should have a high index of suspicion for malaria in the traveler returning from the tropics. Malaria should also be suspected in the febrile transfusion recipient and newborns of mothers with malaria.

  6. Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ceived the Nobel prize in 1902. Grassi et al later proved that anopheline mosquitoes transmit malaria to humans.2 In 2002, researchers sequenced the...Malarial pigment is the end product of hemoglobin diges- tion into a porphyrin conjugated with a protein derived from the globin portion of...location, parasite strain, and the patient’s age, immune status, and treatment.27 Investigating the patient’s travel history may provide clues to the spe

  7. Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

  8. Reducing malaria misdiagnosis: the importance of correctly interpreting Paracheck Pf® "faint test bands" in a low transmission area of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Lisa K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have been extensively evaluated since their introduction in the early 1990's, sensitivity and specificity vary widely limiting successful integration into clinical practice. This paper reviews specific issues surrounding RDT use in field settings and presents results of research investigating how to interpret "faint test bands" on ParaCheck Pf® in areas of low transmission in order to reduce malaria misdiagnosis. Methods A multi-phase cross-sectional study was conducted at a remote hospital in the northern Tanzanian highlands. Capillary blood samples were taken from consenting participants (n = 319 for blood smear and ParaCheck Pf® testing. Primary outcome variables were sensitivity, specificity and proportion misdiagnosed by ParaCheck Pf® and local microscopy. ParaCheck Pf® "faint bands" were classified as both true positives or true negatives during evaluation to determine appropriate clinical interpretation. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age and gender was conducted to determine odds of misdiagnosis for local microscopy and ParaCheck Pf®. Results Overall, 23.71% of all ParaCheck Pf® tests resulted in a "faint band" and 94.20% corresponded with true negatives. When ParaCheck Pf® "faint bands" were classified as positive, specificity was 75.5% (95% CI = 70.3% - 80.6% as compared to 98.9% (95% CI = 97.0% - 99.8% when classified as negative. The odds of misdiagnosis by local microscopy for those > 5 years as compared to those ≤ 5 years are 0.370 (95% CI = 0.1733 - 0.7915, p = 0.010. In contrast, even when ParaCheck Pf® faint bands are considered positive, the odds of misdiagnosis by ParaCheck Pf® for those > 5 years as compared to those ≤ 5 years are 0.837 (95% CI = 0.459 - 1.547, p = 0.5383. Conclusions We provide compelling evidence that in areas of low transmission, "faint bands" should be considered a negative test when used to inform clinical

  9. External quality assessment of reading and interpretation of malaria rapid diagnostic tests among 1849 end-users in the Democratic Republic of the Congo through Short Message Service (SMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Mukadi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT are simple to perform, they remain subject to errors, mainly related to the post-analytical phase. We organized the first large scale SMS based external quality assessment (EQA on correct reading and interpretation of photographs of a three-band malaria RDT among laboratory health workers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo. METHODS AND FINDINGS: High resolution EQA photographs of 10 RDT results together with a questionnaire were distributed to health facilities in 9 out of 11 provinces in DR Congo. Each laboratory health worker answered the EQA by Short Message Service (SMS. Filled-in questionnaires from each health facility were sent back to Kinshasa. A total of 1849 laboratory health workers in 1014 health facilities participated. Most frequent errors in RDT reading were i failure to recognize invalid (13.2-32.5% or negative test results (9.8-12.8%, (ii overlooking faint test lines (4.1-31.2% and (iii incorrect identification of the malaria species (12.1-17.4%. No uniform strategy for diagnosis of malaria at the health facility was present. Stock outs of RDTs occurred frequently. Half of the health facilities had not received an RDT training. Only two thirds used the RDT recommended by the National Malaria Control Program. Performance of RDT reading was positively associated with training and the technical level of health facility. Facilities with RDT positivity rates >50% and located in Eastern DR Congo performed worse. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed that errors in reading and interpretation of malaria RDTs are widespread and highlighted the problem of stock outs of RDTs. Adequate training of end-users in the application of malaria RDTs associated with regular EQAs is recommended.

  10. Malaria Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Malaria in ... to determine definitively which species are involved. Other Facts Five times, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or ...

  11. Malaria cerebral Cerebral malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hugo Zapata Zapata; Silvia Blair Trujillo

    2003-01-01

    La malaria Cerebral (MC) es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1) citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2) formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3) producción de citoqu...

  12. Cerebral malaria Malaria cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Blair Trujillo; Carlos Hugo Zapata Zapata

    2003-01-01

    Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains...

  13. Malaria (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Malaria KidsHealth > For Parents > Malaria A A A What's ... Prevention Diagnosis and Treatment en español Malaria About Malaria Malaria is a common infection in hot, tropical ...

  14. [Malaria websites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, B

    2007-05-16

    One click on google.com, key-word "Malaria", 24,900,000 entries. How to choose among this jungle of websites? Ten sites are proposed to meet the needs of the general practitioner They are categorized by focus of interest, namely 1) detailed information on pre- and post-travel advice and management of travelers with illness upon return, 2) the essential on the parasite, the diagnosis and the treatment, 3) the malaria problem worldwide and 4) malaria maps.

  15. Cerebral malaria Malaria cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blair Trujillo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains to be answered; how the host-parasite interaction in the vascular space interferes transiently with cerebral function? Recently, the beta amyloid precursor peptide has been employed as marker of neural injury in CM. It is expected that the beta amyloid precursor peptide will help to understand the pathogenesis of CM in complicated patients of endemic areas of Colombia. La malaria Cerebral (MC es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1 citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2 formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3 producción de citoquinas y activación de segundos mensajeros y, 4 apertura de la barrera hematoencefálica. Sin embargo, queda un interrogante sin resolver aún: ¿qué proceso se lleva a cabo para que el parásito, desde el espacio microvascular, pueda interferir transitoriamente con la función cerebral? Recientemente se ha utilizado el precursor de la proteína b-Amiloide como un marcador de daño neuronal en MC; este precursor será de gran ayuda en futuras investigaciones realizadas en nuestro medio que aporten información para comprender la patogénesis de la MC.

  16. Malaria Matters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast gives an overview of malaria, including prevention and treatment, and what CDC is doing to help control and prevent malaria globally.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 4/18/2008.

  17. Malaria in the colombian regions of Uraba and Bajo Cauca, province of Antioquia: an overwiew to interpret the antimalarial therapeutic failure La malaria en Colombia, Antioquia y las zonas de Urabá y Bajo Cauca: panorama para interpretar la falla terapéutica antimalárica. Parte 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona Fonseca

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: in the past 5 years we have studied the treatment response to antimalarials and their combinations in the Antioquia region (Turbo, Zaragoza and El Bagre municipalities. The interpretation and better understanding of the treatment outcome (adequate clinical response, early treatment failure or late treatment failure require further information since this response depends on host’s and parasite’s factors, independently of the characteristics of the antimalarial administered. Objectives: to define an adequate reference frame which allows for interpretation of results obtained during antimalarials treatment assessment studies. This would include demography, epidemiology, climatic and social-economic information about Colombia, Antioquia, the regions of Uraba, Bajo Cauca and the municipalities of Turbo and El Bagre. Methodology: research of secondary information (publications reports and internet resources, and some primary information (taken from Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Antioquia (Sivigila of Dirección Seccional de Salud de Antioquia DSSA. Data about treatment response were primary information (produced by Grupo Malaria, Universidad de Antioquia, or obtained from other authors. With the gathered data, tables and graphs were produced and calculations were carried out using other variables. Results: the frequency of malaria is presented for Colombia during the period 1960-2002 and the results of the malaria eradication and control programs, and their failure, are described. Similarly, the frequency of malaria in Antioquia during 1959-2003 is discussed and presented in terms of incidence rates and parasite annual indexes (PAI. Non adjusted and adjusted rates and PAI were obtained, therefore adjusted rates are presented by exposed population, which is less of 20%. Adjusted results are 5-6 fold higher that non-adjusted values in Antioquia. However this is not true for the Uraba and Bajo Cauca regions, where 100% of the

  18. Malaria and Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria and Travelers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... may be at risk for infection. Determine if malaria transmission occurs at the destinations Obtain a detailed ...

  19. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  20. falciparum malaria?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wassermann reactions and then lupus anticoagu- lant are now known ... ACA levels in the patient group, or between the ... bral malaria could lead to more effective therapy and an improved ... each patient and a physical examination performed. Particular .... a thrombotic subset of SLE: distinct profiles for epitope specificiry.

  1. Kompliceret malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, A M; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Jacobsen, E

    1989-01-01

    An increasing number of cases of malaria, imported to Denmark, are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and severe and complicated cases are more often seen. In the Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, 23 out of 32 cases, hospitalized from 1.1-30.6.1988, i.e. 72%, were caused by P...

  2. Malaria related knowledge, practices and behaviour of people in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Joshi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The information on malaria related knowledge, practices and behaviour of the people of Nepal living in malaria endemic areas are essential to develop behavioural change communication messages and for producing policy to prevent and control malaria in the country. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, practices and behaviour of the people living in malaria endemic districts and relate with malaria control policy in Nepal. Methods: The paper utilizes data from a cross-sectional study of 1330 households conducted during December 2004 to April 2005 in rural areas of Jhapa, Kailali and Kanchanpur districts. The method used includes structured questionnaire and focus group discussions. Results: The results revealed that 40% respondents were illiterates. Eighty-six percent respondents have heard about malaria but only 50% responded fever with chills as the sign and symptom of malaria. Seventy-three percent responded that mosquito bite causes malaria transmission and 74% respondents considered that malaria is the fatal disease but very few have knowledge that the treatment of malaria in time can save life. More than 50% did not have information on availability of free treatment of malaria in Nepal. Still 16% were found consulting traditional healers for the treatment. The outside sleeping habit was found in almost one fourth of the population mainly in summer season indicating no knowledge about prevention of malaria. Although bednet use practice was higher, only 4% had knowledge on insecticide impregnated bednets and 23% of them practicing it. Issues regarding the proper and regular use of bednets, the quality of the bednet and use of free treatment provided by the government, since these districts are reporting high incidence of malaria.Interpretation & conclusion: Health education must be taken into account for communities in malaria endemic areas to produce desired outcomes in malaria control.

  3. Malaria transmission in Tripura: Disease distribution & determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vas Dev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Malaria is a major public health problem in Tripura and focal disease outbreaks are of frequent occurrence. The s0 tate is co-endemic for both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax and transmission is perennial and persistent. The present study was aimed to review data on disease distribution to prioritize high-risk districts, and to study seasonal prevalence of disease vectors and their bionomical characteristics to help formulate vector species-specific interventions for malaria control. Methods: Data on malaria morbidity in the State were reviewed retrospectively (2008-2012 for understanding disease distribution and transmission dynamics. Cross-sectional mass blood surveys were conducted in malaria endemic villages of South Tripura district to ascertain the prevalence of malaria and proportions of parasite species. Mosquito collections were made in human dwellings of malaria endemic villages aiming at vector incrimination and to study relative abundance, resting and feeding preferences, and their present susceptibility status to DDT. Results: The study showed that malaria was widely prevalent and P. falciparum was the predominant infection (>90%, the remaining were P. vivax cases. The disease distribution, however, was uneven with large concentration of cases in districts of South Tripura and Dhalai coinciding with vast forest cover and tribal populations. Both Anopheles minimus s.s. and An. baimaii were recorded to be prevalent and observed to be highly anthropophagic and susceptible to DDT. Of these, An. minimus was incriminated (sporozoite infection rate 4.92%, and its bionomical characteristics revealed this species to be largely indoor resting and endophagic. Interpretation & conclusions: For effective control of malaria in the s0 tate, it is recommended that diseases surveillance should be robust, and vector control interventions including DDT spray coverage, mass distribution of insecticide-treated nets/ long

  4. High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria in apparently healthy schoolchildren in Aliero, Kebbi state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupashree Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In malaria endemic areas, continuous exposure to Plasmodium parasites leads to asymptomatic carriers that provide a reservoir, contributing to the persistence of malaria transmission. Thus, a study of the degree of prevalence of asymptomatic parasitaemias will help in assessing the level of reservoir of infection. Methods: All the consented participants without any signs and symptoms, suggestive of malaria were interviewed and thick blood smears were made to detect malaria parasites. The children presenting with malaria or any other severe illness, and those declining to give consent were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 118 (59.6% children out of 198 apparently healthy children were positive for malaria parasites while 80 (40.4% children were negative for malaria parasites. Prevalence of asymptomatic malaria was higher in males 75 (63.6% compared to females 43 (36.4%, but the difference was not statistically significant. Incidence of asymptomatic malaria was highest with 76.1% in the children aged 6– 10 yr. There was statistically significant association of the use of bednet on prevalence of asymptomatic malaria. Interpretation & conclusion: High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria detected in this study is a big challenge and can be a threat to the present malaria control programme. Thus, it should be considered in assessing and reorganising more effective malaria elimination strategies to achieve the desired goal of malaria control.

  5. [WHO's malaria program Roll Back Malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrvang, B; Godal, T

    2000-05-30

    Malaria is one of the main health problems in the world with 300-500 millions cases yearly and about one million deaths, mainly children in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the 1990s the malaria problem in Africa has increased, although we have methods to control the disease. In 1998 the new secretary general of WHO, Gro Harlem Brundtland, established the Roll Back Malaria programme, with the aim to markedly reduce malaria morbidity and mortality. Governments in malaria-affected countries have to take the lead in Roll Back Malaria. Their health systems must be improved and malaria control integrated into the general health system, and the methods available for prevention and treatment have to be intensified and improved. At the same time, Roll Back Malaria will encourage and promote malaria research which hopefully will result in new medicines, vaccines and other tools which will improve the chances of reducing malaria-related deaths and suffering. Roll Back Malaria is a cabinet project within the WHO, and the organisation has a key role as manager, co-ordinator and monitor of the project. However, it depends for resources on international support and commitment from other UN bodies, the World Bank, governments in the western world, pharmaceutical industry, philanthropists and other sources. At present an optimistic view prevails, and the preliminary aim, to halve the malaria mortality by the year 2010, seems realistic even with the control methods of today. However, if research efforts result in new and better tools to combat the disease, the task will definitely be easier.

  6. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria -- overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, K M

    1994-01-01

    Features of the laboratory diagnosis of malaria are described. Microscope equipment is absolutely essential. Clinical symptoms are inadequate for the proper diagnosis of malaria. Screening for malaria involves identification of all cases where high fever is present in endemic areas. Diagnosis is complicated because many people take antimalarial drugs which reduce the chances of detecting malarial parasites. Confirmation should be made before treatment is administered. A thick blood slide can be quickly and cheaply taken without much training of health personnel. The disadvantage of thick stains is the difficulty in identifying "plasmodium" strains. When a thin smear with Giemsa and Leishmanin stain is used, a light infection may be missed. Thin smears require trained personnel and time, which in peak seasons may be impractical. Urinary tract and viral infections may be confused with malaria. Evidence of parasites can be discerned from thick stains. Modern assay techniques are also available. There are enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and immunofluorescent assay techniques (IFAT), which are frequently used in large scale seroepidemiological studies. DNA probes have the limitation of radioisotope handling problems. Acridine orange fluorescent microscopy with capillary centrifuged blood is a technique which improves the viability of Giemsa stain procedures. This technique is desirable because of the sensitivity and speed of diagnosis. The quantitative buddy coat (GBC) technique is superior to Giemsa stained thick blood film in identifying malaria, but it is not reliable with mixed infections. Advanced techniques are not readily available in local settings. The recommendation is to continue use of thick or thin blood film and trained health personnel. Laboratory results must be interpreted in the context of when the flood film was prepared, prior drug administration, and clinical manifestations.

  7. [Physiopathology of cerebral malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwald, P

    1995-01-01

    Physiopathology of severe malaria is extremely complex and misappreciated. Sequestration of parasited red cells and role of cytokines are now accepted but we still have to discover why only a few people develop a severe malaria. A better knowledge of that physiopathology would allow the conception of new therapeutic strategies to reduce malaria mortality.

  8. Malaria. Can WHO roll back malaria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, M

    2000-10-20

    In October 1998, World Health Organization Director-General Gro Harlem Brundtland announced Roll Back Malaria, a multiagency crusade that aims to cut malaria mortality in half over the next 10 years. Brundtland might just be the one to pull it off, say numerous public health experts, although some researchers question whether the goal is realistic.

  9. A historical perspective on malaria control in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean Michael; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Silva-Flannery, Luciana

    2015-09-01

    Malaria has always been an important public health problem in Brazil. The early history of Brazilian malaria and its control was powered by colonisation by Europeans and the forced relocation of Africans as slaves. Internal migration brought malaria to many regions in Brazil where, given suitable Anopheles mosquito vectors, it thrived. Almost from the start, officials recognised the problem malaria presented to economic development, but early control efforts were hampered by still developing public health control and ignorance of the underlying biology and ecology of malaria. Multiple regional and national malaria control efforts have been attempted with varying success. At present, the Amazon Basin accounts for 99% of Brazil's reported malaria cases with regional increases in incidence often associated with large scale public works or migration. Here, we provide an exhaustive summary of primary literature in English, Spanish and Portuguese regarding Brazilian malaria control. Our goal was not to interpret the history of Brazilian malaria control from a particular political or theoretical perspective, but rather to provide a straightforward, chronological narrative of the events that have transpired in Brazil over the past 200 years and identify common themes.

  10. Malaria in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohee, Lauren M; Laufer, Miriam K

    2017-08-01

    Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, leading to an estimated 438,000 deaths in 2015. Malaria is also an important health threat to travelers to endemic countries and should be considered in evaluation of any traveler returning from a malaria-endemic area who develops fever. Considering the diagnosis of malaria in patients with potential exposure is critical. Prompt provision of effective treatment limits the complications of malaria and can be life-saving. Understanding Plasmodium species variation, epidemiology, and drug-resistance patterns in the geographic area where infection was acquired is important for determining treatment choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Malaria og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, A L; Rønn, A M; Langhoff-Roos, J

    1992-01-01

    In regions where malaria is endemism, the disease is a recognised cause of complications of pregnancy such as spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, intrauterine growth retardation and foetal death. Malaria is seldom seen in pregnant women in Denmark but, during the past two years, the authors...... the patients but also their practitioners were unaware that malaria can occur several years after exposure. Three out of the four patients had employed malaria prophylaxis. As resistance to malarial prophylactics in current use is increasing steadily, chemoprophylaxis should be supplemented by mechanical...... protection against malaria and insect repellents. As a rule, malaria is treated with chloroquine. In cases of Falciparum malaria in whom chloroquine resistance is suspected, treatment with mefloquine may be employed although this should only be employed in cases of dire necessity in pregnant patients during...

  12. Computer vision for microscopy diagnosis of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tek, F Boray; Dempster, Andrew G; Kale, Izzet

    2009-07-13

    This paper reviews computer vision and image analysis studies aiming at automated diagnosis or screening of malaria infection in microscope images of thin blood film smears. Existing works interpret the diagnosis problem differently or propose partial solutions to the problem. A critique of these works is furnished. In addition, a general pattern recognition framework to perform diagnosis, which includes image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, and pattern classification components, is described. The open problems are addressed and a perspective of the future work for realization of automated microscopy diagnosis of malaria is provided.

  13. Malaria in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Okpere

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains one of the highest contributors to the precarious maternal mortality figures in sub-Saharan Africa. At least 6 million women worldwide are at risk of malaria infection in pregnancy. Malaria contributes to at least 10, 000 maternal deaths and to at least 200, 000 newborn deaths annually. Malaria is a contributor or aetiologic factor in pregnancy complications including anaemia, spontaneous abortion, prematurity and stillbirths. Pregnancy results in increased incidence and severity of malaria. Cerebral malaria, acute renal failure and severe anaemia, rare complications in adults living in malaria endemic areas, may complicate malaria in pregnancy. Research implicate reduced maternal immunity from increased steroid levels in pregnancy, increased attractiveness of pregnant women to mosquito bites and increased adherence of parasitized erythrocytes to Chondroitin sulphate A expressed in the placentae. This is worse in the first and second pregnancies. With infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus [HIV], the effects of malaria in pregnancy are even worse. Over the decades, there have been concerted worldwide collaborative efforts, spearheaded by the World Health Organization [WHO] and including governments and allied agencies to tackle the scourge of malaria in pregnancy. The main thrusts of such efforts have been: to increase the use of insecticide treated mosquito bed nets [ITN]; intermittent preventive treatment of malaria [IPT]; and adequate case treatment of acute malaria attacks in pregnancy. While for IPT, Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine [SP] combination has been proven to be of benefit in preventing acute and latent malaria in pregnancy and its associated complications, the WHO has introduced the use of Artemisinin-Combination Therapy [ACT] for the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria in pregnancy, the need to confirm malaria before treatment and the enforcement of completion of therapy once started. The Roll Back

  14. Effect of magnetic field in malaria diagnosis using magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Yuen, Clement

    2011-07-01

    The current gold standard method of Malaria diagnosis relies on the blood smears examination. The method is laborintensive, time consuming and requires the expertise for data interpretation. In contrast, Raman scattering from a metabolic byproduct of the malaria parasite (Hemozoin) shows the possibility of rapid and objective diagnosis of malaria. However, hemozoin concentration is usually extremely low especially at the early stage of malaria infection, rendering weak Raman signal. In this work, we propose the sensitive detection of enriched β-hematin, whose spectroscopic properties are equivalent to hemozoin, based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) by using magnetic nanoparticles. A few orders of magnitude enhancement in the Raman signal of β-hematin can be achieved using magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, the effect of magnetic field on SERS enhancement is investigated. Our result demonstrates the potential of SERS using magnetic nanoparticles in the effective detection of hemozoin for malaria diagnosis.

  15. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  16. Sources of variability of estimates of malaria case counts, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Each January, the Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR) estimates numbers of malaria infections among U.S. service members using a surveillance case definition to identify "malaria cases". These cases include individuals with a hospital discharge diagnosis of malaria and those who were reported with malaria through military notifiable event reporting systems. This report compares the MSMR surveillance case definition with other proposed case definitions to demonstrate the degree to which estimates of numbers of malaria cases are dependent upon clinical settings, data sources and case-defining rules used to produce such estimates. For example, including outpatient diagnoses as malaria cases would more than double the 2010 case count. As compared with cases defined using other proposed case definitions, many more MSMR-defined cases had records of a specific Plasmodium species, a laboratory test for malaria and recent travel to a malaria-endemic country. Interpretations of the results of MSMR reports should consider how "cases" are defined.

  17. A prospective study from south India to compare the severity of malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax, P. falciparum and dual infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhanker Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: This cross-sectional comparative study clearly demonstrates that clinical features, complications and case-fatality rates in vivax malaria can be as severe as in falciparum malaria. Hence, vivax malaria could not be considered benign; and appropriate preventive strategies along with antimalarial therapies should be adopted for control and elimination of this disease.

  18. On interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Januszkiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article entitled “On interpretation” is an attempt to formulate a viewpoint on the issue of textual interpretation. It presents different ideas related to interpretation, including especially those that are concerned with a text’s meaning and with the way in which it is interpreted by the reader. The author proposes another interpretation method which he calls transactional. The primary concern is how to possibly justify the fundamental character of interpretation and interpretative activity while at the same time preserving and respecting the relative autonomy of an interpreted text.

  19. Malaria vaccines: lessons from field trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio J. Struchiner

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria vaccine candidates have already been tested and new trials are being carried out. We present a brief description of specific issues of validity that are relevant when assessing vaccine efficacy in the field and illustrate how the application of these principles might improve our interpretation of the data being gathered in actual malaria vaccine field trials. Our discussion assumes that vaccine evaluation shares the same general principles of validity with epidemiologic causal inference, i.e., the process of drawing inferences from epidemiologic data aiming at the identification of causes of diseases. Judicious exercise of these principles indicates that, for meaningful interpretation, measures of vaccine efficacy require definitions based upon arguments conditional on the amount of exposure to infection, and specification of the initial and final states in which one believes the effect of interest takes place.

  20. Malaria, malnutrition, and birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cates, Jordan E.; Unger, Holger W.; Briand, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    were identified by the Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative using a convenience sampling approach and were eligible for pooling given adequate ethical approval and availability of essential variables. Study-specific adjusted effect estimates were calculated using inverse probability...... be multiplicative interaction between malaria infection at enrollment and low MUAC within studies conducted in Africa; however, this finding was not consistent on the additive scale, when accounting for multiple comparisons, or when using other definitions of malaria and malnutrition. The major limitations...... of the study included availability of only 2 cross-sectional measurements of malaria and the limited availability of ultrasound-based pregnancy dating to assess impacts on preterm birth and fetal growth in all studies.  Conclusions : Pregnant women with malnutrition and malaria infection are at increased risk...

  1. Rapid Diagnosis of Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton K. Murray

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria's global impact is expansive and includes the extremes of the healthcare system ranging from international travelers returning to nonendemic regions with tertiary referral medical care to residents in hyperendemic regions without access to medical care. Implementation of prompt and accurate diagnosis is needed to curb the expanding global impact of malaria associated with ever-increasing antimalarial drug resistance. Traditionally, malaria is diagnosed using clinical criteria and/or light microscopy even though both strategies are clearly inadequate in many healthcare settings. Hand held immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have been recognized as an ideal alternative method for diagnosing malaria. Numerous malaria RDTs have been developed and are widely available; however, an assortment of issues related to these products have become apparent. This review provides a summary of RDT including effectiveness and strategies to select the ideal RDT in varying healthcare settings.

  2. [Malaria in Algerian Sahara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammadi, D; Boubidi, S C; Chaib, S E; Saber, A; Khechache, Y; Gasmi, M; Harrat, Z

    2009-08-01

    Thanks to the malaria eradication campaign launched in Algeria in 1968, the number of malaria cases fell down significantly from 95,424 cases in 1960 to 30 cases in 1978. At that time the northern part of the country was declared free of Plasmodium falciparum. Only few cases belonging to P. vivax persisted in residual foci in the middle part of the country. In the beginning of the eighties, the south of the country was marked by an increase of imported malaria cases. The resurgence of the disease in the oases coincided with the opening of the Trans-Saharan road and the booming trade with the neighbouring southern countries. Several authors insisted on the risk of introduction of malaria or its exotic potential vectors in Algeria via this new road. Now, the totality of malaria autochthonous cases in Algeria are located in the south of the country where 300 cases were declared during the period (1980-2007). The recent outbreak recorded in 2007 at the borders with Mall and the introduction of Anopheles gambiae into the Algerian territory show the vulnerability of this area to malaria which is probably emphasized by the local environmental changes. The authors assess the evolution of malaria in the Sahara region and draw up the distribution of the anopheles in this area.

  3. MALARIA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard-Fabian Schumacher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    This review is focused on childhood specific aspects of malaria, especially in resource-poor settings. We summarise the actual knowledge in the field of epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and prevention.

    These aspects are important as malaria is responsible for almost a quarter of all child death in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria control is thus one key intervention to reduce childhood mortality, especially as malaria is also an important risk factor for other severe infections, namely bacteraemia.

    In children symptoms are more varied and often mimic other common childhood illness, particularly gastroenteritis, meningitis/encephalitis, or pneumonia. Fever is the key symptom, but the characteristic regular tertian and quartan patterns are rarely observed. There are no pathognomonic features for severe malaria in this age group. The well known clinical (fever, impaired consciousness, seizures, vomiting, respiratory distress and laboratory (severe anaemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperlactataemia features of severe falciparum malaria in children, are equally typical for severe sepsis.

    Appropriate therapy (considering species, resistance patterns and individual patient factors – possibly a drug combination of an artemisinin derivative with a long-acting antimalarial drug - reduces treatment duration to only three days and should be urgently started.

    While waiting for the results of ongoing vaccine trials, all effort should be made to better implement other malaria-control measures like the use of treated bed-nets and new chemoprophylaxis regimens.

  4. MALARIA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard-Fabian Schumacher

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This review is focused on childhood specific aspects of malaria, especially in resource-poor settings. We summarise the actual knowledge in the field of epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and prevention. These aspects are important as malaria is responsible for almost a quarter of all child death in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria control is thus one key intervention to reduce childhood mortality, especially as malaria is also an important risk factor for other severe infections, namely bacteraemia. In children symptoms are more varied and often mimic other common childhood illness, particularly gastroenteritis, meningitis/encephalitis, or pneumonia. Fever is the key symptom, but the characteristic regular tertian and quartan patterns are rarely observed. There are no pathognomonic features for severe malaria in this age group. The well known clinical (fever, impaired consciousness, seizures, vomiting, respiratory distress and laboratory (severe anaemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperlactataemia features of severe falciparum malaria in children, are equally typical for severe sepsis. Appropriate therapy (considering species, resistance patterns and individual patient factors – possibly a drug combination of an artemisinin derivative with a long-acting antimalarial drug - reduces treatment duration to only three days and should be urgently started. While waiting for the results of ongoing vaccine trials, all effort should be made to better implement other malaria-control measures like the use of treated bed-nets and new chemoprophylaxis regimens.

  5. Malaria prevention in travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Blaise; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2012-09-01

    A common approach to malaria prevention is to follow the "A, B, C, D" rule: Awareness of risk, Bite avoidance, Compliance with chemoprophylaxis, and prompt Diagnosis in case of fever. The risk of acquiring malaria depends on the length and intensity of exposure; the risk of developing severe disease is primarily determined by the health status of the traveler. These parameters need to be assessed before recommending chemoprophylaxis and/or stand-by emergency treatment. This review discusses the different strategies and drug options available for the prevention of malaria during and post travel.

  6. Malaria and Vascular Endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alencar, Aristóteles Comte Filho de, E-mail: aristoteles.caf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Okoshi, Katashi; Okoshi, Marina Politi [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu (Unesp), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Involvement of the cardiovascular system in patients with infectious and parasitic diseases can result from both intrinsic mechanisms of the disease and drug intervention. Malaria is an example, considering that the endothelial injury by Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes can cause circulatory disorders. This is a literature review aimed at discussing the relationship between malaria and endothelial impairment, especially its effects on the cardiovascular system. We discuss the implications of endothelial aggression and the interdisciplinarity that should guide the malaria patient care, whose acute infection can contribute to precipitate or aggravate a preexisting heart disease.

  7. Malaria prevalence and incidence in an isolated, meso-endemic area of Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Derek Charlwood

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolated areas, such as the 2 × 7 km peninsula of Linga Linga in Mozambique, are the places where malaria might be most easily eliminated. Currently available control strategies include long-lasting insecticidal bednets impregnated with pyrethroid insecticides (LLINs, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs for diagnosis and artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT for treatment and these were applied on the peninsula. In 2007, following a census of the population and mapping of 500 households, five annual all-age prevalence surveys were conducted. Information on LLIN use, house construction, and animal ownership was obtained. A spatially structured generalized additive model indicated that malaria risk was greatest towards the northern end of the peninsula and that people living in houses with grass or thatch roofs had a greater risk of malaria than those living in houses with corrugated iron roofs. Incidence peaked nine weeks after rainfall (r2 = 0.34, p = 0.0002. From 2009 incidence was measured at a centrally based project clinic. The proportion of under nine-year-old resident attendees diagnosed with malaria decreased significantly from 48% in 2009, to 35% in 2010 and 25% in 2011. At the same time, there was a shift in the peak age of cases from 1–4 year olds to 5–9 year olds. Nevertheless, in order to further reduce malaria transmission in an area such as Linga Linga, additional vector control measures need to be considered.

  8. Interpretability formalized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Joost Johannes

    2004-01-01

    The dissertation is in the first place a treatment of mathematical interpretations. Interpretations themselves will be studied, but also shall they be used to study formal theories. Interpretations, when used in comparing theories, tell us, in a natural way, something about proof-strength of form

  9. Adjuvants for malaria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coler, R N; Carter, D; Friede, M; Reed, S G

    2009-09-01

    There is a renewed enthusiasm about subunit vaccines for malaria coincident with the formation of new alliances and partnerships raising international public awareness, attracting increased resources and the re-focusing of research programs on adjuvant development for infectious disease vaccines. It is generally accepted that subunit vaccines for malaria will require adjuvants to induce protective immune responses, and availability of suitable adjuvants has in the past been a barrier to the development of malaria vaccines. Several novel adjuvants are now in licensed products or in late stage clinical development, while several others are in the earlier development pipeline. Successful vaccine development requires knowing which adjuvants to use and knowing how to formulate adjuvants and antigens to achieve stable, safe, and immunogenic vaccines. For the majority of vaccine researchers this information is not readily available, nor is access to well-characterized adjuvants. In this minireview, we outline the current state of adjuvant research and development as it pertains to effective malaria vaccines.

  10. Malaria prevention and treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to allow prompt and accurate treatment of malaria in areas out of .... Other psychiatric problems ... If possible blood smears should be performed if a reliable laboratory is available. ... If any of the above signs are present, this is an emergency.

  11. Bioinformatics approaches to malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Aaen

    Malaria is a life threatening disease found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Each year it kills 781 000 individuals; most of them are children under the age of five in sub-Saharan Africa. The most severe form of malaria in humans is caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum......, which is the subject of the first part of this thesis. The PfEMP1 protein which is encoded by the highly variablevargene family is important in the pathogenesis and immune evasion of malaria parasites. We analyzed and classified these genes based on the upstream sequence in seven......Plasmodium falciparumclones. We show that the amount of nucleotide diversity is just as big within each clone as it is between the clones. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark in many eukaryotic species. We are studying DNA methylation in the malaria parasitePlasmodium falciparum. The work is still in progress...

  12. Malaria Genome Sequencing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    million cases and up to 2.7 million A whole chromosome shotgun sequencing strategy was used to deaths from malaria each year. The mortality levels are...deaths from malaria each year. The mortality levels are greatest in determine the genome sequence of P. falciparum clone 3D7. This sub-Saharan Africa...aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Cura . Genet. 40, 391-398 (2002). 15. Lasonder, E. et al Analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum proteome by high-accuracy mass

  13. Malaria in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Apuzzio, Joseph J.; Abdulla Al-Khan; Jesus R. Alvarez

    2005-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of malaria in densely populated areas of the United States secondary to human migration from endemic areas where factors such as cessation of vector control, vector resistance to insecticides, disease resistance to drugs, environmental changes, political instability, and indifference, have played a role for malaria becoming an overwhelming infection of these tropical underdeveloped countries. It is important for health care providers of gravida to be aler...

  14. Malaria in pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus R. Alvarez; Al-Khan, Abdulla; Apuzzio, Joseph J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of malaria in densely populated areas of the United States secondary to human migration from endemic areas where factors such as cessation of vector control, vector resistance to insecticides, disease resistance to drugs, environmental changes, political instability, and indifference, have played a role for malaria becoming an overwhelming infection of these tropical underdeveloped countries. It is important for health care providers of gravida to be aler...

  15. Malaria in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus R. Alvarez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a resurgence of malaria in densely populated areas of the United States secondary to human migration from endemic areas where factors such as cessation of vector control, vector resistance to insecticides, disease resistance to drugs, environmental changes, political instability, and indifference, have played a role for malaria becoming an overwhelming infection of these tropical underdeveloped countries. It is important for health care providers of gravida to be alert of the disease and its effects on pregnancy.

  16. Malaria in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jesus R; Al-Khan, Abdulla; Apuzzio, Joseph J

    2005-12-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of malaria in densely populated areas of the United States secondary to human migration from endemic areas where factors such as cessation of vector control, vector resistance to insecticides, disease resistance to drugs, environmental changes, political instability, and indifference, have played a role for malaria becoming an overwhelming infection of these tropical underdeveloped countries. It is important for health care providers of gravida to be alert of the disease and its effects on pregnancy.

  17. Malaria in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Subrata Lall; Mukhopadhay, Sima; Ganguly, Rajendra Prasad

    2010-08-01

    Malaria during pregnancy is a recognised risk factor for maternal and foetal complications and it is endemic in certain areas of our country. Pregnancy also enhances the severity of malaria particularly with P falciparum infestation. The outcome of effects of malaria in pregnancy on the mother and foetus is studied here. This is a prospective observational study conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology of RG Kar Medical College during the period from 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2006. Forty pregnant women with malaria in pregnancy were studied. Another 40 non- pregnant women during the same period were served as control. The maternal complications were compared with the controls and the outcome of pregnancy was studied. There was statistically significant (p renal failure, hepatic failure, hypoglycaemia, hypotension and death in the pregnant women in comparison to non-pregnant women. P falciparum infection was also more during pregnancy. There was also increased incidence of abqrtion, preterm labour, intra-uterine growth restriction and intra-uterine foetal death. Treatment with antimalarial drugs particularly in cerebral malaria does not give good results as there were 12 maternal deaths in this series. Every attempt should be made to prevent malaria during pregnancy by various measures as it is associated with high maternal morbidity and mortality and adversely affects the neonatal outcome.

  18. Contemporary epidemiological overview of malaria in Madagascar: operational utility of reported routine case data for malaria control planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Rosalind E; Mioramalala, Sedera Aurélien; Ramiranirina, Brune; Franchard, Thierry; Rakotorahalahy, Andry Joeliarijaona; Bisanzio, Donal; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène

    2016-10-18

    Malaria remains a major public health problem in Madagascar. Widespread scale-up of intervention coverage has led to substantial reductions in case numbers since 2000. However, political instability since 2009 has disrupted these efforts, and a resurgence of malaria has since followed. This paper re-visits the sub-national stratification of malaria transmission across Madagascar to propose a contemporary update, and evaluates the reported routine case data reported at this sub-national scale. Two independent malariometrics were evaluated to re-examine the status of malaria across Madagascar. First, modelled maps of Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence (PfPR) from the Malaria Atlas Project were used to update the sub-national stratification into 'ecozones' based on transmission intensity. Second, routine reports of case data from health facilities were synthesized from 2010 to 2015 to compare the sub-national epidemiology across the updated ecozones over time. Proxy indicators of data completeness are investigated. The epidemiology of malaria is highly diverse across the island's ecological regions, with eight contiguous ecozones emerging from the transmission intensity PfPR map. East and west coastal areas have highest transmission year-round, contrasting with the central highlands and desert south where trends appear more closely associated with epidemic outbreak events. Ecozones have shown steady increases in reported malaria cases since 2010, with a near doubling of raw reported case numbers from 2014 to 2015. Gauges of data completeness suggest that interpretation of raw reported case numbers will underestimate true caseload as only approximately 60-75 % of health facility data are reported to the central level each month. A sub-national perspective is essential when monitoring the epidemiology of malaria in Madagascar and assessing local control needs. A robust assessment of the status of malaria at a time when intervention coverage efforts are being

  19. UK malaria treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Pasvol, Geoffrey; Chiodini, Peter L; Whitty, Christopher J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Hill, David R; Warrell, David A; Bannister, Barbara A

    2007-02-01

    Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1500-2000 cases reported each year, and 10-20 deaths. Approximately three-quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other two species of Plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium malariae. Mixed infections with more than 1 species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until 3 blood specimens have been examined by an experienced microscopist. There are no typical clinical features of malaria, even fever is not invariably present. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites; P. falciparum malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens or enzymes, although RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. The treatment of choice for non-falciparum malaria is a 3-day course of oral chloroquine, to which only a limited proportion of P. vivax strains have gained resistance. Dormant parasites (hypnozoites) persist in the liver after treatment of P. vivax or P. ovale infection: the only currently effective drug for eradication of hypnozoites is primaquine. This must be avoided or given with caution under expert supervision in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), in whom it may cause severe haemolysis. Uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria can be treated orally with quinine, atovaquone plus proguanil (Malarone) or co-artemether (Riamet

  20. Monkey malaria kills four humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinski, Mary R; Barnwell, John W

    2009-05-01

    Four human deaths caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria species, are stimulating a surge of public health interest and clinical vigilance in vulnerable areas of Southeast Asia. We, and other colleagues, emphasize that these cases, identified in Malaysia, are a clear warning that health facilities and clinicians must rethink the diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases presumed to be caused by a less virulent human malaria species, Plasmodium malariae.

  1. Climatic variables and malaria incidence in Dehradun, Uttaranchal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pemola Devi ; R.K. Jauhari

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Mosquito-borne diseases particularly malaria and Japanese encephalitis(JE are becoming most dreaded health problems in Dehradun district. Keeping in view that theclimatic factors particularly temperature and rainfall may alter the distribution of vector species–increasing or decreasing the ranges, depending on weather conditions that are favourable orunfavourable for mosquito breeding, it is aimed to find out the effect of climatic factors on malariaincidence with particular emphasis to capture the essential events as a result of climatic variability.Methods: Mosquito sampling and identification was done using WHO entomological methods andfollow-up of recognised keys and catalogues. Data on malaria incidence and meteorologicalinformation were gathered in a collaborative study with the District Malaria Office, and the ForestResearch Institute, Dehradun respectively. Pearson’s correlation analysis was applied for establishingrelationship between climate variables and malaria transmission.Results: Higher positive correlation of association was found between monthly parasite incidenceand climatic variables (temperature, rainfall and humidity. However, highest significant correlationwas found between rainfall and malaria incidence (r = 0.718, p < 0.0001 when the data were staggeredto allow a lag of one-month.Interpretation & conclusion: Climatic variables that predict the presence or absence of malaria arelikely to be the best suited for forecasting the distribution of this disease at the edges of its range

  2. Towards A Malaria Vaccine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S GARG

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The last few years have seen a marked change in the understanding of malaria mmunology.We have very little knowledge on immunity of Malaria based on experiments in humanbeings due to ethical reasons. Whatsoever our knowledge exists at present is based onexperimentas in mice and monkey. However it is clear that it is sporzoite or merozoitewhich is directly exposed to our immune system in the life cycle of Malaria parasite. On thebasis of human experiments we can draw inference that immunity to malaria is species.specific (on cross immunity, stage specific and strain specific as well acquired in the response to surface antigen and relapsed antigen although the parasite also demonstrates escape machanism to immune system.So the host system kills or elimi nate the parasite by means of (a Antbody to extracell~ular form of parasite with the help of mechanism of Block invasion, Agglutination or opsonization and/or (b Cellular machanism-either by phago-cytosis of parasite or by antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity ABCC (? or by effects of mediators like tumor necrosis fJ.ctor (TNF in cerebaral malaria or crisis forming factor as found in sudan or by possible role of lysis mechanism.However, inspite of all these theories the parasite has been able to invade the immunesystem by virtue of its intracellular development stage specificity, sequestration in capillaries and also by its unusual characteristics of antigenic diversity and antigenic variation.

  3. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  4. [Study on malaria vectors in malaria endemic areas of Tibet autonomous region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Song; Huang, Fang; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Tang, Lin-Hua

    2012-12-01

    The malaria situation in Tibet has been in an active status and the malaria incidence reached the second in China in 2010. Malaria vector prevention and control is one of the important methods for malaria control, while the malaria vectors are still unknown in Tibet. The author summarized the past researches on malaria vectors in Tibet, so as to provide the evidence for improving malaria control investigation in malaria endemic areas of Tibet, with hopes to provide useful vector message for other researcher.

  5. Avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds: Infection and population impacts across species and elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Hart, P. J.; LaPointe, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife diseases can present significant threats to ecological systems and biological diversity, as well as domestic animal and human health. However, determining the dynamics of wildlife diseases and understanding the impact on host populations is a significant challenge. In Hawai‘i, there is ample circumstantial evidence that introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) has played an important role in the decline and extinction of many native forest birds. However, few studies have attempted to estimate disease transmission and mortality, survival, and individual species impacts in this distinctive ecosystem. We combined multi-state capture-recapture (longitudinal) models with cumulative age-prevalence (cross-sectional) models to evaluate these patterns in Apapane, Hawai‘i Amakihi, and Iiwi in low-, mid-, and high-elevation forests on the island of Hawai‘i based on four longitudinal studies of 3–7 years in length. We found species-specific patterns of malaria prevalence, transmission, and mortality rates that varied among elevations, likely in response to ecological factors that drive mosquito abundance. Malaria infection was highest at low elevations, moderate at mid elevations, and limited in high-elevation forests. Infection rates were highest for Iiwi and Apapane, likely contributing to the absence of these species in low-elevation forests. Adult malaria fatality rates were highest for Iiwi, intermediate for Amakihi at mid and high elevations, and lower for Apapane; low-elevation Amakihi had the lowest malaria fatality, providing strong evidence of malaria tolerance in this low-elevation population. Our study indicates that hatch-year birds may have greater malaria infection and/or fatality rates than adults. Our study also found that mosquitoes prefer feeding on Amakihi rather than Apapane, but Apapane are likely a more important reservoir for malaria transmission to mosquitoes. Our approach, based on host abundance and infection rates, may be an

  6. MIGRATION AND MALARIA IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Monge-Maillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of imported malaria cases due to immigrants in Europe has increased during the lasts decades, being the higher rates for those settled immigrants who travel to visit friends and relatives (VFRs at their country of origin. Cases are mainly due to P. falciparum and Sub-Saharan Africa is the most common origin. Clinically, malaria in immigrants is characterized by a mild clinical presentation with even asymptomatic o delayed malaria cases and low parasitemic level. These characteristics may be explained by a semi-immunity acquired after long periods of time exposed to stable transmission of malaria. Malaria cases among immigrants, even those asymptomatic patients with sub-microscopic parasitemia, could increase the risk of transmission and reintroduction of malaria in certain areas with the adequate vectors and climate conditions. Moreover imported malaria cases by immigrants can also play an important role in the non-vectorial transmission out of endemic area, by blood transfusions, organ transplantation or congenital or occupational exposures. Probably, out of endemic areas, screening of malaria among recent arrived immigrants coming from malaria endemic countries should be performed. These aim to reduce the risk of clinical malaria in the individual as well as to prevent autochthonous transmission of malaria in areas where it had been eradicated.

  7. Research toward Malaria Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Louis H.; Howard, Russell J.; Carter, Richard; Good, Michael F.; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.

    1986-12-01

    Malaria exacts a toll of disease to people in the Tropics that seems incomprehensible to those only familiar with medicine and human health in the developed world. The methods of molecular biology, immunology, and cell biology are now being used to develop an antimalarial vaccine. The Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria have many stages in their life cycle. Each stage is antigenically distinct and potentially could be interrupted by different vaccines. However, achieving complete protection by vaccination may require a better understanding of the complexities of B- and T-cell priming in natural infections and the development of an appropriate adjuvant for use in humans.

  8. The correlation between malaria RDT (Paracheck pf.®) faint test bands and microscopy in the diagnosis of malaria in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuuchi, Ryoko; Jere, Sandy; Hasejima, Nobuchika; Chigeda, Thoms; Gausi, January

    2017-05-02

    Faint test bands of Paracheck Pf.® are interpreted as malaria positive according to world health organization (WHO) guideline. However if there are conspicuous number of faint test bands, a performance of Paracheck Pf.® could be influenced depending on whether interpreting faint test bands as malaria positive or negative. Finding out the frequency and accurate interpretation of faint test bands are important to prevent the overdiagnosis and drug resistance. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted to find out the frequency of faint test bands and evaluate the performance of Paracheck Pf.® by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of diagnosis of Paracheck Pf.® using microscopy as the gold standard. 388 suspected patients with malaria in Malawi were recruited in this study. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and microscopy were used and patients' information which includes age, sex, body temperature and signs or symptoms of malaria were recorded. Among all patients involved in the study, 29.1% (113/388) were found malaria positive by RDT. Overall 5.4% (21/388) of all Paracheck Pf.® tests resulted in a "faint test band" and 85.7% (18/21) corresponded with malaria negative by microscopy. Faint test bands which corresponded with malaria positive by microscopy were lower parasite density and there are no patients who showed definitive symptom of malaria, such as fever. When Paracheck Pf.® "faint test bands" were classified as positive, accuracy of diagnosis was 76.5% (95% CI 72%-80.7%) as compared to 80.4% (95% CI 76.1%-84.2%) when Paracheck Pf.® "faint test bands" were classified as negative. This study shows that frequency of faint test bands is 5.4% in all malaria RDTs. The accuracy of diagnosis was improved when faint test bands were interpreted as malaria negative. However information and data obtained in this study may not be enough and more intensive research including a

  9. Determining utility values related to malaria and malaria chemoprophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyle Doug

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemoprophylaxis for travellers' malaria is problematic. Decision modeling may help determine optimal prevention strategies for travellers' malaria. Such models can fully assess effect of drug use and disease on quality of life, and help travellers make informed values based decisions. Such models require utility values reflecting societal preferences over different health states of relevance. To date, there are no published utility values relating to clinical malaria or chemoprophylaxis adverse events. Methods Utility estimates for health states related to falciparum malaria, sequelae and drug-related adverse events were obtained using a self-administered visual analogue scale in 20 individuals. Utility values for health states related to clinical malaria were obtained from a survey of 11 malaria experts questioned about length of hospital stay or equivalent disability with simple and severe travellers' malaria. Results The general public (potential travellers, were more tolerant of taking prophylaxis if associated with no or mild AEs and least tolerant of mild sequelae from malaria and severe drug related events. The rating value reported for taking no prophylaxis was quite variable. Tropical medicine specialists estimated a mean hospital stay 3.23 days (range 0.5-4.5 days for simple and 6.36 days (range 4.5 - 7 days for severe malaria. Conclusions This study provides a benchmark for important utility value estimates for modeling malaria and drug-related outcomes in non-immune travellers.

  10. Coadaptation and malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Tosta

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria emerges from a disequilibrium of the system 'human-plasmodium-mosquito' (HPM. If the equilibrium is maintained, malaria does not ensue and the result is asymptomatic plasmodium infection. The relationships among the components of the system involve coadaptive linkages that lead to equilibrium. A vast body of evidence supports this assumption, including the strategies involved in the relationships between plasmodium and human and mosquito immune systems, and the emergence of resistance of plasmodia to antimalarial drugs and of mosquitoes to insecticides. Coadaptive strategies for malaria control are based on the following principles: (1 the system HPM is composed of three highly complex and dynamic components, whose interplay involves coadaptive linkages that tend to maintain the equilibrium of the system; (2 human and mosquito immune systems play a central role in the coadaptive interplay with plasmodium, and hence, in the mainten-ance of the system's equilibrium; the under- or overfunction of human immune system may result in malaria and influence its severity; (3 coadaptation depends on genetic and epigenetic phenomena occurring at the interfaces of the components of the system, and may involve exchange of infectrons (genes or gene fragments between the partners; (4 plasmodia and mosquitoes have been submitted to selective pressures, leading to adaptation, for an extremely long while and are, therefore, endowed with the capacity to circumvent both natural (immunity and artificial (drugs, insecticides, vaccines measures aiming at destroying them; (5 since malaria represents disequilibrium of the system HPM, its control should aim at maintaining or restoring this equilibrium; (6 the disequilibrium of integrated systems involves the disequilibrium of their components, therefore the maintenance or restoration of the system's equilibrium depend on the adoption of integrated and coordinated measures acting on all components, that means

  11. Quantum interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goernitz, T.; Weizsaecker, C.F.V.

    1987-10-01

    Four interpretations of quantum theory are compared: the Copenhagen interpretation (C.I.) with the additional assumption that the quantum description also applies to the mental states of the observer, and three recent ones, by Kochen, Deutsch, and Cramer. Since they interpret the same mathematical structure with the same empirical predictions, it is assumed that they formulate only different linguistic expressions of one identical theory. C.I. as a theory on human knowledge rests on a phenomenological description of time. It can be reconstructed from simple assumptions on predictions. Kochen shows that mathematically every composite system can be split into an object and an observer. Deutsch, with the same decomposition, describes futuric possibilities under the Everett term worlds. Cramer, using four-dimensional action at a distance (Wheeler-Feynman), describes all future events like past facts. All three can be described in the C.I. frame. The role of abstract nonlocality is discussed.

  12. Nanomedicine against malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbán, Patricia; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is arguably one of the main medical concerns worldwide because of the numbers of people affected, the severity of the disease and the complexity of the life cycle of its causative agent, the protist Plasmodium sp. The clinical, social and economic burden of malaria has led for the last 100 years to several waves of serious efforts to reach its control and eventual eradication, without success to this day. With the advent of nanoscience, renewed hopes have appeared of finally obtaining the long sought-after magic bullet against malaria in the form of a nanovector for the targeted delivery of antimalarial drugs exclusively to Plasmodium-infected cells. Different types of encapsulating structure, targeting molecule, and antimalarial compound will be discussed for the assembly of Trojan horse nanocapsules capable of targeting with complete specificity diseased cells and of delivering inside them their antimalarial cargo with the objective of eliminating the parasite with a single dose. Nanotechnology can also be applied to the discovery of new antimalarials through single-molecule manipulation approaches for the identification of novel drugs targeting essential molecular components of the parasite. Finally, methods for the diagnosis of malaria can benefit from nanotools applied to the design of microfluidic-based devices for the accurate identification of the parasite's strain, its precise infective load, and the relative content of the different stages of its life cycle, whose knowledge is essential for the administration of adequate therapies. The benefits and drawbacks of these nanosystems will be considered in different possible scenarios, including cost-related issues that might be hampering the development of nanotechnology-based medicines against malaria with the dubious argument that they are too expensive to be used in developing areas.

  13. Use of integrated malaria management reduces malaria in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard A Okech

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During an entomological survey in preparation for malaria control interventions in Mwea division, the number of malaria cases at the Kimbimbi sub-district hospital was in a steady decline. The underlying factors for this reduction were unknown and needed to be identified before any malaria intervention tools were deployed in the area. We therefore set out to investigate the potential factors that could have contributed to the decline of malaria cases in the hospital by analyzing the malaria control knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP that the residents in Mwea applied in an integrated fashion, also known as integrated malaria management (IMM. METHODS: Integrated Malaria Management was assessed among community members of Mwea division, central Kenya using KAP survey. The KAP study evaluated community members' malaria disease management practices at the home and hospitals, personal protection measures used at the household level and malaria transmission prevention methods relating to vector control. Concurrently, we also passively examined the prevalence of malaria parasite infection via outpatient admission records at the major referral hospital in the area. In addition we studied the mosquito vector population dynamics, the malaria sporozoite infection status and entomological inoculation rates (EIR over an 8 month period in 6 villages to determine the risk of malaria transmission in the entire division. RESULTS: A total of 389 households in Mwea division were interviewed in the KAP study while 90 houses were surveyed in the entomological study. Ninety eight percent of the households knew about malaria disease while approximately 70% of households knew its symptoms and methods to manage it. Ninety seven percent of the interviewed households went to a health center for malaria diagnosis and treatment. Similarly a higher proportion (81% used anti-malarial medicines bought from local pharmacies. Almost 90% of households reported

  14. Interpreting Physics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinnon, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of mathematical and physical concepts leads to the classical/quatum interface. Bohrian orthodoxy stresses the indispensability of classical concepts and the functional role of mathematics. This book analyses ways of extending, and then going beyond this orthodoxy orthodoxy. Finally, the book analyzes how a revised interpretation of physics impacts on basic philosophical issues: conceptual revolutions, realism, and r

  15. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease maintains a vicious cycle of disease and poverty. Top of Page How People Get Malaria (Transmission) ... a list of all the places in the world where malaria transmission occurs and the malaria drugs ...

  16. Prevalence and Parasite Density of Asymptomatic Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and Parasite Density of Asymptomatic Malaria Parasitemia among Unbooked .... of two experienced laboratory scientists dedicated to the study to ensure quality control. .... Roll Back Malaria Annual Report. Abuja: Malaria Control.

  17. Predictors of knowledge about malaria in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Sharma, Sanjeev Bhasin , S. Chaturvedi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Reduction of malarial morbidity and mortality is important to meet theoverall objectives of reducing poverty and has been included in the Millennium Development Goals.To achieve these targets it is imperative to have active community participation to control malaria.Community participation in turn depends on people’s knowledge and attitude towards the disease.Thisstudy was conducted to examine the factors that predict the knowledge of Indian population regardingmalaria. A questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted for data collection.Results: Data were collected from 15,750 adult respondents using a pre-tested questionnairerepresenting urban, rural, tribal and slum population from 21 states. Knowledge about various aspectsof malaria was tested using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was applied todetermine predictors of knowledge about etiology, clinical features, mode of transmission, preventionand control.Interpretation & conclusion: Common predictors of correct knowledge about etiology and clinicalfeatures of malaria were male sex and college education. Female sex, illiteracy and tribal populationwere more likely to have been associated with wrong beliefs about fatality of malaria. Being tribalrespondent was the single most important predictor of inadequate knowledge. Similarly, use of smokefor killing of adult mosquito was predicted by rural or slum residence and illiteracy. All findingswere based on logistic regression analysis. Geographical variations also influenced knowledge aboutmalaria. It may be inferred that improvement in knowledge, attitude and practices related to malariamay be attained only after looking at its predictors at micro level. However, a strategic framework atnational level is certainly needed to provide directions at local level.

  18. World Malaria Report: time to acknowledge Plasmodium knowlesi malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Bridget E; Rajahram, Giri S; Grigg, Matthew J; William, Timothy; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2017-03-31

    The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) World Malaria Report documents substantial progress towards control and elimination of malaria. However, major challenges remain. In some regions of Southeast Asia, the simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged as an important cause of human malaria, and the authors believe this species warrants regular inclusion in the World Malaria Report. Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia, and cases have also been reported in nearly all countries of Southeast Asia. Outside of Malaysia, P. knowlesi is frequently misdiagnosed by microscopy as Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax. Thus, P. knowlesi may be underdiagnosed in affected regions and its true incidence underestimated. Acknowledgement in the World Malaria Report of the regional importance of P. knowlesi will facilitate efforts to improve surveillance of this emerging parasite. Furthermore, increased recognition will likely lead to improved delivery of effective treatment for this potentially fatal infection, as has occurred in Malaysia where P. knowlesi case-fatality rates have fallen despite rising incidence. In a number of knowlesi-endemic countries, substantial progress has been made towards the elimination of P. vivax and P. falciparum. However, efforts to eliminate these human-only species should not preclude efforts to reduce human malaria from P. knowlesi. The regional importance of knowlesi malaria was recognized by the WHO with its recent Evidence Review Group meeting on knowlesi malaria to address strategies for prevention and mitigation. The WHO World Malaria Report has an appropriate focus on falciparum and vivax malaria, the major causes of global mortality and morbidity. However, the authors hope that in future years this important publication will also incorporate data on the progress and challenges in reducing knowlesi malaria in regions where transmission occurs.

  19. Interpreting Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsart, Craig A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that allows students to experience the type of discovery process that paleontologists necessarily followed during the early dinosaur explorations. Students are read parts of a story taken from the "American Journal of Science" and interpret the evidence leading to the discovery of Triceratops and Stegosaurus. (PR)

  20. Multigene phylogenetics reveals temporal diversification of major African malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kamali

    Full Text Available The major vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa belong to subgenus Cellia. Yet, phylogenetic relationships and temporal diversification among African mosquito species have not been unambiguously determined. Knowledge about vector evolutionary history is crucial for correct interpretation of genetic changes identified through comparative genomics analyses. In this study, we estimated a molecular phylogeny using 49 gene sequences for the African malaria vectors An. gambiae, An. funestus, An. nili, the Asian malaria mosquito An. stephensi, and the outgroup species Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. To infer the phylogeny, we identified orthologous sequences uniformly distributed approximately every 5 Mb in the five chromosomal arms. The sequences were aligned and the phylogenetic trees were inferred using maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods. Bayesian molecular dating using a relaxed log normal model was used to infer divergence times. Trees from individual genes agreed with each other, placing An. nili as a basal clade that diversified from the studied malaria mosquito species 47.6 million years ago (mya. Other African malaria vectors originated more recently, and independently acquired traits related to vectorial capacity. The lineage leading to An. gambiae diverged 30.4 mya, while the African vector An. funestus and the Asian vector An. stephensi were the most closely related sister taxa that split 20.8 mya. These results were supported by consistently high bootstrap values in concatenated phylogenetic trees generated individually for each chromosomal arm. Genome-wide multigene phylogenetic analysis is a useful approach for discerning historic relationships among malaria vectors, providing a framework for the correct interpretation of genomic changes across species, and comprehending the evolutionary origins of this ubiquitous and deadly insect-borne disease.

  1. Malaria's deadly grip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Joseph D; Rowe, J Alexandra; Higgins, Matthew K

    2013-01-01

    Cytoadhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to host microvasculature is a key virulence determinant. Parasite binding is mediated by a large family of clonally variant adhesion proteins, termed P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), encoded by var genes and expressed...... at the infected erythrocyte surface. Although PfEMP1 proteins have extensively diverged under opposing selection pressure to maintain ligand binding while avoiding antibody-mediated detection, recent work has revealed they can be classified into different groups based on chromosome location and domain composition......EMP1 subtypes appear to be specialized for infection of malaria naïve hosts. Here, we discuss recent findings on the origins and evolution of the var gene family, the structure-function of PfEMP1 proteins, and a distinct subset of PfEMP1 variants that have been associated with severe childhood malaria....

  2. Transfection of malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, A P; Thomas, A W; van Dijk, M R; Janse, C J

    1997-10-01

    The stable genetic transformation of three phylogenetically diverse species of Plasmodium, the parasitic etiological agent of malaria, is now possible. The parasite is haploid throughout the vast majority of its life cycle. Therefore with the single selectable marker activity and protocols currently available, it is possible not only to express introduced transgenes but also to study the effects of site-specific homologous recombination such as gene knockout. Transgene expression will allow the detailed study of many aspects of the cellular biology of malaria parasites, for example, the mechanisms underlying drug resistance and protein trafficking. We describe here the methods for propagation of the two animal models (Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium knowlesi) and for transfection of these two species and the human parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Examples of transgene expression are given.

  3. PENELITIAN OBAT ANTI MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some sensitivity tests of antimalarial drugs had been done by National Institute of Health Research and Development in collaboration with Directorate General of Communicable Disease Control and Environment Health, Naval Medical Research Unit No.2 and Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia. In-vivo and or in-vitro Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance was reported from 11 provinces : Aceh, North Sumatera, Riau, Lampung, West Java, Jakarta (imported case, Central Java, East Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, East Nusa Tenggara and Irian Jaya. Only quinine had a good response for treatment of falciparum malaria resistant to multidrug. R falciparum resistant to mefloquine or halofantrine was found although it was not available in Indonesia yet. Chloroquine prophylaxis using standard dose was still effective in Tanjung Pinang and Central Java. To support the successfulness of treatment in malaria control programme, further studies on alternative antimalaria drugs is needed.

  4. Pathogenesis of malaria revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Prasad; Bhakdi, Sucharit

    2012-11-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria claims 1 million lives around the globe every year. Parasitemia can reach remarkably high levels. The developing parasite digests hemoglobin and converts the waste product to hemozoin alias malaria pigment. These processes occur in a vesicular compartment named the digestive vacuole (DV). Each parasitized cell releases one DV upon rupture. Myriads of DVs thus gain entry into the blood, but whether they trigger pathobiological events has never been investigated. We recently discovered that the DV membrane simultaneously activates the two major enzyme cascades in blood, complement and coagulation. Activation of both is known to occur in patients with severe malaria, so discovery of the common trigger has large consequences. The DV membrane but not the merozoite has the capacity to spontaneously activate the alternative complement and intrinsic clotting pathway. Ejection of merozoites and the DV into the bloodstream, therefore, results in selective opsonization and phagocytosis of the DV, leaving merozoites free to invade new cells. The DV membrane furthermore has the capacity to assemble prothrombinase, the key convertase of the intrinsic clotting pathway. The dual capacity of the DV to activate both complement and coagulation can be suppressed by low-molecular-weight dextran sulfate. This agent protects experimental animals from the detrimental consequences, resulting from intravenous application of purified DVs. Phagocytosis of DVs not only deploys PMN away from merozoites, but also drives the cells into a state of functional exhaustion. This may be one reason for the enhanced susceptibility of patients with severe malaria toward systemic bacterial infections. Together, these findings indicate that the DV may represent a hitherto unrecognized, important determinant of parasite pathogenicity.

  5. Impact of haemoglobinopathies on the clinical epidemiology of malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steve M; Parobek, Christian M; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Haemoglobinopathies variously reduce the risk of developing malaria syndromes. Quantifying these relationships may strengthen the foundation for translational studies of malaria pathogenesis and immunity. Methods The databases of MEDLINE and Embase (1950 – September 9, 2011) were searched to identify studies that estimated the risk of malaria in patients with and without haemoglobinopathies. Additional studies were identified from reference lists. Included outcomes were Plasmodium falciparum-related outcomes of severe malaria, uncomplicated malaria, asymptomatic parasitaemia, or pregnancy-associated malaria, and P. vivax malaria. Two independent reviewers identified studies, assessed their quality, and extracted data; data were meta-analyzed when outcomes were reported in more than one study. Findings Of 62 identified studies, 44 reported on HbAS, 19 on HbAC and HbCC, and 18 on α-thalassaemia. Case-control studies showed a decreased risk of severe malaria for HbAS (summary Odds Ratio [OR] 0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.06 – 0.12), HbCC (summary OR 0.27; 95% CI 0.11 – 0.63), homozygous α-thalassaemia (summary OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.48 – 0.83), HbAC (summary OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.74 – 0.92), and heterozygous α-thalassaemia (summary OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.74 – 0.92). Only HbAS was consistently associated with protection from uncomplicated malaria (summary Incidence Rate Ratio 0.69; 95% CI 0.61 – 0.79); none demonstrated protection from asymptomatic parasitaemia. There was a paucity of clinical studies investigating β-thalassaemia, HbE, P. vivax malaria, and pregnancy-associated malaria. Interpretation Protection from severe malaria syndromes is significant for HbAS, HbCC, HbAC, and homozygous and heterozygous α-thalassaemia, but these haemoglobinopathies differ substantially in the degrees of protection. Protection from uncomplicated malaria and asymptomatic parasitaemia is mild or absent. By attenuating the severity of malaria

  6. Malaria Diagnostics Market grows with increasing public awareness on malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Deshmukh

    2016-01-01

    Transparency Market Research Reports incorporated a definite business overview and investigation inclines on "Malaria Diagnostics Market". This report likewise incorporates more illumination about fundamental review of the business including definitions, requisitions and worldwide business sector industry structure.   Read Full Report: http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/malaria-diagnostics-market.html

  7. Immunity to malaria in an era of declining malaria transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, Freya J I; Boeuf, Philippe; Beeson, James G

    2016-02-01

    With increasing malaria control and goals of malaria elimination, many endemic areas are transitioning from high-to-low-to-no malaria transmission. Reductions in transmission will impact on the development of naturally acquired immunity to malaria, which develops after repeated exposure to Plasmodium spp. However, it is currently unclear how declining transmission and malaria exposure will affect the development and maintenance of naturally acquired immunity. Here we review the key processes which underpin this knowledge; the amount of Plasmodium spp. exposure required to generate effective immune responses, the longevity of antibody responses and the ability to mount an effective response upon re-exposure through memory responses. Lastly we identify research priorities which will increase our understanding of how changing transmission will impact on malarial immunity.

  8. Tips for Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 罗新平

    2015-01-01

    this article offers tips for interpreting, including interpretation techniques and improving interpreting skills by the practice of listening, speaking, reading and writing to better interpreting performance.

  9. Newer approaches to malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Se; Pradhan, Prita; Pradhan, Suresh Chandra

    2011-07-01

    Malaria is the third leading cause of death due to infectious diseases affecting around 243 million people, causing 863,000 deaths each year, and is a major public health problem. Most of the malarial deaths occur in children below 5 years and is a major contributor of under-five mortality. As a result of environmental and climatic changes, there is a change in vector population and distribution, leading to resurgence of malaria at numerous foci. Resistance to antimalarials is a major challenge to malaria control and there are new drug developments, new approaches to treatment strategies, combination therapy to overcome resistance and progress in vaccine development. Now, artemisinin-based combination therapy is the first-line therapy as the malarial parasite has developed resistance to other antimalarials. Reports of artemisinin resistance are appearing and identification of new drug targets gains utmost importance. As there is a shift from malaria control to malaria eradication, more research is focused on malaria vaccine development. A malaria vaccine, RTS,S, is in phase III of development and may become the first successful one. Due to resistance to insecticides and lack of environmental sanitation, the conventional methods of vector control are turning out to be futile. To overcome this, novel strategies like sterile insect technique and transgenic mosquitoes are pursued for effective vector control. As a result of the global organizations stepping up their efforts with continued research, eradication of malaria can turn out to be a reality.

  10. Malaria vaccine: a current perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhona Sharma

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The observation that inactivated Plasmodium sporozoites could protect against malaria is about a hundred years old. However, systematic demonstration of protection using irradiated sporozoites occurred in the nineteen-sixties, providing the impetus for the development of a malaria vaccine. In 1983, the circumsporozoite protein (CSP, a major sporozoite surface antigen, became the first Plasmodium gene to be cloned, and a CSP-based vaccine appeared imminent. Today, 25 years later, we are still without an effective malaria vaccine, despite considerable information regarding the genomics and proteomics of the malaria parasites. Although clinical immunity to malaria has been well-documented in adults living in malaria endemic areas, our understanding of the host-immune responses operating in such malaria immune persons remains poor, and limits the development of immune control of the disease. Currently, several antigen and adjuvant combinations have entered clinical trials, in which efficacy against experimental sporozoite challenge and/or exposure to natural infection is evaluated. This review collates information on the recent status of the field. Unresolved challenges facing the development of a malaria vaccine are also discussed.

  11. Malaria during pregnancy in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.

    2014-01-01

    It appears that malaria in Rwanda is not a major contributor to adverse outcomes of pregnancy anymore from a public health perspective but it can still give problems in individual patients, also in areas of low malaria transmission. This thesis shows that for individual cases the current treatment o

  12. Malaria: toxins, cytokines and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Bate, C A; Taverne, J;

    1995-01-01

    In this review the old concept of severe malaria as a toxic disease is re-examined in the light of recent discoveries in the field of cytokines. Animal studies suggest that the induction of TNF by parasite-derived molecules may be partly responsible for cerebral malaria and anemia, while hypoglyc...

  13. Fats & Fakes : Towards improved control of malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    Effective malaria control reduced the malaria burden worldwide tremendously. Simultaneously, the epidemiology of malaria is changing and has become more complex. To continue the progress of the last decade, this thesis addressed several areas of importance in the field of malaria. Since effective ma

  14. Fats & Fakes : Towards improved control of malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    Effective malaria control reduced the malaria burden worldwide tremendously. Simultaneously, the epidemiology of malaria is changing and has become more complex. To continue the progress of the last decade, this thesis addressed several areas of importance in the field of malaria. Since effective

  15. Fats & Fakes : Towards improved control of malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    Effective malaria control reduced the malaria burden worldwide tremendously. Simultaneously, the epidemiology of malaria is changing and has become more complex. To continue the progress of the last decade, this thesis addressed several areas of importance in the field of malaria. Since effective ma

  16. Knowledge, attitude, perception of malaria and evaluation of malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C. Iriemenam, A.O. Dosunmu, W.A. Oyibo & A.F. Fagbenro-Beyioku

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Little information exists on the compliance of pregnant women to malaria managementin malaria endemic countries. This study was designed to access knowledge, attitude, perception and homemanagement of malaria among consenting pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC clinic.Methods: In total, 350 pregnant women were randomly recruited during their ANC Clinic in Lagos. Structuredquestionnaires were administered in a two-stages research design; first during their early months of ANC visitand the second approximately 1–2 months before delivery. Information on occupation, parity, symptoms used torecognise malaria, treatment sources, control measures, knowledge factors, anti-vector measures, health-seekingpractices, malaria parasitaemia and packed cell volume (PCV were recorded.Results: The results revealed that 78.9% of the pregnant women identified infected mosquitoes as the cause ofmalaria while 86% of the pregnant women identified stagnant water as its breeding sites. Knowledge of thebenefit of insecticide-treated mosquito bednets was less prominent as most of the selected subjects decried itshigh market price. Our data also showed that educational programme targeted on potential mothers is beneficial.Overall, 27.4% (96/350 of the pregnant women had peripheral malaria infection with 88.5% (85/96 of theparasite positive women infected with Plasmodium falciparum and 11.5% (11/96 with P. malariae. PCV rangedfrom 20–40% (median 33.9% with 25.7% (90/350 of the pregnant women being anaemic with PCV <33%. Wefound an association between malaria infection and occupation, and this association was not influenced byparity.Interpretation & conclusion: Our findings revealed that improvement in knowledge and education of women ofchild-bearing age has an influential impact on malaria control

  17. Contemporary epidemiological overview of malaria in Madagascar: operational utility of reported routine case data for malaria control planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind E. Howes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a major public health problem in Madagascar. Widespread scale-up of intervention coverage has led to substantial reductions in case numbers since 2000. However, political instability since 2009 has disrupted these efforts, and a resurgence of malaria has since followed. This paper re-visits the sub-national stratification of malaria transmission across Madagascar to propose a contemporary update, and evaluates the reported routine case data reported at this sub-national scale. Methods Two independent malariometrics were evaluated to re-examine the status of malaria across Madagascar. First, modelled maps of Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence (PfPR from the Malaria Atlas Project were used to update the sub-national stratification into ‘ecozones’ based on transmission intensity. Second, routine reports of case data from health facilities were synthesized from 2010 to 2015 to compare the sub-national epidemiology across the updated ecozones over time. Proxy indicators of data completeness are investigated. Results The epidemiology of malaria is highly diverse across the island’s ecological regions, with eight contiguous ecozones emerging from the transmission intensity PfPR map. East and west coastal areas have highest transmission year-round, contrasting with the central highlands and desert south where trends appear more closely associated with epidemic outbreak events. Ecozones have shown steady increases in reported malaria cases since 2010, with a near doubling of raw reported case numbers from 2014 to 2015. Gauges of data completeness suggest that interpretation of raw reported case numbers will underestimate true caseload as only approximately 60–75 % of health facility data are reported to the central level each month. Discussion A sub-national perspective is essential when monitoring the epidemiology of malaria in Madagascar and assessing local control needs. A robust assessment of the

  18. Electrophysiological studies of malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes: Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Staines, Henry M.; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Allen, Richard J.; De Jonge, Hugo R.; Derbyshire, Elvira; Egée, Stéphane; Ginsburg, Hagai; Hill, David A.; Huber, Stephan M.; Kirk, Kiaran; Lang, Florian; Lisk, Godfrey; Oteng, Eugene; Pillai, Ajay D.; Rayavara, Kempaiah

    2007-01-01

    The altered permeability characteristics of erythrocytes infected with malaria parasites have been a source of interest for over 30 years. Recent electrophysiological studies have provided strong evidence that these changes reflect transmembrane transport through ion channels in the host erythrocyte plasma membrane. However, conflicting results and differing interpretations of the data have led to confusion in this field. In an effort to unravel these issues, the groups involved recently came...

  19. Malaria in Mauritania: retrospective and prospective overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekweiry, Khadijetou Mint; Salem, Mohamed Salem Ould Ahmedou; Basco, Leonardo K; Briolant, Sébastien; Hafid, Jamaleddine; Boukhary, Ali Ould Mohamed Salem

    2015-03-04

    Malaria has become a major public health problem in Mauritania since the 1990s, with an average of 181,000 cases per year and 2,233,066 persons at risk during 1995-2012. This paper provides the first publicly available overview of malaria incidence and distribution in Mauritania. Information on the burden and malaria species distribution is critical for guiding national efforts in malaria control. As the incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of epidemiological data are necessary.

  20. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines could be a crucial component of efforts to eradicate malaria. Current attempts to develop malaria vaccines are primarily focused on Plasmodium falciparum and are directed towards reducing morbidity and mortality. Continued support for these efforts is essential, but if malaria vaccines are to be used as part of a repertoire of tools for elimination or eradication of malaria, they will need to have an impact on malaria transmission. We introduce the concept of “vaccines that interrupt...

  1. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF UNCOMPLICATED AND SEVERE MALARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Bartoloni; Lorenzo Zammarchi

    2012-01-01

    The first symptoms of malaria, common to all the different malaria species, are nonspecific and mimic a flu-like syndrome. Although fever represents the cardinal feature, clinical findings in malaria are extremely diverse and may range in severity from mild headache to serious complications leading to death, particularly in falciparum malaria. As the progression to these complications can be rapid, any malaria patient must be assessed and treated rapidly, and frequent observations are needed ...

  2. Clinical aspects of uncomplicated and severe malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoloni A; Zammarchi L.

    2012-01-01

    The first symptoms of malaria, common to all the different malaria species, are nonspecific and mimic a flu-like syndrome. Although fever represents the cardinal feature, clinical findings in malaria are extremely diverse and may range in severity from mild headache to serious complications leading to death, particularly in falciparum malaria. As the progression to these complications can be rapid, any malaria patient must be assessed and treated rapidly, and frequent observations are needed ...

  3. Clinical Aspects of Uncomplicated and Severe Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoloni, Alessandro; Zammarchi, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    The first symptoms of malaria, common to all the different malaria species, are nonspecific and mimic a flu-like syndrome. Although fever represents the cardinal feature, clinical findings in malaria are extremely diverse and may range in severity from mild headache to serious complications leading to death, particularly in falciparum malaria. As the progression to these complications can be rapid, any malaria patient must be assessed and treated rapidly, and frequent observations are needed ...

  4. Influence of common variants of TLR4 and TLR9 on clinical outcomes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Avishek; Panigrahi, Subhendu; Tripathy, Sagnika; Mohapatra, Manoj K; Tayung, Kumananda; Dhangadamajhi, Gunanidhi

    2015-12-01

    In malaria, the toll-like receptors (TLRs) have recently emerged as major player of innate immunity. However, implication of TLR variants on clinical manifestations of malaria is conflicting. The present study aims to provide relevant information of growing interest in understanding the role of TLR4D299G, TLR9T-1237C and TLR9T-1486C polymorphisms on clinical outcomes of malaria. We genotyped TLR4D299G, TLR9T-1237C and TLR9T-1486C polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP methods and subsequently analyzed in 200 uncomplicated patients and 200 severe patients. Further, the severe malaria categorized into sub-clinical groups such as cerebral malaria (CM), non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM), single organ dysfunction (SOD) and multi-organ dysfunctions (MODS) are analyzed. The TLR9-1237CC genotype was observed at significantly low frequency in MODS (p=0.0008), while in heterozygous state (TC) it was proportionately more frequent in SOD (p=0.087) as compared to mild malaria. The TLR9T-1486C heterozygote was more common in all categories of severe malaria. However, pair wise LD analysis revealed significant linkage between T-1237C and T-1486C, whereas haplotype analysis showed significantly low frequency of C-T haplotype in CM (p=0.005, pc=0.02) and high frequency of T-C haplotype in NCSM as compared to mild malaria. Although TLR9-1237C could be a risk factor for severe malaria in heterozygous state, negative association of CC genotype with MODS warrants caution of segregating severe malaria into its sub-clinical groups while interpreting data. Further, clinical outcome in malaria was observed to be apparently modulated by LD between TLR9 promoter variants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Place of malaria among febrile illnesses in two ethnic tribes living in sympatry in Mali from 1998 to 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolo, A; Maïga, B; Dara, V; Tapily, A; Tolo, Y; Arama, C; Daou, M; Doumbo, O

    2012-12-01

    In Africa, malaria is responsible for 25-40% of all outpatient visits and 20-50% of all hospitalizations. In malaria-endemic areas, individuals do not behave the same toward the outcome of clinical malaria. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of malaria in the locality among the different ethnic groups, evaluate the place of malaria among febrile illnesses, and assess the relationship between fever and parasite density of Plasmodium falciparum. Studies on susceptibility to malaria between the Fulani and Dogon groups in Mali were conducted in Mantéourou and the surrounding villages from 1998 to 2008. We carried out six cross-sectional studies during the malaria transmission and longitudinal surveys (July to December depending on the year) during the 10-year duration. In longitudinal studies, clinical data on malaria and other diseases frequently observed in the population were recorded. It appears from this work that malaria is the leading cause of febrile syndromes. We observed a significant reduction in malaria morbidity in the study population from 1998 to 2008. The pyrogenic threshold of parasitaemia was 1,000 parasites/mm(3) of blood in the Dogon and 5,000 parasites/mm(3) of blood in the Fulani.We have also found that high parasitical densities were not always associated with fever. Malaria morbidity was higher among the Dogon than in Fulani. The immunogenetic factors might account for this difference in susceptibility to malaria between Fulani and Dogon in the area under study. With regard to this study, it is important to take into account the ethnic origin of subjects when interpreting data of clinical and malarial vaccine trials.

  6. Current scenario of malaria vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarnail Singh Braich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the deadliest infectious diseases that affects millions of people worldwide including India. As an addition to chemoprophylaxis and other antimalarial interventions malaria vaccine is under extensive research since decades. The vaccine development is more difficult to predict than drug development and presents a unique challenge as already there has been no vaccine effective against a parasite. Effective malaria vaccine could help eliminate and eradicate malaria; there are currently 63 vaccine candidates, 41 in preclinical and clinical stages of development. Vaccines are being designed to target pre-erythrocytic stages, erythrocytic stage or the sexual stages of Plasmodium taken up by a feeding mosquito, or the multiple stages. Two vaccines in preclinical and clinical development target P. falciparum; and the most advanced candidate is the pre-erythrocytic vaccine RTS,S which is in phase-III clinical trials. It is likely that world's first malaria vaccine will be available by 2015 at the country level. More efficacious second generation malaria vaccines are on the way to development. Safety, efficacy, cost and provision of the vaccine to all communities are major concerns in malaria vaccine issue. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 60-66

  7. Malaria haplotype frequency estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigger, Leonore; Vogt, Julia E; Roth, Volker

    2013-09-20

    We present a Bayesian approach for estimating the relative frequencies of multi-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes in populations of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum by using microarray SNP data from human blood samples. Each sample comes from a malaria patient and contains one or several parasite clones that may genetically differ. Samples containing multiple parasite clones with different genetic markers pose a special challenge. The situation is comparable with a polyploid organism. The data from each blood sample indicates whether the parasites in the blood carry a mutant or a wildtype allele at various selected genomic positions. If both mutant and wildtype alleles are detected at a given position in a multiply infected sample, the data indicates the presence of both alleles, but the ratio is unknown. Thus, the data only partially reveals which specific combinations of genetic markers (i.e. haplotypes across the examined SNPs) occur in distinct parasite clones. In addition, SNP data may contain errors at non-negligible rates. We use a multinomial mixture model with partially missing observations to represent this data and a Markov chain Monte Carlo method to estimate the haplotype frequencies in a population. Our approach addresses both challenges, multiple infections and data errors.

  8. Ungulate malaria parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Thomas J.; Asada, Masahito; Jiratanh, Montakan; Ishikawa, Sohta A.; Tiawsirisup, Sonthaya; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Namangala, Boniface; Takeda, Mika; Mohkaew, Kingdao; Ngamjituea, Supawan; Inoue, Noboru; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Inagaki, Yuji; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Kaneko, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Haemosporida parasites of even-toed ungulates are diverse and globally distributed, but since their discovery in 1913 their characterization has relied exclusively on microscopy-based descriptions. In order to bring molecular approaches to bear on the identity and evolutionary relationships of ungulate malaria parasites, we conducted Plasmodium cytb-specific nested PCR surveys using blood from water buffalo in Vietnam and Thailand, and goats in Zambia. We found that Plasmodium is readily detectable from water buffalo in these countries, indicating that buffalo Plasmodium is distributed in a wider region than India, which is the only area in which buffalo Plasmodium has been reported. Two types (I and II) of Plasmodium sequences were identified from water buffalo and a third type (III) was isolated from goat. Morphology of the parasite was confirmed in Giemsa-reagent stained blood smears for the Type I sample. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences were isolated and used to infer a phylogeny in which ungulate malaria parasites form a monophyletic clade within the Haemosporida, and branch prior to the clade containing bird, lizard and other mammalian Plasmodium. Thus it is likely that host switching of Plasmodium from birds to mammals occurred multiple times, with a switch to ungulates independently from other mammalian Plasmodium. PMID:26996979

  9. Drug resistance in malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Parija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimalarial chemotherapy is an important component of all malaria control programmes throughout the world. This is especially so in light of the fact that there are no antimalarial vaccines which are available for clinical use at present. Emergence and spread of malaria parasites which are resistant to many of the available antimalarials today is, therefore, a major cause for concern. Till date, resistance to all groups of antimalarials excluding artemisinin has been reported. In recent years, in vitro resistance to even artemisinin has been described. While resistance to antibacterial agents has come to prominence as a clinical problem in recent years, antiparasitic resistance in general and antimalarial resistance in particular has not received much attention, especially in the Indian scenario. The present review deals with commonly used antimalarial drugs and the mechanisms of resistance to them. Various methods of detecting antimalarial resistance and avoiding the same have also been dealt with. Newer parasite targets which can be used in developing newer antimalarial agents and antimalarials obtained from plants have also been mentioned.

  10. Malaria-associated peripheral gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah B. Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a common parasitic disease endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, including Mozambique. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene is a rare complication of malaria. The purpose of this study was to review cases of malaria-associated peripheral gangrene that were evaluated by the pediatric surgical service at Hospital Central. Four patients ranging in age from 11 months to 7 years with documented Plasmodium falciparum infection and peripheral gangrene were identified. Amputation was required in cases of wet-gangrene. The majority of cases were allowed to self-demarcate, and one was allowed to auto-amputate.

  11. Netting the malaria menace: Distribution and utilization of long-lasting insecticidal net in a malaria endemic area in Bankura, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D K Mukhopadhyay

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: Around two-third population of the study area was effectively covered with LLIN. Higher proportion of socially marginalized people received LLIN. Threat perception regarding malaria was directly associated with both receipt and use of LLIN. Behaviour change communication on utilization along with adequate access to LLIN needs to be strengthened.

  12. Malaria ecology and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, G. C.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the costs that climate change will exact on society is crucial to devising an appropriate policy response. One of the channels through while climate change will affect human society is through vector-borne diseases whose epidemiology is conditioned by ambient ecology. This paper introduces the literature on malaria, its cost on society, and the consequences of climate change to the physics community in hopes of inspiring synergistic research in the area of climate change and health. It then demonstrates the use of one ecological indicator of malaria suitability to provide an order-of-magnitude assessment of how climate change might affect the malaria burden. The average of Global Circulation Model end-of-century predictions implies a 47% average increase in the basic reproduction number of the disease in today's malarious areas, significantly complicating malaria elimination efforts.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FOR MALARIA CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Rafatjah

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management for malaria control is defined as any planned physical activities that through transformation of land, water and vegetation will result in the prevention, reduction or elimination of malaria. In planning and implementing these activities, full consideration must be given to their long-term effects and benefits and to the preservation of the quality of environment and they need to be fully and closely coordinated with water, land and agricultural development projects. Environmental management activities for malaria control can be classified as source reduction, dealing mainly with physical alteration of the environment; environmental manipulation, introducing temporary environmental changes and the reduction, and prevention of man-vector contact by site selection, mosquito proofing of dwellings and personal protection. For anti-malaria programs to employ these activities they need to re-train the staff, re-orient the services and set up pilot operations for feasibility studies.

  14. Premunition in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... parasite, premunition is probably caused by antitoxic immunity. These poor and ... immunity to clinical malaria rather than infection may be of long duration ... use of antimalaria drugs and its possible strategic role in vaccine ...

  15. Malaria in Kakuma refugee camp, Turkana, Kenya: facilitation of Anopheles arabiensis vector populations by installed water distribution and catchment systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetron Martin S

    2011-06-01

    to infection with P. falciparum and showed a hyperendemic age-prevalence profile, in an area with otherwise low risk of malaria given prevailing climate. Transmission was sustained by A. arabiensis, whose populations were facilitated by installation of man-made water distribution and catchment systems.

  16. Worldwide incidence of malaria in 2009: estimates, time trends, and a critique of methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E Cibulskis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measuring progress towards Millennium Development Goal 6, including estimates of, and time trends in, the number of malaria cases, has relied on risk maps constructed from surveys of parasite prevalence, and on routine case reports compiled by health ministries. Here we present a critique of both methods, illustrated with national incidence estimates for 2009. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compiled information on the number of cases reported by National Malaria Control Programs in 99 countries with ongoing malaria transmission. For 71 countries we estimated the total incidence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax by adjusting the number of reported cases using data on reporting completeness, the proportion of suspects that are parasite-positive, the proportion of confirmed cases due to each Plasmodium species, and the extent to which patients use public sector health facilities. All four factors varied markedly among countries and regions. For 28 African countries with less reliable routine surveillance data, we estimated the number of cases from model-based methods that link measures of malaria transmission with case incidence. In 2009, 98% of cases were due to P. falciparum in Africa and 65% in other regions. There were an estimated 225 million malaria cases (5th-95th centiles, 146-316 million worldwide, 176 (110-248 million in the African region, and 49 (36-68 million elsewhere. Our estimates are lower than other published figures, especially survey-based estimates for non-African countries. CONCLUSIONS: Estimates of malaria incidence derived from routine surveillance data were typically lower than those derived from surveys of parasite prevalence. Carefully interpreted surveillance data can be used to monitor malaria trends in response to control efforts, and to highlight areas where malaria programs and health information systems need to be strengthened. As malaria incidence declines around the world, evaluation of control efforts

  17. The March Toward Malaria Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen L.; Vekemans, Johan; Richie, Thomas L.; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 there were an estimated 584,000 deaths and 198 million clinical illnesses due to malaria, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccines would be the ideal addition to the existing armamentarium of anti-malaria tools. However, malaria is caused by parasites, and parasites are much more complex in terms of their biology than the viruses and bacteria for which we have vaccines, passing through multiple stages of development in the human host, each stage expressing hundreds of unique antigens. This complexity makes it more difficult to develop a vaccine for parasites than for viruses and bacteria, since an immune response targeting one stage may not offer protection against a later stage, because different antigens are the targets of protective immunity at different stages. Furthermore, depending on the life cycle stage and whether the parasite is extra- or intra-cellular, antibody and/or cellular immune responses provide protection. It is thus not surprising that there is no vaccine on the market for prevention of malaria, or any human parasitic infection. In fact, no vaccine for any disease with this breadth of targets and immune responses exists. In this limited review, we focus on four approaches to malaria vaccines, (1) a recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccine aimed at Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite cycle (RTS,S/AS01), (2) whole sporozoite vaccines aimed at Pf pre-erythrocytic stages (PfSPZ Vaccine and PfSPZ-CVac), (3) prime boost vaccines that include recombinant DNA, viruses and bacteria, and protein with adjuvant aimed primarily at Pf pre-erythrocytic, but also asexual erythrocytic stages, and (4) recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccines aimed at Pf and Plasmodium vivax sexual erythrocytic and mosquito stages. We recognize that we are not covering all approaches to malaria vaccine development, or most of the critically important work on development of vaccines against P. vivax, the second most important cause of

  18. The march toward malaria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen L; Vekemans, Johan; Richie, Thomas L; Duffy, Patrick E

    2015-11-27

    In 2013 there were an estimated 584,000 deaths and 198 million clinical illnesses due to malaria, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccines would be the ideal addition to the existing armamentarium of anti-malaria tools. However, malaria is caused by parasites, and parasites are much more complex in terms of their biology than the viruses and bacteria for which we have vaccines, passing through multiple stages of development in the human host, each stage expressing hundreds of unique antigens. This complexity makes it more difficult to develop a vaccine for parasites than for viruses and bacteria, since an immune response targeting one stage may not offer protection against a later stage, because different antigens are the targets of protective immunity at different stages. Furthermore, depending on the life cycle stage and whether the parasite is extra- or intra-cellular, antibody and/or cellular immune responses provide protection. It is thus not surprising that there is no vaccine on the market for prevention of malaria, or any human parasitic infection. In fact, no vaccine for any disease with this breadth of targets and immune responses exists. In this limited review, we focus on four approaches to malaria vaccines, (1) a recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccine aimed at Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite cycle (RTS,S/AS01), (2) whole sporozoite vaccines aimed at Pf pre-erythrocytic stages (PfSPZ Vaccine and PfSPZ-CVac), (3) prime boost vaccines that include recombinant DNA, viruses and bacteria, and protein with adjuvant aimed primarily at Pf pre-erythrocytic, but also asexual erythrocytic stages, and (4) recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccines aimed at Pf and Plasmodium vivax sexual erythrocytic and mosquito stages. We recognize that we are not covering all approaches to malaria vaccine development, or most of the critically important work on development of vaccines against P. vivax, the second most important cause of

  19. Heritability of malaria in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J Mackinnon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available While many individual genes have been identified that confer protection against malaria, the overall impact of host genetics on malarial risk remains unknown.We have used pedigree-based genetic variance component analysis to determine the relative contributions of genetic and other factors to the variability in incidence of malaria and other infectious diseases in two cohorts of children living on the coast of Kenya. In the first, we monitored the incidence of mild clinical malaria and other febrile diseases through active surveillance of 640 children 10 y old or younger, living in 77 different households for an average of 2.7 y. In the second, we recorded hospital admissions with malaria and other infectious diseases in a birth cohort of 2,914 children for an average of 4.1 y. Mean annual incidence rates for mild and hospital-admitted malaria were 1.6 and 0.054 episodes per person per year, respectively. Twenty-four percent and 25% of the total variation in these outcomes was explained by additively acting host genes, and household explained a further 29% and 14%, respectively. The haemoglobin S gene explained only 2% of the total variation. For nonmalarial infections, additive genetics explained 39% and 13% of the variability in fevers and hospital-admitted infections, while household explained a further 9% and 30%, respectively.Genetic and unidentified household factors each accounted for around one quarter of the total variability in malaria incidence in our study population. The genetic effect was well beyond that explained by the anticipated effects of the haemoglobinopathies alone, suggesting the existence of many protective genes, each individually resulting in small population effects. While studying these genes may well provide insights into pathogenesis and resistance in human malaria, identifying and tackling the household effects must be the more efficient route to reducing the burden of disease in malaria-endemic areas.

  20. Heritability of Malaria in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While many individual genes have been identified that confer protection against malaria, the overall impact of host genetics on malarial risk remains unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have used pedigree-based genetic variance component analysis to determine the relative contributions of genetic and other factors to the variability in incidence of malaria and other infectious diseases in two cohorts of children living on the coast of Kenya. In the first, we monitored the incidence of mild clinical malaria and other febrile diseases through active surveillance of 640 children 10 y old or younger, living in 77 different households for an average of 2.7 y. In the second, we recorded hospital admissions with malaria and other infectious diseases in a birth cohort of 2,914 children for an average of 4.1 y. Mean annual incidence rates for mild and hospital-admitted malaria were 1.6 and 0.054 episodes per person per year, respectively. Twenty-four percent and 25% of the total variation in these outcomes was explained by additively acting host genes, and household explained a further 29% and 14%, respectively. The haemoglobin S gene explained only 2% of the total variation. For nonmalarial infections, additive genetics explained 39% and 13% of the variability in fevers and hospital-admitted infections, while household explained a further 9% and 30%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Genetic and unidentified household factors each accounted for around one quarter of the total variability in malaria incidence in our study population. The genetic effect was well beyond that explained by the anticipated effects of the haemoglobinopathies alone, suggesting the existence of many protective genes, each individually resulting in small population effects. While studying these genes may well provide insights into pathogenesis and resistance in human malaria, identifying and tackling the household effects must be the more efficient route to reducing the burden

  1. DNA Sensors for Malaria Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Marianne Smedegaard; Fjelstrup, Søren; Knudsen, Birgitta R.

    2015-01-01

    In the field of malaria diagnosis much effort is put into the development of faster and easier alternatives to the gold standard, blood smear microscopy. Nucleic acid amplification based techniques pose some of the most promising upcoming diagnostic tools due to their potential for high sensitivi......, robustness and user-friendliness. In the current review, we will discuss some of the different DNA-based sensor systems under development for the diagnosis of malaria....

  2. Imported malaria in Okayama prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    安治, 敏樹; 頓宮, 廉正; 頼, 俊雄; 何, 黎星; 下野, 國夫; 稲臣, 成一; 村主,節雄; 塩田, 哲也; 桜井, 浩一

    1981-01-01

    Two cases of imported malaria which occurred in Okayama prefecture are reported. One was infected with Plasmodium vivax in India, the other with P. falciparum at Nigeria, Africa. The efficacy of some antimalarial drugs in these cases is discussed. One patient was infected with P. falciparum, despite taking the medicine Daraprim® regularly. The efficacy of Daraprim® for suppressive cure in Nigeria is doutful. The therapy of chloroquine-resistance tropical malaria is also discussed.

  3. Muscling out malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    Recent updates in Trends in Parasitology [1] and Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2 R.H. ffrench-Constant, Something old, something transgenic, or something fungal for mosquito control?, Trends Ecol. Evol. 20 (2005), pp. 577-579. Article | PDF (122 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (3......) [2] highlighted the back-to-back articles in Science 3 and 4 that demonstrated the potential biocontrol of malaria by targeting mosquitoes with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium and Beauveria spp.). The wide impact of the original articles and the need to find alternatives to pesticidal control...... are likely to encourage the incorporation of these fungi into biocontrol programs, although several concerns have been raised 1 , 2 and 5 . Here, we detail some of these and advocate an inclusive approach to malarial biocontrol that proceeds with a full appreciation of the complicated biology...

  4. Application of Interpretive Theory to Business Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰

    2014-01-01

    Interpretive theory brings forward three phases of interpretation:understanding, deverberlization and re-expression. It needs linguistic knowledge and non-linguistic knowledge. This essay discusses application of interpretive theory to business inter-pretation from the perspective of theory and practice.

  5. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  6. The antibody response to well-defined malaria antigens after acute malaria in individuals living under continuous malaria transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, E; Høgh, B; Dziegiel, M

    1992-01-01

    , and a synthetic peptide (EENV)6 representing the C-terminal repeats from Pf155/RESA, were investigated longitudinally in 13 children and 7 adults living under conditions of continuous, intense malaria transmission. Some subjects did not recognize the antigens after malaria infection, and in subjects recognizing...... elicited by natural malaria infection in previously primed donors....

  7. Congenital clinical malaria: Incidence, management and outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were the admitted neonates to the emergency paediatric unit and the Special ... no mortality occurred in congenital clinical malaria, however, a diverse pattern of ... mothers of the importance of ante natal clinic visits for prescription of malaria ...

  8. The Malaria Season Is Upon Us

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    decreased since the last epidemic ten years ago, malaria still remains .... influenza, typhoid, tick bite fever, trypanosomiasis, hepatitis, .... position, at the same ... falciparum malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis of day 7 lumefantrine.

  9. Complement activation in experimental human malaria infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roestenberg, M.; McCall, M.B.B.; Mollnes, T.E.; Deuren, M. van; Sprong, T.; Klasen, I.S.; Hermsen, C.C.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate complement activation in uncomplicated, early phases of human malaria. Fifteen healthy volunteers were experimentally infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Parasitemia and complement activation products were assessed. During blood stage parasitem

  10. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawrence, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  11. Neuroimaging findings in children with retinopathy-confirmed cerebral malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potchen, Michael J. [Michigan State University, Department of Radiology, 184 Radiology Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1303 (United States)], E-mail: mjp@rad.msu.edu; Birbeck, Gretchen L. [Michigan State University, International Neurologic and Psychiatric Epidemiology Program, 324 West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)], E-mail: Gretchen.Birbeck@ht.msu.edu; DeMarco, J. Kevin [Michigan State University, Department of Radiology, 184 Radiology Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1303 (United States)], E-mail: jkd@rad.msu.edu; Kampondeni, Sam D. [University of Malawi, Department of Radiology, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre (Malawi)], E-mail: kamponde@msu.edu; Beare, Nicholas [St. Paul' s Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nbeare@btinternet.com; Molyneux, Malcolm E. [Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, College of Medicine (Malawi); School of Tropical Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mmolyneux999@google.com; Taylor, Terrie E. [Michigan State University, College of Osteopathic Medicine, B309-B West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); University of Malawi, College of Medicine, Blantyre Malaria Project, Blantyre (Malawi)], E-mail: taylort@msu.edu

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To describe brain CT findings in retinopathy-confirmed, paediatric cerebral malaria. Materials and methods: In this outcomes study of paediatric cerebral malaria, a subset of children with protracted coma during initial presentation was scanned acutely. Survivors experiencing adverse neurological outcomes also underwent a head CT. All children had ophthalmological examination to confirm the presence of the retinopathy specific for cerebral malaria. Independent interpretation of CT images was provided by two neuroradiologists. Results: Acute brain CT findings in three children included diffuse oedema with obstructive hydrocephalus (2), acute cerebral infarctions in multiple large vessel distributions with secondary oedema and herniation (1), and oedema of thalamic grey matter (1). One child who was reportedly normal prior to admission had parenchymal atrophy suggestive of pre-existing CNS injury. Among 56 survivors (9-84 months old), 15 had adverse neurologic outcomes-11/15 had a follow-up head CT, 3/15 died and 1/15 refused CT. Follow-up head CTs obtained 7-18 months after the acute infection revealed focal and multifocal lobar atrophy correlating to regions affected by focal seizures during the acute infection (5/11). Other findings were communicating hydrocephalus (2/11), vermian atrophy (1/11) and normal studies (3/11). Conclusions: The identification of pre-existing imaging abnormalities in acute cerebral malaria suggests that population-based studies are required to establish the rate and nature of incidental imaging abnormalities in Malawi. Children with focal seizures during acute cerebral malaria developed focal cortical atrophy in these regions at follow-up. Longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate mechanisms of CNS injury and death in this common fatal disease.

  12. Conservation efforts and malaria in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah B; Olson, Sarah H; Vittor, Amy Y; Barcellos, Christovam; Patz, Jonathan A; Pan, William

    2014-04-01

    We respond to Valle and Clark, who assert that "conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon," because the relationship between forest cover and malaria incidence was stronger than the effect of the deforestation rate. We contend that their conclusion is flawed because of limitations in their methodology that we discuss in detail. Most important are the exclusion of one-half the original data without a discussion of selection bias, the lack of model adjustment for either population growth or migration, and the crude classifications of land cover and protected areas that lead to aggregation bias. Of greater significance, we stress the need for caution in the interpretation of data that could have profound effects on regional land use decisions.

  13. Conservation Efforts and Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah B.; Olson, Sarah H.; Vittor, Amy Y.; Barcellos, Christovam; Patz, Jonathan A.; Pan, William

    2014-01-01

    We respond to Valle and Clark,1 who assert that “conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon,” because the relationship between forest cover and malaria incidence was stronger than the effect of the deforestation rate.1 We contend that their conclusion is flawed because of limitations in their methodology that we discuss in detail. Most important are the exclusion of one-half the original data without a discussion of selection bias, the lack of model adjustment for either population growth or migration, and the crude classifications of land cover and protected areas that lead to aggregation bias.1 Of greater significance, we stress the need for caution in the interpretation of data that could have profound effects on regional land use decisions. PMID:24277787

  14. Strategies For Malaria Control In Mangalore City

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran Udaya .N

    1999-01-01

    Research questions: What different strategies should be used to effectively control problem of malaria? Objectives: 1) To study the problem of malaria. 2) To study different strategies for effective control of malaria. Study design: Observational and record based. The problem of malaria was studied for three years from 1996-1998 Participants: Individuals having fever. Setting: Community based in Mangalore City. Study variables: Fever cases, blood slides prepared, slides found positive, agency...

  15. UK malaria treatment guidelines 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Bell, David J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Whitty, Christopher J M; Chiodini, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    1.Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1300-1800 cases reported each year, and 2-11 deaths. 2. Approximately three quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. 3. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other species of plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium knowlesi. 4. Mixed infections with more than one species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. 5. There are no typical clinical features of malaria; even fever is not invariably present. Malaria in children (and sometimes in adults) may present with misleading symptoms such as gastrointestinal features, sore throat or lower respiratory complaints. 6. A diagnosis of malaria must always be sought in a feverish or sick child or adult who has visited malaria-endemic areas. Specific country information on malaria can be found at http://travelhealthpro.org.uk/. P. falciparum infection rarely presents more than six months after exposure but presentation of other species can occur more than a year after exposure. 7. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until more than one blood specimen has been examined. Other travel related infections, especially viral haemorrhagic fevers, should also be considered. 8. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites. P. falciparum and P. vivax (depending upon the product) malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens. RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. 9

  16. Changing malaria transmission and implications in China towards National Malaria Elimination Programme between 2010 and 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-hai Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Towards the implementation of national malaria elimination programme in China since 2010, the epidemiology of malaria has changed dramatically, and the lowest malaria burden was achieved yearly. It is time to analyze the changes of malaria situation based on surveillance data from 2010 to 2012 to reconsider the strategies for malaria elimination. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Malaria epidemiological data was extracted from the provincial annual reports in China between 2010 and 2012. The trends of the general, autochthonous and imported malaria were analyzed, and epidemic areas were reclassified according to Action Plan of China Malaria Elimination (2010-2020. As a result, there reported 2743 malaria cases with a continued decline in 2012, and around 7% autochthonous malaria cases accounted. Three hundred and fifty-three individual counties from 19 provincial regions had autochthonous malaria between 2010 and 2012, and only one county was reclassified into Type I (local infections detected in 3 consecutive years and the annual incidences ≥ 1/10,000 again. However, the imported malaria cases reported of each year were widespread, and 598 counties in 29 provinces were suffered in 2012. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Malaria was reduced significantly from 2010 to 2012 in China, and malaria importation became an increasing challenge. It is necessary to adjust or update the interventions for subsequent malaria elimination planning and resource allocation.

  17. Malaria transmission rates estimated from serological data.

    OpenAIRE

    Burattini, M. N.; Massad, E; Coutinho, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model was used to estimate malaria transmission rates based on serological data. The model is minimally stochastic and assumes an age-dependent force of infection for malaria. The transmission rates estimated were applied to a simple compartmental model in order to mimic the malaria transmission. The model has shown a good retrieving capacity for serological and parasite prevalence data.

  18. Towards malaria elimination - a new thematic series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanner Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The launch of a new thematic series of Malaria Journal -- "Towards malaria elimination" -- creates the forum that allows carrying scientific evidence on how to achieve malaria elimination in specific endemic settings and conditions into the circles of scientists, public health specialists, national and global programme managers, funders and decision makers.

  19. Malaria in India: Challenges and opportunities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A P Dash; Neena Valecha; A R Anvikar; A Kumar

    2008-11-01

    India contributes about 70% of malaria in the South East Asian Region of WHO. Although annually India reports about two million cases and 1000 deaths attributable to malaria, there is an increasing trend in the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum as the agent. There exists heterogeneity and variability in the risk of malaria transmission between and within the states of the country as many ecotypes/paradigms of malaria have been recognized. The pattern of clinical presentation of severe malaria has also changed and while multi-organ failure is more frequently observed in falciparum malaria, there are reports of vivax malaria presenting with severe manifestations. The high burden populations are ethnic tribes living in the forested pockets of the states like Orissa, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and the North Eastern states which contribute bulk of morbidity and mortality due to malaria in the country. Drug resistance, insecticide resistance, lack of knowledge of actual disease burden along with new paradigms of malaria pose a challenge for malaria control in the country. Considering the existing gaps in reported and estimated morbidity and mortality, need for estimation of true burden of malaria has been stressed. Administrative, financial, technical and operational challenges faced by the national programme have been elucidated. Approaches and priorities that may be helpful in tackling serious issues confronting malaria programme have been outlined.

  20. Gene-therapy for malaria prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Mauricio M; Soares, Irene S

    2014-11-01

    The limited number of tools for malaria prevention and the inability to eradicate the disease have required large investments in vaccine development, as vaccines have been the only foreseeable type of immunoprophylaxis against malaria. An alternative strategy named vectored immunoprophylaxis (VIP) now would allow genetically transduced host cells to assemble and secrete antibodies that neutralize the infectivity of the malaria parasite and prevent disease.

  1. Immunoinformatics of Placental Malaria Vaccine Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Leon Eyrich

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium, which is transferred by female Anopheles mosquitos. WHO estimates that in 2012 there were 207 million cases of malaria, of which 627,000 were fatal. People living in malaria-endemic areas, gradually acquire...

  2. Determination of the processes driving the acquisition of immunity to malaria using a mathematical transmission model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A N Filipe

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of partially protective immunity is a dominant feature of the epidemiology of malaria among exposed individuals. The processes that determine the acquisition of immunity to clinical disease and to asymptomatic carriage of malaria parasites are poorly understood, in part because of a lack of validated immunological markers of protection. Using mathematical models, we seek to better understand the processes that determine observed epidemiological patterns. We have developed an age-structured mathematical model of malaria transmission in which acquired immunity can act in three ways ("immunity functions": reducing the probability of clinical disease, speeding the clearance of parasites, and increasing tolerance to subpatent infections. Each immunity function was allowed to vary in efficacy depending on both age and malaria transmission intensity. The results were compared to age patterns of parasite prevalence and clinical disease in endemic settings in northeastern Tanzania and The Gambia. Two types of immune function were required to reproduce the epidemiological age-prevalence curves seen in the empirical data; a form of clinical immunity that reduces susceptibility to clinical disease and develops with age and exposure (with half-life of the order of five years or more and a form of anti-parasite immunity which results in more rapid clearance of parasitaemia, is acquired later in life and is longer lasting (half-life of >20 y. The development of anti-parasite immunity better reproduced observed epidemiological patterns if it was dominated by age-dependent physiological processes rather than by the magnitude of exposure (provided some exposure occurs. Tolerance to subpatent infections was not required to explain the empirical data. The model comprising immunity to clinical disease which develops early in life and is exposure-dependent, and anti-parasite immunity which develops later in life and is not dependent on the magnitude of

  3. Sociocultural factors and malaria in the desert part of Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Yadav, R.K. Kalundha , R.C. Sharma

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Malaria is a new emerging problem of Indian Thar Desert. The study wasattempted to find out some sociocultural factors associated with malaria transmission in this regionand to supplement social solutions to ongoing malaria control efforts in the desert part of Rajasthan.Methods: Interview technique was used for data collection on pre-tested schedules. In all 30 households(15 from low socioeconomic group and the same number of households from the high socioeconomicgroup in a village were selected following systematic random sampling technique. A total of 450respondents were selected randomly in 15 villages of Jaisalmer district, Rajasthan.Results: One-third of the respondents had neither taken treatment for malaria nor took part in the vectorcontrol operations because they did not consider mosquito bites to be harmful and took malaria as amild disease. Outdoor sleeping habits, sharing bed with children, uneasy and suffocation feeling inusing mosquito bednets or any other protective device also contributed to the spread of malaria in thestudy villages.Interpretation & conclusion: Community should be educated as a whole particularly the low socioeconomicgroup of people to bring changes in their beliefs, sociocultural and health practices to protectthemselves from mosquito bites by using bednets, repellents and other devices, such as wire meshscreening of house doors and windows.

  4. Averting a malaria disaster: will insecticide resistance derail malaria control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Janet; Ranson, Hilary; Magill, Alan; Kolaczinski, Jan; Fornadel, Christen; Gimnig, John; Coetzee, Maureen; Simard, Frederic; Roch, Dabiré K; Hinzoumbe, Clément Kerah; Pickett, John; Schellenberg, David; Gething, Peter; Hoppé, Mark; Hamon, Nicholas

    2016-04-23

    World Malaria Day 2015 highlighted the progress made in the development of new methods of prevention (vaccines and insecticides) and treatment (single dose drugs) of the disease. However, increasing drug and insecticide resistance threatens the successes made with existing methods. Insecticide resistance has decreased the efficacy of the most commonly used insecticide class of pyrethroids. This decreased efficacy has increased mosquito survival, which is a prelude to rising incidence of malaria and fatalities. Despite intensive research efforts, new insecticides will not reach the market for at least 5 years. Elimination of malaria is not possible without effective mosquito control. Therefore, to combat the threat of resistance, key stakeholders need to rapidly embrace a multifaceted approach including a reduction in the cost of bringing new resistance management methods to market and the streamlining of associated development, policy, and implementation pathways to counter this looming public health catastrophe.

  5. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  6. Nitric oxide bioavailability in malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski, Peter; Gramaglia, Irene; Frangos, John; Intaglietta, Marcos; van der Heyde, Henri C

    2005-09-01

    Rational development of adjunct or anti-disease therapy for severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria requires cellular and molecular definition of malarial pathogenesis. Nitric oxide (NO) is a potential target for such therapy but its role during malaria is controversial. It has been proposed that NO is produced at high levels to kill Plasmodium parasites, although the unfortunate consequence of elevated NO levels might be impaired neuronal signaling, oxidant damage and red blood cell damage that leads to anemia. In this case, inhibitors of NO production or NO scavengers might be an effective adjunct therapy. However, increasing amounts of evidence support the alternate hypothesis that NO production is limited during malaria. Furthermore, the well-documented NO scavenging by cell-free plasma hemoglobin and superoxide, the levels of which are elevated during malaria, has not been considered. Low NO bioavailability in the vasculature during malaria might contribute to pathologic activation of the immune system, the endothelium and the coagulation system: factors required for malarial pathogenesis. Therefore, restoring NO bioavailability might represent an effective anti-disease therapy.

  7. Endemic malaria: an 'indoor' disease in northern Europe. Historical data analysed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliövaara Kari

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endemic northern malaria reached 68°N latitude in Europe during the 19th century, where the summer mean temperature only irregularly exceeded 16°C, the lower limit needed for sporogony of Plasmodium vivax. Because of the available historical material and little use of quinine, Finland was suitable for an analysis of endemic malaria and temperature. Methods Annual malaria death frequencies during 1800–1870 extracted from parish records were analysed against long-term temperature records in Finland, Russia and Sweden. Supporting data from 1750–1799 were used in the interpretation of the results. The life cycle and behaviour of the anopheline mosquitoes were interpreted according to the literature. Results Malaria frequencies correlated strongly with the mean temperature of June and July of the preceding summer, corresponding to larval development of the vector. Hatching of imagoes peaks in the middle of August, when the temperature most years is too low for the sporogony of Plasmodium. After mating some of the females hibernate in human dwellings. If the female gets gametocytes from infective humans, the development of Plasmodium can only continue indoors, in heated buildings. Conclusion Northern malaria existed in a cold climate by means of summer dormancy of hypnozoites in humans and indoor transmission of sporozoites throughout the winter by semiactive hibernating mosquitoes. Variable climatic conditions did not affect this relationship. The epidemics, however, were regulated by the population size of the mosquitoes which, in turn, ultimately was controlled by the temperatures of the preceding summer.

  8. Concurrent malaria and typhoid fever in the tropics: the diagnostic challenges and public health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Uneke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Malaria and typhoid fever still remain diseases of major public health importance in the tropics. Individuals in areas endemic for both the diseases are at substantial risk of contracting both these diseases, either concurrently or an acute infection superimposed on a chronic one. The objective of this report was to systematically review scientific data from studies conducted in the tropics on concurrent malaria and typhoid fever within the last two decades (1987–2007, to highlight the diagnostic challenges and the public health implications. Methods: Using the MedLine Entrez-PubMed search, relevant publications were identified for the review via the key words Malaria and Typhoid fever, which yielded 287 entries as of January 2008. Results: Most of the studies reviewed expressed concern that poor diagnosis continues to hinder effective control of concurrent malaria and typhoid fever in the tropics due to: non-specific clinical presentation of the diseases; high prevalence of asymptomatic infections; lack of resources and insufficient access to trained health care providers and facilities; and widespread practice of self-treatment for clinically suspected malaria or typhoid fever. Interpretation & conclusion: There were considerably higher rates of concurrent malaria and typhoid fever by Widal test compared to the bacteriological culture technique. Although culture technique remains the gold standard in typhoid fever diagnosis, Widal test is still of significant diagnostic value provided judicious interpretation of the test is made against a background of pertinent information. Malaria could be controlled through interventions to minimize human-vector contact, while improved personal hygiene, targeted vaccination campaigns and intensive community health education could help to control typhoid fever in the tropics.

  9. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial patterns of malaria in a land reform colonization project, Juruena municipality, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza-Santos Reinaldo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Brazil, 99% of malaria cases are concentrated in the Amazon, and malaria's spatial distribution is commonly associated with socio-environmental conditions on a fine landscape scale. In this study, the spatial patterns of malaria and its determinants in a rural settlement of the Brazilian agricultural reform programme called "Vale do Amanhecer" in the northern Mato Grosso state were analysed. Methods In a fine-scaled, exploratory ecological study, geocoded notification forms corresponding to malaria cases from 2005 were compared with spectral indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the third component of the Tasseled Cap Transformation (TC_3 and thematic layers, derived from the visual interpretation of multispectral TM-Landsat 5 imagery and the application of GIS distance operators. Results Of a total of 336 malaria cases, 102 (30.36% were caused by Plasmodium falciparum and 174 (51.79% by Plasmodium vivax. Of all the cases, 37.6% (133 cases were from residents of a unique road. In total, 276 cases were reported for the southern part of the settlement, where the population density is higher, with notification rates higher than 10 cases per household. The local landscape mostly consists of open areas (38.79 km². Training forest occupied 27.34 km² and midsize vegetation 7.01 km². Most domiciles with more than five notified malaria cases were located near areas with high NDVI values. Most domiciles (41.78% and malaria cases (44.94% were concentrated in areas with intermediate values of the TC_3, a spectral index representing surface and vegetation humidity. Conclusions Environmental factors and their alteration are associated with the occurrence and spatial distribution of malaria cases in rural settlements.

  11. Survey of use of malaria prevention measures by Canadians visiting India

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, C C; Anvar, A; Keystone, J S; Kain, K C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Imported malaria is an increasing problem, particularly among new immigrant populations. The objective of this study was to determine the malaria prevention measures used by Canadians originating from a malaria-endemic area when returning to visit their country of origin. METHODS: A 35-item English-language questionnaire was administered by interview to travellers at a departure lounge at Pearson International Airport, Toronto, between January and June 1995. Information was collected on subject characteristics, travel itinerary, perceptions about malaria, and pretravel health advice and malaria chemoprophylaxis and barriers to their use. RESULTS: A total of 324 travellers departing on flights to India were approached, of whom 307 (95%) agreed to participate in the study. Participants were Canadian residents of south Asian origin with a mean duration of residence in Canada of 12.8 years. Most of the respondents were returning to visit relatives for a mean visit duration of 6.8 weeks. Although 69% of the respondents thought malaria was a moderate to severe illness and 54% had sought advice before travelling, only 31% intended to use any chemoprophylaxis, and less than 10% were using measures to prevent mosquito bites. Only 7% had been prescribed a recommended drug regimen. Family practitioners were the primary source of information for travellers and were more likely to prescribe an inappropriate chemoprophylactic regimen than were travel clinics or public health centres (76% v. 36%) (p = 0.003). Respondents who had lived in Canada longest and those with a family history of malaria were more likely to use chemoprophylaxis (p < 0.01). INTERPRETATION: Few travellers were using appropriate chemoprophylaxis and mosquito prevention measures. Misconceptions about malaria risk and appropriate prevention measures were the main barriers identified. PMID:9951440

  12. Interpreters, Interpreting, and the Study of Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Guadalupe; Angelelli, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Discusses research on interpreting focused specifically on issues raised by this literature about the nature of bilingualism. Suggests research carried out on interpreting--while primarily produced with a professional audience in mind and concerned with improving the practice of interpreting--provides valuable insights about complex aspects of…

  13. Cutaneous findings in five cases of malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh B Vaishnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Cutaneous lesions in malaria are rarely reported and include urticaria, angioedema, petechiae, purpura, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. Here, five malaria cases associated with cutaneous lesions have been described. Out of the five cases of malaria, two were associated with urticaria and angioedema, one case was associated with urticaria, and other two were associated with reticulated blotchy erythema with petechiae. Most of the cutaneous lesions in malaria were nonspecific and reflected the different immunopathological mechanism in malarial infection.

  14. Malaria vaccine: a step toward elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika; Malik, Jagbir S; Sk, Shashikantha; Mehta, Bharti

    2014-01-01

    Malaria has long been recognized as a public health problem. At the community level, vector control, and antimalarial medicines are the main means for reducing incidence, morbidity, and mortality of malaria. A vaccine not only would bring streamlining in the prevention of morbidity and mortality from malaria but also would be more accessible if integrated with Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI). Globally, an estimated 3.4 billion people are at risk of malaria. Most cases (80%) and deaths (90%) occurred in Africa, and most deaths (77%) are in children under 5 years of age. An effective vaccine has long been envisaged as a valuable addition to the available tools for malaria control. Although research toward the development of malaria vaccines has been pursued since the 1960s, there are no licensed malaria vaccines. The RTS,S/AS01 vaccine, which targets P. falciparum, has reached phase 3 clinical trials and results are promising. Malaria Vaccine Technology Road Map 2013 has envisaged the world aiming for a licensed vaccine by 2030 that would reduce malaria cases by 75% and be capable of eliminating malaria. It will not only fill the gaps of today's interventions but also be a cost-effective method of decreasing morbidity and mortality from malaria.

  15. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF UNCOMPLICATED AND SEVERE MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bartoloni

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The first symptoms of malaria, common to all the different malaria species, are nonspecific and mimic a flu-like syndrome. Although fever represents the cardinal feature, clinical findings in malaria are extremely diverse and may range in severity from mild headache to serious complications leading to death, particularly in falciparum malaria. As the progression to these complications can be rapid, any malaria patient must be assessed and treated rapidly, and frequent observations are needed to look for early signs of systemic complications. In fact, severe malaria is a life threatening but treatable disease.  The protean and nonspecific clinical findings occurring in malaria (fever, malaise, headache, myalgias, jaundice and sometimes gastrointestinal symptoms of nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea may lead physicians who see malaria infrequently to a wrong diagnosis, such as influenza (particularly during the seasonal epidemic flu, dengue, gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, viral hepatitis, encephalitis. Physicians should be aware that malaria is not a clinical diagnosis but must be diagnosed, or excluded, by performing microscopic examination of blood films. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are then crucial to prevent morbidity and fatal outcomes. Although Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the major cause of severe malaria and death, increasing evidence has recently emerged that Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi can also be severe and even fatal.

  16. Plasmodium vivax malaria: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasliwal Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, hypoglycemia, coma, or epileptic seizures are manifestations of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. On the other hand, Plasmodium vivax malaria seldom results in pulmonary damage, and pulmonary complications are exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 42-year-old male living in a malaria-endemic area who presented with ARDS and was diagnosed as having Plasmodium vivax malaria. A diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax malaria was established by a positive Plasmodium LDH immunochromatographic assay while a negative PfHRP2 based assay ruled out P. falciparum malaria. After specific anti-plasmodial therapy and intensive supportive care, the patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. The use of NIPPV in vivax-malaria related ARDS was associated with a good outcome.

  17. Ongoing challenges in the management of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokwaro, Gilbert

    2009-10-12

    This article gives an overview of some of the ongoing challenges that are faced in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Malaria causes approximately 881,000 deaths every year, with nine out of ten deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to the human burden of malaria, the economic burden is vast. It is thought to cost African countries more than US$12 billion every year in direct losses. However, great progress in malaria control has been made in some highly endemic countries. Vector control is assuming a new importance with the significant reductions in malaria burden achieved using combined malaria control interventions in countries such as Zanzibar, Zambia and Rwanda. The proportion of patients treated for malaria who have a confirmed diagnosis is low in Africa compared with other regions of the world, with the result that anti-malarials could be used to treat patients without malaria, especially in areas where progress has been made in reducing the malaria burden and malaria epidemiology is changing. Inappropriate administration of anti-malarials could contribute to the spread of resistance and incurs unnecessary costs. Parasite resistance to almost all commonly used anti-malarials has been observed in the most lethal parasite species, Plasmodium falciparum. This has presented a major barrier to successful disease management in malaria-endemic areas. ACT (artemisinin-based combination therapy) has made a significant contribution to malaria control and to reducing disease transmission through reducing gametocyte carriage. Administering ACT to infants and small children can be difficult and time consuming. Specially formulating anti-malarials for this vulnerable population is vital to ease administration and help ensure that an accurate dose is received. Education of healthworkers and communities about malaria prevention, diagnosis and treatment is a vital component of effective case management, especially as diagnostic policies change

  18. An open source business model for malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årdal, Christine; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Greater investment is required in developing new drugs and vaccines against malaria in order to eradicate malaria. These precious funds must be carefully managed to achieve the greatest impact. We evaluate existing efforts to discover and develop new drugs and vaccines for malaria to determine how best malaria R&D can benefit from an enhanced open source approach and how such a business model may operate. We assess research articles, patents, clinical trials and conducted a smaller survey among malaria researchers. Our results demonstrate that the public and philanthropic sectors are financing and performing the majority of malaria drug/vaccine discovery and development, but are then restricting access through patents, 'closed' publications and hidden away physical specimens. This makes little sense since it is also the public and philanthropic sector that purchases the drugs and vaccines. We recommend that a more "open source" approach is taken by making the entire value chain more efficient through greater transparency which may lead to more extensive collaborations. This can, for example, be achieved by empowering an existing organization like the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) to act as a clearing house for malaria-related data. The malaria researchers that we surveyed indicated that they would utilize such registry data to increase collaboration. Finally, we question the utility of publicly or philanthropically funded patents for malaria medicines, where little to no profits are available. Malaria R&D benefits from a publicly and philanthropically funded architecture, which starts with academic research institutions, product development partnerships, commercialization assistance through UNITAID and finally procurement through mechanisms like The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the U.S.' President's Malaria Initiative. We believe that a fresh look should be taken at the cost/benefit of patents particularly related to new malaria

  19. An open source business model for malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Årdal

    Full Text Available Greater investment is required in developing new drugs and vaccines against malaria in order to eradicate malaria. These precious funds must be carefully managed to achieve the greatest impact. We evaluate existing efforts to discover and develop new drugs and vaccines for malaria to determine how best malaria R&D can benefit from an enhanced open source approach and how such a business model may operate. We assess research articles, patents, clinical trials and conducted a smaller survey among malaria researchers. Our results demonstrate that the public and philanthropic sectors are financing and performing the majority of malaria drug/vaccine discovery and development, but are then restricting access through patents, 'closed' publications and hidden away physical specimens. This makes little sense since it is also the public and philanthropic sector that purchases the drugs and vaccines. We recommend that a more "open source" approach is taken by making the entire value chain more efficient through greater transparency which may lead to more extensive collaborations. This can, for example, be achieved by empowering an existing organization like the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV to act as a clearing house for malaria-related data. The malaria researchers that we surveyed indicated that they would utilize such registry data to increase collaboration. Finally, we question the utility of publicly or philanthropically funded patents for malaria medicines, where little to no profits are available. Malaria R&D benefits from a publicly and philanthropically funded architecture, which starts with academic research institutions, product development partnerships, commercialization assistance through UNITAID and finally procurement through mechanisms like The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the U.S.' President's Malaria Initiative. We believe that a fresh look should be taken at the cost/benefit of patents particularly related

  20. Malaria successes and challenges in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajesh; Rastogi, Rakesh Mani; Ortega, Leonard

    2013-12-01

    Asia ranks second to Africa in terms of malaria burden. In 19 countries of Asia, malaria is endemic and 2.31 billion people or 62% of the total population in these countries are at risk of malaria. In 2010, WHO estimated around 34.8 million cases and 45,600 deaths due to malaria in Asia. In 2011, 2.7 million cases and > 2000 deaths were reported. India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Pakistan are responsible for >85% of the reported cases (confirmed) and deaths in Asia. In last 10 yr, due to availability of donor's fund specially from Global fund, significant progress has been made by the countries in Asia in scaling-up malaria control interventions which were instrumental in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality significantly. There is a large heterogeneity in malaria epidemiology in Asia. As a result, the success in malaria control/elimination is also diverse. As compared to the data of the year 2000, out of 19 malaria endemic countries, 12 countries were able to reduce malaria incidence (microscopically confirmed cases only) by 75%. Two countries, namely Bangladesh and Malaysia are projected to reach 75% reduction by 2015 while India is projected to reach 50-75% only by 2015. The trend could not be assessed in four countries, namely Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan and Timor-Leste due to insufficient consistent data. Numerous key challenges need to be addressed to sustain the gains and eliminate malaria in most parts of Asia. Some of these are to control the spread of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin, control of outdoor transmission, control of vivax malaria and ensuring universal coverage of key interventions. Asia has the potential to influence the malaria epidemiology all over the world as well as to support the global efforts in controlling and eliminating malaria through production of quality-assured ACTs, RDTs and long-lasting insecticidal nets.

  1. Frenchglen Interpretive Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this interpretive plan is to provide guidance for the development of the interpretive exhibits for the Frenchglen Interpretive Center, as well as the...

  2. Targeting Lexicon in Interpreting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghal, Mohammed; Shakir, Abdullah

    1994-01-01

    Studies student interpreters in the Master's Translation Program at Yarmouk University in Jordan. Analyzes the difficulties of these students, particularly regarding lexical competence, when interpreting from Arabic to English, emphasizing the need to teach lexicon all through interpreting programs. (HB)

  3. Electrophysiological studies of malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes: Current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, Henry M.; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Allen, Richard J.; De Jonge, Hugo R.; Derbyshire, Elvira; Egée, Stéphane; Ginsburg, Hagai; Hill, David A.; Huber, Stephan M.; Kirk, Kiaran; Lang, Florian; Lisk, Godfrey; Oteng, Eugene; Pillai, Ajay D.; Rayavara, Kempaiah; Rouhani, Sherin; Saliba, Kevin J.; Shen, Crystal; Solomon, Tsione; Thomas, Serge L. Y.; Verloo, Patrick; Desai, Sanjay A.

    2009-01-01

    The altered permeability characteristics of erythrocytes infected with malaria parasites have been a source of interest for over 30 years. Recent electrophysiological studies have provided strong evidence that these changes reflect transmembrane transport through ion channels in the host erythrocyte plasma membrane. However, conflicting results and differing interpretations of the data have led to confusion in this field. In an effort to unravel these issues, the groups involved recently came together for a week of discussion and experimentation. In this article, the various models for altered transport are reviewed, together with the areas of consensus in the field and those that require a better understanding. PMID:17292372

  4. Reversible Audiometric Threshold Changes in Children with Uncomplicated Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George O. Adjei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Plasmodium falciparum malaria, as well as certain antimalarial drugs, is associated with hearing impairment in adults. There is little information, however, on the extent, if any, of this effect in children, and the evidence linking artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs with hearing is inconclusive. Methods. Audiometry was conducted in children with uncomplicated malaria treated with artesunate-amodiaquine (n=37, artemether-lumefantrine (n=35, or amodiaquine (n=8 in Accra, Ghana. Audiometry was repeated 3, 7, and 28 days later and after 9 months. Audiometric thresholds were compared with those of a control group of children (n=57 from the same area. Findings. During the acute stage, hearing threshold levels of treated children were significantly elevated compared with controls (P<0.001. The threshold elevations persisted up to 28 days, but no differences in hearing thresholds were evident between treated children and controls after 9 months. The hearing thresholds of children treated with the two ACT regimens were comparable but lower than those of amodiaquine-treated children during acute illness. Interpretation. Malaria is the likely cause of the elevated hearing threshold levels during the acute illness, a finding that has implications for learning and development in areas of intense transmission, as well as for evaluating potential ototoxicity of new antimalarial drugs.

  5. Prospects for malaria eradication in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Aguas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A characteristic of Plasmodium falciparum infections is the gradual acquisition of clinical immunity resulting from repeated exposures to the parasite. While the molecular basis of protection against clinical malaria remains unresolved, its effects on epidemiological patterns are well recognized. Accumulating epidemiological data constitute a valuable resource that must be intensively explored and interpreted as to effectively inform control planning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we apply a mathematical model to clinical data from eight endemic regions in sub-Saharan Africa. The model provides a quantitative framework within which differences in age distribution of clinical disease are assessed in terms of the parameters underlying transmission. The shorter infectious periods estimated for clinical infections induce a regime of bistability of endemic and malaria-free states in regions of mesoendemic transmission. The two epidemiological states are separated by a threshold that provides a convenient measure for intervention design. Scenarios of eradication and resurgence are simulated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In regions that support mesoendemic transmission, intervention success depends critically on reducing prevalence below a threshold which separates endemic and malaria-free regimes.

  6. Utility of health facility-based malaria data for malaria surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw A Afrane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, intensive malaria control programs are being implemented in Africa to reduce the malaria burden. Clinical malaria data from hospitals are valuable for monitoring trends in malaria morbidity and for evaluating the impacts of these interventions. However, the reliability of hospital-based data for true malaria incidence is often questioned because of diagnosis accuracy issues and variation in access to healthcare facilities among sub-groups of the population. This study investigated how diagnosis and treatment practices of malaria cases in hospitals affect reliability of hospital malaria data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was undertaken in health facilities in western Kenya. A total of 3,569 blood smears were analyzed after being collected from patients who were requested by clinicians to go to the hospital's laboratory for malaria testing. We applied several quality control measures for clinical malaria diagnosis. We compared our slide reading results with those from the hospital technicians. Among the 3,390 patients whose diagnoses were analyzed, only 36% had clinical malaria defined as presence of any level of parasitaemia and fever. Sensitivity and specificity of clinicians' diagnoses were 60.1% (95% CI: 61.1-67.5 and 75.0% (95% CI: 30.8-35.7, respectively. Among the 980 patients presumptively treated with an anti-malarial by the clinicians without laboratory diagnosis, only 47% had clinical malaria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings revealed substantial over-prescription of anti-malarials and misdiagnosis of clinical malaria. More than half of the febrile cases were not truly clinical malaria, but were wrongly diagnosed and treated as such. Deficiency in malaria diagnosis makes health facility data unreliable for monitoring trends in malaria morbidity and for evaluating impacts of malaria interventions. Improving malaria diagnosis should be a top priority in rural African health centers.

  7. Malaria: developing an action programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seadzi, G K; Nyonator, F K

    1995-03-01

    Malaria is the most common reason that people seek medical care in Ghana. This situation is taken for granted by the people, and there is no organized prevention effort. A World Health Organization-sponsored pilot malaria eradication program (1958-64) was abandoned after a peak period of activity in 1963 when vector control included indoor spraying with DDT. Recently there has been an upward trend in the incidence of malaria, with 15% of all cases becoming complicated. The main vector species are A. gambiae, A. melas, and A. funestus, and the predominant parasite species is Plasmodium falciparum. Treatment of choice is chloroquine phosphate, and although drug resistance has been suspected, it has not been documented. All health facilities are stretched to the limit with regard to the diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Field research is needed to provide a more accurate picture of the current situation. The clinical ability to deliver prompt diagnoses and treatment must be strengthened, and public health education must be instituted. The regional health management system must be improved, and personnel must be taught to use collected data. The use of bed nets, which is common in the south, should be encouraged, and impregnated nets should be introduced.

  8. Malaria Chemoprophylaxis in Military Aircrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    for WHO Group 1I endemic deficiency, including macrocytic anemia , areas. aphthous ulcers, and stomatitis. - Chemoprophylaxis for WHO Group III endemic...deficiency is an absolute contraindication because of the risk of -- docetaxel (Taxotere®) hemolytic anemia . This defect is known to affect...headache shown such a property. - accommodation disorders - agranulocytosis, anemia and CONCLUSION methemoglobinemia The choice of malaria

  9. DNA Sensors for Malaria Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Marianne Smedegaard; Fjelstrup, Søren; Knudsen, Birgitta R.

    2015-01-01

    In the field of malaria diagnosis much effort is put into the development of faster and easier alternatives to the gold standard, blood smear microscopy. Nucleic acid amplification based techniques pose some of the most promising upcoming diagnostic tools due to their potential for high sensitivity...

  10. Chemical biology: Knockout for malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Joanna; Sieber, Stephan A.

    2014-02-01

    Discovering and validating new targets is urgently required to tackle the rise in resistance to antimalarial drugs. Now, inhibition of the enzyme N-myristoyltransferase has been shown to prevent the formation of a critical subcellular organelle in the parasite that causes malaria, leading to death of the parasite.

  11. President’s Malaria Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-16

    the single most serious several projects on the bionomics and health hazard to Allied troops in the ecology of Anopheles in West Java, South Pacific...Malawi, Mozambique , (USAID) to train health workers in the Rwanda and Senegal were initiated, and diagnosis and control of malaria. I also in FY 2008

  12. Malaria elimination in India and regional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangdi, Kinley; Gatton, Michelle L; Kelly, Gerard C; Banwell, Cathy; Dev, Vas; Clements, Archie C A

    2016-10-01

    The malaria situation in India is complex as a result of diverse socio-environmental conditions. India contributes a substantial burden of malaria outside sub-Saharan Africa, with the third highest Plasmodium vivax prevalence in the world. Successful malaria control in India is likely to enhance malaria elimination efforts in the region. Despite modest gains, there are many challenges for malaria elimination in India, including: varied patterns of malaria transmission in different parts of the country demanding area-specific control measures; intense malaria transmission fuelled by favourable climatic and environment factors; varying degrees of insecticide resistance of vectors; antimalarial drug resistance; a weak surveillance system; and poor national coordination of state programmes. Prevention and protection against malaria are low as a result of a weak health-care system, as well as financial and socioeconomic constraints. Additionally, the open borders of India provide a potential route of entry for artesunate-resistant parasites from southeast Asia. This situation calls for urgent dialogue around tackling malaria across borders-between India's states and neighbouring countries-through sharing of information and coordinated control and preventive measures, if we are to achieve the aim of malaria elimination in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using Malaria Medication for Leg Cramps Is Risky

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Using Malaria Medication for Leg Cramps is Risky Printer-friendly ... approved only to treat a certain type of malaria (uncomplicated malaria) caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. ...

  14. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall,

  15. Plasmodium vivax hospitalizations in a monoendemic malaria region: severe vivax malaria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Antonio M; Pozo, Edwar; Guerrero, Edith; Durand, Salomón; Baldeviano, G Christian; Edgel, Kimberly A; Graf, Paul C F; Lescano, Andres G

    2014-07-01

    Severe malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax is no longer considered rare. To describe its clinical features, we performed a retrospective case control study in the subregion of Luciano Castillo Colonna, Piura, Peru, an area with nearly exclusive vivax malaria transmission. Severe cases and the subset of critically ill cases were compared with a random set of uncomplicated malaria cases (1:4). Between 2008 and 2009, 6,502 malaria cases were reported, including 106 hospitalized cases, 81 of which fit the World Health Organization definition for severe malaria. Of these 81 individuals, 28 individuals were critically ill (0.4%, 95% confidence interval = 0.2-0.6%) with severe anemia (57%), shock (25%), lung injury (21%), acute renal failure (14%), or cerebral malaria (11%). Two potentially malaria-related deaths occurred. Compared with uncomplicated cases, individuals critically ill were older (38 versus 26 years old, P malaria monoinfection with critical illness is more common than previously thought.

  16. Prevalence of malaria and patients in Ethiope E alence of malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... of Animal and Environmental Biology, Delta State University, Abraka, N pical Disease ... are capable of transmitting the human ..... seeking behaviour of young Nigerian adults. ... malaria parasites in culture. ... malaria in mice.

  17. From "forest malaria" to "bromeliad malaria": a case-study of scientific controversy and malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, P

    1994-08-01

    The article analyses the evolution of knowledge and rationale of control of a special case of malaria transmission based on Bromelia-Kerteszia complex. Since bromeliaceae function as a 'host of the carrier' and were previously associated with natural forests, the elucidation of bromeliad malaria historically elicited controversies concerning the imputation of Kertesziae as transmitters as well as over control strategies directed to bromelia eradication (manual removal, herbicides and deforestation), use of insecticides and chemoprophylaxis. Established authority, disciplinary traditions, conceptual premises and contemporary criteria for validating knowledge in the field partly explain the long time gap since Adolpho Lutz announced at the beginning of the century the existence of a new mosquito and breeding site as responsible for a 'forest malaria' epidemic occurring at a high altitude. The article brings attention to how economic, political and institutional determinants played an important role in redefining studies that led both in Trinidad and Brazil to the recognition of the importance of kerteszia transmission, including urban areas, and establishing new approaches to its study, most relevant of all the concurrence of broad ecological research. The article then describes the Brazilian campaign strategies which showed significant short-term results but had to wait four decades to achieve the goal of eradication due to the peculiar characteristics of this pathogenic complex. Finally, it brings attention to the importance of encompassing social values and discourses, in this case, environmental preservation, to understanding historical trends of malaria control programs.

  18. Statistical methodology for the evaluation of vaccine efficacy in a phase III multi-centre trial of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lievens Marc

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been much debate about the appropriate statistical methodology for the evaluation of malaria field studies and the challenges in interpreting data arising from these trials. Methods The present paper describes, for a pivotal phase III efficacy of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria vaccine, the methods of the statistical analysis and the rationale for their selection. The methods used to estimate efficacy of the primary course of vaccination, and of a booster dose, in preventing clinical episodes of uncomplicated and severe malaria, and to determine the duration of protection, are described. The interpretation of various measures of efficacy in terms of the potential public health impact of the vaccine is discussed. Conclusions The methodology selected to analyse the clinical trial must be scientifically sound, acceptable to regulatory authorities and meaningful to those responsible for malaria control and public health policy. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00866619

  19. The role of vitamin D in malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lương, Khanh Vinh Quốc; Nguyễn, Lan Thi Hoàng

    2015-01-15

    An abnormal calcium-parathyroid hormone (PTH)-vitamin D axis has been reported in patients with malaria infection. A role for vitamin D in malaria has been suggested by many studies. Genetic studies have identified numerous factors that link vitamin D to malaria, including human leukocyte antigen genes, toll-like receptors, heme oxygenase-1, angiopoietin-2, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, and Bcl-2. Vitamin D has also been implicated in malaria via its effects on the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine, matrix metalloproteinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, prostaglandins, reactive oxidative species, and nitric oxide synthase. Vitamin D may be important in malaria; therefore, additional research on its role in malaria is needed.

  20. Shrinking the malaria map: progress and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feachem, Richard GA; Phillips, Allison A; Hwang, Jimee; Cotter, Chris; Wielgosz, Benjamin; Greenwood, Brian M; Sabot, Oliver; Rodriguez, Mario Henry; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra R; Ghebreyesus, Tedros Adhanom; Snow, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the past 150 years, roughly half of the countries in the world eliminated malaria. Nowadays, there are 99 endemic countries—67 are controlling malaria and 32 are pursuing an elimination strategy. This four-part Series presents evidence about the technical, operational, and financial dimensions of malaria elimination. The first paper in this Series reviews definitions of elimination and the state that precedes it: controlled low-endemic malaria. Feasibility assessments are described as a crucial step for a country transitioning from controlled low-endemic malaria to elimination. Characteristics of the 32 malaria-eliminating countries are presented, and contrasted with countries that pursued elimination in the past. Challenges and risks of elimination are presented, including Plasmodium vivax, resistance in the parasite and mosquito populations, and potential resurgence if investment and vigilance decrease. The benefits of elimination are outlined, specifically elimination as a regional and global public good. Priorities for the next decade are described. PMID:21035842

  1. Features and outcomes of malaria infection in glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase normal and deficient Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebola Emmanuel Orimadegun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Malaria and G6PD deficiency-related haemolyses are known causes of hospital admissions in Nigeria and pose great danger to child survival but data on interactions of these two pathologies are scarce. This study was carried out to determine the association between features of Plasmodium falciparum infection and G6PD status. Methods: G6PD and haemoglobin were typed by fluorescent spot test and electrophoresis respectively, in 1120 children with microscopically-proven falciparum malaria. Clinical features of malaria were compared between G6PD normal and deficient children. Results: There were 558 males and 562 females with median age of 35 months (range, 6 months-12 yr. In males, prevalence of G6PD-deficiency in patients with uncomplicated malaria (UM, severe malarial anaemia (SMA and cerebral malaria (CM was 23.4, 7 and 16.7%, respectively compared with 11.1, 7.3 and 4.4%, respectively among females. In both males and females, convulsion and rectal temperature above 38°C were less likely presentations among G6PD-deficient compared with G6PD-normal children (p <0.05. The proportions of children with pallor, convulsion and impaired consciousness were significantly lower among G6PD-deficient than normal males (p <0.05 but these features were not different between deficient and normal females (p >0.05. Interpretation & conclusion: Convulsions, pallor and elevated temperature were more frequent features of malaria in G6PD normal than deficient children. G6PD-deficient male children are protected against impaired consciousness. These differences may offer useful hints in malaria treatment and researches in endemic regions.

  2. Serological markers suggest heterogeneity of effectiveness of malaria control interventions on Bioko Island, equatorial Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Cook

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to control and eliminate malaria, areas of on-going transmission need to be identified and targeted for malaria control interventions. Immediately following intense interventions, malaria transmission can become more heterogeneous if interventions are more successful in some areas than others. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, has been subject to comprehensive malaria control interventions since 2004. This has resulted in substantial reductions in the parasite burden, although this drop has not been uniform across the island. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2008, filter paper blood samples were collected from 7387 people in a cross-sectional study incorporating 18 sentinel sites across Bioko, Equatorial Guinea. Antibodies were measured to P. falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1 by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Age-specific seropositivity rates were used to estimate seroconversion rates (SCR. Analysis indicated there had been at least a 60% decline in SCR in four out of five regions on the island. Changes in SCR showed a high degree of congruence with changes in parasite rate (PR and with regional reductions in all cause child mortality. The mean age adjusted concentration of anti-AMA-1 antibodies was mapped to identify areas where individual antibody responses were higher than expected. This approach confirmed the North West of the island as a major focus of continuing infection and an area where control interventions need to be concentrated or re-evaluated. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: Both SCR and PR revealed heterogeneity in malaria transmission and demonstrated the variable effectiveness of malaria control measures. This work confirms the utility of serological analysis as an adjunct measure for monitoring transmission. Age-specific seroprevalence based evidence of changes in transmission over time will be of particular value when no baseline data are available. Importantly, SCR data provide additional

  3. A comparative study of regression of jaundice in patients of malaria and acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Kochar, K. Kaswan, S.K. Kochar, P. Sirohi, M. Pala, A. Kochar , R.P. Agrawal , A. Das

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Jaundice is one of the common manifestations of severe malaria in adults.The purpose of this study is to compare the pattern of clinical and biochemical parameters such asserum bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in patients of malaria with jaundice and acute viral hepatitis.Methodology: The present study was conducted on 34 patients of malaria with jaundice and 15patients of acute viral hepatitis. Estimation of serum bilirubin, aspartate amino transferase (AST,alanine amino transferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase was done daily using standard proceduresin malaria patients and weekly in acute viral hepatitis patients.Results: Mean level of serum bilirubin on first day in malaria and acute viral hepatitis patients was7.07 ± 3.94 and 10.38 ± 7.87 mg%, whereas on Day 8 it was 1.19 ± 1.43 and 7.88 ± 7.02 mg%respectively. Mean level of AST on Day 1 in malaria and acute viral hepatitis patients was 158.47 ±120.35 and 1418.6 ± 834.11 IU/L, whereas on Day 8 it was 41 ± 28.33 and 775.3 ± 399.01IU/L respectively. Mean level of ALT on Day 1 in malaria and acute viral hepatitis patients was220.14 ± 145.61 and 1666.67 ± 1112.77 IU/L, whereas on Day 8 it was 50.85 ± 37.31 and 823.8 ±475.06 IU/L respectively. Mean level of serum alkaline phosphatase on Day 1 in malaria and acuteviral hepatitis patients was 394.74 ± 267.78 and 513.4 ± 324.7 IU/L, whereas on Day 8 it was84.76 ± 68.50 and 369.27 ± 207.75 IU/L respectively.Interpretation & conclusion: We observed that resolution of jaundice in malaria took 1–2 weeks incontrast 6 to 8 weeks in viral hepatitis. This difference in duration was statistically significant. Thus,jaundice not resolving in 1–2 weeks time in a patient of malaria requires serious consideration forpresence of other concomitant diseases including viral hepatitis.

  4. A systematic review of the clinical presentation, treatment and relapse characteristics of human Plasmodium ovale malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groger, Mirjam; Fischer, Hannah S; Veletzky, Luzia; Lalremruata, Albert; Ramharter, Michael

    2017-03-11

    Despite increased efforts to control and ultimately eradicate human malaria, Plasmodium ovale malaria is for the most part outside the focus of research or public health programmes. Importantly, the understanding of P. ovale-nowadays regarded as the two distinct species P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi-largely stems from case reports and case series lacking study designs providing high quality evidence. Consecutively, there is a lack of systematic evaluation of the clinical presentation, appropriate treatment and relapse characteristics of P. ovale malaria. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a systematic appraisal of the current evidence for severe manifestations, relapse characteristics and treatment options for human P. ovale malaria. This systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines and registered in the international prospective register for systematic reviews (PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016039214). P. ovale mono-infection was a strict inclusion criterion. Of 3454 articles identified by the literature search, 33 articles published between 1922 and 2015 met the inclusion criteria. These articles did not include randomized controlled trials. Five prospective uncontrolled clinical trials were performed on a total of 58 participants. P. ovale was sensitive to all tested drugs within the follow-up periods and on interpretable in vitro assays. Since its first description in 1922, only 18 relapsing cases of P. ovale with a total of 28 relapse events were identified in the scientific literature. There was however no molecular evidence for a causal relationship between dormant liver stages and subsequent relapses. A total of 22 severe cases of P. ovale malaria were published out of which five were fatal. Additionally, two cases of congenital P. ovale malaria were reported. Current knowledge of P. ovale malaria is based on small trials with minor impact, case reports and clinical observations. This systematic review highlights that P

  5. Progress towards malaria control targets in relation to national malaria programme funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Korenromp (Eline); M. Hosseini (Mehran); R.D. Newman (Robert D); R.E. Cibulskis (Richard E)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Malaria control has been dramatically scaled up the past decade, mainly thanks to increasing international donor financing since 2003. This study assessed progress up to 2010 towards global malaria impact targets, in relation to Global Fund, other donor and domestic malaria

  6. Progress towards malaria control targets in relation to national malaria programme funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Korenromp (Eline); M. Hosseini (Mehran); R.D. Newman (Robert D); R.E. Cibulskis (Richard E)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Malaria control has been dramatically scaled up the past decade, mainly thanks to increasing international donor financing since 2003. This study assessed progress up to 2010 towards global malaria impact targets, in relation to Global Fund, other donor and domestic malaria p

  7. [Research progress on malaria vector control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guo-Ding; Cao, Jun; Zhou, Hua-Yun; Gao, Qi

    2013-06-01

    Vector control plays a crucial role in the stages of malaria control and elimination. Currently, it mainly relies on the chemical control methods for adult mosquitoes in malaria endemic areas, however, it is undergoing the serious threat by insecticide resistance. In recent years, the transgenic technologies of malaria vectors have made a great progress in the laboratory. This paper reviews the challenges of the traditional methods and the rapid developed genetic modified technology in the application of vector control.

  8. Towards seasonal forecasting of malaria in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, Jonathan M; Caminade, Cyril; Heath, Andrew E; Jones, Anne E; MacLeod, David A; Gouda, Krushna C; Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana; Goswami, Prashant; Mutheneni, Srinivasa R; Morse, Andrew P

    2014-08-10

    Malaria presents public health challenge despite extensive intervention campaigns. A 30-year hindcast of the climatic suitability for malaria transmission in India is presented, using meteorological variables from a state of the art seasonal forecast model to drive a process-based, dynamic disease model. The spatial distribution and seasonal cycles of temperature and precipitation from the forecast model are compared to three observationally-based meteorological datasets. These time series are then used to drive the disease model, producing a simulated forecast of malaria and three synthetic malaria time series that are qualitatively compared to contemporary and pre-intervention malaria estimates. The area under the Relative Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve is calculated as a quantitative metric of forecast skill, comparing the forecast to the meteorologically-driven synthetic malaria time series. The forecast shows probabilistic skill in predicting the spatial distribution of Plasmodium falciparum incidence when compared to the simulated meteorologically-driven malaria time series, particularly where modelled incidence shows high seasonal and interannual variability such as in Orissa, West Bengal, and Jharkhand (North-east India), and Gujarat, Rajastan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra (North-west India). Focusing on these two regions, the malaria forecast is able to distinguish between years of "high", "above average" and "low" malaria incidence in the peak malaria transmission seasons, with more than 70% sensitivity and a statistically significant area under the ROC curve. These results are encouraging given that the three month forecast lead time used is well in excess of the target for early warning systems adopted by the World Health Organization. This approach could form the basis of an operational system to identify the probability of regional malaria epidemics, allowing advanced and targeted allocation of resources for combatting malaria in India.

  9. The evolution of drug-resistant malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Plowe, Christopher V.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular epidemiological investigations have uncovered the patterns of emergence and global spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Malaria parasites highly resistant to chloroquine and pyrimethamine spread from Asian origins to Africa, at great cost to human health and life. If artemisinin-resistant falciparum malaria follows the same pattern, renewed efforts to eliminate and eradicate malaria will be gravely threatened. This paper, adapted f...

  10. HIPOGLIKEMIA PADA SEORANG PENDERITA MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Harianto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemia is a serious and often fatal complication of severe malaria. This condition has been reported in many parts of the world including from Thailand (1983 and from Indonesia by Hoffman (1988 and Harianto (1990. Two main causes that can lead to development of this condition are quinine administration and the severity of the malaria condition itself. A case study is presented about development of prolonged hypoglycemia after quinine administration. A 41 years old male was hospitalized with 4 days history of fever, headache vomiting and icterus. On examination he was found to be in good mental status, had a normal blood pressure, and a body temperature of 40°C. He also had icterus and hepatomegaly. Laboratory examination on admission showed malaria slide positive forRfalciparum ring 30-40, with parasite count of 3% (+ on day I. CBC showed: WBC of 21,700/mm3 and platelet count of 40,000/mm3. Blood chemistry showed glucose level of 77 mm %, serum bilirubin of 29.34 mg % (direct 21.87 mg % SGOT 31 u/l, SGPT 20 u/l, serum ureum 167 mg %, creatinine of 3.36 mg %, serum Na 123 m Eq/L and K 3.99 Eq/L. Urinalysis was normal except for specific gravity of 1.07. After diagnosis of bilious malaria was confirmed, the patient was given i.v. quinine 500 mg diluted in 500 ml 5% dextrose, infused over 4 hours and repeated every 8 hours. On day IVi.v. quinine was switched to oral preparation of 600 mg given bid and the next day quinine was changed to oral chloroquine. The day after admission (30 hours after quinine administration, blood glucose dropped to 21 mg %, 16-46 mg % on day III, and to less than 10 mg % on day IV. It gradulty returned to normal afterwards. Administration of 10% dextrose and boluses of 40% glucose were able to keep the patient in good clinical condition and prevent death. Malaria slide improved on day III, became negative by day IV and serum bilirubin also decreased on follow up. Hypoglycemia should be expected in severe malaria

  11. Submicroscopic malaria parasite carriage: how reproducible are polymerase chain reaction-based methods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Camargos Costa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods for the diagnosis of malaria infection are expected to accurately identify submicroscopic parasite carriers. Although a significant number of PCR protocols have been described, few studies have addressed the performance of PCR amplification in cases of field samples with submicroscopic malaria infection. Here, the reproducibility of two well-established PCR protocols (nested-PCR and real-time PCR for the Plasmodium 18 small subunit rRNA gene were evaluated in a panel of 34 blood field samples from individuals that are potential reservoirs of malaria infection, but were negative for malaria by optical microscopy. Regardless of the PCR protocol, a large variation between the PCR replicates was observed, leading to alternating positive and negative results in 38% (13 out of 34 of the samples. These findings were quite different from those obtained from the microscopy-positive patients or the unexposed individuals; the diagnosis of these individuals could be confirmed based on the high reproducibility and specificity of the PCR-based protocols. The limitation of PCR amplification was restricted to the field samples with very low levels of parasitaemia because titrations of the DNA templates were able to detect < 3 parasites/µL in the blood. In conclusion, conventional PCR protocols require careful interpretation in cases of submicroscopic malaria infection, as inconsistent and false-negative results can occur.

  12. Submicroscopic malaria parasite carriage: how reproducible are polymerase chain reaction-based methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniela Camargos; Madureira, Ana Paula; Amaral, Lara Cotta; Sanchez, Bruno Antônio Marinho; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Fontes, Cor Jésus Fernandes; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de; Carvalho, Luzia Helena

    2014-02-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the diagnosis of malaria infection are expected to accurately identify submicroscopic parasite carriers. Although a significant number of PCR protocols have been described, few studies have addressed the performance of PCR amplification in cases of field samples with submicroscopic malaria infection. Here, the reproducibility of two well-established PCR protocols (nested-PCR and real-time PCR for the Plasmodium 18 small subunit rRNA gene) were evaluated in a panel of 34 blood field samples from individuals that are potential reservoirs of malaria infection, but were negative for malaria by optical microscopy. Regardless of the PCR protocol, a large variation between the PCR replicates was observed, leading to alternating positive and negative results in 38% (13 out of 34) of the samples. These findings were quite different from those obtained from the microscopy-positive patients or the unexposed individuals; the diagnosis of these individuals could be confirmed based on the high reproducibility and specificity of the PCR-based protocols. The limitation of PCR amplification was restricted to the field samples with very low levels of parasitaemia because titrations of the DNA templates were able to detect < 3 parasites/µL in the blood. In conclusion, conventional PCR protocols require careful interpretation in cases of submicroscopic malaria infection, as inconsistent and false-negative results can occur.

  13. Malaria in three epidemiological strata in Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouldabdallahi Moukah, Mohamed; Ba, Ousmane; Ba, Hampaté; Ould Khairy, Mohamed Lemine; Faye, Ousmane; Bogreau, Hervé; Simard, Frédéric; Basco, Leonardo K

    2016-04-12

    Malaria epidemiology in Mauritania has been characterized on the basis of epidemiological strata, defined by climatic and geographic features, which divide the country into three zones: Sahelian zone, Sahelo-Saharan transition zone, and Saharan zone. The association between geographic stratification and malaria transmission was assessed through a series of parasitological and entomological surveys. Surveys were conducted during the 'cool' dry season in 2011, 'hot' dry season in 2012, and rainy season in 2013 in a total of 12 sentinel sites. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were collected from children aged 2-9 years old in randomly selected households for microscopic examination and rapid diagnostic test for malaria. Adult mosquitoes were sampled by pyrethrum spray catch and CDC light traps and identified using morphological keys and molecular tools. Of 3445 children included, 143 (4.15 %) were infected with malaria parasites including Plasmodium falciparum (n = 71, 2.06 %), Plasmodium vivax (57, 1.65 %), P. falciparum-P. vivax (2, 0.06 %), Plasmodium ovale (12, 0.35 %), and Plasmodium malariae (1, 0.03 %). A large majority of P. falciparum infections were observed in the Sahelo-Saharan zone. Malaria prevalence (P Mauritania. However, the Sahelian zone had the lowest malaria prevalence, while the Sahelo-Saharan zone had the highest malaria burden. Local changes due to anthropogenic factors (i.e., human migration, urbanization, malaria interventions) should be considered in order to optimize the control strategy.

  14. Malaria treatment services in Nigeria: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin SC Uzochukwu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major Public Health problem in Nigeria and causes death and illness in children and adults, especially pregnant women. Malaria case management remains a vital component of the malaria control strategies. This entails early diagnosis and prompt treatment with effective antimalarial medicines. The objectives of this review is to enable health professionals to understand the magnitude of malaria treatment services in Nigeria, to improve knowledge for rational malaria management within different health system contexts with a view to improving access to malaria treatment. The review therefore looks at the following areas: clinical disease and epidemiology; the burden of malaria in Nigeria; objectives of treatment; antimalarial treatment policy; malaria diagnosis, treatment strategies/ National responses; treatment sources. The review concludes that for improved malaria treatment services in Nigeria, there is an urgent need to develop adequate strategies that will ensure better access to medicines by getting evidence-based and effective medicines to the people who need them, whether by reducing their costs, promoting equity in access, improving their distribution, increasing their efficacy and acceptability, or slowing down the development of antimicrobial resistance.

  15. T-cell responses in malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L; Jakobsen, P H; Abu-Zeid, Y A

    1992-01-01

    Malaria is caused by infection with protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. It remains one of the most severe health problems in tropical regions of the world, and the rapid spread of resistance to drugs and insecticides has stimulated intensive research aimed at the development of a malaria...... vaccine. Despite this, no efficient operative vaccine is currently available. A large amount of information on T-cell responses to malaria antigens has been accumulated, concerning antigens derived from all stages of the parasite life cycle. The present review summarizes some of that information......, and discusses factors affecting the responses of T cells to malaria antigens....

  16. [Malaria in Poland in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    There were 19 cases of malaria meeting European Union case definition for confirmed case registered in Poland in 2006. All of them were imported, including 1 case of relapse: 17 from Africa, 1 from Asia and 1 from Oceania. Species of Plasmodium was determined for 12 cases (68%): P. falciparum in 12 cases and P. vivax in one. There were 15 cases in males and 4 in females. Age at onset ranged from 17 to 59 years and a considerable number of cases occurred in persons 50 years old or older (5.26%). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries included tourism or family visits (10 cases) and professional or missionary travel (5 cases). Only four cases used chemoprophylaxis and the relevant information was missing in 4 cases. In two cases of malaria caused by Pl. falciparum the clinical course was severe and one of them died.

  17. [Malaria in Poland in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    There were 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition registered in Poland in 2008. All of them were imported, 13 cases (59%) from Africa, 3 from Asia, 5 from Oceania and 1 from South America. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed in 14 cases, P. vivax in 4 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and in 2 cases species of Plasmodium was undetermined. There were 13 cases in males and 9 in females. Age at onset ranged from 23 to 58 years and majority of cases were in the age group 25-40. Common reason for travel to endemic countries were tourism (11 cases) and work-related visits (7 cases). Clinical course was severe in 6 cases of P. falciparum malaria and 1 person died because of the disease. Nine cases used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 6 cases.

  18. Malaria in penguins - current perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, M L; Vanstreels, R E T; Wallace, R; García-Párraga, D; Braga, É M; Chitty, J; Catão-Dias, J L; Madeira de Carvalho, L M

    2016-08-01

    Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by protozoans of the genus Plasmodium, and it is considered one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in captive penguins, both in zoological gardens and rehabilitation centres. Penguins are known to be highly susceptible to this disease, and outbreaks have been associated with mortality as high as 50-80% of affected captive populations within a few weeks. The disease has also been reported in wild penguin populations, however, its impacts on the health and fitness of penguins in the wild is not clear. This review provides an overview of the aetiology, life cycle and epidemiology of avian malaria, and provides details on the strategies that can be employed for the diagnostic, treatment and prevention of this disease in captive penguins, discussing possible directions for future research.

  19. Gene targeting in malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, R; Janse, C

    1997-10-01

    Gene targeting, which permits alteration of a chosen gene in a predetermined way by homologous recombination, is an emerging technology in malaria research. Soon after the development of techniques for stable transformation of red blood cell stages of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei, genes of interest were disrupted in the two species. The main limitations of gene targeting in malaria parasites result from the intracellular growth and slow replication of these parasites. On the other hand, the technology is facilitated by the very high rate of homologous recombination following transformation with targeting constructs (approximately 100%). Here, we describe (i) the vector design and the type of mutation that may be generated in a target locus, (ii) the selection and screening strategies that can be used to identify clones with the desired modification, and (iii) the protocol that was used for disrupting the circumsporozoite protein (CS) and thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) genes of P. berghei.

  20. PENENTUAN VEKTOR MALARIA DI FLORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harijani A. Marwoto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A field study on entomology has been conducted in 6 villages which were located in coastal and in-land areas of Sikka Regency of Central Flores since April 1990 - October 1991. The results of this study showed that the suspected malaria vectors in those areas were An. sundaicus, An. subpictus, An. barbirostris, An. aconitus and An. maculatus. Only 3 species were confirmed as vector using ELISA test, i.e. An. sundaicus, An. barbirostris and An. subpictus with sporosoite rates of 4.2%, 2.1% and 0.1% respectively. An. aconitus, a potential malaria vector in Java and in some onther places was not confirmed as vector in Flores yet. The 3 confirmed vectors were also found positive with sporozoites in West Flores and also found predominant in East Flores.

  1. On Prerequisites of Interpreters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文

    2006-01-01

    Interpreters are invariably playing a crucial role in international affairs. Those who regularly read pictorials or watch TV news programs know best why interpreters are always placed between two leaders. That is because interpreters are indispensable if any two VIPs aim to achieve further understanding, to eliminate bilateral distrust or even establish alliance with each other, a fact may partly account for why so many students are swarming into translation schools. Are they able to become interpreters? What are the prerequisites for an interpreter? This article will, taking into operative factors as complete as possible, provide a basic framework under which prerequisites of interpreters are structured.

  2. IDOMAL: an ontology for malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topalis Pantelis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ontologies are rapidly becoming a necessity for the design of efficient information technology tools, especially databases, because they permit the organization of stored data using logical rules and defined terms that are understood by both humans and machines. This has as consequence both an enhanced usage and interoperability of databases and related resources. It is hoped that IDOMAL, the ontology of malaria will prove a valuable instrument when implemented in both malaria research and control measures. Methods The OBOEdit2 software was used for the construction of the ontology. IDOMAL is based on the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO and follows the rules set by the OBO Foundry consortium. Results The first version of the malaria ontology covers both clinical and epidemiological aspects of the disease, as well as disease and vector biology. IDOMAL is meant to later become the nucleation site for a much larger ontology of vector borne diseases, which will itself be an extension of a large ontology of infectious diseases (IDO. The latter is currently being developed in the frame of a large international collaborative effort. Conclusions IDOMAL, already freely available in its first version, will form part of a suite of ontologies that will be used to drive IT tools and databases specifically constructed to help control malaria and, later, other vector-borne diseases. This suite already consists of the ontology described here as well as the one on insecticide resistance that has been available for some time. Additional components are being developed and introduced into IDOMAL.

  3. PENGOBATAN MALARIA DENGAN KOMBINASI ARTEMISININ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilianan Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous approaches in malaria treatment fail to reduce the morbidity and mortality of malaria. Widespread overuse of antimalarial treatment of clinical malaria may have contributed to increase drug resistance. Moreover, poor compliance or inadequate dosage also selects for parasite resistance. The paradigm of radical treatment using drug combinations may improve the cure rate and compliance, thereby preventing or delaying the emergence of parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs. The ideal combined antimalarial regimen in Indonesia should be safe and tolerated by all age groups, effective and rapidly acting for both P.falciparum and P.vivax malaria, short course, good compliance and acceptable, without resistance and/or cross-resistance or , not widely spread use, cost-effective and affordable. Artemisinin derivatives are the best partner drug for combination, with advantages that include: well absorbed, safe and well tolerated, rapidly converted to active metabolite, having very short half-life, broad specificity of action, and extremely potent. Current artemisinin-based combinations which are suitable for Indonesia include: amodiaquine plus artesunate given as single daily dose for 3 days (AQ3+ATS3, mefloquine plus artesunate given as single daily dose for 3 days (MQ3+ATS3, lumefantrine/benflumetol plus artemether given as twice daily dose for 3 days (COARTEMETHER, piperaquine plus dihydroartemisinin given as single daily dose for 2-3 days (PPQ2-3+DHA2-3, and piperaquine plus artemisinin given as single daily dose for 2 days (PPQ2+ATM2. Given the imbalance between rapid development of parasite resistance and slow availability of new effective antimalarial drugs, research and development of antimalarial drugs must be encouraged.

  4. Nifs and Sufs in malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, K E; Clough, B; Saldanha, J W; Wilson, R J

    2001-09-01

    This review assembles data from three bodies of literature (bacterial genetics, plastid biogenesis and parasitology) that seldom have much direct cross-talk. After overcoming terminological complications to sort out microbial nifS from sufS genes, we connect a bacterial operon, recently found to be involved in iron metabolism, the formation of [Fe-S] clusters and oxidative stress to a potentially important gene (sufB) carried on the degenerate plastid genome of malaria and related parasites.

  5. PENGOBATAN MALARIA DENGAN KOMBINASI ARTEMISININ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilianan Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous approaches in malaria treatment fail to reduce the morbidity and mortality of malaria. Widespread overuse of antimalarial treatment of clinical malaria may have contributed to increase drug resistance. Moreover, poor compliance or inadequate dosage also selects for parasite resistance. The paradigm of radical treatment using drug combinations may improve the cure rate and compliance, thereby preventing or delaying the emergence of parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs. The ideal combined antimalarial regimen in Indonesia should be safe and tolerated by all age groups, effective and rapidly acting for both P.falciparum and P.vivax malaria, short course, good compliance and acceptable, without resistance and/or cross-resistance or , not widely spread use, cost-effective and affordable. Artemisinin derivatives are the best partner drug for combination, with advantages that include: well absorbed, safe and well tolerated, rapidly converted to active metabolite, having very short half-life, broad specificity of action, and extremely potent. Current artemisinin-based combinations which are suitable for Indonesia include: amodiaquine plus artesunate given as single daily dose for 3 days (AQ3+ATS3, mefloquine plus artesunate given as single daily dose for 3 days (MQ3+ATS3, lumefantrine/benflumetol plus artemether given as twice daily dose for 3 days (COARTEMETHER, piperaquine plus dihydroartemisinin given as single daily dose for 2-3 days (PPQ2-3+DHA2-3, and piperaquine plus artemisinin given as single daily dose for 2 days (PPQ2+ATM2. Given the imbalance between rapid development of parasite resistance and slow availability of new effective antimalarial drugs, research and development of antimalarial drugs must be encouraged.

  6. The Malaria Problem: short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ebikeme

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is the world's most prevalent infectious disease, a major cause of mortality, and a barrier to social and economic development and growth in many countries throughout the world. Antimalarials represent an important part of strategy to curbing this debilitating disease. The spread of drug resistance is becoming increasingly important. To date, parasite resistance to all but one case of antimalarials exists in most endemic countries. Meaning, new drug to combat the disease are a priority.

  7. Self-diagnosis of malaria by travelers and expatriates: assessment of malaria rapid diagnostic tests available on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltha, Jessica; Gillet, Philippe; Heutmekers, Marloes; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Van Gompel, Alfons; Jacobs, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In the past malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for self-diagnosis by travelers were considered suboptimal due to poor performance. Nowadays RDTs for self-diagnosis are marketed and available through the internet. The present study assessed RDT products marketed for self-diagnosis for diagnostic accuracy and quality of labeling, content and instructions for use (IFU). Diagnostic accuracy of eight RDT products was assessed with a panel of stored whole blood samples comprising the four Plasmodium species (n = 90) as well as Plasmodium negative samples (n = 10). IFUs were assessed for quality of description of procedure and interpretation and for lay-out and readability level. Errors in packaging and content were recorded. Two products gave false-positive test lines in 70% and 80% of Plasmodium negative samples, precluding their use. Of the remaining products, 4/6 had good to excellent sensitivity for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum (98.2%-100.0%) and Plasmodium vivax (93.3%-100.0%). Sensitivity for Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae diagnosis was poor (6.7%-80.0%). All but one product yielded false-positive test lines after reading beyond the recommended reading time. Problems with labeling (not specifying target antigens (n = 3), and content (desiccant with no humidity indicator (n = 6)) were observed. IFUs had major shortcomings in description of test procedure and interpretation, poor readability and lay-out and user-unfriendly typography. Strategic issues (e.g. the need for repeat testing and reasons for false-negative tests) were not addressed in any of the IFUs. Diagnostic accuracy of RDTs for self-diagnosis was variable, with only 4/8 RDT products being reliable for the diagnosis of P. falciparum and P. vivax, and none for P. ovale and P. malariae. RDTs for self-diagnosis need improvements in IFUs (content and user-friendliness), labeling and content before they can be considered for self-diagnosis by the traveler.

  8. The efficiency of malaria chemoprophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Pappa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malaria is a highly contagious disease. According to WHO, malaria cases are expected to increase due to climate changes. Despite the eradication efforts, malaria still remains one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions. Many different antimalarial regimens are used , however resistance is emerging to many of themPurpose: This critical review was conducted, in order to respond to the following questions. A Which antimalarial regimen is most effective? B Which regimen is the safest for travelers in endemic regions? C Which regimen is best tolerated?Methodology: The literature research was conducted through the Internet. The Medline and Cinahl databases were used, as well as the search engines google, altavista and lycos. The research included articles that described clinical trials. The material was selected based on the aforementioned research questions and the chronological time limits.Results: Atovaquone/proguanil, tafenoquine, primaquine were the most effective regimens. Tafenoquine, as well as, primaquine have been related to hemolytic events in individuals with G6PD deficiency, gastrointestinal disorders, backache and flue-like syndrome. Doxycycline and mefloquine were related to gastrointestinal and neurological disorders. Those were the less tolerated regimens.Conclusions: Atovaquone/proguanil, tafenoquine, primaquine were the most effective regimens. As far as safety is concerned, tafenoquine and primaquine should not be prescribed to individuals with G6PD deficiency. All the regimens were considered well tolerated, however, in doxycycline and mefloquine trials were the most withdrawals due to adverse effects.

  9. [Microbiological diagnosis of imported malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrús, Diego; Carranza, Cristina; Manuel Ramos, José; Carlos Rodríguez, Juan; Rubio, José Miguel; Subirats, Mercedes; Ta-Tang, Thuy-Huong

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnosis of malaria is based on the combined and sequential use of rapid antigen detection tests (RDT) of Plasmodium and subsequent visualization of the parasite stained with Giemsa solution in a thin and thick blood smears. If an expert microscopist is not available, should always be a sensitive RDT to rule out infection by Plasmodium falciparum, output the result immediately and prepare thick smears (air dried) and thin extensions (fixed with methanol) for subsequent staining and review by an expert microscopist. The RDT should be used as an initial screening test, but should not replace microscopy techniques, which should be done in parallel. The diagnosis of malaria should be performed immediately after clinical suspicion. The delay in laboratory diagnosis (greater than 3 hours) should not prevent the initiation of empirical antimalarial treatment if the probability of malaria is high. If the first microscopic examination and RDT are negative, they must be repeated daily in patients with high suspicion. If suspicion remains after three negative results must be sought the opinion of an tropical diseases expert. Genomic amplification methods (PCR) are useful as confirmation of microscopic diagnosis, to characterize mixed infections undetectable by other methods, and to diagnose asymptomatic infections with submicroscopic parasitaemia.

  10. Automated detection of malaria pigment: feasibility for malaria diagnosing in an area with seasonal malaria in northern Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. de Langen; J. van Dillen; P. Witte; S. Mucheto; N. Nagelkerke; P. Kager

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility of automated malaria detection with the Cell-Dyn (R) 3700 (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA, USA) haematology analyser for diagnosing malaria in northern Namibia. METHODS From April to June 2003, all patients with a positive blood smear result and a subset of

  11. Determinan Kejadian Malaria di Wilayah Endemis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Hasyim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Kabupaten Lahat adalah salah satu wilayah endemis malaria di Sumatera Selatan dengan prevalensi 16,4% dan Annual Malaria Incidence 22,08. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui faktor risiko lingkungan dengan kejadian malaria. Faktor risiko lingkungan genangan air (breeding place berhubungan dengan kejadian malaria dengan nilai p= 0,000. Analisis multivariat menemukan determinan utama kejadian malaria adalah breeding place di sekitar rumah responden dengan odds ratio (OR = 5,034 dan 95% CI = 2,65 _ 9,56. Responden yang tinggal di sekitar breeding place berisiko 5,03 kali lebih besar untuk menderita malaria dibandingkan dengan responden yang di sekitar rumah tidak terdapat breeding place setelah dikontrol variabel jarak rumah ke breeding place, ventilasi rumah, penggunaan kelambu, penggunaan obat anti nyamuk, dan kebiasaan keluar rumah pada malam hari. Lahat district is one of the malaria endemic area in South Sumatra Province with a prevalence of 16.4% and Annual Malaria Incidence of 22.08. The case control reports were carried out of 240 respondents. This study aimed to understand the relationship among of environmental risk factors with the incidence of malaria. After primary data collection followed by processing and data analysis in a multimedia laboratory. There was association between breeding place and malaria cases (p value= 0.000. The results of multivariate analysis of variables revealed the determinant risk was breeding place, with OR = 5.034 and CI 95%= 2.65 _ 9.56. Respondents who live around the breeding place has 5.034 times chance of affected malaria compared with respondents around the house there are no breeding place after the controlled distance to the breeding place house, use of mosquito nets, use of anti-mosquito, and habits out of the house at night variables.

  12. Climate, environment and transmission of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossati, Antonella; Bargiacchi, Olivia; Kroumova, Vesselina; Zaramella, Marco; Caputo, Annamaria; Garavelli, Pietro Luigi

    2016-06-01

    Malaria, the most common parasitic disease in the world, is transmitted to the human host by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. The transmission of malaria requires the interaction between the host, the vector and the parasite.The four species of parasites responsible for human malaria are Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium vivax. Occasionally humans can be infected by several simian species, like Plasmodium knowlesi, recognised as a major cause of human malaria in South-East Asia since 2004. While P. falciparum is responsible for most malaria cases, about 8% of estimated cases globally are caused by P. vivax. The different Plasmodia are not uniformly distributed although there are areas of species overlap. The life cycle of all species of human malaria parasites is characterised by an exogenous sexual phase in which multiplication occurs in several species of Anopheles mosquitoes, and an endogenous asexual phase in the vertebrate host. The time span required for mature oocyst development in the salivary glands is quite variable (7-30 days), characteristic of each species and influenced by ambient temperature. The vector Anopheles includes 465 formally recognised species. Approximately 70 of these species have the capacity to transmit Plasmodium spp. to humans and 41 are considered as dominant vector capable of transmitting malaria. The intensity of transmission is dependent on the vectorial capacity and competence of local mosquitoes. An efficient system for malaria transmission needs strong interaction between humans, the ecosystem and infected vectors. Global warming induced by human activities has increased the risk of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Recent decades have witnessed changes in the ecosystem and climate without precedent in human history although the emphasis in the role of temperature on the epidemiology of malaria has given way to predisposing conditions such as ecosystem changes, political

  13. Climate change and the global malaria recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gething, Peter W; Smith, David L; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Snow, Robert W; Hay, Simon I

    2010-05-20

    The current and potential future impact of climate change on malaria is of major public health interest. The proposed effects of rising global temperatures on the future spread and intensification of the disease, and on existing malaria morbidity and mortality rates, substantively influence global health policy. The contemporary spatial limits of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and its endemicity within this range, when compared with comparable historical maps, offer unique insights into the changing global epidemiology of malaria over the last century. It has long been known that the range of malaria has contracted through a century of economic development and disease control. Here, for the first time, we quantify this contraction and the global decreases in malaria endemicity since approximately 1900. We compare the magnitude of these changes to the size of effects on malaria endemicity proposed under future climate scenarios and associated with widely used public health interventions. Our findings have two key and often ignored implications with respect to climate change and malaria. First, widespread claims that rising mean temperatures have already led to increases in worldwide malaria morbidity and mortality are largely at odds with observed decreasing global trends in both its endemicity and geographic extent. Second, the proposed future effects of rising temperatures on endemicity are at least one order of magnitude smaller than changes observed since about 1900 and up to two orders of magnitude smaller than those that can be achieved by the effective scale-up of key control measures. Predictions of an intensification of malaria in a warmer world, based on extrapolated empirical relationships or biological mechanisms, must be set against a context of a century of warming that has seen marked global declines in the disease and a substantial weakening of the global correlation between malaria endemicity and climate.

  14. Associations between maternal helminth and malaria infections in pregnancy, and clinical malaria in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Lule, Swaib

    2013-01-01

    Background. Helminth and malaria coinfections are common in the tropics. We investigated the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to these parasites might influence susceptibility to infections such as malaria in childhood.Methods. In a birth cohort of 2,345 mother-child pairs in Uganda, maternal...... helminth and malaria infection status was determined during pregnancy, and childhood malaria episodes recorded from birth to age five years. We examined associations between maternal infections and malaria in the offspring.Results. Common maternal infections were hookworm (45%), Mansonella perstans (21......%), Schistosoma mansoni (18%), and Plasmodium falciparum (11%). At age 5 years, 69% of the children were still under follow-up. The incidence of malaria was 34 episodes per 100 child-years, and the mean prevalence of asymptomatic malaria at annual visits was 5.4%. Maternal hookworm and M. perstans infections were...

  15. On court interpreters' visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    This paper is part of the initial stage of a larger empirical research project on court interpreting seen as a complex interaction between (at least) three co-participants. The empirical material consists of recordings of interpreted interrogations in court room settings and questionnaires filled...... of the service they receive. Ultimately, the findings will be used for training purposes. Future - and, for that matter, already practising - interpreters as well as the professional users of interpreters ought to take the reality of the interpreters' work in practice into account when assessing the quality...... of the service rendered/received. The paper presents a small-scale case study based on an interpreted witness interrogation. Recent research on the interpreter's role has shown that interpreters across all settings perceive themselves as "visible" (Angelelli 2003, 2004). This has led us to focus...

  16. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  17. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  18. Genre and Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Despite the immensity of genre studies as well as studies in interpretation, our understanding of the relationship between genre and interpretation is sketchy at best. The article attempts to unravel some of intricacies of that relationship through an analysis of the generic interpretation carrie...

  19. Estimating individual exposure to malaria using local prevalence of malaria infection in the field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ally Olotu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity in malaria exposure complicates survival analyses of vaccine efficacy trials and confounds the association between immune correlates of protection and malaria infection in longitudinal studies. Analysis may be facilitated by taking into account the variability in individual exposure levels, but it is unclear how exposure can be estimated at an individual level. METHOD AND FINDINGS: We studied three cohorts (Chonyi, Junju and Ngerenya in Kilifi District, Kenya to assess measures of malaria exposure. Prospective data were available on malaria episodes, geospatial coordinates, proximity to infected and uninfected individuals and residence in predefined malaria hotspots for 2,425 individuals. Antibody levels to the malaria antigens AMA1 and MSP1(142 were available for 291 children from Junju. We calculated distance-weighted local prevalence of malaria infection within 1 km radius as a marker of individual's malaria exposure. We used multivariable modified Poisson regression model to assess the discriminatory power of these markers for malaria infection (i.e. asymptomatic parasitaemia or clinical malaria. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to assess the discriminatory power of the models. Local malaria prevalence within 1 km radius and AMA1 and MSP1(142 antibodies levels were independently associated with malaria infection. Weighted local malaria prevalence had an area under ROC curve of 0.72 (95%CI: 0.66-0.73, 0.71 (95%CI: 0.69-0.73 and 0.82 (95%CI: 0.80-0.83 among cohorts in Chonyi, Junju and Ngerenya respectively. In a small subset of children from Junju, a model incorporating weighted local malaria prevalence with AMA1 and MSP1(142 antibody levels provided an AUC of 0.83 (95%CI: 0.79-0.88. CONCLUSION: We have proposed an approach to estimating the intensity of an individual's malaria exposure in the field. The weighted local malaria prevalence can be used as individual marker of

  20. Seasonal intermittent preventive treatment for the prevention of anaemia and malaria in Ghanaian children: a randomized, placebo controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kweku

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria and anaemia are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children in sub-Saharan Africa. We have investigated the effect of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine or artesunate plus amodiaquine on anaemia and malaria in children in an area of intense, prolonged, seasonal malaria transmission in Ghana. METHODS: 2451 children aged 3-59 months from 30 villages were individually randomised to receive placebo or artesunate plus amodiaquine (AS+AQ monthly or bimonthly, or sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP bimonthly over a period of six months. The primary outcome measures were episodes of anaemia (Hb1 year old when they received IPTc compared to the placebo group. However the incidence of malaria in the post intervention period was higher in children who were <1 year old when they received AS+AQ monthly compared to the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: IPTc is safe and efficacious in reducing the burden of malaria in an area of Ghana with a prolonged, intense malaria transmission season. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00119132.

  1. Malaria deaths in a rural hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were 41 deaths from malaria in this time period, which was many more than for the previous three years. .... Most deaths occurred during the peak .... and asked to sleep over at the clinic that night. ... patterns of malaria in endemic and.

  2. KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF MALARIA PREVENTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study that utilized a ... Use of mosquito net as protective measure against mosquito bites in the last 12 ... chemoprophylaxis against malaria (7, 10). .... Source of information about how to avoid getting malaria (n=452)* ... children under five years as being highly vulnerable to.

  3. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boubidi, Saïd C; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  4. Congenital Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Melissa; Szymanski, Ann Marie; Slovin, Ariella; Wong, Edward C C; DeBiasi, Roberta L

    2017-01-11

    Congenital malaria is rare in the United States, but is an important diagnosis to consider when evaluating febrile infants. Herein, we describe a case of congenital Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a 2-week-old infant born in the United States to a mother who had emigrated from Nigeria 3 months before delivery. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Insecticide Resistance Reducing Effectiveness of Malaria Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-01-24

    Malaria prevention is increasingly insecticide based. Dr. John Gimnig, an entomologist with the Division of Parasitic Diseases, CDC, discusses evidence that mosquito resistance to insecticides, which is measured in the laboratory, could compromise malaria prevention in the field.  Created: 1/24/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/13/2007.

  6. Combining malaria control with rural electrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oria, Prisca A.

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1 presents the background information relevant to the subject matter and methods of this thesis. These include the application of social and behavioural sciences in malaria control, the SolarMal project and malaria in Kenya. It also presents the research objective, question and design that

  7. A research agenda for malaria eradication: vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulla, S.; Agre, P.; Alonso, P.L.; Arevalo-Herrera, M.; Bassat, Q.; Binka, F.; Chitnis, C.; Corradin, G.; Cowman, A. F.; Culpepper, J.; Portillo, H. del; Dinglasan, R.R.; Duffy, P.; Gargallo, D.; Greenwood, B.; Guinovart, C.; Hall, B.F.; Herrera, S.; Hoffman, S.; Lanzavecchia, A.; Leroy, O.; Levine, M.M.; Loucq, C.; Mendis, K.; Milman, J.; Moorthy, V.S.; Pleuschke, G.; Plowe, C.V.; Reed, S.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Saul, A.; Schofield, L.; Sinden, R.R.; Stubbs, J.; Villafana, T.; Wirth, D.; Yadav, P.; Ballou, R.; Brown, G.; Birkett, A.; Brandt, W.; Brooks, A.; Carter, T.; Golden, A.; Lee, C.; Nunes, J.; Puijalon, O.; Raphael, T.; Richards, H.; Warren, C.; Woods, C.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines could be a crucial component of efforts to eradicate malaria. Current attempts to develop malaria vaccines are primarily focused on Plasmodium falciparum and are directed towards reducing morbidity and mortality. Continued support for these efforts is essential, but if mal

  8. A research agenda for malaria eradication: vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    Vaccines could be a crucial component of efforts to eradicate malaria. Current attempts to develop malaria vaccines are primarily focused on Plasmodium falciparum and are directed towards reducing morbidity and mortality. Continued support for these efforts is essential, but if malaria vaccines are to be used as part of a repertoire of tools for elimination or eradication of malaria, they will need to have an impact on malaria transmission. We introduce the concept of "vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission" (VIMT), which includes not only "classical" transmission-blocking vaccines that target the sexual and mosquito stages but also pre-erythrocytic and asexual stage vaccines that have an effect on transmission. VIMT may also include vaccines that target the vector to disrupt parasite development in the mosquito. Importantly, if eradication is to be achieved, malaria vaccine development efforts will need to target other malaria parasite species, especially Plasmodium vivax, where novel therapeutic vaccines against hypnozoites or preventive vaccines with effect against multiple stages could have enormous impact. A target product profile (TPP) for VIMT is proposed and a research agenda to address current knowledge gaps and develop tools necessary for design and development of VIMT is presented.

  9. Rodent malaria parasites : genome organization & comparative genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Taco W.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the genome organization of rodent malaria parasites (RMPs) and compare the organization and gene content of the genomes of RMPs and the human malaria parasite P. falciparum. The release of the complete genome sequence of P. falciparu

  10. Rodent malaria parasites : genome organization & comparative genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Taco W.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the genome organization of rodent malaria parasites (RMPs) and compare the organization and gene content of the genomes of RMPs and the human malaria parasite P. falciparum. The release of the complete genome sequence of P.

  11. determination of some haematological parameters in malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Health Technology, Jahun, ... that malaria parasites may have effect on some haematological parameters. ... study is to assess the effects of malaria parasites on some haematological parameters in Sokoto ..... Children in Rural Muea, Cameroom.

  12. Malaria vector control: current and future strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The recently announced call for malaria eradication represents a new page in the history of this disease. This has been triggered by remarkable reductions in malaria resulting from combined application of effective drugs and vector control. However, this strategy is threatened by development of inse

  13. THE DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIA IN ILORIN, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Falciparium malaria is the commonest malaria based on clinical ground alone is cause of ... while species other than Plasmodium should be confirmed by laboratory tests. falciparium ... However, microscopy is labour intensive and ... version 6.0 computers for analysis. Test of ... limitation of the study was the cost of the kit.

  14. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria. PMID:20113565

  15. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boubidi, Saïd C; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  16. Combining malaria control with rural electrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oria, Prisca A.

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1 presents the background information relevant to the subject matter and methods of this thesis. These include the application of social and behavioural sciences in malaria control, the SolarMal project and malaria in Kenya. It also presents the research objective, question and design that i

  17. Combining malaria control with rural electrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oria, Prisca A.

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1 presents the background information relevant to the subject matter and methods of this thesis. These include the application of social and behavioural sciences in malaria control, the SolarMal project and malaria in Kenya. It also presents the research objective, question and design that i

  18. Malaria in pregnancy: ultrasound studies of fetal growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria has been a plague for human mankind. Each year roughly 125 million pregnancies are at risk for malaria infection. This thesis demonstrates the detrimental effects of malaria in pregnancy on the mother and the baby. To determine the effects of malaria in pregnancy on birth outcomes, accurate

  19. Hitting Hotspots: Spatial Targeting of Malaria for Control and Elimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousema, T.; Griffin, J.T.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Smith, D.L.; Churcher, T.S.; Takken, W.; Ghani, A.; Drakeley, C.; Gosling, R.

    2012-01-01

    Current malaria elimination guidelines are based on the concept that malaria transmission becomes heterogeneous in the later phases of malaria elimination [1]. In the pre-elimination and elimination phases, interventions have to be targeted to entire villages or towns with higher malaria incidence

  20. Hitting Hotspots: Spatial Targeting of Malaria for Control and Elimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousema, T.; Griffin, J.T.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Smith, D.L.; Churcher, T.S.; Takken, W.; Ghani, A.; Drakeley, C.; Gosling, R.

    2012-01-01

    Current malaria elimination guidelines are based on the concept that malaria transmission becomes heterogeneous in the later phases of malaria elimination [1]. In the pre-elimination and elimination phases, interventions have to be targeted to entire villages or towns with higher malaria incidence u

  1. Hitting Hotspots: Spatial Targeting of Malaria for Control and Elimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousema, T.; Griffin, J.T.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Smith, D.L.; Churcher, T.S.; Takken, W.; Ghani, A.; Drakeley, C.; Gosling, R.

    2012-01-01

    Current malaria elimination guidelines are based on the concept that malaria transmission becomes heterogeneous in the later phases of malaria elimination [1]. In the pre-elimination and elimination phases, interventions have to be targeted to entire villages or towns with higher malaria incidence u

  2. Bayesian modelling of geostatistical malaria risk data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gosoniu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian geostatistical models applied to malaria risk data quantify the environment-disease relations, identify significant environmental predictors of malaria transmission and provide model-based predictions of malaria risk together with their precision. These models are often based on the stationarity assumption which implies that spatial correlation is a function of distance between locations and independent of location. We relax this assumption and analyse malaria survey data in Mali using a Bayesian non-stationary model. Model fit and predictions are based on Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation methods. Model validation compares the predictive ability of the non-stationary model with the stationary analogue. Results indicate that the stationarity assumption is important because it influences the significance of environmental factors and the corresponding malaria risk maps.

  3. Bayesian modelling of geostatistical malaria risk data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosoniu, L; Vounatsou, P; Sogoba, N; Smith, T

    2006-11-01

    Bayesian geostatistical models applied to malaria risk data quantify the environment-disease relations, identify significant environmental predictors of malaria transmission and provide model-based predictions of malaria risk together with their precision. These models are often based on the stationarity assumption which implies that spatial correlation is a function of distance between locations and independent of location. We relax this assumption and analyse malaria survey data in Mali using a Bayesian non-stationary model. Model fit and predictions are based on Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation methods. Model validation compares the predictive ability of the non-stationary model with the stationary analogue. Results indicate that the stationarity assumption is important because it influences the significance of environmental factors and the corresponding malaria risk maps.

  4. SIT for African malaria vectors: Epilogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Townson Harold

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As a result of increased support and the diligent application of new and conventional anti-malaria tools, significant reductions in malaria transmission are being accomplished. Historical and current evolutionary responses of vectors and parasites to malaria interventions demonstrate that it is unwise to assume that a limited suite of tools will remain effective indefinitely, thus efforts to develop new interventions should continue. This collection of manuscripts surveys the prospects and technical challenges for applying a novel tool, the sterile insect technique (SIT, against mosquitoes that transmit malaria. The method has been very successful against many agricultural pest insects in area-wide programs, but demonstrations against malaria vectors have not been sufficient to determine its potential relative to current alternatives, much of which will hinge ultimately upon cost. These manuscripts provide an overview of current efforts to develop SIT and identify key research issues that remain.

  5. Procalcitonin serum levels in tertian malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiwakata Collins B

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Procalcitonin (PCT is closely correlated with parasite burden and clinical outcome in falciparum malaria. The role of PCT in tertian malaria has not previously been investigated. Patients and methods PCT serum levels in 37 patients with tertian malaria were analysed. Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed and statistically correlated both to the initial PCT levels and during the course of the disease. Results PCT levels rose for one day after commencing treatment and declined thereafter. However, there was no significant correlation with parasite burden, clinical parameters, laboratory values, or the presence of semi-immunity. Before treatment, the majority of patients showed normal or slightly elevated PCT levels ( Conclusions There is a fundamental difference in the relationship of PCT with tertian malaria not seen in other infectious diseases in which elevated PCT levels have been observed. This suggests distinct pathophysiological pathways in malaria.

  6. Severe malaria - a case of fatal Plasmodium knowlesi infection with post-mortem findings: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Patricia

    2010-01-01

    study of knowlesi malaria will aid the interpretation of, often conflicting, information on malaria pathophysiology in humans.

  7. Pengendalian Malaria dalam Upaya Percepatan Pencapaian Target Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Rini Puji Lestari

    2012-08-01

    health official Malaria Center, and community leaders who observe malaria. Retrieval of data time is 10 – 16 April 2011 by in-depth interviews. It was found that malaria control programs have been implemented by the Departement of Health North Maluku Province, but have not been able to effectively reduce malaria morbidity. This is because malaria control is performed is not comprehensive. Handling is more directed to break the chain transmission to human, their habitats have not been touched up. Key words: Control of malaria, millennium development goals, malaria morbidity

  8. Important advances in malaria vaccine research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Jadhav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most widespread parasitic infection in Asian countries affecting the poor of the poor. In an effort to develop an effective vaccine for the treatment of malaria, various attempts are being made worldwide. If successful, such a vaccine can be effective for treatment of both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. This would also be able to avoid complications such as drug resistance, resistance to insecticides, nonadherence to the treatment schedule, and eventually high cost of treatment in the resource-limited settings. In the current compilation, the details from the literature were collected by using PubMed and Medline as search engines and searched for terms such as malaria, vaccine, and malaria treatment. This review collates and provides glimpses of the information on the recent malaria vaccine development. The reader will be taken through the historical perspective followed by the approaches to the malaria vaccine development from pre-erythrocytic stage vaccines, asexual stage vaccines, transmission blocking vaccines, etc. Looking at the current scenario of the malaria and treatment strategies, it is an absolute need of an hour that an effective malaria vaccine should be developed. This would bring a revolutionary breakthrough in the treatment modalities especially when there is increasing emergence of resistance to existing drug therapy. It would be of great purpose to serve those living in malaria endemic region and also for travelers which are nonimmune and coming to malaria endemic region. As infection by P. vivax is more prevalent in India and other Asian subcontinent and is often prominent in areas where elimination is being attempted, special consideration is required of the role of vaccines in blocking transmission, regardless of the stages being targeted. Development of vaccines is feasible but with the support of private sector and government organization in terms of regulatory and most importantly

  9. Mathematical Language / Scientific Interpretation / Theological Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodea Marcel Smilihon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The specific languages referred to in this presentation are: scientific language, mathematical language, theological language and philosophical language. Cosmological, scientific or theological models understood as distinct interpretations of a common symbolic language do not ensure, by such a common basis, a possible or legitimate correspondence of certain units of meaning. Mathematics understood as a symbolic language used in scientific and theological interpretation does not bridge between science and theology. Instead, it only allows the assertion of a rational-mathematical unity in expression. In this perspective, theology is nothing less rational than science. The activity of interpretation has an interdisciplinary character, it is a necessary condition of dialogue. We cannot speak about dialogue without communication between various fields, without passing from one specialized language to another specialized language. The present paper proposes to suggest this aspect.

  10. How well are malaria maps used to design and finance malaria control in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy A Omumbo

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rational decision making on malaria control depends on an understanding of the epidemiological risks and control measures. National Malaria Control Programmes across Africa have access to a range of state-of-the-art malaria risk mapping products that might serve their decision-making needs. The use of cartography in planning malaria control has never been methodically reviewed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An audit of the risk maps used by NMCPs in 47 malaria endemic countries in Africa was undertaken by examining the most recent national malaria strategies, monitoring and evaluation plans, malaria programme reviews and applications submitted to the Global Fund. The types of maps presented and how they have been used to define priorities for investment and control was investigated. RESULTS: 91% of endemic countries in Africa have defined malaria risk at sub-national levels using at least one risk map. The range of risk maps varies from maps based on suitability of climate for transmission; predicted malaria seasons and temperature/altitude limitations, to representations of clinical data and modelled parasite prevalence. The choice of maps is influenced by the source of the information. Maps developed using national data through in-country research partnerships have greater utility than more readily accessible web-based options developed without inputs from national control programmes. Although almost all countries have stratification maps, only a few use them to guide decisions on the selection of interventions allocation of resources for malaria control. CONCLUSION: The way information on the epidemiology of malaria is presented and used needs to be addressed to ensure evidence-based added value in planning control. The science on modelled impact of interventions must be integrated into new mapping products to allow a translation of risk into rational decision making for malaria control. As overseas and domestic funding diminishes

  11. [The ABCD of malaria prevention in pediatric travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberian, Griselda; Rosanova, M Teresa; Torroija, Cecilia; Praino, M Laura

    2014-10-01

    The development and spread of drug resistant malaria parasites, population and travelers movements to malaria zones have led to the resurgence of malaria as a global health problem. Estimates suggest that 660,000 deaths occur annually, mainly in infants, children and pregnant woman. Disease knowledge and protection against mosquito bites are the first line of defense against malaria. Malaria chemoprophylaxis adds to these measures, it must be evaluated based on the individual risk.

  12. Sustainable malaria control: transdisciplinary approaches for translational applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkholtz Lyn-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the adoption of the Global Malaria Action Plan, several countries are moving from malaria control towards elimination and eradication. However, the sustainability of some of the approaches taken may be questionable. Here, an overview of malaria control and elimination strategies is provided and the sustainability of each in context of vector- and parasite control is assessed. From this, it can be concluded that transdisciplinary approaches are essential for sustained malaria control and elimination in malaria-endemic communities.

  13. Response to diazepam in children with malaria-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikumi, M L; Muchohi, S N; Ohuma, E O; Kokwaro, G O; Newton, C R J C

    2008-12-01

    Malaria infection reduces the binding capacity of benzodiazepine receptors in mice. We studied the efficacy of diazepam terminating seizures in children with falciparum malaria. Diazepam stopped seizures in fewer patients with malaria parasitaemia (chi(2)=3.93, P=0.047) and those with clinical diagnosis of malaria (chi(2)=9.84, P=0.002) compared to those without. However malaria was not identified as an independent risk factor for diazepam's failure to stop seizures in children.

  14. Interpretation biases in paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulich, George; Freeman, Daniel; Shergill, Sukhi; Yiend, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Information in the environment is frequently ambiguous in meaning. Emotional ambiguity, such as the stare of a stranger, or the scream of a child, encompasses possible good or bad emotional consequences. Those with elevated vulnerability to affective disorders tend to interpret such material more negatively than those without, a phenomenon known as "negative interpretation bias." In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group comparison those with high levels of trait paranoia were negatively biased in their interpretations of ambiguous information relative to those with low trait paranoia, and this effect was most pronounced for material directly related to paranoid concerns. Together these data suggest that a negative interpretation bias occurs in those with elevated vulnerability to paranoia, and that this bias may be strongest for material matching paranoid beliefs. We conclude that content-specific biases may be important in the cause and maintenance of paranoid symptoms.

  15. Acceptability by community health workers in Senegal of combining community case management of malaria and seasonal malaria chemoprevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tine, Roger Ck; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndour, Cheikh T;

    2013-01-01

    Community case management of malaria (CCMm) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) are anti-malarial interventions that can lead to substantial reduction in malaria burden acting in synergy. However, little is known about the social acceptability of these interventions. A study was undertaken...... to assess whether combining the interventions would be an acceptable approach to malaria control for community health workers (CHWs).......Community case management of malaria (CCMm) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) are anti-malarial interventions that can lead to substantial reduction in malaria burden acting in synergy. However, little is known about the social acceptability of these interventions. A study was undertaken...

  16. Assessing the association of severe malaria infection and ABO blood groups in northwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailu Tadesse

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: There is lack of adequate information on the association between severe malaria and some human genetic markers like ABO blood types. The study was undertaken to evaluate the association between severe malaria infection and ABO blood types among febrile patients attending Felegeselam Health Center, northwestern Ethiopia. Methods: A total of 398 febrile patients were examined for malaria and tested for ABO blood groups in December 2011. The blood samples were collected by finger pricking, stained with Giemsa and slides were examined microscopically. ABO blood group was determined by agglutination test using agglutinating A and B monoclonal anti-sera together with parasite load count. Chi-square and ANOVA tests were used to assess the difference between frequencies and means, respectively. Results: Out of 398 acute febrile patients, 201 (50.5% were found to be infected with Plasmodium parasites. Of which 194 (48.74% and 7 (1.76% belong to Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, respectively. The distribution of ABO blood groups was O (46%, A (27.1%, B (23.1% and AB (3.8%. The percentage of severe malaria with respect to blood group A, B, AB and O was found to be 40, 34.1, 14.3 and 5.1%, respectively. The association of severe malaria with non 'O' blood types was statistically significant (χ2 = 31.246, p <0.01. Interpretation & conclusion: The present findings indicate that individuals with blood groups A, B and AB are more susceptible for severe malaria infection than blood group O.

  17. The historical distribution of main malaria foci in Spain as related to water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Arturo; García-Barrón, Leoncio; Vetter, Mark; Morales, Julia

    2014-08-06

    The possible connectivity between the spatial distribution of water bodies suitable for vectors of malaria and endemic malaria foci in Southern Europe is still not well known. Spain was one of the last countries in Western Europe to be declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1964. This study combines, by means of a spatial-temporal analysis, the historical data of patients and deceased with the distribution of water bodies where the disease-transmitting mosquitos proliferate. Therefore, data from historical archives with a Geographic Information System (GIS), using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method, was analyzed with the aim of identifying regional differences in the distribution of malaria in Spain. The reasons, why the risk of transmission is concentrated in specific regions, are related to worse socioeconomic conditions (Extremadura), the presence of another vector (Anopheles labranchiae) besides A. atroparvus (Levante) or large areas of water bodies in conditions to reproduce theses vectors (La Mancha and Western Andalusia). In the particular case of Western Andalusia, in 1913, the relatively high percentage of 4.73% of the surface, equal to 202362 ha, corresponds to wetlands and other unhealthy water bodies. These wetlands have been reduced as a result of desiccation policies and climate change such as the Little Ice Age and Global Climate Change. The comprehension of the main factors of these wetland changes in the past can help us interpret accurately the future risk of malaria re-emergence in temperate latitudes, since it reveals the crucial role of unhealthy water bodies on the distribution, endemicity and eradication of malaria in southern Europe.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about malaria in an urban community in south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Adedotun, O.A. Morenikeji , A.B. Odaibo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Oyo is an urban community in Oyo state of south-western Nigeria andit is holoendemic for malaria. Information was collected on the knowledge, attitudes and practices(KAP of inhabitants of Oyo town in relation to malaria.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 192 households with the aid of self- or researcher-administeredquestionnaires was carried out to identify factors associated with the disease in the area.Results: About 93.2% (n=192 of respondents recognized mosquito bites as the cause of malaria. Asmall proportion of children (13.7% and adults (5.3% received prompt treatment; however, moreadults (65.8% got correct dosage of antimalarials than children (38.7%. About 90% of suspectedmalaria cases in children and adults were first treated at home with local herbs or drugs, purchasedfrom medicine stores. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs was scarce as only 16.7% ofhouseholds used them for their children. Other reported malaria prevention methods include theuse of insecticides (79.7% and herbs (44.3%. In all, 17 (8.9% of households did not have screeningnets on their windows and 6.3% of 175 households with screening nets on their windows had rustyand torn nets. The level of education of heads of households was a strong predictor of positivemalaria-related KAP. Window types and environmental hygiene were associated with prevalenceof malaria in households.Interpretation & conclusion: The control of malaria cannot be achieved without full involvementof the affected communities; the available tools for control can only be effective and sustainable ifthe local communities are mobilized and empowered with knowledge. It is suggested that healtheducation campaigns be intensified; chemist shop-keepers and mothers being important targetgroups

  19. The Historical Distribution of Main Malaria Foci in Spain as Related to Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Sousa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible connectivity between the spatial distribution of water bodies suitable for vectors of malaria and endemic malaria foci in Southern Europe is still not well known. Spain was one of the last countries in Western Europe to be declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization (WHO in 1964. This study combines, by means of a spatial-temporal analysis, the historical data of patients and deceased with the distribution of water bodies where the disease-transmitting mosquitos proliferate. Therefore, data from historical archives with a Geographic Information System (GIS, using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW interpolation method, was analyzed with the aim of identifying regional differences in the distribution of malaria in Spain. The reasons, why the risk of transmission is concentrated in specific regions, are related to worse socioeconomic conditions (Extremadura, the presence of another vector (Anopheles labranchiae besides A. atroparvus (Levante or large areas of water bodies in conditions to reproduce theses vectors (La Mancha and Western Andalusia. In the particular case of Western Andalusia, in 1913, the relatively high percentage of 4.73% of the surface, equal to 202362 ha, corresponds to wetlands and other unhealthy water bodies. These wetlands have been reduced as a result of desiccation policies and climate change such as the Little Ice Age and Global Climate Change. The comprehension of the main factors of these wetland changes in the past can help us interpret accurately the future risk of malaria re-emergence in temperate latitudes, since it reveals the crucial role of unhealthy water bodies on the distribution, endemicity and eradication of malaria in southern Europe.

  20. The changing spectrum of severe falciparum malaria: a clinical study from Bikaner (northwest India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Kochar, S.K. Kochar, R.P. Agrawal, M. Sabir, K.C. Nayak, T.D. Agrawal, V.P. Purohit , R.P. Gupta

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Recently there were reports from all over India about changing spectrumof clinical presentation of severe malaria. The present study was planned to study the same in thenorthwest India.Methods: This prospective study was conducted on patients of severe malaria admitted in a classifiedmalaria ward of a tertiary care hospital in Bikaner, Rajasthan (northwest India during 1994 and 2001.It included adult patients of both sexes belonging to all age groups. The diagnosis of Plasmodiumfalciparum was confirmed by demonstrating asexual form of parasites in peripheral blood smear. Allpatients were treated with i.v./oral quinine. The specific complications were treated by standard WHOprotocol. The data for individual complications for both the years were analysed by applying chisquaretest.Results: In a prospective study in 1994 the spectrum of complication was dominated by cerebralmalaria (25.75% followed by jaundice (11.47%, bleeding tendencies (9.59%, severe anaemia(5.83%, shock (5.26%, Acute respiratory distress syndrome—ARDS (3.01%, renal failure (2.07%and hypoglycemia (2.07% whereas in 2001 it was dominated by jaundice (58.85% followed bysevere anaemia (26.04%, bleeding tendencies (25.52%, shock (10.94%, cerebral malaria (10.94%,renal failure (6.25%, ARDS (2.08% and hypoglycemia (1.56%. The sharp difference for presence ofjaundice and severe anaemia in 2001 and cerebral malaria in 1994 was statistically significant. Similarly,the important cause of mortality in 2001 was multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (71.10% withpredominant presentation of jaundice and renal failure, whereas in 1994, it was cerebral malaria (77.96%.Interpretation & conclusion: The observation of changing spectrum of severe malaria in this studyand a significant increase in presentation with jaundice as an important manifestation is highly essentialfor primary, secondary and tertiary level health care providers for proper diagnosis and management.

  1. Avian malaria in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoener, E R; Banda, M; Howe, L; Castro, I C; Alley, M R

    2014-07-01

    Avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium have the ability to cause morbidity and mortality in naïve hosts, and their impact on the native biodiversity is potentially serious. Over the last decade, avian malaria has aroused increasing interest as an emerging disease in New Zealand with some endemic avian species, such as the endangered mohua (Mohua ochrocephala), thought to be particularly susceptible. To date, avian malaria parasites have been found in 35 different bird species in New Zealand and have been diagnosed as causing death in threatened species such as dotterel (Charadrius obscurus), South Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus), mohua, hihi (Notiomystis cincta) and two species of kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Introduced blackbirds (Turdus merula) have been found to be carriers of at least three strains of Plasmodium spp. and because they are very commonly infected, they are likely sources of infection for many of New Zealand's endemic birds. The spread and abundance of introduced and endemic mosquitoes as the result of climate change is also likely to be an important factor in the high prevalence of infection in some regions and at certain times of the year. Although still limited, there is a growing understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of Plasmodium spp. in New Zealand. Molecular biology has played an important part in this process and has markedly improved our understanding of the taxonomy of the genus Plasmodium. This review presents our current state of knowledge, discusses the possible infection and disease outcomes, the implications for host behaviour and reproduction, methods of diagnosis of infection, and the possible vectors for transmission of the disease in New Zealand.

  2. A description of malaria-related knowledge, perceptions, and practices in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti: implications for malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Joseph; Eisele, Thomas P; Bennett, Adam; Johnson, Dawn; Macintyre, Kate

    2008-02-01

    A two-stage cluster survey (n = 200 households) was conducted in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti during the high malaria transmission season in November-December 2006. Knowledge, perceptions, and practices related to malaria were obtained from household representatives using a standardized questionnaire. Blood drops were obtained on filter paper from all household members more than one month of age (n = 714). Determinants of malaria infections and correct malaria-related knowledge were assessed using logistic regression. Respondents in households with more assets were significantly more likely than those in households with fewer assets to have correct malaria-related knowledge. Respondents from households with at least one malaria infection were less likely to have correct malaria-related knowledge. Older children (5-9 years of age) were shown to be at increased risk of malaria infection. Results suggest malaria control in Haiti should focus on enhanced surveillance and case management, with expanded information campaigns about malaria prevention and treatment options.

  3. Control of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Mohammed Baba; Hasan, Yahya Abu; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2015-10-01

    The most significant and efficient measures against Plasmodium knowlesi outbreaks are efficient anti malaria drug, biological control in form of predatory mosquitoes and culling control strategies. In this paper optimal control theory is applied to a system of ordinary differential equation. It describes the disease transmission and Pontryagin's Maximum Principle is applied for analysis of the control. To this end, three control strategies representing biological control, culling and treatment were incorporated into the disease transmission model. The simulation results show that the implementation of the combination strategy during the epidemic is the most cost-effective strategy for disease transmission.

  4. Imported submicroscopic malaria in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-Olivencia Germán

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Submicroscopic malaria (SMM can be defined as low-density infections of Plasmodium that are unlikely to be detected by conventional microscopy. Such submicroscopic infections only occasionally cause acute disease, but they are capable of infecting mosquitoes and contributing to transmission. This entity is frequent in endemic countries; however, little is known about imported SMM. The goals of this study were two-fold: a to know the frequency of imported SMM, and b to describe epidemiological, laboratorial and clinical features of imported SMM. Methods A retrospective study based on review of medical records was performed. The study population consisted of patients older than 15 years attended at the Tropical Medicine Unit of Hospital Carlos III, between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2007. Routinely detection techniques for Plasmodium included Field staining and microscopic examination through thick and thin blood smear. A semi-nested multiplex malaria PCR was used to diagnose or to confirm cases with low parasitaemia. Results SMM was diagnosed in 104 cases, representing 35.5% of all malaria cases. Mean age (IC95% was 40.38 years (37.41-43.34, and sex distribution was similar. Most cases were in immigrants, but some cases were found in travellers. Equatorial Guinea was the main country where infection was acquired (81.7%. Symptoms were present only in 28.8% of all SMM cases, mainly asthenia (73.3% of symptomatic patients, fever (60% and arthromialgias (53.3%. The associated laboratory abnormalities were anaemia (27.9%, leukopaenia (15.4% and thrombopaenia (15.4%. Co-morbidity was described in 75 cases (72.1%. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that imported SMM should be considered in some patients attended at Tropical Medicine Units. Although it is usually asymptomatic, it may be responsible of fever, or laboratory abnormalities in patients coming from endemic areas. The possibility of transmission in SMM has

  5. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  6. Making Tree Ensembles Interpretable

    OpenAIRE

    Hara, Satoshi; Hayashi, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    Tree ensembles, such as random forest and boosted trees, are renowned for their high prediction performance, whereas their interpretability is critically limited. In this paper, we propose a post processing method that improves the model interpretability of tree ensembles. After learning a complex tree ensembles in a standard way, we approximate it by a simpler model that is interpretable for human. To obtain the simpler model, we derive the EM algorithm minimizing the KL divergence from the ...

  7. Malaria-associated rubber plantations in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Kaewwaen, Wuthichai; Maneekan, Pannamas; Pimnon, Suntorn

    2013-01-01

    Rubber forestry is intentionally used as a land management strategy. The propagation of rubber plantations in tropic and subtropic regions appears to influence the economical, sociological and ecological aspects of sustainable development as well as human well-being and health. Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries are the world's largest producers of natural rubber products; interestingly, agricultural workers on rubber plantations are at risk for malaria and other vector-borne diseases. The idea of malaria-associated rubber plantations (MRPs) encompasses the complex epidemiological settings that result from interactions among human movements and activities, land cover/land use changes, agri-environmental and climatic conditions and vector population dynamics. This paper discusses apparent issues pertaining to the connections between rubber plantations and the populations at high risk for malaria. The following questions are addressed: (i) What are the current and future consequences of rubber plantations in Thailand and Southeast Asia relative to malaria epidemics or outbreaks of other vector-borne diseases? (ii) To what extent is malaria transmission in Thailand related to the forest versus rubber plantations? and (iii) What are the vulnerabilities of rubber agricultural workers to malaria, and how contagious is malaria in these areas?

  8. Radar Monitoring of Wetlands for Malaria Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin O.

    1997-01-01

    Malaria is perhaps the most serious human disease problem. It inflicts millions worldwide and is on the rise in many countries where it was once under control. This rise is in part due to the high costs, both economic and environmental, of current control programs. The search for more cost-effective means to combat malaria has focussed attention on new technologies, one of which is remote sensing. Remote sensing has become an important tool in the effort to control a variety of diseases worldwide and malaria is perhaps one of the most promising. This study is part of the malaria control effort in the Central American country of Belize, which has experienced a resurgence of malaria in the last two decades. The proposed project is a feasibility study of the use of Radarsat (and other similar radar systems) to monitor seasonal changes in the breeding sites of the anopheline mosquito, which is responsible for malaria transmission. We propose that spatial and temporal changes in anopheline mosquito production can be predicted by sensing where and when their breeding sites are flooded. Timely knowledge of anopheline mosquito production is a key factor in control efforts. Such knowledge can be used by local control agencies to direct their limited resources to selected areas and time periods when the human population is at greatest risk. Radar is a key sensor in this application because frequent cloud cover during the peak periods of malaria transmission precludes the use of optical sensors.

  9. Genre and Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Despite the immensity of genre studies as well as studies in interpretation, our understanding of the relationship between genre and interpretation is sketchy at best. The article attempts to unravel some of intricacies of that relationship through an analysis of the generic interpretation carried...... traits of an utterance will lead to a characterization of its individual, as well as its general characteristics. The article proceeds to describe three central concepts within genre studies that are applicable to generic interpretation: “horizon of expectation,” “world,” and the triad “theme-form-rhetoric...

  10. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G; Sanchez, Juan F; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2016-12-28

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s-2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005-2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine-primaquine for P. vivax Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination.

  11. Prevalence of Malaria Plasmodium in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonko, I. O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the prevalence of malaria caused by plasmodium between genders in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State located in the forest zone of southwestern Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2004. Blood film examination for malaria parasites in 708 patients; 366 males and 342 females. Microscopic examination of thick films techniques was employed for this study. Of the 708 (100% patients examined, 577 (81.5% were Plasmodium-positive. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 81.5% was noted in this study. Female subjects were more infected (42.4% than males (41.9% however, there was no significant difference in the sex of the subjects studied (p=0.05. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 86.9% was noted in samples collected in year 2003 than in other years studied. There was significant difference in the years under study (p=0.05. This study shows that a good percentage of people were infested by malaria Plasmodium. This could be attributed to lack of adequate accommodation and poor sanitary conditions in the area under study. Although several efforts have been made to effectively control the high incidence of malaria in Nigeria, these have been largely unsuccessful due to a number of reasons such as irrigated urban agriculture which can be the malaria vector’s breeding ground in the city, stagnant gutters and swamps in our environment where mosquitoes breed in millions, and lack of political will and commitment of the government in its disease management program, low awareness of the magnitude of malaria problem, poor health practices by individuals and communities and resistance to drugs. Therefore, future interventions in Nigeria should be directed toward controlling malaria in the context of a moderate transmission setting; thus, large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets or widespread use of indoor residual spraying may be less cost-effective than enhanced surveillance with effective case management or

  12. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E.; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G.; Sanchez, Juan F.; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s–2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005–2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine–primaquine for P. vivax. Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax. Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. PMID:27799639

  13. Malaria vaccine-is it still required? Are vaccine alternatives enough to achieve malaria control?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fsadni Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite ongoing continuous research towards developing a malaria vaccine, we have still not achieved this target and the malaria parasite continues to kill thousands, especially children in developing countries. However, current control methods have had good results in some countries. Can these control methods be enough or should people still keep hoping for a vaccine? Would eradication of malaria be a possibility if no vaccine remains available?

  14. Malaria infection has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassahun Alemu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination requires successful nationwide control efforts. Detecting the spatiotemporal distribution and mapping high-risk areas are useful to effectively target pockets of malaria endemic regions for interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify patterns of malaria distribution by space and time in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the monthly reports stored in the district malaria offices for the period between 2003 and 2012. Eighteen districts in the highland and fringe malaria areas were included and geo-coded for the purpose of this study. The spatial data were created in ArcGIS10 for each district. The Poisson model was used by applying Kulldorff methods using the SaTScan™ software to analyze the purely temporal, spatial and space-time clusters of malaria at a district levels. RESULTS: The study revealed that malaria case distribution has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable transmission areas. Most likely spatial malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR =197764.1, p<0.001. Significant spatiotemporal malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR=197764.1, p<0.001 between 2003/1/1 and 2012/12/31. A temporal scan statistics identified two high risk periods from 2009/1/1 to 2010/12/31 (LLR=72490.5, p<0.001 and from 2003/1/1 to 2005/12/31 (LLR=26988.7, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: In unstable malaria transmission areas, detecting and considering the spatiotemporal heterogeneity would be useful to strengthen malaria control efforts and ultimately achieve elimination.

  15. RISK FOR MALARIA IN UNITED STATES DONORS DEFERRED FOR TRAVEL TO MALARIA-ENDEMIC AREAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bryan; Steele, Whitney; Custer, Brian; Kleinman, Steven; Cable, Ritchard; Wilkinson, Susan; Wright, David

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Deferral for travel to malaria-endemic areas excludes many blood donors in the United States. Most transfusion-transmitted malaria is associated with lengthy residence in malaria-endemic areas rather than routine travel. This study compares the impact of existing deferral requirements to the risk that a presenting donor with malaria travel history harbors malaria parasites under current and hypothetical alternate regulations. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Deferred donors from six blood centers were sampled to estimate a national cohort of donors deferred annually for malaria travel to different geographic regions. Risk for malaria infection following travel to each region, and distribution of incubation periods for each malaria species were estimated for U.S. travelers. Region-specific travel risks were used to estimate the risk that a presenting blood donor with malaria travel might asymptomatically harbor malaria parasites at different intervals following return to the United States. RESULTS Travel to Africa presents risk for malaria infection >1000 times that of travel to malaria-endemic parts of Mexico, yet Mexico accounts for >10 times as many deferred donors. Shortening the deferral period from 12 to 3 months for travelers to Mexico increases the risk of collecting a contaminated unit by only 1 unit per 57 years (sensitivity analysis, 1 every 29 - 114 years), at annual gain of >56,000 donations. CONCLUSION This study provides the first systematic appraisal of the U.S. requirements for donor qualification regarding travel to malarial areas. Consideration should be given to relaxing the guidelines for travel to very low-risk areas such as Mexico. PMID:19903290

  16. Clinical and molecular aspects of malaria fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Miranda S; Gerald, Noel; McCutchan, Thomas F; Aravind, L; Kumar, Sanjai

    2011-10-01

    Although clinically benign, malaria fever is thought to have significant relevance in terms of parasite growth and survival and its virulence which in turn may alter the clinical course of illness. In this article, the historical literature is reviewed, providing some evolutionary perspective on the genesis and biological relevance of malaria fever, and the available molecular data on the febrile-temperature-inducible parasite factors that may contribute towards the regulation of parasite density and alteration of virulence in the host is also discussed. The potential molecular mechanisms that could be responsible for the induction and regulation of cyclical malaria fevers caused by different species of Plasmodium are also discussed.

  17. Management of imported malaria in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askling Helena H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this position paper, the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Study Group on Clinical Parasitology, summarizes main issues regarding the management of imported malaria cases. Malaria is a rare diagnosis in Europe, but it is a medical emergency. A travel history is the key to suspecting malaria and is mandatory in patients with fever. There are no specific clinical signs or symptoms of malaria although fever is seen in almost all non-immune patients. Migrants from malaria endemic areas may have few symptoms. Malaria diagnostics should be performed immediately on suspicion of malaria and the gold- standard is microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. A Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT may be used as an initial screening tool, but does not replace urgent microscopy which should be done in parallel. Delays in microscopy, however, should not lead to delayed initiation of appropriate treatment. Patients diagnosed with malaria should usually be hospitalized. If outpatient management is preferred, as is the practice in some European centres, patients must usually be followed closely (at least daily until clinical and parasitological cure. Treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria is either with oral artemisinin combination therapy (ACT or with the combination atovaquone/proguanil. Two forms of ACT are available in Europe: artemether/lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine. ACT is also effective against Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi, but these species can be treated with chloroquine. Treatment of persistent liver forms in P. vivax and P. ovale with primaquine is indicated after excluding glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. There are modified schedules and drug options for the treatment of malaria in special patient groups, such as children and pregnant women. The potential for drug interactions and the role of food in the

  18. Secreted HSP Vaccine for Malaria Prophylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0098 TITLE: Secreted HSP Vaccine for Malaria Prophylaxis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Natasa Strbo CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Secreted HSP Vaccine for Malaria Prophylaxis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATASA STRBO, M.D., D.SC NAME(S) AND E-M tzA UNIVERS]TY OF MTAMI 1600 NW 1OTH AVENUE ROOM...Here we developed malaria vaccine that relies on secreted gp96-lg chaperon-ing Plasmodium falciparum antigenic sporozoite proteins CSP and AMA1. The

  19. Vacuolar proton pumps in malaria parasite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Mitsuko; Yatsushiro, Shouki; Yamamoto, Akitsugu

    2003-08-01

    The malaria parasite is a unicellular protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium that causes one of the most serious infectious diseases for human beings. Like other protozoa, the malaria parasite possesses acidic organelles, which may play an essential role(s) in energy acquisition, resistance to antimalarial agents, and vesicular trafficking. Recent evidence has indicated that two types of vacuolar proton pumps, vacuolar H+-ATPase and vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase, are responsible for their acidification. In this mini-review, we discuss the recent progress on vacuolar proton pumps in the malaria parasite.

  20. Clinical malaria in African pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardají, Azucena; Sigauque, Betuel; Bruni, Laia; Romagosa, Cleofé; Sanz, Sergi; Mabunda, Samuel; Mandomando, Inacio; Aponte, John; Sevene, Esperança; Alonso, Pedro L; Menéndez, Clara

    2008-01-30

    There is a widespread notion, based on limited information, that in areas of stable malaria transmission most pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infection are asymptomatic. This study aim to characterize the clinical presentation of malaria in African pregnant women and to evaluate the adequacy of case management based on clinical complaints. A hospital-based descriptive study between August 2003 and November 2005 was conducted at the maternity clinic of a rural hospital in Mozambique. All women attending the maternity clinic were invited to participate. A total of 2,330 women made 3,437 eligible visits, 3129 were analysed, the remainder were excluded because diagnostic results were unavailable or they were repeat visits. Women gave a standardized clinical history and had a medical exam. Malaria parasitaemia and haematocrit in capillary blood was determined for all women with signs or symptoms compatible with malaria including: presence and history of fever, arthromyalgias, headache, history of convulsions and pallor. Outcome measure was association of malaria symptoms or signs with positive blood slide for malaria parasitaemia. In 77.4% of visits pregnant women had symptoms suggestive of malaria; 23% (708/3129) were in the first trimester. Malaria parasitaemia was confirmed in 26.9% (842/3129) of visits. Headache, arthromyalgias and history of fever were the most common symptoms (86.5%, 74.8% and 65.4%) presented, but their positive predictive values for malaria parasitaemia were low [28% (27-30), 29% (28-31), and 33% (31-35), respectively]. Symptoms suggestive of malaria were very frequent among pregnant women attending a rural maternity clinic in an area of stable malaria transmission. However, less than a third of them were parasitaemic. In the absence of microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests, a large proportion of women, including those in the first trimester of gestation, would be unnecessarily receiving antimalarial drugs, often those with unknown

  1. Clinical malaria in African pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aponte John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a widespread notion, based on limited information, that in areas of stable malaria transmission most pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infection are asymptomatic. This study aim to characterize the clinical presentation of malaria in African pregnant women and to evaluate the adequacy of case management based on clinical complaints. Methods A hospital-based descriptive study between August 2003 and November 2005 was conducted at the maternity clinic of a rural hospital in Mozambique. All women attending the maternity clinic were invited to participate. A total of 2,330 women made 3,437 eligible visits, 3129 were analysed, the remainder were excluded because diagnostic results were unavailable or they were repeat visits. Women gave a standardized clinical history and had a medical exam. Malaria parasitaemia and haematocrit in capillary blood was determined for all women with signs or symptoms compatible with malaria including: presence and history of fever, arthromyalgias, headache, history of convulsions and pallor. Outcome measure was association of malaria symptoms or signs with positive blood slide for malaria parasitaemia. Results In 77.4% of visits pregnant women had symptoms suggestive of malaria; 23% (708/3129 were in the first trimester. Malaria parasitaemia was confirmed in 26.9% (842/3129 of visits. Headache, arthromyalgias and history of fever were the most common symptoms (86.5%, 74.8% and 65.4% presented, but their positive predictive values for malaria parasitaemia were low [28% (27–30, 29% (28–31, and 33% (31–35, respectively]. Conclusion Symptoms suggestive of malaria were very frequent among pregnant women attending a rural maternity clinic in an area of stable malaria transmission. However, less than a third of them were parasitaemic. In the absence of microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests, a large proportion of women, including those in the first trimester of gestation, would be

  2. Clinical malaria case definition and malaria attributable fraction in the highlands of western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrane, Yaw A; Zhou, Guofa; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2014-10-15

    In African highland areas where endemicity of malaria varies greatly according to altitude and topography, parasitaemia accompanied by fever may not be sufficient to define an episode of clinical malaria in endemic areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of malaria interventions, age-specific case definitions of clinical malaria needs to be determined. Cases of clinical malaria through active case surveillance were quantified in a highland area in Kenya and defined clinical malaria for different age groups. A cohort of over 1,800 participants from all age groups was selected randomly from over 350 houses in 10 villages stratified by topography and followed for two-and-a-half years. Participants were visited every two weeks and screened for clinical malaria, defined as an individual with malaria-related symptoms (fever [axillary temperature≥37.5°C], chills, severe malaise, headache or vomiting) at the time of examination or 1-2 days prior to the examination in the presence of a Plasmodium falciparum positive blood smear. Individuals in the same cohort were screened for asymptomatic malaria infection during the low and high malaria transmission seasons. Parasite densities and temperature were used to define clinical malaria by age in the population. The proportion of fevers attributable to malaria was calculated using logistic regression models. Incidence of clinical malaria was highest in valley bottom population (5.0% cases per 1,000 population per year) compared to mid-hill (2.2% cases per 1,000 population per year) and up-hill (1.1% cases per 1,000 population per year) populations. The optimum cut-off parasite densities through the determination of the sensitivity and specificity showed that in children less than five years of age, 500 parasites per μl of blood could be used to define the malaria attributable fever cases for this age group. In children between the ages of 5-14, a parasite density of 1,000 parasites per μl of blood could be used to define the

  3. The complexities of malaria disease manifestations with a focus on asymptomatic malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a serious parasitic disease in the developing world, causing high morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of malaria is complex, and the clinical presentation of disease ranges from severe and complicated, to mild and uncomplicated, to asymptomatic malaria. Despite a wealth of studies on the clinical severity of disease, asymptomatic malaria infections are still poorly understood. Asymptomatic malaria remains a challenge for malaria control programs as it significantly influences transmission dynamics. A thorough understanding of the interaction between hosts and parasites in the development of different clinical outcomes is required. In this review, the problems and obstacles to the study and control of asymptomatic malaria are discussed. The human and parasite factors associated with differential clinical outcomes are described and the management and treatment strategies for the control of the disease are outlined. Further, the crucial gaps in the knowledge of asymptomatic malaria that should be the focus of future research towards development of more effective malaria control strategies are highlighted. PMID:22289302

  4. Linguistics in Text Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....

  5. Acquiring specific interpreting competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zidar Forte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In postgraduate interpreter training, the main objective of the course is to help trainees develop various competences, from linguistic, textual and cultural competence, to professional and specific interpreting competence. For simultaneous interpreting (SI, the main focus is on mastering the SI technique and strategies as well as on developing and strengthening communicative skills, which is discussed and illustrated with examples in the present paper. First, a brief overview is given of all the necessary competences of a professional interpreter with greater emphasis on specific interpreting competence for SI. In the second part of the paper, various approaches are described in terms of acquiring specific skills and strategies, specifically through a range of exercises. Besides interpreting entire speeches, practical courses should also consist of targeted exercises, which help trainees develop suitable coping strategies and mechanisms (later on almost automatisms, while at the same time "force" them to reflect on their individual learning process and interpreting performance. This provides a solid base on which trained interpreters can progress and develop their skills also after joining the professional sphere.

  6. The history of 20th century malaria control in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean M; Gamboa, Dionicia; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2013-08-30

    Malaria has been part of Peruvian life since at least the 1500s. While Peru gave the world quinine, one of the first treatments for malaria, its history is pockmarked with endemic malaria and occasional epidemics. In this review, major increases in Peruvian malaria incidence over the past hundred years are described, as well as the human factors that have facilitated these events, and concerted private and governmental efforts to control malaria. Political support for malaria control has varied and unexpected events like vector and parasite resistance have adversely impacted morbidity and mortality. Though the ready availability of novel insecticides like DDT and efficacious medications reduced malaria to very low levels for a decade after the post eradication era, malaria reemerged as an important modern day challenge to Peruvian public health. Its reemergence sparked collaboration between domestic and international partners towards the elimination of malaria in Peru.

  7. Lymphocyte Perturbations in Malawian Children with Severe and Uncomplicated Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Wilson L; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gondwe, Esther N; Gilchrist, James J; Graham, Stephen M; Pensulo, Paul; Mwimaniwa, Grace; Banda, Meraby; Taylor, Terrie E; Molyneux, Elizabeth E; Drayson, Mark T; Ward, Steven A; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Calman A

    2015-11-18

    Lymphocytes are implicated in immunity and pathogenesis of severe malaria. Since lymphocyte subsets vary with age, assessment of their contribution to different etiologies can be difficult. We immunophenotyped peripheral blood from Malawian children presenting with cerebral malaria, severe malarial anemia, and uncomplicated malaria (n = 113) and healthy aparasitemic children (n = 42) in Blantyre, Malawi, and investigated lymphocyte subset counts, activation, and memory status. Children with cerebral malaria were older than those with severe malarial anemia. We found panlymphopenia in children presenting with cerebral malaria (median lymphocyte count, 2,100/μl) and uncomplicated malaria (3,700/μl), which was corrected in convalescence and was absent in severe malarial anemia (5,950/μl). Median percentages of activated CD69(+) NK (73%) and γδ T (60%) cells were higher in cerebral malaria than in other malaria types. Median ratios of memory to naive CD4(+) lymphocytes were higher in cerebral malaria than in uncomplicated malaria and low in severe malarial anemia. The polarized lymphocyte subset profiles of different forms of severe malaria are independent of age. In conclusion, among Malawian children cerebral malaria is characterized by lymphocyte activation and increased memory cells, consistent with immune priming. In contrast, there are reduced memory cells and less activation in severe malaria anemia. Further studies are required to understand whether these immunological profiles indicate predisposition of some children to one or another form of severe malaria. Copyright © 2016 Mandala et al.

  8. Mobile phone imaging and cloud-based analysis for standardized malaria detection and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Thomas F.; Gupta, Sparsh; Wright, David W.; Haselton, Frederick R.

    2016-06-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been widely deployed in low-resource settings. These tests are typically read by visual inspection, and accurate record keeping and data aggregation remains a substantial challenge. A successful malaria elimination campaign will require new strategies that maximize the sensitivity of RDTs, reduce user error, and integrate results reporting tools. In this report, an unmodified mobile phone was used to photograph RDTs, which were subsequently uploaded into a globally accessible database, REDCap, and then analyzed three ways: with an automated image processing program, visual inspection, and a commercial lateral flow reader. The mobile phone image processing detected 20.6 malaria parasites/microliter of blood, compared to the commercial lateral flow reader which detected 64.4 parasites/microliter. Experienced observers visually identified positive malaria cases at 12.5 parasites/microliter, but encountered reporting errors and false negatives. Visual interpretation by inexperienced users resulted in only an 80.2% true negative rate, with substantial disagreement in the lower parasitemia range. We have demonstrated that combining a globally accessible database, such as REDCap, with mobile phone based imaging of RDTs provides objective, secure, automated, data collection and result reporting. This simple combination of existing technologies would appear to be an attractive tool for malaria elimination campaigns.

  9. Pre-referral rectal artesunate in severe malaria: flawed trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premji Zulfiqarali G

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immediate injectable treatment is essential for severe malaria. Otherwise, the afflicted risk lifelong impairment or death. In rural areas of Africa and Asia, appropriate care is often miles away. In 2009, Melba Gomes and her colleagues published the findings of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of rectal artesunate for suspected severe malaria in such remote areas. Enrolling nearly 18,000 cases, the aim was to evaluate whether, as patients were in transit to a health facility, a pre-referral artesunate suppository blocked disease progression sufficiently to reduce these risks. The affirmative findings of this, the only trial on the issue thus far, have led the WHO to endorse rectal artesunate as a pre-referral treatment for severe malaria. In the light of its public health importance and because its scientific quality has not been assessed for a systematic review, our paper provides a detailed evaluation of the design, conduct, analysis, reporting, and practical features of this trial. Results We performed a checklist-based and an in-depth evaluation of the trial. The evaluation criteria were based on the CONSORT statement for reporting clinical trials, the clinical trial methodology literature, and practice in malaria research. Our main findings are: The inclusion and exclusion criteria and the sample size justification are not stated. Many clearly ineligible subjects were enrolled. The training of the recruiters does not appear to have been satisfactory. There was excessive between center heterogeneity in design and conduct. Outcome evaluation schedule was not defined, and in practice, became too wide. Large gaps in the collection of key data were evident. Primary endpoints were inconsistently utilized and reported; an overall analysis of the outcomes was not done; analyses of time to event data had major flaws; the stated intent-to-treat analysis excluded a third of the randomized subjects; the design

  10. Plasmodium falciparum malaria associated with ABO blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria associated with ABO blood phenotypes and ... out to investigate the relationship between blood group types and P. falciparum ... of long lasting treated (LLT) mosquito bed nets and the prevalence of infection.

  11. Global malaria connectivity through air travel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Zhuojie; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Air travel has expanded at an unprecedented rate and continues to do so. Its effects have been seen on malaria in rates of imported cases, local outbreaks in non-endemic areas and the global spread of drug resistance...

  12. Cerebral malaria: gamma-interferon redux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas H Hunt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are two theories that seek to explain the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria, the mechanical obstruction hypothesis and the immunopathology hypothesis. Evidence consistent with both ideas has accumulated from studies of the human disease and experimental models. Thus some combination of these concepts seems necessary to explain the very complex pattern of changes seen in cerebral malaria. The interactions between malaria parasites, erythrocytes, the cerebral microvascular endothelium, brain parenchymal cells, platelets and microparticles need to be considered. One factor that seems able to knit together much of this complexity is the cytokine interferon-gamma. In this review we consider findings from the clinical disease, in vitro models and the murine counterpart of human cerebral malaria in order to evaluate the roles played by interferon-gamma in the pathogenesis of this often fatal and debilitating condition.

  13. KEMUNGKINAN MALARIA PRIMATA SEBAGAI MASALAH ZOONOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Shinta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Until today, four species of Plasmodium are pedicular to inan {Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale and at least five species are common in simian: Plasmodium inue, P. cynomolgy, P. knowlesi, P. brasilianum and P. simium. There is little doubts that simian Plasmodium can infect man, it is known as zoonosis. Number of cases of zoonosis infection of simian Plasmodium have been reported from several countries; P. knowlesi (1965, in America, P. simium (1966 in Brazilia, P. inui (1971 in Pahang Malaysia, P. cynomolgi (1973 in America and P. Brazilianum in Sao Paulo (1966, 1995. While pro and contra about zoonotic malaria still not clearly discussed, the new cases have occurred. This give an indication that this zoor >tic malaria will probably be in Indonesia where human, primate, Plasmodium (agents and vector live in the same ecosystem. This paper will discuss the simian Plasmodium and its possibility to be a zoonotic malaria.

  14. NNDSS - Table II. Legionellosis to Malaria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Legionellosis to Malaria - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  15. Spatial outline of malaria transmission in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Barati; Hossein Keshavarz-valian; Majid Habibi-nokhandan; Ahmad Raeisi; Leyla Faraji; Abdoreza Salahi-moghaddam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To conduct for modeling spatial distribution of malaria transmission in Iran. Methods: Records of all malaria cases from the period 2008-2010 in Iran were retrieved for malaria control department, MOH&ME. Metrological data including annual rainfall, maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity, altitude, demographic, districts border shapefiles, and NDVI images received from Iranian Climatologic Research Center. Data arranged in ArcGIS. Results:Results: 99.65%of malaria transmission cases were focused in southeast part of Iran. These transmissions had statistically correlation with altitude (650 m), maximum (30℃), minimum (20℃) and average temperature (25.3℃). Statistical correlation and overall relationship between NDVI (118.81), relative humidity (≥45%) and rainfall in southeast area was defined and explained in this study. Conclusions: According to ecological condition and mentioned cut-off points, predictive map was generated using cokriging method.

  16. PATHOGENESIS OF MALARIA IN TISSUES AND BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Autino

    2012-10-01

    In the following pages, some of the pathogenetic aspects will be briefly reviewed and then data on selected and less frequent manifestation of severe malaria, such as liver or renal failure or ARDS will be discussed

  17. Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... 6Department of Parasitology, School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo .... blood cells (WBCs) was counted and parasite densities were com- .... within the limits of the malaria prevalence rate reports in.

  18. The Biological Control of the Malaria Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Kamareddine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The call for malaria control, over the last century, marked a new epoch in the history of this disease. Many control strategies targeting either the Plasmodium parasite or the Anopheles vector were shown to be effective. Yet, the emergence of drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant mosquito strains, along with numerous health, environmental, and ecological side effects of many chemical agents, highlighted the need to develop alternative tools that either complement or substitute conventional malaria control approaches. The use of biological means is considered a fundamental part of the recently launched malaria eradication program and has so far shown promising results, although this approach is still in its infancy. This review presents an overview of the most promising biological control tools for malaria eradication, namely fungi, bacteria, larvivorous fish, parasites, viruses and nematodes.

  19. Malaria in pregnancy: pathogenesis and immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogerson, Stephen J; Hviid, Lars; Duffy, Patrick E

    2007-01-01

    Understanding of the biological basis for susceptibility to malaria in pregnancy was recently advanced by the discovery that erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum accumulate in the placenta through adhesion to molecules such as chondroitin sulphate A. Antibody recognition of placental ...

  20. Malaria, desnutrición y parasitosis intestinal en los niños colombianos: interrelaciones interrrelations between malaria, malnutrition and intestinal parasitism in colombian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona Fonseca

    2004-09-01

    . lamblia (20%; 9 el estrés oxidativo se ha encontrado en los pacientes adultos de Turbo con malaria no complicada, ya sea vivax o falciparum, sin diferencia por especie. This paper reviews Colombian data as well as Grupo Malaria (Universidad de Antioquia findings on the relationship between malaria, malnutrition and immune response, observed in children (4-11 year old of Turbo, El Bagre and Zaragoza. These results and interpretations articulate with other studies about such relationships, including intestinal parasites. Emphasis is made on the association of malaria, intestinal parasites and malnutrition (chronic malnutrition, vitamin A deficit, that is explored through its articulation with the immune system. Clinical application (individual and epidemiological (collective recommendations are formulated towards vitamin A supplementation and use of wide spectrum antihelmintic therapy. In Turbo and El Bagre-Zaragoza: 1 malaria frequency during 1996-2000 registered annual parasite indexes of 39 (Turbo and 156 (El Bagre- Zaragoza; 2 chronic malnutrition risk (height/ age index was 63% in children aged 3-11; 3 anemia was observed in 26% of malaric children and in 17% of the non-malaric ones; 4 retinol was low (<0,3 µg/ml in 65% of children with malaria and in 35% of children without malaria; 5 apoprotein A-1 values were abnormally low in non-malaric children but they were lower in malaric children; 6 interleukin 10 levels were significantly higher in 96% of the malaric children (4-9 year old when compared to non-malaric children and to normal values; 7 total and specific anti-Plasmodium IgE and TNF-α were abnormally high in children of both municipalities; 8 among healthy teachers and nursing students aged 18-44, intestinal parasites were observed in 97%, while intestinal pathogenic parasites were detected in 42%. In 5 year old children of Turbo presence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was detected in 30-35%, with predominance of G. lamblia (20%; 9 oxidative stress was

  1. Coexistence of Malaria and Thalassemia in Malaria Endemic Areas of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuesap, Jiraporn; Chaijaroenkul, W.; Rungsihirunrat, K.; Pongjantharasatien, K.; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathy and malaria are commonly found worldwide particularly in malaria endemic areas. Thalassemia, the alteration of globin chain synthesis, has been reported to confer resistance against malaria. The prevalence of thalassemia was investigated in 101 malaria patients with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax along the Thai-Myanmar border to examine protective effect of thalassemia against severe malaria. Hemoglobin typing was performed using low pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC) and α-thalassemia was confirmed by multiplex PCR. Five types of thalassemia were observed in malaria patients. The 2 major types of thalassemia were Hb E (18.8%) and α-thalassemia-2 (11.9%). There was no association between thalassemia hemoglobinopathy and malaria parasitemia, an indicator of malaria disease severity. Thalassemia had no significant association with P. vivax infection, but the parasitemia in patients with coexistence of P. vivax and thalassemia was about 2-3 times lower than those with coexistence of P. falciparum and thalassemia and malaria without thalassemia. Furthermore, the parasitemia of P. vivax in patients with coexistence of Hb E showed lower value than coexistence with other types of thalassemia and malaria without coexistence. Parasitemia, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values in patients with coexistence of thalassemia other than Hb E were significantly lower than those without coexistence of thalassemia. Furthermore, parasitemia with coexistence of Hb E were 2 times lower than those with coexistence of thalassemia other than Hb E. In conclusion, the results may, at least in part, support the protective effect of thalassemia on the development of hyperparasitemia and severe anemia in malaria patients. PMID:26174819

  2. Malaria in India: The Center for the Study of Complex Malaria in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aparup; Anvikar, Anupkumar R.; Cator, Lauren J.; Dhiman, Ramesh C.; Eapen, Alex; Mishra, Neelima; Nagpal, Bhupinder N.; Nanda, Nutan; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Read, Andrew F.; Sharma, Surya K.; Singh, Om P.; Singh, Vineeta; Sinnis, Photini; Srivastava, Harish C.; Sullivan, Steven A.; Sutton, Patrick L.; Thomas, Matthew B.; Carlton, Jane M.; Valecha, Neena

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in India and one which contributes significantly to the overall malaria burden in Southeast Asia. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Program of India reported ~1.6 million cases and ~1100 malaria deaths in 2009. Some experts argue that this is a serious underestimation and that the actual number of malaria cases per year is likely between 9 and 50 times greater, with an approximate 13-fold underestimation of malaria-related mortality. The difficulty in making these estimations is further exacerbated by (i) highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, (ii) the transmission and overlap of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors, (iii) increasing antimalarial drug resistance and insecticide resistance, and (iv) the impact of climate change on each of these variables. Simply stated, the burden of malaria in India is complex. Here we describe plans for a Center for the Study of Complex Malaria in India (CSCMi), one of ten International Centers of Excellence in Malaria Research (ICEMRs) located in malarious regions of the world recently funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. The CSCMi is a close partnership between Indian and United States scientists, and aims to address major gaps in our understanding of the complexity of malaria in India, including changing patterns of epidemiology, vector biology and control, drug resistance, and parasite genomics. We hope that such a multidisciplinary approach that integrates clinical and field studies with laboratory, molecular, and genomic methods will provide a powerful combination for malaria control and prevention in India. PMID:22142788

  3. An application of cultural model to assess and compare malaria prevention among Afghani migrant and Baluchi resident in the endemic area, southeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahandeh, Kh; Basseri, H R; Sharifzadeh, Y

    2014-02-01

    To improve malaria control measures, taking into account local beliefs and practices are essential. In the present study, the PEN-3 culture model as a theoretical framework was employed to examine how health beliefs, behaviors and practices associated with malaria prevention in two communities, Afghani refugees and Bluchi residents in a malaria endemic area located in southeast of Iran. A mixed-methodology was designed by means of two quantitative surveys and qualitative focus groups. Cross-sectional survey using questionnaires combined with focus group discussions carried out by using a pre-coded questionnaire and eight qualitative focus groups were held. In total, 385 participants volunteered to take the cross-sectional survey, with 194 Afghanis, 191 Bluchis completing quantitative surveys and also 46 participated in the qualitative focus groups. Symptoms of malaria were the most frequently mentioned by both groups. A significant association between education level and knowledge on malaria transmission was also observed within both communities. Although the majority of respondents associated the disease transmission with mosquito bites only 16.5% Afghanis as compared to 63.4% Baluchis reported to use mosquito net. Data from focus group emerged three themes includes similarity in perception about malaria, difference in type of treatment and decision making and, finally resemblance to prevention of malaria in both communities. In the study, cultural differences in the recognition and interpretation of prevention and treatment of malaria within two communities were identified. Cultural match of Afghani and Baluchi perspective to malaria interventions and services will improve receptivity to, acceptance of, and salience of these efforts.

  4. STUDY OF RENAL FAILURE IN MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Pamappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal failure is a serious complication of malaria, with a mortality of 14 to 33%. In view of the significant morbidity and mortality due to acute renal failure in malaria, there is need to identify patients at an early stage and to intensify care given to reduce morbidity and mortality. AIMS  To evaluate the clinical profile of Acute Renal Failure (ARF in malaria.  To evaluate the factors associated with adverse outcome, relation of severity of renal impairment on final outcome in patients with ARF due to malaria. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital over a period of 12 months. STUDY DESIGN  Type of study: Prospective Analytical, Observational Study.  Sample Size: 50 patients admitted to ICU, Kidney Unit, and the Medicine Wards with Malaria and ARF. Inclusion Criteria Clinically screened patients with evidence of malarial parasites in the blood smears or by antigen detection with clinical features or biochemical evidence of acute renal failure. Exclusion Criteria  Presence of any disease or condition leading to ARF or affecting the outcome of malarial ARF.  Other causes of Fever, Jaundice and Oliguria, like Leptospirosis, Dengue. METHODOLOGY Fifty patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were interrogated with regards to the complaints, clinical signs. Blood tests were sent on admission. Details were recorded as per the clinical proforma. The patients were followed until their discharge/death. RESULTS Oliguria was present in only 30% of patients. 30% of patients received haemodialysis. The mortality was 12% for severe renal failure. On Univariate analysis, Acidosis and Cerebral malaria were highly significant predictors of mortality. Other significant predictors were Renal failure, Oliguria, Shock, DIC, Hyperparasitemia, Leukocytosis (TLC. On Multivariate analysis, Oliguria, Cerebral malaria, Acidosis, Shock and two or more complications were the independent predictors of mortality

  5. Molecular method for the diagnosis of imported pediatric malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaes Jeanne, L; Berry, A; Dutoit, E; Leclerc, F; Beaudou, J; Leteurtre, S; Camus, D; Benoit-Vical, F

    2010-02-01

    Malaria is a polymorphous disease; it can be life threatening especially for children. We report a case of imported malaria in a boy, illustrating the epidemiological and clinical aspects of severe pediatric malaria. In this case real-time PCR was used to quantify Plasmodium falciparum DNA levels, to monitor the evolution under treatment, and to determine genetic mutations involved in chloroquine resistance. The major epidemiological features of imported malaria, and the difficulty to diagnose childhood severe malaria are described. The contribution of molecular methods for the diagnosis of imported malaria is discussed.

  6. Working With Educational Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Brenda C

    2000-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students who are deaf or hard of hearing are being educated in their local schools. Accommodations frequently made for these students include the provision of educational interpreting services. Educational interpreters serve to equalize the source language or source communication mode (usually spoken English) with a target language or target mode (either sign language, cued speech, or oral transliterating). Educational interpreters' expertise in sign language or cued speech will likely exceed that of speech-language pathologists, whose expertise in speech and language development and in discourse demands of the classroom will likely exceed that of the educational interpreters. This article addresses the mutual needs of speech-language pathologists and educational interpreters in providing services to their students. Guidelines supported by recent research reports and survey data collected from interpreters are offered to speech-language pathologists as ways to improve the working relationships with educational interpreters in three areas: (a) evaluating a student's communication skills, (b) establishing treatment goals and intervening to meet those goals, and

  7. [Gestational malaria: HELLP syndrome mistaken diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Medina, Nayra Marizol; Velázquez Fonseca, Julián; Hernández Pacheco, José Antonio; Acevedo Tacuba, José Luis

    2008-05-01

    Malaria is one of the most important parasitic infections in Mexico and Latin America. Here we report a case of a 21 year-old female with 38.4 weeks of pregnancy and previous hospitalization due to malaria. Showing a thick drop negative test she was referred to Mexico City Hospital de la Mujer with presumptive diagnosis of preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome. During her stay in ICU she developed malarial paroxysm and Plasmodium vivax was identified, conducting to specific therapy.

  8. Perceptions of malaria and vaccines in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojakaa, David; Yamo, Emmanuel; Collymore, Yvette; Ba-Nguz, Antoinette; Bingham, Allison

    2011-10-01

    Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. To confront malaria, the Government of Kenya has been implementing and coordinating three approaches - vector control by distributing insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying, case management, and the management of malaria during pregnancy. Immunization is recognized as one of the most cost-effective public health interventions. Efforts are underway to develop a malaria vaccine. The most advanced (RTS,S), is currently going through phase 3 trials. Although recent studies show the overwhelming support in the community for the introduction of a malaria vaccine, two issues - culture and the delivery of child immunization services - need to be considered. Alongside the modern methods of malaria control described above, traditional methods coexist and act as barriers to attainment of universal immunization. The gender dimension of the immunization programme (where women are the main child caretakers) will also need to be addressed. There is an age dimension to child immunization programmes. Two age cohorts of parents, caregivers, or family members deserve particular attention. These are the youth who are about to initiate childbearing, and the elderly (particularly mother-in-laws who often play a role in child-rearing). Mothers who are less privileged and socially disadvantaged need particular attention when it comes to child immunization. Access to immunization services is often characterized in some Kenyan rural communities in terms of living near the main road, or in the remote inaccessible areas. Should a malaria vaccine become available in the future, a strategy to integrate it into the immunization programme in Kenya should take into account at least two issues. First, it must address the fact that alongside the formal approach in malaria control, there exist the informal traditional practices among communities. Secondly, it must address particular issues in the delivery of

  9. Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    congenitally . In the late 1970s and early 1980s there were a number of cases of congenital malaria among immigrants from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos.2...dextrose Blood for transfusion; ideally screened for HIV and hepatitis B An anticonvulsant medication such as diazepam A broad spectrum antibiotic that...1991, pp 73-89 21. Quinn TC, Jacobs RF, Mertz GJ, et al: Congenital malaria: A report of four cases and a review. Clin Lab Obstet 10:229, 1982 22

  10. Relationship between ABO blood groups and malaria*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhu; Chowdhuri, A. N. Rai

    1980-01-01

    A total of 736 patients with fever was tested for malaria and classified according to ABO blood group. Of these, 476 cases had patent parasitaemia at the time of investigation. The distribution of blood groups in this group was significantly different from that in 1300 controls from the same area. While group A was found to be more common in malaria cases than in normals, the reverse situation was found for group O. Possible explanations for this are discussed. PMID:6971187

  11. Malaria in South Asia: prevalence and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajan, Satish N; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2012-03-01

    The "Malaria Evolution in South Asia" (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US-India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public-private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012.

  12. Malaria vaccine: A myth or a reality

    OpenAIRE

    Sarita Mohapatra

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is a common parasitic disease caused by Plasmodium spp. and transmitted by anopheles mosquito. Every year several million people are affected and killed due to this infection in the endemic regions of the world. Recently, drug resistance to the common antimalarial drugs has pressurized upon the development of an effective vaccine for the elimination of malaria along with other control measures. A number of vaccine trials are in the pipeline. Indeed, some were proven to have potential ...

  13. Malaria vaccines: immunity, models and monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars; Barfod, Lea

    2008-01-01

    Although experts in the field have agreed on the malaria vaccine technology roadmap that should be followed (http://www.malariavaccineroadmap.net/), the path towards an effective malaria vaccine remains littered with intellectual and practical pot-holes. The animal models that are currently...... available are problematic, and current understanding of the exact mechanisms and targets of protective immune responses is incomplete. However, recent technological advances might help overcome some of these hurdles....

  14. Malaria in South Asia: Prevalence and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajanj, Satish N.; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K.; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2013-01-01

    The “Malaria Evolution in South Asia” (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US–India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public–private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012. PMID:22248528

  15. Plasma glutamine levels and falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, G; Planche, T; Agbenyega, T; Bedu-Addo, G; Owusu-Ofori, A; Adebe-Appiah, J; Agranoff, D; Woodrow, C; Castell, L; Elford, B; Krishna, S

    1999-01-01

    Glutamine deficiency is associated with increased rates of sepsis and mortality, which can be prevented by glutamine supplementation. Changes in glutamine concentration were examined in Ghanaian children with acute falciparum malaria and control cases. The mean (SD) plasma glutamine concentration was lower in patients with acute malaria (401 (82) mumol/L, n = 50) than in control patients (623 (67) mumol/L, n = 7; P sepsis and dyserythropoeisis.

  16. [Thijsse, teacher of nature, teacher of malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher-Endeveld, Lies; Verhave, Jan Peter

    2005-01-01

    The start of organised malaria control in The Netherlands originated from an epidemic that became apparent in 1919. Shortly thereafter the Commission for Malaria Control realised the need for involvement of the population in the endemic area of North-Holland province. Education and propaganda would make them alert to reduce the risk of infection and aware of the need for medical diagnosis and treatment. The commission called upon Dr. Jac. P. Thijsse, a professional educator who had just received an honorary doctor's degree at the University of Amsterdam for his excellent work on bringing nature and field biology to the attention of the general public. He had founded the Society for Nature Conservation. Thijsse was invited to write a book on malaria, for use at primary school level. The booklet was called 'About mosquitoes and malaria' and it was widely used by teachers and pupils. Thijsse was also instrumental in the making of a propaganda film on malaria and its control. It was acclaimed by visiting malariologists from abroad for its quality, and it was watched with astonishment by the people in rural North-Holland. Thijsse was a member of the scientific Malaria Commission for five years. His profound knowledge about flora and fauna made him an expert in predicting the chances of mosquito breeding in polder canals with fresh or brackish water. After his resignation he was nominated president for a committee to organise a contest for a new propaganda poster. He passed away in 1945, just before a new epidemic would strike the war-exhausted population of the coastal provinces. It would have been a disappointment to him, because he had strongly believed that the scientific and organising power of the Malaria Commission would be successful in bringing the fever curse to a halt. This epidemic was the last one, and whatever the cause, malaria had disappeared from the Netherlands in 1960.

  17. Symptomatic malaria diagnosis overestimate malaria prevalence, but underestimate anaemia burdens in children: results of a follow up study in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choge, Joseph K; Magak, Ng'wena G; Akhwale, Willis; Koech, Julius; Ngeiywa, Moses M; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Esamai, Fabian; Osano, Odipo; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2014-04-09

    The commonly accepted gold standard diagnostic method for detecting malaria is a microscopic reading of Giemsa-stained blood films. However, symptomatic diagnosis remains the basis of therapeutic care for the majority of febrile patients in malaria endemic areas. This study aims to compare the discrepancy in malaria and anaemia burdens between symptomatic diagnosed patients with those diagnosed through the laboratory. Data were collected from Western Kenya during a follow-up study of 887 children with suspected cases of malaria visiting the health facilities. In the laboratory, blood samples were analysed for malaria parasite and haemoglobin levels. Differences in malaria prevalence between symptomatic diagnosis and laboratory diagnosis were analysed by Chi-square test. Bayesian probabilities were used for the approximation of the malaria and anaemia burdens. Regression analysis was applied to: (1) determine the relationships between haemoglobin levels, and malaria parasite density and (2) relate the prevalence of anaemia and the prevalence of malaria. The prevalence of malaria and anaemia ranged from 10% to 34%, being highest during the rainy seasons. The predominant malaria parasite was P. falciparum (92.3%), which occurred in higher density in children aged 2‒5 years. Fever, high temperature, sweating, shivering, vomiting and severe headache symptoms were associated with malaria during presumptive diagnosis. After conducting laboratory diagnosis, lower malaria prevalence was reported among the presumptively diagnosed patients. Surprisingly, there were no attempts to detect anaemia in the same cohort. There was a significant negative correlation between Hb levels and parasite density. We also found a positive correlation between the prevalence of anaemia and the prevalence of malaria after laboratory diagnosis indicating possible co-occurrence of malaria and anaemia. Symptomatic diagnosis of malaria overestimates malaria prevalence, but underestimates the

  18. Interpretation as doing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the paper is to address and discuss relationships between the aesthetic perception and interpretation of contemporary landscape architecture. I will try to do this by setting up a cross-disciplinary perspective that looks into themes from the contemporary art scene and aesthetic...... concept of landscape and design in landscape architecture, and hereby address the question of how interpretation might be processed. It is also my premise that a key point in this is the interplay between different sensory experiences of both material and non-material aspects......, and that it is this interplay that the individual collects into an entity – an interpretation – through an intellectual process....

  19. Entomology in translation: interpreting French medical entomological knowledge in colonial Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles-Vernick, T

    2008-12-01

    This essay examines how knowledge and practices around entomology and parasitology travelled and the consequences of their mobility. In exploring three anti-malaria campaigns in French Soudan before 1960, it argues that the history of medical entomology's travels entailed multiple temporal, spatial, social translations that African medical personnel, intellectuals, healers, and farmers in French Soudan reinterpreted, appropriated, and sometimes wholly rejected. This essay also focuses on "erroneous" translations, detailing how and why middle class medical personnel and intellectuals interpreted and reformulated farmers' and healers' diagnostic categories that may or may not be malaria. Anti-mosquito and antilarval interventions, and more generally anti-malaria interventions, influenced how African colonial subjects and health workers understood certain vectors and of certain maladies. These understandings, in turn, shaped the consequences of subsequent public health measures. Histories of translated parasitological and entomological knowledge and etiologies of illness have critical implications for contemporary malaria control efforts: interventions to reduce malaria transmission through various kinds of entomological controls that require active participation of local populations cannot be effective if all participants cannot agree upon what is being controlled or prevented.

  20. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Shah, Naman; Dhariwal, Akshay C; Sonal, Gagan Singh; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Ghosh, Susanta K; Valecha, Neena

    2016-12-28

    Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all P. vivax cases reported globally. Plasmodium vivax has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas. Urban malaria is predominantly caused by P. vivax and is subject to outbreaks, often associated with increased mortality, and triggered by bursts of migration and construction. The epidemiology of P. vivax varies substantially within India, including multiple relapse phenotypes with varying latencies between primary infection and relapse. Moreover, the hypnozoite reservoir maintains transmission potential and enables reestablishment of the parasite in areas in which it was thought eradicated. The burden of malaria in India is complex because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors. This review of P. vivax malaria in India describes epidemiological trends with particular attention to four states: Gujarat, Karnataka, Haryana, and Odisha.

  1. ANALISIS PEMERIKSAAN LABORATORIUM PADA PENDERITA MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I GEDE Wempi Permadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMalaria is the disease initially in the area of the Marsh called the disease of freshwater marshes.Scientific research on malaria make progress in their important first in 1880, when a French army doctor workingin the military hospital of Constantine in Algeria named Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran observed parasites forthe first time, inside the red blood cells of people suffering from malaria. This paper outlines some of thediagnostic screening for malaria. Examination of the diagnosis of malaria as gold standard still not satisfactoryas found parasitic blood through thin blood test. Examination of malaria in outline there are three, namely formicroscopic examination examination serologis and examination of dna. 1. Microscopic examination is still astandard gold for enforcement the diagnosis of diseases malaria. 2. Examination serologis detection using anantibody; detection techniques antibody can not tell that infection ' s going on but could have an antibody thatdetected is notching reaction immunologi of infection in the past. Meanwhile, with the technique of a spesificantigen can't portray degrees parasitemia patients. 3. DNA (PCR , more sensitive to a plasmodium but theweakness this technique is clear to financing costs and not all laboratory can do checking this.

  2. Potential Serological Biomarkers of Cerebral Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi W. Lucchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers have been used to diagnose and prognosticate the progress and outcome of many chronic diseases such as neoplastic and non communicable diseases. However, only recently did the field of malaria research move in the direction of actively identifying biomarkers that can accurately discriminate the severe forms of malaria. Malaria continues to be a deadly disease, killing close to a million people (mostly children every year. One life-threatening complication of malaria is cerebral malaria (CM. Studies carried out in Africa have demonstrated that even with the best treatment, as high as 15–30% of CM patients die and about 10–24% of CM survivors suffer short-or long-term neurological impairment. The transition from mild malaria to CM can be sudden and requires immediate intervention. Currently, there is no biological test available to confirm the diagnosis of CM and its complications. It is hoped that development of biomarkers to identify CM patients and potential risk for adverse outcomes would greatly enhance better intervention and clinical management to improve the outcomes. We review here what is currently known regarding biomarkers for CM outcomes.

  3. Severe acute renal failure in malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have noticed a recent rise in the incidence and severity of acute renal failure (ARF in malaria. AIM: To study the incidence, severity and outcome of ARF in malaria. SETTING and DESIGN: It is a retrospective analysis of data of one year from a tertiary medical centre in a metropolitan city. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with ARF and smear positive malaria were evaluated. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Results were expressed as mean, range and standard deviation. RESULTS: Out of 402 detected smear positive malaria, 24 had ARF. Eighteen were of the age group 21-40 years. Plasmodium falciparum (PF was detected in 16, Plasmodium vivax in three, and mixed infection in five. Non-oliguric ARF was seen in 14. Eighteen showed severe ARF (Serum creatinine >5 mg%. Twenty-two patients needed dialysis. Prolonged ARF lasting for 2-6 weeks was seen in eight. Seventeen patients recovered completely, while seven showed fatal combination of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, severe ARF and PF malaria. No response was seen to chloroquine and artesunate given alone and twenty patients required quinine. CONCLUSION: ARF necessitating dialysis was seen in 92% of patients with ARF in malaria. PF infection, severe ARF, DIC and ARDS were poor prognostic factors. Resistance was noted to both chloroquine and artesunate.

  4. The Agro Pontino, climate change and malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Giuseppe Solimini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently in Italy a case of malaria was reported (November 2009. The patient was an Italian man of 44 years of age who had not travelled out of the country. The man apparently contracted malaria during a 2 weeks stay in August 2009 in a former malaria endemic area, the “Agro Pontino” (60-100 km South of Rome. Although confirmation of the Plasmodium species and the results of the epidemiological investigation undertaken by the Ministry of Health are still not available, the case seems unlikely to be linked with accidental contact of the patient with imported vectors or contaminated blood. This case raised concern over the possible recrudescence of malaria in Italy, especially in light of current and future climate change. Given the importance of the topic, this article will provide a brief review of the history of malaria in the Agro Pontino and the recent discussions that have appeared in scientific journals concerning the link between malaria and climate change.

  5. Strategies For Malaria Control In Mangalore City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Udaya .N

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: What different strategies should be used to effectively control problem of malaria? Objectives: 1 To study the problem of malaria. 2 To study different strategies for effective control of malaria. Study design: Observational and record based. The problem of malaria was studied for three years from 1996-1998 Participants: Individuals having fever. Setting: Community based in Mangalore City. Study variables: Fever cases, blood slides prepared, slides found positive, agency-wise, species-wise and year-wise positivity. Statistical methods: Simple proportions. Results: The yield of cases has been shown to highest in passive surveillance, as reflected in high slide positivity rates. A total of 95,898 slides were prepared, out of which 19,169 were positive for malaria parasite. Thus, the overall side positivity was 20%. The SPR in passive surveillance was 34.5%. Month-wise distribution of positive cases showed high SPR and low Pv/Pf ratios during non-malaria seasons. It is suggested to improve passive surveillance to achieve high SPR thereby leading to substantial saving on slides, laboratory services and transport expenditure.

  6. Malaria in Sucre State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews the malaria research program in Sucre State, Venezuela, taking an ecosystem approach. The goal was to determine which methods could have been introduced at the onset that would have made the study more ecological and interdisciplinary. Neither an ecosystem approach nor integrated disease control were in place at the time of the study. This study began to introduce an ecosystem approach when two contrasting ecosystems in Sucre State were selected for study and vector control methods were implemented based on research results. The need to have a health policy in place with an eco-health approach is crucial to the success of research and control. The review suggests that sustainability is low when not all the stakeholders are involved in the design and implementation of the research and control strategy development. The lack of community involvement makes sustainability doubtful. The author concludes that there were two interdependent challenges for malaria control: development of an ecosystem approach for malaria research and control, and the implementation of an integrated disease control strategy, with malaria as one of the important health issues.O autor faz uma revisão do programa de pesquisa sobre malária no Estado de Sucre, Venezuela, à luz de uma abordagem ecossistêmica. O objetivo era determinar quais métodos poderiam ter sido introduzidos no início do estudo para torná-lo mais ecológico e interdisciplinar. A fase inicial do estudo não incluía uma abordagem ecossistêmica ou controle integrado da doença, que só foram incorporados quando dois ecossistemas contrastantes no Estado de Sucre foram selecionados para pesquisa, junto com um método de controle de vetores com base nos resultados. Uma política de saúde bem-definida com uma abordagem ecossistêmica é crucial para o sucesso de uma estratégia de pesquisa e controle. Esta revisão sugere que a sustentabilidade é baixa se todos os atores não estiverem

  7. Strong gametocytocidal effect of methylene blue-based combination therapy against falciparum malaria: a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubacar Coulibaly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the availability of new preventive and curative interventions, global malaria control has been strengthened significantly in recent years. Drugs effective in reducing malaria gametocytaemia might contribute to local elimination and possible long-term eradication. We here report on the effects of methylene blue (MB-based malaria combination therapy on gametocytaemia during a randomised-controlled trial in Burkina Faso. METHODS: An open-label randomised controlled phase II study in 180 children aged 6-10 years with uncomplicated falciparum malaria was conducted in Nouna, north-western Burkina Faso. Children were randomised to MB-artesunate (AS, MB-amodiaquine (AQ, and AS-AQ (local standard of care. Overall follow-up was for 28 days, follow-up for gametocytaemia was for 14 days. FINDINGS: The treatment groups were similar in baseline characteristics and there was only one loss to follow-up. Compared to AS-AQ, both MB-containing regimens were associated with significantly reduced gametocyte carrier rates during follow-up days 3, 7, and 14. This effect was seen both in patients with and without P. falciparum gametocytaemia at baseline. INTERPRETATION: MB reveals pronounced gametocytocidal activity which appears to act against both existing and developing P. falciparum gametocytes. MB-based combination therapy thus has the potential to reduce transmission of P. falciparum malaria in endemic regions, which has important implications for future elimination and eradication strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00354380.

  8. History of malaria research and its contribution to the malaria control success in Suriname: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breeveld Florence JV

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Suriname has cleared malaria from its capital city and coastal areas mainly through the successful use of chloroquine and DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane during the Global Malaria Eradication programme that started in 1955. Nonetheless, malaria transmission rates remained high in the interior of the country for a long time. An impressive decline in malaria cases was achieved in the past few years, from 14,403 registered cases in 2003 to 1,371 in 2009. The introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT in 2004 has further fuelled the decrease in the number of infections with Plasmodium falciparum. The only population group still heavily burdened with malaria is gold mining industry workers. Interestingly, an important part of malaria cases diagnosed and treated in Suriname originate from border regions. Therefore, practical initiatives of combined efforts between neighbouring countries must be scaled up in order to effectively attack these specific areas. Furthermore, it is of vital importance to keep investing into the malaria control programme and public awareness campaigns. Especially the correct use of ACT must be promoted in order to prevent the emergence of resistance. However, effective preventive measures and adequate therapeutic options are on their own not enough to control, let alone eliminate malaria. Changing personal and social behaviour of people is particularly difficult, but crucial in making the current success sustainable. With this in mind, research on successfully implemented interventions, focusing on behavioural modifications and methods of measuring their effectiveness, must be expanded.

  9. History of malaria research and its contribution to the malaria control success in Suriname: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeveld, Florence J V; Vreden, Stephen G S; Grobusch, Martin P

    2012-03-29

    Suriname has cleared malaria from its capital city and coastal areas mainly through the successful use of chloroquine and DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) during the Global Malaria Eradication programme that started in 1955. Nonetheless, malaria transmission rates remained high in the interior of the country for a long time. An impressive decline in malaria cases was achieved in the past few years, from 14,403 registered cases in 2003 to 1,371 in 2009. The introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2004 has further fuelled the decrease in the number of infections with Plasmodium falciparum. The only population group still heavily burdened with malaria is gold mining industry workers. Interestingly, an important part of malaria cases diagnosed and treated in Suriname originate from border regions. Therefore, practical initiatives of combined efforts between neighbouring countries must be scaled up in order to effectively attack these specific areas. Furthermore, it is of vital importance to keep investing into the malaria control programme and public awareness campaigns. Especially the correct use of ACT must be promoted in order to prevent the emergence of resistance. However, effective preventive measures and adequate therapeutic options are on their own not enough to control, let alone eliminate malaria. Changing personal and social behaviour of people is particularly difficult, but crucial in making the current success sustainable. With this in mind, research on successfully implemented interventions, focusing on behavioural modifications and methods of measuring their effectiveness, must be expanded.

  10. Identification of hot spots of malaria transmission for targeted malaria control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousema, T.; Drakeley, C.; Gesase, S.; Hashim, R.; Magesa, S.; Mosha, F.; Otieno, S.; Carneiro, I.; Cox, J.; Msuya, E.; Kleinschmidt, I.; Maxwell, C.; Greenwood, B.; Riley, E.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Chandramohan, D.; Gosling, R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variation in the risk of malaria within populations is a frequently described but poorly understood phenomenon. This heterogeneity creates opportunities for targeted interventions but only if hot spots of malaria transmission can be easily identified. METHODS: We determined spatial patte

  11. Sources of Malaria Information among Pregnant Women in Ebonyi State and Implications for Malaria Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari-Omaka, Lois Nnenna; Obande-Ogbuinya, Nkiru Edith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine sources of malaria information among pregnant women in Ebonyi state and implications for malaria education. The cross sectional research design was adopted and stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of five hundred and four (504) pregnant women from 12 hospitals in the state. A self…

  12. The Gates Malaria Partnership: a consortium approach to malaria research and capacity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Brian; Bhasin, Amit; Targett, Geoffrey

    2012-05-01

    Recently, there has been a major increase in financial support for malaria control. Most of these funds have, appropriately, been spent on the tools needed for effective prevention and treatment of malaria such as insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying and artemisinin combination therapy. There has been less investment in the training of the scientists from malaria-endemic countries needed to support these large and increasingly complex malaria control programmes, especially in Africa. In 2000, with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Gates Malaria Partnership was established to support postgraduate training of African scientists wishing to pursue a career in malaria research. The programme had three research capacity development components: a PhD fellowship programme, a postdoctoral fellowship programme and a laboratory infrastructure programme. During an 8-year period, 36 African PhD students and six postdoctoral fellows were supported, and two research laboratories were built in Tanzania. Some of the lessons learnt during this project--such as the need to improve PhD supervision in African universities and to provide better support for postdoctoral fellows--are now being applied to a successor malaria research capacity development programme, the Malaria Capacity Development Consortium, and may be of interest to other groups involved in improving postgraduate training in health sciences in African universities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Perceptions and Attitudes of Resident Doctors about Malaria Treatment as Per National Drug Policy on Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam Ahir, D V Bala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The involvement of public and private health care providers in malaria treatment, particularly understanding their knowledge and practices will aid in devising strategies to increase the rational use of antimalarial drugs. They should be aware about rationale and implement national drug policy on malaria to prevent morbidity and mortality of malaria as well as development of antimalarial drug resistance. Therefore, a study was planned on the same issue among resident doctors of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Objective: To study the perceptions and attitudes of resident doctors regarding use of anti malarial drugs for treatment of all types of malaria cases in accordance with national drug policy on malaria-2010. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted at tertiary care teaching hospital with sixty four (64 resident doctors of medicine (24, pediatrics (24 and obstetrics (16 departments with the help of pre tested; semi-structured questionnaire based on national drug policy on malaria-2010 from 15th July to 30th August 2010. Results: Only 12 (18.8% residents were aware about drug policy. Dose and duration and indication of primaquine was known to 21 (32.8% of resident doctors. Artesunate (49.2% and Arteether (16.9% were commonly prescribed in case of uncomplicated P.falciparum and P.vivax malaria. Conclusion: It was noticeable that knowledge and awareness regarding drug policy among resident doctors was unsatisfactory. Regular sensitization programme on malaria drug policy should be conducted.

  14. The Power of Malaria Vaccine Trials Using Controlled Human Malaria Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Coffeng (Luc); C.C. Hermsen (Cornelus); R.W. Sauerwein (Robert); S.J. de Vlas (Sake)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractControlled human malaria infection (CHMI) in healthy human volunteers is an important and powerful tool in clinical malaria vaccine development. However, power calculations are essential to obtain meaningful estimates of protective efficacy, while minimizing the risk of adverse events.

  15. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  16. A New Redshift Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Gentry, R V

    1997-01-01

    A nonhomogeneous universe with vacuum energy, but without spacetime expansion, is utilized together with gravitational and Doppler redshifts as the basis for proposing a new interpretation of the Hubble relation and the 2.7K Cosmic Blackbody Radiation.

  17. Normative interpretations of diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2009-01-01

    Normative interpretations of particular cases consist of normative principles or values coupled with social theoretical accounts of the empirical facts of the case. The article reviews the most prominent normative interpretations of the Muhammad cartoons controversy over the publication of drawings...... of the Prophet Muhammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten. The controversy was seen as a case of freedom of expression, toleration, racism, (in)civility and (dis)respect, and the article notes different understandings of these principles and how the application of them to the controversy implied different...... social theoretical accounts of the case. In disagreements between different normative interpretations, appeals are often made to the ‘context', so it is also considered what roles ‘context' might play in debates over normative interpretations...

  18. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Sahay

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy.

  19. Battling malaria iceberg incorporating strategic reforms in achieving Millennium Development Goals & malaria elimination in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V P

    2012-12-01

    Malaria control in India has occupied high priority in health sector consuming major resources of the Central and State governments. Several new initiatives were launched from time to time supported by foreign aids but malaria situation has remained static and worsened in years of good rainfall. At times malaria relented temporarily but returned with vengeance at the local, regional and national level, becoming more resilient by acquiring resistance in the vectors and the parasites. National developments to improve the economy, without health impact assessment, have had adverse consequences by providing enormous breeding grounds for the vectors that have become refractory to interventions. As a result, malaria prospers and its control is in dilemma, as finding additional resources is becoming difficult with the ongoing financial crisis. Endemic countries must contribute to make up the needed resources, if malaria is to be contained. Malaria control requires long term planning, one that will reduce receptivity and vulnerability, and uninterrupted financial support for sustained interventions. While this seems to be a far cry, the environment is becoming more receptive for vectors, and epidemics visit the country diverting major resources in their containment, e.g. malaria, dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fevers, and Chikungunya virus infection. In the last six decades malaria has taken deep roots and diversified into various ecotypes, the control of these ecotypes requires local knowledge about the vectors and the parasites. In this review we outline the historical account of malaria and methods of control that have lifted the national economy in many countries. While battles against malaria should continue at the local level, there is a need for large scale environmental improvement. Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has provided huge funds for malaria control worldwide touching US$ 2 billion in 2011. Unfortunately it is likely to decline to US$ 1

  20. The use of phylogeny to interpret cross-cultural patterns in plant use and guide medicinal plant discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Klitgaard, Bente B; Forest, Félix

    2011-01-01

    conditions, such as malaria, are significantly phylogenetically clumped and we highlight nodes in the phylogeny that are significantly overabundant in species used to treat certain conditions. These cross-cultural patterns in ethnomedicinal usage in Pterocarpus are interpreted in the light of phylogenetic...

  1. Integrated vector management for malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Impoinvil Daniel E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Integrated vector management (IVM is defined as "a rational decision-making process for the optimal use of resources for vector control" and includes five key elements: 1 evidence-based decision-making, 2 integrated approaches 3, collaboration within the health sector and with other sectors, 4 advocacy, social mobilization, and legislation, and 5 capacity-building. In 2004, the WHO adopted IVM globally for the control of all vector-borne diseases. Important recent progress has been made in developing and promoting IVM for national malaria control programmes in Africa at a time when successful malaria control programmes are scaling-up with insecticide-treated nets (ITN and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS coverage. While interventions using only ITNs and/or IRS successfully reduce transmission intensity and the burden of malaria in many situations, it is not clear if these interventions alone will achieve those critical low levels that result in malaria elimination. Despite the successful employment of comprehensive integrated malaria control programmes, further strengthening of vector control components through IVM is relevant, especially during the "end-game" where control is successful and further efforts are required to go from low transmission situations to sustained local and country-wide malaria elimination. To meet this need and to ensure sustainability of control efforts, malaria control programmes should strengthen their capacity to use data for decision-making with respect to evaluation of current vector control programmes, employment of additional vector control tools in conjunction with ITN/IRS tactics, case-detection and treatment strategies, and determine how much and what types of vector control and interdisciplinary input are required to achieve malaria elimination. Similarly, on a global scale, there is a need for continued research to identify and evaluate new tools for vector control that can be integrated with

  2. Malaria Drug Protected Mouse Fetus from Zika: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 167128.html Malaria Drug Protected Mouse Fetus From Zika: Study More research is needed on effects in ... A malaria drug protected mice fetuses from the Zika virus, researchers report. In humans, Zika infection during ...

  3. Imported childhood malaria: the Dublin experience, 1999-2006.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leahy, T R

    2009-09-01

    Imported childhood malaria has never been studied in Ireland. We aimed to document the incidence and species of malaria in children presenting to paediatric hospitals in Dublin and to examine management and outcome measures.

  4. Malaria in pregnancy: Knowledge, attitude and practices of pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria in pregnancy: Knowledge, attitude and practices of pregnant women in ... secondary school qualification (76.5%) attributed malaria more to mosquito bite. ... of doctors (4.0%) were the preferred method of prevention by women in the ...

  5. Modelling of Malaria Risk Areas in Ghana by using Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... model of malaria using eight risk factors ranging from environmental to ... transmission. Keywords: Malaria, GIS, Analytical Hierarchy Process, Weighted Overlay ...... of Remote Sensing and GIS in Environmental Management,.

  6. Impact of the WHO Technical Support Towards Malaria Elimination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2University of Zambia, School of Medicine, Lusaka, Zambia. Key words: Malaria, strategies, technical support, WHO. ABSTRACT. Background: Zambia's National Malaria Strategic Plan .... the Disaster Management and Mitigation Unit (DMMU).

  7. malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women in a rural community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    Key words: Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia, Anaemia, Pregnancy, poor socioeconomic settings. Introduction: Malaria ... can cause several perinatal and maternal complications including abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight and even death ...

  8. Knowledge About Malaria, and Coverage and Utilization Pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge About Malaria, and Coverage and Utilization Pattern of Mosquito Nets ... This paper reflects on how people in an area of seasonal malaria, perceive the ... (FGDs) and key-informant interviews were employed in the data collection.

  9. Prevalence and pattern of malaria parasitaemia among under-five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-07

    Aug 7, 2015 ... malaria control programs while ensuring proper ... file of malaria. In addition, with various control meas- .... determined from parental education and occupations. 320 ... fact that majority of the parents did not go beyond sec-.

  10. Malaria Laboratory Diagnostic Performance: Case studies of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria Laboratory Diagnostic Performance: Case studies of two ... laboratory for malaria test. ... affected by high humidity and provide no quantification of parasite density (World Health ... Zomba District Health Office reports not less than 250.

  11. Household responses to malaria: cost implications in Anantigha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household responses to malaria: cost implications in Anantigha area of Calabar South lga ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... people will form baseline data for more research in the control of malaria in the community.

  12. Guillain-Barré syndrome in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Wijesundere, A.

    1992-01-01

    A patient with Plasmodium falciparum malaria developed peripheral neuropathy. Clinical, cerebro-spinal fluid examination and nerve conduction studies confirmed Guillain-Barré syndrome, not previously reported in P. falciparum malaria.

  13. Role of CR1 Knops polymorphism in the pathophysiology of malaria: Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gandhi, Arpita Singh, Vas Dev, T. Adak, A.P. Dash & Hema Joshi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Plasmodium falciparum is the leading cause of mortality and causescerebral malaria associated with sequestration caused by cytoadherence of the trophozoite andschizont-infected erythrocytes to the endothelial cells of the deep vascular beds in the brain.Pathophysiology of malaria is complicated by rosetting. Rosetting is a process of binding ofuninfected erythrocytes to the erythrocytes infected with mature asexual parasites and is controlledby expression of complement receptor 1 (CR1 on RBC surface. Various polymorphic forms ofCR1 are known including molecular weight polymorphism, red blood cell expression levels/densitypolymorphism and Knops (KN polymorphism. The Knops blood group includes several allelicpairs; Knops a and b (Kna and Knb, McCoy a and b (McCa, McCb, Swain-Langley (Sla, andVillien (Vil. Knops phenotype Sl (a– has been found to rosette less effectively than Sl (a+ andhence suggested to be more protective. P. falciparum cases have not reduced much as compared tothe reduction in the total number of malaria cases in the past few years. In addition, P. falciparumis the leading cause for all mortality and most of the morbidity in India. We, therefore, investigatedthe role of CR1 Knops polymorphism in the pathophysiology of malaria in Indian population.Methods: A case control approach was used for this study. CAPS (Cleaved amplified polymorphicsequence methodology was adopted. A total of 100 normal individuals (free from any ailmentand 100 individuals suffering from P. falciparum infection (uncomplicated malaria were recruitedfor this study.Results: We found that in Indian population (normal individuals and P. falciparum-infectedindividuals, only the wild type allele is present.Interpretation & conclusion: We concluded that the process of rosetting in the Indian contextcould be occurring independently of the effect of Knops polymorphism and in part could be controlledby other polymorphisms of the CR1 gene

  14. Self-diagnosis of malaria by travelers and expatriates: assessment of malaria rapid diagnostic tests available on the internet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Maltha

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the past malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs for self-diagnosis by travelers were considered suboptimal due to poor performance. Nowadays RDTs for self-diagnosis are marketed and available through the internet. The present study assessed RDT products marketed for self-diagnosis for diagnostic accuracy and quality of labeling, content and instructions for use (IFU. METHODS: Diagnostic accuracy of eight RDT products was assessed with a panel of stored whole blood samples comprising the four Plasmodium species (n = 90 as well as Plasmodium negative samples (n = 10. IFUs were assessed for quality of description of procedure and interpretation and for lay-out and readability level. Errors in packaging and content were recorded. RESULTS: Two products gave false-positive test lines in 70% and 80% of Plasmodium negative samples, precluding their use. Of the remaining products, 4/6 had good to excellent sensitivity for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum (98.2%-100.0% and Plasmodium vivax (93.3%-100.0%. Sensitivity for Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae diagnosis was poor (6.7%-80.0%. All but one product yielded false-positive test lines after reading beyond the recommended reading time. Problems with labeling (not specifying target antigens (n = 3, and content (desiccant with no humidity indicator (n = 6 were observed. IFUs had major shortcomings in description of test procedure and interpretation, poor readability and lay-out and user-unfriendly typography. Strategic issues (e.g. the need for repeat testing and reasons for false-negative tests were not addressed in any of the IFUs. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic accuracy of RDTs for self-diagnosis was variable, with only 4/8 RDT products being reliable for the diagnosis of P. falciparum and P. vivax, and none for P. ovale and P. malariae. RDTs for self-diagnosis need improvements in IFUs (content and user-friendliness, labeling and content before they can be considered for self

  15. Self-Diagnosis of Malaria by Travelers and Expatriates: Assessment of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests Available on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltha, Jessica; Gillet, Philippe; Heutmekers, Marloes; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Van Gompel, Alfons; Jacobs, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In the past malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for self-diagnosis by travelers were considered suboptimal due to poor performance. Nowadays RDTs for self-diagnosis are marketed and available through the internet. The present study assessed RDT products marketed for self-diagnosis for diagnostic accuracy and quality of labeling, content and instructions for use (IFU). Methods Diagnostic accuracy of eight RDT products was assessed with a panel of stored whole blood samples comprising the four Plasmodium species (n = 90) as well as Plasmodium negative samples (n = 10). IFUs were assessed for quality of description of procedure and interpretation and for lay-out and readability level. Errors in packaging and content were recorded. Results Two products gave false-positive test lines in 70% and 80% of Plasmodium negative samples, precluding their use. Of the remaining products, 4/6 had good to excellent sensitivity for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum (98.2%–100.0%) and Plasmodium vivax (93.3%–100.0%). Sensitivity for Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae diagnosis was poor (6.7%–80.0%). All but one product yielded false-positive test lines after reading beyond the recommended reading time. Problems with labeling (not specifying target antigens (n = 3), and content (desiccant with no humidity indicator (n = 6)) were observed. IFUs had major shortcomings in description of test procedure and interpretation, poor readability and lay-out and user-unfriendly typography. Strategic issues (e.g. the need for repeat testing and reasons for false-negative tests) were not addressed in any of the IFUs. Conclusion Diagnostic accuracy of RDTs for self-diagnosis was variable, with only 4/8 RDT products being reliable for the diagnosis of P. falciparum and P. vivax, and none for P. ovale and P. malariae. RDTs for self-diagnosis need improvements in IFUs (content and user-friendliness), labeling and content before they can be considered for

  16. Malaria vaccine offers hope. International / Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) may soon sign an agreement with the Colombian government to build a plant in Colombia for the mass production of the malaria vaccine SPf66. SPf66 consists of a combination of synthetic peptides. It will eventually be available in Africa, where 90% of all recorded malaria cases occur each year. 1 million of the 1.5-3 million malaria-related deaths each year also occur in Africa. Many of these deaths take place in children. The indirect costs of malaria in Africa is expected to increase from $800 million to $1.8 billion between 1987 and the end of 1995. Based on findings from the various clinical trials in Colombia, Thailand, The Gambia, and Tanzania, WHO's director of Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) claims that, if SPf66 can reduce the malaria incidence rate by 50% and thereby also the malaria-related death rate, the lives of 500,000 children in Africa would be spared. TDR will meet in mid-1996 to sort through all the SPf66 findings and then develop a policy for further development or production and use of SPf66. The price of each SPf66 vaccination should be around $5, comparable with the higher range of costs of other vaccines provided by WHO's Expanded Program of Immunization and UNICEF. At the 1992 WHO summit in Amsterdam, the president of the Congo called for the international community to join forces to eliminate malaria. When it was first tested on humans, in Colombia, the protection rate of SPf66 ranged from 22% to 77%, with the best results among the young and the very old. It has not caused any harmful side effects.

  17. Iron incorporation and post-malaria anaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor P Doherty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron supplementation is employed to treat post-malarial anaemia in environments where iron deficiency is common. Malaria induces an intense inflammatory reaction that stalls reticulo-endothelial macrophagal iron recycling from haemolysed red blood cells and inhibits oral iron absorption, but the magnitude and duration of these effects are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the red blood cell incorporation of oral administered stable isotopes of iron and compared incorporation between age matched 18 to 36 months old children with either anaemia post-malaria (n = 37 or presumed iron deficiency anaemia alone (n = 36. All children were supplemented for 30 days with 2 mg/kg elemental iron as liquid iron sulphate and administered (57Fe and (58Fe on days 1 and 15 of supplementation respectively. (57Fe and(58Fe incorporation were significantly reduced (8% vs. 28%: p<0.001 and 14% vs. 26%: p = 0.045 in the malaria vs. non-malaria groups. There was a significantly greater haemoglobin response in the malaria group at both day 15 (p = 0.001 and 30 (p<0.000 with a regression analysis estimated greater change in haemoglobin of 7.2 g/l (s.e. 2.0 and 10.1 g/l (s.e. 2.5 respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Post-malaria anaemia is associated with a better haemoglobin recovery despite a significant depressant effect on oral iron incorporation which may indicate that early erythropoetic iron need is met by iron recycling rather than oral iron. Supplemental iron administration is of questionable utility within 2 weeks of clinical malaria in children with mild or moderate anaemia.

  18. Iron, anemia and hepcidin in malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha eSpottiswoode

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and iron have a complex but important relationship. Plasmodium proliferation requires iron, both during the clinically silent liver stage of growth and in the disease-associated phase of erythrocyte infection. Precisely how the protozoan acquires its iron from its mammalian host remains unclear, but iron chelators can inhibit pathogen growth in vitro and in animal models. In humans, iron deficiency appears to protect against severe malaria, while iron supplementation increases risks of infection and disease. Malaria itself causes profound disturbances in physiological iron distribution and utilization, through mechanisms that include hemolysis, release of heme, dyserythropoiesis, anemia, deposition of iron in macrophages, and inhibition of dietary iron absorption. These effects have significant consequences. Malarial anemia is a major global health problem, especially in children, that remains incompletely understood and is not straightforward to treat. Furthermore, the changes in iron metabolism during a malaria infection may modulate susceptibility to coinfections. The release of heme and accumulation of iron in granulocytes may explain increased vulnerability to non-typhoidal Salmonella during malaria. The redistribution of iron away from hepatocytes and into macrophages may confer host resistance to superinfection, whereby blood-stage parasitemia prevents the development of a second liver-stage Plasmodium infection in the same organism. Key to understanding the pathophysiology of iron metabolism in malaria is the activity of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin is upregulated during blood-stage parasitemia and likely mediates much of the iron redistribution that accompanies disease. Understanding the regulation and role of hepcidin may offer new opportunities to combat malaria and formulate better approaches to treat anemia in the developing world.

  19. Prioritization of malaria endemic zones using self-organizing maps in the Manipur state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana; Srinivasa Rao, Mutheneni; Misra, Sunil

    2008-09-01

    Due to the availability of a huge amount of epidemiological and public health data that require analysis and interpretation by using appropriate mathematical tools to support the existing method to control the mosquito and mosquito-borne diseases in a more effective way, data-mining tools are used to make sense from the chaos. Using data-mining tools, one can develop predictive models, patterns, association rules, and clusters of diseases, which can help the decision-makers in controlling the diseases. This paper mainly focuses on the applications of data-mining tools that have been used for the first time to prioritize the malaria endemic regions in Manipur state by using Self Organizing Maps (SOM). The SOM results (in two-dimensional images called Kohonen maps) clearly show the visual classification of malaria endemic zones into high, medium and low in the different districts of Manipur, and will be discussed in the paper.

  20. Malaria control in Malawi: are the poor being served?

    OpenAIRE

    Mathanga Don P; Bowie Cameron

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In Africa, national governments and international organizations are focusing on rapidly "scaling up" malaria control interventions to at least 60 percent of vulnerable populations. The potential health and economic benefits of "scaling up" will depend on the equitable access to malaria control measures by the poor. This paper analyses the present inequalities in access to malaria interventions in Malawi. Methods Equity in access to malaria control measures was assessed usi...

  1. Development of drugs for severe malaria in children

    OpenAIRE

    Cheah, PY; Parker, M.; Dondorp, AM

    2016-01-01

    Over 90% of deaths attributable to malaria are in African children under 5 years old. Yet, new treatments are often tested primarily in adult patients and extrapolations have proven to be sometimes invalid, especially in dosing regimens. For studies in severe malaria an additional complication is that the decline in severe malaria in adult patients precludes sufficiently powered trials in adults, before the intervention can be tested in the ultimate target group, paediatric severe malaria. In...

  2. Malaria vaccine based on Self-Assembling Protein Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhard, Peter; David E Lanar

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress with GSK’s RTS’S malaria vaccine, there remains a desperate need for an efficient malaria vaccine. We have used a repetitive antigen display technology to display malaria specific B cell and T cell epitopes in an effort to design a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Our protein sequence when assembled into a nanoparticle induces strong, long-lived and protective immune responses against infection with the parasite. We are confident that the clinical trials ...

  3. Hyperglycemia in Severe Falciparum Malaria: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Chianura; Isabella Corinna Errante; Giovanna Travi; Roberto Rossotti; Massimo Puoti

    2012-01-01

    Occasionally, malaria may present with unusual signs and symptoms. We report a case of an uncommon presentation of Plasmodium falciparum infection in a 59-year-old Ethiopian immigrant, which initially presented with hyperglycaemia and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Reports of unusual presentations of malaria are few and cases of severe malaria with hyperglycaemia are rarely described. As hyperglycaemia is associated to most severe malaria and high mortality, our aim is to catch ...

  4. Conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Denis; Clark, James

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale forest conservation projects are underway in the Brazilian Amazon but little is known regarding their public health impact. Current literature emphasizes how land clearing increases malaria incidence, leading to the conclusion that forest conservation decreases malaria burden. Yet, there is also evidence that proximity to forest fringes increases malaria incidence, which implies the opposite relationship between forest conservation and malaria. We compare the effect of these environmental factors on malaria and explore its implications. Using a large malaria dataset (~1,300,000 positive malaria tests collected over ~4.5 million km(2)), satellite imagery, permutation tests, and hierarchical Bayesian regressions, we show that greater forest cover (as a proxy for proximity to forest fringes) tends to be associated with higher malaria incidence, and that forest cover effect was 25 times greater than the land clearing effect, the often cited culprit of malaria in the region. These findings have important implications for land use/land cover (LULC) policies in the region. We find that cities close to protected areas (PA's) tend to have higher malaria incidence than cities far from PA's. Using future LULC scenarios, we show that avoiding 10% of deforestation through better governance might result in an average 2-fold increase in malaria incidence by 2050 in urban health posts. Our results suggest that cost analysis of reduced carbon emissions from conservation efforts in the region should account for increased malaria morbidity, and that conservation initiatives should consider adopting malaria mitigation strategies. Coordinated actions from disparate science fields, government ministries, and global initiatives (e.g., Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation; Millenium Development Goals; Roll Back Malaria; and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria), will be required to decrease malaria toll in the region while preserving these

  5. Short report: severe malaria associated with blood group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, P R; Boone, P

    1998-01-01

    The ABO blood groups are not linked to the incidence of simple malaria infection but have been associated with rosette formation. In an effort to see if clinically severe malaria is associated with blood group, 489 patients were studied in Zimbabwe. Patients with malaria and group A blood had lower hemoglobin levels and more risk of coma than did infected patients with other blood groups. In this population, severe malaria is associated with blood group.

  6. Malaria vaccine based on Self-Assembling Protein Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhard, Peter; Lanar, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress with GSK’s RTS’S malaria vaccine, there remains a desperate need for an efficient malaria vaccine. We have used a repetitive antigen display technology to display malaria specific B cell and T cell epitopes in an effort to design a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Our protein sequence when assembled into a nanoparticle induces strong, long-lived and protective immune responses against infection with the parasite. We are confident that the clinical trials ...

  7. Minimising human error in malaria rapid diagnosis: clarity of written instructions and health worker performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Waverly; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaxay; Lupisan, Socorro; Vanisaveth, Viengsay; Hongvanthong, Bouasy; Phompida, Samlane; Alday, Portia; Fulache, Mila; Lumagui, Richard; Jorgensen, Pernille; Bell, David; Harvey, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The usefulness of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) in malaria case management depends on the accuracy of the diagnoses they provide. Despite their apparent simplicity, previous studies indicate that RDT accuracy is highly user-dependent. As malaria RDTs will frequently be used in remote areas with little supervision or support, minimising mistakes is crucial. This paper describes the development of new instructions (job aids) to improve health worker performance, based on observations of common errors made by remote health workers and villagers in preparing and interpreting RDTs, in the Philippines and Laos. Initial preparation using the instructions provided by the manufacturer was poor, but improved significantly with the job aids (e.g. correct use both of the dipstick and cassette increased in the Philippines by 17%). However, mistakes in preparation remained commonplace, especially for dipstick RDTs, as did mistakes in interpretation of results. A short orientation on correct use and interpretation further improved accuracy, from 70% to 80%. The results indicate that apparently simple diagnostic tests can be poorly performed and interpreted, but provision of clear, simple instructions can reduce these errors. Preparation of appropriate instructions and training as well as monitoring of user behaviour are an essential part of rapid test implementation.

  8. History of malaria control in Tajikistan and rapid malaria appraisal in an agro-ecological setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utzinger Jürg

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reported malaria cases in rice growing areas in western Tajikistan were at the root of a rapid appraisal of the local malaria situation in a selected agro-ecological setting where only scarce information was available. The rapid appraisal was complemented by a review of the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan and Central Asia from 1920 until today. Following a resurgence in the 1990s, malaria transmission has been reduced considerably in Tajikistan as a result of concerted efforts by the government and international agencies. The goal for 2015 is transmission interruption, with control interventions and surveillance currently concentrated in the South, where foci of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum persist. Methods The rapid malaria appraisal was carried out in six communities of irrigated rice cultivation during the peak of malaria transmission (August/September 2007 in western Tajikistan. In a cross-sectional survey, blood samples were taken from 363 schoolchildren and examined for Plasmodium under a light microscope. A total of 56 farmers were interviewed about agricultural activities and malaria. Potential Anopheles breeding sites were characterized using standardized procedures. A literature review on the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan was conducted. Results One case of P. vivax was detected among the 363 schoolchildren examined (0.28%. The interviewees reported to protect themselves against mosquito bites and used their own concepts on fever conditions, which do not distinguish between malaria and other diseases. Three potential malaria vectors were identified, i.e. Anopheles superpictus, Anopheles pulcherrimus and Anopheles hyrcanus in 58 of the 73 breeding sites examined (79.5%. Rice paddies, natural creeks and man-made ponds were the most important Anopheles habitats. Conclusion The presence of malaria vectors and parasite reservoirs, low awareness of, and protection against

  9. Malaria morbidity in high and seasonal malaria transmission area of Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Ouédraogo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malariometric parameters are often primary endpoints of efficacy trials of malaria vaccine candidates. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of malaria prior to the conduct of a series of drug and vaccine trials in a rural area of Burkina Faso. METHODS: Malaria incidence was prospectively evaluated over one year follow-up among two cohorts of children aged 0-5 years living in the Saponé health district. The parents of 1089 children comprising a passive case detection cohort were encouraged to seek care from the local health clinic at any time their child felt sick. Among this cohort, 555 children were randomly selected for inclusion in an active surveillance sub-cohort evaluated for clinical malaria during twice weekly home visits. Malaria prevalence was evaluated by cross-sectional survey during the low and high transmission seasons. RESULTS: Number of episodes per child ranged from 0 to 6 per year. Cumulative incidence was 67.4% in the passive and 86.2% in the active cohort and was highest among children 0-1 years. Clinical malaria prevalence was 9.8% in the low and 13.0% in the high season (p>0.05. Median days to first malaria episode ranged from 187 (95% CI 180-193 among children 0-1 years to 228 (95% CI 212, 242 among children 4-5 years. The alternative parasite thresholds for the malaria case definition that achieved optimal sensitivity and specificity (70-80% were 3150 parasites/µl in the high and 1350 parasites/µl in the low season. CONCLUSION: Clinical malaria burden was highest among the youngest age group children, who may represent the most appropriate target population for malaria vaccine candidate development. The pyrogenic threshold of parasitaemia varied markedly by season, suggesting a value for alternative parasitaemia levels in the malaria case defintion. Regional epidemiology of malaria described, Sapone area field centers are positioned for future conduct of malaria vaccine trials.

  10. Knowledge Requirements Formula for Interpreters and Interpreting Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宇婷

    2009-01-01

    Based on Zhong Weihe's knowledge requirements formula for interpreters:KI=KL+EK+S(P+AP),this paper explains in detail how the different knowledge is used in the course of interpreting and provides some useful strategies in interpreting practice.

  11. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in malaria: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laltanpuii Sailo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC is seen in <5% of patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria and is more common in cerebral malaria. Here, we report the diagnosis and management of a case of severe P. falciparum malaria with DIC.

  12. Natural diversity of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, Alistair; Harding, Nicholas J; Botta, Giordano; Clarkson, Chris; Antão, Tiago; Kozak, Krzysztof; Schrider, Daniel; Kern, Andrew; Redmond, Seth; Sharakhov, Igor; Pearson, Richard; Bergey, Christina; Fontaine, Michael C; Troco, Arlete; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Costantini, Carlo; Rohatgi, Kyanne; Elissa, Nohal; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Dinis, Joao; Midega, Janet; Mbogo, Charles; Mawejje, Henry; Stalker, Jim; Rockett, Kirk; Drury, Eleanor; Mead, Dan; Jeffreys, Anna; Hubbart, Christina; Rowlands, Kate; Isaacs, Alison; Jyothi, Dushyanth; Malangone, Cinzia; Vauterin, Paul; Jeffrey, Ben; Wright, Ian; Hart, Lee; Kluczynski, Krzysztof; Cornelius, Victoria; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Henrichs, Christa; Giacomantonio, Rachel; Ayala, Diego; Bejon, Philip; Besansky, Nora; Burt, Austin; Caputo, Beniamino; della Torre, Alessandra; Godfray, Charles; Hahn, Matthew; Neafsey, Daniel E; O'Loughlin, Samantha; Pinto, João; Riehle, Michelle; Vernick, Kenneth; Weetman, David; Wilding, Craig; White, Bradley; Lawniczak, Mara; Donnelly, Martin; Kwiatkowski, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    The sustainability of malaria control in Africa is threatened by rising levels of insecticide resistance, and new tools to prevent malaria transmission are urgently needed. To gain a better understanding of the mosquito populations that transmit malaria, we sequenced the genomes of 765 wild

  13. Laboratory indicators of the diagnosis and course of imported malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Ida E; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Møller, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    When travellers return from malaria-endemic areas and present to hospital with fever, microscopy of blood smears remains the leading method to verify a suspected diagnosis of malaria. Additional laboratory abnormalities may, however, also be indicative of acute malaria infection. We monitored......, in particular thrombocyte counts, in guiding the clinician managing a returning traveller with fever....

  14. Malaria Parasitemia in Children Aged less than 5 Years Presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub Saharan Africa. ... An appraisal of this disease among these children is important to reducing ... and September 2011, were examined for presence of malaria parasites. ... Anti-malaria Combination Therapy (ACT) drugs were the commonest drugs ...

  15. Plasmodium falciparum transcriptome analysis reveals pregnancy malaria associated gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Proux, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) causing maternal anemia and low birth weight is among the multiple manifestations of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Infected erythrocytes (iEs) can acquire various adhesive properties that mediate the clinical severity of malaria. Recent advances...

  16. Susceptibility to malaria with a focus on the postpartum period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boel, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria in het kraambed is een afspiegeling van het succes waarmee malaria tijdens de zwangerschap is behandeld. Aan de Thais-Birmese grens is een zwangerschapscontrole opgezet met wekelijkse screening voor malaria. Dit heeft de afgelopen 25 jaar geleid tot een enorme afname in moedersterfte.

  17. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, th

  18. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, th

  19. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven; Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2017-01-01

    Translation, interpreting and lexicography represent three separate areas of human activity, each of them with its own theories, models and methods and, hence, with its own disciplinary underpinnings. At the same time, all three disciplines are characterized by a marked interdisciplinary dimension...... in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...... disciplines frequently come into touch with each other. This chapter discusses and explores some of the basic aspects of this interrelationship, focusing on the (potential) contribution of lexicography to translation and interpreting and on explaining the basic concepts and methods of the former discipline...

  20. Conference Interpreting Explained

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖孟姣

    2015-01-01

    This book written by Roderick Jones is easy to read for me.It gives me a bit confidence through reading a book and this time I know a bit about how to read a book quickly.After this,I will read more books about interpreting and translating for my further study.From my perspective,every part of this book consists of three parts,that is,the theory part,the examples part and the concluding part.Through reading this book,I know something about interpreting such as simultaneous interpreting techniques and some actual examples.Anyhow,I still need a lot of practice to improve my English capability.What I have written below is the main content of the fourth part in this book,and the feelings of my reading the book.

  1. Malaria parasitaemia and disorders of plasma electrolytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idogun ES; Airauhi LU

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To assess the plasma electrolyte status of patients with diagnosis of malaria but without the symptoms of diarrhea,vomiting or altered sensorium and correlation of the plasma electrolyte changes and the degree of parasitae-mia.Methods:All the participants were adults,who met the clinical case definition of malaria but without the symptoms of diarrhea,vomiting or other medical illness.Blood slides were screened microscopically for malaria par-asite and the parasite positive patients were grouped into A (mild),B (moderate)and C (heavy)malaria parasite-amia,depending on the malaria parasite count per high power microscopic field.Plasma sodium,potassium and chloride were estimated using the ion selective electrode method,while bicarbonate ions were determined by simple titration method.Results:A total of 200 subjects were studied which comprised of 150 patients and 50 controls.The mean plasma sodium was significantly lower in patients with heavy parasitaemia[group C,(128.8 ±1.2)mmol /L] compared to those with mild and moderate parasitemia[(133.5 ±2.8)mmol /L and (133.5 ±3.5)mmol /L,P <0.0001].The mean plasma chloride was lowest in those patients with heavy parasitaemia (group C)than those pa-tients of group A and B (P <0.0001).Patients in group C also had significant hypokalaemia[(3.2 ±0.5)mmol /L]when compared to those in groups A and B[(3.6 ±0.3)mmol /L and (4.1 ±0.6)mmol /L respectively,P <0. 0001].Conclusion:A disorder of plasma electrolytes in malaria patients that had no symptoms of diarrhea and vom-iting was reported.And the severity of hyponatraemia and hypokalaemia correlate with the severity of the patients′malaria parasitaemia.This data should alert clinicians on the need to assess electrolytes status of patients with ma-laria even without the symptoms of fluid loss,especially when malaria parasitaemia is heavy.

  2. Two cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Netherlands without recent travel to a malaria-endemic country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Joop E; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Kraaij-Dirkzwager, Marleen M; Kaan, Jan A; Fanoy, Ewout B; Haas, Pieter-Jan; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Kortbeek, Laetitia M; Sankatsing, Sanjay U C

    2013-09-01

    Recently, two patients of African origin were given a diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria without recent travel to a malaria-endemic country. This observation highlights the importance for clinicians to consider tropical malaria in patients with fever. Possible transmission routes of P. falciparum to these patients will be discussed. From a public health perspective, international collaboration is crucial when potential cases of European autochthonous P. falciparum malaria in Europe re considered.

  3. High Resolution Niche Models of Malaria Vectors in Northern Tanzania: A New Capacity to Predict Malaria Risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Manisha A; Desrochers, Rachelle E; Kerr, Jeremy T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission rates in Africa can vary dramatically over the space of a few kilometres. This spatial heterogeneity reflects variation in vector mosquito habitat and presents an important obstacle to the efficient allocation of malaria control resources. Malaria control is further complicated by combinations of vector species that respond differently to control interventions. Recent modelling innovations make it possible to predict vector distributions and extrapolate malaria...

  4. Malaria vaccines and their potential role in the elimination of malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwood Brian M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on malaria vaccines is currently directed primarily towards the development of vaccines that prevent clinical malaria. Malaria elimination, now being considered seriously in some epidemiological situations, requires a different vaccine strategy, since success will depend on killing all parasites in the community in order to stop transmission completely. The feature of the life-cycles of human malarias that presents the greatest challenge to an elimination programme is the persistence of parasites as asymptomatic infections. These are an important source from which transmission to mosquitoes can occur. Consequently, an elimination strategy requires a community-based approach covering all individuals and not just those who are susceptible to clinical malaria. The progress that has been made in development of candidate malaria vaccines is reviewed. It is unlikely that many of these will have the efficacy required for complete elimination of parasites, though they may have an important role to play as part of future integrated control programmes. Vaccines for elimination must have a high level of efficacy in order to stop transmission to mosquitoes. This might be achieved with some pre-erythrocytic stage candidate vaccines or by targeting the sexual stages directly with transmission-blocking vaccines. An expanded malaria vaccine programme with such objectives is now a priority.

  5. Integrated reservoir interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caamano, Ed; Dickerman, Ken; Thornton, Mick (Conoco Indonesia Inc., Jakarta (Indonesia)); Corbett, Chip; Douglas, David; Schultz, Phil (GeoQuest, Houston, TX (United States)); Gir, Roopa; Nicholson, Barry (GeoQuest, Jakarta (Indonesia)); Martono, Dwi; Padmono, Joko; Novias; Kiagus; Suroso, Sigit (Pertamina Sumbagut, Brandan, North Sumatra (Indonesia)); Mathieu, Gilles (Etudes et Productions Schlumberger, Clamart (France)); Yan, Zhao (China National Petroleum Company, Beijing (China))

    1994-07-01

    Improved reservoir management often relies on linking a variety of application software that helps geoscientists handle, visualize and interpret massive amounts of diverse data. The goal is to obtain the best possible reservoir model so its behavior can be understood and optimized. But diverse application software creates specialty niches and discourages integrated interpretation. A description is given of a new reservoir management package that covers all required functionalities and encourages the geologist, geophysicist, petrophysicist and reservoir engineer to embrace the integrated approach. Case studies are included in the article. 21 figs., 13 refs.

  6. Conjunctive interpretations of disjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert van Rooij

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this extended commentary I discuss the problem of how to account for "conjunctive" readings of some sentences with embedded disjunctions for globalist analyses of conversational implicatures. Following Franke (2010, 2009, I suggest that earlier proposals failed, because they did not take into account the interactive reasoning of what else the speaker could have said, and how else the hearer could have interpreted the (alternative sentence(s. I show how Franke's idea relates to more traditional pragmatic interpretation strategies. doi:10.3765/sp.3.11 BibTeX info

  7. Normative interpretations of diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2009-01-01

    of the Prophet Muhammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten. The controversy was seen as a case of freedom of expression, toleration, racism, (in)civility and (dis)respect, and the article notes different understandings of these principles and how the application of them to the controversy implied different......Normative interpretations of particular cases consist of normative principles or values coupled with social theoretical accounts of the empirical facts of the case. The article reviews the most prominent normative interpretations of the Muhammad cartoons controversy over the publication of drawings...

  8. Pregnancy malaria: cryptic disease, apparent solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Emmet Duffy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria during pregnancy can be severe in non-immune women, but in areas of stable transmission, where women are semi-immune and often asymptomatic during infection, malaria is an insidious cause of disease and death for mothers and their offspring. Sequelae, such as severe anaemia and hypertension in the mother and low birth weight and infant mortality in the offspring, are often not recognised as consequences of infection. Pregnancy malaria, caused by Plasmodium falciparum, is mediated by infected erythrocytes (IEs that bind to chondroitin sulphate A and are sequestered in the placenta. These parasites have a unique adhesion phenotype and distinct antigenicity, which indicates that novel targets may be required for development of an effective vaccine. Women become resistant to malaria as they acquire antibodies against placental IE, which leads to higher haemoglobin levels and heavier babies. Proteins exported from the placental parasites have been identified, including both variant and conserved antigens, and some of these are in preclinical development for vaccines. A vaccine that prevents P. falciparum malaria in pregnant mothers is feasible and would potentially save hundreds of thousands of lives each year.

  9. Metabolomics in the fight against malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L Salinas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics uses high-resolution mass spectrometry to provide a chemical fingerprint of thousands of metabolites present in cells, tissues or body fluids. Such metabolic phenotyping has been successfully used to study various biologic processes and disease states. High-resolution metabolomics can shed new light on the intricacies of host-parasite interactions in each stage of the Plasmodium life cycle and the downstream ramifications on the host’s metabolism, pathogenesis and disease. Such data can become integrated with other large datasets generated using top-down systems biology approaches and be utilised by computational biologists to develop and enhance models of malaria pathogenesis relevant for identifying new drug targets or intervention strategies. Here, we focus on the promise of metabolomics to complement systems biology approaches in the quest for novel interventions in the fight against malaria. We introduce the Malaria Host-Pathogen Interaction Center (MaHPIC, a new systems biology research coalition. A primary goal of the MaHPIC is to generate systems biology datasets relating to human and non-human primate (NHP malaria parasites and their hosts making these openly available from an online relational database. Metabolomic data from NHP infections and clinical malaria infections from around the world will comprise a unique global resource.

  10. Plasmodium vivax malaria during pregnancy, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutus, Laurent; Santalla, José; Schneider, Dominique; Avila, Juan Carlos; Deloron, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Plasmodium vivax is a major cause of illness in areas with low transmission of malaria in Latin America, Asia, and the Horn of Africa. However, pregnancy-associated malaria remains poorly characterized in such areas. Using a hospital-based survey of women giving birth and an antenatal survey, we assessed the prevalence rates of Plasmodium spp. infections in pregnant women in Bolivia, and evaluated the consequences of malaria during pregnancy on the health of mothers and newborns. P. vivax infection was detected in 7.9% of pregnant women attending antenatal visits, and placental infection occurred in 2.8% of deliveries; these rates did not vary with parity. Forty-two percent of all P. vivax malaria episodes were symptomatic. P. vivax-infected pregnant women were frequently anemic (6.5%) and delivered babies of reduced birthweight. P. vivax infections during pregnancy are clearly associated with serious adverse outcomes and should be considered in prevention strategies of pregnancy-associated malaria.

  11. Epidemiology and control of malaria in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Padilla Rodríguez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is currently one of the most serious public health problems in Colombia with an endemic/epidemic transmission pattern that has maintained endemic levels and an average of 105,000 annual clinical cases being reported over the last five years. Plasmodium vivax accounts for approximately 70% of reported cases with the remainder attributed almost exclusively to Plasmodium falciparum. A limited number of severe and complicated cases have resulted in mortality, which is a downward trend that has been maintained over the last few years. More than 90% of the malaria cases in Colombia are confined to 70 municipalities (about 7% of the total municipalities of Colombia, with high predominance (85% in rural areas. The purpose of this paper is to review the progress of malaria-eradication activities and control measures over the past century within the eco-epidemiologic context of malaria transmission together with official consolidated morbidity and mortality reports. This review may contribute to the formulation of new antimalarial strategies and policies intended to achieve malaria elimination/eradication in Colombia and in the region.

  12. The rediscovery of malaria parasites of ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Thomas J; Martinsen, Ellen; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Kaneko, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    Over a hundred years since their first description in 1913, the sparsely described malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) of ungulates have been rediscovered using molecular typing techniques. In the span of weeks, three studies have appeared describing the genetic characterization and phylogenetic analyses of malaria parasites from African antelope (Cephalophus spp.) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus), Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), and North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Here we unify the contributions from those studies with the literature on pre-molecular characterizations of ungulate malaria parasites, which are largely based on surveys of Giemsa-reagent stained blood smears. We present a phylogenetic tree generated from all available ungulate malaria parasite sequence data, and show that parasites from African duiker antelope and goat, Asian water buffalo and New World white-tailed deer group together in a clade, which branches early in Plasmodium evolution. Anopheline mosquitoes appear to be the dominant, if not sole vectors for parasite transmission. We pose questions for future phylogenetic studies, and discuss topics that we hope will spur further molecular and cellular studies of ungulate malaria parasites.

  13. Remotely Sensed Environmental Conditions and Malaria Mortality in Three Malaria Endemic Regions in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewe, Maquins Odhiambo; Ahlm, Clas; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in malaria endemic countries. The malaria mosquito vectors depend on environmental conditions, such as temperature and rainfall, for reproduction and survival. To investigate the potential for weather driven early warning systems to prevent disease occurrence, the disease relationship to weather conditions need to be carefully investigated. Where meteorological observations are scarce, satellite derived products provide new opportunities to study the disease patterns depending on remotely sensed variables. In this study, we explored the lagged association of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NVDI), day Land Surface Temperature (LST) and precipitation on malaria mortality in three areas in Western Kenya. The lagged effect of each environmental variable on weekly malaria mortality was modeled using a Distributed Lag Non Linear Modeling approach. For each variable we constructed a natural spline basis with 3 degrees of freedom for both the lag dimension and the variable. Lag periods up to 12 weeks were considered. The effect of day LST varied between the areas with longer lags. In all the three areas, malaria mortality was associated with precipitation. The risk increased with increasing weekly total precipitation above 20 mm and peaking at 80 mm. The NDVI threshold for increased mortality risk was between 0.3 and 0.4 at shorter lags. This study identified lag patterns and association of remote- sensing environmental factors and malaria mortality in three malaria endemic regions in Western Kenya. Our results show that rainfall has the most consistent predictive pattern to malaria transmission in the endemic study area. Results highlight a potential for development of locally based early warning forecasts that could potentially reduce the disease burden by enabling timely control actions.

  14. Factors impeding the acceptability and use of malaria preventive measures: implications for malaria elimination in eastern Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingabire, C.M.; Rulisa, A.; Kempen, van L.; Muvunyi, C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Vugt, van M.; Mutesa, L.; Borne, van den B.; Alaii, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), indoor residual spraying (IRS) and malaria case treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) have been proven to significantly reduce malaria, but may not necessarily lead to malaria elimination. This study explored factors hindering th

  15. Factors impeding the acceptability and use of malaria preventive measures: implications for malaria elimination in eastern Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingabire, C.; Rulisa, A.; Kempen, L.A.C.M. van; Muvunyi, C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Vugt, M. van; Mutesa, L.; Borne, B. Van Den; Alaii, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), indoor residual spraying (IRS) and malaria case treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) have been proven to significantly reduce malaria, but may not necessarily lead to malaria elimination. This study explored factors hindering

  16. Community response to artemisinin-based combination therapy for childhood malaria: a case study from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyato Daniel J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New malaria treatment guidelines in Tanzania have led to the large-scale deployment of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®, popularly known as ALu or dawa mseto. Very little is known about how people in malaria endemic areas interpret policy makers' decision to replace existing anti-malarials, such as sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP with "new" treatment regimens, such as ALu or other formulations of ACT. This study was conducted to examine community level understandings and interpretations of ALu's efficacy and side-effects. The paper specifically examines the perceived efficacy of ALu as articulated by the mothers of young children diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Methods Participant observation, six focus group discussions in two large villages, followed by interviews with a random sample of 110 mothers of children less than five years of age, who were diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Additionally, observations were conducted in two village dispensaries involving interactions between mothers/caretakers and health care providers. Results While more than two-thirds of the mothers had an overall negative disposition toward SP, 97.5% of them spoke favourably about ALu, emphasizing it's ability to help their children to rapidly recover from malaria, without undesirable side-effects. 62.5% of the mothers reported that they were spending less money dealing with malaria than previously when their child was treated with SP. 88% of the mothers had waited for 48 hours or more after the onset of fever before taking their child to the dispensary. Mothers' knowledge and reporting of ALu's dosage was, in many cases, inconsistent with the recommended dosage schedule for children. Conclusion Deployment of ALu has significantly changed community level perceptions of anti-malarial treatment. However, mothers continue to delay seeking care before accessing ALu, limiting the impact of highly subsidized rollout of the drug

  17. Atypical lymphocytes in malaria mimicking dengue infection in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polrat Wilairatana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polrat Wilairatana1, Noppadon Tangpukdee1, Sant Muangnoicharoen1, Srivicha Krudsood2, Shigeyuki Kano31Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Tropical Hygiene, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Department of Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Patients with uncomplicated falciparum or vivax malaria usually present with acute febrile illness and thrombocytopenia similar to dengue infection. We retrospectively studied atypical lymphocytes (AL and atypical lymphocytosis (ALO, defined as AL > 5% of total white blood cells in 1310 uncomplicated malaria patients. In 718 falciparum malaria patients, AL and ALO on day 0 were found in 53.2% and 5.7% of the patients, respectively, with median AL on admission of 1% (range 0%–10%, whereas in 592 vivax malaria patients, AL and ALO on day 0 were found in 55.4% and 9.5% of the patients, respectively, with median AL on admission of 1% (range 0%–14%. After antimalarial treatment, AL and ALO declined in both falciparum and vivax malaria. However, AL and ALO remained in falciparum malaria on days 7, 14, and 21, whereas AL and ALO remained in vivax malaria on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. In both falciparum and vivax malaria patients, there was a positive correlation between AL and total lymphocytes, but a negative correlation between AL and highest fever on admission, white blood cells, and neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets (P < 0.05. In conclusion, AL or ALO may be found in uncomplicated falciparum and vivax malaria mimicking dengue infection. In tropical countries where both dengue and malaria are endemic, presence of AL or ALO in any acute febrile patients with thrombocytopenia (similar to the findings in dengue malaria could not be excluded. Particularly if the patients have risk of malaria infection, confirmative microscopic examination for malaria should be carried out

  18. Malaria in rural Mozambique. Part II: children admitted to hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macete Eusébio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterization of severe malaria cases on arrival to hospital may lead to early recognition and improved management. Minimum community based-incidence rates (MCBIRs complement hospital data, describing the malaria burden in the community. Methods A retrospective analysis of all admitted malaria cases to a Mozambican rural hospital between June 2003 and May 2005 was conducted. Prevalence and case fatality rates (CFR for each sign and symptom were calculated. Logistic regression was used to identify variables which were independent risk factors for death. MCBIRs for malaria and severe malaria were calculated using data from the Demographic Surveillance System. Results Almost half of the 8,311 patients admitted during the study period had malaria and 13,2% had severe malaria. Children under two years accounted for almost 60% of all malaria cases. CFR for malaria was 1.6% and for severe malaria 4.4%. Almost 19% of all paediatric hospital deaths were due to malaria. Prostration (55.0%, respiratory distress (41.1% and severe anaemia (17.3% were the most prevalent signs among severe malaria cases. Severe anaemia and inability to look for mother's breast were independent risk factors for death in infants younger than eight months. For children aged eight months to four years, the risk factors were malnutrition, hypoglycaemia, chest indrawing, inability to sit and a history of vomiting. MCBIRs for severe malaria cases were highest in children aged six months to two years of age. MCBIRs for severe malaria per 1,000 child years at risk for the whole study period were 27 in infants, 23 in children aged 1 to Conclusion Malaria remains the number one cause of admission in this area of rural Mozambique, predominantly affecting young children, which are also at higher risk of dying. Measures envisaged to protect children during their first two years of life are likely to have a greater impact than at any other age.

  19. Malaria in rural Mozambique. Part II: children admitted to hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassat, Quique; Guinovart, Caterina; Sigaúque, Betuel; Aide, Pedro; Sacarlal, Jahit; Nhampossa, Tacilta; Bardají, Azucena; Nhacolo, Ariel; Macete, Eusébio; Mandomando, Inácio; Aponte, John J; Menéndez, Clara; Alonso, Pedro L

    2008-02-26

    Characterization of severe malaria cases on arrival to hospital may lead to early recognition and improved management. Minimum community based-incidence rates (MCBIRs) complement hospital data, describing the malaria burden in the community. A retrospective analysis of all admitted malaria cases to a Mozambican rural hospital between June 2003 and May 2005 was conducted. Prevalence and case fatality rates (CFR) for each sign and symptom were calculated. Logistic regression was used to identify variables which were independent risk factors for death. MCBIRs for malaria and severe malaria were calculated using data from the Demographic Surveillance System. Almost half of the 8,311 patients admitted during the study period had malaria and 13,2% had severe malaria. Children under two years accounted for almost 60% of all malaria cases. CFR for malaria was 1.6% and for severe malaria 4.4%. Almost 19% of all paediatric hospital deaths were due to malaria. Prostration (55.0%), respiratory distress (41.1%) and severe anaemia (17.3%) were the most prevalent signs among severe malaria cases. Severe anaemia and inability to look for mother's breast were independent risk factors for death in infants younger than eight months. For children aged eight months to four years, the risk factors were malnutrition, hypoglycaemia, chest indrawing, inability to sit and a history of vomiting.MCBIRs for severe malaria cases were highest in children aged six months to two years of age. MCBIRs for severe malaria per 1,000 child years at risk for the whole study period were 27 in infants, 23 in children aged 1 to or =5 years. Malaria remains the number one cause of admission in this area of rural Mozambique, predominantly affecting young children, which are also at higher risk of dying. Measures envisaged to protect children during their first two years of life are likely to have a greater impact than at any other age.

  20. Interpreting the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  1. Interpreting the Santal Rebellion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Birkelund

    2016-01-01

    Postcolonial studies have interpreted the Santal Rebellion, the hul of 1855, as a peasant rebellion that the colonial power construed as an ethnic rebellion (R. Guha). Anthropologists and historians have stressed the near-complete mobilisation of the Santals, whereas a later colonial historian (W...

  2. Social Maladjustment: An Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, David B.

    The exclusionary term, "social maladjustment," the definition in Public Law 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) of serious emotional disturbance, has been an enigma for special education. This paper attempts to limit the interpretation of social maladjustment in order to counter effects of such decisions as…

  3. Interpretations of Greek Mythology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This collection of original studies offers new interpretations of some of the best known characters and themes of Greek mythology, reflecting the complexity and fascination of the Greek imagination. Following analyses of the concept of myth and the influence of the Orient on Greek mythology, the

  4. Interpretations of Greek Mythology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This collection of original studies offers new interpretations of some of the best known characters and themes of Greek mythology, reflecting the complexity and fascination of the Greek imagination. Following analyses of the concept of myth and the influence of the Orient on Greek mythology, the suc

  5. Conflicts in interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, G.; Hendriks, P.; Hoop, H. de; Krämer, I.; Swart, Henriëtte de; Zwarts, J.

    2007-01-01

    The leading hypothesis of this paper is that interpretation is a process of constraint satisfaction, conflict resolution, and optimization, along the lines of Optimality Theory. Support for this view is drawn from very different domains, and based on both experimental and theoretical research. We di

  6. Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

  7. Interpretation as conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Henriëtte de; Zwart, J.

    Semantic interpretation is not a simple process. When we want to know what a given sentence means, more is needed than just a simple ‘adding up’ of the meanings of the component words. Not only can the words in a sentence interact and conflict with each other, but also with the linguistic and

  8. The act of interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abreu, Aloysio Augusto

    2006-08-01

    The author understands the interpreting act as an attempt to perceive what happens in the transference/countertransference field and not just what happens in the patient's mind. Interpretation transcends mere intellectual communication. It is also an experience in which analysts' emotions work as an important instrument in understanding their patients. Interpretation is seen to possess manifest as well as latent content; the latter would contain the analysts' feelings, emotions and personality. The unconscious content of an interpretation does not inconvenience or preclude the development of the analytic process, but, on the contrary, it allows new associative material to emerge, and it transforms the analytic session into a human relationship. Analysts' awareness of this content derived from patients' apperceptions is a significant instrument for understanding what is happening in the analytic relationship, and what transpires in these sessions provides fundamental elements for analysts' self-analysis. Some clinical examples demonstrate these occurrences in analytic sessions, and how they can be apprehended and used for a better understanding of the patient. The author also mentions the occurrence of difficulties during the analytic process. These difficulties are often the result of lapses in an analyst's perception related to unconscious elements of the relationship.

  9. Interpreting television news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Television news range among the most extensively investigated topics in communication studies. The book contributes to television news research by focusing on whether and how news viewers who watch the same news program form similar or different interpretations. The author develops a novel concept o

  10. Can Wolbachia be used to control malaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Walker

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites transmitted by the infectious bite of Anopheles mosquitoes. Vector control of malaria has predominantly focused on targeting the adult mosquito through insecticides and bed nets. However, current vector control methods are often not sustainable for long periods so alternative methods are needed. A novel biocontrol approach for mosquito-borne diseases has recently been proposed, it uses maternally inherited endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria transinfected into mosquitoes in order to interfere with pathogen transmission. Transinfected Wolbachia strains in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the primary vector of dengue fever, directly inhibit pathogen replication, including Plasmodium gallinaceum, and also affect mosquito reproduction to allow Wolbachia to spread through mosquito populations. In addition, transient Wolbachia infections in Anopheles gambiae significantly reduce Plasmodium levels. Here we review the prospects of using a Wolbachia-based approach to reduce human malaria transmission through transinfection of Anopheles mosquitoes.

  11. Development of vaccines for Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ivo; Shakri, Ahmad Rushdi; Chitnis, Chetan E

    2015-12-22

    Plasmodium vivax continues to cause significant morbidity outside Africa with more than 50% of malaria cases in many parts of South and South-east Asia, Pacific islands, Central and South America being attributed to P. vivax infections. The unique biology of P. vivax, including its ability to form latent hypnozoites that emerge months to years later to cause blood stage infections, early appearance of gametocytes before clinical symptoms are apparent and a shorter development cycle in the vector makes elimination of P. vivax using standard control tools difficult. The availability of an effective vaccine that provides protection and prevents transmission would be a valuable tool in efforts to eliminate P. vivax. Here, we review the latest developments related to P. vivax malaria vaccines and discuss the challenges as well as directions toward the goal of developing highly efficacious vaccines against P. vivax malaria.

  12. 20 YEARS OF PROGRESS IN MALARIA RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kevin Baird

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2 Detachment (NAMRU, in collaboration with National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD and many other Indonesian government agencies and universities, has conducted studies of malaria throughout Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Kalimantan, Flores, Timor, and Irian Jaya. Most studies have characterized the disease epidemiologically by defining the parasitologic distribution of the disease in the population, and by defining the entomologic parameters of local transmission. Studies of patterns of resistance to antimalarials have also been done at many field sites. Several studies on the clinical management of malaria occurred in Rumah Sakit Umum Propinsi in Jayapura. In addition to these studies which impact upon local public health planning policy, immunologic studies routinely occurred in support of the global effort to develop a vaccine against malaria. This report summarizes the progress made in these areas of research during the first 20 years of NAMRU in Indonesia.

  13. Malaria vaccine based on self-assembling protein nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Peter; Lanar, David E

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress with GSK's RTS,S malaria vaccine, there remains a desperate need for an efficient malaria vaccine. We have used a repetitive antigen display technology to display malaria specific B cell and T cell epitopes in an effort to design a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Our protein sequence when assembled into a nanoparticle induces strong, long-lived and protective immune responses against infection with the parasite. We are confident that the clinical trials with our most developed vaccine candidate will show good protection in a controlled human malaria infection trial.

  14. Intravenous artesunate for severe malaria in travelers, Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoller, Thomas; Junghanss, Thomas; Kapaun, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Multicenter trials in Southeast Asia have shown better survival rates among patients with severe malaria, particularly those with high parasitemia levels, treated with intravenous (IV) artesunate than among those treated with quinine. In Europe, quinine is still the primary treatment for severe...... malaria. We conducted a retrospective analysis for 25 travelers with severe malaria who returned from malaria-endemic regions and were treated at 7 centers in Europe. All patients survived. Treatment with IV artesunate rapidly reduced parasitemia levels. In 6 patients at 5 treatment centers, a self...... of malaria patients in Europe. Patients should be monitored for signs of hemolysis, especially after parasitologic cure....

  15. Profil Zat Besi Ibu Hamil di Daerah Endemis Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostika Flora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pada saat kehamilan, terjadi peningkatan kebutuhan zat besi (Fe yang diperlukan untuk meningkatkan jumlah sel darah merah ibu dan membentuk sel darah merah janin dan plasenta. Apabila kebutuhan zat besi ini tidak terpenuhi, akan terjadi anemia defisiensi besi. Ibu hamil yang tinggal di daerah endemis malaria rentan terinfeksi malaria, yang berdampak terhadap anemia pada kehamilan. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif dengan desain potong lintang yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran profil zat besi pada ibu hamil yang berada di daerah endemis malaria vivax kota Bengkulu. Pemeriksaan mikroskopis malaria dan pengambilan sampel darah dilakukan untuk pemeriksaan profil zat besi terhadap 55 orang ibu hamil trimester II dan III yang mempunyai riwayat malaria di 5 wilayah kerja puskesmas. Data yang diperoleh kemudian dilakukan analisis univariat. Pada ibu hamil yang tidak terinfeksi malaria tetapi mempunyai riwayat malaria, 90,5% mengalami anemia, 41,5% mengalami penurunan kadar Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC, dan 17% mengalami penurunan kadar Fe serum. Ibu hamil yang terinfeksi malaria vivax selain terjadi penurunan kadar hemoglobin juga disertai dengan penurunan kadar Fe serum dan kadar TIBC. Pada ibu hamil yang menderita malaria falsiparum, terjadi penurunan kadar hemoglobin (Hb dan kadar TIBC tetapi tidak disertai dengan penurunan kadar Fe serum. Ibu hamil yang terinfeksi malaria maupun yang mempunyai riwayat terinfeksi malaria mengalami anemia pada kehamilan. During pregnancy, the need of iron increase significantly. Iron is needed for increasing the amount of mother’s red blood cell and form the red blood cell of fetus and placenta. If this iron needs is not fulfilled, it could cause iron deficiency anemia. Pregnant women who live in endemic malaria will be vulnerable to be infected malaria, and will cause anemia in pregnancy. This research was aimed to know iron profile in pregnant women that live in endemic malaria area

  16. Response to diazepam in children with malaria induced seizures

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Summary Malaria infection reduces the binding capacity of benzodiazepine receptors in mice. We studied the efficacy of diazepam terminating seizures in children with falciparum malaria. Diazepam stopped seizures in fewer patients with malaria parasitaemia (χ 2 = 3.93, P = 0.047) and those with clinical diagnosis of malaria (χ 2 = 9.84, P = 0.002) compared to those without. However malaria was not identified as an independent risk factor for diazepam's failure to stop seizures in children....

  17. Defining childhood severe falciparum malaria for intervention studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Bejon, P.; Berkley, JA; MWANGI, T; Ogada, E; Mwangi, I; Maitland, K; Williams, T; Scott, JA; English, M; Lowe, BS; Peshu, N; Newton, CR; Marsh, K.

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Malaria is responsible for over a million deaths every year, and most of those who die are children in Africa. Until a few years ago, not enough research was being done on malaria, but now many researchers are active in this field. Doctors describe some cases of malaria as being “severe.” Severe malaria in children is very hard to diagnose precisely. Current protocols for diagnosing severe malaria are very sensitive: that is, virtually all children who do have sev...

  18. Analysis of Implementation The Policy on Malaria Elimination in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Roosihermiatie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a tropic country Indonesia still faces malaria problems. In Asean, indonesia is one of three countries with the highest malaria morbidity. In 2007, 396 (80% of 495 districts/municipalities in indonesia are malaria. In 2009 the government issued a decree of the minister of health No 293 on malaria elimination. The study aimed to analyze the implementation decree of Ministry of Health No. 293/2009 on malaria elimination. Methods: It was a descriptive study. The study was conducted in 4 provinces, and 4 districts based on malaria elimination stages as in Bali province and Karangasem district, Riau islands province and Bintan district, West Nusa Tenggara province and west Lombok district, and Maluku province and South Halmahera district. The stakeholders were Heads and malaria programmers at province/district Health Offices and the related programs. Data were collected by focus group discussion and secondary data were taken. Data were collected by focus group discussion and secondary data. Analysis for Ministry of Health decree No.293 year 2009 on 1 Comphrehend, 2 Implementation, and, 3 Comittment, 4 Innovation intervension to support malaria elimination, 5 Sustainability of activity community empowerment, 6 Proportion of budget. Results: showed there was district that had not issued local policy on malaria elimination, the implementation with comittment especially that health centers in areas under study corfi rm diagnose by laboratory examination and malaria treatment by Artemisin Combined Therapy (ACT, although there were still treatment to clinical malaria, innovation activities were of bersifat local spesifi c, and reward for Juru Malaria Desa or malaria cadre to increase malaria suspect case detection, and with district budget for malaria program ranged 0,95-5,6% of the total budget. Recomendations: It suggested to advocate all malaria endemic areas to issue local policy on malaria elimination, decide intervension of the

  19. CENTRIFUGED BUFFY COAT SMEAR: AN ALTERNATIVE TO CONVENTIONAL PERIPHERAL BLOOD SMEAR FOR DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge with more than 200 million deaths annually, specially in the tropical and subtropical countries.(1 In India malaria is endemic throughout the country, problem accounting for 1-2 million cases and 1100 deaths per year.(1 The commonly employed method for diagnosis of malaria involves the microscopic examination of Romanowsky stained blood films.(2 For decades light microscopy of blood smears has been the gold standard in the diagnosis of malaria.(3 It is labor intensive and requires considerable expertise for its interpretation, particularly at low level of parasitaemia.(4 The diagnostic modalities which are available for malaria range from conventional thick and thin smears, Quantitative buffy coat smears(QBC, to rapid and more reliable diagnostic modalities like antigen detection tests for detecting parasitic antigen like Histidine – rich protein-2 (HRP-2, Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH and pan specific aldolase. These techniques have variable sensitivity and specificity.(5 Each of these methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. A previous study from India(6 had developed standardized and reported on using Centrifuged buffy coat smear (CBCS examination for diagnosis of malaria, in which wide bore 4 ml tube instead of a Wintrobe’s tube has been used to obtain a buffy coat. This technique has advantage over the existing method. The purpose of the present study was to assess the usefulness of CBCS technique in comparison to peripheral blood smear and antigen detection. AIMS: Detection of malarial parasite by Centrifuged buffy coat smear (CBCS was compared with conventional thin and thick peripheral smear and antigen detection by commercially available card test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of CBCS in comparison to peripheral blood smear and antigen detection. METHODS, MATERIALS AND RESULTS: A total of 837 patients were tested

  20. Early detection and monitoring of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdelhamid; Miller, Howard; Rosy, Dilara A.

    2015-05-01

    Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) are bringing vital societal benefits to people around the globe. In this research article, we engage undergraduate students in the exciting area of space exploration to improve the health of millions of people globally. The goal of the proposed research is to place students in a learning environment where they will develop their problem solving skills in the context of a world crisis (e.g., malaria). Malaria remains one of the greatest threats to public health, particularly in developing countries. The World Health Organization has estimated that over one million die of Malaria each year, with more than 80% of these found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The mosquitoes transmit malaria. They breed in the areas of shallow surface water that are suitable to the mosquito and parasite development. These environmental factors can be detected with satellite imagery, which provide high spatial and temporal coverage of the earth's surface. We investigate on moisture, thermal and vegetation stress indicators developed from NOAA operational environmental satellite data. Using these indicators and collected epidemiological data, it is possible to produce a forecast system that can predict the risk of malaria for a particular geographical area with up to four months lead time. This valuable lead time information provides an opportunity for decision makers to deploy the necessary preventive measures (spraying, treated net distribution, storing medications and etc) in threatened areas with maximum effectiveness. The main objective of the proposed research is to study the effect of ecology on human health and application of NOAA satellite data for early detection of malaria.

  1. Malaria--Great Exuma, Bahamas, May-June 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-22

    Malaria in humans is caused by four distinct protozoan species of the genus Plasmodium (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae). These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. In the Caribbean region, malaria has been eliminated from all islands except Hispaniola, the island consisting of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Elimination of malaria elsewhere resulted from a combination of integrated control measures, socioeconomic development, and close public health surveillance. However, even Caribbean islands where malaria is no longer endemic remain at constant risk for reintroduction of the disease because of their tropical climate, presence of competent malaria vectors, and proximity to other countries where malaria is endemic. This susceptibility was underscored by the recent outbreak of malaria on the island of Great Exuma in the Bahamas; during May-June 2006, a total of 19 malaria cases were identified. Four of the cases, in travelers from North America and Europe, are described in this report; such cases of imported malaria can signal the presence of a malaria problem in the country visited and thus assist local health authorities in their investigations. On September 19, after 3 months with no report of new cases, CDC rescinded its previous recommendation that U.S.-based travelers take preventive doses of the antimalarial drug chloroquine before, during, and after travel to Great Exuma.

  2. Emerging new trends of malaria in children: A study from a tertiary care centre in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha Mittal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Vivax malaria has long been considered a benign entity. However, an increasing number of reports are highlighting that it may no longer be so. An investigation was carried out to study the profile of malarial admissions in a tertiary care pediatric hospital and to analyse the burden of vivax-related complications. Methods: It is a retrospective observational study. The medical case records of all the patients admitted in the year 2011 with the clinical diagnosis of malaria and laboratory evidence in the form of positive peripheral smear and/or rapid malarial antigen test were retrieved and retrospectively analysed. Results: Overall, 198 cases were included, 128 (64.6% were due to Plasmodium vivax, 66 (33.3% due to P. falciparum and 4 (2% had evidence of mixed infection of Pv + Pf. The clinical features on admission were similar in all the groups. In total, 64/128 (50% patients with vivax infection had one or more complications with severe anemia in 33 (26% and cerebral malaria in 16 (12.5%. Six deaths were reported in P. vivax cases. In the falciparum group, 52 (78.8% had one or more complications with severe anemia in 37 (56.1% and cerebral malaria in 24 (36.4%. Four deaths were reported in P. falciparum cases. Interpretation & conclusion: Overall because of their larger numbers, vivax patients outnumbered other groups, with regards to severe complications and deaths. It was concluded that vivax malaria is emerging as an important cause of malaria-related complications in children.

  3. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in India

    OpenAIRE

    Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Shah, Naman; Dhariwal, Akshay C.; Sonal, Gagan Singh; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Ghosh, Susanta K; Valecha, Neena

    2016-01-01

    Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all P. vivax cases repor...

  4. Malaria or kalimbe: how to choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme Bernard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Should the Kalimbe (a traditional Amerindian loincloth be banned, based on its association with an increased risk of malaria? Studies on malaria conducted on Amerindian children in the Oyapock region, French Guiana suggest that there is an argument for replacing the Kalimbe with a modern alternative. However, the wider issue of how the positive (risk reduction and related benefits and negative effects (exacerbation of acculturation processes and associated consequences should be assessed needs to be considered before suggesting a change in ancestral behaviour for medical purposes. A multidisciplinary approach is needed, together with caution and humility from epidemiologists.

  5. [New approaches of malaria prevention for travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Rachel; Berthod, Delphine; Rochat, Laurence; D'Acremont, Valérie; Genton, Blaise; De Vallière, Serge

    2016-05-01

    Malaria is declining in many tropical countries. This reduction challenges our usual preventive strategies. In moderate to low risk areas, the Swiss guidelines recommend a stand-by emergency treatment. Controversies between experts are numerous though. Professionals at the Travel Clinic in Lausanne has explored shared-decision making through three clinical studies. The first showed that travelers visiting moderate to low risk malaria areas prefer a standby emergency treatment rather than chemoprophylaxis. The second study investigates the use of rapid diagnostic tests by travelers. The third focuses on the prospects of tropical telemedicine. Involving the traveler into the debate is a priority, until a vaccine becomes available.

  6. Medicinal chemistry approaches to malaria drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Sofia Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Farmácia (Química Farmacêutica e Terapêutica), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Farmácia, 2016 Malaria remains a major burden to global public health, causing nearly 600,000 deaths annually. Efforts to control malaria are hampered by parasite drug resistance, insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, and the lack of an effective vaccine. However antimalarial drugs are a mainstay in efforts to control and eventually eradicate this disease, thus the discovery of new ant...

  7. Chronicle of malaria epidemics in Thailand, 1980-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konchom, Supawadee; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Chuprapawan, Sirichai; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Kidson, Chev; Yimsamran, Surapon; Rojanawatsirivet, Chaiporn

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of malaria epidemics in Thailand was reviewed from the malaria surveillance report of the National Malaria Control Program. The literature review revealed that the four epidemic periods recorded during 1980-2000 almost always occurred in the provinces and districts located along international borders. Malaria epidemics are caused by various factors such as: extensive population movement, multi-drug resistance development, low immune status of the population, lack of knowledge and appropriate personal protection against mosquito biting, and the re-emergence of malaria transmission in low malarious areas. Such factors can lead to changes in the parasite ratio and appearance of malaria epidemics throughout the country. Evidence related to the burden of malaria epidemics was also reviewed to identify causal factors that will be helpful in future research.

  8. Poverty and malaria in the Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Poverty and malaria appear to have an intertwined link. This paper aims to define the relationship between poverty and malaria in Yunnan, China, and to make recommendations for future research in this important area. Data on malaria prevalence and the population's income in each county between 2005 and 2010 were obtained from the Yunnan Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the Yunnan Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Geographic mapping shows an apparent spatial convergence of poverty and the incidence of malaria at a county level, and suggests that poverty may be one of the drivers of malaria transmission in Yunnan. Future research should focus on: 1. measuring and quantifying the relationship between poverty and the malaria burden at the individual, community, county and regional level in Yunnan; and 2. developing the GIS-based spatial decision support system (SDSS) framework in malaria endemic areas, particularly along the border areas in Yunnan.

  9. Cytokine Profiles in Malawian Children Presenting with Uncomplicated Malaria, Severe Malarial Anemia, and Cerebral Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Wilson L; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gondwe, Esther N; Drayson, Mark T; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Calman A

    2017-04-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines are involved in clearance of Plasmodium falciparum, and very high levels of these cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of severe malaria. In order to determine how cytokines vary with disease severity and syndrome, we enrolled Malawian children presenting with cerebral malaria (CM), severe malarial anemia (SMA), and uncomplicated malaria (UCM) and healthy controls. We analyzed serum cytokine concentrations in acute infection and in convalescence. With the exception of interleukin 5 (IL-5), cytokine concentrations were highest in acute CM, followed by SMA, and were only mildly elevated in UCM. Cytokine concentrations had fallen to control levels when remeasured at 1 month of convalescence in all three clinical malaria groups. Ratios of IL-10 to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and of IL-10 to IL-6 followed a similar pattern. Children presenting with acute CM had significantly higher concentrations of TNF-α (P Mandala et al.

  10. Malaria mapping: understanding the global endemicity of falciparum and vivax malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Ursula; Mappin, Bonnie; Gething, Peter W

    2015-06-12

    The mapping of malaria risk has a history stretching back over 100 years. The last decade, however, has seen dramatic progress in the scope, rigour and sophistication of malaria mapping such that its global distribution is now probably better understood than any other infectious disease. In this minireview we consider the main factors that have facilitated the recent proliferation of malaria risk mapping efforts and describe the most prominent global-scale endemicity mapping endeavours of recent years. We describe the diversification of malaria mapping to span a wide range of related metrics of biological and public health importance and consider prospects for the future of the science including its key role in supporting elimination efforts.

  11. [Diagnosis and treatment for three imported Plasmodium malariae malaria cases in Henan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Zhou, Rui-Min; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Qian, Dan; Liu, Ying; Chen, Wei-Qi; Zhao, Xu-Dong

    2014-02-01

    Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy, CareStart rapid detection and PCR were used to detect the three cases who returned from Angola and Equatorial Guinea to Henan Province. Onset of malaria symptoms for two patients occurred 15 d and 27 d after their return from Angola, respectively. Two months after returning home, another case relapsed who had suffered from malaria in Equatorial Guinea. All three patients had the symptoms such as irregular fever, headache, chills and so on. Two cases had elevated total bilirubin and splenomegaly. The cases were confirmed as P. malariae infection by microscopic morphological examination. Amplified bands were produced by 18S rRNA nested PCR, which was the same with P. malariae in size, whereas the results of CareStart repaid detection test were all negative. They were cured by using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT).

  12. Malaria on isolated Melanesian islands prior to the initiation of malaria elimination activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Government's Pacific Malaria Initiative (PacMI is supporting the National Malaria Program in both Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, complementing assistance from the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM. Two remote island groups - Tafea Province, Vanuatu and Temotu Province, Solomon Islands have been selected by the governments of both countries as possible malaria elimination areas. To provide information on the prevalence and distribution of the disease within these island groups, malariometric surveys were conducted during the wet seasons of 2008. Methods In Tafea Province, a school-based survey was conducted which included the 2-12 y age group, while in Temotu a village based all-ages survey was conducted. An effort was made to sample villages or schools from a wide an area as possible on all islands. Diagnosis was initially based on Giemsa stained blood slides followed by molecular analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results In Tafea Province, 73% (5238/7150 of children (2-12 y were surveyed and in Temotu Province, in the all-ages survey, 50.2% (8742/17410 of the provincial population participated in the survey. In both Vanuatu and Solomon Islands malariometric surveys of their southern-most islands in 2008 showed relatively low over-all malaria parasite prevalence (2 to 3%. Other features of malaria in these island groups were low parasitaemia, low gametocyte carriage rates, low spleen rates, low malaria associated morbidity, a high incidence of asymptomatic infections, and a predominance of Plasmodium vivax over Plasmodium falciparum. Conclusion For various reasons malaria rates are declining in these provinces providing a favourable situation for local malaria elimination. This will be advanced using mass distribution of bed nets and selective indoor residual spraying, the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin combination therapy, and intensive case detection and

  13. Interpretation of Internet technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    2001-01-01

    -cognitive competencies of organisations (Rindova & Fombrunn, 1999). The aim is to contribute to the existing technological implementation theory complex by studying the relationships between the elements of the socio-cognitive processes and the resulting interpretations and actions when new technologies are implemented......Research scope: The topic of the research project is to investigate how new internet technologies such as e-trade and customer relation marketing and management are implemented in Danish food processing companies. The aim is to use Weick's (1995) sensemaking concept to analyse the strategic...... processes leading to the use of internet marketing technologies and to investigate how these new technologies are interpreted into the organisation. Investigating the organisational socio-cognitive processes underlying the decision making processes will give further insight into the socio...

  14. Physical Interpretion of Antigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    Geodesic incompleteness is a problem in both general relativity and string theory. The Weyl invariant Standard Model coupled to General Relativity (SM+GR), and a similar treatment of string theory, are improved theories that are geodesically complete. A notable prediction of this approach is that there must be antigravity regions of spacetime connected to gravity regions through gravitational singularities such as those that occur in black holes and cosmological bang/crunch. Antigravity regions introduce apparent problems of ghosts that raise several questions of physical interpretation. It was shown that unitarity is not violated but there may be an instability associated with negative kinetic energies in the antigravity regions. In this paper we show that the apparent problems can be resolved with the interpretation of the theory from the perspective of observers strictly in the gravity region. Such observers cannot experience the negative kinetic energy in antigravity directly, but can only detect in and o...

  15. EMIRA: Ecologic Malaria Reduction for Africa – innovative tools for integrated malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dambach

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria control is based on early treatment of cases and on vector control. The current measures for malaria vector control in Africa are mainly based on long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs and to a much smaller extent on indoor residual spraying (IRS. A third pillar in the fight against the malaria vector, larval source management (LSM, has virtually not been used in Africa since the ban of DDT in the 1960s. Within the light of recent WHO recommendations for Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti use against malaria and other vector species, larval source management could see a revival in the upcoming years. In this project we analyze the ecologic and health impacts as well as the cost effectiveness of larval source management under different larviciding scenarios in a health district in Burkina Faso. Methods: The project is designed as prospective intervention study with duration of three years (2013–2015. Its spatial scale includes three arms of interventions and control, comprising a total of 127 villages and the district capital Nouna in the extended HDSS (Health Demographic Surveillance System of the Kossi province. Baseline data on mosquito abundance, parasitemia in U5 children, and malaria related morbidity and mortality are gathered over the project duration. Besides the outcome on ecologic and health parameters, the economic costs are seized and valued against the achieved health benefits. Conclusions: Risk map based, guided larvicide application might be a possibility to further decrease economic cost of LSM and facilitate its faster incorporation to integrated malaria control programs. Given the limited resources in many malaria endemic countries, it is of utmost importance to relate the costs of novel strategies for malaria prevention to their effect on the burden of the disease. Occurring costs and the impact on the health situation will be made comparable to other, existing intervention strategies, allowing

  16. Blood groups and malaria Grupos sanguíneos y malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Montoya

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available The possible relationship between erythrocyte antigens and the presence of malaria infection by P. vivax and P. falciparurn was sought in four different ethnic groups of two departments of Colombia. Malaria infection by P. falciparum was found in 91.4% of malaria infected blacks. No significant differences were found between the presence of malaria infection and ABO antigens. In the other blood groups, it was observed that groups MNSs conferred black people a greater Rr for malaria by both species of Plasmodium and that Duffy-negative blacks and indians appeared to be resistant to P. vivax infection. A predominance of P. vivax infection was observed in Katio indians while P.falciparum was predominant in Kuna indians; the reason for this finding still needs to be explored.Con el presente estudio se evalúa la relación existente entre la infección por P. vivax y P. falciparum y los antígenos eritrocitos de cuatro diferentes grupos étnicos en Colombia. P. falciparum se encontró causando malaria en el 91.4% de los individuos de raza negra que tuvieron malaria. No hubo diferenciais significativas entre la infección malaria y los antígenos ABO. La presencia de grupos del sistema MNSs en persona de raza negra confiere un mayor riesgo relativo por la infección para las dos especies de Plasmodium, igualmente hay mayor riesgo cuando se pertenece a la raza negra o indígena y el grupo Duffy es negativo. La infección por P. vivax predomina en los indios Katios pero en los Kunas prevalece P. falciparum.

  17. Well testing: interpretation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdarot, G. [Elf Aquitaine, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    1998-12-31

    This book presents the different methods to use for interpreting well tests: conventional methods, type curves, derivative, according to the type of reservoir limits (faults, channels, secant faults, constant pressure limits, closed reservoir) and the well configuration (partial penetration, inclined, fractured, horizontal or injection well). It indicates the method to be used in the case of more complex reservoirs (fissured reservoirs, two-layered reservoirs), interference tests or pulse tests and when fluid produced is gas or polyphasic. (authors) 60 refs.

  18. Well testing: interpretation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdarot, G. (Elf Aquitaine, 92 - Courbevoie (France))

    1998-01-01

    This book presents the different methods to use for interpreting well tests: conventional methods, type curves, derivative, according to the type of reservoir limits (faults, channels, secant faults, constant pressure limits, closed reservoir) and the well configuration (partial penetration, inclined, fractured, horizontal or injection well). It indicates the method to be used in the case of more complex reservoirs (fissured reservoirs, two-layered reservoirs), interference tests or pulse tests and when fluid produced is gas or polyphasic. (authors) 60 refs.

  19. Reflections and Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology of guide...... of guidelines; it is an anthology of explanations based on theory. And it is an anthology written by Freedom Writer Teachers – who else could do it?...

  20. Tips for Mental Health Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsett, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…

  1. Video interpretations in Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjerg, Lene Mosegaard; Noesgaard, Susanne; Henriksen, Jan Erik;

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of an RCT comparing video interpretation with in-person interpretation at the Endocrinology Ward at Odense University Hospital.......This article presents a study of an RCT comparing video interpretation with in-person interpretation at the Endocrinology Ward at Odense University Hospital....

  2. Microfinance against malaria: impact of Freedom from Hunger's malaria education when delivered by rural banks in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Natalie; Crookston, Benjamin; Gray, Bobbi; Alder, Steve; Dearden, Kirk

    2009-12-01

    A community randomized pre-test/post-test design was used to compare the knowledge and behaviors of microfinance clients receiving malaria education (n=213) to those receiving diarrhea education (n=223) and to non-client controls (n=268). Comparisons assessed differences at follow-up as well as within-group changes over time. At follow-up, malaria clients had significantly better malaria knowledge than comparison groups: 48.4% of malaria clients were able to identify groups most vulnerable to malaria compared with 39.2% of diarrhea clients (P=0.044) and 37.7% of non-clients (P=0.024). Malaria clients were more likely than diarrhea clients (P=0.024) (Pmicrofinance institutions can effectively contribute to community and national malaria initiatives.

  3. Prevalence of Malaria and Use of Malaria Risk Reduction Measures among Returning Pregnant Women in South Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania Aase; Gueth Kueil, Bill; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Background The study assessed aspects of malaria infection, prevention and treatment in a population of resettled pregnant women in South Sudan. Methods During April and May 2008, a cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate malaria prevalence and to assess the use of malaria risk reduction...... measures and their associations with selected background characteristics. Two hundred and twenty women were tested for malaria parasitaemia and questioned about their malaria prevention and treatment practices. Results The results showed a prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia of 9.......1%. No statistically significant associations were observed between selected background characteristics and malaria infection status. However, school attendance was significantly associated with insecticide-treated net ownership (OR = 6.52, 95% CI 2.37–17.94; p = 0.001) and access to malaria diagnosis and treatment...

  4. Prevalence of malaria and use of malaria risk reduction measures among resettled pregnant women in South Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania; Gueth Kueil, Bill; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2013-01-01

    ¼ 3.20, 95% CI 1.26–8.16; p ¼ 0.015). Conclusions: The results suggest that educational attainment need not be very advanced to affect practices of malaria prevention and treatment. Primary school attendance was a stronger predictor for use of malaria risk reduction measures than any of the other...... selected background characteristics. Educational attainment, information and communication about malaria prevention and control play a pivotal role in increasing and improving use of malaria risk reduction measures.......Background: The study assessed aspects of malaria infection, prevention and treatment in a population of resettled pregnant women in South Sudan. Methods: During April and May 2008, a cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate malaria prevalence and to assess the use of malaria risk...

  5. Measurement, Interpretation and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Lombardi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During many years since the birth of quantum mechanics, instrumentalistinterpretations prevailed: the meaning of the theory was expressed in terms of measurementsresults. However, in the last decades, several attempts to interpret it from a realist viewpointhave been proposed. Among them, modal interpretations supply a realist non-collapseaccount, according to which the system always has definite properties and the quantum staterepresents possibilities, not actualities. But the traditional modal interpretations faced someconceptual problems when addressing imperfect measurements. The modal-Hamiltonianinterpretation, on the contrary, proved to be able to supply an adequate account of themeasurement problem, both in its ideal and its non-ideal versions. Moreover, in the non-idealcase, it gives a precise criterion to distinguish between reliable and non-reliable measurements.Nevertheless, that criterion depends on the particular state of the measured system, and thismight be considered as a shortcoming of the proposal. In fact, one could ask for a criterionof reliability that does not depend on the features of what is measured but only on theproperties of the measurement device. The aim of this article is precisely to supply such acriterion: we will adopt an informational perspective for this purpose.

  6. Interpreting uncertainty terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Uncertainty terms (e.g., some, possible, good, etc.) are words that do not have a fixed referent and hence are relatively ambiguous. A model is proposed that specifies how, from the hearer's perspective, recognition of facework as a potential motive for the use of an uncertainty term results in a calibration of the intended meaning of that term. Four experiments are reported that examine the impact of face threat, and the variables that affect it (e.g., power), on the manner in which a variety of uncertainty terms (probability terms, quantifiers, frequency terms, etc.) are interpreted. Overall, the results demonstrate that increased face threat in a situation will result in a more negative interpretation of an utterance containing an uncertainty term. That the interpretation of so many different types of uncertainty terms is affected in the same way suggests the operation of a fundamental principle of language use, one with important implications for the communication of risk, subjective experience, and so on.

  7. Performance of “VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan” (IMACCESS®, a new malaria rapid diagnostic test for detection of symptomatic malaria infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Monidarin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, IMACCESS® developed a new malaria test (VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan™, based on the detection of falciparum malaria (HRP-2 and non-falciparum malaria (aldolase. Methods The performance of this new malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT was assessed using 1,000 febrile patients seeking malaria treatment in four health centres in Cambodia from August to December 2011. The results of the VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan were compared with those obtained by microscopy, the CareStart Malaria™ RDT (AccessBio® which is currently used in Cambodia, and real-time PCR (as “gold standard”. Results The best performances of the VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan™ test for detection of both Plasmodium falciparum and non-P. falciparum were with 20–30 min reading times (sensitivity of 93.4% for P. falciparum and 82.8% for non-P. falciparum and specificity of 98.6% for P. falciparum and 98.9% for non-P. falciparum and were similar to those for the CareStart Malaria™ test. Conclusions This new RDT performs similarly well as other commercially available tests (especially the CareStart Malaria™ test, used as comparator, and conforms to the World Health Organization’s recommendations for RDT performance. It is a good alternative tool for the diagnosis of malaria in endemic areas.

  8. Predicting malaria vector distribution under climate change scenarios in China: Challenges for malaria elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhoupeng; Wang, Duoquan; Ma, Aimin; Hwang, Jimee; Bennett, Adam; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Fan, Junfu; Zhang, Wenjie; Yang, Dian; Feng, Xinyu; Xia, Zhigui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Wang, Jinfeng

    2016-02-01

    Projecting the distribution of malaria vectors under climate change is essential for planning integrated vector control activities for sustaining elimination and preventing reintroduction of malaria. In China, however, little knowledge exists on the possible effects of climate change on malaria vectors. Here we assess the potential impact of climate change on four dominant malaria vectors (An. dirus, An. minimus, An. lesteri and An. sinensis) using species distribution models for two future decades: the 2030 s and the 2050 s. Simulation-based estimates suggest that the environmentally suitable area (ESA) for An. dirus and An. minimus would increase by an average of 49% and 16%, respectively, under all three scenarios for the 2030 s, but decrease by 11% and 16%, respectively in the 2050 s. By contrast, an increase of 36% and 11%, respectively, in ESA of An. lesteri and An. sinensis, was estimated under medium stabilizing (RCP4.5) and very heavy (RCP8.5) emission scenarios. in the 2050 s. In total, we predict a substantial net increase in the population exposed to the four dominant malaria vectors in the decades of the 2030 s and 2050 s, considering land use changes and urbanization simultaneously. Strategies to achieve and sustain malaria elimination in China will need to account for these potential changes in vector distributions and receptivity.

  9. SISTEM KEWASPADAAN DINI KLB MALARIA BERDASARKAN CURAH HUJAN, KEPADATAN VEKTOR DAN KESAKITAN MALARIA DI KABUPATEN SUKABUMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Hakim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria merupakan penyakit yang muncul sesuai dengan perubahan lingkungan dan iklim makro maupun mikro. Salah satu komponen lingkungan, yaitu curah hujan berpengaruh terhadap fluktuasi kepadatan vektor, fluktuasinya seringkah berulang pada pola yang hampir sama setiap tahunnya. Dengan demikian fluktuasi kepadatan vektor juga akan berulang dengan pola yang sama pula. Untuk mengetahui fluktuasi curah hujan dan kepadatan vektor, telah dilakukan survei vektor malaria dan pengamatan curah hujan di Desa Lengkong Kecamatan Lengkong Kabupaten Sukabumi pada bulan Maret 2006 sampai dengan Februari 2007 dengan periode bulanan. Dari survei itu diketahui, bahwa curah hujan mempunyai hubungan erat dengan kepadatan nyamuk An. aconitus yang juga berhubungan erat dengan fluktuasi kesakitan malaria. Kepadatan vektor malaria akan tinggi pada musim hujan, dengan demikian kesakitan malaria akan tinggi juga pada musim hujan. Karena itu, curah hujan bisa dijadikan sebagai salah satu indikator dalam penerapan sistem kewaspadaan dini untuk merencanakan kegiatan antisipasi penularan lanjutan sehingga tidak menjadi kejadian luar biasa.   Kata kunci: SKD-KLB malaria, curah hujan, kepadatan nyamuk.

  10. Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale genomes provide insights into malaria parasite evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Gavin G.; Böhme, Ulrike; Sanders, Mandy; Reid, Adam J.; Cotton, James A.; Maiga-Ascofare, Oumou; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Apinjoh, Tobias O.; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Manske, Magnus; Barnwell, John W.; Renaud, François; Ollomo, Benjamin; Prugnolle, Franck; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Auburn, Sarah; Price, Ric N.; McCarthy, James S.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Newbold, Chris I.; Berriman, Matthew; Otto, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    Elucidation of the evolutionary history and interrelatedness of Plasmodium species that infect humans has been hampered by a lack of genetic information for three human-infective species: P. malariae and two P. ovale species (P. o. curtisi and P. o. wallikeri)1. These species are prevalent across most regions in which malaria is endemic2,3 and are often undetectable by light microscopy4, rendering their study in human populations difficult5. The exact evolutionary relationship of these species to the other human-infective species has been contested6,7. Using a new reference genome for P. malariae and a manually curated draft P. o. curtisi genome, we are now able to accurately place these species within the Plasmodium phylogeny. Sequencing of a P. malariae relative that infects chimpanzees reveals similar signatures of selection in the P. malariae lineage to another Plasmodium lineage shown to be capable of colonization of both human and chimpanzee hosts. Molecular dating suggests that these host adaptations occurred over similar evolutionary timescales. In addition to the core genome that is conserved between species, differences in gene content can be linked to their specific biology. The genome suggests that P. malariae expresses a family of heterodimeric proteins on its surface that have structural similarities to a protein crucial for invasion of red blood cells. The data presented here provide insight into the evolution of the Plasmodium genus as a whole. PMID:28117441

  11. Economic burden of malaria on businesses in Ghana: a case for private sector investment in malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonvignon, Justice; Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia; Malm, Keziah L; Agyemang, Samuel Agyei; Aubyn, Vivian N A; Peprah, Nana Yaw; Bart-Plange, Constance N; Aikins, Moses

    2016-09-06

    Despite the significant gains made globally in reducing the burden of malaria, the disease remains a major public health challenge, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Ghana. There is a significant gap in financing malaria control globally. The private sector could become a significant source of financing malaria control. To get the private sector to appreciate the need to invest in malaria control, it is important to provide evidence of the economic burden of malaria on businesses. The objective of this study, therefore, was to estimate the economic burden on malaria on businesses in Ghana, so as to stimulate the sector's investment in malaria control. Data covering 2012-2014 were collected from 62 businesses sampled from Greater Accra, Ashanti and Western Regions of Ghana, which have the highest concentration of businesses in the country. Data on the cost of businesses' spending on treatment and prevention of malaria in staff and their dependants as well as staff absenteeism due to malaria and expenditure on other health-related activities were collected. Views of business leaders on the effect of malaria on their businesses were also compiled. The analysis was extrapolated to cover 5828 businesses across the country. The results show that businesses in Ghana lost about US$6.58 million to malaria in 2014, 90 % of which were direct costs. A total of 3913 workdays were lost due to malaria in firms in the study sample during the period 2012-2014. Businesses in the study sample spent an average of 0.5 % of the annual corporate returns on treatment of malaria in employees and their dependants, 0.3 % on malaria prevention, and 0.5 % on other health-related corporate social responsibilities. Again business leaders affirmed that malaria affects their businesses' efficiency, employee attendance and productivity and expenses. Finally, about 93 % of business leaders expressed the need private sector investment in malaria control. The economic burden of

  12. Diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange fluorescent microscopy in an endemic area of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Bosch

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent (acridine orange microscopical examination of capillary centrifuged blood (quantitative buffy coat [QBC®] analysis and Giemsa stained thick blood smears (GTS were compared for diagnosis of malaria in blood specimens from adults living in malaria transmission areas of the States of Bolivar and Amazonas in southeastern and south Venezuela, respectively. Of a total of 198 GTS examined, 95 subjects (48% showed parasitaemia. Among the 95 blood films with a positive GTS, 94 were judged positive by the QBC. However, positive QBC tubes were found in 29 out of 103 blood specimens with a negative GTS. Thus, relative to a GTS standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the QBC-test was 99.2% and 72%, respectively. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum could not be distinguished with certainty. It is confirmed that the QBC offers many advantages compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria parasites, specifically in the speed of staining and ease of interpretation. However, in places where P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, species and stage differentiation should be confirmed with the GTS.

  13. Antimalarial properties of Artemisia vulgaris L. ethanolic leaf extract in a Plasmodium berghei murine malaria model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayan S. Bamunuarachchi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua is the most potent antimalarial drug against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Artemisia vulgaris, an invasive weed, is the only Artemisia species available in Sri Lanka. A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of an A. vulgaris ethanolic leaf extract (AVELE in a P. berghei ANKA murine malaria model that elicits pathogenesis similar to falciparum malaria. Methods: A 4-day suppressive and the curative assays determined the antiparasitic activity of AVELE using four doses (250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg, Coartem® as the positive control and 5% ethanol as the negative control in male ICR mice infected with P. berghei. Results: The 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg doses of AVELE significantly (p ≤0.01 inhibited parasitaemia by 79.3, 79.6 and 87.3% respectively, in the 4-day suppressive assay, but not in the curative assay. Chronic administration of the high dose of AVELE ruled out overt signs of toxicity and stress as well as hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity and haematotoxicity. Interpretation & conclusion: The oral administration of a crude ethonolic leaf extract of A. vulgaris is non-toxic and possesses potent antimalarial properties in terms of antiparasitic activity.

  14. Evaluation of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Irene Poh-Ai; Treagust, David; Kyeleve, Iorhemen J.; Oh, Peck-Yoke

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a two-tier diagnostic test for understanding malaria was developed and administered to 314 Bruneian students in Year 12 and in a nursing diploma course. The validity, reliability, difficulty level, discriminant indices, and reading ability of the test were examined and found to be acceptable in terms of measuring students'…

  15. Epidemiology: Malaria in a warmer West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, C.; Jones, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    Malaria risk in West Africa is expected to fall (western region) or remain the same (eastern region) in response to climate change over the twenty-first century. This is primarily due to extreme temperature conditions projected under a high greenhouse gas emissions scenario.

  16. Treatment Failure for Malaria in Vietnam

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-06-05

    WHO malaria expert, Dr. Charlotte Rasmussen, discusses anti-malarial drug resistance in Vietnam.  Created: 6/5/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/5/2017.

  17. Iron incorporation and post-malaria anaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron supplementation is employed to treat post-malarial anaemia in environments where iron deficiency is common. Malaria induces an intense inflammatory reaction that stalls reticulo-endothelial macrophagal iron recycling from haemolysed red blood cells and inhibits oral iron absorption, but the mag...

  18. Latent Infections with Plasmodium ovale Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Max J.; Marcus, David M.; Cameron, Douglas G.

    1965-01-01

    Two cases of Plasmodium ovale malaria acquired in West Africa appeared as primary delayed attacks after one year's continuous residence in Canada. Both patients took full prophylactic doses of chloroquine before, during, and for several weeks after exposure. The inadequacy of the 4-aminoquinolines for protection against latent benign tertian malaria is noted, and the use of primaquine is recommended. Paroxysms occurred in the evening and were accompanied by severe muscle pain, features considered typical of ovale malaria. One patient showed electrocardiographic changes and clinical signs of cardiac malfunction; these disappeared following specific treatment for malaria. In this age of accelerated travel and international movements of people it is important that physicians in temperate regions be aware of the exotic infections of the tropics, as well as of the need for protective measures for travellers to areas where these diseases are endemic. ImagesFig. 1aFig. 1b,1cFig. 3 a-dFig. 3 e-h PMID:14296004

  19. Malaria in South Sudan 3: laboratory diagnosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microscopy including thick and thin blood films (best. • method for ... You can prepare thick and thin blood films on separate slides or ... See a full explanation in “Malaria in South. Sudan: 1. ... the parasitic DNA (mostly for detecting the resistant.

  20. DDT and Malaria Prevention: Addressing the Paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, H.; Berg, van den H.; Kylin, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The debate regarding dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria prevention and human health is polarized and can be classified into three positions: anti-DDT, centrist-DDT, pro-DDT. Objective: We attempted to arrive at a synthesis by matching a series of questions on the use of DDT

  1. Evaluation of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Irene Poh-Ai; Treagust, David; Kyeleve, Iorhemen J.; Oh, Peck-Yoke

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a two-tier diagnostic test for understanding malaria was developed and administered to 314 Bruneian students in Year 12 and in a nursing diploma course. The validity, reliability, difficulty level, discriminant indices, and reading ability of the test were examined and found to be acceptable in terms of measuring students'…

  2. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Beijleveld, H.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Schraa, G.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human

  3. Reducing empiricism in malaria vaccine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Vasee S; Kieny, Marie Paule

    2010-03-01

    Gains in the control of malaria and the promising progress of a malaria vaccine that is partly efficacious do not reduce the need for a high-efficacy vaccine in the longer term. Evidence supports the feasibility of developing a highly efficacious malaria vaccine. However, design of candidate malaria vaccines remains empirical and is necessarily based on many unproven assumptions because much of the knowledge needed to design vaccines and to predict efficacy is not available. Data to inform key questions of vaccine science might allow the design of vaccines to progress to a less empirical stage, for example through availability of assay results associated with vaccine efficacy. We discuss six strategic gaps in knowledge that contribute to empiricism in the design of vaccines. Comparative evaluation, assay and model standardisation, greater sharing of information, collaboration and coordination between groups, and rigorous evaluation of existing datasets are steps that can be taken to enable reductions in empiricism over time. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Placental Malaria: From Infection to Malfunction

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Malaria during pregnancy is a major factor in infant morbidity and mortality. In this issue of Cell Host and Microbe, Conroy et al. (2013) propose that C5a, a product of complement cascade activation, counteracts the placental vascular remodeling response induced by Plasmodium infection and contributes to fetal growth restriction. Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia.

  5. MALARIA TYPHOID CO - INFECTION AMONG FEBRILE PATIENTS

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    Samatha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and typhoid fevers, caused by different organisms are major public health problems in developing countries. People in endemic areas are at risk of both infections concurrently. These are the important cause of fevers in many endemic areas especially during rainy season. Each of these diseases can substantially contribute to mortality if not diagnosed and treated early. The present study was designed to find the Sero prevalence of Malaria, Typhoid and Typho malarial co - infections in febrile patients. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from June 2014 to May 2015. A total of five hundred and eighty two subjects were screened for Malaria and Typhoid is included in study irrespective of their age & sex. Data was analysed on the basis of Demographic factors & Serological results. The results were analysed statistically. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of malarial infection was found to be 58.41% , Typhoid as 1.8 % whereas, True Typho Malarial co - infection was seen in 0.7%. CONCLUSION: The present study reports the Prevalence of Malaria, Typhoid and Typho Malarial Co - infection which are important when planning large scale vaccine trials as well as making health policies and a Protocol is required to treat these infections to limit the mortality and morbidity.

  6. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  7. The ABCs of multidrug resistance in malaria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.B.; Kavishe, R.A.; Rijpma, S.R.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Expanding drug resistance could become a major problem in malaria treatment, as only a limited number of effective antimalarials are available. Drug resistance has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms and an increased copy number of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), an ATP-bindi

  8. Malaria Epidemic and Drug Resistance, Djibouti

    OpenAIRE

    Rogier, Christophe; Pradines, Bruno; Bogreau, H.; Koeck, Jean-Louis; Kamil, Mohamed-Ali; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected before, during, and after a 1999 malaria epidemic in Djibouti shows that, despite a high prevalence of resistance to chloroquine, the epidemic cannot be attributed to a sudden increase in drug resistance of local parasite populations.

  9. ADVANCES IN THE TREATMENT OF MALARIA

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    Francesco Castelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria still claims a heavy toll of deaths and disabilities even at the beginning of the third millennium. The inappropriate sequential use of drug monotherapy in the past has facilitated the spread of drug-resistant P. falciparum, and to a lesser extend P. vivax, strains in most of the malaria endemic areas, rendering most anti-malarial ineffective. In the last decade, a new combination strategy based on artemisinin derivatives (ACT has become the standard of treatment for most P. falciparum malaria infections. This strategy could prevent the selection of resistant strains by rapidly decreasing the parasitic burden (by the artemisinin derivative, mostly artesunate and exposing the residual parasite to effective concentrations of the partner drug. The widespread use of this strategy is somehow constrained by cost and by the inappropriate use of artemisinin, with possible impact on resistance, as already sporadically observed in South East Asia. Parenteral artesunate has now become the standard of care for severe malaria, even if quinine still retains its value in case artesunate is not immediately available. The appropriateness of pre-referral use of suppository artesunate is under close monitoring, while waiting for an effective anti-malarial vaccine to be made available.

  10. ADVANCES IN THE TREATMENT OF MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Castelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Malaria still claims a heavy toll of deaths and disabilities even at the beginning of the third millennium. The inappropriate sequential use of drug monotherapy in the past has facilitated the spread of drug-resistant P. falciparum, and to a lesser extend P. vivax, strains in most of the malaria endemic areas, rendering most anti-malarial ineffective. In the last decade, a new combination strategy based on artemisinin derivatives (ACT has become the standard of treatment for most P. falciparum malaria infections. This strategy could prevent the selection of resistant strains by rapidly decreasing the parasitic burden (by the artemisinin derivative, mostly artesunate and exposing the residual parasite to effective concentrations of the partner drug. The widespread use of this strategy is somehow constrained by cost and by the inappropriate use of artemisinin, with possible impact on resistance, as already sporadically observed in South East Asia. Parenteral artesunate has now become the standard of care for severe malaria, even if quinine still retains its value in case artesunate is not immediately available. The appropriateness of pre-referral use of suppository artesunate is under close monitoring, while waiting for an effective anti-malarial vaccine to be made available.

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of falciparum malaria in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hualiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falciparum malaria is the most deadly among the four main types of human malaria. Although great success has been achieved since the launch of the National Malaria Control Programme in 1955, malaria remains a serious public health problem in China. This paper aimed to analyse the geographic distribution, demographic patterns and time trends of falciparum malaria in China. Methods The annual numbers of falciparum malaria cases during 1992–2003 and the individual case reports of each clinical falciparum malaria during 2004–2005 were extracted from communicable disease information systems in China Center for Diseases Control and Prevention. The annual number of cases and the annual incidence were mapped by matching them to corresponding province- and county-level administrative units in a geographic information system. The distribution of falciparum malaria by age, gender and origin of infection was analysed. Time-series analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between the falciparum malaria in the endemic provinces and the imported falciparum malaria in non-endemic provinces. Results Falciparum malaria was endemic in two provinces of China during 2004–05. Imported malaria was reported in 26 non-endemic provinces. Annual incidence of falciparum malaria was mapped at county level in the two endemic provinces of China: Yunnan and Hainan. The sex ratio (male vs. female for the number of cases in Yunnan was 1.6 in the children of 0–15 years and it reached 5.7 in the adults over 15 years of age. The number of malaria cases in Yunnan was positively correlated with the imported malaria of concurrent months in the non-endemic provinces. Conclusion The endemic area of falciparum malaria in China has remained restricted to two provinces, Yunnan and Hainan. Stable transmission occurs in the bordering region of Yunnan and the hilly-forested south of Hainan. The age and gender distribution in the endemic area is

  12. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  13. Impact of red blood cell variants on childhood malaria in Mali: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M; Doumbia, Saibou; Konaté, Drissa; Anderson, Jennifer M; Doumbouya, Mory; Keita, Abdoul S; Diakité, Seidina AS; Traoré, Karim; Krause, Michael A; Diouf, Ababacar; Moretz, Samuel E; STullo, Gregory; Miura, Kazutoyo; Gu, Wenjuan; Fay, Michael P; Taylor, Steve M; Long, Carole A; Diakité, Mahamadou; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Red blood cell (RBC) variants protect African children from severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Their individual and interactive impacts on mild disease and parasite density, and their modification by age-dependent immunity, are poorly understood. Methods We conducted a 4-year, prospective cohort study of children aged 0.5–17 years in Maliin 2008-2011. Exposures were haemoglobin S (HbS), HbC, α-thalassaemia, ABO blood groups, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)deficiency encoded by the X-linked A- allele. Primary and secondary outcomes were malaria incidence and parasite density. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were modeled with quasi-Poisson regression; parasite densities were analyzed with Generalized Estimating Equations. Findings We diagnosed 4091 malaria episodes in 1543 children over 2656 child-years of follow-up (cyfu). RBC variants were common: HbAS 14.2%, HbAC 6.7%, α-thalassaemia 28.4%, type O blood group 40.2%, and G6PD deficiency9.4% (boys) and 20.4% (girls). Malaria incidence was 1.54 episodes/cyfu, ranged from 2.78 at age 3 to 0.40 at age 16 years, was reduced 34% in HbAS vs HbAA children (adjusted IRR [aIRR] 0.66; 95% CI 0.59-0.75) and 49% in G6PD A-/A- vs A+/A+ girls (aIRR 0.51; 95% CI 0.29-0.90), but was increased 15% in HbAC children (aIRR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01-1.32). Parasite density was reduced in HbAS vs HbAA children (median 10,550 vs 15, 150 parasites/μL; p=0.0004). HbAS-associated reductions in malaria risk and parasite density were greatest in early childhood. Interpretation Individual and interactive impacts of HbAS, HbAC, and G6PD A-/A-on malaria risk and parasite density define clinical and cellular correlates of protection. Further identification of the molecular mechanisms of these protective effects may uncover novel targets for intervention. Funding Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. PMID:26687956

  14. [Epidemiological stratification of malaria in Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, J; Blanchy, S; Rakotonjanabelo, A; Ranaivoson, G; Rajaonarivelo, E; Laventure, S; Rossella, M; Aknouche, F

    1993-01-01

    Madagascar is considered as a sub-region of the Afrotropical geographical Region in spite of the high endemicity of 95% of the invertebrates. Nevertheless the three malaria vectors An. gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and An. funestus are quite similar to those of the continental Africa. This support the hypothesis of their recent introduction. Plasmodium falciparum is the dominant parasite but the prevalence of P. vivax is not negligible. It is linked to the Asian component of the human population. P. malariae and P. ovale are of minor importance. The main epidemiological "facies" of Africa are found in Madagascar. The equatorial facies on the East Coast is characterized by a high transmission all year long. In the tropical facies on the West Coast transmission is seasonal (7 months at least). In both areas, malaria is stable and the inhabitants acquire a high immunity before the age of ten; most of the severe cases touch children below 10. The three vectors can be found but An. gambiae s.s. is dominant. In the exophilic southern facies the transmission is seasonal (two to four months). The only vector is An. arabiensis. Malaria is unstable and severe epidemics occur during the years of high rainfall. All age groups are vulnerable because the population is not immune in the Plateaux facies above 1,000 m., malaria is unstable. Severe epidemics occurred in 1987-1988. The vectors are An. Arabiensis and An. funestus. The occurrence of P. falciparum on the Plateaux seems linked to the development of irrigation of rice farming in the XIXth century. Most of the anopheles breeding places on the Plateaux are dependent on rice cultivation. Urban development has brought the inhabitants of the suburbs in close contact with rice fields. Despite the high number of anopheline bites the number of malaria cases remains by far lower than in the neighbouring rural areas. Regional migrations inside the island bring non-immune populations, from the south and the plateaux, in highly

  15. Malaria and anaemia in pregnancy in Enugu, south east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekejindu, I M; Udigwe, G O; Chijioke, I R C

    2006-03-01

    Malaria and anaemia contribute tremendously to maternal and prenatal morbidity and mortality. This study was carried out to document the magnitude of the problem in pregnancy with a view to identifying areas of intervention. The subjects were 108 consecutive pregnant women aged 18 to 44 years recruited from the antenatal clinics. 23 (21.3%) had malaria, 35 (32.4%) had anaemia while 20(18.5%) had both malaria and anaemia. The highest incidence of malaria occurred in the second trimester, while anaemia was most prevalent in the third trimester (62.86%) and among primigravidae (37.14%). All the cases of malaria were due to plasmodium falciparum. Six out of the 20 women with both anemia and malaria were admitted and treated. Two low birth weight babies were delivered among the malaria and anaemia group. The incidence rates of malaria and anaemia were 215 and 327 per 1000 pregnant women respectively while the incidence rate of anaemia due to malaria was 571 per 1000 infected pregnant women. There is a need for a more effective intervention to reduce the incidence of both malaria and anaemia in pregnancy.

  16. Malaria vector research and control in Haiti: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Joseph; Saint Jean, Yvan; Lemoine, Jean Frantz; Dotson, Ellen M; Mace, Kimberly E; Chang, Michelle; Slutsker, Laurence; Le Menach, Arnaud; Beier, John C; Eisele, Thomas P; Okech, Bernard A; Beau de Rochars, Valery Madsen; Carter, Keith H; Keating, Joseph; Impoinvil, Daniel E

    2016-07-22

    Haiti has a set a target of eliminating malaria by 2020. However, information on malaria vector research in Haiti is not well known. This paper presents results from a systematic review of the literature on malaria vector research, bionomics and control in Haiti. A systematic search of literature published in French, Spanish and English languages was conducted in 2015 using Pubmed (MEDLINE), Google Scholar, EMBASE, JSTOR WHOLIS and Web of Science databases as well other grey literature sources such as USAID, and PAHO. The following search terms were used: malaria, Haiti, Anopheles, and vector control. A total of 132 references were identified with 40 high quality references deemed relevant and included in this review. Six references dealt with mosquito distribution, seven with larval mosquito ecology, 16 with adult mosquito ecology, three with entomological indicators of malaria transmission, eight with insecticide resistance, one with sero-epidemiology and 16 with vector control. In the last 15 years (2000-2015), there have only been four published papers and three-scientific meeting abstracts on entomology for malaria in Haiti. Overall, the general literature on malaria vector research in Haiti is limited and dated. Entomological information generated from past studies in Haiti will contribute to the development of strategies to achieve malaria elimination on Hispaniola. However it is of paramount importance that malaria vector research in Haiti is updated to inform decision-making for vector control strategies in support of malaria elimination.

  17. Malaria-related anaemia: a Latin American perspective

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    Juan Pablo Quintero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is the most important parasitic disease worldwide, responsible for an estimated 225 million clinical cases each year. It mainly affects children, pregnant women and non-immune adults who frequently die victims of cerebral manifestations and anaemia. Although the contribution of the American continent to the global malaria burden is only around 1.2 million clinical cases annually, there are 170 million inhabitants living at risk of malaria transmission in this region. On the African continent, where Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent human malaria parasite, anaemia is responsible for about half of the malaria-related deaths. Conversely, in Latin America (LA, malaria-related anaemia appears to be uncommon, though there is a limited knowledge about its real prevalence. This may be partially explained by several factors, including that the overall malaria burden in LA is significantly lower than that of Africa, that Plasmodium vivax, the predominant Plasmodium species in the region, appears to display a different clinical spectrus and most likely because better health services in LA prevent the development of severe malaria cases. With the aim of contributing to the understanding of the real importance of malaria-related anaemia in LA, we discuss here a revision of the available literature on the subject and the usefulness of experimental animal models, including New World monkeys, particularly for the study of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of malaria.

  18. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance for the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health's decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) Identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) Implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) Implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) Increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) Optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) Reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) Reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters are extracted from NASA Earth science data sets. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  19. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance for the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health's decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) Identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) Implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) Implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) Increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) Optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) Reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) Reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters are extracted from NASA Earth science data sets. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  20. Parasites and vectors of malaria on Rusinga Island, Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanga, Evelyn A; Okombo, Lawrence; Irungu, Lucy W; Mukabana, Wolfgang R

    2015-04-28

    There is a dearth of information on malaria endemicity in the islands of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. In this study malaria prevalence and Plasmodium sporozoite rates on Rusinga Island were investigated. The contribution of different Anopheles species to indoor and outdoor transmission of malaria was also determined. Active case detection through microscopy was used to diagnose malaria in a 10% random sample of the human population on Rusinga Island and a longitudinal entomological survey conducted in Gunda village in 2012. Nocturnally active host-seeking mosquitoes were captured indoors and outdoors using odour-baited traps. Anopheles species were tested for the presence of Plasmodium parasites using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. All data were analyzed using generalized linear models. Single infections of Plasmodium falciparum (88.1%), P. malariae (3.96%) and P. ovale (0.79%) as well as multiple infections (7.14%) of these parasites were found on Rusinga Island. The overall malaria prevalence was 10.9%. The risk of contracting malaria was higher among dwellers of Rusinga West than Rusinga East locations (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.5, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.14 - 1.97, P = 0.003). Parasite positivity was significantly associated with individuals who did not use malaria protective measures (OR = 2.65, 95% CI 1.76 - 3.91, p malaria mosquitoes tested, 4, including 2 indoor and 2 outdoor-collected individuals had Plasmodium. The rather significant and unexpected contribution of P. malariae and P. ovale to the overall malaria prevalence on Rusinga Island underscores the epidemiological importance of these species in the big push towards eliminating malaria. Although current entomological interventions mainly target indoor environments, additional strategies should be considered to prevent outdoor transmission of malaria.

  1. Primate malarias: Diversity, distribution and insights for zoonotic Plasmodium

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    Christina Faust

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protozoans within the genus Plasmodium are well-known as the causative agents of malaria in humans. Numerous Plasmodium species parasites also infect a wide range of non-human primate hosts in tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide. Studying this diversity can provide critical insight into our understanding of human malarias, as several human malaria species are a result of host switches from non-human primates. Current spillover of a monkey malaria, Plasmodium knowlesi, in Southeast Asia highlights the permeability of species barriers in Plasmodium. Also recently, surveys of apes in Africa uncovered a previously undescribed diversity of Plasmodium in chimpanzees and gorillas. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to quantify the global distribution, host range, and diversity of known non-human primate malaria species. We used published records of Plasmodium parasites found in non-human primates to estimate the total diversity of non-human primate malarias globally. We estimate that at least three undescribed primate malaria species exist in sampled primates, and many more likely exist in unstudied species. The diversity of malaria parasites is especially uncertain in regions of low sampling such as Madagascar, and taxonomic groups such as African Old World Monkeys and gibbons. Presence–absence data of malaria across primates enables us to highlight the close association of forested regions and non-human primate malarias. This distribution potentially reflects a long coevolution of primates, forest-adapted mosquitoes, and malaria parasites. The diversity and distribution of primate malaria are an essential prerequisite to understanding the mechanisms and circumstances that allow Plasmodium to jump species barriers, both in the evolution of malaria parasites and current cases of spillover into humans.

  2. Incidence, severity, prognostic significance of thrombocytopenia in malaria

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    Bezwada Srinivasa Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is an infectious disease caused by plasmodium parasite. P. falciparum account for majority of morbidity and mortality. Thrombocytopenia and anaemia are the most frequently associated hematological complications in malaria. The low platelet count together with acute febrile syndrome emerged as the strongest predictor of malaria a finding that is frequent and present even before anemia and splenomegaly sets in. Severe thrombocytopenia is a good predictor of poor prognosis than mild and moderate thrombocytopenia. The aim is to study the incidence, severity, prognostic significance of thrombocytopenia in malaria. Methods: This was an observational and prospective study. The study enrolled 100 patients with thrombocytopenia and fever who were proven to have malaria either by peripheral smear or Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC test or malarial antigen assay were included in the study and patients with thrombocytopenia due to other causes were excluded from the study. Platelet count was estimated on a fully automated quantitative analyzer. All the 100 patients were followed during the hospital stay and upto discharge or till the outcome. Results: The incidence of thrombocytopenia was 73% indicating a common association in malaria. Complicated malaria was observed in 58.80% of P. falciparum infection whereas 66% of P. vivax infection was associated with uncomplicated malaria. Severe thrombocytopenia showed positive correlation with severity of malaria. Thrombocytopenic patients with effective anti-malarial treatment showed 95.90% recovery and 3 patients 4.10% had mortality. Patients with severe thrombocytopenia were 8.5 times more likely to have complicated malaria with P <0.001 according to student and lsquo;t' test. Conclusion: Thrombocytopenia is the most common hematological finding in malaria. Severe thrombocytopenia showed positive correlation with complicated malaria and a good predictor of poor prognosis. Patients with classical

  3. Malaria elimination challenges in Mesoamerica: evidence of submicroscopic malaria reservoirs in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Shirley Evelyn; Miranda, Adolfo; Henao, Juliana; Vallejo, Andres F; Perez, Julianh; Alvarez, Alvaro; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2016-08-30

    Even though malaria incidence has decreased substantially in Guatemala since 2000, Guatemala remains one of the countries with the highest malaria transmission in Mesoamerica. Guatemala is committed to eliminating malaria as part of the initiative 'Elimination of Malaria in Mesoamerica and the Island of Hispaniola' (EMMIE); however, it is still in the control phase. During the past decade, the government strengthened malaria control activities including mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated bed nets, early diagnosis and prompt treatment. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of malaria, including gametocytes, in three areas of Guatemala using active case detection (ACD) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in three departments with varying transmission intensities: Escuintla, Alta Verapaz and Zacapa. Blood samples from 706 volunteers were screened for malaria using microscopy and qPCR which was also used to determine the prevalence of gametocytes among infected individuals. Results were collected and analysed using REDCap and R Project, respectively. Malaria was diagnosed by microscopy in only 2.8 % (4/141) of the volunteers from Escuintla. By contrast, qPCR detected a prevalence of 7.1 % (10/141) in the same volunteers, 8.4 % (36/429) in Alta Verapaz, and 5.9 % (8/136) in Zacapa. Overall, 7.6 % (54/706) of the screened individuals were positive, with an average parasitaemia level of 40.2 parasites/μL (range 1-1133 parasites/μL) and 27.8 % carried mature gametocytes. Fifty-seven percent (31/54) of qPCR positive volunteers were asymptomatic and out of the 42.6 % of symptomatic individuals, only one had a positive microscopy result. This study found a considerable number of asymptomatic P. vivax infections that were mostly submicroscopic, of which, approximately one-quarter harboured mature gametocytes. This pattern is likely to contribute to maintaining transmission across the

  4. Routine delivery of artemisinin-based combination treatment at fixed health facilities reduces malaria prevalence in Tanzania: an observational study

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    Khatib Rashid A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT has been promoted as a means to reduce malaria transmission due to their ability to kill both asexual blood stages of malaria parasites, which sustain infections over long periods and the immature derived sexual stages responsible for infecting mosquitoes and onward transmission. Early studies reported a temporal association between ACT introduction and reduced malaria transmission in a number of ecological settings. However, these reports have come from areas with low to moderate malaria transmission, been confounded by the presence of other interventions or environmental changes that may have reduced malaria transmission, and have not included a comparison group without ACT. This report presents results from the first large-scale observational study to assess the impact of case management with ACT on population-level measures of malaria endemicity in an area with intense transmission where the benefits of effective infection clearance might be compromised by frequent and repeated re-infection. Methods A pre-post observational study with a non-randomized comparison group was conducted at two sites in Tanzania. Both sites used sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP monotherapy as a first-line anti-malarial from mid-2001 through 2002. In 2003, the ACT, artesunate (AS co-administered with SP (AS + SP, was introduced in all fixed health facilities in the intervention site, including both public and registered non-governmental facilities. Population-level prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asexual parasitaemia and gametocytaemia were assessed using light microscopy from samples collected during representative household surveys in 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005 and 2006. Findings Among 37,309 observations included in the analysis, annual asexual parasitaemia prevalence in persons of all ages ranged from 11% to 28% and gametocytaemia prevalence ranged from Interpretation The introduction of ACT at

  5. How benign is benign tertian malaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna Sharma

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This retrospective study was conducted to determine the incidence of variouscomplications of Plasmodium vivax malaria based on review of case records.Methods: The case records of all confirmed cases of malaria over the period of one year (September2005–August 2006 were studied. Complete blood count, peripheral blood findings, liver and kidneyfunctions were reviewed. The results of rapid diagnostic test for malaria (OptiMAL test, DiamedAG, Switzerland were correlated with the peripheral blood smear findings in the patients in whomit was requested. All abnormal results like a positive direct Coomb’s test were noted. Findingswere clinically correlated.Results: There were 265 confirmed cases by peripheral blood examination. Of these 221 were dueto Plasmodium vivax and 41 due to P. falciparum. Two cases had mixed infection and in one casethe species could not be identified as it showed only malarial pigment. The peak incidence ofmalaria was seen in September 2005 and August 2006. The complications in P. vivax werethrombocytopenia, biochemical evidence of hepatic dysfunction, renal damage, positive DCT anddeath due to ARDS. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 213 patients with counts 3 mg/dl with normal liver enzymes. Liver enzymeswere elevated in 60 patients with seven patients showing liver enzymes level, three times the normal.Renal dysfunction was seen in 17 patients with serum creatinine ranging from 1.3–10.65 mg/dl.One patient went into acute renal failure following quinine therapy and showed red cell fragmentsin the peripheral blood. In two children DCT was positive with the peripheral smear showing RBCagglutinates around the parasitised RBC. There were three maternal deaths at about 32 weeksgestation due to ARDS. The peripheral blood smear in these patients showed WBC agglutinates.Conclusion: This paper is presented to highlight that P. vivax malaria though considered to be abenign entity can also have a severe and complicated course

  6. [Particularities and stratification of malaria in Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, J; Blanchy, S

    1995-01-01

    The first factor is the malaria parasite, for which the species P. falciparum and P. vivax are important. Secondly, the transmission determines the disease stability and challenges the host's immunity. The third factor is the human host, consisting of people of both African and Asiatic origin, the latter of whom are more susceptible to P. vivax. Human activities such as cultivating rice fields are of paramount importance for the proliferation of the vectors. The vectors A. gambiae, A. arabiensis and A. funestus are very similar to those of the African continent. These vectors are not endemic on Madagascar, suggesting that they were recently introduced to the island where 95% of the fauna species are endemic. On the Plateau and in the South, the rice fields provide most of the breeding places for A. gambiae s.l. and A. funestus. Five epidemiological belts are found in Madagascar which are very similar to their analogs on continental Africa (fig. 1). These facies include the equatorial belt on the east coast and the tropical belt on the west coast north of Morondava, the Plateau belt analogous to the southern African continent, the southern Madagascar belt which is similar to the Sahelian areas, and finally the zones above 1,500m, which are essentially free of malaria. The first two facies have a stable type of malaria, and in the following two, malaria is unstable. These areas include the Plateau, the area of the severe epidemics which occurred between 1985 and 1988 with more than 50,00 deaths. Malaria control is based on a variety of strategies to respond to the epidemiological heterogeneity of the disease. Spraying within the homes with DDT, used on the Plateau after 1988, was and still is very successful.

  7. New targets for drug discovery against malaria.

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    Guido Santos

    Full Text Available A mathematical model which predicts the intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum infection was developed using data from malaria-infected mice. Variables selected accounted for levels of healthy red blood cells, merozoite (Plasmodium asexual phase infected red blood cells, gametocyte (Plasmodium sexual phase infected red blood cells and a phenomenological variable which accounts for the mean activity of the immune system of the host. The model built was able to reproduce the behavior of three different scenarios of malaria. It predicts the later dynamics of malaria-infected humans well after the first peak of parasitemia, the qualitative response of malaria-infected monkeys to vaccination and the changes observed in malaria-infected mice when they are treated with antimalarial drugs. The mathematical model was used to identify new targets to be focused on drug design. Optimization methodologies were applied to identify five targets for minimizing the parasite load; four of the targets thus identified have never before been taken into account in drug design. The potential targets include: 1 increasing the death rate of the gametocytes, 2 decreasing the invasion rate of the red blood cells by the merozoites, 3 increasing the transformation of merozoites into gametocytes, 4 decreasing the activation of the immune system by the gametocytes, and finally 5 a combination of the previous target with decreasing the recycling rate of the red blood cells. The first target is already used in current therapies, whereas the remainders are proposals for potential new targets. Furthermore, the combined target (the simultaneous decrease of the activation of IS by gRBC and the decrease of the influence of IS on the recycling of hRBC is interesting, since this combination does not affect the parasite directly. Thus, it is not expected to generate selective pressure on the parasites, which means that it would not produce resistance in Plasmodium.

  8. Interpretation of the geoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runcorn, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    The superposition of the first satellite geoid determined by Iszak upon Ootilla's geoid was based on surface gravity determinations. Good agreement was observed except over the Pacific area of the globe. The poor agreement over the Pacific was interpreted as the result of inadequate observations there. Many geoids were determined from satellite observations, including Doppler measurements. It is found that the geoid is the result of density differences in the mantle maintained since the primeval Earth by its finite strength. Various models based on this assumption are developed.

  9. Plasma concentration of parasite DNA as a measure of disease severity in falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imwong, M.; Woodrow, C.; Hendriksen, I.C.E.; Veenemans, J.; Verhoef, J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    In endemic areas malaria parasitemia is common in apparently healthy children and severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in patients with incidental parasitemia. We assessed the performance of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentration measurement in distinguishing uncomplicated from severe malaria in

  10. Clinical features and outcome in children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a meta-analysis.

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    Laurens Manning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although global malaria mortality is declining, estimates may not reflect better inpatient management of severe malaria (SM where reported case fatality rates (CFRs vary from 1-25%. METHODS: A meta-analysis of prospective studies of SM was conducted to examine i whether hypothesized differences between clinical features and outcome in Melanesian compared with African or Asian children really exist, and ii to explore temporal changes in overall and complication-specific CFRs. The proportions of different SM complications and, overall and complication-specific CFRs were incorporated into the meta-analysis. Adjustments were made for study-level covariates including geographic region, SM definition, artemisinin treatment, median age of participants and time period. FINDINGS: Sixty-five studies were included. Substantial heterogeneity (I(2>80% was demonstrated for most outcomes. SM definition contributed to between-study heterogeneity in proportions of cerebral malaria (CM, metabolic acidosis (MA, severe anemia and overall CFR, whilst geographic region was a significant moderator in for CM and hypoglycemia (HG rates. Compared with their African counterparts, Melanesian children had lower rates of HG (10% [CI95 7-13%] versus 1% [0-3%], P<0.05, lower overall CFR (2% [0-4%] versus 7% [6-9%], P<0.05 and lower CM-specific CFR (8% [0-17%] versus 19% [16-21%], P<0.05. There was no temporal trend for overall CFR and CM-specific CFR but declining HG- and MA- specific CFRs were observed. INTERPRETATION: These data highlight that recent estimates of declining global malaria mortality are not replicated by improved outcomes for children hospitalized with SM. Significant geographic differences in the complication rates and subsequent CFRs exist and provide the first robust confirmation of lower CFRs in Melanesian children, perhaps due to less frequent HG.

  11. Serological markers to measure recent changes in malaria at population level in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhof, Karen; Sluydts, Vincent; Willen, Laura; Kim, Saorin; Canier, Lydie; Heng, Somony; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Sochantha, Tho; Sovannaroth, Siv; Ménard, Didier; Coosemans, Marc; Durnez, Lies

    2016-11-04

    Serological markers for exposure to different Plasmodium species have recently been used in multiplex immunoassays based on the Luminex technology. However, interpretation of the assay results requires consideration of the half-life of specific antibodies against these markers. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to document the half-life of malaria specific serological makers, as well as assessing the sensitivity of these markers to pick up recent changes in malaria exposure. A recently developed multiplex immunoassay was used to measure the intensity of antibody (Ab) responses against 19 different Plasmodium specific antigens, covering different human malaria parasites and two vector saliva antigens. Therefore, 8439 blood samples from five cross-sectional surveys in Ratanakiri, Cambodia, were analysed. These involve a random selection from two selected surveys, and an additional set of blood samples of individuals that were randomly re-sampled three, four or five times. A generalized estimating equation model and linear regression models were fitted on log transformed antibody intensity data. Results showed that most (17/21) Ab-responses are higher in PCR positive than PCR negative individuals. Furthermore, these antibody-responses follow the same upward trend within each age group. Estimation of the half-lives showed differences between serological markers that reflect short- (seasonal) and long-term (year round) transmission trends. Ab levels declined significantly together with a decrease of PCR prevalence in a group of malaria endemic villages. For Plasmodium falciparum, antibodies against LSA3.RE, GLURP and Pf.GLURP.R2 are most likely to be a reflexion of recent (range from 6 to 8 months) exposure in the Mekong Subregion. PvEBP is the only Plasmodium vivax Ag responding reasonably well, in spite of an estimated Ab half-life of more than 1 year. The use of Ab intensity data rather dichotomizing the continuous Ab-titre data (positive vs negative

  12. Prevalence of malaria parasites in adults and its determinants in malaria endemic area of Kisumu County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rachel; Omollo, Raymond; Ongecha, Michael; Sifuna, Peter; Othieno, Caleb; Ongeri, Linnet; Kingora, James; Ogutu, Bernhards

    2015-07-08

    The prevalence of malaria parasites in adults in Africa is less well researched than in children. Therefore, a demographic surveillance site was used to conduct a household survey of adults in the malaria endemic area of Maseno division in Kisumu County near Lake Victoria. A random survey of 1,190 adults living in a demographic health surveillance site in a malaria endemic area of 70,805 population size was conducted, measuring presence of malaria parasites by slide microscopy. Data were analysed using STATA to calculate the prevalence of malaria and associated risk factors. The adult prevalence of presence of malaria parasites in Maseno was 28% (95% CI: 25.4-31.0%). Gender was a significant sociodemographic risk factor in both univariate (OR 1.5, p = 0.005) and multivariate (OR 1.4, p = 0.019) analyses. Females were 50% more likely to have malaria than men. Presence of malaria parasites is common in the adult population of this endemic area, and the rate is greatly increased in women. The presence of such an adult pool of malaria parasites represents a key reservoir factor in transmission of parasites to children, and is relevant for plans to eradicate malaria.

  13. The Malaria Transition on the Arabian Peninsula: Progress toward a Malaria-Free Region between 1960–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Robert W.; Amratia, Punam; Zamani, Ghasem; Mundia, Clara W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Memish, Ziad A.; Al Zahrani, Mohammad H.; Al Jasari, Adel; Fikri, Mahmoud; Atta, Hoda

    2014-01-01

    The transmission of malaria across the Arabian Peninsula is governed by the diversity of dominant vectors and extreme aridity. It is likely that where malaria transmission was historically possible it was intense and led to a high disease burden. Here, we review the speed of elimination, approaches taken, define the shrinking map of risk since 1960 and discuss the threats posed to a malaria-free Arabian Peninsula using the archive material, case data and published works. From as early as the 1940s, attempts were made to eliminate malaria on the peninsula but were met with varying degrees of success through to the 1970s; however, these did result in a shrinking of the margins of malaria transmission across the peninsula. Epidemics in the 1990s galvanised national malaria control programmes to reinvigorate control efforts. Before the launch of the recent global ambition for malaria eradication, countries on the Arabian Peninsula launched a collaborative malaria-free initiative in 2005. This initiative led a further shrinking of the malaria risk map and today locally acquired clinical cases of malaria are reported only in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, with the latter contributing to over 98% of the clinical burden. PMID:23548086

  14. Physical interpretation of antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Itzhak; James, Albin

    2016-02-01

    Geodesic incompleteness is a problem in both general relativity and string theory. The Weyl-invariant Standard Model coupled to general relativity (SM +GR ), and a similar treatment of string theory, are improved theories that are geodesically complete. A notable prediction of this approach is that there must be antigravity regions of spacetime connected to gravity regions through gravitational singularities such as those that occur in black holes and cosmological bang/crunch. Antigravity regions introduce apparent problems of ghosts that raise several questions of physical interpretation. It was shown that unitarity is not violated, but there may be an instability associated with negative kinetic energies in the antigravity regions. In this paper we show that the apparent problems can be resolved with the interpretation of the theory from the perspective of observers strictly in the gravity region. Such observers cannot experience the negative kinetic energy in antigravity directly, but can only detect in and out signals that interact with the antigravity region. This is no different from a spacetime black box for which the information about its interior is encoded in scattering amplitudes for in/out states at its exterior. Through examples we show that negative kinetic energy in antigravity presents no problems of principles but is an interesting topic for physical investigations of fundamental significance.

  15. Assembling a global database of malaria parasite prevalence for the Malaria Atlas Project

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    Gikandi Priscilla W

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Open access to databases of information generated by the research community can synergize individual efforts and are epitomized by the genome mapping projects. Open source models for outputs of scientific research funded by tax-payers and charities are becoming the norm. This has yet to be extended to malaria epidemiology and control. Methods The exhaustive searches and assembly process for a global database of malaria parasite prevalence as part of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP are described. The different data sources visited and how productive these were in terms of availability of parasite rate (PR data are presented, followed by a description of the methods used to assemble a relational database and an associated geographic information system. The challenges facing spatial data assembly from varied sources are described in an effort to help inform similar future applications. Results At the time of writing, the MAP database held 3,351 spatially independent PR estimates from community surveys conducted since 1985. These include 3,036 Plasmodium falciparum and 1,347 Plasmodium vivax estimates in 74 countries derived from 671 primary sources. More than half of these data represent malaria prevalence after the year 2000. Conclusion This database will help refine maps of the global spatial limits of malaria and be the foundation for the development of global malaria endemicity models as part of MAP. A widespread application of these maps is envisaged. The data compiled and the products generated by MAP are planned to be released in June 2009 to facilitate a more informed approach to global malaria control.

  16. Using the SaTScan method to detect local malaria clusters for guiding malaria control programmes

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    Kok Gerdalize

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mpumalanga Province, South Africa is a low malaria transmission area that is subject to malaria epidemics. SaTScan methodology was used by the malaria control programme to detect local malaria clusters to assist disease control planning. The third season for case cluster identification overlapped with the first season of implementing an outbreak identification and response system in the area. Methods SaTScan™ software using the Kulldorf method of retrospective space-time permutation and the Bernoulli purely spatial model was used to identify malaria clusters using definitively confirmed individual cases in seven towns over three malaria seasons. Following passive case reporting at health facilities during the 2002 to 2005 seasons, active case detection was carried out in the communities, this assisted with determining the probable source of infection. The distribution and statistical significance of the clusters were explored by means of Monte Carlo replication of data sets under the null hypothesis with replications greater than 999 to ensure adequate power for defining clusters. Results and discussion SaTScan detected five space-clusters and two space-time clusters during the study period. There was strong concordance between recognized local clustering of cases and outbreak declaration in specific towns. Both Albertsnek and Thambokulu reported malaria outbreaks in the same season as space-time clusters. This synergy may allow mutual validation of the two systems in confirming outbreaks demanding additional resources and cluster identification at local level to better target resources. Conclusion Exploring the clustering of cases assisted with the planning of public health activities, including mobilizing health workers and resources. Where appropriate additional indoor residual spraying, focal larviciding and health promotion activities, were all also carried out.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROTOTYPE OF MALARIA CLINICAL DIAGNOSTIC DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Harefa, Sudarta Yabesman; Lazuardi, Lutfan; Fuad, Anis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction : Malaria is a public health problem that still causes mortality, particularly in high risk population. Kabupaten Nias is one of the malaria endemic areas. Malaria diagnosis is mainly determined according to physical examination, despite the fact that laboratory examination is the gold standard of malaria diagnosis. To help health workers in diagnosing malaria accurately, it is necessary to develop a decision support system for malaria diagnosis.Objectives: To develop a prototype...

  18. Home-based malaria management in children by women: Evidence from a malaria endemic community in sub-Saharan Africa

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    Doreen Nkiru Eugene-Ezebilo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the medicines and dosage that mothers who engage in home-based malaria management administer to children aged ≤ 5 years having signs and symptoms associated with malaria and to discuss the possibilities of designing an effective home-based malaria management strategy. Methods: The data were obtained from face-to-face semi-structured interviews conducted with mothers in the Ugbowo Community of Benin City, Nigeria who were selected using multistage systematic random sampling technique. The data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis, arithmetic mean, simple percentages and bar chart. Results: Approximately 90% of the interviewees engaged in home-based malaria management and 10% patronized the hospital. Most of the interviewees who engaged in home-based malaria management administered medicines that stimulates the production of red blood cells and supplies vitamins to children having signs and symptoms of malaria, followed by painkillers and anti-malaria and cough medicine was the least. Of the anti-malaria medicines administered to children, almost 80% of the interviewees administered chloroquine to children, 15% quinine and 3% halfan. Approximately 60% of the interviewees had the correct knowledge of the dosage regime for chloroquine, 38% for quinine and 9% for halfan. Conclusions: Although home-based malaria management is important, it cannot serve as a substitute to the hospital. Some diseases have signs and symptoms that are similar to that of malaria which implies that administering anti-malaria medicines to a child without confirmatory tests might lead to irredeemable complications in that child. If the strategy is to make home-based malaria management effective and sustainable mothers, community health officials should be involved in designing the strategy. Simple rapid diagnostic test kits for malaria should be made available to community health officials and pharmacists so that confirmatory tests could be

  19. Incidence of Severe Malaria Syndromes and Status of Immune Responses among Khat Chewer Malaria Patients in Ethiopia.

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    Tsige Ketema

    Full Text Available Although more emphasis has been given to the genetic and environmental factors that determine host vulnerability to malaria, other factors that might have a crucial role in burdening the disease have not been evaluated yet. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the effect of khat chewing on the incidence of severe malaria syndromes and immune responses during malaria infection in an area where the two problems co-exist. Clinical, physical, demographic, hematological, biochemical and immunological data were collected from Plasmodium falciparum mono-infected malaria patients (age ≥ 10 years seeking medication in Halaba Kulito and Jimma Health Centers. In addition, incidences of severe malaria symptoms were assessed. The data were analyzed using SPSS (version 20 software. Prevalence of current khat chewer malaria patients was 57.38% (95%CI =53-61.56%. Malaria symptoms such as hyperpyrexia, prostration and hyperparasitemia were significantly lower (P0.05, IgG3 antibody was significantly higher (P<0.001 among khat chewer malaria patients. Moreover, IgM, IgG, IgG1and IgG3 antibodies had significant negative association (P<0.001 with parasite burden and clinical manifestations of severe malaria symptoms, but not with severe anemia and hypoglycemia. Additionally, a significant increment (P<0.05 in CD4+ T-lymphocyte population was observed among khat users. Khat might be an important risk factor for incidence of some severe malaria complications. Nevertheless, it can enhance induction of humoral immune response and CD4+ T-lymphocyte population during malaria infection. This calls for further investigation on the effect of khat on parasite or antigen-specifc protective malaria immunity and analysis of cytokines released upon malaria infection among khat chewers.

  20. Progress towards malaria elimination in Sabang Municipality, Aceh, Indonesia

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    Herdiana Herdiana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indonesia has set 2030 as its deadline for elimination of malaria transmission in the archipelago, with regional deadlines established according to present levels of malaria endemicity and strength of health infrastructure. The Municipality of Sabang which historically had one of the highest levels of malaria in Aceh province aims to achieve elimination by the end of 2013. Method From 2008 to 2010, baseline surveys of malaria interventions, mapping of all confirmed malaria cases, categorization of residual foci of malaria transmission and vector surveys were conducted in Sabang, Aceh, a pilot district for malaria elimination in Indonesia. To inform future elimination efforts, mass screening from the focal areas to measure prevalence of malaria with both microscopy and PCR was conducted. G6PD deficiency prevalence was also measured. Result Despite its small size, a diverse mixture of potential malaria vectors were documented in Sabang, including Anopheles sundaicus, Anopheles minimus, Anopheles aconitus and Anopheles dirus. Over a two-year span, the number of sub-villages with ongoing malaria transmission reduced from 61 to 43. Coverage of malaria diagnosis and treatment, IRS, and LLINs was over 80%. Screening of 16,229 residents detected 19 positive people, for a point prevalence of 0.12%. Of the 19 positive cases, three symptomatic infections and five asymptomatic infections were detected with microscopy and 11 asymptomatic infections were detected with PCR. Of the 19 cases, seven were infected with Plasmodium falciparum, 11 were infected with Plasmodium vivax, and one subject was infected with both species. Analysis of the 937 blood samples for G6PD deficiency revealed two subjects (0.2% with deficient G6PD. Discussion The interventions carried out by the government of Sabang have dramatically reduced the burden of malaria over the past seven years. The first phase, carried out between 2005 and 2007, included improved