WorldWideScience

Sample records for interpreting environmental signals

  1. Environmental interpretation in Uganda's national parks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interpretation work, and management skills expected of interpretation staff. Eight predetermined management skills were listed and respondents were asked to indicate ... Environmental interpretation in Uganda's National Parks. 21. Table 2. Job description of the rangers (N=32). Job description f. %. General work. 12. 37.5.

  2. NMSSM interpretations of the observed Higgs signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingo, Florian; Weiglein, Georg

    2015-01-01

    While the properties of the signal that was discovered in the Higgs searches at the LHC are consistent so far with the Higgs boson of the Standard Model (SM), it is crucial to investigate to what extent other interpretations that may correspond to very different underlying physics are compatible with the current results. We use the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) as a well-motivated theoretical framework with a sufficiently rich Higgs phenomenology to address this question, making use of the public tools HiggsBounds and HiggsSignals in order to take into account comprehensive experimental information on both the observed signal and on the existing limits from Higgs searches at LEP, the TeVatron and the LHC. We find that besides the decoupling limit resulting in a single light state with SM-like properties, several other configurations involving states lighter or quasi-degenerate with the one at about 125 GeV turn out to give a competitive fit to the Higgs data and other existing constraints. We discuss the phenomenology and possible future experimental tests of those scenarios, and compare the features of specific scenarios chosen as examples with those arising from a more global fit.

  3. Data analysis and interpretation for environmental surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Data Analysis and Interpretation for Environmental Surveillance Conference was held in Lexington, Kentucky, February 5--7, 1990. The conference was sponsored by what is now the Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Participants included technical professionals from all Martin Marietta Energy Systems facilities, Westinghouse Materials Company of Ohio, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and several technical support contractors. Presentations at the conference ranged the full spectrum of issues that effect the analysis and interpretation of environmental data. Topics included tracking systems for samples and schedules associated with ongoing programs; coalescing data from a variety of sources and pedigrees into integrated data bases; methods for evaluating the quality of environmental data through empirical estimates of parameters such as charge balance, pH, and specific conductance; statistical applications to the interpretation of environmental information; and uses of environmental information in risk and dose assessments. Hearing about and discussing this wide variety of topics provided an opportunity to capture the subtlety of each discipline and to appreciate the continuity that is required among the disciplines in order to perform high-quality environmental information analysis

  4. Electrogastrography : signal analytical aspects and interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. van der Schee (Evert Johan )

    1984-01-01

    textabstractElectrogastrography is defined as the recording of the myoelectrical activity of the smooth muscles of the stomach by means of cutaneous electrodes attached to the abdominal skin. The recorded signal is called ~n electrogastrogram. On October 14, 1921, Walter Alvarez attached two

  5. Oyster Electrophysiology: Electrocardiogram Signal Recognition and Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico M. Batista

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After 100 years of published recording traces pertaining to the oyster electrocardiogram (ECG, we revisited the original experiments of Eiger (1913, using state-of-the-art electrophysiology recorders. Our aim was to confirm that a recordable ECG, similar to that of higher vertebrates, is present in the oyster heart. Portuguese oysters Crassostrea angulata, collected from the Guadiana estuary, Portugal, were used. The oysters were drilled through the right valve to reveal the pericardium. Gold and silver electrodes were placed through the hole and electrophysiological recordings were obtained. Stimulation of the oyster heart was performed in vivo and in vitro using a constant current power supply. Placement of electrodes around the heart revealed a trace that very closely matched the published ECG of Eiger (1913. However, we were unable to confirm that the recording was an ECG of the oyster heart. Moreover, measurements on isolated oyster hearts revealed a low conductivity (0.10 S m‒1. We did, however, record a depolarization signal from what we believe to be the visceral ganglia, and this preceded contractions of the oyster heart. Our findings indicate that so-called ECGs, previously recorded by [2] in Ostrea edulis, but also the “ECG” recorded by [4] in C. virginica from oyster hearts, are in fact an artifact arising from relative movement of the recording electrodes, giving rise to a baseline shift that mimics in some ways the P and QRS features of a typical ECG. Nevertheless, such recordings provide information pertaining to heart rate and are not without importance.

  6. Analytical signal and reduction to pole in the interpretation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analytical signal and reduction to pole in the interpretation of aeromagnetic data at low magnetic latitudes: a case study of the middle Benue trough, Nigeria. OK Likkason. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Geological Sciences Vol. 4(1) 2006: 29-38. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  7. Mechanisms and environmental signals triggering frost hardening ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004-10-28

    Oct 28, 2004 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 29; Issue 4. Plant resistance to cold stress: Mechanisms and environmental signals triggering frost hardening and dehardening ... Keywords. Cold acclimation of plants; environmental signals; frost hardening; photoperiod; phytochrome; Scots pine ...

  8. A signaling perspective on bureaucratic encounters: How public officials interpret signals and cues

    OpenAIRE

    Raaphorst, Nadine; Van de Walle, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This article provides scholars studying frontline judgements an analytical framework – the signaling perspective – that could be used to examine how street-level bureaucrats evaluate unobservable citizen-client properties. It proposes to not only look at the kind of signals and cues officials gather, but also at the interpretive frames used to make sense of them. This offers a valuable contribution to the street-level bureaucracy literature, which largely focuses on explaining discretionary d...

  9. Lumped parameter models for the interpretation of environmental tracer data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloszewski, P.; Zuber, A.

    1996-01-01

    Principles of the lumped-parameter approach to the interpretation of environmental tracer data are given. The following models are considered: the piston flow model (PFM), exponential flow model (EM), linear model (LM), combined piston flow and exponential flow model (EPM), combined linear flow and piston flow model (LPM), and dispersion model (DM). The applicability of these models for the interpretation of different tracer data is discussed for a steady state flow approximation. Case studies are given to exemplify the applicability of the lumped-parameter approach. Description of a user-friendly computer program is given. (author). 68 refs, 25 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Death signals by environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    Life and death are directly involved in the normal development of all multicellular organisms. Defects in the regulation of the mechanism of programmed cell death (apoptosis) contribute to many diseases as well as in the toxic effects of xenobiotics. Here it is described which elements of the apoptotic machinery are possible targets of hydrocarbons and metal compounds, prominent environmental pollutants. Moreover, it is shown that cytotoxic rather than cytostatic therapies might be most effective in treatment of cancer. (orig.)

  11. Model-Based Interpretation and Experimental Verification of ECT Signals of Steam Generator Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Eui Lae; Yim, Chang Jae; Lee, Jin Ho

    2004-01-01

    Model-based inversion tools for eddy current signals have been developed by combining neural networks and finite element modeling, for quantitative flaw characterization in steam generator tubes. In the present work, interpretation of experimental eddy current signals was carried out in order to validate the developed inversion tools. A database was constructed using the synthetic flaw signals generated by the finite element model. The hybrid neural networks composed of a PNN classifier and BPNN size estimators were trained using the synthetic signals. Experimental eddy current signals were obtained from axisymmetric artificial flaws. Interpretation of flaw signals was conducted by feeding the experimental signals into the neural networks. The interpretation was excellent, which shows that the developed inversion tools would be applicable to the Interpretation of real eddy current signals

  12. Modeling of surface myoelectric signals--Part II: Model-based signal interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merletti, R; Roy, S H; Kupa, E; Roatta, S; Granata, A

    1999-07-01

    Experimental electromyogram (EMG) data from the human biceps brachii were simulated using the model described in [10] of this work. A multichannel linear electrode array, spanning the length of the biceps, was used to detect monopolar and bipolar signals, from which double differential signals were computed, during either voluntary or electrically elicited isometric contractions. For relatively low-level voluntary contractions (10%-30% of maximum force) individual firings of three to four-different motor units were identified and their waveforms were closely approximated by the model. Motor unit parameters such as depth, size, fiber orientation and length, location of innervation and tendonous zones, propagation velocity, and source width were estimated using the model. Two applications of the model are described. The first analyzes the effects of electrode rotation with respect to the muscle fiber direction and shows the possibility of conduction velocity (CV) over- and under-estimation. The second focuses on the myoelectric manifestations of fatigue during a sustained electrically elicited contraction and the interrelationship between muscle fiber CV, spectral and amplitude variables, and the length of the depolarization zone. It is concluded that a) surface EMG detection using an electrode array, when combined with a model of signal propagation, provides a useful method for understanding the physiological and anatomical determinants of EMG waveform characteristics and b) the model provides a way for the interpretation of fatigue plots.

  13. An improvement in SAR image interpretability provided by post-correlation signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, N. D.; Kaupp, V. H.; Waite, W. P.; Macdonald, H. C.

    1983-01-01

    A presentation on the basis of subjective analysis of computer-generated SAR imagery depicts the improvement in interpretability obtained by post-correlation signal processing. A parametric study was conducted to determine the improvement in interpretability obtained by the application of signal weighting functions on the post-processed returns. The results suggest that a marked improvement in interpretability results from symmetrizing the exponential distribution of the fading signal. Preliminary analysis indicates that signal weighting improves the contrast ratio between the mean value of adjacent homogeneous regions in a SAR scene.

  14. Coupled Interpretation of Geoelectrical Surveying Results in Environmental Site Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skold, M.; Hubbard, S. S.; Karaoulis, M.; Revil, A.; Spycher, N.; Watson, D. B.; Wu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    used to interpret the ground water flow from SP and ERT signals. The method qualitatively explained the observed variations in geophysical responses.

  15. Interpreting Dust Impact Signals Detected by the STEREO Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, E.; Sternovsky, Z.; Malaspina, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    There is no comprehensive understanding yet of how dust impacts on spacecraft (SC) generate signals detected by antenna instruments. The high sensitivity of the S/WAVES instrument and the large number and high diversity of dust impacts detected make the STEREO mission particularly well suited for a closer investigation. A floating perturbation model (FPP) was recently proposed to explain the characteristic shape of dust impact signals with an overshoot. The FPP model posits that the overshoot is due to the different discharge time constant of the SC and the individual antennas. Kinetic simulations are performed to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, antennas are inefficient collectors of charged particles from impact plasmas. The collection efficiency is small, only 0.1-1%, varying weakly with the bias potential between the antenna and the SC, and more strongly with impact location. The low recollection efficiencies and an analysis of the shapes and scaling of typical and atypical signals recorded by S/WAVES suggest that, besides the mechanism described by the FPP model, there is another, possibly stronger mechanism that is responsible for generating the characteristic overshoot for most dust impact signals observed by STEREO.

  16. Westinghouse use of artificial intelligence in signal interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses Westinghouse's use of artificial intelligence to assist inspectors who routinely monitor the thousands of tubes in nuclear steam generators. Using the AI technology has made the inspection process easier to learn and to apply. The system uses pattern recognition to identify off-normal conditions. As part of the in-service inspection program for nuclear power reactors, utilities make a practice of inspecting the condition of the large heat exchangers that produce the steam that turns the electric turbine generator. The same data are presented for inspection using form, motion, and color to call attention to off-normal signal patterns

  17. RC2-a new expert system to interpret signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumbach, A.; Ducasse, M.

    1983-12-01

    A new system of word recognition called the blackboard system or hearsay has been put forth by Ermann. The article devotes a lot of attention to an example which shows how a sentence is constructed starting from phonemes and going on to words, groups of words and phrases. Classic expert systems consist of a base of knowledge and a base of temporary information to bring forth an inference. Lastly there is an interpreter to activate these two bases. The hearsay expert system has some differences: firstly the base of knowledge consists of several modules (KS or knowledge sources) which are independent and communicate by means of the blackboard which is a base of structured facts memorising the hypotheses furnished by the modules. The hypotheses are divided into phonetics, lexical, syntactic, and semantic knowledge. The phonemes provided are grouped into words by the ks phonemes=words, and then into groups of words by the ks words=groups of words and lastly into a phrase. The problem of word recognition is not completely resolved but the principle objective of constructing a kernel has been attained. The recognition of a phrase of 10 words takes about 45 minutes. There still remains a lot of work to be done concerning the knowledge base. 4 references.

  18. ECG Signal Processing, Classification and Interpretation A Comprehensive Framework of Computational Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrycz, Witold

    2012-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are among the most important sources of diagnostic information in healthcare so improvements in their analysis may also have telling consequences. Both the underlying signal technology and a burgeoning variety of algorithms and systems developments have proved successful targets for recent rapid advances in research. ECG Signal Processing, Classification and Interpretation shows how the various paradigms of Computational Intelligence, employed either singly or in combination, can produce an effective structure for obtaining often vital information from ECG signals. Neural networks do well at capturing the nonlinear nature of the signals, information granules realized as fuzzy sets help to confer interpretability on the data and evolutionary optimization may be critical in supporting the structural development of ECG classifiers and models of ECG signals. The contributors address concepts, methodology, algorithms, and case studies and applications exploiting the paradigm of Comp...

  19. Economic interpretation of environmental flow regime downstream diverted river reaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, Lorenzo; Perona, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Water demand for hydropower production is increasing together with the consciousness of the importance of riparian ecosystems and biodiversity. Some Cantons in Switzerland and other alpine regions in Austria and in Sud Tirol (Italy) started replacing the inadequate concept of Minimum Flow Requirement (MFR) with a dynamic one, by releasing a fix percentage of the total inflow (e.g. 25 %) to the environment. In the same direction Perona et al. (in revision) mathematically formulated a method particularly suitable for small hydropower plants, handling the environment as a non-traditional water use, which competes with exploitators. This model uses the Principle of Equal Marginal Utility (PEMU) as optimal water allocation rule for generating like-natural flow releases while maximizing the aggregate economic benefit of all uses (Gorla and Perona, in revision). In this paper we show how redistribution policies can be interpreted in terms of PEMU, particularly we focus at traditional water repartition rules, such as the MFR, but also to dynamic ones like proportional redistribution. For the first case we show both ecological and economical arguments suggesting its inappropriateness; in the second case we highlight explicit points of strength and weakness, and suggest ways of improvement. For example the flow release allocation rule can be changed from inflow-independent ones (e.g., proportional redistribution), to inflow-dependent ones (e.g., non-proportional). The latters, having fewer constraints, can generally lead to better both ecological and economical performances. A class of simple functions, based on the PEMU, is then proposed as a suitable solution in run-of-river or small hydropower plants. Each water repartition policy underlies an ecosystem monetization. We explicit the value of the ecosystem health underlying each policy by means of the PEMU under a few assumptions, and discuss how the theoretic efficient redistribution law obtained by our approach is

  20. Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

  1. Interpreting the Dust Bowl: Teaching Environmental Philosophy through Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, John R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides a discussion of the structure and procedures of a classroom exercise using scenes from "The Grapes of Wrath," to illustrate different environmental philosophies. After viewing scenes from the film, students prepare presentations examining the Dust Bowl from one of four philosophical positions: environmental causation,…

  2. Interpretation of ECG Signal with a Multi-Layer Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Ostafe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article there are introduced the resultsobtained in the interpretation of the components of abiomedical signal, ECG, by using a multi-layer neuralnetwork, using the backpropagation algorithm. The neuralnetwork was simulated with the Neuroshell2.0 program. Thenew obtained network was used within the program ofautomate diagnosing of the ECG.

  3. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... environmental marketing claims. 260.5 Section 260.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.5 Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims. Section 5 of the FTC Act makes unlawful deceptive acts and...

  4. Model-based ECT signal interpretation and experimental verification for the quantitative flaw characterization in steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Eui Lae; Chung, Tae Eon; Yim, Chang Jae

    2002-01-01

    The model-based inversion tools for eddy current signals have been developed by the novel combination of neural networks and finite element modeling for quantitative flaw characterization in steam generator tubes. In the present work, interpretation of experimental eddy current signals was carried out in order to validate the developed inversion tools. A database was constructed using the synthetic flaw signals generated by the finite element modeling. The hybrid neural networks of a PNN classifier and BPNN size estimators were trained using the synthetic signals. Experimental eddy current signals were obtained from axisymmetric artificial flaws. Interpretations of flaws were carried out by feeding experimental signals into the neural networks. The results of interpretations were excellent, so that the developed inversion tools would be applicable to the interpretation of experimental eddy current signals.

  5. Interpretation of the cosmic-ray air shower signal in Askaryan radio detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Krijn D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the radio emission from a cosmic-ray air shower propagating in air before it hits an air-ice boundary after which it completes its propagation inside the ice. The in-air emission, the in-ice emission, as well as the transition radiation from the shower crossing the boundary is considered. We discuss the interpretation of the radio signal observed by an in-ice observer.

  6. FGF signal interpretation is directed by Sprouty and Spred proteins during mesoderm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, Jeremy M; Petersen, Lars F; Amaya, Enrique

    2005-05-01

    Vertebrate gastrulation requires coordination of mesoderm specification with morphogenetic movements. While both of these processes require FGF signaling, it is not known how mesoderm specification and cell movements are coordinated during gastrulation. The related Sprouty and Spred protein families are recently discovered regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. We identified two genes for each family in Xenopus tropicalis: Xtsprouty1, Xtsprouty2, Xtspred1, and Xtspred2. In gain- and loss-of-function experiments we show that XtSprouty and XtSpred proteins modulate different signaling pathways downstream of the FGF receptor (FGFR), and consequently different developmental processes. Notably, XtSproutys inhibit morphogenesis and Ca(2+) and PKCdelta signaling, leaving MAPK activation and mesoderm specification intact. In contrast, XtSpreds inhibit MAPK activation and mesoderm specification, with little effect on Ca(2+) or PKCdelta signaling. These differences, combined with the timing of their developmental expression, suggest a mechanism to switch FGFR signal interpretation to coordinate mesoderm formation and cell movements during gastrulation.

  7. Environmental signaling and regulation of mushroom formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelkmans, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Mushrooms are of great value as a food source. The Netherlands has a large share of the European white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) production. This market will increase in the future due to larger demand for high quality food with a growing world population. Environmental factors play a role

  8. Origins of heterogeneity in Streptococcus mutans competence: interpreting an environment-sensitive signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Stephen J.; Son, Minjun

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial pathogens rely on chemical signaling and environmental cues to regulate disease-causing behavior in complex microenvironments. The human pathogen Streptococcus mutans employs a particularly complex signaling and sensing scheme to regulate genetic competence and other virulence behaviors in the oral biofilms it inhabits. Individual S. mutans cells make the decision to enter the competent state by integrating chemical and physical cues received from their microenvironment along with endogenously produced peptide signals. Studies at the single-cell level, using microfluidics to control the extracellular environment, provide physical insight into how the cells process these inputs to generate complex and often heterogeneous outputs. Fine changes in environmental stimuli can dramatically alter the behavior of the competence circuit. Small shifts in pH can switch the quorum sensing response on or off, while peptide-rich media appear to switch the output from a unimodal to a bimodal behavior. Therefore, depending on environmental cues, the quorum sensing circuitry can either synchronize virulence across the population, or initiate and amplify heterogeneity in that behavior. Much of this complex behavior can be understood within the framework of a quorum sensing system that can operate both as an intercellular signaling mechanism and intracellularly as a noisy bimodal switch.

  9. SIBYLLE: an expert system for the interpretation in real time of mono-dimensional signals; application to vocal signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minault, Sophie

    1987-01-01

    This report presents an interactive tool for computer aided building of signals processing and interpretation systems. This tool includes three main parts: - an expert system, - a rule compiler, - a real time procedural system. The expert system allows the acquisition of knowledge about the signal. Knowledge has to be formalized as a set of rewriting rules (or syntaxical rules) and is introduced with an interactive interface. The compiler makes a compilation of the knowledge base (the set of rules) and generates a procedural system, which is equivalent to the expert system. The generated procedural system is a fixed one but is much faster than the expert system: it can work in real time. The expert system is used along the experimental phase on a small corpus of data: the knowledge base is then tested and possibly modified thanks to the interactive interface. Once the knowledge base is steady enough, the procedural system is generated and tested on a bigger data corpus. This allows to perform significant statistical studies which generally induce some corrections at the expert system level. The overall constitutes a tool which conciliates the expert systems flexibility with the procedural systems speed. It has been used for building a set of recognition rules modules on vocal signal - module of sound-silence detection - module of voiced-unvoiced segmentation - module of synchronous pitch detection. Its possibilities are not limited to the study of vocal signal, but can be enlarged to any mono-dimensional signal processing. A feasibility study has been realised for an electrocardiograms application. (author) [fr

  10. Symposium on Decoherence and No-Signalling : Current Interpretational Problems of Quantum Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wüthrich, Adrian; New vistas on old problems : recent approaches to the foundations of quantum mechanics

    2017-01-01

    Quantum theory has been a subject of interpretational debates ever since its inception. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, the empirical violation of Bell's inequalities, and recent activities to exploit quantum entanglement for technological innovation only exacerbate a long-standing philosophical debate. Despite no-signaling theorems and theories of decoherence, deep- rooted conflicts between special relativistic principles and observed quantum correlations as well as between definite measurement outcomes and quantum theoretical superpositions persist. This collection of papers, first presented at an international symposium at the University of Bern in 2011, highlights some recent approaches to the old problems of a philosophy of quantum mechanics. The authors address the issues from a variety of perspectives, ranging from variations of causal theory and system theoretic interpretations of the observer to an empirical test of whether entanglement itself can be entangled. The essays demonstrate that the di...

  11. Indicators for the Evaluation of Environmental Education, Interpretation and Information in Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Jaume; Oliver, Miquel F.; Castells, Margalida

    2004-01-01

    By petition of the regional government of the Balearic Islands (Spain), the authors of this article evaluated activities of environmental education, interpretation, and information carried out in the most important protected areas of these islands. The following is a presentation of the model of the evaluation that was developed. Based on the…

  12. A Guide to Cultural and Environmental Interpretation in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Literature Cited Leopold , Aldo . 1970. Sand County Almanac, Ballantine Press, New York. Minahan, Jeanne. 1980. "Omaha District: Powerhouse Tour Games...the most important function of interpretation. Leopold (1970) called this deeper level of understanding an "environmental ethic" that is developed by

  13. Mitochondria targeting by environmental stressors: Implications for redox cellular signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blajszczak, Chuck; Bonini, Marcelo G

    2017-11-01

    Mitochondria are cellular powerhouses as well as metabolic and signaling hubs regulating diverse cellular functions, from basic physiology to phenotypic fate determination. It is widely accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in mitochondria participate in the regulation of cellular signaling, and that some mitochondria chronically operate at a high ROS baseline. However, it is not completely understood how mitochondria adapt to persistently high ROS states and to environmental stressors that disturb the redox balance. Here we will review some of the current concepts regarding how mitochondria resist oxidative damage, how they are replaced when excessive oxidative damage compromises function, and the effect of environmental toxicants (i.e. heavy metals) on the regulation of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production and subsequent impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular change signal-to-noise criteria for interpreting experiments involving exposure of biological systems to weakly interacting electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Timothy E; Weaver, James C

    2005-05-01

    We describe an approach to aiding the design and interpretation of experiments involving biological effects of weakly interacting electromagnetic fields that range from steady (dc) to microwave frequencies. We propose that if known biophysical mechanisms cannot account for an inferred, underlying molecular change signal-to-noise ratio, (S/N)gen, of a observed result, then there are two interpretation choices: (1) there is an unknown biophysical mechanism with stronger coupling between the field exposure and the ongoing biochemical process, or (2) the experiment is responding to something other than the field exposure. Our approach is based on classical detection theory, the recognition that weakly interacting fields cannot break chemical bonds, and the consequence that such fields can only alter rates of ongoing, metabolically driven biochemical reactions, and transport processes. The approach includes both fundamental chemical noise (molecular shot noise) and other sources of competing chemical change, to be compared quantitatively to the field induced change for the basic case that the field alters a single step in a biochemical network. Consistent with pharmacology and toxicology, we estimate the molecular dose (mass associated with field induced molecular change per mass tissue) resulting from illustrative low frequency field exposures for the biophysical mechanism of voltage gated channels. For perspective, we then consider electric field-mediated delivery of small molecules across human skin and into individual cells. Specifically, we consider the examples of iontophoretic and electroporative delivery of fentanyl through skin and electroporative delivery of bleomycin into individual cells. The total delivered amount corresponds to a molecular change signal and the delivery variability corresponds to generalized chemical noise. Viewed broadly, biological effects due to nonionizing fields may include animal navigation, medical applications, and environmental

  15. Environmental signaling: from environmental estrogens to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, J A

    2016-07-01

    The landmark report (Herbst et al. 1971) linking prenatal treatment with a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), to cancer at puberty in women whose mothers took the drug while pregnant ushered in an era of research on delayed effects of such exposures on functional outcomes in offspring. An animal model developed in our laboratory at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences confirmed that DES was the carcinogen and exposure to DES caused, as well, functional alterations in the reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems of male and female mice treated in utero. DES was also being used in agriculture and we discovered, at the first meeting on Estrogens in the Environment in 1979 (Estrogens in the Environment, 1980), that many environmental contaminants were also estrogenic. Many laboratories sought to discern the basis for estrogenicity in environmental chemicals and to discover other hormonally active xenobiotics. Our laboratory elucidated how DES and other estrogenic compounds worked by altering differentiation through epigenetic gene imprinting, helping explain the transgenerational effects found in mice and humans. At the Wingspread Conference on the Human-Wildlife Connection in 1991 (Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology, 1992), we learned that environmental disruption of the endocrine system occurred in many species and phyla, and the term endocrine disruption was introduced. Further findings of transgenerational effects of environmental agents that mimicked or blocked various reproductive hormones and the ubiquity of environmental signals, such as bisphenol A increased concern for human and ecological health. Scientists began to look at other endocrine system aspects, such as cardiovascular and immune function, and other nuclear receptors, with important observations regarding obesity and metabolism. Laboratories, such as ours, are now using stem cells to try to understand the mechanisms by which various environmental signals

  16. Detection of regional infrasound signals using array data: Testing, tuning, and physical interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghyun; Stump, Brian W; Hayward, Chris; Arrowsmith, Stephen J; Che, Il-Young; Drob, Douglas P

    2016-07-01

    This work quantifies the physical characteristics of infrasound signal and noise, assesses their temporal variations, and determines the degree to which these effects can be predicted by time-varying atmospheric models to estimate array and network performance. An automated detector that accounts for both correlated and uncorrelated noise is applied to infrasound data from three seismo-acoustic arrays in South Korea (BRDAR, CHNAR, and KSGAR), cooperatively operated by Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and Southern Methodist University (SMU). Arrays located on an island and near the coast have higher noise power, consistent with both higher wind speeds and seasonably variable ocean wave contributions. On the basis of the adaptive F-detector quantification of time variable environmental effects, the time-dependent scaling variable is shown to be dependent on both weather conditions and local site effects. Significant seasonal variations in infrasound detections including daily time of occurrence, detection numbers, and phase velocity/azimuth estimates are documented. These time-dependent effects are strongly correlated with atmospheric winds and temperatures and are predicted by available atmospheric specifications. This suggests that commonly available atmospheric specifications can be used to predict both station and network detection performance, and an appropriate forward model improves location capabilities as a function of time.

  17. On Improving the Quality and Interpretation of Environmental Assessments using Statistical Analysis and Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, R.; Faldi, A.; Laurenzi, I.; Usadi, A.; Venkatesh, A.

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of studies are focused on assessing the environmental footprint of different products and processes, especially using life cycle assessment (LCA). This work shows how combining statistical methods and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) with environmental analyses can help improve the quality of results and their interpretation. Most environmental assessments in literature yield single numbers that characterize the environmental impact of a process/product - typically global or country averages, often unchanging in time. In this work, we show how statistical analysis and GIS can help address these limitations. For example, we demonstrate a method to separately quantify uncertainty and variability in the result of LCA models using a power generation case study. This is important for rigorous comparisons between the impacts of different processes. Another challenge is lack of data that can affect the rigor of LCAs. We have developed an approach to estimate environmental impacts of incompletely characterized processes using predictive statistical models. This method is applied to estimate unreported coal power plant emissions in several world regions. There is also a general lack of spatio-temporal characterization of the results in environmental analyses. For instance, studies that focus on water usage do not put in context where and when water is withdrawn. Through the use of hydrological modeling combined with GIS, we quantify water stress on a regional and seasonal basis to understand water supply and demand risks for multiple users. Another example where it is important to consider regional dependency of impacts is when characterizing how agricultural land occupation affects biodiversity in a region. We developed a data-driven methodology used in conjuction with GIS to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between the impacts of growing different crops on different species in various biomes of the world.

  18. Geography Teachers' Interpretation of a Curriculum Reform Initiative: The Case of the Lesotho Environmental Education Support Project (LEESP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raselimo, Mohaeka; Wilmot, Di

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses how teachers in a specific developing world context interpreted a curriculum reform initiative. It is located within a broader interpretive study that investigated the integration of Environmental Education into the formal education system of Lesotho with particular reference to secondary school geography. More specifically…

  19. Interpretation of environmental isotopic groundwater data. Arid and semi-arid zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyh, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Various hydrodynamic aspects are discussed in order to show their implication for the hydrogeological interpretation of environmental isotope and hydrochemical groundwater data. Special attention is drawn to radiocarbon and tritium studies carried out in arid and semi-arid zones. An exponential model has been utilized to determine the mean residence time of the long-term water from springs in karst and crystalline regions. Hydrogeological parameters such as the porosity can be checked by this result. In addition, the exponential model offers the possibility of determining the initial 14 C content of spring water, which is sensitively dependent on the soil of the recharge area. A base-flow model has been introduced to interpret the 14 C and 3 H data of groundwater samples from older karst regions. Differences between pumped and drawn samples exist with respect to the groundwater budget. Owing to pumping, the old base flow is accelerated and becomes enriched in pumped groundwater in comparison to the short-term water. Radiocarbon ages of groundwater in alluvium may be dubious because of isotope exchange with the CO 2 in the root zone along the river bank. Under confined conditions 14 C groundwater ages are diminished if the hydraulic head of the confined aquifer is lower than that of the shallow one. This is due to the radiocarbon downwards transport by convection of shallow groundwater. The same effect occurs, though much faster, if the groundwater table is depleted by groundwater withdrawal. The decrease of the radiocarbon groundwater ages in time can be used to determine the hydraulic transmissibility coefficient of the aquitarde. According to the practical and theoretic results obtained the hydrodynamic aspects require at least the same attention for the interpretation of environmental isotope and hydrochemical data of groundwater as do hydrochemical and isotope fractionation processes. (author)

  20. Quantitation of PET signal as an adjunct to visual interpretation of florbetapir imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontecorvo, Michael J.; Arora, Anupa K.; Devine, Marybeth; Lu, Ming; Galante, Nick; Siderowf, Andrew; Devadanam, Catherine; Joshi, Abhinay D.; Heun, Stephen L.; Teske, Brian F.; Truocchio, Stephen P.; Krautkramer, Michael; Devous, Michael D.; Mintun, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using quantitation to augment interpretation of florbetapir PET amyloid imaging. A total of 80 physician readers were trained on quantitation of florbetapir PET images and the principles for using quantitation to augment a visual read. On day 1, the readers completed a visual read of 96 scans (46 autopsy-verified and 50 from patients seeking a diagnosis). On day 2, 69 of the readers reinterpreted the 96 scans augmenting their interpretation with quantitation (VisQ method) using one of three commercial software packages. A subset of 11 readers reinterpreted all scans on day 2 based on a visual read only (VisVis control). For the autopsy-verified scans, the neuropathologist's modified CERAD plaque score was used as the truth standard for interpretation accuracy. Because an autopsy truth standard was not available for scans from patients seeking a diagnosis, the majority VisQ interpretation of the three readers with the best accuracy in interpreting autopsy-verified scans was used as the reference standard. Day 1 visual read accuracy was high for both the autopsy-verified scans (90%) and the scans from patients seeking a diagnosis (87.3%). Accuracy improved from the visual read to the VisQ read (from 90.1% to 93.1%, p < 0.0001). Importantly, access to quantitative information did not decrease interpretation accuracy of the above-average readers (>90% on day 1). Accuracy in interpreting the autopsy-verified scans also increased from the first to the second visual read (VisVis group). However, agreement with the reference standard (best readers) for scans from patients seeking a diagnosis did not improve with a second visual read, and in this cohort the VisQ group was significantly improved relative to the VisVis group (change 5.4% vs. -1.1%, p < 0.0001). These results indicate that augmentation of visual interpretation of florbetapir PET amyloid images with quantitative information obtained using commercially available

  1. Quantitation of PET signal as an adjunct to visual interpretation of florbetapir imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontecorvo, Michael J.; Arora, Anupa K.; Devine, Marybeth; Lu, Ming; Galante, Nick; Siderowf, Andrew; Devadanam, Catherine; Joshi, Abhinay D.; Heun, Stephen L.; Teske, Brian F.; Truocchio, Stephen P.; Krautkramer, Michael; Devous, Michael D.; Mintun, Mark A. [Avid Radiopharmaceuticals (a wholly owned subsidiary of Eli Lilly and Company), Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    This study examined the feasibility of using quantitation to augment interpretation of florbetapir PET amyloid imaging. A total of 80 physician readers were trained on quantitation of florbetapir PET images and the principles for using quantitation to augment a visual read. On day 1, the readers completed a visual read of 96 scans (46 autopsy-verified and 50 from patients seeking a diagnosis). On day 2, 69 of the readers reinterpreted the 96 scans augmenting their interpretation with quantitation (VisQ method) using one of three commercial software packages. A subset of 11 readers reinterpreted all scans on day 2 based on a visual read only (VisVis control). For the autopsy-verified scans, the neuropathologist's modified CERAD plaque score was used as the truth standard for interpretation accuracy. Because an autopsy truth standard was not available for scans from patients seeking a diagnosis, the majority VisQ interpretation of the three readers with the best accuracy in interpreting autopsy-verified scans was used as the reference standard. Day 1 visual read accuracy was high for both the autopsy-verified scans (90%) and the scans from patients seeking a diagnosis (87.3%). Accuracy improved from the visual read to the VisQ read (from 90.1% to 93.1%, p < 0.0001). Importantly, access to quantitative information did not decrease interpretation accuracy of the above-average readers (>90% on day 1). Accuracy in interpreting the autopsy-verified scans also increased from the first to the second visual read (VisVis group). However, agreement with the reference standard (best readers) for scans from patients seeking a diagnosis did not improve with a second visual read, and in this cohort the VisQ group was significantly improved relative to the VisVis group (change 5.4% vs. -1.1%, p < 0.0001). These results indicate that augmentation of visual interpretation of florbetapir PET amyloid images with quantitative information obtained using commercially available

  2. Signalling in international environmental agreements: Using pre-agreement emission level as a signalling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, U.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the question about strategic incentives in international environmental agreements and tries to give a positive description of how the design of the agreement influences the strategic behaviour of potential participants before they enter the treaty. A common feature of the design of agreements is that the reduction obligations (RO) are made contingent on a pre-agreement or baseline emission. As it is assumed that countries posses better information about their reduction costs than does the international body in charge of deciding the RO, countries might have incentives to signal higher costs by increasing their baseline emission, and thereby reducing the costs of entering the agreement. The appropriate analytical framework is to use a signalling game approach, where the pre-agreement emission level conveys information about the privately informed country's reduction cost. In this paper two types of agreement design are considered, one with uniform obligations, and one with differentiated obligations. This enables us to make a comparison between two different reduction regimes. The result is that the predicted outcomes vary with regard to both the environmental effectiveness and the associated expected costs for the participating countries. This means that when private information is considered, the anticipation of a given institutional framework has significant impact on the resulting distortion of the total emission level, highlighting the necessity of taking this into consideration when future designs are proposed. (au)

  3. Signalling in international environmental agreements. Using pre-agreement emission level as a signalling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, U.

    1997-12-31

    This paper addresses the question about strategic incentives in international environmental agreements and tries to give a positive description of how the design of the agreement influences the strategic behaviour of potential participants before they enter the treaty. A common feature of the design of agreements is that the reduction obligations (RO) are made contingent on a pre-agreement or baseline emission. As it is assumed that countries posses better information about their reduction costs than does the international body in charge of deciding the RO, countries might have incentives to signal higher costs by increasing their baseline emission, and thereby reducing the costs of entering the agreement. The appropriate analytical framework is to use a signalling game approach, where the pre-agreement emission level conveys information about the privately informed country`s reduction cost. In this paper two types of agreement design are considered, one with uniform obligations, and one with differentiated obligations. This enables us to make a comparison between two different reduction regimes. The result is that the predicted outcomes vary with regard to both the environmental effectiveness and the associated expected costs for the participating countries. This means that when private information is considered, the anticipation of a given institutional framework has significant impact on the resulting distortion of the total emission level, highlighting the necessity of taking this into consideration when future designs are proposed. (au)

  4. Signalling entropy: A novel network-theoretical framework for systems analysis and interpretation of functional omic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschendorff, Andrew E; Sollich, Peter; Kuehn, Reimer

    2014-06-01

    A key challenge in systems biology is the elucidation of the underlying principles, or fundamental laws, which determine the cellular phenotype. Understanding how these fundamental principles are altered in diseases like cancer is important for translating basic scientific knowledge into clinical advances. While significant progress is being made, with the identification of novel drug targets and treatments by means of systems biological methods, our fundamental systems level understanding of why certain treatments succeed and others fail is still lacking. We here advocate a novel methodological framework for systems analysis and interpretation of molecular omic data, which is based on statistical mechanical principles. Specifically, we propose the notion of cellular signalling entropy (or uncertainty), as a novel means of analysing and interpreting omic data, and more fundamentally, as a means of elucidating systems-level principles underlying basic biology and disease. We describe the power of signalling entropy to discriminate cells according to differentiation potential and cancer status. We further argue the case for an empirical cellular entropy-robustness correlation theorem and demonstrate its existence in cancer cell line drug sensitivity data. Specifically, we find that high signalling entropy correlates with drug resistance and further describe how entropy could be used to identify the achilles heels of cancer cells. In summary, signalling entropy is a deep and powerful concept, based on rigorous statistical mechanical principles, which, with improved data quality and coverage, will allow a much deeper understanding of the systems biological principles underlying normal and disease physiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Visualizing time: how linguistic metaphors are incorporated into displaying instruments in the process of interpreting time-varying signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Belmonte, Germà

    2017-06-01

    Spatial visualization is a well-established topic of education research that has allowed improving science and engineering students' skills on spatial relations. Connections have been established between visualization as a comprehension tool and instruction in several scientific fields. Learning about dynamic processes mainly relies upon static spatial representations or images. Visualization of time is inherently problematic because time can be conceptualized in terms of two opposite conceptual metaphors based on spatial relations as inferred from conventional linguistic patterns. The situation is particularly demanding when time-varying signals are recorded using displaying electronic instruments, and the image should be properly interpreted. This work deals with the interplay between linguistic metaphors, visual thinking and scientific instrument mediation in the process of interpreting time-varying signals displayed by electronic instruments. The analysis draws on a simplified version of a communication system as example of practical signal recording and image visualization in a physics and engineering laboratory experience. Instrumentation delivers meaningful signal representations because it is designed to incorporate a specific and culturally favored time view. It is suggested that difficulties in interpreting time-varying signals are linked with the existing dual perception of conflicting time metaphors. The activation of specific space-time conceptual mapping might allow for a proper signal interpretation. Instruments play then a central role as visualization mediators by yielding an image that matches specific perception abilities and practical purposes. Here I have identified two ways of understanding time as used in different trajectories through which students are located. Interestingly specific displaying instruments belonging to different cultural traditions incorporate contrasting time views. One of them sees time in terms of a dynamic metaphor

  6. Pico-charged intermediate particles rescue dark matter interpretation of 511 keV signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Y.; Rajaee, M.

    2017-12-01

    Various alleged indirect dark matter search signals, such as the 511 keV line from galaxy center or the PAMELA/AMS02 signal, are often challenged by the absence of corresponding signal from dwarf galaxies and/or by the absence of an impact on CMB through delayed recombination. We propose a novel scenario that can avoid these bounds based on the decay of dark matter, X, to a pair of intermediate particles C and \\overline{C} with a lifetime much greater than the age of universe. The annihilation of these intermediate particles eventually leads to a dark matter signal. The bounds from CMB can be easily avoided by the fact that at the time of recombination, not enough C particles had been accumulated. In order to keep C particles from leaving the galaxy, we assume the particles have a small electric charge so in the galactic disk, the magnetic field keeps the C particles in the vicinity of their production. However, they can escape the dwarf galaxies and the dark matter halo where the magnetic field is weak, leading to null signal from these regions. The small charge can have interesting consequences including a signal in direct dark matter search experiments.

  7. Combination of geo- pedo- and technogenic magnetic and geochemical signals in soil profiles - Diversification and its interpretation: A new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszkiewicz, Marcin; Łukasik, Adam; Magiera, Tadeusz; Mendakiewicz, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic and geochemical parameters of soils are determined with respect to geology, pedogenesis and anthropopression. Depending on local conditions these factors affect magnetic and geochemical signals simultaneously or in various configurations. We examined four type of soils (Entic Podzol, Eutric Cambisol, Humic Cambisol and Dystric Cambisol) developed on various bedrock (the Tumlin Sandstone, basaltoid, amphibolite and serpentinite, respectively). Our primary aim was to characterize the origin and diversification of the magnetic and geochemical signal in soils in order to distinguish the most reliable methods for correct interpretation of measured parameters. Presented data include selected parameters, both magnetic (mass magnetic susceptibility - χ, frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility - χfd and thermomagnetic susceptibility measurement - TSM), and geochemical (selected heavy metal contents: Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). Additionally, the enrichment factor (EF) and index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) were calculated. Our results suggest the following: (1) the χ/Fe ratio may be a reliable indicator for determining changes of magnetic signal origin in soil profiles; (2) magnetic and geochemical signals are simultaneously higher (the increment of χ and lead and zinc was noted) in topsoil horizons because of the deposition of technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs); (3) EF and Igeo evaluated for lead and zinc unambiguously showed anthropogenic influence in terms of increasing heavy metal contents in topsoil regardless of bedrock or soil type; (4) magnetic susceptibility measurements supported by TSM curves for soil samples of different genetic horizons are a helpful tool for interpreting the origin and nature of the mineral phases responsible for the changes of magnetic susceptibility values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Galvanic interpretation of self-potential signals associated withmicrobial sulfate-reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kenneth H.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2007-05-02

    We have evaluated the usefulness of the self-potential (SP)geophysical method to track the onset and location of microbialsulfate-reduction in saturated sediments during organic carbon amendment.Following stimulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by addition oflactate, anomalous voltages exceeding 600 mV correlated in space and timewith the accumulation of dissolved sulfide. Abiotic experiments in whichthe sulfide concentration at the measurement electrode was systematicallyvaried showed a positive correlation between the magnitude of the SPanomaly and differences in the half-cell potential associated with themeasurement and reference electrodes. Thus, we infer that the SPanomaliesresulted from electrochemical differences that developedbetween sulfide-rich regions and areas having higher oxidation potential.In neither experiment did generation of an SP anomaly require thepresence of an in situ electronic conductor, as is required by othermodels. These findings emphasize the importance of incorporation ofelectrochemical effects at electrode surfaces in interpretation of SPdata from geophysical studies. We conclude that SP measurements provide aminimally invasive means for monitoring stimulated sulfate-reductionwithin saturated sediments.

  9. The autoassociative neural network in signal analysis: I. The data dimensionality reduction and its geometric interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marseguerra, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic of Milan, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: marzio.marseguerra@polimi.it; Zoia, A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic of Milan, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2005-07-15

    In complex and risky plants, such as the nuclear reactors, the analysis of the signals released by the many sensors which monitor the plant represents a difficult task due to the high-dimensionality of the data. This paper is the first of two in which we tackle the problem of the dimensionality reduction by the nonlinear principal components analysis as performed by an autoassociative neural network (AANN). This network filters the many input data and releases at the bottleneck output a relatively small number of signals which capture the significant properties of the original data, thus realizing the data reduction. In the present paper, we show that the network ability in correctly reproducing as output the given input after a passage through the bottleneck layer (which by definition should have fewer nodes than either input or output layers) could be conceived as a topological mapping between abstract spaces. Apart from the less critical choice of the number of nodes in the mapping and demapping layers, the topological mapping will be successful - and the AANN will be able to perform the required data reconstruction - provided that the number of nodes of the bottleneck layer is related to the dimensionality d of the abstract projection space. We show how to obtain a numerical estimate d* for the real dimension d. This numerical estimate will firmly base the choice of the number of nodes f of the bottleneck layer, thus avoiding the usual troubling trial-and-error procedure. The power of the proposed approach is demonstrated firstly on a few geometrical cases and then on the analysis of nuclear transients simulated by the classic Chernick's model.

  10. Follow the signal : When past pro-environmental actions signal who you are

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, Ellen; Steg, Linda; Keizer, Kees

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that past pro-environmental actions can promote as well as inhibit subsequent environmentally-friendly behaviour. When are past pro-environmental actions likely to lead to more environmentally-friendly behaviour? We propose this depends on the extent to which initial actions are

  11. Late Holocene climate and environmental change from Asiul cave speleothems: interpretations in light of modern cave monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Wynn, Peter; Barker, Philip; Leng, Melanie; Noble, Steve; Tych, Wlodek

    2017-04-01

    Northern Iberia offers an excellent location to study fluctuations in North Atlantic Ocean (NA) conditions and the impact that changes in the NA have on atmospheric systems, which dominate Europe's climate. Two speleothems from Cueva de Asiul (Matienzo, N. Spain) have been used to reconstruct rainfall variability in N. Spain throughout the Holocene (Smith et al., 2016a). The carbonate δ18O records from these speleothems are interpreted in the light of a rigorous modern cave monitoring program undertaken at Cueva de Asiul (Smith et al., 2016b). Drip water δ18O reflects a modern rainfall amount effect whilst δ13C appears influenced by Prior Calcite Precipitation (PCP) in the short term and changes in vegetation at long timescales. The speleothem δ18O shows that long duration ( 1500 year) cycles in wetting and drying are prevalent in N. Spain during the Holocene and that dry climate phases are related to the timing of cold events (Bond et al., 2001) in the NA. Here we look in more detail at one of these speleothems, assessing both δ18O and δ13C during the last two thousand years. We show that Cueva de Asiul speleothems not only preserve long duration climate cycles in δ18O, but that they also appear influenced by shorter duration changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), in-sync with other NAO archives (Olsen et al., 2012). However, the Cueva de Asiul record does not appear to preserve a predominately positive NAO signal during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) as is common within many European archives (Trouet et al., 2009), possibly due to the sites' close proximity to the NA and localised oceanic weather systems (Moreno et al., 2012). Alongside climatic changes, the speleothem δ13C shows a clear transition toward higher isotope values around 360 years BP (BP=1950), signalling a major environmental change in the region possibly due to anthropogenic removal of vast swathes of natural forest to support ship building and industry related to the Spanish

  12. Revision of three-stakeholder signaling game for environmental impact assessment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Xiao; Cheng Hongguang; Gong Li; Hao Fanghua; Qi Ye

    2011-01-01

    Since environmental impact assessment (EIA) regulations were adopted in China 30 years ago, the implementation rate of EIA policies for development projects has been steadily increasing while national environmental quality keeps deteriorating. This contradiction prevents achievement of the goals that the regulations were originally created for, raising concerns regarding the EIA implementation process. One of the objectives of EIA is the evaluation of socio-economic costs introduced by various commercial activities. However, independent economic entities are inclined to break away from these cost related responsibilities, making it necessary for government agencies and EIA organizations to participate in the evaluation process. The practice of avoiding costs may also bring forth other issues, such as rent-seeking behavior and conspiracies. Reducing private costs and the tendency of the three EIA stakeholders to evade social responsibility are intertwined in every EIA process. Their activities are as follows: The government is the lawmaker whose attitude toward the EIA organization determines how business owners react in the EIA process. The government inclination can be interpreted as a signal from which enterprises can determine the nature of the government, which helps the enterprise owners formulate their future actions. A similar relationship also exists among the government, EIA organizations, and enterprise entities. Fundamentally, the correlations between the EIA stakeholders are determined by their socio-economic situation, namely, the economic costs and benefits they encounter. In this article, signaling game theory derived from the classic game theory is applied to describe the EIA process in China by analyzing the activities of the stakeholders and searching for game equilibrium solutions. The optimal reaction schema for stakeholders was obtained by transforming the equilibrium.

  13. The use of molecular chemistry (pyrolysis-GC/MS) in the environmental interpretation of peat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, J.

    2013-01-01

      The molecular composition of organic matter in peatlands reflects local conditions and stores information about botanical composition (plant source) as well as the degree of and conditions during decomposition. A reliable hydrological (and hence palaeoclimatological) interpretation of source

  14. Switch Enhancers Interpret TGF-β and Hippo Signaling to Control Cell Fate in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias A. Beyer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A small toolkit of morphogens is used repeatedly to direct development, raising the question of how context dictates interpretation of the same cue. One example is the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β pathway that in human embryonic stem cells fulfills two opposite functions: pluripotency maintenance and mesendoderm (ME specification. Using proteomics coupled to analysis of genome occupancy, we uncover a regulatory complex composed of transcriptional effectors of the Hippo pathway (TAZ/YAP/TEAD, the TGF-β pathway (SMAD2/3, and the pluripotency regulator OCT4 (TSO. TSO collaborates with NuRD repressor complexes to buffer pluripotency gene expression while suppressing ME genes. Importantly, the SMAD DNA binding partner FOXH1, a major specifier of ME, is found near TSO elements, and upon fate specification we show that TSO is disrupted with subsequent SMAD-FOXH1 induction of ME. These studies define switch-enhancer elements and provide a framework to understand how cellular context dictates interpretation of the same morphogen signal in development.

  15. Selecting parameters for the environmental interpretation of peat molecular chemistry - A pyrolysis-GC-MS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, J.F.P.; Buurman, P.; Pontevedra Pombal, X.

    2009-01-01

    A number of samples from a deep peat bog in Tierra del Fuego were analyzed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) in order to extract parameters that might be used to interpret the peat chemistry in terms of vegetation change, anaerobic and aerobic decomposition, and fire

  16. Audio signal recognition for speech, music, and environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Daniel P. W.

    2003-10-01

    Human listeners are very good at all kinds of sound detection and identification tasks, from understanding heavily accented speech to noticing a ringing phone underneath music playing at full blast. Efforts to duplicate these abilities on computer have been particularly intense in the area of speech recognition, and it is instructive to review which approaches have proved most powerful, and which major problems still remain. The features and models developed for speech have found applications in other audio recognition tasks, including musical signal analysis, and the problems of analyzing the general ``ambient'' audio that might be encountered by an auditorily endowed robot. This talk will briefly review statistical pattern recognition for audio signals, giving examples in several of these domains. Particular emphasis will be given to common aspects and lessons learned.

  17. Understanding Environmental Education in the People's Republic of China: A National Policy, Locally Interpreted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tammy Yim-Lin; Lidstone, John

    1998-01-01

    Describes the processes whereby environmental policies are created and disseminated in China and points to some of the issues facing western educators who wish to work with Chinese colleagues in advancing global sustainability. (Author/PVD)

  18. Visual Environment for Rich Data Interpretation (VERDI) program for environmental modeling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    VERDI is a flexible, modular, Java-based program used for visualizing multivariate gridded meteorology, emissions and air quality modeling data created by environmental modeling systems such as the CMAQ model and WRF.

  19. Physiological influences can outweigh environmental signals in otolith microchemistry research

    OpenAIRE

    Sturrock, Anna M.; Trueman, Clive N.; Milton, J. Andy; Waring, Colin; Cooper, Matthew J.; Hunter, Ewan

    2014-01-01

    Most studies that infer geographic distributions of fish using otolith microchemistry assume that environmental factors (e.g. temperature, salinity) outweigh intrinsic effects (e.g. size, condition); however, this assumption has not been rigorously tested, particularly in marine fish. Here, we report the results of a long-term experimental study of European plaice Pleuronectes platessa L. and explore relationships between blood plasma and ambient water chemistry over a 12 mo reproductive cycl...

  20. You changed your mind! Infants interpret a change in word as signaling a change in an agent's goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kyong-Sun; Song, Hyun-Joo

    2017-10-01

    Language provides information about our psychological states. For instance, adults can use language to convey information about their goals or preferences. The current research examined whether 14- and 12-month-old infants could interpret a change in an agent's word as signaling a change in her goals. In two experiments, 14-month-olds (Experiment 1) and 12-month-olds (Experiment 2) were first familiarized to an event in which an agent uttered a novel word and then reached for one of two novel objects. During the test trials, the agent uttered a different novel word (different-word condition) or the same word (same-word condition) and then reached for the same object or the other object. Both 14- and 12-month-olds in the different-word condition expected the agent to change her goal and reach for the other object. In contrast, the infants in the same-word condition expected the agent to maintain her goal. In Experiment 3, 12-month-olds who heard two distinct sounds instead of the agent's novel words expected the agent to maintain her goal regardless of the change in the nonlinguistic sounds. Together, these results indicate that by 12months of age infants can use an agent's verbal information to detect a change in her goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of net analyte signal (NAS) in near infrared spectroscopy pharmaceutical applications: interpretability and figures of merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda Cruz; Lopes, João Almeida

    2009-05-29

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been extensively used as an analytical method for quality control of solid dosage forms for the pharmaceutical industry. Pharmaceutical formulations can be extremely complex, containing typically one or more active product ingredients (API) and various excipients, yielding very complex near infrared (NIR) spectra. The NIR spectra interpretability can be improved using the concept of net analyte signal (NAS). NAS is defined as the part of the spectrum unique to the analyte of interest. The objective of this work was to compare two different methods to estimate the API's NAS vector of different pharmaceutical formulations. The main difference between the methods is the knowledge of API free formulations NIR spectra. The comparison between the two methods was assessed in a qualitative and quantitative way. Results showed that both methods produced good results in terms of the similarity between the NAS vector and the pure API spectrum, as well as in the ability to predict the API concentration of unknown samples. Moreover, figures of merit such as sensitivity, selectivity, and limit of detection were estimated in a straightforward manner.

  2. Geography teachers' interpretation of a curriculum reform initiative: the case of the Lesotho Environmental Education Support Project (LEESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaeka Raselimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses how teachers in a specific developing world context interpreted a curriculum reform initiative. It is located within a broader interpretive study that investigated the integration of Environmental Education into the formal education system of Lesotho with particular reference to secondary school geography. More specifically the focus was on a Danish donor-fundedproject, known as the Lesotho Environmental Education Support Project (LEESP. Driven by a sustainable development imperative, the project was intended to assist Lesotho with the implementation of local action for Agenda 21 by introducing environmental education into the formal education system. It is widely accepted that teachers play an important role in implementing curriculum change. Using a previous framework, we generate insights for understanding how teachers' epistemologies interact with contextual factors to impede the process ofcurriculum sense-making. Furthermore, guided by the notion ofcurriculum as a contextualised social process, we present the findings on the contextual/structural factors enabling or constraining implementation ofthe LEESP curriculum policy intentions as perceived by the teachers.

  3. Environmental exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons – the interpretation of cytogenetic analysis by FISH

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Beskid, Olena; Rössnerová, Andrea; Rössner st., Pavel; Lněničková, Zdena; Milcová, Alena; Solansky, I.; Binková, Blanka

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 172, - (2007), s. 12-20 ISSN 0378-4274 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : environmental pollution * carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * cytogenetic analysis Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.826, year: 2007

  4. A cognitive dissonance interpretation of consistencies and inconsistencies in environmentally responsible behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2004-01-01

    The issue of consistency and inconsistency in environmentally responsible behavior (ERB), as reflected in the correlations between different ERBs, is discussed in the light of social psychological theories suggesting that most people desire to behave consistently. It is ar-gued that except in cases...

  5. Communicating Environmental Risks: Clarifying the Severity Effect in Interpretations of Verbal Probability Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Adam J. L.; Corner, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Verbal probability expressions are frequently used to communicate risk and uncertainty. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), for example, uses them to convey risks associated with climate change. Given the potential for human action to mitigate future environmental risks, it is important to understand how people respond to these…

  6. Radon-222: tracer of geological systems dynamics. Methodology and signal processing, interpretation of radon-222 behaviour in active geological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richon, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Gases, especially radon, have often been cited as indicators of large-scale geodynamic processes, or as precursors of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Measurable in the air, water and rocks, natural radon concentrations are generally extremely low, because 1 Bq m -3 corresponds to a mixing ratio of 1,77 * 10 -20 in air at normal temperature and pressure (NPT). Expressed in a usual unit in chemistry of air pollution, an usual activity concentration of 37 Bq m -3 is only a billion th of ppb by volume (ppbv) in the atmosphere. Yet such, concentrations of radon are very easy to measure, because the decay α is an energetic phenomenon: It makes it theoretically possible to detect a single atom of radon, which is an inaccessible performance by chemical analysis. This feature, combined with a half-life of 3.82 days, makes radon so interesting for tracing natural phenomena. But the major drawback is that radon becomes very sensitive to subsurface meteorological and hydrogeological processes especially if the measurement methodology is not perfectly controlled. These aspects are not addressed in the past and in recent literatures and are rarely taken into account when analyzing and interpreting radon signal. We review these issues by addressing problems related to instrumentation, to measurement methods, and to data processing. We show how to extract signatures of geodynamical processes dissimulated in radon data for very different sites with strong dynamic like volcanic sites (La Soufriere of Guadeloupe, FWI, Merapi, Indonesia), tectonic sites (Syabru-Bensi in Nepal and the Kunlun fault in Tibet) and underground laboratories (Roselend and Argentiere). For this, we had to develop signals processing tools that allow us to extract the effect of barometric and gravimetric tide waves from the radon signal. This is a very sensitive for a detailed survey of the transport processes of radon that are closely linked to geodynamic processes involved in different sites. The

  7. Interpretation and evaluation of the US Environmental Protection Agency ecological risk assessment guidelines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murray, K

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk: Research Strategies for the 1990s? (US EPA, 1988) emphasised the need for a fundamental shift in EPA?s approach to environmental protection. The move was from con- ventional approaches to focussing on the resources at risk, their composition... with the assessment end points and the conceptual model. The second task is to perform an ecological response analysis. This stressor-response analysis should relate stressor levels to ecological effects, preferably quantitatively. It should also estab- lish cause...

  8. Interpretation of Technology Diffusion Patterns for the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a response to the general question as to why there has been so little actual application of new environmental technologies to on-the-ground cleanup. There are two sides to the issue that may at first seem unrelated, but taken together provide both a tactical and theoretical response to the question. EM-50 has provided a tactical response to the challenge of showing that expenditures in technology development are justified by implementation of its ASTD program. ASTD provides a fiscal incentive for the major DOE facilities to effect remedial actions using new technologies. The purpose of the ASTD is to demonstrate to stakeholders, including US Congress and concerned citizens, that environmental costs can be reduced and site cleanup accelerated by substituting new technologies for established baseline methods. The theoretical side looks at how historically, the substitution of new technologies for old in any given industry follows well-documented principles of diffusion; therefore, the aggregate adoption of new environmental technologies is predictive. It is not within the scope of this paper to accurately quantify the equations that result in the mathematical description of the S-shaped diffusion curve, but the overall concept of the innovation-development process is an important clue in understanding why new EM-50 technologies are not already in more widespread use

  9. Detection of sputum by interpreting the time-frequency distribution of respiratory sound signal using image processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jinglong; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin; Cao, Zhixin; Wang, Dandan; Zhang, Zhaozhi; Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2018-03-01

    Sputum in the trachea is hard to expectorate and detect directly for the patients who are unconscious, especially those in Intensive Care Unit. Medical staff should always check the condition of sputum in the trachea. This is time-consuming and the necessary skills are difficult to acquire. Currently, there are few automatic approaches to serve as alternatives to this manual approach. We develop an automatic approach to diagnose the condition of the sputum. Our approach utilizes a system involving a medical device and quantitative analytic methods. In this approach, the time-frequency distribution of respiratory sound signals, determined from the spectrum, is treated as an image. The sputum detection is performed by interpreting the patterns in the image through the procedure of preprocessing and feature extraction. In this study, 272 respiratory sound samples (145 sputum sound and 127 non-sputum sound samples) are collected from 12 patients. We apply the method of leave-one out cross-validation to the 12 patients to assess the performance of our approach. That is, out of the 12 patients, 11 are randomly selected and their sound samples are used to predict the sound samples in the remaining one patient. The results show that our automatic approach can classify the sputum condition at an accuracy rate of 83.5%. The matlab codes and examples of datasets explored in this work are available at Bioinformatics online. yesoyou@gmail.com or douglaszhang@umac.mo. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Interpreting operational altimetry signals in near-coastal areas using underwater autonomous vehicles and remotely sensed ocean colour data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrione, Ines; Oddo, Paolo; Russo, Aniello; Coelho, Emanuel

    2017-04-01

    During the LOGMEC16 (Long-Term Glider Mission for Environmental Characterization) sea trial carried out in the eastern Ligurian Sea (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), two oceanographic gliders rated to a maximum depth of 1000m were operating continuously from 3 May to 27 June 2016. When possible, glider tracks were synchronized with the footprints of contemporaneous altimeters (i.e., Jason 2, Altika and Cryosat 2). Temperature and salinity measured by the gliders along the tracks that were co-localized with the altimeter passages, were used to calculate along-track dynamic heights. The latter were then compared with near-real time absolute sea level CMEMS-TAPAS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service - Tailored Product for Data Assimilation) product. TAPAS provides along-track sea level anomaly (SLA) estimates together with all the terms used in the correction and the associated Mean Dynamic Topography. Where available, the CMEMS near-real time 1km resolution, Aqua-MODIS ocean colour data was also used as a tracer of the main oceanographic features of the region. Comparison between SLA derived from gliders and TAPAS along common transects, indicates that differences increase for larger sampling time lags between platforms and especially when time differences exceed 20 hrs. In fact, contemporaneous ocean color images reveal the presence of several mesoscale/sub-mesoscale structures (i.e., transient meanders and filaments), suggesting that the oceanographic variability of the region is likely the main cause for the differences observed between the glider and altimetry-based SLA. Results from this study provide additional evidence of the advantages on using a networked ocean observing system. In fact, the interpretation of in-situ observations obtained from a continuously operating sampling platform (also during ongoing experiments at sea) can be greatly improved when combined with other operational datasets, as the CMEMS SLA used here.

  11. Interpretation of near-background environmental surveillance data by distribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.A.; Bramson, P.E.

    1975-01-01

    Large numbers of radionuclide/medium combinations exhibit log-normal distributed environmental concentrations when these are plotted for a location over time or for one time over many locations. That is, environmental data are distributed such that they yield a straight line when plotted on log-probability paper. Although the log-normal distribution has not been applied on a wide scale to radiological data, and does not seem to describe all nuclide-medium combinations, its usefulness for predicting the levels of radionuclides in the environs and in human diets is discussed. Because the data are presented graphically, the mean, standard deviation, expected upper limits, and any plant contribution can be readily determined visually. Quoting with confidence a geometric mean of value less than minimum detectable level is uniquely possible by means of distribution analyses and overcomes the divisive problem of how to deal with such results. Mathematical data transformation techniques that have been devised for investigating characteristics of data sets are described

  12. Transcriptomics of environmental enrichment reveals a role for retinoic acid signaling in addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafang Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There exists much variability in susceptibility/resilience to addiction in humans. The environmental enrichment paradigm is a rat model of resilience to addiction-like behavior, and understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this protective phenotype may lead to novel targets for pharmacotherapeutics to treat cocaine addiction. We investigated the differential regulation of transcript levels using RNA sequencing of the rat nucleus accumbens after environmental enrichment/isolation and cocaine/saline self-administration. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA of 14,309 transcripts demonstrated that many biofunctions and pathways were differentially regulated. New functional pathways were also identified for cocaine modulation (e.g., Rho GTPase signaling and environmental enrichment (e.g., signaling of EIF2, mTOR, ephrin. However, one novel pathway stood out above the others, the retinoic acid (RA signaling pathway. The RA signaling pathway was identified as one likely mediator of the protective enrichment addiction phenotype, an interesting result given that nine retinoic acid signaling-related genes are expressed selectively and at high levels in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh. Subsequent knockdown of Cyp26b1 (an RA degradation enzyme in the NAcSh of rats confirmed this role by increasing cocaine self-administration as well as cocaine seeking. These results provide a comprehensive account of enrichment effects on the transcriptome and identify retinoic acid signaling as a contributing factor for cocaine addiction.

  13. High throughput imaging and analysis for biological interpretation of agricultural plants and environmental interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyundae; Benac, Jasenka; Riggsbee, Daniel; Koutsky, Keith

    2014-03-01

    High throughput (HT) phenotyping of crops is essential to increase yield in environments deteriorated by climate change. The controlled environment of a greenhouse offers an ideal platform to study the genotype to phenotype linkages for crop screening. Advanced imaging technologies are used to study plants' responses to resource limitations such as water and nutrient deficiency. Advanced imaging technologies coupled with automation make HT phenotyping in the greenhouse not only feasible, but practical. Monsanto has a state of the art automated greenhouse (AGH) facility. Handling of the soil, pots water and nutrients are all completely automated. Images of the plants are acquired by multiple hyperspectral and broadband cameras. The hyperspectral cameras cover wavelengths from visible light through short wave infra-red (SWIR). Inhouse developed software analyzes the images to measure plant morphological and biochemical properties. We measure phenotypic metrics like plant area, height, and width as well as biomass. Hyperspectral imaging allows us to measure biochemcical metrics such as chlorophyll, anthocyanin, and foliar water content. The last 4 years of AGH operations on crops like corn, soybean, and cotton have demonstrated successful application of imaging and analysis technologies for high throughput plant phenotyping. Using HT phenotyping, scientists have been showing strong correlations to environmental conditions, such as water and nutrient deficits, as well as the ability to tease apart distinct differences in the genetic backgrounds of crops.

  14. Identifying the key catastrophic variables of urban social-environmental resilience and early warning signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Li, Yangfan; Kappas, Martin; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitchell

    2018-02-08

    Pursuit of sustainability requires a systematic approach to understand a system's specific dynamics to adapt and enhance from disturbances in social-environmental systems. We developed a systematic resilience assessment of social-environmental systems by connecting catastrophe theory and probability distribution equilibrium. Catastrophe models were used to calculate resilience shifts between slow and fast variables; afterwards, two resilience transition modes ("Less resilient" or "More resilient") were addressed by using probability distribution equilibrium analysis. A tipping point that occurs in "Less resilient" system suggests that the critical resilience transition can be an early warning signal of approaching threshold. Catastrophic shifts were explored between the interacting social-environmental sub-systems of land use and energy (fast variables) and environmental pollution (slow variables), which also identifies the critical factors in maintaining the integrated social-environmental resilience. Furthermore, the early warning signals enable the adaptability of urban systems and their resilience to perturbations, and provide guidelines for urban social-environmental management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The histidine kinase AHK5 integrates endogenous and environmental signals in Arabidopsis guard cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Desikan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Stomatal guard cells monitor and respond to environmental and endogenous signals such that the stomatal aperture is continually optimised for water use efficiency. A key signalling molecule produced in guard cells in response to plant hormones, light, carbon dioxide and pathogen-derived signals is hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2. The mechanisms by which H(2O(2 integrates multiple signals via specific signalling pathways leading to stomatal closure is not known.Here, we identify a pathway by which H(2O(2, derived from endogenous and environmental stimuli, is sensed and transduced to effect stomatal closure. Histidine kinases (HK are part of two-component signal transduction systems that act to integrate environmental stimuli into a cellular response via a phosphotransfer relay mechanism. There is little known about the function of the HK AHK5 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we report that in addition to the predicted cytoplasmic localisation of this protein, AHK5 also appears to co-localise to the plasma membrane. Although AHK5 is expressed at low levels in guard cells, we identify a unique role for AHK5 in stomatal signalling. Arabidopsis mutants lacking AHK5 show reduced stomatal closure in response to H(2O(2, which is reversed by complementation with the wild type gene. Over-expression of AHK5 results in constitutively less stomatal closure. Abiotic stimuli that generate endogenous H(2O(2, such as darkness, nitric oxide and the phytohormone ethylene, also show reduced stomatal closure in the ahk5 mutants. However, ABA caused closure, dark adaptation induced H(2O(2 production and H(2O(2 induced NO synthesis in mutants. Treatment with the bacterial pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP flagellin, but not elf peptide, also exhibited reduced stomatal closure and H(2O(2 generation in ahk5 mutants.Our findings identify an integral signalling function for AHK5 that acts to integrate multiple signals via H(2O(2 homeostasis and is independent of ABA

  16. TracerLPM (Version 1): An Excel® workbook for interpreting groundwater age distributions from environmental tracer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; Böhlke, J.K.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2012-01-01

    TracerLPM is an interactive Excel® (2007 or later) workbook program for evaluating groundwater age distributions from environmental tracer data by using lumped parameter models (LPMs). Lumped parameter models are mathematical models of transport based on simplified aquifer geometry and flow configurations that account for effects of hydrodynamic dispersion or mixing within the aquifer, well bore, or discharge area. Five primary LPMs are included in the workbook: piston-flow model (PFM), exponential mixing model (EMM), exponential piston-flow model (EPM), partial exponential model (PEM), and dispersion model (DM). Binary mixing models (BMM) can be created by combining primary LPMs in various combinations. Travel time through the unsaturated zone can be included as an additional parameter. TracerLPM also allows users to enter age distributions determined from other methods, such as particle tracking results from numerical groundwater-flow models or from other LPMs not included in this program. Tracers of both young groundwater (anthropogenic atmospheric gases and isotopic substances indicating post-1940s recharge) and much older groundwater (carbon-14 and helium-4) can be interpreted simultaneously so that estimates of the groundwater age distribution for samples with a wide range of ages can be constrained. TracerLPM is organized to permit a comprehensive interpretive approach consisting of hydrogeologic conceptualization, visual examination of data and models, and best-fit parameter estimation. Groundwater age distributions can be evaluated by comparing measured and modeled tracer concentrations in two ways: (1) multiple tracers analyzed simultaneously can be evaluated against each other for concordance with modeled concentrations (tracer-tracer application) or (2) tracer time-series data can be evaluated for concordance with modeled trends (tracer-time application). Groundwater-age estimates can also be obtained for samples with a single tracer measurement at one

  17. Pulsatile blood flow in human bone assessed by laser-Doppler flowmetry and the interpretation of photoplethysmographic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzoni, Tiziano; Tchernin, David; Hyacinthe, Jean-Noël; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Richiardi, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Human bone blood flow, mean blood speed and the number of moving red blood cells were assessed (in arbitrary units), as a function of time, during one cardiac cycle. The measurements were obtained non-invasively on five volunteers by laser-Doppler flowmetry at large interoptode spacing. The investigated bones included: patella, clavicle, tibial diaphysis and tibial malleolus. As hypothesized, we found that in all bones the number of moving cells remains constant during cardiac cycles. Therefore, we concluded that the pulsatile nature of blood flow must be completely determined by the mean blood speed and not by changes in blood volume (vessels dilation). Based on these results, it is finally demonstrated using a mathematical model (derived from the radiative transport theory) that photoplethysmographic (PPG) pulsations observed by others in the literature, cannot be generated by oscillations in blood oxygen saturation, which is physiologically linked to blood speed. In fact, possible oxygen saturation changes during pulsations decrease the amplitude of PPG pulsations due to specific features of the PPG light source. It is shown that a variation in blood oxygen saturation of 3% may induce a negative change of ∼1% in the PPG signal. It is concluded that PPG pulsations are determined by periodic ‘positive’ changes of the reduced scattering coefficient of the tissue and/or the absorption coefficient at constant blood volume. No explicit experimental PPG measurements have been performed. As a by-product of this study, an estimation of the arterial pulse wave velocity obtained from the analysis of the blood flow pulsations give a value of 7.8 m s −1 (95% confidence interval of the sample mean distribution: [6.7, 9.5] m s −1 ), which is perfectly compatible with data in the literature. We hope that this note will contribute to a better understanding of PPG signals and to further develop the domain of the vascular physiology of human bone. (note)

  18. Effect of simultaneously induced environmental stimuli on electrical signalling and gas exchange in maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuralhan-Eckert, Jasmin; Lautner, Silke; Fromm, Jörg

    2018-04-01

    Electrical signalling in response to environmental stimuli is a well-known phenomenon in higher plants. For example, in maize, different stimuli, such as wounding or re-irrigation after drought, incite characteristic electrical signals which have quite particular effects on gas exchange. What is less well understood is how plants (specifically maize) respond when two different environmental stimuli are applied simultaneously. To explore this, a three-stage experiment was designed. In the first stage, drought conditions were simulated by decreasing the soil water content to 30-40 % of field capacity. In these conditions, and in contrast to well-watered plants, the maize exhibited only 60-70% of the original level of stomatal conductance and 50-60 % of the original photosynthesis rate. In the second stage of the experiment the plants were re-irrigated and heat stimulated separately. Re-irrigation led to specific electrical signals followed by a gradual increase of gas exchange. In contrast, after heat stimulation of a leaf an electrical signal was evoked that reduced the net CO 2 -uptake rate as well as stomatal conductance. In the third stage, to elucidate how plants process simultaneous re-irrigation and heat stimulation, the drought-stressed maize plants were re-watered and heat-stimulated at the same time. Results showed a two phase response. In the first phase there was a rapid decrease in both the CO 2 uptake rate and the stomatal conductance, while in the second phase each of these parameters increased gradually. Thus, the results strongly support the view that the responses from both stimuli were combined, indicating that maize plants can process simultaneously applied stimuli. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding reflection behavior as a key for interpreting complex signals in FBRM monitoring of microparticle preparation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, Kerstin; Friess, Wolfgang; Scheler, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    The application of focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was studied in a larger scale PLGA microparticle preparation process for monitoring changes of the particle size and the particles' surface properties. Further understanding how these parameters determine the chord length distribution (CLD) was gained by means of single object measurements and data of monodisperse microparticles. It was evaluated how the FBRM signal is influenced by the surface characteristics of the tested materials and the measuring conditions. Particles with good scattering properties provided comparable values for the CLD and the particle size distribution. Translucent particles caused an overestimation of the particle size by FBRM, whereas the values for transparent emulsion droplets were too low. Despite a strong dependence of FBRM results on the optical properties of the samples, it is a beneficial technique for online monitoring of microparticle preparation processes. The study demonstrated how changing reflection properties can be used to monitor structural changes during the solidification of emulsion droplets and to detect process instabilities by FBRM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Signaling Network of Environmental Sensing and Adaptation in Plants:. Key Roles of Calcium Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurusu, Takamitsu; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Considering the important issues concerning food, environment, and energy that humans are facing in the 21st century, humans mostly depend on plants. Unlike animals which move from an inappropriate environment, plants do not move, but rapidly sense diverse environmental changes or invasion by other organisms such as pathogens and insects in the place they root, and adapt themselves by changing their own bodies, through which they developed adaptability. Whole genetic information corresponding to the blueprints of many biological systems has recently been analyzed, and comparative genomic studies facilitated tracing strategies of each organism in their evolutional processes. Comparison of factors involved in intracellular signal transduction between animals and plants indicated diversification of different gene sets. Reversible binding of Ca2+ to sensor proteins play key roles as a molecular switch both in animals and plants. Molecular mechanisms for signaling network of environmental sensing and adaptation in plants will be discussed with special reference to Ca2+ as a key element in information processing.

  1. Integration of developmental and environmental signals via a polyadenylation factor in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Liu

    Full Text Available The ability to integrate environmental and developmental signals with physiological responses is critical for plant survival. How this integration is done, particularly through posttranscriptional control of gene expression, is poorly understood. Previously, it was found that the 30 kD subunit of Arabidopsis cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (AtCPSF30 is a calmodulin-regulated RNA-binding protein. Here we demonstrated that mutant plants (oxt6 deficient in AtCPSF30 possess a novel range of phenotypes--reduced fertility, reduced lateral root formation, and altered sensitivities to oxidative stress and a number of plant hormones (auxin, cytokinin, gibberellic acid, and ACC. While the wild-type AtCPSF30 (C30G was able to restore normal growth and responses, a mutant AtCPSF30 protein incapable of interacting with calmodulin (C30GM could only restore wild-type fertility and responses to oxidative stress and ACC. Thus, the interaction with calmodulin is important for part of AtCPSF30 functions in the plant. Global poly(A site analysis showed that the C30G and C30GM proteins can restore wild-type poly(A site choice to the oxt6 mutant. Genes associated with hormone metabolism and auxin responses are also affected by the oxt6 mutation. Moreover, 19 genes that are linked with calmodulin-dependent CPSF30 functions, were identified through genome-wide expression analysis. These data, in conjunction with previous results from the analysis of the oxt6 mutant, indicate that the polyadenylation factor AtCPSF30 is a regulatory hub where different signaling cues are transduced, presumably via differential mRNA 3' end formation or alternative polyadenylation, into specified phenotypic outcomes. Our results suggest a novel function of a polyadenylation factor in environmental and developmental signal integration.

  2. Adaptation to Environmental Stimuli within the Host: Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretl, Daniel J.; Demetriadou, Chrystalla; Zahrt, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Pathogenic microorganisms encounter a variety of environmental stresses following infection of their respective hosts. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis, is an unusual bacterial pathogen in that it is able to establish lifelong infections in individuals within granulomatous lesions that are formed following a productive immune response. Adaptation to this highly dynamic environment is thought to be mediated primarily through transcriptional reprogramming initiated in response to recognition of stimuli, including low-oxygen tension, nutrient depletion, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, altered pH, toxic lipid moieties, cell wall/cell membrane-perturbing agents, and other environmental cues. To survive continued exposure to these potentially adverse factors, M. tuberculosis encodes a variety of regulatory factors, including 11 complete two-component signal transduction systems (TCSSs) and several orphaned response regulators (RRs) and sensor kinases (SKs). This report reviews our current knowledge of the TCSSs present in M. tuberculosis. In particular, we discuss the biochemical and functional characteristics of individual RRs and SKs, the environmental stimuli regulating their activation, the regulons controlled by the various TCSSs, and the known or postulated role(s) of individual TCSSs in the context of M. tuberculosis physiology and/or pathogenesis. PMID:22126994

  3. Past Actions as Self-Signals: How Acting in a Self-Interested Way Influences Environmental Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Yuan; Hochman, Guy; Prince, Steven E.; Ariely, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, awareness of environmental issues has increased significantly. Little has changed, however, in human activities contributing to environmental damage. Why is it so difficult for us to change our behavior in a domain that is clearly so important to the future of humanity? Here we propose and test the possibility that self-signaling, the way we view ourselves based on our past behaviors, is one of the factors contributing to the difficulty of taking environmental action. In three experiments, we show that previous self-interested thoughts or behaviors serve as important signals that hinder the likelihood of acting in line with an individual’s reported concern for the environment. This study not only helps explain the gap between environmental awareness and action, but also suggests alternative strategies for policymakers and environmental agencies to promote proenvironmental behavior. PMID:27447822

  4. Past Actions as Self-Signals: How Acting in a Self-Interested Way Influences Environmental Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yuan Lee

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, awareness of environmental issues has increased significantly. Little has changed, however, in human activities contributing to environmental damage. Why is it so difficult for us to change our behavior in a domain that is clearly so important to the future of humanity? Here we propose and test the possibility that self-signaling, the way we view ourselves based on our past behaviors, is one of the factors contributing to the difficulty of taking environmental action. In three experiments, we show that previous self-interested thoughts or behaviors serve as important signals that hinder the likelihood of acting in line with an individual's reported concern for the environment. This study not only helps explain the gap between environmental awareness and action, but also suggests alternative strategies for policymakers and environmental agencies to promote proenvironmental behavior.

  5. Influence of agricultural residues interpretation and allocation procedures on the environmental performance of bioelectricity production – A case study on woodchips from apple orchards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschiero, Martina; Kelderer, Markus; Schmitt, Armin O.; Andreotti, Carlo; Zerbe, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An LCA of bioelectricity production from apple woody residues (AWRs) is performed. • Two AWRs interpretation are investigated: by-products and co-products. • Different allocation procedures are used for upstream and downstream emissions. • AWRs guarantee significant environmental benefits, when interpreted as by-products. - Abstract: Agricultural woody residues are available in massive quantities and provide a considerable potential for energy production. However, to encourage environmentally sustainable bioenergy strategies, it is necessary to assess the environmental performance of each specific bioenergy chain. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized to be one of the best methodologies to evaluate the environmental burdens of bioenergy chains. The application of LCA to bioenergy from agricultural residues requires practitioners to make choices on how to interpret agricultural residues (i.e. by-products or co-products) and on how to allocate emissions among the different products generated along the bioenergy chain. These are among the most debated issues in the LCA community, given their potentially large influence on final LCA outcomes. A uniform consensus on these issues is still lacking, and no single method is equally suitable for all solutions. The aim of this paper is to assess how different ways of agricultural residue interpretation and different allocation methods (both of upstream and downstream emissions), affect the environmental performance of bioenergy production fed by agricultural residues. In order to address the issue, we perform a full attributional LCA of the electricity production in a combustion combined heat and power plant (CHP) fed with woody residues from apple orchards (AWRs), as a case study. Bioelectricity production from CHP fed with agricultural residues is a good example of a multifunctional process, since multiple products (e.g. grain, fruit, straw, wood, etc.) and energy (e.g. heat and power) are co

  6. Frames of Reference: A Metaphor for Analyzing and Interpreting Attitudes of Environmental Policy Makers and Policy Influencers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaffield

    1998-07-01

    / The concept of frame of reference offers a potentially useful analytical metaphor in environmental management. This is illustrated by a case study in which attitudes of individuals involved in the management of trees in the New Zealand high country are classified into seven distinctive frames of reference. Some practical and theoretical implications of the use of the frame metaphor are explored, including its potential contribution to the emerg- ing field of communicative planning. KEY WORDS: Frames of reference; Environmental policy analysis; Metaphor; New Zealand high country

  7. Observing the Human Exposome as Reflected in Breath Biomarkers: Heat Map Data Interpretation for Environmental and Intelligence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past decade, the research of human systems biology and the interactions with the external environment has permeated all phases of environmental, medical, and public health research. Similarly to the fields of genomics and proteomics research, the advent of new instrumen...

  8. Interpretation of Technology Diffusion Patterns for the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, M.A.

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a response to the general question as to why there has been so little actual application of new environmental technologies to on-the-ground cleanup. There are two sides to the issue that may at first seem unrelated, but taken together provide both a tactical and theoretical response to the question. EM-50 has provided a tactical response to the challenge of showing that expenditures in technology development are justified by implementation of its ASTD program. ASTD provides a fiscal incentive for the major DOE facilities to effect remedial actions using new technologies. The purpose of the ASTD is to demonstrate to stakeholders, including US Congress and concerned citizens, that environmental costs can be reduced and site cleanup accelerated by substituting new technologies for established baseline methods. The theoretical side looks at how historically, the substitution of new technologies for old in any given industry follows well-documented principles of diffusion; therefore, the aggregate adoption of new environmental technologies is predictive. It is not within the scope of this paper to accurately quantify the equations that result in the mathematical description of the S-shaped diffusion curve, but the overall concept of the innovation-development process is an important clue in understanding why new EM-50 technologies are not already in more widespread use.

  9. Theoretical Studies on the Physical and Environmental Factors Which Govern the Thermal Fading of Thermoluminescence Signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheedy, M.S.; El-Sherif, M.A.; Hefni, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermoluminescence solid-state detector is widely used to determine the dose in personnel and environmental monitoring for radiation protection purposes, for instance in the field of nuclear power production, medicine and research. However, thermal fading is a limiting factor for a long-term application, especially where temperature is changing significantly during the accumulation period. This paper studied the influence of temperature and duration of storage after irradiation on the thermal fading of the TL signal. Also, this paper discussed the dependence of the thermal fading on the trap parameters of TL glow peak. The most important parameters, which were considered here include the order of kinetics b, the depth of the trap level E (eV) and the frequency factor S (s-1). The dependence of the thermal fading on thermal stability parameters, namely trap depths and frequency factors for the glow peaks is discussed. The variation of the thermal fading as a function of the order of kinetics is demonstrated. In addition, this paper discussed the dependence of the thermal fading on the absorbed dose in case of first-, second- and general-order kinetics. The above-mentioned studies were arranged considering the models of first-, second- and general-order of kinetics

  10. Study of the type of gamma radioactivity in platform carbonaceous rocks: analyses and environmental, diagenetic and geodynamical interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddadi, Mohamed-Chaker

    2004-01-01

    In well-logging, values of gamma-activity are measured by scintillometry. A conventional paradigm is to link high γ-activity to Potassium (K) and Thorium (Th) isotopes present in clays and to Uranium isotopes present either in detrital sediments (typically in zircon or monazite minerals) or to sediments rich in organic matter. In shallow-water carbonates platforms, high γ-activities are interpreted in the same way. However, in a first γ-scintillometer survey of the Gorges du Nan section (sub-alpine Vercors massif), we found inconsistencies between lithologies and their expected γ-responses: the highest radioactive beds do not correspond to high argillaceous or detrital limestones and marls, but to some low content argillaceous or 'pure' limestones beds. The aim of this study was to identify the radioactive isotopes associated to different types of carbonates, their localisation, their abundance and their respective contribution to the total gamma response in order to propose a new method for the interpretation of gamma-ray logs in shallow-water carbonates. This study was focused on two intervals: - The first one corresponds to the Ba3 depositional sequence (Upper Barremian) which is composed essentially of limestones. This sequence was studied in the Vercors and Chartreuse sub-alpine massifs near Grenoble and in the Swiss Jura near Neuchatel; - The second one corresponds to the 'Lower Oritolina marls' interval. This interval was studied in the Vercors and Chartreuse sub-alpine massifs near Grenoble, in Spain (Organya basin) and in central Tunisia near Kairouan. We carried out detailed sedimentological, diagenetic and isotopic studies of all these sections. Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes analyses allowed us to establish some large scale correlations between sections in the French Alps, in the Pyrenees and in central Tunisia. The good correlation between Oxygen and Carbon stable isotopes curves of the Lower Orbitolina marls in all the

  11. The isotopic composition of valves and organic tissue of diatoms grown in steady state cultures under varying conditions of temperature, light and nutrients. Implications for the interpretation of oxygen isotopes from sedimentary biogenic opal as proxies of environmental variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalczyk, K.

    2006-05-01

    The oxygen isotopes of diatomaceous silica from marine and freshwater sediments are frequently used as indicators of the palaeotemperature development, particularly in cases where calcareous microfossils are rare or absent. With regard to terrestrial waters it is unknown whether or not palaeotemperature scale can be used in a limnic ecosystem. Due to the fact that the seasonal variations in lakes are larger than in oceans, specific problems arise when working with freshwater sediments. Thus, an understanding of the contribution of the various factors (e.g. temperature, light nutrients, competition) influencing the formation of isotope signals in biogenic opal is a prerequisite for the accurate interpretation of environmental processes. Since it is impossible to examine the influence of a single parameter under natural ecosystem conditions due to permanent changes of the environment, laboratory experiments with single diatom species are needed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the oxygen isotope variations in biogenic opal and different environmental parameters using steady state cultures with diatoms. It should be examined whether or not the different diatom species grown under identical conditions show equal oxygen isotope ratios (species relationship), if variations of the water temperature induce variations of the oxygen isotope ratio (relationship with temperature), variable parameters such as light intensity and nitrate concentration influence the isotope ratio, and if vital effects (e.g. growth rate) lead to variations of the oxygen isotope ratio. (orig.)

  12. The isotopic composition of valves and organic tissue of diatoms grown in steady state cultures under varying conditions of temperature, light and nutrients. Implications for the interpretation of oxygen isotopes from sedimentary biogenic opal as proxies of environmental variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, K.

    2006-05-15

    The oxygen isotopes of diatomaceous silica from marine and freshwater sediments are frequently used as indicators of the palaeotemperature development, particularly in cases where calcareous microfossils are rare or absent. With regard to terrestrial waters it is unknown whether or not palaeotemperature scale can be used in a limnic ecosystem. Due to the fact that the seasonal variations in lakes are larger than in oceans, specific problems arise when working with freshwater sediments. Thus, an understanding of the contribution of the various factors (e.g. temperature, light nutrients, competition) influencing the formation of isotope signals in biogenic opal is a prerequisite for the accurate interpretation of environmental processes. Since it is impossible to examine the influence of a single parameter under natural ecosystem conditions due to permanent changes of the environment, laboratory experiments with single diatom species are needed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the oxygen isotope variations in biogenic opal and different environmental parameters using steady state cultures with diatoms. It should be examined whether or not the different diatom species grown under identical conditions show equal oxygen isotope ratios (species relationship), if variations of the water temperature induce variations of the oxygen isotope ratio (relationship with temperature), variable parameters such as light intensity and nitrate concentration influence the isotope ratio, and if vital effects (e.g. growth rate) lead to variations of the oxygen isotope ratio. (orig.)

  13. Measurement and interpretation of subtle deformation signals at Unimak Island from 2003 to 2010 using weather model-assisted time series InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W.; Meyer, F. J.; Lee, C.-W.; Lu, Z.; Freymueller, J.

    2015-02-01

    A 7 year time series of satellite radar images over Unimak Island, Alaska—site of Westdahl Volcano, Fisher Caldera, and Shishaldin Volcano—was processed using a model-free Persistent Scatterer Interferometry technique assisted by numerical weather prediction model. The deformation-only signals were optimally extracted from atmosphere-contaminated phase records. The reconstructed deformation time series maps are compared with campaign and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements as well as Small Baseline Subset interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) results for quality assessment and geophysical interpretation. We observed subtle surface inflation at Westdahl Volcano that can be fit by a Mogi source located at approximately 3.6 km north of Westdahl peak and at depth of about 6.9 km that is consistent with the GPS-estimated depth for the 1998 to 2001 time period. The magma chamber volume change decays during the period of 2003 to 2010. The deformation field over Fisher Caldera is steadily subsiding over time. Its best fit analytical model is a sill source that is about 7.9 km in length, 0.54 km in width, and located at about 5.5 km below sea level underneath the center of Fisher Caldera with strike angle of N52°E. Very little deformation was detected near Shishaldin peak; however, a region approximately 15 km east of Shishaldin, as well as an area at the Tugamak range at about 30 km northwest of Shishaldin, shows evidence for movement toward the satellite, with a temporal signature correlated with the 2004 Shishaldin eruption. The cause of these movements is unknown.

  14. Conference Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leal Lobato, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,......Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,...

  15. Spatial Representativeness of Environmental DNA Metabarcoding Signal for Fish Biodiversity Assessment in a Natural Freshwater System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civade, Raphaël; Dejean, Tony; Valentini, Alice; Roset, Nicolas; Raymond, Jean-Claude; Bonin, Aurélie; Taberlet, Pierre; Pont, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the study of environmental DNA (eDNA) has drawn attention for many reasons, including its advantages for monitoring and conservation purposes. So far, in aquatic environments, most of eDNA research has focused on the detection of single species using species-specific markers. Recently, species inventories based on the analysis of a single generalist marker targeting a larger taxonomic group (eDNA metabarcoding) have proven useful for bony fish and amphibian biodiversity surveys. This approach involves in situ filtering of large volumes of water followed by amplification and sequencing of a short discriminative fragment from the 12S rDNA mitochondrial gene. In this study, we went one step further by investigating the spatial representativeness (i.e. ecological reliability and signal variability in space) of eDNA metabarcoding for large-scale fish biodiversity assessment in a freshwater system including lentic and lotic environments. We tested the ability of this approach to characterize large-scale organization of fish communities along a longitudinal gradient, from a lake to the outflowing river. First, our results confirm that eDNA metabarcoding is more efficient than a single traditional sampling campaign to detect species presence, especially in rivers. Second, the species list obtained using this approach is comparable to the one obtained when cumulating all traditional sampling sessions since 1995 and 1988 for the lake and the river, respectively. In conclusion, eDNA metabarcoding gives a faithful description of local fish biodiversity in the study system, more specifically within a range of a few kilometers along the river in our study conditions, i.e. longer than a traditional fish sampling site.

  16. Transfer of environmental signals from the surface to the underground at Ascunsă Cave, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drăguşin, Virgil; Balan, Sorin; Blamart, Dominique; Lázár Forray, Ferenc; Marin, Constantin; Mirea, Ionuţ; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Orăşeanu, Iancu; Perşoiu, Aurel; Tîrlă, Laura; Tudorache, Alin; Vlaicu, Marius

    2017-10-01

    We present here the results of a 4-year environmental monitoring program at Ascunsă Cave (southwestern Romania) designed to help us understand how climate information is transferred through the karst system and archived by speleothems. The air temperature inside the cave is around 7 °C, with slight differences between the upper and lower parts of the main passage. CO2 concentrations in cave air have a seasonal signal, with summer minima and winter maxima. These might indicate the existence of an organic matter reservoir deep within the epikarst that continues to decompose over the winter, and CO2 concentrations are possibly modulated by seasonal differences in cave ventilation. The maximum values of CO2 show a rise after the summer of 2014, from around 2000 to about 3500 ppm, following a rise in surface temperature. Using two newly designed types of water-air equilibrators, we were able to determine the concentration of CO2 dissolved in drip water by measuring its concentration in the equilibrator headspace and then using Henry's law to calculate its concentration in water. This method opens the possibility of continuous data logging using infrared technology, without the need for costly and less reliable chemical determinations. The local meteoric water line (δ2H = 7.7 δ18O + 10.1), constructed using monthly aggregated rainfall samples, is similar to the global one, revealing the Atlantic as the strongly dominant vapor source. The deuterium excess values, as high as 17 ‰, indicate that precipitation has an important evaporative component, possibly given by moisture recycling over the European continent. The variability of stable isotopes in drip water is similar at all points inside the cave, suggesting that the monitored drip sites are draining a homogenous reservoir. Drip rates, as well as stable isotopes, indicate that the transfer time of water from the surface is on the order of a few days.

  17. Transfer of environmental signals from the surface to the underground at Ascunsă Cave, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Drăguşin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present here the results of a 4-year environmental monitoring program at Ascunsă Cave (southwestern Romania designed to help us understand how climate information is transferred through the karst system and archived by speleothems. The air temperature inside the cave is around 7 °C, with slight differences between the upper and lower parts of the main passage. CO2 concentrations in cave air have a seasonal signal, with summer minima and winter maxima. These might indicate the existence of an organic matter reservoir deep within the epikarst that continues to decompose over the winter, and CO2 concentrations are possibly modulated by seasonal differences in cave ventilation. The maximum values of CO2 show a rise after the summer of 2014, from around 2000 to about 3500 ppm, following a rise in surface temperature. Using two newly designed types of water–air equilibrators, we were able to determine the concentration of CO2 dissolved in drip water by measuring its concentration in the equilibrator headspace and then using Henry's law to calculate its concentration in water. This method opens the possibility of continuous data logging using infrared technology, without the need for costly and less reliable chemical determinations. The local meteoric water line (δ2H  =  7.7 δ18O + 10.1, constructed using monthly aggregated rainfall samples, is similar to the global one, revealing the Atlantic as the strongly dominant vapor source. The deuterium excess values, as high as 17 ‰, indicate that precipitation has an important evaporative component, possibly given by moisture recycling over the European continent. The variability of stable isotopes in drip water is similar at all points inside the cave, suggesting that the monitored drip sites are draining a homogenous reservoir. Drip rates, as well as stable isotopes, indicate that the transfer time of water from the surface is on the order of a few days.

  18. Monitoring of noble, signal and narrow-clawed crayfish using environmental DNA from freshwater samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sune Agersnap

    Full Text Available For several hundred years freshwater crayfish (Crustacea-Decapoda-Astacidea have played an important ecological, cultural and culinary role in Scandinavia. However, many native populations of noble crayfish Astacus astacus have faced major declines during the last century, largely resulting from human assisted expansion of non-indigenous signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus that carry and transmit the crayfish plague pathogen. In Denmark, also the non-indigenous narrow-clawed crayfish Astacus leptodactylus has expanded due to anthropogenic activities. Knowledge about crayfish distribution and early detection of non-indigenous and invasive species are crucial elements in successful conservation of indigenous crayfish. The use of environmental DNA (eDNA extracted from water samples is a promising new tool for early and non-invasive detection of species in aquatic environments. In the present study, we have developed and tested quantitative PCR (qPCR assays for species-specific detection and quantification of the three above mentioned crayfish species on the basis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (mtDNA-CO1, including separate assays for two clades of A. leptodactylus. The limit of detection (LOD was experimentally established as 5 copies/PCR with two different approaches, and the limit of quantification (LOQ were determined to 5 and 10 copies/PCR, respectively, depending on chosen approach. The assays detected crayfish in natural freshwater ecosystems with known populations of all three species, and show promising potentials for future monitoring of A. astacus, P. leniusculus and A. leptodactylus. However, the assays need further validation with data 1 comparing traditional and eDNA based estimates of abundance, and 2 representing a broader geographical range for the involved crayfish species.

  19. Interpretive Journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Susana; Strömbäck, Jesper; Aalberg, Toril; Esser, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In summary one-third of the political coverage analyzed in the 16 countries was found to contain interpretive journalism, with some countries - including France and the United States - making use of it much more than the rest. Indeed, the story genres and the interpretive journalism used in the various countries differ substantially, indicating distinct motives and news cultures. A multivariate analysis conducted to identify the most powerful predictors of interpretive journ...

  20. A multi-tiered, in vivo, quantitative assay suite for environmental disruptors of thyroid hormone signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengeling, Brenda J.; Wei, Yuzhu; Dobrawa, Lucia N.; Streekstra, Mischa; Louisse, Jochem; Singh, Vikrant; Singh, Latika; Lein, Pamela J.; Wulff, Heike; Murk, Tinka; Furlow, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    The essential role of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in mammalian development warrants the examination of man-made chemicals for its disruption. Among vertebrate species, the molecular components of TH signaling are highly conserved, including the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), their heterodimer

  1. Differential regulation of c-di-GMP metabolic enzymes by environmental signals modulates biofilm formation in Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Xian eRen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP is essential for Yersinia pestis biofilm formation, which is important for flea-borne blockage-dependent plague transmission. Two diguanylate cyclases (DGCs, HmsT and HmsD and one phosphodiesterase (PDE, HmsP are responsible for the synthesis and degradation of c-di-GMP in Y. pestis. Here, we systematically analyzed the effect of various environmental signals on regulation of the biofilm phenotype, the c-di-GMP levels, and expression of HmsT, HmsD and HmsP in Y. pestis. Biofilm formation was higher in the presence of nonlethal high concentration of CaCl2, MgCl2, CuSO4, sucrose, sodium dodecyl sulfonate, or dithiothreitol, and was lower in the presence of FeCl2 or NaCl. In addition, we found that HmsD plays a major role in biofilm formation in acidic or redox environments. These environmental signals differentially regulated expression of HmsT, HmsP and HmsD, resulting in changes in the intracellular levels of c-di-GMP in Y. pestis. Our results suggest that bacteria can sense various environmental signals, and differentially regulates their DGCs and PDEs to coordinately regulate and adapt metabolism of c-di-GMP and biofilm formation to changing environments.

  2. Auxin, the organizer of the hormonal/environmental signals for root hair growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard D.-W.; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2013-01-01

    The root hair development is controlled by diverse factors such as fate-determining developmental cues, auxin-related environmental factors, and hormones. In particular, the soil environmental factors are important as they maximize their absorption by modulating root hair development. These environmental factors affect the root hair developmental process by making use of diverse hormones. These hormonal factors interact with each other to modulate root hair development in which auxin appears to form the most intensive networks with the pathways from environmental factors and hormones. Moreover, auxin action for root hair development is genetically located immediately upstream of the root hair-morphogenetic genes. These observations suggest that auxin plays as an organizing node for environmental/hormonal pathways to modulate root hair growth. PMID:24273547

  3. Better Demand Signal, Better Decisions? Evaluation of Big Data in a Licensed Remanufacturing Supply Chain with Environmental Risk Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Baozhuang; Zou, Zongbao

    2017-08-01

    Big data ability helps obtain more accurate demand signal. However, is better demand signal always beneficial for the supply chain parties? To answer this question, we investigate a remanufacturing supply chain (RSC), where demand uncertainty is significant, and the value to reduce environmental risk is large. Specifically, we focus on a licensed RSC comprising an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and a third-party remanufacturer (3PR). The latter pays a unit license fee to the former, and can be risk averse to the demand of remanufactured products. We show that the OEM and the risk-neutral 3PR always have incentives to improve their big data abilities to increase their profits. However, when the 3PR is risk averse, big data might hurt its profit: the value of big data is positive if its demand signal accuracy is sufficiently low. Interestingly, we find that while information sharing hurts the 3PR, it benefits the OEM as well as the supply chain. Thus, if costly information sharing is allowed, a win-win situation can be achieved. We also find that information sharing generates more valuation when the 3PR is risk averse than that when the 3PR is risk neutral. More importantly, we find that the 3PR's risk attitude and demand signal accuracy can significantly mitigate the negative environmental impact (measured by the amount of the waste): (1) the more risk neutral the 3PR is, the better the environment is; (2) the more accurate demand signal is, the better the environment is. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Interpretation miniatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Hrvoje

    Most physicists do not have patience for reading long and obscure interpretation arguments and disputes. Hence, to attract attention of a wider physics community, in this paper various old and new aspects of quantum interpretations are explained in a concise and simple (almost trivial) form. About the “Copenhagen” interpretation, we note that there are several different versions of it and explain how to make sense of “local nonreality” interpretation. About the many-world interpretation (MWI), we explain that it is neither local nor nonlocal, that it cannot explain the Born rule, that it suffers from the preferred basis problem, and that quantum suicide cannot be used to test it. About the Bohmian interpretation, we explain that it is analogous to dark matter, use it to explain that there is no big difference between nonlocal correlation and nonlocal causation, and use some condensed-matter ideas to outline how nonrelativistic Bohmian theory could be a theory of everything. We also explain how different interpretations can be used to demystify the delayed choice experiment, to resolve the problem of time in quantum gravity, and to provide alternatives to quantum nonlocality. Finally, we explain why is life compatible with the second law.

  5. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  6. Cross-talk between non-genomic and genomic signalling pathways - Distinct effect profiles of environmental estrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Elisabete; Kabil, Alena; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) transcriptional cross-talk after activation by 17β-estradiol (E2) has been studied in considerable detail, but comparatively little is known about the ways in which synthetic estrogen-like chemicals, so-called xenoestrogens, interfere with these signalling pathways. E2 can stimulate rapid, non-genomic signalling events, such as activation of the Src/Ras/Erk signalling pathway. We investigated how activation of this pathway by E2, the estrogenic environmental contaminants o,p'-DDT, β-HCH and p,p'-DDE, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) influences the expression of ER target genes, such as TFF1, ER, PR, BRCA1 and CCND1, and the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Despite commonalities in their estrogenicity as judged by cell proliferation assays, the environmental contaminants exhibited striking differences in their non-genomic and genomic signalling. The gene expression profiles of o,p'-DDT and β-HCH resembled the effects observed with E2. In the case of β-HCH this is surprising, considering its reported lack of affinity to the 'classical' ER. The expression profiles seen with p,p'-DDE showed some similarities with E2, but overall, p,p'-DDE was a fairly weak transcriptional inducer of TFF1, ER, PR, BRCA1 and CCND1. We observed distinct differences in the non-genomic signalling of the tested compounds. p,p'-DDE was unable to stimulate Src and Erk1/Erk2 activations. The effects of E2 on Src and Erk1/Erk2 phosphorylation were transient and weak when compared to EGF, but β-HCH induced strong and sustained activation of all tested kinases. Transcription of TFF1, ER, PR and BRCA1 by E2, o,p'-DDT and β-HCH could be suppressed partially by inhibiting the Src/Ras/Erk pathway with PD 98059. However, this was not seen with p,p'-DDE. Our investigations show that the cellular activities of estrogens and xenoestrogens are the result of a combination of extranuclear (non-genomic) and nuclear (genomic) events and highlight the need to take non

  7. Phospholipid Encapsulated AuNR@Ag/Au Nanosphere SERS Tags with Environmental Stimulus Responsive Signal Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xueming; Wang, Yunqing; Wang, Wenhai; Sun, Kaoxiang; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-04-27

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) tags draw much attention due to the ultrasensitivity and multiplex labeling capability. Recently, a new kind of SERS tags was rationally designed by encapsulating metal nanoparticles with phospholipid bilayers, showing great potential in theranostics. The lipid bilayer coating confers biocompatibility and versatility to changing surface chemistry of the tag; however, its "soft" feature may influence SERS signal stability, which is rarely investigated. Herein, we prepared phospholipid-coated AuNR@Ag/Au nanosphere SERS tags by using three different kinds of Raman reporters, i.e., thio-containing 4-nitrothiophenol (NT), nitrogen-containing hydrophobic chromophore cyanine 7 monoacid (Cy7), and alkyl chain-chromophore conjugate 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindodicarbocyanine (DiD). It was found that signal responses were different upon additional stimulation which the tags may encounter in theranostic applications including the presence of detergent Triton X-100, lipid membrane, and photothermal treatment. Living-cell imaging also showed signal changing distinction. The different SERS signal performances were attributed to the different Raman reporter releasing behaviors from the tags. This work revealed that Raman reporter structure determined signal stability of lipid-coated SERS tags, providing guidance for the design of stimulus responsive tags. Moreover, it also implied the potential of SERS technique for real time drug release study of lipid based nanomedicine.

  8. Interpretive Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  9. Assessment of environmental benefits of flyover construction over signalized junctions: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S K; Goel, Sangita; Tamhane, S M

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the impact of the flyover construction to curb traffic congestion problem has been assessed in terms of traffic decongestion, time saving, fuel saving and emission reduction. A flyover has also been constructed over four signalized junctions in the main commercial area in Nagpur city, India. It was found that about 35% of the total traffic is diverted to the flyover, which results in a reduction of about 32% in the total emission generation. Travel on the flyover resulted in as much as 60-70% saving in time, compared to the travel on the main road, particularly when all the four signals are found to be in the red phase. The loss of fuel for combustion and the associated cost resulting from waiting for the signal to change are also estimated, and these are found to be significant.

  10. Combining hyperspectral imaging and chemometrics to assess and interpret the effects of environmental stressors on zebrafish eye images at tissue level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Víctor; Marro, Mònica; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Raldúa, Demetrio; Prats, Eva; Padrós, Francesc; Piña, Benjamin; Tauler, Romà; de Juan, Anna

    2018-03-01

    Changes on an organism by the exposure to environmental stressors may be characterized by hyperspectral images (HSI), which preserve the morphology of biological samples, and suitable chemometric tools. The approach proposed allows assessing and interpreting the effect of contaminant exposure on heterogeneous biological samples monitored by HSI at specific tissue levels. In this work, the model example used consists of the study of the effect of the exposure of chlorpyrifos-oxon on zebrafish tissues. To assess this effect, unmixing of the biological sample images followed by tissue-specific classification models based on the unmixed spectral signatures is proposed. Unmixing and classification are performed by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), respectively. Crucial aspects of the approach are: (1) the simultaneous MCR-ALS analysis of all images from 1 population to take into account biological variability and provide reliable tissue spectral signatures, and (2) the use of resolved spectral signatures from control and exposed populations obtained from resampling of pixel subsets analyzed by MCR-ALS multiset analysis as information for the tissue-specific PLS-DA classification models. Classification results diagnose the presence of a significant effect and identify the spectral regions at a tissue level responsible for the biological change. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) for baseline toxicity and specific modes of action as a tool to improve interpretation of ecotoxicity testing of environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; Bramaz, Nadine; Mueller, Jochen F; Quayle, Pamela; Rutishauser, Sibylle; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M

    2008-05-01

    The toxic equivalency concept is a widely applied method to express the toxicity of complex mixtures of compounds that act via receptor-mediated mechanisms such as induction of the arylhydrocarbon or estrogen receptors. Here we propose to extend this concept to baseline toxicity, using the bioluminescence inhibition test with Vibrio fischeri, and an integrative ecotoxicity endpoint, algal growth rate inhibition. Both bioassays were validated by comparison with literature data and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for baseline toxicity were developed for all endpoints. The novel combined algae test, with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, allows for the simultaneous evaluation of specific inhibition of photosynthesis and growth rate. The contributions of specific inhibition of photosynthesis and non-specific toxicity could be differentiated by comparing the time and endpoint pattern. Photosynthesis efficiency, measured with the saturation pulse method after 2 h of incubation, served as indicator of specific inhibition of photosynthesis by photosystem II inhibitors. Diuron equivalents were defined as toxicity equivalents for this effect. The endpoint of growth rate over 24 h served to derive baseline toxicity equivalent concentrations (baseline-TEQ). By performing binary mixture experiments with reference compounds and complex environmental samples from a sewage treatment plant and a river, the TEQ concept was validated. The proposed method allows for easier interpretation and communication of effect-based water quality monitoring data and provides a basis for comparative analysis with chemical analytical monitoring.

  12. Monitoring of noble, signal and narrow-clawed crayfish using environmental DNA from freshwater samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersnap, Sune; Larsen, William Brenner; Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    human assisted expansion of non-indigenous signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus that carry and transmit the crayfish plague pathogen. In Denmark, also the non-indigenous narrow-clawed crayfish Astacus leptodactylus has expanded due to anthropogenic activities. Knowledge about crayfish distribution...

  13. Environmental conditions limit attractiveness of a complex sexual signal in the túngara frog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Smit, Judith A H; Loning, Hugo; Lea, Amanda M; Geipel, Inga; Ellers, Jacintha; Ryan, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Animals choosing particular display sites often balance sexual and natural selection pressures. Here we assess how physical properties of display sites can alter this balance by influencing signal production and attractiveness of the túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus). Males that call from very

  14. Interpreting Physics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinnon, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of mathematical and physical concepts leads to the classical/quatum interface. Bohrian orthodoxy stresses the indispensability of classical concepts and the functional role of mathematics. This book analyses ways of extending, and then going beyond this orthodoxy orthodoxy. Finally, the book analyzes how a revised interpretation of physics impacts on basic philosophical issues: conceptual revolutions, realism, and r

  15. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to environmental water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Daniel A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Hung, Alice L.; Blazer, Vicki; Halpern, Marnie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental endocrine disruptors (EED) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones, such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ER) in the larval heart compared to the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit similar tissue-specific effects as BPA and genistein or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. Methods: We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of estrogen receptor genes by RNA in situ hybridization. Results: Selective patterns of ER activation were observed in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue-specificity in ER activation is due to differences in the expression of estrogen receptor subtypes. ERα is expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 has the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activate the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. Conclusion: The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish has revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero is associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves.

  16. Early signals of environmental and health impacts caused by uranium mining in Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Adelson S. de; Rego, Rita de Cassia Franco; Zucchi, Maria do Rosario; Navarro, Marcus V. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Uranium mining and processing at Lagoa Real (Bahia, Brazil) in the southwest of Bahia state started in the year 2000.The processing of uranium ore for obtaining U3O8 (yellowcake) is done today in the processing unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries INB located in the area of the same municipality above mentioned. The production capacity is 400 tons / year of U3O8, and the reserves in this region are estimated at 100.000 tons of uranium without any other associated minerals, enough to supply the demand for nuclear power plants Angra I and II for over 100 years. Since the granting of AOP (Permanent Operation Authorization) by CNEN (National Commission on Nuclear Energy) in the year 2009, there were some incidents at the facility, such as: solvents and liquid containing uranium overflow; pipes rupture, causing indiscriminate dispersion of toxic acids and other chemical agents; collapse of parts of the slope of the open pit. CNEN admitted in an official press release on April 1, 2011 that 'INB has no capacity to produce annual reports on environmental monitoring (unable to perform radiometric measurements, etc.). The last time a report was released happened in the year 2008. These reports are vital to the environmental impact assessment of the facility'. Another potential source of environmental and health negative impacts on the local population could be linked to radon emission. What are the levels of this important pollutant in the affected areas? (author)

  17. Early signals of environmental and health impacts caused by uranium mining in Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Adelson S. de; Rego, Rita de Cassia Franco [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Preventiva. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Saude, Ambiente e Trabalho; Zucchi, Maria do Rosario [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica da Terra. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada; Navarro, Marcus V. Teixeira, E-mail: mvtn@ifba.edu.b [Instituto Federal da Bahia (LAFIR/NTS/IFBA) Salvador, BA (Brazil). Nucleo de Tecnologia em Saude. Lab. de Fisica Radiologica

    2011-07-01

    Uranium mining and processing at Lagoa Real (Bahia, Brazil) in the southwest of Bahia state started in the year 2000.The processing of uranium ore for obtaining U3O8 (yellowcake) is done today in the processing unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries INB located in the area of the same municipality above mentioned. The production capacity is 400 tons / year of U3O8, and the reserves in this region are estimated at 100.000 tons of uranium without any other associated minerals, enough to supply the demand for nuclear power plants Angra I and II for over 100 years. Since the granting of AOP (Permanent Operation Authorization) by CNEN (National Commission on Nuclear Energy) in the year 2009, there were some incidents at the facility, such as: solvents and liquid containing uranium overflow; pipes rupture, causing indiscriminate dispersion of toxic acids and other chemical agents; collapse of parts of the slope of the open pit. CNEN admitted in an official press release on April 1, 2011 that 'INB has no capacity to produce annual reports on environmental monitoring (unable to perform radiometric measurements, etc.). The last time a report was released happened in the year 2008. These reports are vital to the environmental impact assessment of the facility'. Another potential source of environmental and health negative impacts on the local population could be linked to radon emission. What are the levels of this important pollutant in the affected areas? (author)

  18. Microgravity as a novel environmental signal affecting Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, C. A.; Ott, C. M.; Mister, S. J.; Morrow, B. J.; Burns-Keliher, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight on the infectious disease process have only been studied at the level of the host immune response and indicate a blunting of the immune mechanism in humans and animals. Accordingly, it is necessary to assess potential changes in microbial virulence associated with spaceflight which may impact the probability of in-flight infectious disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of altered gravitational vectors on Salmonella virulence in mice. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium grown under modeled microgravity (MMG) were more virulent and were recovered in higher numbers from the murine spleen and liver following oral infection compared to organisms grown under normal gravity. Furthermore, MMG-grown salmonellae were more resistant to acid stress and macrophage killing and exhibited significant differences in protein synthesis than did normal-gravity-grown cells. Our results indicate that the environment created by simulated microgravity represents a novel environmental regulatory factor of Salmonella virulence.

  19. Interpretive Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  20. Light and circadian regulation of clock components aids flexible responses to environmental signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Laura E; Hodge, Sarah K; van Ooijen, Gerben; Troein, Carl; Akman, Ozgur E; Millar, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The circadian clock measures time across a 24 h period, increasing fitness by phasing biological processes to the most appropriate time of day. The interlocking feedback loop mechanism of the clock is conserved across species; however, the number of loops varies. Mathematical and computational analyses have suggested that loop complexity affects the overall flexibility of the oscillator, including its responses to entrainment signals. We used a discriminating experimental assay, at the transition between different photoperiods, in order to test this proposal in a minimal circadian network (in Ostreococcus tauri) and a more complex network (in Arabidopsis thaliana). Transcriptional and translational reporters in O. tauri primarily tracked dawn or dusk, whereas in A. thaliana, a wider range of responses were observed, consistent with its more flexible clock. Model analysis supported the requirement for this diversity of responses among the components of the more complex network. However, these and earlier data showed that the O. tauri network retains surprising flexibility, despite its simple circuit. We found that models constructed from experimental data can show flexibility either from multiple loops and/or from multiple light inputs. Our results suggest that O. tauri has adopted the latter strategy, possibly as a consequence of genomic reduction. PMID:24842166

  1. Improvement of the ultra-trace voltammetric determination of Rh in environmental samples using signal transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almécija, C; Cobelo-García, A; Santos-Echeandía, J

    2016-01-01

    Rhodium (Rh) is present at the Earth's surface at ultra-trace concentrations (0.06 ng g(-1)); however, its use in catalytic converters has increased its deposition nearby traffic pressure and therefore the interest in analytical techniques for Rh determination has raised in the recent years. In this study we propose an improvement of Rh measurement by adsorptive voltammetry applying second-derivative signal transformation. The optimization of experimental parameters affecting the voltammetric analysis were carried out using sediment samples; these include the amount of sample digest used, the hydrochloric acid and formaldehyde concentrations, deposition potential and equilibration time. The use of the second derivative transformation provided well-defined peaks due to the minimization of background interferences, leading to a significant decrease in the detection limits. Accordingly, a detection limit of 200 fM Rh in the cell was obtained, which corresponds to 14 pg g(-1) of Rh for 200mg of sediments. The optimized methodology was applied to the analysis of Rh in a sediment core collected close to a motorway bridge from Tagus Estuary (Lisbon, Portugal). Here, Rh concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 0.47 ng g(-1), showing a surface Rh-enrichment linked to traffic, which was consistent with a Pt superficial peak. Reference materials were also analyzed, including road dust (BCR-723) and river sediment (JSD-2), and values obtained were in agreement with certified concentrations and previously values reported in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-01-01

    The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and ...

  3. Selective harvest focused on sexual signal traits can lead to extinction under directional environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, Robert J; Martínez-Ruiz, Carlos

    2017-12-13

    Humans commonly harvest animals based on their expression of secondary sexual traits such as horns or antlers. This selective harvest is thought to have little effect on harvested populations because offtake rates are low and usually only the males are targeted. These arguments do not, however, take the relationship between secondary sexual trait expression and animal condition into account: there is increasing evidence that in many cases the degree of expression of such traits is correlated with an animal's overall well-being, which is partly determined by their genetic match to the environment. Using an individual-based model, we find that when there is directional environmental change, selective harvest of males with the largest secondary sexual traits can lead to extinction in otherwise resilient populations. When harvest is not selective, the males best suited to a new environment gain the majority of matings and beneficial alleles spread rapidly. When these best-adapted males are removed, however, their beneficial alleles are lost, leading to extinction. Given the current changes happening globally, these results suggest that trophy hunting and other cases of selective harvest (such as certain types of insect collection) should be managed with extreme care whenever populations are faced with changing conditions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Calibrating the pollen signal in modern rodent middens from northern Chile to improve the interpretation of the late Quaternary midden record

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Porras, María Eugenia; Maldonado, Antonio; Zamora-Allendes, Andrés; Latorre, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    The use of rodent middens from northern Chile as paleoecological archives has at times been questioned due to concerns about their biogenic origin and the degree to which their record represents vegetation composition rather than rodent habits. To address such concerns, we carried out a modern calibration study to assess the representation of vegetation by pollen records from rodent middens. We compared vegetation censuses with soil-surface and midden (matrix and feces) pollen samples from sites between 21° and 28°S. The results show that (1) the pollen signal from the midden matrix provides a more realistic reflection of local vegetation than soil-surface samples due to the pollen-deposition processes that occur in middens; and (2) in contrast to feces pollen assemblages, which feature some biases, rodent dietary habits do not seem to influence midden matrix pollen assemblages, probably because midden agents are dietary generalists. Our finding that modern pollen data from rodent middens reflect vegetation patterns confirms the reliability of midden pollen records as paleoecological archives in northern Chile.

  5. Mammographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, L.

    1987-01-01

    For mammography to be an effective diagnostic method, it must be performed to a very high standard of quality. Otherwise many lesions, in particular cancer in its early stages, will simply not be detectable on the films, regardless of the skill of the mammographer. Mammographic interpretation consists of two basic steps: perception and analysis. The process of mammographic interpretation begins with perception of the lesion on the mammogram. Perception is influenced by several factors. One of the most important is the parenchymal pattern of the breast tissue, detection of pathologic lesions being easier with fatty involution. The mammographer should use a method for the systematic viewing of the mammograms that will ensure that all parts of each mammogram are carefully searched for the presence of lesions. The method of analysis proceeds according to the type of lesion. The contour analysis of primary importance in the evaluation of circumscribed tumors. After having analyzed the contour and density of a lesion and considered its size, the mammographer should be fairly certain whether the circumscribed tumor is benign or malignant. Fine-needle puncture and/or US may assist the mammographer in making this decision. Painstaking analysis is required because many circumscribed tumors do not need to be biopsied. The perception of circumscribed tumors seldom causes problems, but their analysis needs careful attention. On the other hand, the major challenge with star-shaped lesions is perception. They may be difficult to discover when small. Although the final diagnosis of a stellate lesion can be made only with the help of histologic examination, the preoperative mammorgraphic differential diagnosis can be highly accurate. The differential diagnostic problem is between malignant tumors (scirrhous carcinoma), on the one hand, and traumatic fat necrosis as well as radial scars on the other hand

  6. Towards Interpreting the Signal of CO2 Emissions from Megacities by Applying a Lagrangian Receptor-oriented Model to OCO-2 XCO2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lin, J. C.; Oda, T.; Ye, X.; Lauvaux, T.; Yang, E. G.; Kort, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    Urban regions are large emitters of CO2 whose emission inventories are still associated with large uncertainties. Therefore, a strong need exists to better quantify emissions from megacities using a top-down approach. Satellites — e.g., the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2), provide a platform for monitoring spatiotemporal column CO2 concentrations (XCO2). In this study, we present a Lagrangian receptor-oriented model framework and evaluate "model-retrieved" XCO2 by comparing against OCO-2-retrieved XCO2, for three megacities/regions (Riyadh, Cairo and Pearl River Delta). OCO-2 soundings indicate pronounced XCO2 enhancements (dXCO2) when crossing Riyadh, which are successfully captured by our model with a slight latitude shift. From this model framework, we can identify and compare the relative contributions of dXCO2 resulted from anthropogenic emission versus biospheric fluxes. In addition, to impose constraints on emissions for Riyadh through inversion methods, three uncertainties sources are addressed in this study, including 1) transport errors, 2) receptor and model setups in atmospheric models, and 3) urban emission uncertainties. For 1), we calculate transport errors by adding a wind error component to randomize particle distributions. For 2), a set of sensitivity tests using bootstrap method is performed to describe proper ways to setup receptors in Lagrangian models. For 3), both emission uncertainties from the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS) and the spread among three emission inventories are used to approximate an overall fractional uncertainty in modeled anthropogenic signal (dXCO2.anthro). Lastly, we investigate the definition of background (clean) XCO2 for megacities from retrieved XCO2 by means of statistical tools and our model framework.

  7. An Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, William L

    2003-01-01

    Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders. This study used content analysis to obtain detailed information about these disorders from the interpreters' point of view...

  8. Development of affinity binding assay for isolation and analysis of microbial recognizing receptors for environmental signal substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyashita, Kiyotaka; Fujii, Takeshi; Ogawa, Naoto; Takahashi, Mami; Suzuki, Fumihiko [National Inst. of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    Aiming at isolation and analysis of recognizing receptors for environmental signaling substances, a development of effective labeling method was attempted for oligosaccharides having a role as inducer for exo-enzyme production, various signaling substances among plant and microbes as well as bacterial and viral proteins directly mediating the interaction between pathogenic microbes and plants. First, the optimum labeling conditions for those substances were investigated. To isolate oligosaccharide receptor, labeling of chitobiose was performed. Radio-labeled UDP-GlcNAc was used as the substrate for chitin synthesizing enzyme to produce labeled chitobiose using chitinase. Thin layer chromatography of silica gel was useful for isolation and purification of the labeled chitobiose. Thus, chitin of a highly specific activity able to use for isolation of its receptor was obtained. Then, an expression system for chlorocatechol dioxygenase gene was constructed aiming to produce chloromucoic acid, an inducer of catabolic genes for aromatic chlorides through conversion from chlorocatechol. In this study, clcA gene from P. putida AC866 strain was inserted in expression vector pGST/HisT1 after PCR amplification and the vector that could produce His-tagged chlorocatechol-dioxygenase was constructed. Next, for analysis of a protein able to interact with a protein related to pathogenicity of plant virus, a labeling method for the protein coded in rice stripe virus (RSV) was developed. By autoradiographic analysis of translation products for the virus RNA, two bands corresponding to 22.8 K and 20.5 K proteins were detected. Whereas the translation products of RNA from RSV-infected host presented 5 bands, neither of which was detectable in the products from un-infected hosts. The two bands of them were identified as the proteins of nucleoside capsid, 22.8 K and 20.5 K proteins. Isolation of these labeled proteins would be made in near future. (M.N.)

  9. Interpretation training influences memory for prior interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, E.; Hertel, P.; Mackintosh, B.

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety is associated with memory biases when the initial interpretation of the event is taken into account. This experiment examined whether modification of interpretive bias retroactively affects memory for prior events and their initial interpretation. Before training, participants imagined

  10. Modelling and forecasting long-term dynamics of Western Baltic macrobenthic fauna in relation to climate signals and environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Joachim; Rumohr, Heye

    2006-05-01

    Long-term macrobenthos data from Kiel Bight in the Western Baltic collected between 1968 and 2000 have been correlated with the winter NAO index (North Atlantic Oscillation Index) and other environmental data such as temperature, salinity and oxygen content in the bottom water in order to detect systematic patterns related to so far unexplained abiotic signals in the dynamics of zoobenthic species assemblages. The benthos data come from a cluster of five stations (Süderfahrt/ Millionenviertel) in Kiel Bay. Our investigations concentrated on the macrobenthic dynamics with a focus on the number of species m - 2 (species richness). Using logarithms and the time series analysis approach of Box/Jenkins (ARIMA modelling, transfer function modelling) it was shown that species richness was strongly influenced by the winter NAO (adjusted for a linear time trend within the 1968-2000 period) and salinity (with a shift/lag of four years). Bootstrapping experiments (i.e. sampling from the error process) and analysis of prediction power (by means of the one- or more-years leaving-out method) showed that the parameter estimates behaved in a stable way, leading to a relatively robust model.

  11. Signal Analysis Techniques for Interpreting Electroencephalograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    cage), was compared to the condition when the animal was strapped down in some device. Bouyer et al. (13) suggest the use of an anxiolytic drug ( diazepam ...Electrocorticographic correlates and corrective effects of diazepam . Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 45:562-567 (1978). 14. Box, G. E, P,, and G, M...the modeling of the kinetics of pigment synthesis in rods and cones is important since the recurrence of vision secondary to flash stimulation is

  12. Improved voltammetric method for simultaneous determination of Pt and Rh using second derivative signal transformation - application to environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Carlos E; Cobelo-Garcia, Antonio; Caetano, Miguel; Correia Dos Santos, Margarida M

    2017-12-01

    The determination of Platinum-group elements (PGE) in relevant environmental matrices is a challenging task. Sensitive and accurate analytical procedures for simultaneous determination of Pt and Rh are still needed. In this study, we report for the first time on the use of second derivative signal transformation to the ultra-trace simultaneous determination of Pt and Rh by Adsorptive Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (AdCSV). With that step, the ill-defined peaks typically observed in the original voltammograms are transformed into well-shaped peaks, resulting in accurate detection. The experimental conditions were investigated and optimised: a suitable electrolyte for both elements, with less reagents consumption, (0.25M H 2 SO 4 , 0.05M HCl, 0.01M FA and 0.5mM HZ), deposition time (t d ) and deposition potential (E d ). For t d = 120s and E d = -0.75V, linear relationships r > 0.999 were obtained in the concentration range up to 5.8ngL -1 (27 pM) for Pt and up to 3.4ngL -1 (34 pM) for Rh. Limits of detection were 0.2ngL -1 for Pt and 0.08ngL -1 for Rh. Lower values can be achieved by increasing the deposition time. Limits of quantification, LOQ, calculated as 3 times LOD, were 0.5ngL -1 for Pt and 0.2ngL -1 for Rh. The sensitivity of Pt was affected by elevated Zn concentrations, whereas a minor effect was observed for Rh. However, Pt and Rh determinations were not influenced using the standard addition method. Precision as intermediate precision and expressed as relative standard deviation, based on Pt and Rh spiked solutions and digested road dust CRM BCR-723 was 17% and 20% for Pt and Rh, respectively. Recoveries of CRM were around 90% for both elements. The method was successfully applied in the simultaneous determination of Pt and Rh in sediments from Tagus estuary and, for the first time, dissolved Rh was determined in water samples of a waste water treatment plant. Application of this technique in a multidisciplinary approach will be a relevant contribution

  13. ER signaling is activated to protect human HaCaT keratinocytes from ER stress induced by environmental doses of UVB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mera, Kentaro; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Tada, Ko-ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro; Kanekura, Takuro

    2010-01-01

    Proteins are folded properly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Various stress such as hypoxia, ischemia and starvation interfere with the ER function, causing ER stress, which is defined by the accumulation of unfolded protein (UP) in the ER. ER stress is prevented by the UP response (UPR) and ER-associated degradation (ERAD). These signaling pathways are activated by three major ER molecules, ATF6, IRE-1 and PERK. Using HaCaT cells, we investigated ER signaling in human keratinocytes irradiated by environmental doses of ultraviolet B (UVB). The expression of Ero1-Lα, an upstream signaling molecule of ER stress, decreased at 1-4 h after 10 mJ/cm 2 irradiation, indicating that the environmental dose of UVB-induced ER stress in HaCaT cells, without growth retardation. Furthermore, expression of intact ATF6 was decreased and it was translocated to the nuclei. The expression of XBP-1, a downstream molecule of IRE-1, which is an ER chaperone whose expression is regulated by XBP-1, and UP ubiquitination were induced by 10 mJ/cm 2 UVB at 4 h. PERK, which regulates apoptosis, was not phosphorylated. Our results demonstrate that UVB irradiation generates UP in HaCaT cells and that the UPR and ERAD systems are activated to protect cells from UVB-induced ER stress. This is the first report to show ER signaling in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes.

  14. Interpretive Media Study and Interpretive Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Kevin M.

    1990-01-01

    Defines the major theoretical influences on interpretive approaches in mass communication, examines the central concepts of these perspectives, and provides a critique of these approaches. States that the adoption of interpretive approaches in mass communication has ignored varied critiques of interpretive social science. Suggests that critical…

  15. Characterization of magnetic spherical fractions in sand deposits for interpretation of environmental change around the El- Zayyan temple, Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Makiko; Koizumi, Natsuko; Kato, Sayuri; Kikuchi, Ryohei; Kamei, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    Desertification in North Africa has rapidly advanced over the last 6,000 years. Such environmental changes began in the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt (4200 - 3150 BC), and the occupation of Achaemenid Persian and Roman cultures in Egypt occurred under even drier climates. Kharga is the largest oasis of the five oases, located in the western desert of Egypt that contains a treasure trove of archaeological resources. This oasis has been highlighted to promote resource exploration and development of archaeological tourism since the 1980's. The El-Zayyan temple is located 27 km south of the central Kharga oasis. Zayyan was once called 'Tchonemyris', which has connection with the means of 'huge well' in Greek. Although major portions of the temple were rebuilt in 140 AD during the rule of the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, this temple is considered to be originally built in the Ptolemaic period (4c-1c BC). It is likely that the area had a sufficient water supply in the past as the El-Zayyan temple stands at the lowest point (-18 m a.s.l.) in the Kharga oasis. Furthermore, the El-Ghueita temple that stands on a hill top at 68.5 m a.s.l., 4 km northward from the El-Zayyan temple, has given name that means 'beautiful garden' in Greek. From these facts, we can imagine that the past landscape of this area contained green surroundings. The El-Ghueita temple was well known as a production centre of high quality wine since the mid-Dynastic age (2050 -1786 BC). As this area is currently arid, it is expected that there were irrigation facilities to maintain the vast farm land during the ancient period. To deepen our knowledge of how people developed their technologies and conducted their life within the natural environment of a drastic drying period, understanding the process of environmental change on a region scale is necessary. The aim of this study was to extract proxies from sand deposits in the western desert area to estimate the change in the environment. We examined the

  16. A lithofacies terrain model for the Blantyre Region: Implications for the interpretation of palaeosavanna depositional systems and for environmental geology and economic geology in southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, H. G.; Ludwig, R.-R.; Kathewera, A.; Mwenelupembe, J.

    2005-06-01

    , hydrobiotite). In addition, the investigation is to provide some characteristic features suitable for the recognition and interpretation of terrestrial environments resembling the present-day savanna in the ancient sedimentary record: Conspicuous bimodality in the grain-size distribution. High degree of gravel roundness. Boulder fields (basal conglomerates) with fitting breccias and no rotation of structural elements. Poor to very poor sorting of siliciclastics. Stratification is rare; if present only in sandy beds with antidune and tabular cross-bedding at low angle prevailing over cross-bedding at high angle. Grading rare; in arenaceous deposits poorly developed FU sequences, in rudites poorly developed CU sequences, locally with surface armoring. Directional sedimentary structures in coarse-grained deposits are unimodal. Fabric types: a(t)b(i) and a(p)b(i); shear planes indicative of slide may be present. Ribbon-shaped architectural elements prevail over channel-like types. Bounding surfaces/unconformities are uneven to wavy and more widespread than scour-and-pool structures. Fine-grained carbonaceous interbeds are restricted to shallow depressions. Etch marks such as tafonis, flutes, honeycomb textures are common. Placer deposits of metallic and non-metallic mineral commodities are abundant. Alucretes and ferricretes of bog iron (ferrihydrite > goethite) and lateritic (goethite > ferrihydrite) types are common, calcitic freshwater limestones and gypcretes are scarce. Kandite-group minerals "in" (relic), smectite-group minerals "in", vermiculite "in" (recent), mica-group minerals "out".

  17. An Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, William L

    2003-01-01

    ...; interpreting style, such as poor body posture, tensing muscles, signing too forcefully; job control, including the emotional and physical stress of the job, being overworked, and disliking the job...

  18. Modeling and interpretation of images*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging protoplanetary disks is a challenging but rewarding task. It is challenging because of the glare of the central star outshining the weak signal from the disk at shorter wavelengths and because of the limited spatial resolution at longer wavelengths. It is rewarding because it contains a wealth of information on the structure of the disks and can (directly probe things like gaps and spiral structure. Because it is so challenging, telescopes are often pushed to their limitations to get a signal. Proper interpretation of these images therefore requires intimate knowledge of the instrumentation, the detection method, and the image processing steps. In this chapter I will give some examples and stress some issues that are important when interpreting images from protoplanetary disks.

  19. Interpreting Impoliteness: Interpreters’ Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Radanović Felberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreters in the public sector in Norway interpret in a variety of institutional encounters, and the interpreters evaluate the majority of these encounters as polite. However, some encounters are evaluated as impolite, and they pose challenges when it comes to interpreting impoliteness. This issue raises the question of whether interpreters should take a stance on their own evaluation of impoliteness and whether they should interfere in communication. In order to find out more about how interpreters cope with this challenge, in 2014 a survey was sent to all interpreters registered in the Norwegian Register of Interpreters. The survey data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of impoliteness theory using the notion of moral order as an explanatory tool in a close reading of interpreters’ answers. The analysis shows that interpreters reported using a variety of strategies for interpreting impoliteness, including omissions and downtoning. However, the interpreters also gave examples of individual strategies for coping with impoliteness, such as interrupting and postponing interpreting. These strategies border behavioral strategies and conflict with the Norwegian ethical guidelines for interpreting. In light of the ethical guidelines and actual practice, mapping and discussing different strategies used by interpreters might heighten interpreters’ and interpreter-users’ awareness of the role impoliteness can play in institutional interpreter– mediated encounters. 

  20. The value of crossdating to retain high-frequency variability, climate signals, and extreme events in environmental proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan A. Black; Daniel Griffin; Peter van der Sleen; Alan D. Wanamaker; James H. Speer; David C. Frank; David W. Stahle; Neil Pederson; Carolyn A. Copenheaver; Valerie Trouet; Shelly Griffin; Bronwyn M. Gillanders

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution biogenic and geologic proxies in which one increment or layer is formed per year are crucial to describing natural ranges of environmental variability in Earth's physical and biological systems. However, dating controls are necessary to ensure temporal precision and accuracy; simple counts cannot ensure that all layers are placed correctly in time...

  1. Meaning From Environmental Sounds: Types of Signal-Referent Relations and Their Effect on Recognizing Auditory Icons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter; Stevens, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the learnability of auditory icons, that is, environmental sounds that refer either directly or indirectly to meaningful events. Direct relations use the sound made by the target event whereas indirect relations substitute a surrogate for the target. Across 3 experiments, different indirect relations (ecological, in which…

  2. Intergenerational environmental effects: functional signals in offspring transcriptomes and metabolomes after parental jasmonic acid treatment in apomictic dandelion

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeven, Koen J. F.; Verbon, Eline H.; van Gurp, Thomas P.; Oplaat, Carla; Ferreira de Carvalho, Julie; Morse, Alison M.; Stahl, Mark; Macel, Mirka; McIntyre, Lauren M.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Parental environments can influence offspring traits. However, the magnitude of the impact of parental environments on offspring molecular phenotypes is poorly understood. Here, we test the direct effects and intergenerational effects of jasmonic acid (JA) treatment, which is involved in herbivory‐induced defense signaling, on transcriptomes and metabolomes in apomictic common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). In a full factorial crossed design with parental and offspring JA and contr...

  3. Intergenerational environmental effects: functional signals in offspring transcriptomes and metabolomes after parental jasmonic acid treatment in apomictic dandelion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Koen J F; Verbon, Eline H; van Gurp, Thomas P; Oplaat, Carla; Ferreira de Carvalho, Julie; Morse, Alison M; Stahl, Mark; Macel, Mirka; McIntyre, Lauren M

    2018-01-01

    Parental environments can influence offspring traits. However, the magnitude of the impact of parental environments on offspring molecular phenotypes is poorly understood. Here, we test the direct effects and intergenerational effects of jasmonic acid (JA) treatment, which is involved in herbivory-induced defense signaling, on transcriptomes and metabolomes in apomictic common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). In a full factorial crossed design with parental and offspring JA and control treatments, we performed leaf RNA-seq gene expression analysis, LC-MS metabolomics and total phenolics assays in offspring plants. Expression analysis, leveraged by a de novo assembled transcriptome, revealed an induced response to JA exposure that is consistent with known JA effects. The intergenerational effect of treatment was considerable: 307 of 858 detected JA-responsive transcripts were affected by parental JA treatment. In terms of the numbers of metabolites affected, the magnitude of the chemical response to parental JA exposure was c. 10% of the direct JA treatment response. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses both identified the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway as a target of intergenerational JA effects. Our results highlight that parental environments can have substantial effects in offspring generations. Transcriptome and metabolome assays provide a basis for zooming in on the potential mechanisms of inherited JA effects. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  5. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We...

  6. Journalists as Interpretive Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelizer, Barbie

    1993-01-01

    Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)

  7. An information gap in DNA evidence interpretation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Perlin

    Full Text Available Forensic DNA evidence often contains mixtures of multiple contributors, or is present in low template amounts. The resulting data signals may appear to be relatively uninformative when interpreted using qualitative inclusion-based methods. However, these same data can yield greater identification information when interpreted by computer using quantitative data-modeling methods. This study applies both qualitative and quantitative interpretation methods to a well-characterized DNA mixture and dilution data set, and compares the inferred match information. The results show that qualitative interpretation loses identification power at low culprit DNA quantities (below 100 pg, but that quantitative methods produce useful information down into the 10 pg range. Thus there is a ten-fold information gap that separates the qualitative and quantitative DNA mixture interpretation approaches. With low quantities of culprit DNA (10 pg to 100 pg, computer-based quantitative interpretation provides greater match sensitivity.

  8. The Evolutionary Landscape of Dbl-Like RhoGEF Families: Adapting Eukaryotic Cells to Environmental Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Philippe; Blangy, Anne

    2017-06-01

    The dynamics of cell morphology in eukaryotes is largely controlled by small GTPases of the Rho family. Rho GTPases are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs), of which diffuse B-cell lymphoma (Dbl)-like members form the largest family. Here, we surveyed Dbl-like sequences from 175 eukaryotic genomes and illuminate how the Dbl family evolved in all eukaryotic supergroups. By combining probabilistic phylogenetic approaches and functional domain analysis, we show that the human Dbl-like family is made of 71 members, structured into 20 subfamilies. The 71 members were already present in ancestral jawed vertebrates, but several members were subsequently lost in specific clades, up to 12% in birds. The jawed vertebrate repertoire was established from two rounds of duplications that occurred between tunicates, cyclostomes, and jawed vertebrates. Duplicated members showed distinct tissue distributions, conserved at least in Amniotes. All 20 subfamilies have members in Deuterostomes and Protostomes. Nineteen subfamilies are present in Porifera, the first phylum that diverged in Metazoa, 14 in Choanoflagellida and Filasterea, single-celled organisms closely related to Metazoa and three in Fungi, the sister clade to Metazoa. Other eukaryotic supergroups show an extraordinary variability of Dbl-like repertoires as a result of repeated and independent gain and loss events. Last, we observed that in Metazoa, the number of Dbl-like RhoGEFs varies in proportion of cell signaling complexity. Overall, our analysis supports the conclusion that Dbl-like RhoGEFs were present at the origin of eukaryotes and evolved as highly adaptive cell signaling mediators. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Analytical quality assessment and interpretation of the trace element data obtained in the frame of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeij, J.J.M. de; Blaauw, M.; Zegers, C.

    1993-01-01

    At the request of the IAEA, the authors have performed an assessment of the analytical quality and the interpretation of the trace element data obtained within the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on The Significance of Hair Mineral Analysis as a Means of Assessing Internal Body Burdens of Environmental Pollutants. In this CRP research groups from various countries participated, using different analytical procedures, based on NAA, XRF and AAS. Data have been collected for Zn, CU, Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Se in male human hair, liver, kidney, lung, brain, and bone. The samples analyzed originated from China, Hungary, Bulgaria, Japan, the former GDR, Sweden and Norway. The analytical quality of the data has been assessed on basis of the calculated limits of quantitation per trace element determined, per tissue analyzed and per participant, as well as from the trace element values found for reference materials and ''blind'' materials. The analytical quality of the data differs widely, from generally good to reasonable (Zn, Cu, and Se) to generally inadequate to strongly inadequate (Pb, Cd, As, and Hg). 15 refs, 29 tabs

  10. Meaning from environmental sounds: types of signal-referent relations and their effect on recognizing auditory icons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter; Stevens, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    This article addresses the learnability of auditory icons, that is, environmental sounds that refer either directly or indirectly to meaningful events. Direct relations use the sound made by the target event whereas indirect relations substitute a surrogate for the target. Across 3 experiments, different indirect relations (ecological, in which target and surrogate coexist in the world; metaphorical, in which target and surrogate have similar appearance or function, and random) were compared with one another and with direct relations on measures including associative strength ratings, amount of exposure required for learning, and response times for recognizing icons. Findings suggest that performance is best with direct relations, worst with random relations, and that ecological and metaphorical relations involve distinct types of association but do not differ in learnability.

  11. Intraganglionic signaling as a novel nasal-meningeal pathway for TRPA1-dependent trigeminovascular activation by inhaled environmental irritants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Edward Kunkler

    Full Text Available Headache is the most common symptom associated with air pollution, but little is understood about the underlying mechanism. Nasal administration of environmental irritants activates the trigeminovascular system by a TRPA1-dependent process. This report addresses questions about the anatomical pathway involved and the function of TRP channels in this pathway. TRPV1 and TRPA1 are frequently co-localized and interact to modulate function in sensory neurons. We demonstrate here that resiniferatoxin ablation of TRPV1 expressing neurons significantly reduces meningeal blood flow responses to nasal administration of both TRPV1 and TRPA1 agonists. Accordingly resiniferatoxin also significantly reduces TRPV1 and CGRP immunostaining and TRPV1 and TRPA1 message levels in trigeminal ganglia. Sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia innervate the nasal epithelium and the meninges, but the mechanism and anatomical route by which nasal administration evokes meningeal vasodilatation is unclear. Double retrograde labeling from the nose and meninges reveals no co-localization of fluorescent label, however nasal and meningeal labeled cells are located in close proximity to each other within the trigeminal ganglion. Our data demonstrate that TRPV1 expressing neurons are important for TRPA1 responses in the nasal-meningeal pathway. Our data also suggest that the nasal-meningeal pathway is not primarily by axon reflex, but may instead result from intraganglionic transmission.

  12. Genre and Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Despite the immensity of genre studies as well as studies in interpretation, our understanding of the relationship between genre and interpretation is sketchy at best. The article attempts to unravel some of intricacies of that relationship through an analysis of the generic interpretation carried...... out by us all in everyday life, and the role of generic interpretation in scholarly work. The article argues that the role played by genre in interpretation has as much to do with the individual characteristics of an utterance as with its relationship to other utterances. An interest in the generic...... traits of an utterance will lead to a characterization of its individual, as well as its general characteristics. The article proceeds to describe three central concepts within genre studies that are applicable to generic interpretation: “horizon of expectation,” “world,” and the triad “theme...

  13. On court interpreters' visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    in by the participants almost immediately after the interrogations and supplemented by interviews. The main objective of the project is to explore the interpreters' own perception of the quality of the service they render as well as the professional users´ and the other language users' perception of the quality...... of the service they receive. Ultimately, the findings will be used for training purposes. Future - and, for that matter, already practising - interpreters as well as the professional users of interpreters ought to take the reality of the interpreters' work in practice into account when assessing the quality......, such as the interpreter's engagement in explicit co-construction of meaning. In addition, we shall include social factors which must be assumed to have a bearing on the interpreter's behaviour. Here we can, at least to some extent, draw upon the questionnaires and interviews mentioned above. Finally, we shall discuss...

  14. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  15. An Interpreters Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Buckle, P., Fine, L. J., Hagberg, M., Jonsson, B., Kilbom , A., Kuorinka, I. A., Silverstein, B. A., Sjogaard, G., Viikari-Juntura, E. R. (1993). A... Kilbom , A. (1999). Risk factors for neck and upper limb disorders: Results 68 from 24 years of follow-up. Occupational and Environmental

  16. Linguistics in Text Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....

  17. Acquiring specific interpreting competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zidar Forte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In postgraduate interpreter training, the main objective of the course is to help trainees develop various competences, from linguistic, textual and cultural competence, to professional and specific interpreting competence. For simultaneous interpreting (SI, the main focus is on mastering the SI technique and strategies as well as on developing and strengthening communicative skills, which is discussed and illustrated with examples in the present paper. First, a brief overview is given of all the necessary competences of a professional interpreter with greater emphasis on specific interpreting competence for SI. In the second part of the paper, various approaches are described in terms of acquiring specific skills and strategies, specifically through a range of exercises. Besides interpreting entire speeches, practical courses should also consist of targeted exercises, which help trainees develop suitable coping strategies and mechanisms (later on almost automatisms, while at the same time "force" them to reflect on their individual learning process and interpreting performance. This provides a solid base on which trained interpreters can progress and develop their skills also after joining the professional sphere.

  18. Life Cycle Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonou, Alexandra; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    an interpretation. The process of interpretation starts with identification of potentially significant issues in the previous stages of goal and scope definition, inventory analysis and impact assessment, and examples of potential significant issues are given for each phase. The significance is then determined...

  19. Participatory Interpretive Training for Tikal National Park, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Susan K.; Jurado, Magali

    1996-01-01

    Describes an interpretive training course for Tikal National Park, Guatemala to promote environmentally sound management of the region. Goals were to ensure that local knowledge and cultural norms were included in the design of interpretive materials, to introduce resource managers to park interpretation through course participation, and to train…

  20. Contributions of dynamic environmental signals during life-cycle transitions to early life-history traits in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Tongli; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.

    2016-05-01

    Environmental signals are important triggers in the life-cycle transitions and play a crucial role in the life-history evolution. Yet very little is known about the leading ecological factors contributing to the variations of life-history traits in perennial plants. This paper explores both the causes and consequences for the evolution of life-history traits (i.e., seed dormancy and size) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) across British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. We selected 83 logepole pine populations covering 22 ecosystem zones of B.C. and through their geographic coordinate, 197 climatic variables were generated accordingly for the reference (1961-1990) and future (2041-2070) periods. We found that dynamic climatic variables rather than constant geographic variables are the true environmental driving forces in seed dormancy and size variations and thus provide reliable predictors in response to global climate change. Evapotranspiration and precipitation in the plant-to-seed chronology are the most critical climate variables for seed dormancy and size variations, respectively. Hence, we predicted that levels of seed dormancy in lodgepole pine would increase across large tracts of B.C. in 2050s. Winter-chilling is able to increase the magnitude of life-history plasticity and lower the bet-hedge strategy in the seed-to-plant transition; however, winter-chilling is likely to be insufficient in the north of 49° N in 2050s, which may delay germination while unfavorable conditions during dry summers may result in adverse consequences in the survival of seedlings owing to extended germination span. These findings provide useful information to studies related to assessments of seed transfer and tree adaptation.

  1. OFICINA DE INTERPRETAÇÃO AMBIENTAL COM ALUNOS DO ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL NA “TRILHA DO JATOBÁ” EM ILHA SOLTEIRA, SP. ENVIRONMENTAL INTERPRETATION WORKSHOP WITH ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE “JATOBÁ TRAIL”, ILHA SOLTEIRA, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Montibeller Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As trilhas para a interpretação de áreas naturais têm sido recomendadas em programas de Educação Ambiental por oferecerem contato direto com o ambiente natural, direcionando o aprendizado e a sensibilização. Apesar da premissa eficácia e da frequência com que têm sido implantadas, existem poucos estudos que indiquem sua validade educacional. O presente trabalho utilizou a Trilha do Jatobá, localizada no Centro de Conservação da Fauna Silvestre (CCFS-CESP - Ilha Solteira - SP, Brasil, como instrumento de aprendizagem de conteúdos de ciências por meio de interpretação da paisagem e de seus componentes. Os objetivos foram: 1 analisar a validade da execução de atividades práticas nesse ambiente natural e 2 verificar a eficiência desta atividade quando precedida de uma aula teórica. A oficina, dividida em aula teórica e prática, foi oferecida para 30 alunos do 7º ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola particular do município de Ilha Solteira (SP, divididos em dois grupos de 15 pessoas. O primeiro assistiu a uma aula teórica enquanto o outro fez o percurso pela trilha e, depois de concluídas tais atividades, os grupos foram invertidos. Foram aplicados três questionários: 1º. Diagnosticar o conhecimento prévio; 2º. Após a aula teórica e 3º Após a aula prática (trilha para verificação do desempenho dos alunos. De acordo com os resultados a oficina foi satisfatória para todos os alunos, ressaltando que aqueles que assistiram à aula teórica antes do percurso pela trilha tiveram melhor aproveitamento.Trails for interpretation of natural areas have been recommended in Environmental Education programs because they offer direct contact with the natural environment, addressing learning and consciousness. Despite the assumed effectiveness and the frequency with which they have been deployed, there are few studies that indicate their educational validity. The present study used the Trilha do Jatobá (Jatobá Trail

  2. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Sahay

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy.

  3. Interpretability in PRA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílková, Marta; De Jongh, D.; Joosten, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 2 (2009), s. 128-138 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA900090703 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA401/06/0387 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interpretability * arithmetic * primitive recursive arithmetic * interpretability logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2009

  4. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [The professional interpreter disappears: quality is jeopardized].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendijk-van den Berg, Irene; Verdonk, Petra; Abma, Tineke

    2014-01-01

    According to Dutch law, patients have the right to comprehensible communication. However, professional interpreters are not being used sufficiently: health care providers often do not recognize when language barriers interfere with comprehension. The use of professional interpreters declined even further when the Dutch government withdrew its funding for medical interpreters in January 2012. Additionally, the government's stance that non-native speakers have to master the language and organize translating help when needed seems to have given a signal to health care providers that this is not their responsibility. Nonetheless, health care providers are obliged by law to provide comprehensible information. Therefore, it is important to provide proper training so they can recognize language barriers and know when a professional interpreter is necessary. In addition, a financial aid system needs to be developed for those patients who cannot reasonably be expected to have mastered the language.

  6. Localized Smart-Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Bach, Torben; Pallesen, Tom

    2014-05-01

    The complex task of setting up a geological model consists not only of combining available geological information into a conceptual plausible model, but also requires consistency with availably data, e.g. geophysical data. However, in many cases the direct geological information, e.g borehole samples, are very sparse, so in order to create a geological model, the geologist needs to rely on the geophysical data. The problem is however, that the amount of geophysical data in many cases are so vast that it is practically impossible to integrate all of them in the manual interpretation process. This means that a lot of the information available from the geophysical surveys are unexploited, which is a problem, due to the fact that the resulting geological model does not fulfill its full potential and hence are less trustworthy. We suggest an approach to geological modeling that 1. allow all geophysical data to be considered when building the geological model 2. is fast 3. allow quantification of geological modeling. The method is constructed to build a statistical model, f(d,m), describing the relation between what the geologists interpret, d, and what the geologist knows, m. The para- meter m reflects any available information that can be quantified, such as geophysical data, the result of a geophysical inversion, elevation maps, etc... The parameter d reflects an actual interpretation, such as for example the depth to the base of a ground water reservoir. First we infer a statistical model f(d,m), by examining sets of actual interpretations made by a geological expert, [d1, d2, ...], and the information used to perform the interpretation; [m1, m2, ...]. This makes it possible to quantify how the geological expert performs interpolation through f(d,m). As the geological expert proceeds interpreting, the number of interpreted datapoints from which the statistical model is inferred increases, and therefore the accuracy of the statistical model increases. When a model f

  7. The Interpretive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant to incorp......Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...... can be treated in specific dictionary articles. However, in the current article, due to the results of recent research, I argue that the interpretive function should not be considered an individual main function. The interpretive function, contrary to some of its definitions, is not connected...

  8. Interpretation of panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perschbacher, Susanne

    2012-03-01

    Panoramic radiography has become a commonly used imaging modality in dental practice and can be a valuable diagnostic tool in the dentist's armamentarium. However, the panoramic image is a complex projection of the jaws with multiple superimpositions and distortions which may be exacerbated by technical errors in image acquisition. Furthermore, the panoramic radiograph depicts numerous anatomic structures outside of the jaws which may create additional interpretation challenges. Successful interpretation of panoramic radiographs begins with an understanding of the normal anatomy of the head and neck and how it is depicted in this image type. This article will describe how osseous structures, soft tissues, air spaces and ghost shadows contribute to the final panoramic image. A systematic and repeated approach to examining panoramic radiographs, which is recommended to ensure that critical findings are not overlooked, is also outlined. Examples of challenging interpretations, including variations of anatomy, artefacts and disease, are presented to illustrate these concepts. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.

  9. The Interpretive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    to acting and therefore the only difference between reception and interpretation is that they work with different types of sign. However, the type of sign is not relevant for a function, or rather, it should not be a criterion for distinguishing between functions. The lemma selection for the communicative......Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...

  10. Reflections and Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology of guide......Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology...

  11. Conjunctive interpretations of disjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert van Rooij

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this extended commentary I discuss the problem of how to account for "conjunctive" readings of some sentences with embedded disjunctions for globalist analyses of conversational implicatures. Following Franke (2010, 2009, I suggest that earlier proposals failed, because they did not take into account the interactive reasoning of what else the speaker could have said, and how else the hearer could have interpreted the (alternative sentence(s. I show how Franke's idea relates to more traditional pragmatic interpretation strategies. doi:10.3765/sp.3.11 BibTeX info

  12. Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickl Peter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems of modern physics are man made. The Copenhagen version of quantum mechanics is formulated in a vague prosaic way, inconsistencies and paradoxes are the price. New interpretations try to solve the problem, however a reformulation rather than an interpretation is needed. In this manuscript I will point out, where the Copenhagen formulation of quantum mechanics is flawed and how one can make sense out of it. Then I will show, that it is possible to give a precise formulation of quantum mechanics without losing its compelling ability in describing experiments.

  13. Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickl, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The problems of modern physics are man made. The Copenhagen version of quantum mechanics is formulated in a vague prosaic way, inconsistencies and paradoxes are the price. New interpretations try to solve the problem, however a reformulation rather than an interpretation is needed. In this manuscript I will point out, where the Copenhagen formulation of quantum mechanics is flawed and how one can make sense out of it. Then I will show, that it is possible to give a precise formulation of quantum mechanics without losing its compelling ability in describing experiments.

  14. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Translation, interpreting and lexicography represent three separate areas of human activity, each of them with its own theories, models and methods and, hence, with its own disciplinary underpinnings. At the same time, all three disciplines are characterized by a marked interdisciplinary dimension...... in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  15. Environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    environmental conditions both in a practical, functional way but also in an aesthetical, spatial way. As professionals we should contribute to the creation of new images, ideas, strategies and solutions able to handle the challenges, to investigate the potentials and interpret these architecturally...

  16. Interpreting the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  17. Listening and Message Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  18. Interpretation as conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Henriëtte de; Zwart, J.

    Semantic interpretation is not a simple process. When we want to know what a given sentence means, more is needed than just a simple ‘adding up’ of the meanings of the component words. Not only can the words in a sentence interact and conflict with each other, but also with the linguistic and

  19. Interpretations of Greek Mythology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This collection of original studies offers new interpretations of some of the best known characters and themes of Greek mythology, reflecting the complexity and fascination of the Greek imagination. Following analyses of the concept of myth and the influence of the Orient on Greek mythology, the

  20. Interpretability in PRA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bílková, M.; de Jongh, D.; Joosten, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study IL(PRA), the interpretability logic of PRA. As PRA is neither an essentially reflexive theory nor finitely axiomatizable, the two known arithmetical completeness results do not apply to PRA: IL(PRA) is not ILM or ILP. IL(PRA) does, of course, contain all the principles known

  1. Food sustainability: diverging interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiking, H.; de Boer, J.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of sustainability in general and food sustainability, in particular, entails many aspects and many interpretations. During a conference on food sustainability a broad, multidisciplinary picture was painted and many key issues were dealt with, from ecology, economy and society. In

  2. Personal literary interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Januszkiewicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article titled “Personal literary interpretation” deals with problems which have usually been marginalized in literary studies, but which seem to be very important in the context of the humanities, as broadly defined. The author of this article intends to rethink the problem of literary studies not in objective, but in personal terms. This is why the author wants to talk about what he calls personal literary interpretation, which has nothing to do with subjective or irrational thinking, but which is rather grounded in the hermeneutical rule that says that one must believe in order tounderstand a text or the other (where ‘believe’ also means: ‘to love’, ‘engage’, and ‘be open’. The article presents different determinants of this attitude, ranging from Dilthey to Heidegger and Gadamer. Finally, the author subscribes to the theory of personal interpretation, which is always dialogical.

  3. Interpretation and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter discusses the factors to be kept in mind during routine interpretation of MR images. This includes the factors that determine contrast on standard spin-echo images and some distinguishing features between true lesions and artifactually simulated lesions. This chapter also indicates the standard protocols for MRI of various portions of the body. Finally, the current indications for MRI of various portions of the body are suggested; however, it is recognized that the indications for MRI are rapidly increasing and consequently, at the time of publication of this chapter, it is likely that many more applications will have become evident. Interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images requires consideration of anatomy and tissue characteristics and extraction of artifacts resulting from motion and other factors

  4. Interpretation as doing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the paper is to address and discuss relationships between the aesthetic perception and interpretation of contemporary landscape architecture. I will try to do this by setting up a cross-disciplinary perspective that looks into themes from the contemporary art scene and aesthetic...... theories, and relate them to observations in contemporary landscape architecture. It is my premise that investigating the relationship between modes of aesthetic perception and examples in contemporary art, and landscape architecture, will enable us to better understand characteristics of a contemporary...... concept of landscape and design in landscape architecture, and hereby address the question of how interpretation might be processed. It is also my premise that a key point in this is the interplay between different sensory experiences of both material and non-material aspects...

  5. Interpretation of Internet technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    2001-01-01

    Research scope: The topic of the research project is to investigate how new internet technologies such as e-trade and customer relation marketing and management are implemented in Danish food processing companies. The aim is to use Weick's (1995) sensemaking concept to analyse the strategic...... processes leading to the use of internet marketing technologies and to investigate how these new technologies are interpreted into the organisation. Investigating the organisational socio-cognitive processes underlying the decision making processes will give further insight into the socio......-cognitive competencies of organisations (Rindova & Fombrunn, 1999). The aim is to contribute to the existing technological implementation theory complex by studying the relationships between the elements of the socio-cognitive processes and the resulting interpretations and actions when new technologies are implemented...

  6. Interpretations of interpretivism

    OpenAIRE

    Gerring, John

    2003-01-01

    What is interpretivism? As is common with broad methodological debates, much hinges on matters of definition. Interpretivism might be defined residually — as non-positivism. However, this scarcely clarifies the matter, as noted by Robert Adcock and David Dessler in their contributions to this symposium. We might start with David Laitin’s suggestion that interpretivism refers to interpretation or clarification— rendering the ambiguous into a clearer form. This is true enough, so far as it ...

  7. A Narrative Interpretive Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Adorisio, Anna Linda Musacchio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the possibility offered by the “linguistic turn” for narrative research in the realm of financial communication. I will propose three categories by which a narrative interpretive approach can be applied to financial communication: narrative-as-artifacts, narrative-as-practice and narrative-as-method. Such a constitutive communication approach challenges a mechanistic and functionalist view of communication as a tool to represent social realities in ...

  8. Interpretative phenomenological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eatough, Virginia; Smith, Jonathan A.

    2017-01-01

    The Second Edition of The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research in Psychology provides comprehensive coverage of the qualitative methods, strategies, and research issues in psychology.\\ud \\ud Qualitative research in psychology has been transformed since the first edition's publication. Responding to this evolving field, existing chapters have been updated while three new chapters have been added on Thematic Analysis, Interpretation, and Netnography. With a focus on methodological progress thr...

  9. Interpretation of ultrasonic images; Interpretation von Ultraschall-Abbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, W.; Schmitz, V.; Kroening, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    During the evaluation of ultrasonic images, e.g. SAFT-reconstructed B-scan images (SAFT=Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique) it is often difficult to decide, what is the origin of reconstructed image points: were they caused by defects, specimens geometry or mode-conversions. To facilitate this evaluation a tool based on the comparison of data was developed. Different kinds of data comparison are possible: identification of that RF-signals, which caused the reconstructed image point. This is the comparison of a reconstructed image with the corresponding RF-data. Comparison of two reconstructed images performing a superposition using logical operators. In this case e.g. the reconstruction of an unknown reflector is compared with that of a known one. Comparison of raw-RF-data by simultaneous scanning through two data sets. Here the echoes of an unknown reflector are compared with the echoes of a known one. The necessary datasets of known reflectors may be generated experimentally on reference reflectors or modelled. The aim is the identification of the reflector type, e.g. cracklike or not, the determination of position, size and orientation as well as the identification of accompanying satellite echoes. The interpretation of the SAFT-reconstructed B-scan image is carried out by a complete description of the reflector. In addition to the aim of interpretation the tool described is well suited to educate and train ultrasonic testers. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Bei der Auswertung von Ultraschall-Abbildungen, z.B. SAFT-rekonstruierten B-Bildern (SAFT=Synthetische Apertur Fokus Technik), ist es oft schwierig zu entscheiden, wo rekonstruierte Bildpunkte herruehren: wurden sie durch Materialfehler, Bauteilgeometrie oder durch Wellenumwandlungen versursacht. Um diese Auswertung zu erleichtern, wurde ein Werkzeug entwickelt, welches auf dem Vergleich von Datensaetzen basiert. Es koennen verschiedene Arten des Datenvergleichs durchgefuehrt werden: Identifikation der HF-Signale

  10. The Age of Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Vattimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gianni Vattimo, who is both a Catholic and a frequent critic of the Church, explores the surprising congruence between Christianity and hermeneutics in light of the dissolution of metaphysical truth. As in hermeneutics, Vatimo claims, interpretation is central to Christianity. Influenced by hermeneutics and borrowing largely from the Nietzschean and Heideggerian heritage, the Italian philosopher, who has been instrumental in promoting a nihilistic approach to Christianity, draws here on Nietzsche’s writings on nihilism, which is not to be understood in a purely negative sense. Vattimo suggests that nihilism not only expands the Christian message of charity, but also transforms it into its endless human potential. In “The Age of Interpretation,” the author shows that hermeneutical radicalism “reduces all reality to message,” so that the opposition between facts and norms turns out to be misguided, for both are governed by the interpretative paradigms through which someone (always a concrete, historically situated someone makes sense of them. Vattimo rejects some of the deplorable political consequences of hermeneutics and claims that traditional hermeneutics is in collusion with various political-ideological neutralizations.

  11. Video interpretations in Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjerg, Lene Mosegaard; Noesgaard, Susanne; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of an RCT comparing video interpretation with in-person interpretation at the Endocrinology Ward at Odense University Hospital.......This article presents a study of an RCT comparing video interpretation with in-person interpretation at the Endocrinology Ward at Odense University Hospital....

  12. Translation of EPA Research: Data Interpretation and Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symposium Title: Social Determinants of Health, Environmental Exposures, and Disproportionately Impacted Communities: What We Know and How We Tell Others Topic 3: Community Engagement and Research Translation Title: Translation of EPA Research: Data Interpretation and Communicati...

  13. Interpreting residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in wildlife tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.J.; Coon, N.C.

    1988-08-01

    This report is the first publication in the field of environmental-contaminant effects on wildlife to tell the reader how to interpret the results of analytical chemical results. Specifically, the publication describes how to interpret residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in wildlife tissues. Pollutant oil residues in avian species are emphasized

  14. Geography teachers' interpretation of a curriculum reform initiative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses how teachers in a specific developing world context interpreted a curriculum reform initiative. It is located within a broader interpretive study that investigated the integration of Environmental Education into the formal education system of Lesotho with particular reference to secondary school geography.

  15. Changing interpretations of Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2013-01-01

    ’ writings relatively late, in the 18th and 19th centuries, and that it was primarily made possible by Brucker’s methodology for history of philosophy, dating from the 1740s, in which the concept system of philosophy was essential. It is observed that the concept was absent in Ficino’s commentary from the 15......th century, and that it remained absent in interpretative works produced between the 15th and 18th century. It is also argued that it is erroneous to assume that Plotinus presented a system of philosophy, or intended to do so — we do not find this concept in Plotinus’ writings, and his own statements...

  16. Cellular semiotics and signal transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2007-01-01

    (s)" in signal transduction; i.e.: how specificity is determined, how ubiquitous signals or messengers convey specific information, how undesired cross-talk is avoided, how redundancy integrates the system. This chapter proposes a basic conceptual toolbox for interpreting empirical data that deals...

  17. ANALYSIS OF VISUAL INTERPRETATION OF SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Svatonova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people of all ages and expertise are using satellite and aerial data as an important input for their work in many different fields. Satellite data are also gradually finding a new place in education, especially in the fields of geography and in environmental issues. The article presents the results of an extensive research in the area of visual interpretation of image data carried out in the years 2013 - 2015 in the Czech Republic. The research was aimed at comparing the success rate of the interpretation of satellite data in relation to a the substrates (to the selected colourfulness, the type of depicted landscape or special elements in the landscape and b to selected characteristics of users (expertise, gender, age. The results of the research showed that (1 false colour images have a slightly higher percentage of successful interpretation than natural colour images, (2 colourfulness of an element expected or rehearsed by the user (regardless of the real natural colour increases the success rate of identifying the element (3 experts are faster in interpreting visual data than non-experts, with the same degree of accuracy of solving the task, and (4 men and women are equally successful in the interpretation of visual image data.

  18. Analysis of Visual Interpretation of Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatonova, H.

    2016-06-01

    Millions of people of all ages and expertise are using satellite and aerial data as an important input for their work in many different fields. Satellite data are also gradually finding a new place in education, especially in the fields of geography and in environmental issues. The article presents the results of an extensive research in the area of visual interpretation of image data carried out in the years 2013 - 2015 in the Czech Republic. The research was aimed at comparing the success rate of the interpretation of satellite data in relation to a) the substrates (to the selected colourfulness, the type of depicted landscape or special elements in the landscape) and b) to selected characteristics of users (expertise, gender, age). The results of the research showed that (1) false colour images have a slightly higher percentage of successful interpretation than natural colour images, (2) colourfulness of an element expected or rehearsed by the user (regardless of the real natural colour) increases the success rate of identifying the element (3) experts are faster in interpreting visual data than non-experts, with the same degree of accuracy of solving the task, and (4) men and women are equally successful in the interpretation of visual image data.

  19. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, F.

    1998-01-01

    The basic ideas of image interpretation in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy are presented using simple quantum-mechanical models and supplied with examples of successful application. The importance is stressed of a correct interpretation of this brilliant experimental surface technique

  20. What Language Do Interpreters Speak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Gerald B.

    1982-01-01

    States that both the register and variety of an interpreter's speech are quite limited and analyzes the linguistic characteristics of "International English," the English used by interpreters at international conferences. (CFM)

  1. The debbuggable interpreter design pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Vrany, Jan; Bergel, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed The use of Interpreter and Visitor design patterns has been widely adopted to implement programming language interpreters due to their expressive and simple design. However, no general approach to conceive a debugger is commonly adopted. This paper presents the debuggable interpreter design pattern as a general approach to extend a language interpreter with debugging facilities such as step-over and step-into. Moreover, it enables multiple debuggers coexisting and extends ...

  2. Intercultural pragmatics and court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

    . The court interpreters are all state-authorized court interpreters and thus fully competent professionals.   The centrality of pragmatics in triadic speech events has been demonstrated by a number of studies (e.g. Berk-Seligson 2002, Hale 2004, Jacobsen 2002). Thus, conversational implicatures, which....../Philadelphia: John Benjamins.   Jacobsen, B. (2002). Pragmatic meaning in court interpreting: An empirical study of additions in consecutively-interpreted question-answer dialogues. PhD thesis, The Aarhus School of Business....

  3. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  4. Environmental enrichment improves learning and memory and long-term potentiation in young adult rats through a mechanism requiring mGluR5 signaling and sustained activation of p70s6k

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullinger, Rikki; O’Riordan, Kenneth; Burger, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies from our lab have demonstrated that mild cognitive impairments identified early in life are predictive of cognitive deficits that develop with age, suggesting that enhancements in cognition at an early age can provide a buffer against age-related cognitive decline. Environmental enrichment has been shown to improve learning and memory in the rodent, but the impact of enrichment on synaptic plasticity and the molecular mechanisms behind enrichment are not completely understood. To address these unresolved issues, we have housed 2-month old rats in environmentally enriched (EE), socially enriched (SE), or standard housing (SC) and conducted tests of learning and memory formation at various time intervals. Here we demonstrate that animals that have been exposed to one month of social or environmental enrichment demonstrate enhanced learning and memory relative to standard housed controls. However, we have found that after 4 months EE animals perform better than both SE and SC groups and demonstrate an enhanced hippocampal LTP. Our results demonstrate that this LTP is dependent on mGluR5 signaling, activation of ERK and mTOR signaling cascades, and sustained phosphorylation of p70s6 kinase, thus providing a potential target mechanism for future studies of cognitive enhancement in the rodent. PMID:26341144

  5. Lexical Knowledge and Interpreter Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaden, Hanne

    1999-01-01

    Examines the performance of six student interpreters attending a training course at the University of Oslo. Data are drawn from video recordings in which the students interpret dialogs in two test situations. Students use consecutive interpreting with short speaker intervals and perform in Norwegian/Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian. Compares students'…

  6. Student Interpretations of Political Cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedient, Douglas; Moore, David M.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy and types of interpretations that fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders gave to 24 editorial cartoons in four issue areas and the effect of intelligence on political cartoon interpretation. Numerous misinterpretations and no interpretations indicates assumptions that cartoons are an effective teaching medium…

  7. Interpretation of computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickle, R.L.; Hathcock, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the production of optimal CT images in small animal patients as well as principles of radiographic interpretation. Technical factors affecting image quality and aiding image interpretation are included. Specific considerations for scanning various anatomic areas are given, including indications and potential pitfalls. Principles of radiographic interpretation are discussed. Selected patient images are illustrated

  8. Semi-classical signal analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2012-09-30

    This study introduces a new signal analysis method, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in this method is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schrödinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum of this operator for the analysis of the signal. We present some numerical examples and the first results obtained with this method on the analysis of arterial blood pressure waveforms. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

  9. Retrograde signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleine, Tatjana; Leister, Dario Michael

    2016-01-01

    The term retrograde signaling refers to the fact that chloroplasts and mitochondria utilize specific signaling molecules to convey information on their developmental and physiological states to the nucleus and modulate the expression of nuclear genes accordingly. Signals emanating from plastids...... of retrograde signaling has since been extended and revised. Elements of several 'operational' signaling circuits have come to light, including metabolites, signaling cascades in the cytosol and transcription factors. Here, we review recent advances in the identification and characterization of retrograde...

  10. Changing interpretations of Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2013-01-01

    th century, and that it remained absent in interpretative works produced between the 15th and 18th century. It is also argued that it is erroneous to assume that Plotinus presented a system of philosophy, or intended to do so — we do not find this concept in Plotinus’ writings, and his own statements......’ writings relatively late, in the 18th and 19th centuries, and that it was primarily made possible by Brucker’s methodology for history of philosophy, dating from the 1740s, in which the concept system of philosophy was essential. It is observed that the concept was absent in Ficino’s commentary from the 15...... about method point in other directions. Eduard Zeller (active in the second half of the 19th century) is typically regarded as the first who gave a satisfying account of Plotinus’ philosophy as a whole. In this article, on the other hand, Zeller is seen as the one who finalised a tradition initiated...

  11. Conducting psychotherapy with an interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuay, Justin; Chopra, Prem; Kaplan, Ida; Szwarc, Josef

    2015-06-01

    This qualitative study assessed how clinicians prepared and used interpreters during psychotherapeutic sessions and investigated the strategies they used to manage the dynamics of this process. Ten therapists were interviewed at the Victorian Foundation for the Survivors of Torture (VFST). A semi-structured interview format was used. Thematic analysis was conducted on transcripts of recorded interviews to identify key themes. Factors affecting the provision of psychotherapy with interpreters agreed with general guidelines for working with interpreters but there were exceptions. The possible roles of the interpreter as a cultural consultant, community advocate and co-therapist were explored. Specific troubleshooting strategies were identified for improving empathy, redefining roles, and adjusting interactions with interpreters. Working with interpreters in psychotherapy is a complex process. These findings may benefit clinicians providing psychotherapy to patients using interpreters. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  12. Video interpretability rating scale under network impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitmair, Thomas; Coman, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the impact of network transmission channel parameters on the quality of streaming video data. A common practice for estimating the interpretability of video information is to use the Motion Imagery Quality Equation (MIQE). MIQE combines a few technical features of video images (such as: ground sampling distance, relative edge response, modulation transfer function, gain and signal-to-noise ratio) to estimate the interpretability level. One observation of this study is that the MIQE does not fully account for video-specific parameters such as spatial and temporal encoding, which are relevant to appreciating degradations caused by the streaming process. In streaming applications the main artifacts impacting the interpretability level are related to distortions in the image caused by lossy decompression of video data (due to loss of information and in some cases lossy re-encoding by the streaming server). One parameter in MIQE that is influenced by network transmission errors is the Relative Edge Response (RER). The automated calculation of RER includes the selection of the best edge in the frame, which in case of network errors may be incorrectly associated with a blocked region (e.g. low resolution areas caused by loss of information). A solution is discussed in this document to address this inconsistency by removing corrupted regions from the image analysis process. Furthermore, a recommendation is made on how to account for network impairments in the MIQE, such that a more realistic interpretability level is estimated in case of streaming applications.

  13. Orientalismi: nuove prospettive interpretative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Proglio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at reconsidering the concept of Orientalism in a new and multiple perspective, and at proposing a different interpretation of the relationship between culture and power, starting from Edward Said’s theoretical frame of reference. If Said’s representational model is repositioned out of structuralist and foucaultian frameworks and separated from the gramscian idea of hegemony-subordination, indeed, it may be possible to re-discuss the traditional profile identifying the Other in the European cultures. My basic assumption here is that Orientalism should not be understood as a consensus mechanism, which is able to produce diversified images of the Orient and the Oriental on demand. Although, of course, in most cases Orientalism is connected to the issue of power, its meanings could also be explained —as it will be soon shown— otherwise. Let’s take The Invisible Cities by Italo Calvino as an example. Here the narratives are not just multiple repetitions of Venice —in Said’s case, the same would hold for Europeanism—, but they could be strategically re-appropriated by those “others” and “alterities” whose bodies and identities are imposed by the Eurocentric discourse. In this sense, a double link may be identified with queer theories and postcolonial studies, and the notion of subordination will be rethought. Finally, from the above mentioned borders, a new idea of image emerges, which appears as linear, uniform and flattened only to the European gaze, whereas in actual fact it is made of imaginaries and forms of knowledge, which combine representation with the conceptualization of power relationships.

  14. Working memory and simultaneous interpreting

    OpenAIRE

    Timarova, Sarka

    2009-01-01

    Working memory is a cognitive construct underlying a number of abilities, and it has been hypothesised for many years that it is crucial for interpreting. A number of studies have been conducted with the aim to support this hypothesis, but research has not yielded convincing results. Most researchers focused on studying working memory differences between interpreters and non-interpreters with the rationale that differences in working memory between the two groups would provide evidence of wor...

  15. Environmental filtering determines metacommunity structure in wetland microcrustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón, Stéphanie; Arranz, Ignasi; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Nebra, Alfonso; Ruhí, Albert; Rieradevall, Maria; Caiola, Nuno; Sala, Jordi; Ibàñez, Carles; Quintana, Xavier D; Boix, Dani

    2016-05-01

    Metacommunity approaches are becoming popular when analyzing factors driving species distribution at the regional scale. However, until the popularization of the variation partitioning technique it was difficult to assess the main drivers of the observed patterns (spatial or environmental). Here we propose a new framework linking the emergence of different metacommunity structures (e.g., nested, Gleasonian, Clementsian) to spatial and environmental filters. This is a novel approach that provides a more profound analysis of how both drivers could lead to similar metacommunity structures. We tested this framework on 110 sites covering a strong environmental gradient (i.e., microcrustacean assemblages organized along a salinity gradient, from freshwater to brackish water wetlands). First we identified the metacommunity structure that better fitted these microcrustacean assemblages. Then, we used hierarchical variation partitioning to quantify the relative influences of environmental filters and the distance among wetlands on the identified structure. Our results showed that under strong environmental filtering metacommunity structures were non-random. We also noted that even passive dispersers, that are supposed to be poorly spatially filtered, showed spatial signals at a large geographical scale. However, some difficulties arose when inferring biotic interactions at finer-scale spatial signals. Overall, our study shows the potential of elements of metacommunity structure combined with variation partition techniques to detect environmental drivers and broadscale patterns of metacommunity structure, and that some caution is needed when interpreting finer-scale spatial signals.

  16. Assessment of Interpretive Facilities and the Delivery of Interpretive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of interpretive facilities and the delivery of interpretive services in Chad Basin National Park (CBNP), Kainji Lake National Park (KLNP), Okomu National Park (OKNP), and Yankari National Park (YNP) were conducted. The parks were selected to represent the major ecological zones where National Parks are ...

  17. The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein signaling system mediates resistance of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains to multiple environmental bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Waise, T M Zaved; Kamruzzaman, M; Ghosh, Amar N; Nair, G Balakrish; Mekalanos, John J; Faruque, Shah M

    2010-07-01

    Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the epidemic diarrheal disease cholera, interacts with diverse environmental bacteriophages. These interactions promote genetic diversity or cause selective enrichment of phage-resistant bacterial clones. To identify bacterial genes involved in mediating the phage-resistant phenotype, we screened a transposon insertion library of V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strain C6706 to identify mutants showing altered susceptibility to a panel of phages isolated from surface waters in Bangladesh. Mutants with insertion in cyaA or crp genes encoding adenylate cyclase or cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP), respectively, were susceptible to a phage designated JSF9 to which the parent strain was completely resistant. Application of the cyaA mutant as an indicator strain in environmental phage monitoring enhanced phage detection, and we identified 3 additional phages to which the parent strain was resistant. Incorporation of the cyaA or crp mutations into other V. cholerae O1 strains caused similar alterations in their phage susceptibility patterns, and the susceptibility correlated with the ability of the bacteria to adsorb these phages. Our results suggest that cAMP-CRP-mediated downregulation of phage adsorption may contribute to a mechanism for the V. cholerae O1 strains to survive predation by multiple environmental phages. Furthermore, the cyaA or crp mutant strains may be used as suitable indicators in monitoring cholera phages in the water.

  18. Sensory Synergy as Environmental Input Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady eAlnajjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with 9 healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis’ sensory system to make the controller simpler

  19. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler.

  20. Quorum sensing signal profile of Acinetobacter strains from nosocomial and environmental sources Perfil de sensores de quórum en cepas nosocomiales y ambientales de Acinetobacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. González

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of 43 strains corresponding to 20 classified and unclassified genomic Acinetobacter species was analyzed for the production of typical N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing molecules in culture broths. A large percentage of the strains (74% displayed quorum sensing signals that could be separated into three statistically significantly different chromatographic groups (p Rf2 > Rf1. None of the three signals could be specifically assigned to a particular species in the genus; furthermore, no distinction could be made between the quorum sensing signals secreted by typical opportunistic strains of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex, isolated from patients, with respect to the other species of the genus, except for the Rf1 signal which was present in all the QS positive strains belonging to this complex and DNA group 13 TU. In conclusion, quorum sensors in Acinetobacter are not homogenously distributed among species and one of them is present in most of the A. calcoaceticus-baumannii complex.Se analizó la producción de moléculas típicas de N-acil homoserina lactona con actividad de quorum sensing en cultivos líquidos de un grupo de 43 cepas correspondientes a 20 especies genómicas clasificadas y no clasificadas de Acinetobacter. Un porcentaje alto de las cepas (74% mostraron señales de quorum sensing que pudieron ser separadas en tres grupos cromatográficos significativamente diferentes entre sí (p Rf2 > Rf1. Ninguna de las tres señales pudo ser asignada a una especie en particular dentro del género; es más, no se encontró diferencia entre las señales producidas por las cepas típicamente oportunistas (complejo A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii aisladas de pacientes respecto de las producidas por otras cepas del mismo género, excepto para el caso de Rf1, que se encontró presente en todos los aislamientos quorum sensing positivos del mencionado complejo y en las cepas del grupo de DNA 13TU. En conclusión, los sensores de

  1. The intracellular delivery of TAT-aequorin reveals calcium-mediated sensing of environmental and symbiotic signals by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatiello, Roberto; Sello, Simone; Novero, Mara; Negro, Alessandro; Bonfante, Paola; Navazio, Lorella

    2014-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is an ecologically relevant symbiosis between most land plants and Glomeromycota fungi. The peculiar traits of AM fungi have so far limited traditional approaches such as genetic transformation. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the protein transduction domain of the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (TAT) protein, previously shown to act as a potent nanocarrier for macromolecule delivery in both animal and plant cells, may translocate protein cargoes into AM fungi. We evaluated the internalization into germinated spores of Gigaspora margarita of two recombinant TAT fusion proteins consisting of either a fluorescent (GFP) or a luminescent (aequorin) reporter linked to the TAT peptide. Both TAT-fused proteins were found to enter AM fungal mycelia after a short incubation period (5-10 min). Ca2+ measurements in G. margarita mycelia pre-incubated with TAT-aequorin demonstrated the occurrence of changes in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration in response to relevant stimuli, such as touch, cold, salinity, and strigolactones, symbiosis-related plant signals. These data indicate that the cell-penetrating properties of the TAT peptide can be used as an effective strategy for intracellularly delivering proteins of interest and shed new light on Ca2+ homeostasis and signalling in AM fungi. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Using interpretation services during clerkships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijbers, Laura; Gerritsen, Debby; Suurmond, Jeanine

    2017-01-01

    Although using professional interpreters is known to improve health outcomes for patients when language barriers are present, care providers often hesitate to use them. Training in how to use interpreters has been effective in increasing students' knowledge and self-efficacy, but little is known

  3. Basic Interpreting Strategies for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Some deaf interpreting strategies are offered to parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Parents are urged to utilize space in their interpreting, use name signs, utilize sight lines to distinguish characters in stories, use exaggerated signs to translate nursery rhymes, place themselves carefully at a public performance, and learn…

  4. Pragmatics in Court Interpreting: Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Danish court interpreters are expected to follow ethical guidelines, which instruct them to deliver exact verbatim versions of source texts. However, this requirement often clashes with the reality of the interpreting situation in the courtroom. This paper presents and discusses the findings...

  5. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  6. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ......The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non......-standard semantics where the ``meaning'' contains information about the runtime behaviour of programs. In an abstract interpretation the analysis is proved correct by relating it to the usual semantics for the language. Attribute grammars provide a method and notation to specify code generation and program analysis...

  7. Variation in benthic long-term data of transitional waters: Is interpretation more than speculation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lothar Zettler

    Full Text Available Biological long-term data series in marine habitats are often used to identify anthropogenic impacts on the environment or climate induced regime shifts. However, particularly in transitional waters, environmental properties like water mass dynamics, salinity variability and the occurrence of oxygen minima not necessarily caused by either human activities or climate change can attenuate or mask apparent signals. At first glance it very often seems impossible to interpret the strong fluctuations of e.g. abundances or species richness, since abiotic variables like salinity and oxygen content vary simultaneously as well as in apparently erratic ways. The long-term development of major macrozoobenthic parameters (abundance, biomass, species numbers and derivative macrozoobenthic indices (Shannon diversity, Margalef, Pilou's evenness and Hurlbert has been successfully interpreted and related to the long-term fluctuations of salinity and oxygen, incorporation of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO index, relying on the statistical analysis of modelled and measured data during 35 years of observation at three stations in the south-western Baltic Sea. Our results suggest that even at a restricted spatial scale the benthic system does not appear to be tightly controlled by any single environmental driver and highlight the complexity of spatially varying temporal response.

  8. Interpreting biomarker data from the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolders, R; Den Hond, E; Koppen, G

    2015-01-01

    implementing DEMOCOPHES can be interpreted using information from external databases on environmental quality and lifestyle. In general, 13 countries having implemented DEMOCOPHES provided high-quality data from external sources that were relevant for interpretation purposes. However, some data were...... of antismoking legislation was significantly related to urinary cotinine levels, and we were able to show indications that also urinary cadmium levels were associated with environmental quality and food quality. These results again show the potential of biomonitoring data to provide added value for (the...

  9. Simulators of tray distillation columns as tools for interpreting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simulators of tray distillation columns were used to provide technical guidelines for interpreting signals from gamma ray scans used for analysing malfunctions in distillation columns. The transmitted radiation intensities at 0.05 m intervals were determined from top to the bottom of simulators of tray distillation columns ...

  10. Interpretation of driving environments for driver assistance systems; Interpretation von Fahrumgebungen fuer Fahrerassistenzsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, K.

    2007-07-01

    A prototype vehicle was equipped with laser scanners, radar and vision sensors by the electronic research department of Volkswagen AG for the perception of the vehicle's surroundings. The data of these sensors and of the vehicle's sensors are fused together by the means of an extended kalman filter into a common description of the vehicle's surroundings, which is here called environmental model. This model is a complex representation of the environment and contains information about one's own vehicle, other vehicles and other environmental objects as wells as the road. The system for the environmental perception is aimed at founding an information base for future driver assistance systems, which are developed to assist the driver in its driving tasks. This thesis deals with the interpretation of the fused environmental data. The maneuvers of one's own vehicle and of the other vehicles as well as their relations between each other are classified. This performs the step from the pure captation of the environmental data to an assessment of the current traffic situation. The relations between the environmental objects are described by an integrated consideration of the states of one's own vehicle, the environmental objects and the road. The maneuvers and the driving states are derived from the estimated states or innovations of the kalman filter, or they are determined by the means of multiple hypothesis methods or multiple model filters. The result of the interpretation is the detection of the maneuvers of one's own vehicle and the other vehicles, the relations between one's own vehicle and the other vehicles are classified and their threat in relation to one's own vehicle are assessed. Detected lane change maneuvers are used for the prediction of the traffic situation. The algorithms of the interpretation are integrated into the environmental perception system of the prototype vehicle and are verified with real measured

  11. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  12. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  13. COURT INTERPRETING AT DENPASAR COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Made Puspani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a research on interpreting (oral translation on a criminal case ofdrug user in the court proceedings at Denpasar Court. The study of theinterpreting is concerned with two-ways rendition from Indonesian into Englishand vice-versa. The study is related to: (1 the description of modes of interpretingapplied by the interpreter, (2 the application of translation strategies: shift,addition and deletion of information, (3 factors that underlie the application ofthe strategies, and (4 the impact of the application of those strategies towards thequality of the interpreting.The methodology applied in this study is qualitative based on eclectictheories (translation, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. The utilization of thetheories is in accordance with the type of the data analyzed in regard to thetranslation phenomena as an applied study and its complexity.The interpreting at court applied the consecutive and simultaneous modes.The strategy of shift was applied when there were differences in structure betweenthe source and the target languages. Addition of information was used when theinterpreter emphasized the message of the source language in the target language.The deletion of information applied if the context in the target language has beencovered, and it was not necessary for the interpreter to interpret the same thingbecause the message of the source language was pragmatically implied in thetarget language.The factors which underlie the application of the interpreting strategies incourt interpreting were communication factor and the differences in the languagesystems between the source and the target languages. The impact of the use of thestrategies towards the quality of the interpreting happened when the interpretationof the source language message into the message of the target language and themessage in the source language was not completely render into the targetlanguage.The novelties of the research are: (1 relevance theory and its

  14. Illuminating the Signals Job Seekers Receive from an Employer's Community Involvement and Environmental Sustainability Practices: Insights into Why Most Job Seekers Are Attracted, Others Are Indifferent, and a Few Are Repelled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David A.; Willness, Chelsea R.; Heller, Kristin W.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that job seekers tend to be attracted to employers known for their corporate social responsibility (CSR), but relatively little is known about the underlying psychological processes. Moreover, the literature is silent about whether and why some job seekers are unaffected, or even repelled by, an employer's CSR. We conducted a substantive replication of recent empirical support for three signal-based mechanisms by adapting the experimental manipulation used in a prior study while employing an alternative approach to analyzing a distinctly different type of data. We also extended prior work by examining other possible explanatory mechanisms and exploring potentially negative reactions to CSR. Using signaling theory as an overarching framework, we assessed research questions and tested hypotheses grounded in theories of employee recruitment and the psychology of CSR, specifying how an employer's CSR practices send signals from which job seekers draw inferences about unknown working conditions, thereby affecting their attraction to the employer. Study participants (N = 108) reviewed the webpages of two hiring companies and responded to open-ended questions about each employer. We content-analyzed written responses pertaining to one employer's webpages in which we embedded an experimental manipulation of information about the employer's community involvement or its environmentally sustainable practices. The results supported hypotheses that corroborate prior evidence for the “perceived value fit” and “expected employee treatment” mechanisms, and provided some, but relatively limited, support for the “anticipated pride” mechanism. Assessment of research questions highlighted previously undiscovered signal-based mechanisms that might help explain job seekers' attraction to CSR (e.g., inferences about the employer's positive work environment and financial standing, and the nature of its employees). Results also showed that a few people were less

  15. Illuminating the Signals Job Seekers Receive from an Employer's Community Involvement and Environmental Sustainability Practices: Insights into Why Most Job Seekers Are Attracted, Others Are Indifferent, and a Few Are Repelled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David A; Willness, Chelsea R; Heller, Kristin W

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that job seekers tend to be attracted to employers known for their corporate social responsibility (CSR), but relatively little is known about the underlying psychological processes. Moreover, the literature is silent about whether and why some job seekers are unaffected, or even repelled by, an employer's CSR. We conducted a substantive replication of recent empirical support for three signal-based mechanisms by adapting the experimental manipulation used in a prior study while employing an alternative approach to analyzing a distinctly different type of data. We also extended prior work by examining other possible explanatory mechanisms and exploring potentially negative reactions to CSR. Using signaling theory as an overarching framework, we assessed research questions and tested hypotheses grounded in theories of employee recruitment and the psychology of CSR, specifying how an employer's CSR practices send signals from which job seekers draw inferences about unknown working conditions, thereby affecting their attraction to the employer. Study participants (N = 108) reviewed the webpages of two hiring companies and responded to open-ended questions about each employer. We content-analyzed written responses pertaining to one employer's webpages in which we embedded an experimental manipulation of information about the employer's community involvement or its environmentally sustainable practices. The results supported hypotheses that corroborate prior evidence for the "perceived value fit" and "expected employee treatment" mechanisms, and provided some, but relatively limited, support for the "anticipated pride" mechanism. Assessment of research questions highlighted previously undiscovered signal-based mechanisms that might help explain job seekers' attraction to CSR (e.g., inferences about the employer's positive work environment and financial standing, and the nature of its employees). Results also showed that a few people were less attracted

  16. Illuminating the signals job seekers receive from an employer’s community involvement and environmental sustainability practices: Insights into why most job seekers are attracted, others are indifferent, and a few are repelled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Jones

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that job seekers tend to be attracted to employers known for their corporate social responsibility (CSR, but relatively little is known about the underlying psychological processes. Moreover, the literature is silent about whether and why some job seekers are unaffected, or even repelled by, an employer’s CSR. We conducted a substantive replication of recent empirical support for three signal-based mechanisms by adapting the experimental manipulation used in a prior study while employing an alternative approach to analyzing a distinctly different type of data. We also extended prior work by examining other possible explanatory mechanisms and exploring potentially negative reactions to CSR. Using signaling theory as an overarching framework, we assessed research questions and tested hypotheses grounded in theories of employee recruitment and the psychology of CSR, specifying how an employer’s CSR practices send signals from which job seekers draw inferences about unknown working conditions, thereby affecting their attraction to the employer. Study participants (N = 108 reviewed the webpages of two hiring companies and responded to open-ended questions about each employer. We content-analyzed written responses pertaining to one employer’s webpages in which we embedded an experimental manipulation of information about the employer’s community involvement or its environmentally sustainable practices. The results supported hypotheses that corroborate prior evidence for the ‘perceived value fit’ and ‘expected employee treatment’ mechanisms, and provided some but relatively limited support for the ‘anticipated pride’ mechanism. Assessment of research questions highlighted previously undiscovered signal-based mechanisms that might help explain job seekers’ attraction to CSR (e.g., inferences about the employer’s positive work environment and financial standing, and the nature of its employees. Results also showed

  17. Interpretation of macroscopic quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that a quantum theory without observer is required for the interpretation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling. Such a theory is obtained by augmenting QED by the actual electric field in the rest system of the universe. An equation of the motion of this field is formulated form which the correct macroscopic behavior of the universe and the validity of the Born interpretation is derived. Care is taken to use mathematically sound concepts only. (Author)

  18. Resistance to change: Four interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Bringselius, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of resistance to change has gained considerable attention in organization theory over the years, the meaning of the concept is rarely discussed. In this paper, a conceptual framework is suggested that distinguishes between four interpretations of resistance and builds upon the two variables of changeability and emotionality. Each interpretation is based on various assumptions and theoretical influences, as well as connected to different change management strategies. Th...

  19. Court interpreting and pragmatic meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction.......In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction....

  20. Homologs of FT, CEN and FD respond to developmental and environmental signals affecting growth and flowering in the perennial vine kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Moss, Sarah M A; Voogd, Charlotte; Wang, Tianchi; Putterill, Joanna; Hellens, Roger P

    2013-05-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and CENTRORADIALIS (CEN) homologs have been implicated in regulation of growth, determinacy and flowering. The roles of kiwifruit FT and CEN were explored using a combination of expression analysis, protein interactions, response to temperature in high-chill and low-chill kiwifruit cultivars and ectopic expression in Arabidopsis and Actinidia. The expression and activity of FT was opposite from that of CEN and incorporated an interaction with a FLOWERING LOCUS D (FD)-like bZIP transcription factor. Accumulation of FT transcript was associated with plant maturity and particular stages of leaf, flower and fruit development, but could be detected irrespective of the flowering process and failed to induce precocious flowering in transgenic kiwifruit. Instead, transgenic plants demonstrated reduced growth and survival rate. Accumulation of FT transcript was detected in dormant buds and stem in response to winter chilling. In contrast, FD in buds was reduced by exposure to cold. CEN transcript accumulated in developing latent buds, but declined before the onset of dormancy and delayed flowering when ectopically expressed in kiwifruit. Our results suggest roles for FT, CEN and FD in integration of developmental and environmental cues that affect dormancy, budbreak and flowering in kiwifruit. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirocha, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation

  2. [Signaling network-based functional cell design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jianqi; Wei, Ping

    2017-03-25

    Cellular signaling networks act as the central processor to deal with environmental signals and regulate cell function, and determine cell fate. Using synthetic biology approach to engineer cell signaling networks is crucial for ultimately constructing man-made "cell machines". Cellular signaling networks can encode sophisticated cell information by processing quantitatively signaling dynamics, which enables multi-dimensional regulation of functional sub-circuits. Here, we first review the research progresses on the signaling coding mechanisms; and then elaborate the methodologies and applications of cells signaling engineering; finally, we envision that signaling-based cell engineering are important for the increasingly-complicated next generation synthetic biology.

  3. Neural network signal understanding for instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pau, L. F.; Johansen, F. S.

    1990-01-01

    A report is presented on the use of neural signal interpretation theory and techniques for the purpose of classifying the shapes of a set of instrumentation signals, in order to calibrate devices, diagnose anomalies, generate tuning/settings, and interpret the measurement results. Neural signal...... understanding research is surveyed, and the selected implementation and its performance in terms of correct classification rates and robustness to noise are described. Formal results on neural net training time and sensitivity to weights are given. A theory for neural control using functional link nets is given......, and an explanation facility designed to help neural signal understanding is described. The results are compared to those obtained with a knowledge-based signal interpretation system using the same instrument and data...

  4. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  5. Signal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholomier, M.

    1985-01-01

    In a scanning electron microscope, whatever is the measured signal, the same set is found: incident beam, sample, signal detection, signal amplification. The resulting signal is used to control the spot luminosity with the observer cathodoscope. This is synchronized with the beam scanning on the sample; on the cathodoscope, the image in secondary electrons, backscattered electrons,... of the sample surface is reconstituted. The best compromise must be found between a register time low enough to remove eventual variations (under the incident beam) of the nature of the observed phenomenon, and a good spatial resolution of the image and a signal-to-noise ratio high enough. The noise is one of the basic limitations of the scanning electron microscope performance. The whose measurement line must be optimized to reduce it [fr

  6. The Interpretive Approach to Religious Education: Challenging Thompson's Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In a recent book chapter, Matthew Thompson makes some criticisms of my work, including the interpretive approach to religious education and the research and activity of Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit. Against the background of a discussion of religious education in the public sphere, my response challenges Thompson's account,…

  7. Default Sarcastic Interpretations: On the Priority of Nonsalient Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Drucker, Ari; Fein, Ofer; Mendelson, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Findings from five experiments support the view that negation generates sarcastic utterance-interpretations by default. When presented in isolation, novel negative constructions ("Punctuality is not his forte," "Thoroughness is not her most distinctive feature"), free of semantic anomaly or internal incongruity, were…

  8. Interpretative reports and critical values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Elisa; Plebani, Mario

    2009-06-01

    In the clinical laboratory to allow an effective testing process, post-analytical activity can have two goals in trying to improve patient safety: result interpretation and communication of critical values. Both are important issues, and their success requires a cooperative effort. Misinterpretation of laboratory test results or ineffectiveness in their notification can lead to diagnostic errors or errors in identifying patient critical conditions. With the awareness that the incorrect interpretation of tests and the breakdown in the communication of critical values are preventable errors, laboratorians should make every effort to prevent the types of errors that potentially harm patients. In order to improve the reliability of laboratories, we attempt to explain how interpretative reporting and automated notification of critical values can be used to reduce errors. Clinical laboratories can therefore work to improve clinical effectiveness, without forgetting that everything should be designed to provide the best outcomes for patients.

  9. Theoretical Interpretation of Current Neutrino Oscillation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogli, Gianluigi; Lisi, Eligio

    We discuss the theoretical interpretation of neutrino oscillation data in terms of 3v and 4v mixing. Two-neutrino oscillations, often used to describe experimental results in a first approximation, are briefly recalled (Sect. 5.1). The main focus of our review is 3v mixing (Sect. 5.2), which accommodates both the negative results of oscillation searches at reactors (Sect. 5.3) and the evidence for flavor transitions obtained from atmospheric and solar neutrino data (Sects. 5.4 and 5.5). The status and problems of 4v scenarios embedding the additional LSND signal are also discussed (Sect. 5.7). Finally, we outline the impact of the very latest data (Sect. 5.8). Standard electroweak neutrino interactions are assumed in all cases; scenarios with nonstandard dynamics are beyond the scope of this review.

  10. 8 CFR 1240.44 - Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreter. 1240.44 Section 1240.44 Aliens....44 Interpreter. Any person acting as interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the...

  11. 25 CFR 81.16 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interpreters. 81.16 Section 81.16 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.16 Interpreters. Interpreters, where needed, may be provided to explain the manner of voting... that the interpreter does not influence the voter in casting the ballot. The interpreter may accompany...

  12. Phosphoinositide signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Wendy F; Im, Yang Ju

    2012-01-01

    "All things flow and change…even in the stillest matter there is unseen flux and movement." Attributed to Heraclitus (530-470 BC), from The Story of Philosophy by Will Durant. Heraclitus, a Greek philosopher, was thinking on a much larger scale than molecular signaling; however, his visionary comments are an important reminder for those studying signaling today. Even in unstimulated cells, signaling pathways are in constant metabolic flux and provide basal signals that travel throughout the organism. In addition, negatively charged phospholipids, such as the polyphosphorylated inositol phospholipids, provide a circuit board of on/off switches for attracting or repelling proteins that define the membranes of the cell. This template of charged phospholipids is sensitive to discrete changes and metabolic fluxes-e.g., in pH and cations-which contribute to the oscillating signals in the cell. The inherent complexities of a constantly fluctuating system make understanding how plants integrate and process signals challenging. In this review we discuss one aspect of lipid signaling: the inositol family of negatively charged phospholipids and their functions as molecular sensors and regulators of metabolic flux in plants.

  13. Instrumentation and severe accident plant status interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.; Machiels, A.J.; Oehlberg, R.N.; Negin, C.A.; James, R.

    1992-01-01

    EPRI is conducting a project related to instrumentation and severe accident plant status interpretation. The project will recognize the facts that (i) instrument responses during severe accidents do not need to be as accurate as during normal operation, and (ii) not all instrument loops will see a severe environment. In particular, the proposed work is to provide technology to get the most information from the existing instrumentation under severe accident conditions by developing (1) calculational aids to determine actual plant parameters based on severe-accident-affected instrument readings, and (2) means to utilize indications from operational instruments to infer parameters values for failed instruments, or where no instrument may exist. Specific deliverables for this project are (i) an instrumentation data base that will include both instrumentation failures and successes under severe conditions, and contain instrument performance information from both nuclear and non-nuclear industry situations; (ii) methods to assess the validity of instrument signals and estimate the performance of individual instrument loops; and (iii) calculational aids to estimate and interpret instrument readings under severe accident conditions, including the ability to extrapolate readings from functioning instruments to locations where instruments have failed. (orig.)

  14. Redox signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Noctor, Graham

    2013-06-01

    Our aim is to deliver an authoritative and challenging perspective of current concepts in plant redox signaling, focusing particularly on the complex interface between the redox and hormone-signaling pathways that allow precise control of plant growth and defense in response to metabolic triggers and environmental constraints and cues. Plants produce significant amounts of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of photosynthetic electron transport and metabolism. Such pathways contribute to the compartment-specific redox-regulated signaling systems in plant cells that convey information to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. Like the chloroplasts and mitochondria, the apoplast-cell wall compartment makes a significant contribution to the redox signaling network, but unlike these organelles, the apoplast has a low antioxidant-buffering capacity. The respective roles of ROS, low-molecular antioxidants, redox-active proteins, and antioxidant enzymes are considered in relation to the functions of plant hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and auxin, in the composite control of plant growth and defense. Regulation of redox gradients between key compartments in plant cells such as those across the plasma membrane facilitates flexible and multiple faceted opportunities for redox signaling that spans the intracellular and extracellular environments. In conclusion, plants are recognized as masters of the art of redox regulation that use oxidants and antioxidants as flexible integrators of signals from metabolism and the environment.

  15. Does environmental data collection need statistics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The term 'statistics' with reference to environmental science and policymaking might mean different things: the development of statistical methodology, the methodology developed by statisticians to interpret and analyse such data, or the statistical data that are needed to understand environmental

  16. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  17. Interpreting Data: The Hybrid Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, Kimberly; Talanquer, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize major patterns of reasoning exhibited by college chemistry students when analyzing and interpreting chemical data. Using a case study approach, we investigated how a representative student used chemical models to explain patterns in the data based on structure-property relationships. Our results…

  18. Analyzing and Interpreting Historical Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, Matthias; Wadhwani, Dan; Bucheli, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    on social scientific methods as well as the practice and reflections of historians, the chapter describes analytical and interpretive process based on three basic elements, illustrating them with exemplars from management research: source criticism to identify possible biases and judge the extent to which....... The chapter contributes to the creation of a language for describing the use of historical sources in management research....

  19. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  20. Probabilistic interpretation of resonant states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: hatano@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp. Abstract. We provide probabilistic interpretation of resonant states. We do this by showing that the integral of the modulus square of resonance wave functions (i.e., the conventional norm) over a properly expanding spatial domain is independent of time, and therefore leads to probability ...

  1. Intercultural Understanding: An Interpretive Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    Noting that intercultural understanding is a prime construct in the study of intercultural communication, this paper examines two questions that confront all intercultural communication researchers: (1) What are the underlying characteristics of intercultural understanding? and (2) What constitutes an interpretative perspective to intercultural…

  2. meaning, interpretation and literary theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thetic concepts and interpretations within particular historical, political and cultural frameworks. The impact of cultural studies, postcolonial stu- dies, New Historicism and feminism on all textual practices is very strong. These approaches ask differing sets of questions, questions such as: How does a particular text fit into a ...

  3. Interpretation of Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With; Larsen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses techniques for interpretation and characterization of trained recurrent nets for time series problems. In particular, we focus on assessment of effective memory and suggest an operational definition of memory. Further we discuss the evaluation of learning curves. Various...

  4. Probabilistic interpretation of resonant states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We provide probabilistic interpretation of resonant states. We do this by showing that the integral of the modulus square of resonance wave functions (i.e., the conventional norm) over a properly expanding spatial domain is independent of time, and therefore leads to probability conservation. This is in contrast with the ...

  5. Andries van Aarde's Matthew Interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-01-14

    Jan 14, 2011 ... To conclude the article, some critical statements with regard to the historical understanding ... important texts. In what follows, this answer is described by emphasising the many facets of Van Aarde's Matthew interpretation. Van Aarde is an .... has created the necessary distance between text and reader, it.

  6. A Generator for Composition Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    Composition of program components must be expressed in some language, and late composition can be achieved by an interpreter for the composition language. A suitable notion of component is obtained by identifying it with the semantics of a generalised structured command. Experiences from programm...

  7. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing ...

  8. Interpretation and the Aesthetic Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Charles O.

    1976-01-01

    The author, utilizing a synthesis of philosophic comments on aesthetics, provides a discourse on the aesthetic dimension and offers examples of how interpreters can nurture the innate sense of beauty in man. Poetic forms, such as haiku, are used to relate the aesthetic relationship between man and the environment. (BT)

  9. Visual Interpretation of Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Bette P.

    1989-01-01

    Examines how visual literacy (the ability to interpret the visual images of advertisements, illustrations, television, and other visual media) can promote creative and analytic thinking. Provides several instructional strategies to teach visual literacy through book illustrations. Notes that visual literacy is essential in a world increasingly…

  10. Mathematical properties of a semi-classical signal analysis method: Noisy signal case

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Dayan

    2012-08-01

    Recently, a new signal analysis method based on a semi-classical approach has been proposed [1]. The main idea in this method is to interpret a signal as a potential of a Schrodinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum of this operator to analyze the signal. In this paper, we are interested in a mathematical analysis of this method in discrete case considering noisy signals. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Intelligent environmental sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2015-01-01

    Developing environmental sensing and monitoring technologies become essential especially for industries that may cause severe contamination. Intelligent environmental sensing uses novel sensor techniques, intelligent signal and data processing algorithms, and wireless sensor networks to enhance environmental sensing and monitoring. It finds applications in many environmental problems such as oil and gas, water quality, and agriculture. This book addresses issues related to three main approaches to intelligent environmental sensing and discusses their latest technological developments. Key contents of the book include:   Agricultural monitoring Classification, detection, and estimation Data fusion Geological monitoring Motor monitoring Multi-sensor systems Oil reservoirs monitoring Sensor motes Water quality monitoring Wireless sensor network protocol  

  12. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — NHTSA's Chief Counsel interprets the statutes that the agency administers and the regulations that it promulgates. The Chief Counsel's interpretations, issued in the...

  13. Directionality effects in simultaneous language interpreting: the case of sign language interpreters in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of The Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives was assessed by 5 certified sign language interpreters who did not participate in the study. Two measures were used to assess interpreting quality: the propositional accuracy of the interpreters' interpretations and a subjective quality measure. The results showed that the interpreted narratives in the SLN-to-Dutch interpreting direction were of lower quality (on both measures) than the interpreted narratives in the Dutch-to-SLN and Dutch-to-SSD directions. Furthermore, interpreters who had begun acquiring SLN when they entered the interpreter training program performed as well in all 3 interpreting directions as interpreters who had acquired SLN from birth.

  14. The intraflagellar transport machinery in ciliary signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourão, André; Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Lorentzen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    environmental cues necessary for organ development and maintenance of human health. Pathways reported to rely on the cilium organelle include Hedgehog, TGF-β, Wnt, PDGFRα, integrin and DNA damage repair signaling. An emerging theme in ciliary signaling is the requirement for active transport of signaling...

  15. Water isotope systematics: Improving our palaeoclimate interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. D.; Dee, S.; Anderson, L.; Baker, A.; Bowen, G.; Noone, D.

    2016-01-01

    The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, measured in a variety of archives, are widely used proxies in Quaternary Science. Understanding the processes that control δ18O change have long been a focus of research (e.g. Shackleton and Opdyke, 1973; Talbot, 1990 ; Leng, 2006). Both the dynamics of water isotope cycling and the appropriate interpretation of geological water-isotope proxy time series remain subjects of active research and debate. It is clear that achieving a complete understanding of the isotope systematics for any given archive type, and ideally each individual archive, is vital if these palaeo-data are to be used to their full potential, including comparison with climate model experiments of the past. Combining information from modern monitoring and process studies, climate models, and proxy data is crucial for improving our statistical constraints on reconstructions of past climate variability.As climate models increasingly incorporate stable water isotope physics, this common language should aid quantitative comparisons between proxy data and climate model output. Water-isotope palaeoclimate data provide crucial metrics for validating GCMs, whereas GCMs provide a tool for exploring the climate variability dominating signals in the proxy data. Several of the studies in this set of papers highlight how collaborations between palaeoclimate experimentalists and modelers may serve to expand the usefulness of palaeoclimate data for climate prediction in future work.This collection of papers follows the session on Water Isotope Systematics held at the 2013 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. Papers in that session, the breadth of which are represented here, discussed such issues as; understanding sub-GNIP scale (Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation, (IAEA/WMO, 2006)) variability in isotopes in precipitation from different regions, detailed examination of the transfer of isotope signals from precipitation to geological archives, and the

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN AND ENVIRONMENTALLY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, environmental concern has been conceptualised as the manifestation of attitudes that are directed at behavioural intentions of active personal involvement in caring about environmental matters. Based on a critique of theoretical approaches towards understanding the formation of environmental attitudes, ...

  17. Visual perception and radiographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorges, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although interpretation errors are common in radiology, their causes are still debated. Perceptual mechanisms appear to be responsible for a large proportion of mistakes made by both neophytes and trained radiologists. Erroneous perception of familiar contours can be triggered by unrelated opacities. Conversely, visual information cannot induce a specific perception if the observer is not familiar with the concept represented or its radiographicappearance. Additionally, the area of acute vision is smaller than is commonly recognized. Other factors, such as the attitude, beliefs,.: preconceptions, and expectations of the viewer, can affect what he or she ''sees'' whenviewing any object, including a radiograph. Familiarity with perceptual mechanisms and the limitations of the visual system as well as multiple readings may be necessary to reduce interpretation errors

  18. Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

    We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the φ-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational φ-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

  19. Inuit interpretations of sleep paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Samuel; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2005-03-01

    Traditional and contemporary Inuit concepts of sleep paralysis were investigated through interviews with elders and young people in Iqaluit, Baffin Island. Sleep paralysis was readily recognized by most respondents and termed uqumangirniq (in the Baffin region) or aqtuqsinniq (Kivalliq region). Traditional interpretations of uqumangirniq referred to a shamanistic cosmology in which the individual's soul was vulnerable during sleep and dreaming. Sleep paralysis could result from attack by shamans or malevolent spirits. Understanding the experience as a manifestation of supernatural power, beyond one's control, served to reinforce the experiential reality and presence of the spirit world. For contemporary youth, sleep paralysis was interpreted in terms of multiple frameworks that incorporated personal, medical, mystical, traditional/shamanistic, and Christian views, reflecting the dynamic social changes taking place in this region.

  20. Design of interpretable fuzzy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cpałka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    This book shows that the term “interpretability” goes far beyond the concept of readability of a fuzzy set and fuzzy rules. It focuses on novel and precise operators of aggregation, inference, and defuzzification leading to flexible Mamdani-type and logical-type systems that can achieve the required accuracy using a less complex rule base. The individual chapters describe various aspects of interpretability, including appropriate selection of the structure of a fuzzy system, focusing on improving the interpretability of fuzzy systems designed using both gradient-learning and evolutionary algorithms. It also demonstrates how to eliminate various system components, such as inputs, rules and fuzzy sets, whose reduction does not adversely affect system accuracy. It illustrates the performance of the developed algorithms and methods with commonly used benchmarks. The book provides valuable tools for possible applications in many fields including expert systems, automatic control and robotics.

  1. Interpreting radiographs. 4. The carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguez, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    The complexity of the carpus which has three major joints, seven or eight carpal bones and five adjacent bones, each of which articulates with one or more of the carpal elements, necessitates good quality radiographs for definitive radiographic interpretation may be extremely difficult because of the disparity between radiographic changes and obvious clinical signs and, therefore, must be discussed in the light of a thorough clinical assessment

  2. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...... technique is based on fixpoint induction and introduces an extended class of attribute grammars as to express a standard semantics....

  3. Paris convention - Decisions, recommendations, interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary [fr

  4. Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, R.

    1992-01-01

    Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology

  5. 32 CFR 1605.81 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreters. 1605.81 Section 1605.81 National... ORGANIZATION Interpreters § 1605.81 Interpreters. (a) The local board, district appeal board and the National Selective Service Appeal Board are authorized to use interpreters when necessary. (b) The following oath...

  6. Interpreting Inexplicit Language during Courtroom Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun

    2009-01-01

    Court interpreters are required to provide accurate renditions of witnesses' utterances during courtroom examinations, but the accuracy of interpreting may be compromised for a number of reasons, among which is the effect on interpretation of the limited contextual information available to court interpreters. Based on the analysis of the discourse…

  7. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22... EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm to interpret and translate accurately...

  8. What Does It Mean to Teach "Interpretively"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Jennifer; Holtzman, Richard; van Hulst, Merlijn; Yanow, Dvora

    2016-01-01

    The "interpretive turn" has gained traction as a research approach in recent decades in the empirical social sciences. While the contributions of interpretive research and interpretive research methods are clear, we wonder: Does an interpretive perspective lend itself to--or even demand--a particular style of teaching? This question was…

  9. Signal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Signal processing techniques, extensively used nowadays to maximize the performance of audio and video equipment, have been a key part in the design of hardware and software for high energy physics detectors since pioneering applications in the UA1 experiment at CERN in 1979

  10. Interpreting BOLD: towards a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Catherine N; Howarth, Clare; Kurth-Nelson, Zebulun; Mishra, Anusha

    2016-10-05

    Cognitive neuroscience depends on the use of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to probe brain function. Although commonly used as a surrogate measure of neuronal activity, BOLD signals actually reflect changes in brain blood oxygenation. Understanding the mechanisms linking neuronal activity to vascular perfusion is, therefore, critical in interpreting BOLD. Advances in cellular neuroscience demonstrating differences in this neurovascular relationship in different brain regions, conditions or pathologies are often not accounted for when interpreting BOLD. Meanwhile, within cognitive neuroscience, the increasing use of high magnetic field strengths and the development of model-based tasks and analyses have broadened the capability of BOLD signals to inform us about the underlying neuronal activity, but these methods are less well understood by cellular neuroscientists. In 2016, a Royal Society Theo Murphy Meeting brought scientists from the two communities together to discuss these issues. Here, we consolidate the main conclusions arising from that meeting. We discuss areas of consensus about what BOLD fMRI can tell us about underlying neuronal activity, and how advanced modelling techniques have improved our ability to use and interpret BOLD. We also highlight areas of controversy in understanding BOLD and suggest research directions required to resolve these issues.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. REQUIREMENTS FOR A GENERAL INTERPRETATION THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Laura Lungu Petruescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Time has proved that Economic Analysis is not enough as to ensure all the needs of the economic field. The present study wishes to propose a new approach method of the economic phenomena and processes based on the researches made outside the economic space- a new general interpretation theory- which is centered on the human being as the basic actor of economy. A general interpretation theory must assure the interpretation of the causalities among the economic phenomena and processes- causal interpretation; the interpretation of the correlations and dependencies among indicators- normative interpretation; the interpretation of social and communicational processes in economic organizations- social and communicational interpretation; the interpretation of the community status of companies- transsocial interpretation; the interpretation of the purposes of human activities and their coherency – teleological interpretation; the interpretation of equilibrium/ disequilibrium from inside the economic systems- optimality interpretation. In order to respond to such demands, rigor, pragmatism, praxiology and contextual connectors are required. In order to progress, the economic science must improve its language, both its syntax and its semantics. The clarity of exposure requires a language clarity and the scientific theory progress asks for the need of hypotheses in the building of the theories. The switch from the common language to the symbolic one means the switch from ambiguity to rigor and rationality, that is order in thinking. But order implies structure, which implies formalization. Our paper should be a plea for these requirements, requirements which should be fulfilled by a modern interpretation theory.

  12. Avaliação de atividade de Educação Ambiental em trilha interpretativa, dois a três anos após sua realização - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.174 Evaluation of environmental education activity in the interpretative trail, two to three years after its implementation - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.174

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Angelini

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho conduzir uma avaliação de crianças que, nos anos de 2002 e 2003, foram submetidas a uma prática de Educação Ambiental (EA na Trilha Interpretativa da UEG. Essas crianças (grupo teste foram contatadas em suas escolas e juntamente com outras crianças, que nunca participaram da atividade (grupo controle, percorreram a trilha e responderam a um questionário. Os resultados dos questionários do grupo teste, em comparação com o desempenho da atividade anterior, evidenciaram ganhos cognitivos nesse intervalo de um ou dois anos da primeira exposição à atividade. Todavia, quando comparado com o grupo controle, essa diferença não foi estatisticamente significativa (pThe objective of this work was to carry out a re-evaluation of children which participated in an environmental education (EE activity in the Interpretative Trail of the UEG, during 2002 and 2003. These children (test group were contacted in their schools and together with other children, who had never participated in the activity (control group, they had to go through the trail and answer a questionnaire, which was compared with the after-trail questionnaire of the previous activity. Results show that: questionnaires of the test group evidenced cognitive profits in this interval of one or two years of the first exposition to the EE program; however, when compared with the control group, this difference was not significant (p<0.05. This shows that a punctual activity of EE could not be effective in knowledge upgrading. In this sense, many authors recognize the difficulties to evaluate and analyze the repercussions of EE activities.

  13. Touch design and narrative interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Sumin; Unsworth, Len

    2016-01-01

    of technology, but also a resource for meaning making. We distinguish two basic types of interactivity—intra-text and extra-text—incorporated in the touch design, and explore the different functions they perform in a broad range of picture book apps. In particular, we look at the app version of The Heart...... and the Bottle in depth, and illustrate how interactive design elements help to create an interpretative possibility of the story. We suggest that a better understanding of interactive touch design would promote more effective adult-child interactions around mobile applications....

  14. An open room for interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofte-Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    not only be seen as a learning task where initiative and product is defined by the teacher. In contrast, I suggest that creative activities and aesthetic processes must be seen as an interaction between children's immediate physicality and curiosity and the teacher's musical skills and abilities to follow......Based on a concept that I have developed, which is called: "An open room for interpretation", the following article states that creative work and aesthetic expression in a pedagogical context with 2-6 years old children must give space for the children's own expressions. To teach music should...

  15. Interpreting CNNs via Decision Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Quanshi; Yang, Yu; Wu, Ying Nian; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a method to learn a decision tree to quantitatively explain the logic of each prediction of a pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Our method boosts the following two aspects of network interpretability. 1) In the CNN, each filter in a high conv-layer must represent a specific object part, instead of describing mixed patterns without clear meanings. 2) People can explain each specific prediction made by the CNN at the semantic level using a decision tree, i.e....

  16. Minute co-variations of Sr/Ca ratios and microstructures in the aragonitic shell of Cerastoderma edule (Bivalvia) - Are geochemical variations at the ultra-scale masking potential environmental signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllenbach, Christoph S.; Schöne, Bernd R.; Shirai, Kotaro; Takahata, Naoto; Ishida, Akizumi; Sano, Yuji

    2017-05-01

    controlling their formation exert a strong control over the incorporation of strontium into shells of C. edule. Analytical techniques with lower sampling resolution, e.g., LA-ICP-MS, cannot resolve such fine-scale Sr variations. As a result, the signal-to-noise ratio decreases and the data generated by such techniques may therefore not seem to provide useful paleotemperature data. Future studies should therefore employ a combined analysis of Sr/Cashell and shell microstructures, and interpret Sr/Ca values of shell portions with different microstructures separately.

  17. Conflicting Interpretations of Scientific Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamba, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Not surprisingly historical studies have suggested that there is a distance between concepts of teaching methods, their interpretations and their actual use in the classroom. This issue, however, is not always pitched to the personal level in historical studies, which may provide an alternative insight on how teachers conceptualise and engage with concepts of teaching methods. This article provides a case study on this level of conceptualisation by telling the story of Rómulo de Carvalho, an educator from mid-twentieth century Portugal, who for over 40 years engaged with the heuristic and Socratic methods. The overall argument is that concepts of teaching methods are open to different interpretations and are conceptualised within the melting pot of external social pressures and personal teaching preferences. The practice and thoughts of Carvalho about teaching methods are scrutinised to unveil his conflicting stances: Carvalho was a man able to question the tenets of heurism, but who publicly praised the heurism-like "discovery learning" method years later. The first part of the article contextualises the arrival of heurism in Portugal and how Carvalho attacked its philosophical tenets. In the second part, it dwells on his conflicting positions in relation to pupil-centred approaches. The article concludes with an appreciation of the embedded conflicting nature of the appropriation of concepts of teaching methods, and of Carvalho's contribution to the development of the philosophy of practical work in school science.

  18. [Effect of using an interpreter in psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rikke Sander; Nørregaard, Trine Maria; Carlsson, Jessica

    2017-05-22

    An evaluation of the effect of using an interpreter in psychotherapy is quite complex. In the few existing studies on the use of interpreters in psychotherapy no significant difference was found in treatment outcome related to whether an interpreter was used or not. On the other hand, the inclusion of an interpreter affects the therapeutic alliance and the relationships between the parties. The role of the interpreter in psychotherapy is characterized by diversity, and the included studies indicate the need for training to improve the cooperation between the interpreter and the therapist.

  19. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  20. Direct interpretation of dreams: typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Daele, L

    1992-12-01

    The dream typology assorts dreams into three major categories: dreams whose origin is endogenous, exogenous, or relational. Dreams of the first type arise from somatic needs, feelings, and states that accompany organismic adjustments to system requirements. Dreams of the second type are initiated by kinetic and dispositional tendencies toward engagement and exploration of the outer world. And dreams of the third type derive from interpersonal dispositions to interaction and relationship with other people. Within each category, dreams may occur at different levels of complexity. The dream typology permits the integration of psychoanalytic observations about the dreams from a variety of perspectives within a common framework. Freud's view that a dream is a wish fulfillment finds its primary niche in endogenous need, wish fulfillment, and convenience dreams. Kohut's observations about self-state dreams and inner regulation (1971, 1977) are accommodated to the middle range of endogenous dreams, and Jung's individuation dreams (1930) occupy the advanced range. Similarly, Bonime's interpersonal approach to dream interpretation (1962) is encompassed by relational dreams of the middle level. In addition, types and modes of dreams that are only infrequently encountered in clinical psychoanalysis are accommodated. The dream typology suggests that different psychoanalytic theories are like the position papers that might have derived from the fabled committee of learned blind who were commissioned to determine the appearance of an elephant. Each individual got a hold on some part, but could not see the whole; so for each, the part became the whole. The psychoanalytic theorist is in exactly an analogous position because, in fact, he is blind to the extent of the unconscious and is constrained to what he can infer. What he can infer depends on cohort, client population, and how he calibrates his observations. The result has been procrustean interpretation, dissention, and a

  1. Stochastic joint inversion of 2D seismic and seismoelectric signals in linear poroelastic materials : A numerical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jardani, A.; Revil, A.; Slob, E.C.; Söllner, W.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of seismoelectrical signals is a difficult task because coseismic and seismoelectric converted signals are recorded simultaneously and the seismoelectric conversions are typically several orders of magnitude smaller than the coseismic electrical signals. The seismic and

  2. Implicações e conquistas da atuação do intérprete de língua de sinais no Ensino Superior/Implications and conquests of the performance of the interpreter of language of signals in Superior Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Regina de Oliveira Martins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A profissão do intérprete educacional tem ganhado espaço dentro da sala de aula. Salientamos que a notória presença e a maior visibilidade, atualmente, do intérprete de língua de sinais, é caracterizada no ensino superior. Isso em cumprimento da legislação que garante ao educando, com necessidades especiais, as mudanças necessárias para o atendimento e as adaptações pertinentes ao seu pleno acesso dentro da instituição de ensino. Nesse estudo observaremos a atuação do intérprete no ensino superior e as mudanças corporativas referentes à recepção e enquadramento deste novo profissional da educação. The profession as an educational interpreter has gained more and more ground in the classroom. It is important to emphasize that the greater current presence and visibility of the interpreter are specially noticed at the university-level education. That is due to the Brazilian legislation, which guarantees the necessary changes and adaptations for pupils with special needs, so that he or she can have full access to the educational facilities. This study aims to show the work of the interpreter in higher education and the corporate changes concerning the reception and the adjustments of this new professional in education.

  3. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice.

  4. APL interpreter on MITRA-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davcev, Danco

    1975-01-01

    APL in its present forms is an ideal instrument for the establishment of logic systems since it requires no specific declaration of type or form of variables. An APL system for C II computer of the MITRA series is described, with the following minimum configuration: MITRA central unit, 16-bit 32 K word memory, disc with fixed or mobile heads, type 4013 TEKTRONIX visualisation system. The originality of our APL interpreter on MITRA 15 lies in the use of a virtual memory system with pages of 128 word size. The so-called beating process is used to set up APL operators: the selection expressions in the tables may be evaluated without any manipulation of the values. (author) [fr

  5. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice

  6. Defunctionalized Interpreters for Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    by Reynolds in ``Definitional Interpreters for Higher-Order Programming Languages'' for functional implementations of denotational semantics, natural semantics, and big-step abstract machines using closure conversion, CPS transformation, and defunctionalization. Over the last few years, the author and his......This document illustrates how functional implementations of formal semantics (structural operational semantics, reduction semantics, small-step and big-step abstract machines, natural semantics, and denotational semantics) can be transformed into each other. These transformations were foreshadowed...... students have further observed that functional implementations of small-step and of big-step abstract machines are related using fusion by fixed-point promotion and that functional implementations of reduction semantics and of small-step abstract machines are related using refocusing and transition...

  7. Interpretive Flexibility in Mobile Health:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Mathiassen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    a growing body of evidence supports the use of mobile technologies, the diverse implications of mobile health have yet to be fully documented. Objective: Our objective was to examine a large-scale government-sponsored mobile health implementation program in the Danish home care sector and to understand how...... stakeholders in the Danish home care sector (government bodies, vendors, consultants, interest organizations, and managers) helped initiate and energize the change process, and government funding supported quick and widespread technology adoption. However, although supported by the same government...... of debate as technology use arrangements ran counter to existing norms and values in individual agencies. Conclusions: Government-sponsored programs can have both positive and negative results, and managers need to be aware of this and the interpretive flexibility of mobile technology. Mobile technology...

  8. Model-based biosignal interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, S

    1994-03-01

    Two relatively new approaches to model-based biosignal interpretation, qualitative simulation and modelling by causal probabilistic networks, are compared to modelling by differential equations. A major problem in applying a model to an individual patient is the estimation of the parameters. The available observations are unlikely to allow a proper estimation of the parameters, and even if they do, the task appears to have exponential computational complexity if the model is non-linear. Causal probabilistic networks have both differential equation models and qualitative simulation as special cases, and they can provide both Bayesian and maximum-likelihood parameter estimates, in most cases in much less than exponential time. In addition, they can calculate the probabilities required for a decision-theoretical approach to medical decision support. The practical applicability of causal probabilistic networks to real medical problems is illustrated by a model of glucose metabolism which is used to adjust insulin therapy in type I diabetic patients.

  9. Language production and interpretation linguistics meets cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zeevat, Henk

    2014-01-01

    A model of production and interpretation of natural language utterances is developed which explains why communication is normally fast and successful. Interpretation is taken to be analogous with visual perception in finding the most probable hypothesis that explains the utterance.

  10. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.5 Interpreter. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be...

  11. Pure Quantum Interpretations Are not Viable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, I.

    2011-02-01

    Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which throw away the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to its quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

  12. Decoherence and Copenhagen Interpretation : A Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a reasonable explanation (not proof) to the Copenhagen interpretation of Quantum Mechanics from the view point of decoherence theory. Mathematical physicists with strong mission must prove {\\bf the Copenhagen interpretation} at all costs.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF CONTEXT ON UTTERANCE INTERPRETATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Some questions about context and interpretation. One of the most important problems in the study of language use is that of the interpretation of utterances. For our purposes this problem can be formulated in the form of the following question:.

  14. Prosocial Signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha

    signalling can cause reverse price reactions resembling the crowding-out of pre-existing motives for prosocial behavior seen in situations of volunteering and charitable giving. Using a unique combination of questionnaire and purchase panel data, it presents evidence of such reputation-driven reverse price...... reactions in the Danish market for organic milk. The second paper proposes a self-image model to account consumers’ behaviour under PWYW. It finds that when a good’s fixed price is lower than an exogenously given threshold fair value, PWYW can lead to a lower utility, which may lead to lower purchase rate...

  15. Semantic interpretation of search engine resultant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.

    2018-01-01

    In semantic, logical language can be interpreted in various forms, but the certainty of meaning is included in the uncertainty, which directly always influences the role of technology. One results of this uncertainty applies to search engines as user interfaces with information spaces such as the Web. Therefore, the behaviour of search engine results should be interpreted with certainty through semantic formulation as interpretation. Behaviour formulation shows there are various interpretations that can be done semantically either temporary, inclusion, or repeat.

  16. New Interpretation of Old Geophysical Data for Planning and Interpretation of New Ground Water Investigations in Lolland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M.; Olsen, H.; Ploug, C.

    Industrial seismic data from Western Geophysical (1979-1981) and gravity data from Danish National Space Center (formerly Kort & Matrikelstyrelsen, KMS) were used to construct a subsurface model down to a depth of 4 km and, subsequently, to remove its gravitational effect from the surface gravity...... data (geological stripping). The residual gravity signal is interpreted as the contribution to the gravity signal from shallow depths (i.e. less than 200 m) and from depths of more than 4000 km. Deep structures contribute to surface gravity only with low frequency signal. Thus, a subsequent high pass...... filtering of the residual gravity data reveals, in principle, the location of shallow structures. New shallow seismic surveys (vibroseis) were planned and conducted following the results of geological stripping. Also, detailed along-profile microgravity surveys were conducted. The results show excellent...

  17. Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

  18. Informal interpreting in Dutch general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zendedel, R.

    2017-01-01

    When health care providers and migrant patients do not share a common language, informal interpreters - usually family members of the patients - come along to bridge the language gap. While patients usually feel comfortable with having an informal interpreter, this type of interpreter-mediated

  19. 29 CFR 18.604 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Interpreters. 18.604 Section 18.604 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.604 Interpreters. An interpreter is subject to the...

  20. Modular interpreters with implicit context propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Inostroza Valdera (Pablo); T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractModular interpreters are a crucial first step towards component-based language development: instead of writing language interpreters from scratch, they can be assembled from reusable, semantic building blocks. Unfortunately, traditional language interpreters can be hard to extend because

  1. Specialized Rules of Treaty Interpretation: International Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brölmann, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses treaty interpretation in the context of international organizations, with particular attention to interpreting the founding or constitutive treaties of organizations. That not all interpretive rules are the same for all treaties is a well-tried proposition (see e.g. Arnold

  2. Decoherence and the many worlds interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigelt, Carsten Thomas [University Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The theory of decoherence gives us a good account (at least for open systems) of how classical properties emerge from the quantum world. Recent experiments based on decoherence offers strong arguments against the quantum-classical division proposed by the early Copenhagen Interpretation. But even if decoherence may support the view that quantum mechanics can be considered as fundamental theory the question remains if this sheds new light to the question of how a realistic interpretation of quantum theory can be achieved? In the last years proponents of decoherence pointed out that the theory fits perfectly into the framework of many worlds interpretations. The question that I address is, in what sense these interpretations can be considered as realistic interpretations? To answer this question I argue that in the context of decoherence we have strong reasons to interpret quantum states in a realistic sense. A problem for many worlds interpretations arises when the meaning of Everett's relative states is considered since these interpretations strongly dependent on the interpretation of relative states. I show that einselection proposed by the decoherence theory will determine Everett's relative states in an objective sense but these states must be interpreted as epistemic states. I conclude that this ambiguity between realistic interpreted quantum states and epistemic relative states limits the strict realistic character of many worlds interpretation.

  3. Chain graph models and their causal interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt; Richardson, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    , interpretations of chain graphs that are often invoked, implicitly or explicitly. These interpretations also lead to flawed methods for applying background knowledge to model selection. We present a valid interpretation by showing how the distribution corresponding to a chain graph may be generated from...... traditionally been used to model feed-back in econometrics....

  4. A robust interpretation of duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzle, M.; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2005-01-01

    Calculus (DC), our findings are that the robust interpretation of DC is equivalent to a multi-valued interpretation that uses the real numbers as semantic domain and assigns Lipschitz-continuous interpretations to all operators of DC. Furthermore, this continuity permits approximation between discrete...

  5. Collective Calcium Signaling of Defective Multicellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    2015-03-01

    A communicating multicellular network processes environmental cues into collective cellular dynamics. We have previously demonstrated that, when excited by extracellular ATP, fibroblast monolayers generate correlated calcium dynamics modulated by both the stimuli and gap junction communication between the cells. However, just as a well-connected neural network may be compromised by abnormal neurons, a tissue monolayer can also be defective with cancer cells, which typically have down regulated gap junctions. To understand the collective cellular dynamics in a defective multicellular network we have studied the calcium signaling of co-cultured breast cancer cells and fibroblast cells in various concentrations of ATP delivered through microfluidic devices. Our results demonstrate that cancer cells respond faster, generate singular spikes, and are more synchronous across all stimuli concentrations. Additionally, fibroblast cells exhibit persistent calcium oscillations that increase in regularity with greater stimuli. To interpret these results we quantitatively analyzed the immunostaining of purigenic receptors and gap junction channels. The results confirm our hypothesis that collective dynamics are mainly determined by the availability of gap junction communications.

  6. Utility of Independent Component Analysis for Interpretation of Intracranial EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane eWhitmer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrode arrays are sometimes implanted in the brains of patients with intractable epilepsy to better localize seizure foci before epilepsy surgery. Analysis of intracranial EEG (iEEG recordings is typically performed in the electrode channel domain without explicit separation of the sources that generate the signals. However, intracranial EEG signals, like scalp EEG signals, could be linear mixtures of local activity and volume conducted activity arising in multiple source areas. Independent component analysis (ICA has recently been applied to scalp EEG data, and shown to separate the signal mixtures into independently generated brain and non-brain source signals. Here, we applied ICA to un-mix source signals from intracranial EEG recordings from four epilepsy patients during a visually cued finger movement task in the presence of background pathological brain activity. This ICA decomposition demonstrated that the iEEG recordings were not maximally independent, but rather are linear mixtures of activity from multiple sources. Many of the independent component (IC projections to the iEEG recording grid were consistent with sources from single brain regions, including components exhibiting classic movement-related dynamics. Notably, the largest IC projection to each channel accounted for no more than 20%-80% of the channel signal variance, implying that in general intracranial recordings cannot be accurately interpreted as recordings of independent brain sources. These results suggest that ICA can be used to identify and monitor major field sources of local and distributed functional networks generating iEEG data. ICA decomposition methods are useful for improving the fidelity of source signals of interest, likely including distinguishing the sources of pathological brain activity.

  7. IMAGE INTERPRETATION OF COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lazaridou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features – particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents – oceans, states – large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta. The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation – digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

  8. Monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, J.R.; Prince, R.C.; Harner, J.; Atlas, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, extensive research was conducted by the US Environments Protection Agency and Exxon to develop and implement bioremediation techniques for oil spill cleanup. A key challenge of this program was to develop effective methods for monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness on extremely heterogenous intertidal shorelines. Fertilizers were applied to shorelines at concentrations known to be safe, and effectiveness achieved in acceleration biodegradation of oil residues was measure using several techniques. This paper describes the most definitive method identified, which monitors biodegradation loss by measuring changes in ratios of hydrocarbons to hopane, a cycloalkane present in the oil that showed no measurable degradation. Rates of loss measured by the hopane ratio method have high levels of statistical confidence, and show that the fertilizer addition stimulated biodegradation rates as much a fivefold. Multiple regression analyses of data show that fertilizer addition of nitrogen in interstitial pore water per unit of oil load was the most important parameter affecting biodegradation rate, and results suggest that monitoring nitrogen concentrations in the subsurface pore water is preferred technique for determining fertilizer dosage and reapplication frequency

  9. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  10. Robust surface roughness indices and morphological interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Geostatistical-based image/surface texture indices based on variogram (Atkison and Lewis, 2000; Herzfeld and Higginson, 1996; Trevisani et al., 2012) and on its robust variant MAD (median absolute differences, Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) offer powerful tools for the analysis and interpretation of surface morphology (potentially not limited to solid earth). In particular, the proposed robust index (Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) with its implementation based on local kernels permits the derivation of a wide set of robust and customizable geomorphometric indices capable to outline specific aspects of surface texture. The stability of MAD in presence of signal noise and abrupt changes in spatial variability is well suited for the analysis of high-resolution digital terrain models. Moreover, the implementation of MAD by means of a pixel-centered perspective based on local kernels, with some analogies to the local binary pattern approach (Lucieer and Stein, 2005; Ojala et al., 2002), permits to create custom roughness indices capable to outline different aspects of surface roughness (Grohmann et al., 2011; Smith, 2015). In the proposed poster, some potentialities of the new indices in the context of geomorphometry and landscape analysis will be presented. At same time, challenges and future developments related to the proposed indices will be outlined. Atkinson, P.M., Lewis, P., 2000. Geostatistical classification for remote sensing: an introduction. Computers & Geosciences 26, 361-371. Grohmann, C.H., Smith, M.J., Riccomini, C., 2011. Multiscale Analysis of Topographic Surface Roughness in the Midland Valley, Scotland. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 49, 1220-1213. Herzfeld, U.C., Higginson, C.A., 1996. Automated geostatistical seafloor classification - Principles, parameters, feature vectors, and discrimination criteria. Computers and Geosciences, 22 (1), pp. 35-52. Lucieer, A., Stein, A., 2005. Texture-based landform segmentation of LiDAR imagery

  11. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  12. Principles of Empiricism and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszkiewicz, George

    The interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) is discussed in terms of the principles and logic of empiricism. First, we list a set of issues that should be settled before any consistent interpretation is attempted. This includes questions such as whether we can use an exophysical perspective or an endophysical perspective, and whether a completely reductionist approach makes sense or are we forced to incorporate emergent laws of physics. We then list the scientific pr nciples that should be strictly adhered to in any debate on QM. We follow this with a list of cautions and warnings about misleading concepts that should be avoided, such as ignoring contextuality and the meaning of scientific truth values. These principles and warning are then used to decide on the issues we first identified, giving us a basis for an interpretation of QM from the perspective of observers and quantum signal states of apparatus, rather than in terms of qu ntum states of systems under observation. Finally, we review a proposed mathematical formalism that encodes this interpretation in terms of quantum registers.

  13. Contextual predictability shapes signal autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, James; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2018-03-10

    Aligning on a shared system of communication requires senders and receivers reach a balance between simplicity, where there is a pressure for compressed representations, and informativeness, where there is a pressure to be communicatively functional. We investigate the extent to which these two pressures are governed by contextual predictability: the amount of contextual information that a sender can estimate, and therefore exploit, in conveying their intended meaning. In particular, we test the claim that contextual predictability is causally related to signal autonomy: the degree to which a signal can be interpreted in isolation, without recourse to contextual information. Using an asymmetric communication game, where senders and receivers are assigned fixed roles, we manipulate two aspects of the referential context: (i) whether or not a sender shares access to the immediate contextual information used by the receiver in interpreting their utterance; (ii) the extent to which the relevant solution in the immediate referential context is generalisable to the aggregate set of contexts. Our results demonstrate that contextual predictability shapes the degree of signal autonomy: when the context is highly predictable (i.e., the sender has access to the context in which their utterances will be interpreted, and the semantic dimension which discriminates between meanings in context is consistent across communicative episodes), languages develop which rely heavily on the context to reduce uncertainty about the intended meaning. When the context is less predictable, senders favour systems composed of autonomous signals, where all potentially relevant semantic dimensions are explicitly encoded. Taken together, these results suggest that our pragmatic faculty, and how it integrates information from the context in reducing uncertainty, plays a central role in shaping language structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study follows a study realised in the late 80's by the National cancer institute to analyse the rate of cancers near american nuclear power plants (Jablon S and al, Jama 1991). The rates of mortality for the leukemia of child remain near 1 but increased in the proximity of nuclear power plants still in operation, in a statistically significant way only for old ones; they decreased in the proximity of nuclear power plants that are no more in operation. However, we must be cautious with the interpretation of these results. the question arises of an influence of environmental radioisotopes but other factors can occur ( social situation, other atmospheric pollutants, proximity of medical centers). Otherwise, the incidence of the child leukemia has very much increased these last years without any clear explanation ( =28% in Usa between 1975 and 2004). On the other hand, the rate of mortality decreased because of more efficient treatments (-49% on the same period). These findings justify to continue studies on leukemia of child in the vicinity of nuclear power plants, studies of incidences got from registers susceptible to give the most interesting results. (N.C.)

  15. SPEECHLESS integrates brassinosteroid and stomata signalling pathways.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gudesblat, G.E.; Schneider-Pizon, J.; Betti, C.; Mayerhofer, J.; Vanhoutte, I.; Dongen, van W.M.A.M.; Boeren, J.A.; Zhiponova, M.; Vries, de S.C.; Jonak, C.; Russinova, E.T.

    2012-01-01

    Stomatal formation is regulated by multiple developmental and environmental signals, but how these signals are integrated to control this process is not fully understood1. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH) regulates the entry, amplifying and

  16. Interpreting Sheepskin Effects of Investment in Schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyeb Shabbir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, significant amount of research has produced evidence in support of the signaling, credential or “sheepskin” effects in rates of return to schooling for studies of the developed as well as developing countries. An example of the former is the seminal empirical work by Hungerfold and Solon (1987 as well as more recent research for the U. S. [Park (1999 and Flores-Lagunes and Light (2007] and other developed countries [Mcguinness (2003 and Antelius (2000 for Europe, for instance, and Bauer et al. for Japan (2004]. Examples of such work for developing countries include Shabbir (1991 for Pakistan, Schady (2003 for the Philippines, and Mora (2008 for Colombia.Testing the sheepskin or credential hypothesis is tantamount to ascertaining if the marginal rate of return to education increases discontinuously for the years when completion diplomas (or degrees are awarded to the individual.Despite the existence of sheepskin effects, very few attempts have been made either for developed or developing countries to specifically try to identify the possible channels by which such effects may exert themselves. Notable exceptions are Flores-Lagunes and Light (2007 for the U. S. and Riddle (2008 for Canada..This paper tries to address this neglected yet important question by empirically exploring this question in the case of Pakistan. Specifically, this paper explores the above question of interpretation of sheepskin effects in the case of Pakistan. Using the IFPRI-sponsored, 1987 Pakistan Survey of Rural Education, Migration and Employment (PSREME, it tests the hypothesis whether observed sheepskin effects are signaling individual innate ability and/or family background. Thus understanding more fully the sheepskin mechanism, will allow us to better appreciate the role of schooling and degree completion in determining earnings.According to the results of this paper, the sheepskin effects prove to be robust both to an inclusion of measures

  17. The emergent Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of macroscopically large systems. This interpretation describes a world in which definite measurement results are obtained with probabilities that reproduce the Born rule. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much larger environment. However, we show that it does not suffer from the problems that have plagued similar modal interpretations like macroscopic superpositions and rapid flipping between macroscopically distinct states. We describe how the interpretation fits neatly together with fully quantum formulations of statistical mechanics and that a measurement process can be viewed as a process of ergodicity breaking analogous to a phase transition. The key feature of the new interpretation is that joint probabilities for the ergodic subsets of states of disjoint macro-systems only arise as emergent quantities. Finally we give an account of the EPR-Bohm thought experiment and show that the interpretation implies the violation of the Bell inequality characteristic of quantum mechanics but in a way that is rather novel. The final conclusion is that the Copenhagen interpretation gives a completely satisfactory phenomenology of macro-systems interacting with micro-systems.

  18. Decomposition of noise signals composed of many similar components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabner, A.; Liewers, P.; Schumann, P.; Weiss, F.P.

    1977-05-01

    The interpretation of noise signals which are composed of many similar components from different noise sources is extremely difficult. By means of an experimental example the possibility of decomposition in the frequency and time domain is demonstrated. (author)

  19. Interpret teaching and teach interpreting: positions assumed in the interpretative act in mainstream contexts for deaf people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrei Gesser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present some descriptions about the educational interpreter performance in the context of a mainstream school, more specifically in the 7th grade with four deaf students included, in which a bilingual project has being carried out. Relying on the assumption that inclusion forces interpreters to activate pedagogical practices during the interpretative act, this investigation payed attention to two phenomena: by one hand, the constructions of temporal spaces in the classroom that claim ties and partnerships between interpreters and teachers, beyond the technical interpretation itself. By the other hand, the configurations regarding interpretative decisions making emerged from pedagogical happenings. The data analysis indicates that there is a switch between the “interpreter-positon” and the “master-position”, being the last activated by the interpreter inner desire in creating ties and connections with deaf students in their learning process; and the former position, as an effect of the interpreter´s own challenges faced daily, in linguistic, cognitive, referential, and physical terms.

  20. Interpret teaching and teach interpreting: positions assumed in the interpretative act in mainstream contexts for deaf people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrei Gesser

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present some descriptions about the educational interpreter performance in the context of a mainstream school, more specifically in the 7th grade with four deaf students included, in which a bilingual project has being carried out. Relying on the assumption that inclusion forces interpreters to activate pedagogical practices during the interpretative act, this investigation payed attention to two phenomena: by one hand, the constructions of temporal spaces in the classroom that claim ties and partnerships between interpreters and teachers, beyond the technical interpretation itself. By the other hand, the configurations regarding interpretative decisions making emerged from pedagogical happenings. The data analysis indicates that there is a switch between the “interpreter-positon” and the “master-position”, being the last activated by the interpreter inner desire in creating ties and connections with deaf students in their learning process; and the former position, as an effect of the interpreter´s own challenges faced daily, in linguistic, cognitive, referential, and physical terms.

  1. Social Context Disambiguates the Interpretation of Laughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, William; McKeown, Gary J; Rychlowska, Magdalena; André, Elisabeth; Wagner, Johannes; Lingenfelser, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Despite being a pan-cultural phenomenon, laughter is arguably the least understood behaviour deployed in social interaction. As well as being a response to humour, it has other important functions including promoting social affiliation, developing cooperation and regulating competitive behaviours. This multi-functional feature of laughter marks it as an adaptive behaviour central to facilitating social cohesion. However, it is not clear how laughter achieves this social cohesion. We consider two approaches to understanding how laughter facilitates social cohesion - the 'representational' approach and the 'affect-induction' approach. The representational approach suggests that laughter conveys information about the expresser's emotional state, and the listener decodes this information to gain knowledge about the laugher's felt state. The affect-induction approach views laughter as a tool to influence the affective state of listeners. We describe a modified version of the affect-induction approach, in which laughter is combined with additional factors - including social context, verbal information, other social signals and knowledge of the listener's emotional state - to influence an interaction partner. This view asserts that laughter by itself is ambiguous: the same laughter may induce positive or negative affect in a listener, with the outcome determined by the combination of these additional factors. Here we describe two experiments exploring which of these approaches accurately describes laughter. Participants judged the genuineness of audio-video recordings of social interactions containing laughter. Unknown to the participants the recordings contained either the original laughter or replacement laughter from a different part of the interaction. When replacement laughter was matched for intensity, genuineness judgements were similar to judgements of the original unmodified recordings. When replacement laughter was not matched for intensity, genuineness

  2. Social Context Disambiguates the Interpretation of Laughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Curran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being a pan-cultural phenomenon, laughter is arguably the least understood behaviour deployed in social interaction. As well as being a response to humour, it has other important functions including promoting social affiliation, developing cooperation and regulating competitive behaviours. This multi-functional feature of laughter marks it as an adaptive behaviour central to facilitating social cohesion. However, it is not clear how laughter achieves this social cohesion. We consider two approaches to understanding how laughter facilitates social cohesion – the ‘representational’ approach and the ‘affect-induction’ approach. The representational approach suggests that laughter conveys information about the expresser’s emotional state, and the listener decodes this information to gain knowledge about the laugher’s felt state. The affect-induction approach views laughter as a tool to influence the affective state of listeners. We describe a modified version of the affect-induction approach, in which laughter is combined with additional factors – including social context, verbal information, other social signals and knowledge of the listener’s emotional state – to influence an interaction partner. This view asserts that laughter by itself is ambiguous: the same laughter may induce positive or negative affect in a listener, with the outcome determined by the combination of these additional factors. Here we describe two experiments exploring which of these approaches accurately describes laughter. Participants judged the genuineness of audio–video recordings of social interactions containing laughter. Unknown to the participants the recordings contained either the original laughter or replacement laughter from a different part of the interaction. When replacement laughter was matched for intensity, genuineness judgements were similar to judgements of the original unmodified recordings. When replacement laughter was not

  3. Environmental isotope survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacovides, J.S.

    1979-03-01

    Work was initiated on the 1st of September 1971 with the objective of finding out how best to use environmental isotopes in the interpretation of the hydrology, particularly subsurface hydrology, of Cyprus through a sparse reconnaissance sampling of all the major aquifers and springs covering the whole island. The distribution of sampling was such that the survey in itself could assist in clarifying particular hydrogeologic problems, provide a better understanding of the water systems of the island, establish a general environmental isotope - framework of the hydrologic regimen of Cyprus as well as to provide the basis for specific, more detailed, studies to be undertaken subsequently

  4. Informal interpreting in general practice: Comparing the perspectives of general practitioners, migrant patients and family interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendedel, Rena; Schouten, Barbara C; van Weert, Julia C M; van den Putte, Bas

    2016-06-01

    To explore differences in perspectives of general practitioners, Turkish-Dutch migrant patients and family interpreters on interpreters' role, power dynamics and trust in interpreted GP consultations. 54 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with the three parties focusing on interpreter's role, power and trust in interpreters. In line with family interpreters' perspective, patients expected the interpreters to advocate on their behalf and felt empowered when they did so. GPs, on the contrary, felt annoyed and disempowered when the family interpreters performed the advocacy role. Family interpreters were trusted by patients for their fidelity, that is, patients assumed that family interpreters would act in their best interest. GPs, on the contrary, mistrusted family interpreters when they perceived dishonesty or a lack of competence. Opposing views were found between GPs on the one hand and family interpreters and patients on the other hand on interpreter's role, power dynamics and the different dimensions of trust. These opposing perspectives might lead to miscommunication and conflicts between the three interlocutors. GPs should be educated to become aware of the difficulties of family interpreting, such as conflicting role expectations, and be trained to be able to call on professional interpreters when needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Architectural design of an Algol interpreter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. K.

    1971-01-01

    The design of a syntax-directed interpreter for a subset of Algol is described. It is a conceptual design with sufficient details and completeness but as much independence of implementation as possible. The design includes a detailed description of a scanner, an analyzer described in the Floyd-Evans productions, a hash-coded symbol table, and an executor. Interpretation of sample programs is also provided to show how the interpreter functions.

  6. Working with interpreters: practical advice for use of an interpreter in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziabdic, Emina; Hjelm, Katarina

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this descriptive commentary is to improve communication in healthcare when an interpreter is used by providing practical advice to healthcare staff when they consider using interpreters. This descriptive commentary considered the issues of preparation and implementation of interpretation sessions to reveal the complexities and dilemmas of an effective healthcare encounter with interpreters. Using the design of a discursive paper, this article seeks to explore and position of what is published in the literature on the topic studied and on the basis of previous studies to provide practical advice on the use of interpreters. The descriptive commentary showed that the interpreter should be used not only as a communication aid but also as a practical and informative guide in the healthcare system. In preparing the interpretation session, it is important to consider the type (trained professional interpreter, family member or bilingual healthcare staff as interpreters) and mode (face to face and telephone) of interpreting. Furthermore, it is important to consider the interpreter's ethnic origin, religious background, gender, language or dialect, social group, clothes, appearance and attitude. During the healthcare encounter, the interpreter should follow the recommendations given in guidelines for interpreters. Healthcare staff should choose an appropriate room and be aware of their own behaviour, appearance and attitude during the healthcare encounter. Good planning is needed, with carefully considered choices concerning the right kind of interpreter, mode of interpretation and individual preferences for the interpretation in order to deliver high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. Depending on the nature of the healthcare encounter, healthcare staff need to plan interpreting carefully and in accordance with the individuals' desires and choose the type of interpreter and mode of interpreting that best suits the need in the actual healthcare situation in

  7. Quaternion-Based Signal Analysis for Motor Imagery Classification from Electroencephalographic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Batres-Mendoza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quaternions can be used as an alternative to model the fundamental patterns of electroencephalographic (EEG signals in the time domain. Thus, this article presents a new quaternion-based technique known as quaternion-based signal analysis (QSA to represent EEG signals obtained using a brain-computer interface (BCI device to detect and interpret cognitive activity. This quaternion-based signal analysis technique can extract features to represent brain activity related to motor imagery accurately in various mental states. Experimental tests in which users where shown visual graphical cues related to left and right movements were used to collect BCI-recorded signals. These signals were then classified using decision trees (DT, support vector machine (SVM and k-nearest neighbor (KNN techniques. The quantitative analysis of the classifiers demonstrates that this technique can be used as an alternative in the EEG-signal modeling phase to identify mental states.

  8. Revisiting organizational interpretation and three types of uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Kristian J.

    2015-01-01

    . Design/methodology/approach – This conceptual paper extends existing conceptual work by distinguishing between general and issue-specific scanning and linking the interpretation process to three different types of perceived uncertainty: state, effect and response uncertainty. Findings – It is proposed...... that might help explain and untangle some of the conflicting empirical results found in the extant literature. The paper illustrates how the literature could benefit from re-conceptualizing the perceived environmental uncertainty construct to take into account different types of uncertainty. Practical...... on existing work by linking the interpretation process to three different types of uncertainty (state, effect and response uncertainty) with several novel and testable propositions. The paper also differentiates clearly general (regular) scanning from issue-specific (irregular) scanning. Finally, the paper...

  9. Representing Interpreters' Knowledge: Why, What, and How?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting is a highly specialized communicative task which requires cooperation of a number of cognitive skills. Execution of these skills in a concrete act of interpreting requires immediate access to various kinds of knowledge, linguistic and non-linguistic. The command of such ......Simultaneous interpreting is a highly specialized communicative task which requires cooperation of a number of cognitive skills. Execution of these skills in a concrete act of interpreting requires immediate access to various kinds of knowledge, linguistic and non-linguistic. The command...

  10. Filtering and frequency interpretations of Singular Spectrum Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. J.; Yuan, Hui

    2010-10-01

    New filtering and spectral interpretations of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) are provided. It is shown that the variables reconstructed from diagonal averaging of reduced-rank approximations to the trajectory matrix can be obtained from a noncausal convolution filter with zero-phase characteristics. The reconstructed variables are readily constructed using a two-pass filtering algorithm that is well known in the signal processing literature. When the number of rows in the trajectory matrix is much larger than number of columns, many results reported in the signal processing literature can be used to derive the properties of the resulting filters and their spectra. New features of the reconstructed series are revealed using these results. Two examples are used to illustrate the results derived in this paper.

  11. Intérprete de língua de sinais legislação e educação: o que temos, ainda, a “escutar” sobre isso?/Interpreter of language of signals, legislation and education: what we have, still, “to hear” of this?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Regina de Oliveira Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A regulamentação da Libras (Língua Brasileira de Sinais, no decreto 5.626/05, traz uma importante mudança na inclusão do surdo sinalizador nas instituições de ensino, passando, agora, a vigorar o direito da presença do intérprete de língua de sinais como mediador dos saberes que circulam a escola. O Decreto aponta a urgência de uma escuta nossa pela “surdez”. Esta nova dinâmica configura outra forma de se fazer sujeito, de lidar com o outro, com o corpo surdo e o ensino de forma geral na sala de aula. Este artigo tem por objetivo refletir as conseqüências advindas desta legislação – na perspectiva filosófica da desconstrução, filiando-se nos saberes de Jacques Derrida e Michel Foucault, usando, também, a psicanálise como chave de leitura das discussões - articulando a prática da atuação do intérprete de língua de sinais já incorporada em uma instituição de ensino superior.The regulation of Libras (Brazilian Sign Language, through the 5.626/05 decree, brings an important change in the inclusion of the deaf signer in educational settings. It starts to be part of the law the right of the sign language interpreter to be present as a mediator of the knowledge that circulates in the school. This new dynamics configures another way of being, of dealing with the other, with the deaf body and with the general education in the classroom. This article aims at reflecting the consequences of this legislation - in the light of Jacques Derrida and the psychoanalytic deconstruction perspective - articulating the performance of one sign language interpreter whose sign language is already incorporated in a superior education institution.

  12. Environmental Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Ekelund, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical subfield environmental aesthetics can contribute to the design of sustainable futures. Environmental aesthetics provides a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between nature and culture. Current positions in environmental aesthetics are lined out and used...

  13. Mind, Matter, Information and Quantum Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Maleeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I give a new information-theoretic analysis of the formalisms and interpretations of quantum mechanics (QM in general, and of two mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics in particular: The Copenhagen interpretation and David Bohm’s interpretation of quantum mechanics. Adopting Juan G. Roederer’s reading of the notion of pragmatic information, I argue that pragmatic information is not applicable to the Copenhagen interpretation since the interpretation is primarily concerned with epistemology rather than ontology. However it perfectly fits Bohm’s ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics in the realms of biotic and artificial systems. Viewing Bohm’s interpretation of QM in the context of pragmatic information imposes serious limitations to the qualitative aspect of such an interpretation, making his extension of the notion active information to every level of reality illegitimate. Such limitations lead to the idea that, contrary to Bohm’s claim, mind is not a more subtle aspect of reality via the quantum potential as active information, but the quantum potential as it affects particles in the double-slit experiment represents the non-algorithmic aspect of the mind as a genuine information processing system. This will provide an information-based ground, firstly, for refreshing our views on quantum interpretations and secondly, for a novel qualitative theory of the relationship of mind and matter in which mind-like properties are exclusive attributes of living systems. To this end, I will also take an information-theoretic approach to the notion of intentionality as interpreted by John Searle.

  14. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Air Pollution: What's the Solution? (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) - A teacher's guide to teaching air pollution that includes curriculum standards, assessments, and lesson rubrics. Sources of Particulate ... Protection Agency) - Information and activity on interpreting graphs to determine ...

  15. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Principles and Spectral Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Larkin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: Principles and Spectral Interpretation explains the background, core principles and tests the readers understanding of the important techniques of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy. These techniques are used by chemists, environmental scientists, forensic scientists etc to identify unknown chemicals. In the case of an organic chemist these tools are part of an armory of techniques that enable them to conclusively prove what compound they have made, which is essential for those being used in medical applications. The book reviews basic principles, instrumentation

  16. Gene set analysis for interpreting genetic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pers, Tune H

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of genome-wide association study (GWAS) results is lacking behind the discovery of new genetic associations. Consequently, there is an urgent need for data-driven methods for interpreting genetic association studies. Gene set analysis (GSA) can identify aetiologic pathways...

  17. Educational principles and techniques for interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. David Boulanger; John P. Smith

    1973-01-01

    Interpretation is in large part education, since it attempts to convey information, concepts, and principles while creating attitude changes and such emotional states as wonder, delight, and appreciation. Although interpreters might profit greatly by formal training in the principles and techniques of teaching, many have not had such training. Some means of making the...

  18. Computerised Analysis, Interpretation, Storage and Retrieval of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of introducing a computerised electrocardiographic analysis and interpretive system as a service to a teaching and referral hospital. Available computer equipment and programmes are considered. The accuracy and quality of the analysis and interpretation of the ...

  19. Extending and embedding the Python interpreter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language. This document describes how to write modules in C or C++ to extend the Python interpreter with new modules. Those modules can define new functions but also new object types and their methods. The document also describes

  20. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    SUMMARY. The aim of this paper is to review the methodology for interpretive qualitative case study research method using ... encourages a quantitative approach to research (Darling and. 40. AJPARS ... Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Aligned with Systems Theory for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Research. Scott ...

  1. Factors influencing children's interpretation and acquisition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipenga

    Issues in idiom interpretation and acquisition. Idiom comprehension and interpretation is said to be affected by several factors such as familiarity of the idiom, linguistic context and transparency/semantic analysability of the idiom. Research has shown that the most familiar idioms are easier to understand than less familiar ...

  2. Against ``Against Many-Worlds Interpretations''

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    The paper entitled ``Against Many-Worlds Interpretations'' by A. Kent, which has recently been submitted to the e-Print archive (gr-qc/9703089) contained some misconceptions. The claims on Everett's many-worlds interpretation are quoted and answered.

  3. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing, no...

  4. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no...

  5. A Graphical Interpretation of Probit Coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, William E.; Waldman, Donald M.

    1989-01-01

    Contends that, when discrete choice models are taught, particularly the probit model, it is the method rather than the interpretation of the results that is emphasized. This article provides a graphical technique for interpretation of an estimated probit coefficient that will be useful in statistics and econometrics courses. (GG)

  6. Designing for collaborative interpretation in telemonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bjørn, Pernille; Kensing, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We investigate why clinicians experience problems interpreting implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) data when the patient is absent, and we explore how to reintroduce patients into the socio-technical setup of telemonitored interpretation practices. Method: An action research stu...

  7. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations and Definitions § 609.920 Interpretations. (a) E-SIGN preempts most statutes and regulations, including the Act... E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an...

  8. Geometrical interpretation and architecture selection of MLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Cheng; Ding, Shenqiang Q; Lee, Tong Heng

    2005-01-01

    A geometrical interpretation of the multilayer perceptron (MLP) is suggested in this paper. Some general guidelines for selecting the architecture of the MLP, i.e., the number of the hidden neurons and the hidden layers, are proposed based upon this interpretation and the controversial issue of whether four-layered MLP is superior to the three-layered MLP is also carefully examined.

  9. A functional interpretation for nonstandard arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, B.; Briseid, E.; Safarik, P.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce constructive and classical systems for nonstandard arithmetic and show how variants of the functional interpretations due to Gödel and Shoenfield can be used to rewrite proofs performed in these systems into standard ones. These functional interpretations show in particular that our

  10. Infusing Counseling Skills in Test Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Melanie E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents an instructional model based on Neurolinguistic Programming that links counseling student course work in measurement and test interpretation with counseling techniques and theory. A process incorporating Neurolinguistic Programming patterns is outlined for teaching graduate students the counseling skills helpful in test interpretation.…

  11. Is interpretation in international law a game?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venzke, I.; Bianchi, A.; Peat, D.; Windsor, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present chapter combines the ubiquitous metaphor of the language of international law with the analogy between interpretation and the playing of games. It argues that interpretation might not be well understood in analogy to games, not if the game is anything like the typical example of chess.

  12. Is interpretation in international law a game?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venzke, I.

    2014-01-01

    The present chapter combines the ubiquitous metaphor of the language of international law with the analogy between interpretation and the playing of games. It asks how to possibly make sense of international law as a language and of interpretation as a game. Above all, it elucidates the linguistic

  13. Integrating Emotions Into the Critical Interpretive Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina Skewes; Hense, Cherry; Medcalf, Laura; Murphy, Melissa; Fairchild, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Critical interpretive synthesis is a particular form of systematic review that critically examines the decisions made by authors while conducting and publishing about their research and practices. It differs from empirical syntheses of qualitative research by emphasizing the interpreted and constructed nature of this form of secondary analysis. In this article, we extend previous literature on critical interpretive syntheses by highlighting the integration of emotional responses when developing critical questions for interrogating the literature and interpreting results. Our extension of the critical interpretive synthesis is illustrated through examples from five studies examining literature in our own field of music therapy, as well as related fields of disability studies, mental health, music psychology, and child welfare. The methodology we have refined uses an iterative and recursive method that promotes increased critical awareness of the assumptions driving the production of research in health contexts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, John G.

    2001-06-01

    The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics [1] was originally published in 1986 and is now about 14 years old. It is an explicitly nonlocal and Lorentz invariant alternative to the Copenhagen interpretation. It interprets the formalism for a quantum interaction as describing a "handshake" between retarded waves (ψ) and advanced waves (ψ*) for each quantum event or "transaction" in which energy, momentum, angular momentum, and other conserved quantities are transferred. The transactional interpretation offers the advantages that (1) it is actually "visible" in the formalism of quantum mechanics, (2) it is economical, involving fewer independent assumptions than its rivals, (3) it is paradox-free, resolving all of the paradoxes of standard quantum theory including nonlocality and wave function collapse, (4) it does not give a privileged role to observers or measurements, and (5) it permits the visualization of quantum events. We will review the transactional interpretation and some of its applications to "quantum paradoxes."

  15. The logical interpretation and the measurement problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuletic, Mark I.

    The measurement problem is one of the two key problems in the foundations of quantum mechanics, carrying with it the seeming implication that instead of the familiar definite states of affairs we think we experience, there typically should exist only phenomenologically ill-defined "superpositions" of such states of affairs. Dissatisfaction with this implication has led to the development of many wildly different interpretations of quantum mechanics, positing everything from pilot waves to splitting universes. A recent tradition of interpretation draws heavily upon decoherence and a "consistent histories" formalism to try to resolve the standard conceptual problems of quantum mechanics. Roland Omnes, one physicist in this tradition, argues that his own "logical interpretation" resolves every paradox and conceptual difficulty raised by quantum mechanics, except for what he calls the "objectification problem." Figuring out what relation the objectification problem has to the measurement problem, and, more generally, what the logical interpretation has to say about the measurement problem, turns out to be very difficult, even with the benefit of correspondence. In my dissertation, I have tried to narrow down the possibilities for what Omnes might have in mind with respect to the measurement problem, and considered whether any of these constitutes an advance over what came before. I conclude that there are two plausible possibilities: either (i) an overly aggressive pragmatic spirit has caused Omnes to fail to even realize that a critical part of the measurement problem exists, or (ii) the logical interpretation is best understood as offering a stochastic hidden factor interpretation, with complementarity operating at the level of the hidden factors, even though Omnes himself would resist describing the logical interpretation in this way. I also conclude that the logical interpretation, far from saving classical logic, actually undermines it. While this may not

  16. Environmental marine geology of the Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudie, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its ice cover are major regulators of Northern Hemisphere climate, ocean circulation and marine productivity. The Arctic is also very sensitive to changes in the global environment because sea ice magnifies small changes in temperature, and because polar regions are sinks for air pollutants. Marine geology studies are being carried out to determine the nature and rate of these environmental changes by study of modem ice and sea-bed environments, and by interpretation of geological records imprinted in the sea-floor sediments. Sea ice camps, an ice island, and polar icebreakers have been used to study both western and eastern Arctic Ocean basins. Possible early warning signals of environmental changes in the Canadian Arctic are die-back in Arctic sponge reefs, outbreaks of toxic dinoflagellates, and pesticides in the marine food chain. Eastern Arctic ice and surface waters are contaminated by freon and radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. At present, different sedimentary processes operate in the pack ice-covered Canadian polar margin than in summer open waters off Alaska and Eurasia. The geological records, however, suggest that a temperature increase of 1-4 degree C would result in summer open water throughout the Arctic, with major changes in ocean circulation and productivity of waters off Eastern North America, and more widespread transport of pollutants from eastern to western Arctic basins. More studies of longer sediment cores are needed to confirm these interpretations, but is is now clear that the Arctic Ocean has been the pacemaker of climate change during the past 1 million years

  17. Signals, systems, transforms, and digital signal processing with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Corinthios, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsIntroductionContinuous-Time SignalsPeriodic FunctionsUnit Step FunctionGraphical Representation of FunctionsEven and Odd Parts of a FunctionDirac-Delta ImpulseBasic Properties of the Dirac-Delta ImpulseOther Important Properties of the ImpulseContinuous-Time SystemsCausality, StabilityExamples of Electrical Continuous-Time SystemsMechanical SystemsTransfer Function and Frequency ResponseConvolution and CorrelationA Right-Sided and a Left-Sided FunctionConvolution with an Impulse and Its DerivativesAdditional Convolution PropertiesCorrelation FunctionProperties of the Correlation FunctionGraphical InterpretationCorrelation of Periodic FunctionsAverage, Energy and Power of Continuous-Time SignalsDiscrete-Time SignalsPeriodicityDifference EquationsEven/Odd DecompositionAverage Value, Energy and Power SequencesCausality, StabilityProblemsAnswers to Selected ProblemsFourier Series ExpansionTrigonometric Fourier SeriesExponential Fourier SeriesExponential versus ...

  18. Everybody Is…Drinking! Interpretation Bias in Problematic Drinkers with and without Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Problematic alcohol use is characterized by disrupted associative processing of environmental clues, where problematic drinkers interpret ambiguous, alcohol-relevant clues in an alcohol-related way. The present study examined the strength of this interpretation bias in a large sample (N = 230) of light and problematic drinkers with and…

  19. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead R Appendix R to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL.... 50, App. R Appendix R to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

  20. Structuring Ethical Interpretations of the Sustainable Development Goals—Concepts, Implications and Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Keitsch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, like the sustainable development (SD concept itself, are open to multifaceted interpretations, and the same is true for their ethical implications. While SDG values are widely accepted as universal, the ethical structure of the SDGs is complex, with differing interpretations and ideas, e.g., on how to regard and value nature. This article is a conceptual attempt to clarify and structure ethical interpretations based on an environmental ethics framework consisting of two branches: anthropocentrism and biocentrism. The aim is to provide an overview of SDG positions and locate them in the wider field of environmental ethics, addressing the human–nature relationship as a recurring topic in the SDGs. Section 1 of this article presents environmental ethics and briefly discusses anthropocentrism and biocentrism. Section 2 outlines ethical similarities of SD and the SDGs and locates representative SDG interpretations within the environmental ethics framework. Section 3 summarizes findings and suggests a possibility of integrating biocentrism and anthropocentrism with regard to the further interpretation and discussion of SDG ethics. Insights from this article will aid researchers in adopting a better overview on ethical positions in the SDG debate.

  1. Comparing species interaction networks along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellissier, Loïc; Albouy, Camille; Bascompte, Jordi; Farwig, Nina; Graham, Catherine; Loreau, Michel; Maglianesi, Maria Alejandra; Melián, Carlos J; Pitteloud, Camille; Roslin, Tomas; Rohr, Rudolf; Saavedra, Serguei; Thuiller, Wilfried; Woodward, Guy; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Gravel, Dominique

    2017-09-22

    Knowledge of species composition and their interactions, in the form of interaction networks, is required to understand processes shaping their distribution over time and space. As such, comparing ecological networks along environmental gradients represents a promising new research avenue to understand the organization of life. Variation in the position and intensity of links within networks along environmental gradients may be driven by turnover in species composition, by variation in species abundances and by abiotic influences on species interactions. While investigating changes in species composition has a long tradition, so far only a limited number of studies have examined changes in species interactions between networks, often with differing approaches. Here, we review studies investigating variation in network structures along environmental gradients, highlighting how methodological decisions about standardization can influence their conclusions. Due to their complexity, variation among ecological networks is frequently studied using properties that summarize the distribution or topology of interactions such as number of links, connectance, or modularity. These properties can either be compared directly or using a procedure of standardization. While measures of network structure can be directly related to changes along environmental gradients, standardization is frequently used to facilitate interpretation of variation in network properties by controlling for some co-variables, or via null models. Null models allow comparing the deviation of empirical networks from random expectations and are expected to provide a more mechanistic understanding of the factors shaping ecological networks when they are coupled with functional traits. As an illustration, we compare approaches to quantify the role of trait matching in driving the structure of plant-hummingbird mutualistic networks, i.e. a direct comparison, standardized by null models and hypothesis

  2. Neuro-ontological interpretation of spiritual experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecska, Ede; Luna, Luis Eduardo

    2006-10-01

    The prevailing neuroscientific paradigm considers information processing within the central nervous system as occurring through hierarchically organized and interconnected neural networks. The hierarchy of neural networks doesn't end at the neuroaxonal level; it incorporates subcellular mechanisms as well. When the size of the hierarchical components reaches the nanometer range and the number of elements exceeds that of the neuroaxonal system, an interface emerges for a possible transition between neurochemical and quantum physical events. "Signal nonlocality", accessed by means of quantum entanglement is an essential feature of the quantum physical domain. The presented interface may imply that some manifestations of altered states of consciousness, unconscious/conscious shifts have quantum origin with significant psychosomatic implications. Healing methods based on altered states of consciousness and common in spiritual or shamanic traditions escape neuroscientific explanations based on classical cognition denoted here as "perceptual-cognitive-symbolic" (characteristic of ordinary states of consciousness). Another channel of information processing, called "direct-intuitive-nonlocal" (characteristic of non-ordinary states of consciousness) is required to be introduced for interpretation. The first one is capable of modeling via symbolism and is more culturally bound due to its psycholinguistic features. The second channel lacks the symbolic mediation, therefore it has more transcultural similarity and practically ineffable for the first one, though culture specific transliteration may occur. Different traditional healing rituals pursue the same end: to destroy "profane" sensibility. The ritual use of hallucinogens, the monotonous drumming, the repeated refrains, the fatigue, the fasting, the dancing and so forth, create a sensory condition which is wide open to the so-called "supernatural". According to contemporary anthropological views, the breakdown of ordinary

  3. The Development of a Greeting Signal in Wild Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Marion N. C.; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Adult chimpanzees produce a unique vocal signal, the pant-grunt, when encountering higher-ranking group members. The behaviour is typically directed to a specific receiver and has thus been interpreted as a "greeting" signal. The alpha male obtains a large share of these calls, followed by the other adult males of the group. In this study, we…

  4. Social Signals, their function, and automatic analysis: A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Pantic, Maja; Bourlard, Hervé; Pentland, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Social Signal Processing (SSP) aims at the analysis of social behaviour in both Human-Human and Human-Computer interactions. SSP revolves around automatic sensing and interpretation of social signals, complex aggregates of nonverbal behaviours through which individuals express their attitudes

  5. Medical interpreters as tools: dangers and challenges in the utilitarian approach to interpreters' roles and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Elaine; Kramer, Eric Mark

    2012-10-01

    This study explores the tensions, challenges, and dangers when a utilitarian view of interpreter is constructed, imposed, and/or reinforced in health care settings. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 26 medical interpreters from 17 different languages and cultures and 39 providers of five specialties. Grounded theory was used for data analysis. The utilitarian view to interpreters' roles and functions influences providers in the following areas: (a) hierarchical structure and unidirectional communication, (b) the interpreter seen as information gatekeeper, (c) the interpreter seen as provider proxy, and (d) interpreter's emotional support perceived as tools. When interpreters are viewed as passive instruments, a utilitarian approach may compromise the quality of care by silencing patients' and interpreters' voice, objectifying interpreters' emotional work, and exploiting patients' needs. Providers need to recognize that a utilitarian approach to the interpreter's role and functions may create interpersonal and ethical dilemmas that compromise the quality of care. By viewing interpreters as smart technology (rather than passive instruments), both providers and interpreters can learn from and co-evolve with each other, allowing them to maintain control over their expertise and to work as collaborators in providing quality care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 2D Stabilised analytic signal method in DC pole-pole potential data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Using analytic signal method, interpretation of pole-pole secondary electric potentials due to 2D conductive/resistive prisms is presented. ... residual separation to separate out residual anom- alies, which are interpreted for geological .... terms, which are used for the semi-quantitative interpretation. 6.1 Computation of ...

  7. The psychotherapist and the sign language interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Ed; Brugmans, Petra

    2006-01-01

    Specialized psychotherapy for deaf people in the Dutch and Western European mental health systems is still a rather young specialism. A key policy principle in Dutch mental health care for the deaf is that they should receive treatment in the language most accessible to them, which is usually Dutch Sign Language (Nederlandse Gebarentaal or NGT). Although psychotherapists for the deaf are trained to use sign language, situations will always arise in which a sign language interpreter is needed. Most psychotherapists have the opinion that working with a sign language interpreter in therapy sessions can be a valuable alternative option but also see it as a second-best solution because of its impact on the therapeutic process. This paper describes our years of collaborationship as a therapist and a sign language interpreter. If this collaborationship is optimal, it can generate a certain "therapeutic power" in the therapy sessions. Achieving this depends largely on the interplay between the therapist and the interpreter, which in our case is the result of literature research and our experiences during the last 17 years. We analyze this special collaborative relationship, which has several dimensions and recurrent themes like, the role conception of the interpreter, situational interpreting, organizing the interpretation setting, or managing therapeutic phenomena during therapy sessions.

  8. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive......Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...

  9. Relevance and the interpretation of literary works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been some discussion about how far relevance theory can help in analysing the interpretation of literary works. Starting from the assumption that literary works are not entirely sui generis but exploit at least some of the abilities used in other varieties of verbal communication, I show how the same theoretical machinery used in analysing the interpretation of ordinary utterances can shed light on the interpretation of literary texts, and touch briefly on two more general issues: how can fictional works be relevant, and how can illocutionary and perlocutionary effects be disentangled in the case of literary works? [translated by Deirdre Wilson].

  10. The information highways of a biotechnological workhorse – signal transduction in Hypocrea jecorina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmoll Monika

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei is one of the most prolific producers of biomass-degrading enzymes and frequently termed an industrial workhorse. To compete for nutrients in its habitat despite its shortcoming in certain degradative enzymes, efficient perception and interpretation of environmental signals is indispensable. A better understanding of these signals as well as their transmission machinery can provide sources for improvement of biotechnological processes. Results The genome of H. jecorina was analysed for the presence and composition of common signal transduction pathways including heterotrimeric G-protein cascades, cAMP signaling, mitogen activated protein kinases, two component phosphorelay systems, proteins involved in circadian rhythmicity and light response, calcium signaling and the superfamily of Ras small GTPases. The results of this survey are discussed in the context of current knowledge in order to assess putative functions as well as potential impact of alterations of the respective pathways. Conclusion Important findings include an additional, bacterial type phospholipase C protein and an additional 6-4 photolyase. Moreover the presence of 4 RGS-(Regulator of G-protein Signaling proteins and 3 GprK-type G-protein coupled receptors comprising an RGS-domain suggest a more complex posttranslational regulation of G-protein signaling than in other ascomycetes. Also the finding, that H. jecorina, unlike yeast possesses class I phosducins which are involved in phototransduction in mammals warrants further investigation. An alteration in the regulation of circadian rhythmicity may be deduced from the extension of both the class I and II of casein kinases, homologues of which are implicated in phosphorylation of FRQ in Neurospora crassa. On the other hand, a shortage in the number of the pathogenicity related PTH11-type G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs as well as a lack of

  11. Transforming the radiological interpretation process: the SCAR TRIP initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Katherine P.; Morin, Richard L.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Carrino, John A.; Erickson, Bradley J.; Horii, Steven C.; Piraino, David W.; Reiner, Bruce I.; Seibert, James A.; Siegel, Eliot L.

    2004-04-01

    The Society for Computer Applications in Radiology (SCAR) Transforming the Radiological Interpretation Process (TRIP) Initiative aims to spearhead research, education, and discovery of innovative solutions to address the problem of information and image data overload. The initiative will foster inter-disciplinary research on technological, environmental and human factors to better manage and exploit the massive amounts of data. TRIP will focus on the following basic objectives: improving the efficiency of interpretation of large data sets, improving the timeliness and effectiveness of communication, and decreasing medical errors. The ultimate goal of the initiative is to improve the quality and safety of patient care. Interdisciplinary research into several broad areas will be necessary to make progress in managing the ever-increasing volume of data. The six concepts involved include: human perception, image processing and computer-aided detection (CAD), visualization, navigation and usability, databases and integration, and evaluation and validation of methods and performance. The result of this transformation will affect several key processes in radiology, including image interpretation; communication of imaging results; workflow and efficiency within the health care enterprise; diagnostic accuracy and a reduction in medical errors; and, ultimately, the overall quality of care.

  12. Investigation on the use of artificial neural networks to overcome the effects of environmental and operational changes on guided waves monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mountassir, M.; Yaacoubi, S.; Dahmene, F.

    2015-07-01

    Intelligent feature extraction and advanced signal processing techniques are necessary for a better interpretation of ultrasonic guided waves signals either in structural health monitoring (SHM) or in nondestructive testing (NDT). Such signals are characterized by at least multi-modal and dispersive components. In addition, in SHM, these signals are closely vulnerable to environmental and operational conditions (EOCs), and can be severely affected. In this paper we investigate the use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to overcome these effects and to provide a reliable damage detection method with a minimal of false indications. An experimental case of study (full scale pipe) is presented. Damages sizes have been increased and their shapes modified in different steps. Various parameters such as the number of inputs and the number of hidden neurons were studied to find the optimal configuration of the neural network.

  13. Ecological fundamentals of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, W.

    1993-01-01

    The book reviews the state of the art of ecological knowledge. The emphasis is on ecosystem theory and in the interpretation of our environment with its irreversible anthropogenic changes. It is an important contribution to deeper knowledge about the ecological fundamentals of environmental protection and the factors that constitute nature's potential. (orig./BBR) [de

  14. Managing Complex Environmental Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    Environmental and public health risks are often handled in a process in which experts, and sometimes policy makers, try their best to quantitatively assess, evaluate and manage risks. This approach harmonises with mainstream interpretations of sustainable development, which aim at defining a desirable relationship between human and natural systems, for instance by policies that define limit values of different forms of disturbances. However, under conditions of high scientific incertitude, diverging values and distrust, this approach is far from satisfactory. The use of cell phones, hazardous chemicals, nuclear or fossil energy systems, and modern biotechnology are examples of activities causing such risks with high complexity. Against this background, a complementary interpretation of the concept of sustainable development is suggested. This interpretation is operationalised through new formulations of three common principles for public risk management; the precautionary principle, the polluter pays principle and the principle of public participation. Implementation of these reformulated principles would challenge some foundations of present mainstream views on environmental decision-making, but would on the other hand contribute to improved practices for long-term human welfare and planetary survival (full text of contribution)

  15. PeakSeeker: a program for interpreting genotypes of mononucleotide repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, James M; Salipante, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Mononucleotide repeat microsatellites are abundant, highly polymorphic DNA sequences, having the potential to serve as valuable genetic markers. Use of mononucleotide microsatellites has been limited by their tendency to produce "stutter", confounding signals from insertions and deletions within the mononucleotide tract that occur during PCR, which complicates interpretation of genotypes by masking the true position of alleles. Consequently, microsatellites with larger rep...

  16. Conceptualizing emotion in healthcare interpreting: A normative approach to interpreters' emotion work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Elaine; Nicodemus, Brenda

    2015-06-22

    By juxtaposing literature in signed language interpreting with that of spoken language interpreting, we provide a narrative review to explore the complexity of emotion management in interpreter-mediated medical encounters. We conduct literature search through library databases and Google Scholar using varied combinations of search terms, including interpreter, emotion, culture, and health care. We first examine (a) interpreters' management and performance of others' emotions, (b) interpreters' management and performance of their own emotions, and (c) impacts of emotion work for healthcare interpreters. By problematizing the roles and functions of emotion and emotion work in interpreter-mediated medical encounters, we propose a normative model to guide future research and practices of interpreters' emotion management in cross-cultural care. Quality and equality of care should serve as the guiding principle for interpreters' decision-making about their emotions and emotion work. Rather than adopting a predetermined practice, interpreters should evaluate and prioritize the various clinical, interpersonal, and therapeutic objectives as they consider the best practice in managing their own and other speakers' emotions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Signal Transduction in Histidine Kinases: Insights from New Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Bhate, Manasi P.; Molnar, Kathleen S.; Goulian, Mark; DeGrado, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Histidine kinases (HKs) are major players in bacterial signaling. There has been an explosion of new HK crystal structures in the last five years. We globally analyze the structures of HKs to yield insights into the mechanisms by which signals are transmitted to and across protein structures in this family. We interpret known enzymological data in the context of new structural data to show how asymmetry across the dimer interface is a key feature of signal transduction in HKs, and discuss how...

  18. Kinetics interpretation model of isothermal martensite reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, J.R.C.

    1976-01-01

    It was discussed details associated to the interpretation of kinetics of martencite heterogeneous nucleation in isothermal reactions. It was proposed a model which allows compute the variation of concentration of preferencial sites nucleation with a volumetric martencite fraction [pt

  19. Interpretive Listening: An Alternative to Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John

    1983-01-01

    Outlines an alternative interpretive approach to listening which is grounded in the hermeneutic phenomenologies of Heidegger, Gadamer, and Ricoeur. Explains four features of this alternative: openness, linguisticality, play, and the fusion of horizons. Discusses conceptual and pedagogical implications. (PD)

  20. Pattern recognition approach to data interpretation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolff, Diane D; Parsons, M. L

    1983-01-01

    An attempt is made in this book to give scientists a detailed working knowledge of the powerful mathematical tools available to aid in data interpretation, especially when confronted with large data...

  1. Applied photo interpretation for airbrush cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, J. L.; Bridges, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    New techniques of cartographic portrayal have been developed for the compilation of maps of lunar and planetary surfaces. Conventional photo interpretation methods utilizing size, shape, shadow, tone, pattern, and texture are applied to computer processed satellite television images. The variety of the image data allows the illustrator to interpret image details by inter-comparison and intra-comparison of photographs. Comparative judgements are affected by illumination, resolution, variations in surface coloration, and transmission or processing artifacts. The validity of the interpretation process is tested by making a representational drawing by an airbrush portrayal technique. Production controls insure the consistency of a map series. Photo interpretive cartographic portrayal skills are used to prepare two kinds of map series and are adaptable to map products of different kinds and purposes.

  2. Interpreters' notes. On the choice of language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale empirical study on note-taking in consecutive interpreting. As data, the study draws on the notes produced by four subjects while interpreting one Spanish source text consecutively into Danish, on the one hand, and one Danish source text into Spanish...... to particular scrutiny here. However, somewhat surprisingly, the results of the analyses indicate that the choice of language in note-taking is governed mainly by the status of the language in the interpreters' language combination, i.e. whether it is an A- or a B-language, and much less by its status......, on the other. The aim of the study is to explore what governs conference interpreters' choice of language for their notes. The categories traditionally used to discuss, describe and explain this choice are those of 'source language' and 'target language', and these categories are therefore subject...

  3. Interpretation of aluminum-alloy weld radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, P. C.; Risch, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    Report proposes radiographic terminology standardization which allows scientific interpretation of radiographic films to replace dependence on individual judgement and experience. Report includes over 50 photographic pages where radiographs of aluminum welds with defects are compared with prepared weld sections photomacrographs.

  4. Statutory Interpretation: General Principles and Recent Trends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costello, George

    2006-01-01

    .... Because the Court has recently placed renewed emphasis on statutory text and somewhat reduced emphasis on legislative history and other interpretive sources extrinsic to the text, this report focuses...

  5. Abstract Interpretation as a Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2013-01-01

    In David Schmidts PhD work he explored the use of denotational semantics as a programming language. It was part of an effort to not only treat formal semantics as specifications but also as interpreters and input to compiler generators. The semantics itself can be seen as a program and one may...... examine different programming styles and ways to represent states. Abstract interpretation is primarily a technique for derivation and specification of program analysis. As with denotational semantics we may also view abstract interpretations as programs and examine the implementation. The main focus...... in this paper is to show that results from higher-order strictness analysis may be used more generally as fixpoint operators for higher-order functions over lattices and thus provide a technique for immediate implementation of a large class of abstract interpretations. Furthermore, it may be seen...

  6. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  7. Abstract Interpretation as a Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Rosendahl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In David Schmidt's PhD work he explored the use of denotational semantics as a programming language. It was part of an effort to not only treat formal semantics as specifications but also as interpreters and input to compiler generators. The semantics itself can be seen as a program and one may examine different programming styles and ways to represent states. Abstract interpretation is primarily a technique for derivation and specification of program analysis. As with denotational semantics we may also view abstract interpretations as programs and examine the implementation. The main focus in this paper is to show that results from higher-order strictness analysis may be used more generally as fixpoint operators for higher-order functions over lattices and thus provide a technique for immediate implementation of a large class of abstract interpretations. Furthermore, it may be seen as a programming paradigm and be used to write programs in a circular style.

  8. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  9. Reconfigurable Analog Signal Processing by Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel D; Chavez, Michael; Chiu, Kwan Lun; Tan, Cheemeng

    2018-01-19

    Living cells are known for their capacity for versatile signal processing, particularly the ability to respond differently to the same stimuli using biochemical networks that integrate environmental signals and reconfigure their dynamic responses. However, the complexity of natural biological networks confounds the discovery of fundamental mechanisms behind versatile signaling. Here, we study one specific aspect of reconfigurable signal processing in which a minimal biological network integrates two signals, using one to reconfigure the network's transfer function with respect to the other, producing an emergent switch between induction and repression. In contrast to known mechanisms, the new mechanism reconfigures transfer functions through genetic networks without extensive protein-protein interactions. These results provide a novel explanation for the versatility of genetic programs, and suggest a new mechanism of signal integration that may govern flexibility and plasticity of gene expression.

  10. Revolutionizing volunteer interpreter services: an evaluation of an innovative medical interpreter education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbún Avalos, Oswaldo; Pennington, Kaylin; Osterberg, Lars

    2013-12-01

    In our ever-increasingly multicultural, multilingual society, medical interpreters serve an important role in the provision of care. Though it is known that using untrained interpreters leads to decreased quality of care for limited English proficiency patients, because of a short supply of professionals and a lack of formalized, feasible education programs for volunteers, community health centers and internal medicine practices continue to rely on untrained interpreters. To develop and formally evaluate a novel medical interpreter education program that encompasses major tenets of interpretation, tailored to the needs of volunteer medical interpreters. One-armed, quasi-experimental retro-pre-post study using survey ratings and feedback correlated by assessment scores to determine educational intervention effects. Thirty-eight students; 24 Spanish, nine Mandarin, and five Vietnamese. The majority had prior interpreting experience but no formal medical interpreter training. Students completed retrospective pre-test and post-test surveys measuring confidence in and perceived knowledge of key skills of interpretation. Primary outcome measures were a 10-point Likert scale for survey questions of knowledge, skills, and confidence, written and oral assessments of interpreter skills, and qualitative evidence of newfound knowledge in written reflections. Analyses showed a statistically significant (P  0.8). The second half of the program was also quantitatively and qualitatively shown to be a vital learning experience, resulting in 18 % more students passing the oral assessments; a 19 % increase in mean scores for written assessments; and a newfound understanding of interpreter roles and ways to navigate them. This innovative program was successful in increasing volunteer interpreters' skills and knowledge of interpretation, as well as confidence in own abilities. Additionally, the program effectively taught how to navigate the roles of the interpreter to maintain

  11. Electrocardiography: A Technologist's Guide to Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Colin; Currie, Geoffrey M; Gilmore, David; Kiat, Hosen

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear medicine technologist works with electrocardiography when performing cardiac stress testing and gated cardiac imaging and when monitoring critical patients. To enhance patient care, basic electrocardiogram interpretation skills and recognition of key arrhythmias are essential for the nuclear medicine technologist. This article provides insight into the anatomy of an electrocardiogram trace, covers basic electrocardiogram interpretation methods, and describes an example case typical in the nuclear medicine environment. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  12. NODAL interpreter for CP/M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, Katsunobu.

    1982-11-01

    A NODAL interpreter which works under CP/M operating system is made for microcomputers. This interpreter language named NODAL-80 has a similar structure to the NODAL of SPS, but its commands, variables, and expressions are modified to increase the flexibility of programming. NODAL-80 also uses a simple intermediate code to make the execution speed fast without imposing any restriction on the dynamic feature of NODAL language. (author)

  13. Intrepretation of work area and environmental sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, P.D.; Alvarez, J.L.; Novick, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    Meaningful interpretation of widely variable airborne contamination measurements is a difficult problem. Exposure limits, action levels, etc., are rigid interpretations of inherently variable environmental or workplace conditions, and are useful for control and regulatory compliance evaluations. Such limits force actions to reduce contamination, but have limited usefulness as benchmarks for evaluating isolated or nonrepresentative measurements. This paper deals with interpretation of exposure based on nonrepresentative sampling. The use of hard limits for interpreting measurements of legal record simplifies judgment during cursory audits; more aggressive questioning of the validity of these records may effectively invalidate them in a courtroom situation

  14. Cling - The LLVM-based C++ Interpreter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Cling (http://cern.ch/cling) is a C++ interpreter, built on top of clang (http://clang.llvm.org) and LLVM (http://llvm.org). Like its predecessor CINT, cling offers an interactive, terminal-like prompt. It enables exploratory programming with rapid edit / run cycles. The ROOT team has more than 15 years of experience with C++ interpreters, and this has been fully exploited in the design of cling. However, matching the concepts of an interpreter to a compiler library is a non-trivial task; we will explain how this is done for cling, and how we managed to implement cling as a small (10,000 lines of code) extension to the clang and llvm libraries. The resulting features clearly show the advantages of basing an interpreter on a compiler. Cling uses clang's praised concise and easy to understand diagnostics. Building an interpreter on top of a compiler library makes the transition between interpreted and compiled code much easier and smoother. We will present the design, e.g. how cling treats the C++ extensions ...

  15. Sustainable development in terms of interpreting the human right to a healthy environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoş Marian Radulescu; Violeta Radulescu

    2012-01-01

    In a context of fundamental human right to a healthy environment should be analyzed and other fundamental rights guaranteed by the constitution on which alone their interpretation in the context of environmental protection is in accordance with the principles of sustainable development of society. And the most important is the right to education because education can be achieved only through public awareness on environmental role in sustainable development. This study aims to explore the role...

  16. FASEB summer research conference on signal transduction in plants. Final report, June 16, 1996--June 21, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomax, T.L.; Quatrano, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    This is the program from the second FASEB conference on Signal Transduction in Plants. Topic areas included the following: environmental signaling; perception and transduction of light signals; signaling in plant microbe interactions; signaling in plant pathogen interactions; cell, cell communication; cytoskeleton, plasma membrane, and cellwall continuum; signaling molecules in plant growth and development I and II. A list of participants is included.

  17. Nuclear arbitration: Interpreting non-proliferation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Peter

    2015-01-01

    At the core of the nuclear non-proliferation regime lie international agreements. These agreements include, inter alia, the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, nuclear co-operation agreements and nuclear export control agreements.1 States, however, do not always comply with their obligations under these agreements. In response, commentators have proposed various enforcement mechanisms to promote compliance. The inconvenient truth, however, is that states are generally unwilling to consent to enforcement mechanisms concerning issues as critical to national security as nuclear non-proliferation.3 This article suggests an alternative solution to the non-compliance problem: interpretation mechanisms. Although an interpretation mechanism does not have the teeth of an enforcement mechanism, it can induce compliance by providing an authoritative interpretation of a legal obligation. Interpretation mechanisms would help solve the non-compliance problem because, as this article shows, in many cases of alleged non-compliance with a non-proliferation agreement, the fundamental problem has been the lack of an authoritative interpretation of the agreement, not the lack of an enforcement mechanism. Specifically, this article proposes arbitration as the proper interpretation mechanism for non-proliferation agreements. It advocates the establishment of a 'Nuclear Arbitration Centre' as an independent branch of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and recommends the gradual introduction of arbitration clauses into the texts of non-proliferation agreements. Section I begins with a discussion of international agreements in general and the importance of interpretation and enforcement mechanisms. Section II then discusses nuclear non-proliferation agreements and their lack of interpretation and enforcement mechanisms. Section III examines seven case studies of alleged non-compliance with non-proliferation agreements in order to show that the main problem in many cases

  18. Critical Environmental Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR SOROCOVSCHI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A short etymological interpretation of the notion of regions (Rette Lineatte, etc.. The region is: R= f (S+P, where S is space and P is power. There follows an evaluation of the characteristics of the region and the presentation of different approaches to the region. From the classic ideas (von Humboldt, 1885, Dokuceaev, 1899, Herbertson, 1905, and others we get to a wide interpretative array of what we accept as organizational spatial units of geographical reality. The environmental region has important connotations with regard to the system as a surrounded element (man, society and the adjacent system. Critical environmental regions are areas where there already exists interactive degradation. The critical character may be physical, hence the “geocritical regions” or the result of human impact, hence the “anthropocritical regions.” Critical situations are differentiated at the local, regional, and global level. In order to understand critical regional situations we must refer to the following characteristics: fragility, resilience, and vulnerability. Still there are few environmental studies on critical regions and work must be done in this field.

  19. Viewpoint Environmental Slogans: Memes with Diverging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental slogans can be seen as memes, i.e. cultural constructs that, not unlike genes, replicate themselves from one generation to the next. Memes may, however, be divergently interpreted and some memes can even have unwanted side-effects. We wanted to find out how supporters of an environmental ...

  20. Historicising and Globalising the African Environmental Condition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nevertheless, much of these scholarly debates configure environmentalism in colonial and neocolonial terms, thereby interpreting the historical roots and environmental impact of globalisation. This article, however, argues that Africa's high population, its chronic poverty and the fact that the continent is geologically old must ...

  1. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Impacts Assessment has been developed as a critically substantial approach to determine, predict and interpret the ecological impact on the environment, public hygiene and healthy ecosystems. This study aims to introduce and systematically investigate the environmental issues during important ...

  2. Interpreter perspectives of in-person, telephonic, and videoconferencing medical interpretation in clinical encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erika Leemann; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Nickleach, Dana; López, Monica; Karliner, Leah S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine professional medical interpreters’ perspectives of in-person and remote interpreting modalities. Methods Survey of interpreters at three medical centers assessing satisfaction with aspects of communication using each modality, and adequacy of videoconferencing medical interpretation (VMI) and telephonic interpretation for 21 common clinical scenarios in the hospital and ambulatory care settings. Results 52 interpreters completed the survey (73% response). All modalities were equally satisfactory for conveying information. Respondents favored in-person to telephonic interpretation for establishing rapport (95% versus 71%, p = .002) and for facilitating clinician understanding of patients’ social and cultural backgrounds (92% versus 69%, p = .002). Scenarios with substantial educational or psychosocial dimensions had no more than 70% of respondents rating telephonic interpretation as adequate (25–70%); for all of these scenarios, VMI represented an improvement (52–87%). Conclusion From the interpreter perspective, telephonic interpretation is satisfactory for information exchange, but less so for interpersonal aspects of communication. In scenarios where telephonic interpretation does not suffice, particularly those with substantial educational or psychosocial components, VMI offers improved communication. Practice implications Differences in interpreters’ perspectives of modalities based on communication needs and clinical scenario suggest mixed use of multiple modalities may be the best language access strategy. PMID:21930360

  3. Improving the effectiveness of interpreted consultations: Australian interpreter, general practitioner and patient perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Nancy; Farley, Rebecca; Claudio, Fernanda; Avila, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    Healthcare consultations with patients lacking English proficiency are challenging for all parties, even in Australian primary care where the engagement of interpreters is encouraged and fully subsidised. Our objective was to understand these challenges from the perspectives of interpreters, patients and general practitioners in order to improve the effectiveness of interpreted consultations. Our investigator team approached the interpreted consultation as an interprofessional collaboration. A convenience sample of seven general practitioners, eight health interpreters and six representatives from culturally and linguistically diverse communities (representing the patient perspective) participated in three separate focus group discussions, lasting 60-90 min each, exploring participant experiences with healthcare consultations in which interpreters were present. Two semistructured interviews were undertaken subsequently with three additional community representatives purposively recruited to increase participant diversity. Data were collected in 2016 and analysed inductively using a method of constant comparison to identify, and reach consensus on, key emerging themes. All participant groups emphasised the importance of working with trained interpreters, rather than relying on family interpreters or a doctor's own second language skills. Although participants reported experiences of effective interpreted consultations, other reports suggested that some doctors are unaware of, or have difficulty following, accepted guidelines about speech, gaze and turn-taking. Challenges identified in relation to interpreted consultations fell into the five themes of contextual constraints, consultation complexity, communication difficulties, the interpreter role and collaboration. Some general practitioner participants appeared to be unsure and anxious about the etiquette of interpreted consultations, and there was some confusion between and within participant groups about

  4. Environmental Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  5. Environmental Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's modeling community is working to gain insights into certain parts of a physical, biological, economic, or social system by conducting environmental assessments for Agency decision making to complex environmental issues.

  6. Environmental management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guicherit, R.

    1996-01-01

    Elements of a national environmental management system include: • monitoring networks to establish the prevailing environmental quality; • emission inventories, and projected emission inventories based on population growth, increase of traffic density, and economie growth; taking into account

  7. Environmental Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Geophysics website features geophysical methods, terms and references; forward and inverse geophysical models for download; and a decision support tool to guide geophysical method selection for a variety of environmental applications.

  8. Environmental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering's environmental control study is assisted by NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center's programs in environmental analyses. Company is engaged primarily in design of such facilities as electrical utilities, industrial plants, wastewater treatment systems, dams and reservoirs and aviation installations. Company also conducts environmental engineering analyses and advises clients as to the environmental considerations of a particular construction project. Company makes use of many COSMIC computer programs which have allowed substantial savings.

  9. Direct coupling of haptic signals between hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupin, Lucile; Hayward, Vincent; Wexler, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Although motor actions can profoundly affect the perceptual interpretation of sensory inputs, it is not known whether the combination of sensory and movement signals occurs only for sensory surfaces undergoing movement or whether it is a more general phenomenon. In the haptic modality, the independent movement of multiple sensory surfaces poses a challenge to the nervous system when combining the tactile and kinesthetic signals into a coherent percept. When exploring a stationary object, the tactile and kinesthetic signals come from the same hand. Here we probe the internal structure of haptic combination by directing the two signal streams to separate hands: one hand moves but receives no tactile stimulation, while the other hand feels the consequences of the first hand’s movement but remains still. We find that both discrete and continuous tactile and kinesthetic signals are combined as if they came from the same hand. This combination proceeds by direct coupling or transfer of the kinesthetic signal from the moving to the feeling hand, rather than assuming the displacement of a mediating object. The combination of signals is due to perception rather than inference, because a small temporal offset between the signals significantly degrades performance. These results suggest that the brain simplifies the complex coordinate transformation task of remapping sensory inputs to take into account the movements of multiple body parts in haptic perception, and they show that the effects of action are not limited to moving sensors. PMID:25548179

  10. Environmental challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility

  11. Environmental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The European Bank has pledged in its Agreement to place environmental management at the forefront of its operations to promote sustainable economic development in central and eastern Europe. The Bank's environmental policy is set out in the document titled, Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach. This document, Environmental Procedures, presents the procedures which the European Bank has adopted to implement this policy approach with respect to its operations. The environmental procedures aim to: ensure that throughout the project approval process, those in positions of responsibility for approving projects are aware of the environmental implications of the project, and can take these into account when making decisions; avoid potential liabilities that could undermine the success of a project for its sponsors and the Bank; ensure that environmental costs are estimated along with other costs and liabilities; and identify opportunities for environmental enhancement associated with projects. The review of environmental aspects of projects is conducted by many Bank staff members throughout the project's life. This document defines the responsibilities of the people and groups involved in implementing the environmental procedures. Annexes contain Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach, examples of environmental documentation for the project file and other ancillary information

  12. Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Glover, Bhim Adhikari and Isabelle Proulx

    The Environmental Economics program aims to identify the underlying causes of environmental degradation and design responses that are effective, efficient, and equitable. Finding solutions to environmental problems is an interdisciplinary task, but economists can contribute to this work by estimating the monetary value of ...

  13. Strigolactone versus gibberellin signaling: reemerging concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Eva-Sophie; López-Salmerón, Vadir; Greb, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    In this review, we compare knowledge about the recently discovered strigolactone signaling pathway and the well established gibberellin signaling pathway to identify gaps of knowledge and putative research directions in strigolactone biology. Communication between and inside cells is integral for the vitality of living organisms. Hormonal signaling cascades form a large part of this communication and an understanding of both their complexity and interactive nature is only beginning to emerge. In plants, the strigolactone (SL) signaling pathway is the most recent addition to the classically acting group of hormones and, although fundamental insights have been made, knowledge about the nature and impact of SL signaling is still cursory. This narrow understanding is in spite of the fact that SLs influence a specific spectrum of processes, which includes shoot branching and root system architecture in response, partly, to environmental stimuli. This makes these hormones ideal tools for understanding the coordination of plant growth processes, mechanisms of long-distance communication and developmental plasticity. Here, we summarize current knowledge about SL signaling and employ the well-characterized gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway as a scaffold to highlight emerging features as well as gaps in our knowledge in this context. GA signaling is particularly suitable for this comparison because both signaling cascades share key features of hormone perception and of immediate downstream events. Therefore, our comparative view demonstrates the possible level of complexity and regulatory interfaces of SL signaling.

  14. 2007 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratel,K.

    2008-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report is written to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of the Laboratory's environmental performance during the calendar year in review. Volume I of the SER summarizes environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, federal, state, and local regulations; and performance in restoration and surveillance monitoring programs. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. Volume II of the SER, the Groundwater Status Report, also is prepared annually to report on the status of and evaluate the performance of groundwater treatment systems at the Laboratory. Volume II includes detailed technical summaries of groundwater data and its interpretation, and is intended for internal BNL users, regulators, and other technically oriented stakeholders. A brief summary of the information contained in Volume II is included in this volume in Chapter 7, Groundwater Protection. Both reports are available in print and as downloadable files on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.gov/ewms/ser/. An electronic version on compact disc is distributed with each printed report. In addition, a summary of Volume I is prepared each year to provide a general overview of the report, and is distributed with a compact disc containing the-length report.

  15. Signal Processing and Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, J.; Slump, C.H.; Lagendijk, R.L.; Tolhuizen, L.M.G.M.; de With, P.H.N.

    2004-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing (DSP) concerns the theoretical and practical aspects of representing information-bearing signals in digital form and the use of processors or special purpose hardware to extract that information or to transform the signals in useful ways. Areas where digital signal

  16. Retroactive signaling in short signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques-Alexandre Sepulchre

    Full Text Available In biochemical signaling pathways without explicit feedback connections, the core signal transduction is usually described as a one-way communication, going from upstream to downstream in a feedforward chain or network of covalent modification cycles. In this paper we explore the possibility of a new type of signaling called retroactive signaling, offered by the recently demonstrated property of retroactivity in signaling cascades. The possibility of retroactive signaling is analysed in the simplest case of the stationary states of a bicyclic cascade of signaling cycles. In this case, we work out the conditions for which variables of the upstream cycle are affected by a change of the total amount of protein in the downstream cycle, or by a variation of the phosphatase deactivating the same protein. Particularly, we predict the characteristic ranges of the downstream protein, or of the downstream phosphatase, for which a retroactive effect can be observed on the upstream cycle variables. Next, we extend the possibility of retroactive signaling in short but nonlinear signaling pathways involving a few covalent modification cycles.

  17. Signal verification can promote reliable signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Mark; Ruxton, Graeme D; Schaefer, H Martin

    2013-11-22

    The central question in communication theory is whether communication is reliable, and if so, which mechanisms select for reliability. The primary approach in the past has been to attribute reliability to strategic costs associated with signalling as predicted by the handicap principle. Yet, reliability can arise through other mechanisms, such as signal verification; but the theoretical understanding of such mechanisms has received relatively little attention. Here, we model whether verification can lead to reliability in repeated interactions that typically characterize mutualisms. Specifically, we model whether fruit consumers that discriminate among poor- and good-quality fruits within a population can select for reliable fruit signals. In our model, plants either signal or they do not; costs associated with signalling are fixed and independent of plant quality. We find parameter combinations where discriminating fruit consumers can select for signal reliability by abandoning unprofitable plants more quickly. This self-serving behaviour imposes costs upon plants as a by-product, rendering it unprofitable for unrewarding plants to signal. Thus, strategic costs to signalling are not a prerequisite for reliable communication. We expect verification to more generally explain signal reliability in repeated consumer-resource interactions that typify mutualisms but also in antagonistic interactions such as mimicry and aposematism.

  18. Formalism and Interpretation in Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilce, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    Quantum Mechanics can be viewed as a linear dynamical theory having a familiar mathematical framework but a mysterious probabilistic interpretation, or as a probabilistic theory having a familiar interpretation but a mysterious formal framework. These points of view are usually taken to be somewhat in tension with one another. The first has generated a vast literature aiming at a “realistic” and “collapse-free” interpretation of quantum mechanics that will account for its statistical predictions. The second has generated an at least equally large literature aiming to derive, or at any rate motivate, the formal structure of quantum theory in probabilistically intelligible terms. In this paper I explore, in a preliminary way, the possibility that these two programmes have something to offer one another. In particular, I show that a version of the measurement problem occurs in essentially any non-classical probabilistic theory, and ask to what extent various interpretations of quantum mechanics continue to make sense in such a general setting. I make a start on answering this question in the case of a rudimentary version of the Everett interpretation.

  19. DIFFICULTY OF AMENDMENT AND INTERPRETATIVE CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Coan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme difficulty of amending the U.S. Constitution plays a central but largely unexamined role in theoretical debates over interpretive choice. In particular, conventional wisdom assumes that the extreme difficulty of Article V amendment weakens the case for originalism. This view might ultimately be correct, but it is not the freestanding argument against originalism it is often presumed to be. Rather, it depends on contestable normative and empirical premises that require defense. If those premises are wrong, the stringency of Article V might actually strengthen the case for originalism. Or Article V might have no impact on that case one way or another. This “complexity thesis” highlights and clarifies the role that difficulty of amendment plays across a range of significant interpretive debates, including those surrounding writtenness, John Hart Ely’s representation-reinforcement theory, interpretive pluralism, and originalism as a theory of positive law. It also has important implications for the under-studied relations between statutory and constitutional interpretation and federal and state constitutional interpretation.

  20. Interpretive bias, repressive coping, and trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, James J; McNally, Maria A; Skariah, Ancy; Butt, Ayesha A; Eysenck, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    According to vigilance-avoidance theory, repressors have an avoidant interpretive bias, i.e., they interpret ambiguous self-relevant situations in a nonthreatening fashion. This study sought to demarcate the range of situations associated with avoidant interpretive bias in repressors. Four groups of participants, representing the four combinations of low- and high-trait anxiety and defensiveness, were identified. Those low in trait anxiety and high in defensiveness were categorized as repressors. Participants (N = 163) rated their likelihood of making both threatening and nonthreatening interpretations of 32 ambiguous scenarios over four domains: social, intellectual, physical, and health. Half the scenarios were self-relevant and half were other relevant. Brief measures of state anxiety were taken after each likelihood rating. Repressors displayed an avoidant interpretive bias for ambiguous threats in the social and intellectual domains but not the health or physical domains. This was due to repressors' low level of trait anxiety rather than their high defensiveness. Individuals high in trait anxiety are especially sensitive to situations involving social evaluation but not those characterized by danger to their health or physical well-being.

  1. From Copenhagen to Neo-Copenhagen Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Muynck, Willem M.

    2007-12-01

    Positive and negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation are discussed. As positive features can be mentioned its pragmatism and its awareness of the crucial role of measurement. However, the main part of the contribution is devoted to the negative features, to wit, its pragmatism (once again), its confounding of preparation and measurement, its classical account of measurement, its completeness claims, the ambiguity of its notion of correspondence, its confused notion of complementarity. It is demonstrated how confusions and paradoxes stemming from the negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation can be dealt with in an amended interpretation, to be referred to as `neo-Copenhagen interpretation', in which the role of the measuring instrument is taken seriously by recognizing the quantum mechanical character of its interaction with the microscopic object. The ensuing necessity of extending the notion of a quantum mechanical observable from the Hermitian operator of the standard formalism to the positive operator-valued measure of a generalized formalism yields a sound mathematical basis for a transition from the Copenhagen contextualistic-realist interpretation to the neo-Copenhagen empiricist one. Applications to the uncertainty relations and to the Bell inequalities are briefly discussed.

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart M of... - Interpretive Rule Governing Roof Removal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretive Rule Governing Roof Removal Operations A Appendix A to Subpart M of Part 61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... indicated as the reason for not wetting, records must be kept of the temperature at the beginning, middle...

  3. Reading, Learning and Enacting: Interpretation at Visitor Sites in the Wet Tropics Rainforest of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Karen Elizabeth; Prideaux, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The northern Wet Tropics rainforest of Australia was declared a world heritage site in 1988 and now supports an extensive tourism industry that attracts an estimated 2.5 million local and international visits annually. As part of the visitor experience, many sites include both environmental and cultural interpretation experiences, which range from…

  4. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K.

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST) [de

  5. Elementary signaling modes predict the essentiality of signal transduction network components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Sheng; Albert, Réka

    2011-03-22

    Understanding how signals propagate through signaling pathways and networks is a central goal in systems biology. Quantitative dynamic models help to achieve this understanding, but are difficult to construct and validate because of the scarcity of known mechanistic details and kinetic parameters. Structural and qualitative analysis is emerging as a feasible and useful alternative for interpreting signal transduction. In this work, we present an integrative computational method for evaluating the essentiality of components in signaling networks. This approach expands an existing signaling network to a richer representation that incorporates the positive or negative nature of interactions and the synergistic behaviors among multiple components. Our method simulates both knockout and constitutive activation of components as node disruptions, and takes into account the possible cascading effects of a node's disruption. We introduce the concept of elementary signaling mode (ESM), as the minimal set of nodes that can perform signal transduction independently. Our method ranks the importance of signaling components by the effects of their perturbation on the ESMs of the network. Validation on several signaling networks describing the immune response of mammals to bacteria, guard cell abscisic acid signaling in plants, and T cell receptor signaling shows that this method can effectively uncover the essentiality of components mediating a signal transduction process and results in strong agreement with the results of Boolean (logical) dynamic models and experimental observations. This integrative method is an efficient procedure for exploratory analysis of large signaling and regulatory networks where dynamic modeling or experimental tests are impractical. Its results serve as testable predictions, provide insights into signal transduction and regulatory mechanisms and can guide targeted computational or experimental follow-up studies. The source codes for the algorithms

  6. Environmental research and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    At the request of the Ministry for Research and Technology, the 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Grossforschungseinrichtungen' (AGF) presented in 1972 an information brochure called 'Activities in the field of environmental research and environmental protection', closely associated with the environmental programme of the Federal government (1971). The information brochure reports on those activities of the working group's members which are closely, or less closely, connected with questions concerning environmental research and protection, however, investments for the protection of the individual facilities in internal operation are excluded. The AGF programme 'Environmental research and environmental protection' comprises contributions, brought up to date, of member companies. From the 'AGF programme survey 1974' it contains 'Environmental research' as well as aspects of nuclear development with environmental relevance. Technologies not harmful to the environment developed by the research facilities are only mentioned very briefly. (orig.) [de

  7. Environmental radioactivity survey in Andong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Zi Hong; Jo, Kum Ju [Andong Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal level in Andong area and to provide a base-line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity levels in case of any radiological emergency situation. The project is important in view of protecting the public health from the potential hazards of radiation and keeping up the clean environment. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring samples Gamma exposure rates, airborne dust, precipitation, fall-out and drinking-water. Environmental samples 2 kinds of indicator plant, 4 kinds of mushroom, 7 kinds of nut and seeds, and drinking waters. Among the all 2002 radiological monitoring and environmental data in Andong area were not found the extraordinary data. And a nation-wide environmental radiation/radioactivity level survey results were all background levels attributed to terrestrial and cosmic radiation.

  8. (Environmental technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  9. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  10. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers Geor...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on.......Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...

  11. Ultrasonic guided wave interpretation for structural health inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Jill Paisley

    Structural Health Management (SHM) combines the use of onboard sensors with artificial intelligence algorithms to automatically identify and monitor structural health issues. A fully integrated approach to SHM systems demands an understanding of the sensor output relative to the structure, along with sophisticated prognostic systems that automatically draw conclusions about structural integrity issues. Ultrasonic guided wave methods allow us to examine the interaction of multimode signals within key structural components. Since they propagate relatively long distances within plate- and shell-like structures, guided waves allow inspection of greater areas with fewer sensors, making this technique attractive for a variety of applications. This dissertation describes the experimental development of automatic guided wave interpretation for three real world applications. Using the guided wave theories for idealized plates we have systematically developed techniques for identifying the mass loading of underwater limpet mines on US Navy ship hulls, characterizing type and bonding of protective coatings on large diameter pipelines, and detecting the thinning effects of corrosion on aluminum aircraft structural stringers. In each of these circumstances the signals received are too complex for interpretation without knowledge of the guided wave physics. We employ a signal processing technique called the Dynamic Wavelet Fingerprint Technique (DFWT) in order to render the guided wave mode information in two-dimensional binary images. The use of wavelets allows us to keep track of both time and scale features from the original signals. With simple image processing we have developed automatic extraction algorithms for features that correspond to the arrival times of the guided wave modes of interest for each of the applications. Due to the dispersive nature of the guided wave modes, the mode arrival times give details of the structure in the propagation path. For further

  12. Interpretation of growth hormone provocative tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Orskov, H; Ranke, M B

    1995-01-01

    To compare interpretations of growth hormone (GH) provocative tests in laboratories using six different GH immunoassays (one enzymeimmunometric assay (EIMA, assay 1), one immunoradiometric assay (IRMA, assay 5), one time-resolved fluorimmunometric assay (TRFIA, assay 3) and three radioimmunoassays...... (RIAs, assays 2, 4 and 6)), aliquots of peak samples from GH provocative tests were distributed between the four participating laboratories, quantified in the respective immunoassays and interpreted according to the cut-off values for provocative tests defined for each assay method. There was a high...... measured in the various assay methods varied, there was good agreement between the interpretation of a given sample among the participating laboratories. This indicates that the differences in estimates of serum GH concentration by different immunoassay systems can be compensated for when cut-off values...

  13. Formalism and physical interpretation in Schroedinger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paty, M.

    1992-01-01

    The question of the relation between a formalism and its physical interpretation arises not only when theoretical and conceptual systems are reorganized, but in the theoretical elaboration as well. The Schroedinger's work and thought are examined in this paper with this double concern. His work on the mathematical formalism is constantly sustained by a proper physical thought which takes the form of a wave intuition that guarantees him intelligibility. Concerning his interpretation of quantum mechanics, his thought remains characterized, through its evolution, by a w ave image of the world . The way he deals with space-time structure in General Relativity and favours the possibility of a direct interpretation of space-time geometrical quantities, is also studied. (author). 75 refs

  14. Interpreting Results from the Multinomial Logit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This article provides guidelines and illustrates practical steps necessary for an analysis of results from the multinomial logit model (MLM). The MLM is a popular model in the strategy literature because it allows researchers to examine strategic choices with multiple outcomes. However, there seem...... to be systematic issues with regard to how researchers interpret their results when using the MLM. In this study, I present a set of guidelines critical to analyzing and interpreting results from the MLM. The procedure involves intuitive graphical representations of predicted probabilities and marginal effects...... suitable for both interpretation and communication of results. The pratical steps are illustrated through an application of the MLM to the choice of foreign market entry mode....

  15. Interpretation of emotionally ambiguous faces in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucks, Romola S; Garner, Matthew; Tarrant, Louise; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin

    2008-11-01

    Research suggests that there is an age-related decline in the processing of negative emotional information, which may contribute to the reported decline in emotional problems in older people. We used a signal detection approach to investigate the effect of normal aging on the interpretation of ambiguous emotional facial expressions. High-functioning older and younger adults indicated which emotion they perceived when presented with morphed faces containing a 60% to 40% blend of two emotions (mixtures of happy, sad, or angry faces). They also completed measures of mood, perceptual ability, and cognitive functioning. Older and younger adults did not differ significantly in their ability to discriminate between positive and negative emotions. Response-bias measures indicated that older adults were significantly less likely than younger adults to report the presence of anger in angry-happy face blends. Results are discussed in relation to other research into age-related effects on emotion processing.

  16. Exploring untrained interpreters' use of direct versus indirect speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    2005-01-01

    scripted role play. The subjects were untrained Arabic interpreters working for a Danish agency. Two of the four interpreters favoured the direct style of interpreting. The other two favoured the indirect style. The findings show that all four interpreters tended to identify with the patient...... override the quasi-directness of communication between primary participants, which is connected with interpreting in the first person....

  17. What's in a word? Conflicting interpretations of vulnerability in climate change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Karen; Eriksen, Siri; Schjolden, Ane; Nygaard, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss two competing interpretations of vulnerability in the climate change literature and consider the implications for both research and policy. The first interpretation, which can be referred to as the ''end point'' approach, views vulnerability as a residual of climate change impacts minus adaptation. The second interpretation, which takes vulnerability as a ''starting point'', views vulnerability as a general characteristic generated by multiple factors and processes. Viewing vulnerability as an end point considers that adaptations and adaptive capacity determine vulnerability, whereas viewing vulnerability as a starting point holds that vulnerability determines adaptive capacity. The practical consequences of these two interpretations are illustrated through the examples of Norway and Mozambique. We show that, if the underlying causes and contexts of vulnerability are not taken into account, there is a danger of underestimating the magnitude (large), scope (social arid environmental) and urgency (high) of climate change. (author)

  18. Competency in ECG Interpretation Among Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, Grzegorz; Magoń, Wojciech; Hołda, Mateusz; Podolec, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Background Electrocardiogram (ECG) is commonly used in diagnosis of heart diseases, including many life-threatening disorders. We aimed to assess skills in ECG interpretation among Polish medical students and to analyze the determinants of these skills. Material/Methods Undergraduates from all Polish medical schools were asked to complete a web-based survey containing 18 ECG strips. Questions concerned primary ECG parameters (rate, rhythm, and axis), emergencies, and common ECG abnormalities. Analysis was restricted to students in their clinical years (4th–6th), and students in their preclinical years (1st–3rd) were used as controls. Results We enrolled 536 medical students (females: n=299; 55.8%), aged 19 to 31 (23±1.6) years from all Polish medical schools. Most (72%) were in their clinical years. The overall rate of good response was better in students in years 4th–5th than those in years 1st–3rd (66% vs. 56%; pCompetency in ECG interpretation was higher in students who reported ECG self-learning (69% vs. 62%; pstudents who attended or did not attend regular ECG classes (66% vs. 66%; p=0.99). On multivariable analysis (pyears (OR: 2.45 [1.35–4.46] and self-learning (OR: 2.44 [1.46–4.08]) determined competency in ECG interpretation. Conclusions Polish medical students in their clinical years have a good level of competency in interpreting the primary ECG parameters, but their ability to recognize ECG signs of emergencies and common heart abnormalities is low. ECG interpretation skills are determined by self-education but not by attendance at regular ECG classes. Our results indicate qualitative and quantitative deficiencies in teaching ECG interpretation at medical schools. PMID:26541993

  19. Convex Regression with Interpretable Sharp Partitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ashley; Simon, Noah; Witten, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable on the basis of a small number of covariates, using an interpretable yet non-additive model. We propose convex regression with interpretable sharp partitions (CRISP) for this task. CRISP partitions the covariate space into blocks in a data-adaptive way, and fits a mean model within each block. Unlike other partitioning methods, CRISP is fit using a non-greedy approach by solving a convex optimization problem, resulting in low-variance fits. We explore the properties of CRISP, and evaluate its performance in a simulation study and on a housing price data set.

  20. Gestalt descriptions embodiments and medical image interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Jan Kyrre Berg Olsen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I will argue that medical specialists interpret and diagnose through technological mediations like X-ray and fMRI images, and by actualizing embodied skills tacitly they are determining the identity of objects in the perceptual field. The initial phase of human interpretation...... of visual perception. My argument is that biology, society and instruments constitute unique individual ontologies influencing specialist readings of the technological output, in other words, putting limits on the “truth-to-nature” relation, which is so much sought for in science....

  1. Noncommutative quantum mechanics and Bohm's ontological interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, G.D.; Pinto-Neto, N.

    2004-01-01

    We carry out an investigation into the possibility of developing a Bohmian interpretation based on the continuous motion of point particles for noncommutative quantum mechanics. The conditions for such an interpretation to be consistent are determined, and the implications of its adoption for noncommutativity are discussed. A Bohmian analysis of the noncommutative harmonic oscillator is carried out in detail. By studying the particle motion in the oscillator orbits, we show that small-scale physics can have influence at large scales, something similar to the IR-UV mixing

  2. Two interpretive systems for natural language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-02-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system is one that uses the grammar together with knowledge of how the human production system works. It is token based and only delivers plausible meanings, including meanings based on a repaired input when the input might have been produced as a speech error.

  3. Aiding the Interpretation of Ancient Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    How can Decision Support System (DSS) software aid the interpretation process involved in the reading of ancient documents? This paper discusses the development of a DSS prototype for the reading of ancient texts. In this context the term ‘ancient documents’ is used to describe mainly Greek...... tool it is important first to comprehend the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents. This is not a linear process but rather a recursive process where the scholar moves between different levels of reading, such as ‘understanding the meaning of a character’ or ‘understanding...

  4. Statistical interpretation of CMS search results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frensch, Felix [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    To be able to draw conclusion from physical results, one has to interpret them in a statistical way. This is especially true for High Energy Physics like experiments on the Large Hadron Collider at Cern in Genf. The treatment of systematic uncertainties is ambiguous and makes statistic approaches highly nontrivial. In this presentation different statistical methods are introduced and the recommended (in both ATLAS and CMS experiments) ''CLs'' method will be motivated. The practical calculation of the expected and observed upper limit are shown. By an example of a search for Supersymmetry different methods are compared and resulting observed, and expected upper limits are discussed and interpreted.

  5. Strictness Analysis and Denotational Abstract Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming

    1988-01-01

    there and this sufices to make the framework applicable to strictness analysis for the lambda-calculus. This shows the possibility of a general theory for the analysis of functional programs and it gives more insight into the relative precision of the various analyses. In particular it is shown that a collecting (static......A theory of abstract interpretation () is developed for a typed lambda-calculus. The typed lambda-calculus may be viewed as the ''static'' part of a two-level denotational metalanguage for which abstract interpretation was developed by ). The present development relaxes a condition imposed...

  6. A Relativistic Symmetrical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Michael B.

    This poster describes a relativistic symmetrical interpretation (RSI) which postulates: quantum mechanics is intrinsically time-symmetric, with no arrow of time; the fundamental objects of quantum mechanics are transitions; a transition is fully described by a complex transition amplitude density with specified initial and final boundary conditions, and; transition amplitude densities never collapse. This RSI is compared to the Copenhagen Interpretation (CI) for the analysis of Einstein's bubble experiment using both the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. The RSI has no zitterbewegung in the particle's rest frame, resolves some inconsistencies of the CI, and gives intuitive explanations of some previously mysterious quantum effects.

  7. Graph-based iterative Group Analysis enhances microarray interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amtmann Anna

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most time-consuming tasks after performing a gene expression experiment is the biological interpretation of the results by identifying physiologically important associations between the differentially expressed genes. A large part of the relevant functional evidence can be represented in the form of graphs, e.g. metabolic and signaling pathways, protein interaction maps, shared GeneOntology annotations, or literature co-citation relations. Such graphs are easily constructed from available genome annotation data. The problem of biological interpretation can then be described as identifying the subgraphs showing the most significant patterns of gene expression. We applied a graph-based extension of our iterative Group Analysis (iGA approach to obtain a statistically rigorous identification of the subgraphs of interest in any evidence graph. Results We validated the Graph-based iterative Group Analysis (GiGA by applying it to the classic yeast diauxic shift experiment of DeRisi et al., using GeneOntology and metabolic network information. GiGA reliably identified and summarized all the biological processes discussed in the original publication. Visualization of the detected subgraphs allowed the convenient exploration of the results. The method also identified several processes that were not presented in the original paper but are of obvious relevance to the yeast starvation response. Conclusions GiGA provides a fast and flexible delimitation of the most interesting areas in a microarray experiment, and leads to a considerable speed-up and improvement of the interpretation process.

  8. 1980 environmental monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, J.R.; Olmer, L.L.

    1981-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) during 1980 are summarized. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data includes external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium and iodine concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in sediments and biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory

  9. Environmental cohesion across the Hungarian-Croatian border

    OpenAIRE

    Varjú Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Environmental cohesion (as a new EU paradigm for a place-based interpretation of environmental justice) has a clear connection to territorial cohesion. Based on this idea, advantages for people can include an equitable distribution of environmental protection and access to environmental services. In non-EU countries regional environmental cohesion is used as an instrument to accelerate accession to the EU and it may be manifested as a declaration of environ...

  10. Measuring consumption in households. Interpretations and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole [Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2008-12-01

    The paper discusses the connection between environmental awareness and metering data on household consumption (electricity, heating, water), and it is based on recent Danish studies. It is discussed, how families' understanding of environmental awareness and environmental practices relates to their overall household consumption. The paper indicates that residents' environmental practices in everyday life are often overshadowed by consumption practices in other areas, and that such practices are often rooted in quite different rationales than environmental awareness. These findings are seen as an example of what Pierre Bourdieu calls the 'economy of symbolic goods', offering an explanation for why some symbolic actions apparently play a larger role than other, more environmentally serious consumption practices. From this, it is argued that the social structures underlying consumption and green behaviour should be recognised in the formulation of environmental policies, and that instead of using sustainable practices such as 'environmental awareness' as a sales argument, more reflexive strategies that take consumers' preferences into account should be considered. (author)

  11. Cognate Facilitation in Sentence Context--Translation Production by Interpreting Trainees and Non-Interpreting Trilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijewska, Agnieszka; Chmiel, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Conference interpreters form a special case of language users because the simultaneous interpretation practice requires very specific lexical processing. Word comprehension and production in respective languages is performed under strict time constraints and requires constant activation of the involved languages. The present experiment aimed at…

  12. Chuukese Patients, Dual Role Interpreters, and Confidentiality: Exploring Clinic Interpretation Services for Reproductive Health Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah A

    2018-04-01

    This exploratory study analyzes limited English proficient (LEP) Chuukese patients' perspectives on dual-role interpreters in Guam and Chuuk. Methods included ethnographic observations of encounters with health care workers (HCWs) and 225 female Chuukese patients seeking reproductive healthcare in community health clinics: 126 women in Guam and 99 women in Chuuk. Ethnographic observations were supplemented by semi-structured interviews with 26 HCWs, and life history interviews with 15 Chuukese transnational migrant women. Notes from interview transcripts and observations were analyzed using critical interpretive and grounded theory. Findings demonstrated that Chuukese LEP patients need and at times want interpreters in order to understand their healthcare visits. In the absence of professional interpreters, ad-hoc interpreters (family interpreters and employees of the clinic) are an important resource. However, social and cultural concerns with community confidentiality influenced patient trust of staff interpreters. This lack of trust can limit access to health care overall, as some patients may avoid seeking care to prevent their confidential health information being disclosed. These complexities in interpretation must be considered in order for clinics to provide optimal care for the communities they serve.

  13. Court Interpreting in Denmark - the role of court interpreters in Danish courtrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    1999-01-01

    Court interpreters in Denmark are expected to follow the guidelines laid down in the document Instructions for Interpreters, which was published in 1994, and which deals with four principal areas: accuracy and completeness, impartiality, confidentiality and conflict of interest. This paper contends...

  14. Informal Interpreting in General Practice: Comparing the perspectives of General Practitioners, migrant patients and family interpreters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zendedel, R.; Schouten, B.C.; van Weert, J.C.M.; van den Putte, B.

    Objective To explore differences in perspectives of general practitioners, Turkish-Dutch migrant patients and family interpreters on interpreters’ role, power dynamics and trust in interpreted GP consultations. Methods 54 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with the three parties

  15. Signal processing of heart signals for the quantification of non-deterministic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baddour Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart signals represent an important way to evaluate cardiovascular function and often what is desired is to quantify the level of some signal of interest against the louder backdrop of the beating of the heart itself. An example of this type of application is the quantification of cavitation in mechanical heart valve patients. Methods An algorithm is presented for the quantification of high-frequency, non-deterministic events such as cavitation from recorded signals. A closed-form mathematical analysis of the algorithm investigates its capabilities. The algorithm is implemented on real heart signals to investigate usability and implementation issues. Improvements are suggested to the base algorithm including aligning heart sounds, and the implementation of the Short-Time Fourier Transform to study the time evolution of the energy in the signal. Results The improvements result in better heart beat alignment and better detection and measurement of the random events in the heart signals, so that they may provide a method to quantify nondeterministic events in heart signals. The use of the Short-Time Fourier Transform allows the examination of the random events in both time and frequency allowing for further investigation and interpretation of the signal. Conclusions The presented algorithm does allow for the quantification of nondeterministic events but proper care in signal acquisition and processing must be taken to obtain meaningful results.

  16. Signal processing of heart signals for the quantification of non-deterministic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millette, Véronique; Baddour, Natalie

    2011-01-26

    Heart signals represent an important way to evaluate cardiovascular function and often what is desired is to quantify the level of some signal of interest against the louder backdrop of the beating of the heart itself. An example of this type of application is the quantification of cavitation in mechanical heart valve patients. An algorithm is presented for the quantification of high-frequency, non-deterministic events such as cavitation from recorded signals. A closed-form mathematical analysis of the algorithm investigates its capabilities. The algorithm is implemented on real heart signals to investigate usability and implementation issues. Improvements are suggested to the base algorithm including aligning heart sounds, and the implementation of the Short-Time Fourier Transform to study the time evolution of the energy in the signal. The improvements result in better heart beat alignment and better detection and measurement of the random events in the heart signals, so that they may provide a method to quantify nondeterministic events in heart signals. The use of the Short-Time Fourier Transform allows the examination of the random events in both time and frequency allowing for further investigation and interpretation of the signal. The presented algorithm does allow for the quantification of nondeterministic events but proper care in signal acquisition and processing must be taken to obtain meaningful results.

  17. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  18. Scepticism and the Interpreter | Cox | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper defends an argument from interpretation against the possibility of massive error. The argument shares many important features with Donald Davidson's famous argument, but also key differences. I defend the argument against claims that it begs the question against scepticism and that it leaves the sceptic with an ...

  19. 20 CFR 602.11 - Secretary's interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Secretary's interpretation. 602.11 Section 602.11 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR QUALITY CONTROL... methods of administration as will reasonably ensure the prompt and full payment of unemployment benefits...

  20. 15 CFR 770.2 - Item interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pre-loaded on a laptop, handheld device or other computer or equipment and exported under the tools of... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS INTERPRETATIONS... device to evade the requirement for a license. (2) Parts are exported as spares, replacements, for resale...

  1. CONSTITUTIONAL INTERPRETATION OF ROMANIA: POST MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. RATHNASWAMY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Austria had in 1920 Constitutional Court followed by Italy in 1946, Germany in 1949, Romania in 1989, South Africa in 1991, and Ethiopia in 1995. Each Constitution has its provisions on the constitutional interpretation. Romania has its own provisions and it is considered here its legality and the best possible measures and recommendations for future. Judicial power is vested in judiciary to interpret constitution, laws, and actions of other organs of government. Judicial review is the function resulted upon judicial power. Political body joins through the appointment of its members in the judicial review and it limits the independence of judiciary. It also reduces the values of separation of powers. Challenges and opportunities of growth and development do influence the spirit of separation of powers and judicial independence. The principle of inherent judicial power in judiciary inducts upon the constitutional interpretation. Thus, the principles of constitutional interpretation are varying in Romania and other similar constitutional courts of Germany, Ethiopia, and Italy but not in South Africa.

  2. Serological Investigation And Interpreting Serum Chemistry Profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serological Investigation And Interpreting Serum Chemistry Profile Of Natural Infected Cattle By Foot And Mouth Disease. ... albumin, total cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus in the infected group than control group, on the other hand there was a highly significant increase in serum glucose concentration of infected group.

  3. Biological microarray interpretation : The rules of engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breitling, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    Gene expression microarrays are now established as a standard tool in biological and biochemical laboratories. Interpreting the masses of data generated by this technology poses a number of unusual new challenges. Over the past few years a consensus has begun to emerge concerning the most important

  4. 75 FR 39196 - Proposed Legal Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... proposed change in the Schwab Interpretation, the FAA believes that a company wishing to take advantage of... cost of owning, operating and maintaining a company aircraft when used for routine personal travel by senior company officials and employees under certain conditions. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  5. Improving electrocardiogram interpretation skills for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel K

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kunj Patel,1 Omar El Tokhy,1 Shlok Patel,2 Hanna Maroof31Department of Investigative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, 2Department of Medical Research, Faculty of Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, 3GKT School of Medical Education, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College of London, London, UKWe read with great interest the article by Zeng at al1 who propose a new electrocardiogram (ECG teaching method called the “graphics-sequence memory method”. An ECG is one of the most important diagnostic tests and is currently used as a gold standard for the diagnosis of a number of cardiac diseases. We appreciate that it can be a challenging concept to teach, often bringing frustration to the educators trained in ECG interpretation. Zeng et al1 highlight a deficiency in learning through the traditional Chinese disease-based teaching method, resulting in a relative inability to interpret ECGs where the diagnosis is not quite so straightforward. Accumulation of evidence2 has suggested that a significant proportion of undergraduate medical students do not feel competent in their interpretation of an ECG. Therefore, the authors are right to suggest a novel approach with the dual benefit of aiding teaching and improving learning and confidence when interpreting an ECG.View original paper by Zeng and colleagues.

  6. Neural network classification - A Bayesian interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Eric A.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between minimizing a mean squared error and finding the optimal Bayesian classifier is reviewed. This provides a theoretical interpretation for the process by which neural networks are used in classification. A number of confidence measures are proposed to evaluate the performance of the neural network classifier within a statistical framework.

  7. Interpretative trajectories toward understanding personhoods in prehistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Budja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the genesis of discussions of individual and dividual aspects of person(hood. It discuses actual interpretations of different modes of personhood: individuality and indivisibility, dividuality, partibility and fractality, and permeability in archaeology and anthropology. It focuses on the heterogeneity of past identities in European Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age contexts.

  8. A Complexity Analysis of Functional Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernest, Mircea-Dan; Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    We give a quantitative analysis of G ̈odel’s functional interpretation and its monotone variant. The two have been used for the extraction of programs and numerical bounds as well as for conservation results. They apply both to (semi-)intuitionistic as well as (combined with negative translation...

  9. Factors influencing children's interpretation and acquisition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adopting Systemic Functional Linguistics, the study investigated factors that influence idiom interpretation and acquisition in children. Semantic analysability, idiom structure and idiom modification were investigated in 20 native Chichewa speaking children aged between 4 – 14 years. Three experiments were conducted to ...

  10. Teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I report on a phenomenological investigation into teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings during their participation in the Resilient Educators (REds) intervention. All 18 teacher participants came from rural communities challenged by HIV&AIDS. I reflect critically on the ambivalence in teacher ...

  11. Psychoanalytic interpretations: word-music and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priel, Beatriz

    2003-02-01

    A perspective on psychoanalytic interpretations as a special case of artistic translations (i.e. translations of both content and formal aspects of discourse) is proposed. Mutative interpretations are seen as creative endeavours that always presuppose a prior text, which is itself already a translation. Freud's main uses of the metaphor of translation as an intrapsychic as well as an intersubjective phenomena, their resonance among later psychoanalytic thinkers and their convergence with classic theories of translation are presented. A perspective on psychoanalytic interpretations as an evolving self-other dialect is developed within the framework of Borges's theory of translation and Bakhtin's concept of exotopy. This framework questions the possibility of an original source, proposes the translator's inevitable implication in translation and underscores intersubjectivity as a necessary way towards the translation of absent meanings. The work of translation also highlights the relevance of space and time contexts, as well as the necessary role of a different other for the interpretation of unconscious processes. Differences between theories of translation reiterate contemporary psychoanalytic controversies about the preeminence of the analysand's subjectivity and the intersubjective approach to treatment. Borges's 'The Aleph' and an excerpt of Dora's case offer paradigmatic demonstrations of the limits and possibilities of understanding through translation.

  12. Interpretation of Confidence Interval Facing the Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luisa; Fernández, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    As literature has reported, it is usual that university students in statistics courses, and even statistics teachers, interpret the confidence level associated with a confidence interval as the probability that the parameter value will be between the lower and upper interval limits. To confront this misconception, class activities have been…

  13. Financial Stability: the Problem of Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniak Mykola M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with studying the problem of interpretation of the concept of «financial stability», allocating the major groups of approaches to its interpretation and clarifying the reasons for absence of a single uniform definition. On the basis of an analysis, approaches to interpretation of the category of «financial stability» have been divided into three main groups. In the definitions by central banks (the first group emphasis is more often placed upon the matter that a system (not necessarily financial is considered stable if it is able to perform all their functions even under conditions of minor adverse shocks and upheavals. The second way to interpretation – by contradiction – must be taken into consideration in the process of studying the financial stability. According to the third group of views, a system can be considered financially stable until the process of transforming savings into investments remains unbroken. The main reasons for the absence of a single clear formulation of the concept of «financial stability» have been identified, namely: different approaches used by scientists to understanding the content of financial system; refocusing from studying the financial stability towards financial crises; accounting the indicator of financial stability in place of the indicator of financial disturbances. A prospective direction for further research is assessment of financial stability through practical consideration of quantitative characteristics that influence on such stability

  14. From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  15. From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  16. From Interpreter to logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...

  17. Interpretive Research Design. Concepts and Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz-Shea, P.; Yanow, D.

    2012-01-01

    Research design is fundamental to all scientific endeavors, at all levels and in all institutional settings. In many social science disciplines, however, scholars working in an interpretive-qualitative tradition get little guidance on this aspect of research from the positivist-centered training

  18. Aspectual Effects on Interpretation in Early Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams, Nina

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the temporal and modal meanings associated with root infinitives (RIs) and other non-finite clauses in several typologically diverse languages--English, Russian, Greek and Dutch. I discuss the role that event structure, aspect, and modality play in the interpretation of these clauses. The basic hypothesis is that in the…

  19. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to review the methodology for interpretive qualitative case study research method using systems theory. The paper also addresses the underlying assumptions of this research methodology and how these affect the way research questions are answered. In reviewing this methodology, an example is ...

  20. 48 CFR 9904.406-61 - Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.406-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-61 Interpretation. (a) Questions have arisen as to... accounting periods. In essence, it clarifies whether restructuring costs are to be treated as an expense of...