WorldWideScience

Sample records for internet securely protecting

  1. Connecting to the Internet Securely; Protecting Home Networks CIAC-2324

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orvis, W J; Krystosek, P; Smith, J

    2002-11-27

    With more and more people working at home and connecting to company networks via the Internet, the risk to company networks to intrusion and theft of sensitive information is growing. Working from home has many positive advantages for both the home worker and the company they work for. However, as companies encourage people to work from home, they need to start considering the interaction of the employee's home network and the company network he connects to. This paper discusses problems and solutions related to protection of home computers from attacks on those computers via the network connection. It does not consider protection of those systems from people who have physical access to the computers nor does it consider company laptops taken on-the-road. Home networks are often targeted by intruders because they are plentiful and they are usually not well secured. While companies have departments of professionals to maintain and secure their networks, home networks are maintained by the employee who may be less knowledgeable about network security matters. The biggest problems with home networks are that: Home networks are not designed to be secure and may use technologies (wireless) that are not secure; The operating systems are not secured when they are installed; The operating systems and applications are not maintained (for security considerations) after they are installed; and The networks are often used for other activities that put them at risk for being compromised. Home networks that are going to be connected to company networks need to be cooperatively secured by the employee and the company so they do not open up the company network to intruders. Securing home networks involves many of the same operations as securing a company network: Patch and maintain systems; Securely configure systems; Eliminate unneeded services; Protect remote logins; Use good passwords; Use current antivirus software; and Moderate your Internet usage habits. Most of these

  2. Security in Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A very good method that can be used to protect a private network is the implementation of a firewall between Internet and Intranet. This firewall will filter the packets that transit the network according with the security policy defined at the system level. The SSL protocol allows verifying the identity of a WEB server based on a digital certificate issued by a certification authority. Secure data transport over the Internet is done by using encryption methods.

  3. Internet security technologies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    The three pillars of Internet Security are Infrastructure, Applications and People. In this series of lectures we will examine those three pillars and how vital it is for individuals to understand the vulnerabilities of this technology so they can made informed decisions about risks and how they can reduce those risks for themselves and their colleagues.First we will focus on the infrastructure: network; servers; operating systems and all those things that are mostly invisible. Moving up a level, into the visible realm, we discuss the application and see things like buffer overflows, viruses and how as application developers and users we can protect ourselves. Finally, it's all about people. The strongest security technology in the world is easily defeated if people don't understand their role in the whole system.

  4. Security in the internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibel, R.M.M.; Kocher, K.; Landsberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    Aim of the study: Is it possible to use the Internet as a secure media for transport of telemedicine? Which risks exist for routine use? In this article state of the art methods of security were analysed. Telemedicine in the Internet has severe risks, because patient data and hospital data of a secure Intranet can be manipulated by connecting it to the Web. Conclusions: Establishing of a firewall and the introduction of HPC (Health Professional Card) are minimizing the risk of un-authorized access to the hospital server. HPC allows good safety with digital signature and authentication of host and client of medical data. For secure e-mail PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is easy to use as a standard protocol. Planning all activities exactly as well as following legal regulations are important requisites for reduction of safety risks in Internet. (orig.) [de

  5. European Trends in Privacy: How can we increase internet security and protect individual privacy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Duus Ostergaard

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of September 11 2001 security has been at the top of any Government or Enterprise agenda. Scrutinizing flight passenger lists, conference participants' background, customers' profile and securing access to public and private databases through gateways has become a standard way of doing things. Legislation has been put in place which in many countries give the authorities increased right to analyze personal data ? In some cases overriding existing privacy legislation. >In a networked world everybody leaves traces that are personally individually identifiable (PII. When we use our mobile phone, the cell network provider knows the location you are in and the time of the call. When you browse a bookstore on the internet, an applet will tell the web-site owner of your buying habits - and the moment you make a purchase on the net, you leave behind a sign of your reading habits and intellectual preferences. When you use your credit card on the net to buy flowers, the address of the receiver is recorded and related to your ID. If you are under medical treatment and receive medicine, the prescription will inform about your deceases. Under which circumstances do you want this information to be revealed? Most countries as well as the European Union and its member countries have since long been aware of the potential threat against personal integrity in case a malevolent organization got hold of all this information. And now Governments in most countries are becoming increasingly interested in accessing personal information to prevent terrorism and establish an electronic surveillance of dubious elements in the society. This paper intends to describe how IT solutions with a special focus on the public sector could be developed and deployed that will help organizations as well as individuals to protect their personally identifiable information, set up policies that will be translated to watch dogs that will ensure that these policies are

  6. Security in Internet of Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, Egon; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2017-01-01

    2016 was a year when the discussions about Internet of Things and security gained significant grounds. Not only was it yet another year where the challenges of cybercrime became visible to the general public, maybe the presumable Russian hacking of Hillary Clinton's emails as the most prominent...... example, but at the end of the year the Mirai Botnet used Internet of Things devices to perform successful attacks on several Internet infrastructure points....

  7. Wireless mobile Internet security

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Man Young

    2013-01-01

      The mobile industry for wireless cellular services has grown at a rapid pace over the past decade. Similarly, Internet service technology has also made dramatic growth through the World Wide Web with a wire line infrastructure. Realization for complete wired/wireless mobile Internet technologies will become the future objectives for convergence of these technologies thr

  8. Practical Unix and Internet Security

    CERN Document Server

    Garfinkel, Simson; Spafford, Gene

    2003-01-01

    When Practical Unix Security was first published more than a decade ago, it became an instant classic. Crammed with information about host security, it saved many a Unix system administrator from disaster. The second edition added much-needed Internet security coverage and doubled the size of the original volume. The third edition is a comprehensive update of this very popular book - a companion for the Unix/Linux system administrator who needs to secure his or her organization's system, networks, and web presence in an increasingly hostile world. Focusing on the four most popular Unix varia

  9. Security in Internet of Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, Egon; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2017-01-01

    2016 was a year when the discussions about Internet of Things and security gained significant grounds. Not only was it yet another year where the challenges of cybercrime became visible to the general public, maybe the presumable Russian hacking of Hillary Clinton's emails as the most prominent...

  10. Internet Safety and Security Surveys - A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This report gives a review of investigations into Internet safety and security over the last 10 years. The review covers a number of surveys of Internet usage, of Internet security in general, and of Internet users' awareness of issues related to safety and security. The focus and approach...... of the various surveys is considered, and is related to more general proposals for investigating the issues involved. A variety of proposals for how to improve levels of Internet safety and security are also described, and they are reviewed in the light of studies of motivational factors which affect the degree...

  11. The Internet of Things Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đekić Milica D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is a quite new concept covering on digital systems being correlated with each other. The first role of the Internet was to connect people, while this new paradigm serves in terms of connecting devices. Those solutions could get connected to each other using a standard web signal or applying another sort of communication channels. It's estimated that the IoT has included around 4.9 billion devices by the end of 2015, while it's expected that there would be 25 billion IoT devices in 2020. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview about how this concept works and try to deal with some of a security's aspect of this useful paradigm.

  12. Customer perceptions on Internet banking information protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Redlinghuis

    2010-12-01

    Objectives: This article has reported on the results of a survey (a close-ended questionnaire that was conducted by alumni of the University of Johannesburg (UJ. The research problem for this study has been formulated as ‘what are Internet banking customers’ perception on information protection when using Internet banking services and products?’ Method: The methodology for this study falls on quantitative research. The research study consisted of a detailed literature review, followed by an empirical component which consisted of a quantitative questionnaire. The questionnaire used in this study consisted of eight sections covering biographical information, financial institution and Internet banking, Internet banking service quality and delivery, Internet banking functionality, Internet banking costs, Internet banking convenience and relationships, Internet banking trust and Internet banking security and information technology (IT. Results: It was established that the findings of this research could assist financial institutions with fostering and building greater value adding relationships with their customers. These value-adding endeavours will ensure that customers experience and perceive their Internet banking experience to be enriching. Education and awareness campaigns are key focus areas financial institutions should continuously invest in. Information should be easily retrievable and communicated in a manner that makes sense to the diverse customer base, especially within South Africa with its diverse cultures and languages. Conclusion: The final conclusion that could be reached is that Internet banking products and services will continue to grow across various divides and platforms as the Internet costs decrease in future, the growth of Internet related products and services such as Internet banking will increase.

  13. Security Issues in Networks with Internet Access

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landwehr, Carl E; Goldschlag, David M

    1997-01-01

    .... The principles are illustrated by describing the security issues a hypothetical company faces as the networks that support its operations evolve from strictly private, through a mix of Internet...

  14. Teaching Internet Security, Safety in Our Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFranco, Joanna F.

    2011-01-01

    Internet security is an important topic for educators due to curriculums now incorporating tools such as the Internet, Google docs, e-portfolios, and course management systems. Those tools require students to spend more time online, where they are susceptible to manipulation or intimidation if they do not stay on task. Kids of all ages lack…

  15. Filtering the Internet: The Children's Internet Protection Act. Legal Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    2004-01-01

    Accompanying the explosive growth of the Internet have been concerns about protecting children from viewing pornographic and other harmful images through cyberspace. In the past few years, Congress has passed several acts to censor Internet sites available to children, but only the Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) has received Supreme…

  16. Security of Mobile Agents on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Antonio; Montanari, Rebecca; Stefanelli, Cesare

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet focuses on new programming paradigms based on mobile agents. Considers the security issues associated with mobile agents and proposes a security architecture composed of a wide set of services and components capable of adapting to a variety of applications, particularly electronic commerce. (Author/LRW)

  17. The Internet of Things Security

    OpenAIRE

    Đekić Milica D.

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a quite new concept covering on digital systems being correlated with each other. The first role of the Internet was to connect people, while this new paradigm serves in terms of connecting devices. Those solutions could get connected to each other using a standard web signal or applying another sort of communication channels. It's estimated that the IoT has included around 4.9 billion devices by the end of 2015, while it's expected that there would be 25 billi...

  18. Securing the Internet Control Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The Internet carries traffic between billions of devices every day and modern societies depend on the resiliency of the routing technology behind it to work around the frequent link outages caused by natural disasters, equipment failures, destruction of cables, and even wars. However, the routing technology behind all of this, the Border Gateway…

  19. How secure is the Internet for healthcare applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, L A

    1996-01-01

    The Internet has grown faster than any other communications medium or consumer electronics technology--including the fax machine and personal computer. It offers new possibilities for providing economical and good quality patient care, but how secure is it? Is it prudent to communicate patient information over the Internet? For confidential patient information to be transmitted appropriately on the Internet, the originator must be clearly identified without any chance of impersonation; the information must be transmitted without any possibility of corruption or alteration; and the process must be secure. Many experts recognize the need to secure privacy of information, and there are some standards for electronic signatures and data encryption. However, no one has yet come up with a plan that offers a comprehensive solution. Appropriate confidentiality and security legislation has not yet been passed by the U.S. Congress. The following security technologies are currently available and are described in this article: cryptography, authentication devices, electronic signature systems, firewalls, secure hypertext transfer protocol and secure sockets layer protocol. Until proper standards are developed and accepted, providers should use available technologies to protect both patient records and themselves. The legal consequences of mishandling confidential patient information can be disastrous.

  20. Engineering secure Internet of Things systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aziz, Benjamin; Crispo, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This book examines important security considerations for the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT is collecting a growing amount of private and sensitive data about our lives, and requires increasing degrees of reliability and trustworthiness in terms of the levels of assurance provided with respect to confidentiality, integrity and availability.

  1. Analytical Characterization of Internet Security Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellke, Sarah H.

    2010-01-01

    Internet security attacks have drawn significant attention due to their enormously adverse impact. These attacks includes Malware (Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horse), Denial of Service, Packet Sniffer, and Password Attacks. There is an increasing need to provide adequate defense mechanisms against these attacks. My thesis proposal deals with analytical…

  2. Home security system using internet of things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, A.

    2017-11-01

    IoT refers to the infrastructure of connected physical devices which is growing at a rapid rate as huge number of devices and objects are getting associated to the Internet. Home security is a very useful application of IoT and we are using it to create an inexpensive security system for homes as well as industrial use. The system will inform the owner about any unauthorized entry or whenever the door is opened by sending a notification to the user. After the user gets the notification, he can take the necessary actions. The security system will use a microcontroller known as Arduino Uno to interface between the components, a magnetic Reed sensor to monitor the status, a buzzer for sounding the alarm, and a WiFi module, ESP8266 to connect and communicate using the Internet. The main advantages of such a system includes the ease of setting up, lower costs and low maintenance.

  3. Sweet Dreams and Nightmares: Security in the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Kasper , Timo; Oswald , David; Paar , Christof

    2014-01-01

    Part 1: Invited Paper; International audience; Wireless embedded devices are predominant in the Internet of Things: Objects tagged with Radio Frequency IDentification and Near Field Communication technology, smartphones, and other embedded tokens interact from device to device and thereby often process information that is security or privacy relevant for humans. For protecting sensitive data and preventing attacks, many embedded devices employ cryptographic algorithms and authentication schem...

  4. Vehicular Internet: Security & Privacy Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Zaidi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The vehicular internet will drive the future of vehicular technology and intelligent transportation systems (ITS. Whether it is road safety, infotainment, or driver-less cars, the vehicular internet will lay the foundation for the future of road travel. Governments and companies are pursuing driver-less vehicles as they are considered to be more reliable than humans and, therefore, safer. The vehicles today are not just a means of transportation but are also equipped with a wide range of sensors that provide valuable data. If vehicles are enabled to share data that they collect with other vehicles or authorities for decision-making and safer driving, they thereby form a vehicular network. However, there is a lot at stake in vehicular networks if they are compromised. With the stakes so high, it is imperative that the vehicular networks are secured and made resilient to any attack or attempt that may have serious consequences. The vehicular internet can also be the target of a cyber attack, which can be devastating. In this paper, the opportunities that the vehicular internet offers are presented and then various security and privacy aspects are discussed and some solutions are presented.

  5. Securing your PC and protecting your privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloman, Barbara F

    2004-10-22

    Working in a networked information environment brings new opportunities for getting and sharing information. Regrettably, these benefits of the Internet are challenged by forces that would interfere to satisfy their own profit or malevolent motives. Your networked computer can be infected by viruses, worms, or Trojan horses or infiltrated by spyware, adware, or pop-ups. Without being aware of the dangers and taking precautionary steps, your PC is susceptible to being compromised and your privacy invaded. This column will highlight some of the dangers and offer basic steps for securing your computer and protecting your privacy.

  6. Security incidents on the Internet, 1989--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an analysis of trends in Internet security based on an investigation of 4,299 Internet security-related incidents reported to the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center (CERT{reg_sign}/CC) from 1989 through 1995. Prior to this research, knowledge of actual Internet security incidents was limited and primarily anecdotal. This research: (1) developed a taxonomy to classify Internet attacks and incidents, (2) organized, classified, and analyzed CERT{reg_sign}/CC incident records, (3) summarized the relative frequency of the use of tools and vulnerabilities, success in achieving access, and results of attacks, (4) estimated total Internet incident activity, (5) developed recommendations for Internet users and suppliers, and (6) developed recommendations for future research. With the exception of denial-of-service attacks, security incidents were found to be increasing at a rate less than Internet growth. Estimates showed that most, if not all, severe incidents were reported to the CERT{reg_sign}/CC, and that more than one out of three above average incidents (in terms of duration and number of sites) were reported. Estimates also indicated that a typical Internet site was involved in, at most, around one incident (of any kind) per year, and a typical Internet host in, at most, around one incident in 45 years. The probability of unauthorized privileged access was around an order of magnitude less likely. As a result, simple and reasonable security precautions should be sufficient for most Internet users.

  7. Development of an Internet Security Policy for health care establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilioudis, C; Pangalos, G

    2000-01-01

    The Internet provides unprecedented opportunities for interaction and data sharing among health care providers, patients and researchers. However, the advantages provided by the Internet come with a significantly greater element of risk to the confidentiality and integrity of information. This paper defines the basic security requirements that must be addressed in order to use the Internet to safely transmit patient and/or other sensitive Health Care information. It describes a suitable Internet Security Policy for Health Care Establishments and provides the set of technical measures that are needed for its implementation. The proposed security policy and technical approaches have been based on an extensive study of the related recommendations from the security and standard groups both in EU amid USA and our related work and experience. The results have been utilized in the framework of the Intranet Health Clinic project, where the use of the Internet for the transmission of sensitive Health Care information is of vital importance.

  8. Security Techniques for Sensor Systems and the Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Sensor systems are becoming pervasive in many domains, and are recently being generalized by the Internet of Things (IoT). This wide deployment, however, presents significant security issues. We develop security techniques for sensor systems and IoT, addressing all security management phases. Prior to deployment, the nodes need to be hardened. We…

  9. 78 FR 5116 - NASA Information Security Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... 2700-AD61 NASA Information Security Protection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration... implement the provisions of Executive Order (E.O.) 13526, Classified National Security Information, and... uniform system for classifying, accounting, safeguarding, and declassifying national security information...

  10. Security Threat Assessment of an Internet Security System Using Attack Tree and Vague Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Kuei-Hu Chang

    2014-01-01

    Security threat assessment of the Internet security system has become a greater concern in recent years because of the progress and diversification of information technology. Traditionally, the failure probabilities of bottom events of an Internet security system are treated as exact values when the failure probability of the entire system is estimated. However, security threat assessment when the malfunction data of the system’s elementary event are incomplete—the traditional approach for ca...

  11. Lightweight Security Solutions for the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Raza, Shahid

    2013-01-01

    The future Internet will be an IPv6 network interconnecting traditional computers and a large number of smart objects or networks such as Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This Internet of Things (IoT) will be the foundation of many services and our daily life will depend on its availability and reliable operations. Therefore, among many other issues, the challenge of implementing secure communication in the IoT must be addressed. The traditional Internet has established and tested ways of sec...

  12. Crisis-management and the Security in the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Izumi

    This paper discusses about the crisis-management and the security in the Internet. The crime that not is so far occurs during widespread to the society of the Internet, and a big social trouble. Moreover, the problem of a new security such as a cyber war and cyber terrorism appeared, too. It is necessary to recognize such a situation, and to do both correspondences corresponding to the environmental transformation by government and the people.

  13. The use of crypto-analysis techniques for securing internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Internet transactions are growing at a rapid rate and have broken the territorial and geographical barriers that characterized traditional commerce. ... software, data transaction protocols, web server software, and the network server operating system involved in handling e-commerce, for securing internet transaction.

  14. The Internet Inter-Orb Protocol Security Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Slowikowski

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a security bridge for the Internet protocol of interoperability amongst CORBA objects and the Internet inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP. The bridge helps in making accessible objects in the Internet and makes possible the access control to them. The bridge was realized in the popular request broker the Visigenic's VisiBroker under Windows 95/NT and Solaris 2.X operating systems. We describe two ways of locating the bridge in the request broker. The first means uses one name domain of broker and is not transparent for client. The second one uses two name domains and provides objects protection on the level of the Naming Service and is transparent lor the client. We also describe the variant ofthe second means with using GateKeeper server to support IIOP tunneling within HTTP. We emphasize the importance of a firewall, cooperating with a bridge. which is required for the purpose of providing object protection. The paper presents an original conception of security managing, basing on the ideas of users, groups and resources defined using the standard terms of CORBA, IIOP and TCP/IP, that allows to control positively and negatively the access to classes (interfaces, objects and also to their individual methods. This conception was effectively implemented in a functioning bridge. Further chapters describe the foundations and some details of the bridge implementation sueli as the use ofthe Interface Repository, cache memory application, thread synchronization and the way of synchronization of the configuration applet with the bridge's objects. We discuss the influence of these solutions on the efficiency ofthe bridge and its source code portability. We also present the general structure of the component objects ofthe bridge with a scheme. ln the next part we characterize the implementation foundations ofthe bridge manager, realized as an applet in Java, with the stress on the possibility of the bridge configuration through the

  15. Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  16. Smart Security System For Home Appliances Control Based On Internet Of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Zin Zin Win

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Technology is always evolves. Home security is essential for occupants convenience and protection. Security systems are being preferred over manual system. With the rapid increase in the number of users of internet over the past decade has made Internet a part and parcel of life and IoTs is the latest and emerging internet technology. Home Appliances Control of Smart Security System using IoTs uses computers or mobile devices to control basic home functions and features through internet from anywhere around the world. This security system differs from other system by allowing the user to operate the system from anywhere around the world through internet connection. With the implementation of Arduino Mega microcontroller as an Embedded device security system design was constructed with many sensors and web server database. The Arduino Ethernet shield is used to eliminate the use of a personal computer PC. The motion sensing circuit temperature and humidity sensing circuit smoke or gas sensing circuit door lock sensing circuit light onoff circuit were designed to be connected with Arduino Mega microcontroller and Ethernet shield. This system can monitor the temperature and humidity values and the state of some sensors for intruder detection. It can also control the electric appliances like lights and door at home. Real time result was displayed on web server page via the internet.

  17. Security threat assessment of an Internet security system using attack tree and vague sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuei-Hu

    2014-01-01

    Security threat assessment of the Internet security system has become a greater concern in recent years because of the progress and diversification of information technology. Traditionally, the failure probabilities of bottom events of an Internet security system are treated as exact values when the failure probability of the entire system is estimated. However, security threat assessment when the malfunction data of the system's elementary event are incomplete--the traditional approach for calculating reliability--is no longer applicable. Moreover, it does not consider the failure probability of the bottom events suffered in the attack, which may bias conclusions. In order to effectively solve the problem above, this paper proposes a novel technique, integrating attack tree and vague sets for security threat assessment. For verification of the proposed approach, a numerical example of an Internet security system security threat assessment is adopted in this paper. The result of the proposed method is compared with the listing approaches of security threat assessment methods.

  18. Can Cyberloafing and Internet Addiction Affect Organizational Information Security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlington, Lee; Parsons, Kathryn

    2017-09-01

    Researchers have noted potential links between Internet addiction, the use of work computers for nonwork purposes and an increased risk of threat to the organization from breaches in cybersecurity. However, much of this research appears conjectural in nature and lacks clear empirical evidence to support such claims. To fill this knowledge gap, a questionnaire-based study explored the link between cyberloafing, Internet addiction, and information security awareness (ISA). A total of 338 participants completed an online questionnaire, which comprised of the Online Cognition Scale, Cyberloafing Scale, and the Human Aspects of Information Security Questionnaire. Participants who reported higher Internet addiction and cyberloafing tendencies had lower ISA, and Internet addiction and cyberloafing predicted a significant 45 percent of the variance in ISA. Serious cyberloafing, such as the propensity to visit adult websites and online gambling, was shown to be the significant predictor for poorer ISA. Implications for organizations and recommendations to reduce or manage inappropriate Internet use are discussed.

  19. PROBLEMS OF INFORMAT ION SECURITY: INTERNET OF THINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav A. Shikov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article deals with the threats to information security in the internetworking of physical devices, also known as Internet of Things (IoT, and the security challenge in terms of home automation systems, ZigBee protocol, Tesla electric cars and Apple Pay mobile payment. Section provides the term definition and history of the Internet of Things. The IEEE 1888 IoT-related standard developed in 2011 as integrated solution based on energy-saving technologies for the Internet of Things. The author considers security challenges for the “smart home” system. Next section reviews the experiments of the author involved in testing of the Internet of Things devices. Materials and Methods: The subjects of study are the Apple Pay, the ZigBee wireless standard, Tesla Model S electric cars. The main methods for identification of security threats are analysis and comparison. Results: The companies of electronic devices simplify and reduce the price of manufacturing process. The customers and users are rarely interested in levels of electronic devices security policies. This is the weakest link of electronic products in terms of security and safety. The tests demonstrated that modern electronic-based technologies do not reach the 100-percentage security level. Apple Pay mobile payment system demonstrated the highest security rating. Discussion and Conclusions: Modern electronic devices for Internet of Things does not meet all safety requirements, from the point of view of the author. The article recommends analyzing the potential threats and developing new security standards. In addition, the logistics of electronic devices for Internet of Things need to be under control from the manufacturer to equipment installation time.

  20. Protective force legal issues: the security perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    There has been much discussion and some controversy on the legal issues faced by the Department of Energy's (DOE) protective forces in the performance of their security duties. These include the observance of legal proprieties in the arrest of non-violent demonstrators, the use of lethal weapons, and the extent of protective forces' authority to carry weapons and protect DOE's security interests offsite. In brief, the need to protect DOE's security interests may be in nominal conflict with other requirements. When faced with a potential conflict in requirements, we in the DOE security community must place first attention to the security mission -- to deter and prevent hostile acts

  1. Securing internet by eliminating DDOS attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranchana, R.; Gayathri Devi, N.; Santhi, H.; Gayathri, P.

    2017-11-01

    The major threat caused to the authorised usage of Internet is Distributed Denial of Service attack. The mechanisms used to prevent the DDoS attacks are said to overcome the attack’s ability in spoofing the IP packets source addresses. By utilising Internet Protocol spoofing, the attackers cause a consequential load over the networks destination for policing attack packets. To overcome the IP Spoofing level on the Internet, We propose an Inter domain Packet Filter (IPF) architecture. The proposed scheme is not based on global routing information. The packets with reliable source addresses are not rejected, the IPF frame work works in such a manner. The spoofing capability of attackers is confined by IPF, and also the filter identifies the source of an attack packet by minimal number of candidate network.

  2. On Secure Workflow Decentralisation on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petteri Kaskenpalo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Decentralised workflow management systems are a new research area, where most work to-date has focused on the system's overall architecture. As little attention has been given to the security aspects in such systems, we follow a security driven approach, and consider, from the perspective of available security building blocks, how security can be implemented and what new opportunities are presented when empowering the decentralised environment with modern distributed security protocols. Our research is motivated by a more general question of how to combine the positive enablers that email exchange enjoys, with the general benefits of workflow systems, and more specifically with the benefits that can be introduced in a decentralised environment. This aims to equip email users with a set of tools to manage the semantics of a message exchange, contents, participants and their roles in the exchange in an environment that provides inherent assurances of security and privacy. This work is based on a survey of contemporary distributed security protocols, and considers how these protocols could be used in implementing a distributed workflow management system with decentralised control . We review a set of these protocols, focusing on the required message sequences in reviewing the protocols, and discuss how these security protocols provide the foundations for implementing core control-flow, data, and resource patterns in a distributed workflow environment.

  3. Internet of Things: Challenges and Opportunities for Private Security Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dobre, Valentin

    2017-01-01

    This topic was chosen due to the author’s long work history in a private security firm, and experience in using Access Management tools with Surveillance tools. The object of the thesis is to analyze the Internet of Things of today’s networks tasked with monitoring security and consider the devices that are the main components of these networks. Considerations include their current technologies and operation, and possible improvements aimed to improve future products and services that pr...

  4. Reputation - from Social Perception to Internet Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gudes, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    Part 1: Winsborough Award Invited Paper; International audience; Reputation is a concept that we use in many aspects of our social life and as part of our decision making process. We use reputation in our interaction with people or companies we do not know and we use it when we buy merchandize or reserve a room in a hotel. However, reputation plays also an important role in the internet society and enables us to establish trust which is essential for interaction in the virtual world. Reputati...

  5. Hardened Client Platforms for Secure Internet Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, C.; Zakhidov, S.

    We review the security of e-banking platforms with particular attention to the exploitable attack vectors of three main attack categories: Man-in-the-Middle, Man-in-the-PC and Man-in-the-Browser. It will be shown that the most serious threats come from combination attacks capable of hacking any transaction without the need to control the authentication process. Using this approach, the security of any authentication system can be bypassed, including those using SecureID Tokens, OTP Tokens, Biometric Sensors and Smart Cards. We will describe and compare two recently proposed e-banking platforms, the ZTIC and the USPD, both of which are based on the use of dedicated client devices, but with diverging approaches with respect to the need of hardening the Web client application. It will be shown that the use of a Hardened Browser (or H-Browser) component is critical to force attackers to employ complex and expensive techniques and to reduce the strength and variety of social engineering attacks down to physiological fraud levels.

  6. A survey of secure middleware for the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Fremantle

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of small Internet connected devices, known as the Internet of Things (IoT, is creating a new set of challenges to create secure, private infrastructures. This paper reviews the current literature on the challenges and approaches to security and privacy in the Internet of Things, with a strong focus on how these aspects are handled in IoT middleware. We focus on IoT middleware because many systems are built from existing middleware and these inherit the underlying security properties of the middleware framework. The paper is composed of three main sections. Firstly, we propose a matrix of security and privacy threats for IoT. This matrix is used as the basis of a widespread literature review aimed at identifying requirements on IoT platforms and middleware. Secondly, we present a structured literature review of the available middleware and how security is handled in these middleware approaches. We utilise the requirements from the first phase to evaluate. Finally, we draw a set of conclusions and identify further work in this area.

  7. Hospital security: "protecting the business".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Implementing management science into security isn't hard and is more necessary than ever according to the author who presents and illustrates a five point plan that he says will get the security job done easier and with more commitment from the Board.

  8. The summarize of the technique about proactive network security protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baoxu; Li Xueying; Cao Aijuan; Yu Chuansong; Xu Rongsheng

    2003-01-01

    The proactive protection measures and the traditional passive security protection tools are complementarities each other. It also can supply the conventional network security protection system and enhance its capability of the security protection. Based upon sorts of existing network security technologies, this article analyses and summarizes the technologies, functions and the development directions of some key proactive network security protection tools. (authors)

  9. Predictors and protective factors for adolescent Internet victimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Schütt, Nina; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    2012-01-01

    To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization.......To examine the rate of Internet victimization in a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 14-17 and to analyze predictors and protective factors for victimization....

  10. Information security protecting the global enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    Pipkin, Donald L

    2000-01-01

    In this book, IT security expert Donald Pipkin addresses every aspect of information security: the business issues, the technical process issues, and the legal issues. Pipkin starts by reviewing the key business issues: estimating the value of information assets, evaluating the cost to the organization if they are lost or disclosed, and determining the appropriate levels of protection and response to security incidents. Next, he walks through the technical processes required to build a consistent, reasonable information security system, with appropriate intrusion detection and reporting features. Finally, Pipkin reviews the legal issues associated with information security, including corporate officers' personal liability for taking care that information is protected. The book's coverage is applicable to businesses of any size, from 50 employees to 50,000 or more, and ideal for everyone who needs at least a basic understanding of information security: network/system administrators, managers, planners, archite...

  11. Quality of Protection Evaluation of Security Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiezopolski, Bogdan; Zurek, Tomasz; Mokkas, Michail

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that during the design of teleinformatic system the tradeoff between the systems performance and the system protection should be made. The traditional approach assumes that the best way is to apply the strongest possible security measures. Unfortunately, the overestimation of security measures can lead to the unreasonable increase of system load. This is especially important in multimedia systems where the performance has critical character. In many cases determination of the required level of protection and adjustment of some security measures to these requirements increase system efficiency. Such an approach is achieved by means of the quality of protection models where the security measures are evaluated according to their influence on the system security. In the paper, we propose a model for QoP evaluation of security mechanisms. Owing to this model, one can quantify the influence of particular security mechanisms on ensuring security attributes. The methodology of our model preparation is described and based on it the case study analysis is presented. We support our method by the tool where the models can be defined and QoP evaluation can be performed. Finally, we have modelled TLS cryptographic protocol and presented the QoP security mechanisms evaluation for the selected versions of this protocol. PMID:25136683

  12. A Comparison of Internet Protocol (IPv6 Security Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The next generation of the Internet Protocol (IPv6 is currently about to be introduced in many organizations. However, its security features are still a very novel area of expertise for many practitioners. This study evaluates guidelines for secure deployment of IPv6, published by the U.S. NIST and the German federal agency BSI, for topicality, completeness and depth. The later two are scores defined in this paper and are based on the Requests for Comments relevant for IPv6 that were categorized, weighted and ranked for importance using an expert survey. Both guides turn out to be of practical value, but have a specific focus and are directed towards different audiences. Moreover, recommendations for possible improvements are presented. Our results could also support strategic management decisions on security priorities as well as for the choice of security guidelines for IPv6 roll-outs.

  13. Reliable transmission of security-enabled multimedia over the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David E.; Ahmed, Farid

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we address the reliable transmission of security-enabled multimedia data over the internet which is becoming increasingly vulnerable to a variety of cyber-attacks. Due to their real-timeliness aspect, multimedia data in Internet mostly uses User Datagram Protocol(UDP) as the transport media as opposed to the Transport Control Protocol (TCP). UDP is inherently an unreliable transport media that results in certain unacknowledged packet losses. Multimedia applications usually can tolerate some packet losses for its rendering at the receiver side. But, for the security-enhanced multimedia that we are talking about, reliability of reception of most of the packets within a certain tolerance time need to be guaranteed. This is where we come in with a new protocol that ensures packet-level reliability as well as stream-level authentication of multimedia.

  14. Privacy protection on the internet: The European model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltezarević Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has a huge impact on all areas of social activity. Everyday life, social interaction and economics are directed to new information and communication technologies. A positive aspect of the new technology is reflected in the fact that it has created a virtual space that has led to the elimination of the various barriers, which has enabled interaction and information exchange across the world. Inclusion in the virtual social network provides connectivity for communicators who are looking for space that allows them freedom of expression and connect them with new ' friends'. Because of the feeling of complete freedom and the absence of censorship on the network communicators leave many personal details and photos, without thinking about the possible abuses of privacy. Recording of the different incidents on the network has resulted in the need to take precaution measures, in order to protect the users and the rule of law, given that freedom on the network is only possible with the existence of an adequate system of safety and security. In this paper we deal with the problem of the protection of personal data of users of virtual social networks against malicious activity and abuse, with special reference to the activities of the European Union in an effort to regulate this area. The European Commission has concentrated on finding the best solutions to protect the user's virtual space for more than two decades, starting from 1995 until a directive on security of networks and information systems, which was adopted in the first half of 2016.

  15. Data Transmission and Access Protection of Community Medical Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunbao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of Internet of Things (IoT technologies, Community Medical Internet of Things (CMIoT is a new medical information system and generates massive multiple types of medical data which contain all kinds of user identity data, various types of medical data, and other sensitive information. To effectively protect users’ privacy, we propose a secure privacy data protection scheme including transmission protection and access control. For the uplink transmission data protection, bidirectional identity authentication and fragmented multipath data transmission are used, and for the downlink data protection, fine grained access control and dynamic authorization are used. Through theoretical analysis and experiment evaluation, it is proved that the community medical data can be effectively protected in the transmission and access process without high performance loss.

  16. Secure and privacy-preserving data communication in Internet of Things

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Liehuang; Xu, Chang

    2017-01-01

    This book mainly concentrates on protecting data security and privacy when participants communicate with each other in the Internet of Things (IoT). Technically, this book categorizes and introduces a collection of secure and privacy-preserving data communication schemes/protocols in three traditional scenarios of IoT: wireless sensor networks, smart grid and vehicular ad-hoc networks recently. This book presents three advantages which will appeal to readers. Firstly, it broadens reader’s horizon in IoT by touching on three interesting and complementary topics: data aggregation, privacy protection, and key agreement and management. Secondly, various cryptographic schemes/protocols used to protect data confidentiality and integrity is presented. Finally, this book will illustrate how to design practical systems to implement the algorithms in the context of IoT communication. In summary, readers can simply learn and directly apply the new technologies to communicate data in IoT after reading this book.

  17. Lightweight S-Box Architecture for Secure Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Prathiba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight cryptographic solutions are required to guarantee the security of Internet of Things (IoT pervasiveness. Cryptographic primitives mandate a non-linear operation. The design of a lightweight, secure, non-linear 4 × 4 substitution box (S-box suited to Internet of Things (IoT applications is proposed in this work. The structure of the 4 × 4 S-box is devised in the finite fields GF (24 and GF ((222. The finite field S-box is realized by multiplicative inversion followed by an affine transformation. The multiplicative inverse architecture employs Euclidean algorithm for inversion in the composite field GF ((222. The affine transformation is carried out in the field GF (24. The isomorphic mapping between the fields GF (24 and GF ((222 is based on the primitive element in the higher order field GF (24. The recommended finite field S-box architecture is combinational and enables sub-pipelining. The linear and differential cryptanalysis validates that the proposed S-box is within the maximal security bound. It is observed that there is 86.5% lesser gate count for the realization of sub field operations in the composite field GF ((222 compared to the GF (24 field. In the PRESENT lightweight cipher structure with the basic loop architecture, the proposed S-box demonstrates 5% reduction in the gate equivalent area over the look-up-table-based S-box with TSMC 180 nm technology.

  18. INTERNET SECURITY – TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL AWARENESS OF THE DANGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laskowski Piotr Paweł

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes selected issues related to user safety on the Internet. This safety consists of a number of factors such as the technology that we use to communicate and to browse the Internet, and habits and behaviors that we have acquired and through which we can identify at least some typical hazards encountered on the Web. Knowledge of software and the ability to use it and to configure it properly as well as checking regularly for security updates reduces the risk of data loss or identity theft. Public awareness of threats continues to grow, but there are also new, previously unknown threats; that is why it is so important to inform of the dangers by all available channels of communication.

  19. Security and Privacy Grand Challenges for the Internet of Things

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Farquhar, Ethan D.

    2015-08-20

    Abstract— The growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) is driven by market pressures, and while security is being considered, the relationship between the unintended consequences of billions of such devices connecting to the Internet cannot be described with existing mathematical methods. The possibilities for illicit surveillance through lifestyle analysis, unauthorized access to information, and new attack vectors will continue to increase by 2020, when up-to 50 billion devices may be connected. This paper discusses various kinds of vulnerabilities that can be expected to arise, and presents a research agenda for mitigating the worst of the impacts. We hope to draw research attention to the potential dangers of IoT so that many of these problems can be avoided.

  20. To the Question of Information Security and Providing State and Municipal Services by Means of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Galushkin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author investigates interconnected questions of information security and providing state and municipal services by means of the global information Internet. Author analyzes opinions of the number of leading Russian and foreign experts and scientists. In the summary author draws a conclusion that implementation of rules of law answering to modern realities and also fruitful work of law enforcement and supervisory authorities regarding law application practice improvement is necessary for information security and human rights protection.

  1. Teleradiology mobile internet system with a new information security solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2014-03-01

    We have developed an external storage system by using secret sharing scheme and tokenization for regional medical cooperation, PHR service and information preservation. The use of mobile devices such as smart phones and tablets will be accelerated for a PHR service, and the confidential medical information is exposed to the risk of damage and intercept. We verified the transfer rate of the sending and receiving of data to and from the external storage system that connected it with PACS by the Internet this time. External storage systems are the data centers that exist in Okinawa, in Osaka, in Sapporo and in Tokyo by using secret sharing scheme. PACS continuously transmitted 382 CT images to the external data centers. Total capacity of the CT images is about 200MB. The total time that had been required to transmit was about 250 seconds. Because the preservation method to use secret sharing scheme is applied, security is strong. But, it also takes the information transfer time of this system too much. Therefore, DICOM data is masked to the header information part because it is made to anonymity in our method. The DICOM data made anonymous is preserved in the data base in the hospital. Header information including individual information is divided into two or more tallies by secret sharing scheme, and preserved at two or more external data centers. The token to relate the DICOM data anonymity made to header information preserved outside is strictly preserved in the token server. The capacity of header information that contains patient's individual information is only about 2% of the entire DICOM data. This total time that had been required to transmit was about 5 seconds. Other, common solutions that can protect computer communication networks from attacks are classified as cryptographic techniques or authentication techniques. Individual number IC card is connected with electronic certification authority of web medical image conference system. Individual number IC

  2. 78 FR 66318 - Securities Investor Protection Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... approximates what the customer would expect to be in his account but for the failure of the broker-dealer. This... ``Rules Relating to Satisfaction of Customer Claims for Standardized Options,'' which relates to the satisfaction of customer claims for standardized options under the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970...

  3. Current evaluation of the information about Radiological Protection in Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Cruces, R.; Marco, M.; Villanueva, I.

    2003-01-01

    To analyze the current situation about the pedagogic information on radiological protection training which could be found in Internet. More than 756 web-pages have been visited in Internet about Radiological Protection in the nuclear and medical fields, providing information mainly focusing on information to the members of the public. In this search were used internet Searching Appliance (as Copernicus, Google and Scirus), using key words related with this subject (as Radiological Protection and Health Safety), getting the internet address of organizations, societies and investigation groups. Only a low percentage (less than 5 per cent) of these addresses content information on Radiological Protection for the members of the public, including information about the regulator Organizations, and which are the objectives for protection of the members of the public against ionization radiation (from the point of view of the use of the ionization radiation in the medical and nuclear field). This work attempts to propose the use of internet as a tool for informing the members of the public in matter of radiological protection, as first link in the chain of the training and education. (Author)

  4. A Safety Net for the Internet: Protecting Our Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armagh, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the need to educate children about the dangers of exchanges with strangers on the Internet. Discusses child pornography and exploitative "support groups"; chat room risks; the need for parents to protect their children; and cyberfilters. Suggests protective measures for parents. (AEF)

  5. Critical energy infrastructure protection and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skeet, B. [Criminal Intelligence Service of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Canada's national security interests are protected by the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) whose main objective is to investigate and report on threats to the security of Canada. In Alberta, the Criminal Intelligence Service of Alberta (CISA) provides a regional centre of excellence to facilitate police services that detect, prevent, and control crime that may have a serious impact on the quality of life for Albertans. A list of CISA member agencies was presented along with other criminal intelligence services across Canada. Criminal intelligence was described as being a process involving the collection, evaluation and analysis of information on suspected criminals or organizations. It was noted that it is not an exact science, rather, it relies on facts available at the time, and their interpretations. CISA includes an extensive intelligence network, collaborative efforts, sharing of intelligence, and a central collection point. 4 figs.

  6. The information systems security officer's guide establishing and managing an information protection program

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacich, Gerald L

    2003-01-01

    Information systems security continues to grow and change based on new technology and Internet usage trends. In order to protect your organization's confidential information, you need information on the latest trends and practical advice from an authority you can trust. The new ISSO Guide is just what you need. Information Systems Security Officer's Guide, Second Edition, from Gerald Kovacich has been updated with the latest information and guidance for information security officers. It includes more information on global changes and threats, managing an international information secur

  7. Physical protection educational program - information security aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstoy, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Conceptual approaches for designing an expert training program on object physical protection taking into account information security aspects are examined. A special educational course does not only address the immediate needs for an educational support but also ensures that new professionals include new concepts and knowledge in their practice and encourages current practitioners towards such practice. Features of the modern physical protection systems (PPS) and classification of information circulating at them are pointed out. The requirements to the PPS information protection subsystem are discussed. During the PPS expert training on information security (IS) aspects they should receive certain knowledge, on the basis of which they could competently define and carry out the PPS IS policy for a certain object. Thus, it is important to consider minimally necessary volume of knowledge taught to the PPS experts for independent and competent implementation of the above listed tasks. For the graduate PPS IS expert training it is also necessary to examine the normative and legal acts devoted to IS as a whole and the PPS IS in particular. It is caused by necessity of conformity of methods and information protection tools implemented on a certain object to the federal and departmental IS requirements. The departmental normative IS requirements define an orientation of the PPS expert training. By curriculum development it is necessary to precisely determine for whom the PPS experts are taught. The curriculum should reflect common features of the PPS functioning of the certain object type, i.e. it should be adapted to a certain customer of the experts. The specified features were taken into account by development of an educational course 'Information security of the nuclear facility physical protection systems', taught at the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) according to the Russian-American educational program 'Master in Physical

  8. Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-04-30

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  9. Ultrabroadband photonic Internet: data mining approach to security aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalicki, Arkadiusz

    2009-06-01

    Web applications became most popular medium in the Internet. Popularity, easiness of web application frameworks together with careless development results in high number of vulnerabilities and attacks. There are several types of attacks possible because of improper input validation. SQL injection is ability to execute arbitrary SQL queries in a database through an existing application. Cross-site scripting is the vulnerability which allows malicious web users to inject code into the web pages viewed by other users. Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) is an attack that tricks the victim into loading a page that contains malicious request. Web spam in blogs. In order to secure web applications intrusion detection (IDS) and intrusion prevention systems (IPS) are being used. Intrusion detection systems are divided in two groups: misuse detection (traditional IDS) and anomaly detection. Misuse detection systems are signature based, have high accuracy in detecting many kinds of known attacks but cannot detect unknown and emerging attacks. This can be complemented with anomaly based intrusion detection and prevention systems. This paper presents anomaly driven proxy as an IPS and data mining based algorithm which was used to detecting anomalies. The principle of this method is the comparison of the incoming HTTP traffic with a previously built profile that contains a representation of the "normal" or expected web application usage sequence patterns. The frequent sequence patterns are found with GSP algorithm. Some basic tests show that the software catches malicious requests.

  10. Protecting whistle-blowers: Anonymity on the internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinnessy, P.

    1997-01-01

    Even though strict legislation exists in many countries, it appears that the next few years should be a golden opportunity for groups to successfully monitor and publish the activity of the nuclear states, and human right violations through use of the Internet. The reasons for this are: 1. The Internet is becoming widespread even in repressive regimes; 2. Software is available to either hide messages from others or hide the mailers account; 3. Information from sites in other countries can be easily obtained to be read inside repressive regimes from the Internet. In this regard It is suggested the Pugwash or a similar organization should set up either an anonymous account to receive information or maybe use a more heavily protected cyperpunk remailer. Such an ability would hopefully prompt more people to notify treaty violations

  11. CNSS: Interagency Partnering to Protect Our National Security Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimes, John G

    2008-01-01

    .... The CNSS performs the vital function of mobilizing the full, interagency National Security Community for the protection of telecommunications and information systems that support U.S. national security...

  12. Internet of people, things and services - the convergence of security, trust and privacy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Eloff, JHP

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Future Internet will consist of billions of people, things and services having the potential to interact with each other and their environment. This highly interconnected global network structure presents new types of challenges from a security...

  13. What we talk about when we talk about cybersecurity: security in internet governance debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Wolff

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available At meetings of internet governance organisations, participants generally agree that improving security is an important goal, but these conversations rarely yield consensus around how to achieve this outcome. One reason security plays this paradoxical role—as both a universal point of agreement and a continued source of contention—in these debates is that it has significantly different meanings to different stakeholders involved in these governance forums. In this paper, we discuss how different stakeholders define and frame internet security issues in the context of governance debates and analyse how these conflicting notions of security continue to shape emerging controversies.

  14. Application to an Internet site in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.J.; Baum, T.P.; Spector, M.; Elgard, M.C.; Mechaly, Y.; Grainer, R.; Barritault, L.

    1997-01-01

    Training specialists in medical radiation protection is ensured by the Continuous Training Center of University Rene Descartes since 1990. The necessity of updating knowledge has urged us to develop an Internet site (http://www.citi2.fr/RADIO). Besides the mandatory functions of the educational management (secretariat, information on the stages, registrations, etc.) this site provides: 1. Practical information (addresses of administrative and technical organisms, presentation of radiation protection programs); 2. Scientific information (bibliographic bulletin of the EDF service of radiation protection, updated every two months, description of recent radiation protection works); 3. Institutional documentation (analysis of recent basic texts, ICRP publications, European directives). The interrogation of general interest asked via e-mail and forum allowing communication between experts, graduated students and the education faculty will be available on the site. The communication will be augmented by tele-formation modules for continuous distant training

  15. Social Security Number Replacement Card Applications filed via the Internet

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Social Security Administration (SSA) provides a variety of ways to conduct business with the agency. SSA offers members of the public the opportunity to request...

  16. Beyond the Convenience of the Internet of Things: Security and Privacy Concerns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moganedi, Mapoung S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available . As more objects become Internet-enabled, the security and privacy of the personal information generated, processed and stored by IoT devices become complex and challenging to manage. This paper details the current security and privacy challenges presented...

  17. Internet of Things (IoT Based Design of a Secure and Lightweight Body Area Network (BAN Healthcare System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yuan Deng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As sensor networks and cloud computation technologies have rapidly developed over recent years, many services and applications integrating these technologies into daily life have come together as an Internet of Things (IoT. At the same time, aging populations have increased the need for expanded and more efficient elderly care services. Fortunately, elderly people can now wear sensing devices which relay data to a personal wireless device, forming a body area network (BAN. These personal wireless devices collect and integrate patients’ personal physiological data, and then transmit the data to the backend of the network for related diagnostics. However, a great deal of the information transmitted by such systems is sensitive data, and must therefore be subject to stringent security protocols. Protecting this data from unauthorized access is thus an important issue in IoT-related research. In regard to a cloud healthcare environment, scholars have proposed a secure mechanism to protect sensitive patient information. Their schemes provide a general architecture; however, these previous schemes still have some vulnerability, and thus cannot guarantee complete security. This paper proposes a secure and lightweight body-sensor network based on the Internet of Things for cloud healthcare environments, in order to address the vulnerabilities discovered in previous schemes. The proposed authentication mechanism is applied to a medical reader to provide a more comprehensive architecture while also providing mutual authentication, and guaranteeing data integrity, user untraceability, and forward and backward secrecy, in addition to being resistant to replay attack.

  18. Internet of Things (IoT) Based Design of a Secure and Lightweight Body Area Network (BAN) Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong-Yuan; Chen, Chin-Ling; Tsaur, Woei-Jiunn; Tang, Yung-Wen; Chen, Jung-Hsuan

    2017-12-15

    As sensor networks and cloud computation technologies have rapidly developed over recent years, many services and applications integrating these technologies into daily life have come together as an Internet of Things (IoT). At the same time, aging populations have increased the need for expanded and more efficient elderly care services. Fortunately, elderly people can now wear sensing devices which relay data to a personal wireless device, forming a body area network (BAN). These personal wireless devices collect and integrate patients' personal physiological data, and then transmit the data to the backend of the network for related diagnostics. However, a great deal of the information transmitted by such systems is sensitive data, and must therefore be subject to stringent security protocols. Protecting this data from unauthorized access is thus an important issue in IoT-related research. In regard to a cloud healthcare environment, scholars have proposed a secure mechanism to protect sensitive patient information. Their schemes provide a general architecture; however, these previous schemes still have some vulnerability, and thus cannot guarantee complete security. This paper proposes a secure and lightweight body-sensor network based on the Internet of Things for cloud healthcare environments, in order to address the vulnerabilities discovered in previous schemes. The proposed authentication mechanism is applied to a medical reader to provide a more comprehensive architecture while also providing mutual authentication, and guaranteeing data integrity, user untraceability, and forward and backward secrecy, in addition to being resistant to replay attack.

  19. Zephyr: A secure Internet process to streamline engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, C.W.; Niven, W.A.; Cavitt, R.E. [and others

    1998-05-12

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is implementing an Internet-based process pilot called `Zephyr` to streamline engineering and commerce using the Internet. Major benefits have accrued by using Zephyr in facilitating industrial collaboration, speeding the engineering development cycle, reducing procurement time, and lowering overall costs. Programs at LLNL are potentializing the efficiencies introduced since implementing Zephyr. Zephyr`s pilot functionality is undergoing full integration with Business Systems, Finance, and Vendors to support major programs at the Laboratory.

  20. Development of measures of online privacy concern and protection for use on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, T; Paine, C; Joinson, A; Reips, U D

    2007-01-01

    As the Internet grows in importance, concerns about online privacy have arisen. We describe the development and validation of three short Internet-administered scales measuring privacy related attitudes ('Privacy Concern') and behaviors ('General Caution' and 'Technical Protection').

  1. EDAS: An Evaluation Prototype for Autonomic Event-Driven Adaptive Security in the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Aman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Internet of Things (IoT, the main driving technologies are considered to be tiny sensory objects. These objects cannot host traditional preventive and detective technologies to provide protection against the increasing threat sophistication. Furthermore, these solutions are limited to analyzing particular contextual information, for instance network information or files, and do not provide holistic context for risk analysis and response. Analyzing a part of a situation may lead to false alarms and later to unnecessary and incorrect configurations. To overcome these concerns, we proposed an event-driven adaptive security (EDAS model for IoT. EDAS aims to observe security events (changes generated by various things in the monitored IoT environment, investigates any intentional or unintentional risks associated with the events and adapts to it autonomously. It correlates different events in time and space to reduce any false alarms and provides a mechanism to predict attacks before they are realized. Risks are responded to autonomically by utilizing a runtime adaptation ontology. The mitigation action is chosen after assessing essential information, such as the risk faced, user preferences, device capabilities and service requirements. Thus, it selects an optimal mitigation action in a particular adverse situation. The objective of this paper is to investigate EDAS feasibility and its aptitude as a real-world prototype in a remote patient monitoring context. It details how EDAS can be a practical choice for IoT-eHealth in terms of the security, design and implementation features it offers as compared to traditional security controls. We have explained the prototype’s major components and have highlighted the key technical challenges.

  2. Security Framework and Jamming Detection for Internet of Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babar, Sachin D.

    , security for IoT will be a critical concern that must be addressed in order to enable several current and future applications. The resource constrained devices such as cell phones, PDAs, RFIDs, sensor nodes etc. are the part of IoT. Design process for securing these resource constrained devices is guided...... by factors like small form factor, good performance, low energy consumption, and robustness to attacks. These design constraints forces us to think of integrating the security features right in to the hardware and software parts of the devices which is also called as embedded security. The research......T. The research also highlights the need to provide in-built security in the device itself to provide a flexible infrastructure for dynamic prevention, detection, diagnosis, isolation, and countermeasures against successful breaches. The research proposes the embedded security framework as a feature of software...

  3. Security leader insights for information protection lessons and strategies from leading security professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Fahy, Bob

    2014-01-01

    How do you, as a busy security executive or manager, stay current with evolving issues, familiarize yourself with the successful practices of your peers, and transfer this information to build a knowledgeable, skilled workforce the times now demand? With Security Leader Insights for Information Protection, a collection of timeless leadership best practices featuring insights from some of the nation's most successful security practitioners, you can. This book can be used as a quick and effective resource to bring your security staff up to speed on security's role in information protection. I

  4. Establishing an Information Security System related to Physical Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung Soon; Yoo, Ho Sik

    2009-01-01

    A physical protection system (PPS) integrates people, procedures and equipment for the protection of assets or facilities against theft, sabotage or other malevolent attacks. In the physical protection field, it is important the maintain confidentiality of PPS related information, such as the alarm system layout, detailed maps of buildings, and guard schedules. In this abstract, we suggest establishing a methodology for an information security system. The first step in this methodology is to determine the information to protect and possible adversaries. Next, system designers should draw all possible paths to the information and arrange appropriate protection elements. Finally he/she should analyze and upgrade their information security system

  5. Securing Wireless Communications of the Internet of Things from the Physical Layer, An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junqing; Duong, Trung; Woods, Roger; Marshall, Alan

    2017-08-01

    The security of the Internet of Things (IoT) is receiving considerable interest as the low power constraints and complexity features of many IoT devices are limiting the use of conventional cryptographic techniques. This article provides an overview of recent research efforts on alternative approaches for securing IoT wireless communications at the physical layer, specifically the key topics of key generation and physical layer encryption. These schemes can be implemented and are lightweight, and thus offer practical solutions for providing effective IoT wireless security. Future research to make IoT-based physical layer security more robust and pervasive is also covered.

  6. Internet of Things Security: Layered classification of attacks and possible Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otmane El Mouaatamid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the internet of things (IoT presents a strong focus of research with various initiatives working on the application, and usage of Internet standards in the IoT. But the big challenge of the internet of things is security. In this paper a layered classification and a goal based comparison of attacks in the IoT are presented so that a better understanding of IoT attacks can be achieved and subsequently more efficient and effective techniques and procedures to combat these attacks may be developed

  7. Cracking ShadowCrypt: Exploring the Limitations of Secure I/O Systems in Internet Browsers

    OpenAIRE

    Freyberger Michael; He Warren; Akhawe Devdatta; Mazurek Michelle L.; Mittal Prateek

    2018-01-01

    An important line of privacy research is investigating the design of systems for secure input and output (I/O) within Internet browsers. These systems would allow for users’ information to be encrypted and decrypted by the browser, and the specific web applications will only have access to the users’ information in encrypted form. The state-of-the-art approach for a secure I/O system within Internet browsers is a system called ShadowCrypt created by UC Berkeley researchers [23]. This paper wi...

  8. INTERNET OF THINGS IN MARKETING: OPPORTUNITIES AND SECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakli ABASHIDZE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT affects different areas of human activities: everyday life of ordinary citizens, work style of mar-keting teams, factories and even entire cities. Large companies try to implement the technology in their marketing strat-egy that reshapes not only communication style and product promotion but consumers’ expectations, perceptions and requirements towards companies. IoT is expected to become a huge network that will encompass not only smart devic-es but significantly influence humans’ behavior, in this particular case – decision making style in different phases of pur-chase process. Therefore, the need for comprehensive scientific research is necessary. The issue needs to be reviewed from various points of view, such as opportunities, advantages, disadvantages, legal and technical considerations. The paper is an attempt to review different aspects of using Internet of Things for marketing purposes, identify some of the major problems and present possible ways of solution.

  9. Culture: protection, safety and security connections toward good practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental, Jose Julio

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses concepts and connections on Protection, Safety and Security, considering many IAEA recent documents and international congress on the subject and basic regulation recommendation to developing countries toward the establishment of adequate capacity to deal with

  10. DICOM image secure communications with Internet protocols IPv6 and IPv4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Yu, Fenghai; Sun, Jianyong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Liang, Chenwen

    2007-01-01

    Image-data transmission from one site to another through public network is usually characterized in term of privacy, authenticity, and integrity. In this paper, we first describe a general scenario about how image is delivered from one site to another through a wide-area network (WAN) with security features of data privacy, integrity, and authenticity. Second, we give the common implementation method of the digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) image communication software library with IPv6/IPv4 for high-speed broadband Internet by using open-source software. Third, we discuss two major security-transmission methods, the IP security (IPSec) and the secure-socket layer (SSL) or transport-layer security (TLS), being used currently in medical-image-data communication with privacy support. Fourth, we describe a test schema of multiple-modality DICOM-image communications through TCP/IPv4 and TCP/IPv6 with different security methods, different security algorithms, and operating systems, and evaluate the test results. We found that there are tradeoff factors between choosing the IPsec and the SSL/TLS-based security implementation of IPv6/IPv4 protocols. If the WAN networks only use IPv6 such as in high-speed broadband Internet, the choice is IPsec-based security. If the networks are IPv4 or the combination of IPv6 and IPv4, it is better to use SSL/TLS security. The Linux platform has more security algorithms implemented than the Windows (XP) platform, and can achieve better performance in most experiments of IPv6 and IPv4-based DICOM-image communications. In teleradiology or enterprise-PACS applications, the Linux operating system may be the better choice as peer security gateways for both the IPsec and the SSL/TLS-based secure DICOM communications cross public networks.

  11. Security Risks and Protection in Online Learning: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a survey of online learning which attempts to determine online learning providers’ awareness of potential security risks and the protection measures that will diminish them. The authors use a combination of two methods: blog mining and a traditional literature search. The findings indicate that, while scholars have identified diverse security risks and have proposed solutions to mitigate the security threats in online learning, bloggers have not discussed security in online learning with great frequency. The differences shown in the survey results generated by the two different methods confirm that online learning providers and practitioners have not considered security as a top priority. The paper also discusses the next generation of an online learning system: a safer personal learning environment which requires a one-stop solution for authentication, assures the security of online assessments, and balances security and usability.

  12. Design of an Internet Based Security System | David | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The system has a way of monitoring requests for access to the secured areas as well as reacting to intruder attempts. To achieve this, a successful hardware data acquisition unit based on a microcontroller is designed. The data from the hardware unit is connected to the PC via the parallel port interface so as to monitor all ...

  13. Comparative study of Internet of Things infrastructure and security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bhupjit; Kaur, Bipjeet

    With increasing use of IoTs in diverse fields has increased the demands of different parameters for high level of security, trust and applications. Several companies have invested millions of dollar to fulfill the needs of the market which has given rise variant infrastructures of IoTs. In this p...

  14. Cracking ShadowCrypt: Exploring the Limitations of Secure I/O Systems in Internet Browsers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freyberger Michael

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An important line of privacy research is investigating the design of systems for secure input and output (I/O within Internet browsers. These systems would allow for users’ information to be encrypted and decrypted by the browser, and the specific web applications will only have access to the users’ information in encrypted form. The state-of-the-art approach for a secure I/O system within Internet browsers is a system called ShadowCrypt created by UC Berkeley researchers [23]. This paper will explore the limitations of ShadowCrypt in order to provide a foundation for the general principles that must be followed when designing a secure I/O system within Internet browsers. First, we developed a comprehensive UI attack that cannot be mitigated with popular UI defenses, and tested the efficacy of the attack through a user study administered on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Only 1 of the 59 participants who were under attack successfully noticed the UI attack, which validates the stealthiness of the attack. Second, we present multiple attack vectors against Shadow-Crypt that do not rely upon UI deception. These attack vectors expose the privacy weaknesses of Shadow DOM—the key browser primitive leveraged by ShadowCrypt. Finally, we present a sketch of potential countermeasures that can enable the design of future secure I/O systems within Internet browsers.

  15. Security analysis and improvements of authentication and access control in the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndibanje, Bruce; Lee, Hoon-Jae; Lee, Sang-Gon

    2014-08-13

    Internet of Things is a ubiquitous concept where physical objects are connected over the internet and are provided with unique identifiers to enable their self-identification to other devices and the ability to continuously generate data and transmit it over a network. Hence, the security of the network, data and sensor devices is a paramount concern in the IoT network as it grows very fast in terms of exchanged data and interconnected sensor nodes. This paper analyses the authentication and access control method using in the Internet of Things presented by Jing et al. (Authentication and Access Control in the Internet of Things. In Proceedings of the 2012 32nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, Macau, China, 18-21 June 2012, pp. 588-592). According to our analysis, Jing et al.'s protocol is costly in the message exchange and the security assessment is not strong enough for such a protocol. Therefore, we propose improvements to the protocol to fill the discovered weakness gaps. The protocol enhancements facilitate many services to the users such as user anonymity, mutual authentication, and secure session key establishment. Finally, the performance and security analysis show that the improved protocol possesses many advantages against popular attacks, and achieves better efficiency at low communication cost.

  16. Internet of things: emerging and future scenarios from an information security perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, MT

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Information security is becoming a major concern for most worldwide telecommunication companies and more so as we move towards the future Internet of Things. In this era, a plethora of digital devices, people and other physical objects have...

  17. OBSTACLES TO ONLINE SHOPPING: IMPACT OF GENDER AND INTERNET SECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHU GENİS-GRUBER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the latest technology era, the widespread usage of internet enabled individuals to interact continuously and led to altered buying behavior patterns. Literature focuses on the critical effects in the field. Among many antecedents to online shopping, previous studies point out two important obstacles:  (i acceptance and tendency to use technology in accordance with gender perceptions and (ii internet security problems. This study analyzes the impact of these two prominent factors on e-commerce utilization by studying the effects of these factors through primary and secondary data; a survey designed specifically for this analysis and the cross-country data from Eurostat. The findings show that while internet security problems significantly impact online shopping behavior, the evidence is mixed for the impact of gender. The results of this paper provide insights for a successful e-commerce transaction and identify important obstacles to be avoided for an efficient e-commerce system.

  18. How to Protect Children from Internet Predators: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Rodney T.

    2012-01-01

    Teenage Internet users are the fastest growing segment in the Internet user population. These teenagers are at risk of sexual assault from Internet predators. This phenomenological study explored teacher and counselors' perceptions of how to prevent this sexual assault. Twenty-five teacher and counselor participants were interviewed. A…

  19. Protecting the Privacy and Security of Your Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About ONC Main navigation Health IT Feedback Form Health IT Strategic Planning Leadership Bios ONC Speaker Request Form Contact Us ONC Budget and Performance Breadcrumb Home How Do I? For ... How can I access my health information/medical record? Protecting Your Privacy & Security Protecting ...

  20. Internal Security Institutions Meeting Internet Governance. A comparative view on the UK and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Röllgen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The internet stays a high potential infrastructure of open interaction, hence, governmental desires in monitoring the internet are growing. A demonstrative example might be the attempts to make any technology based communication ‘traceable’ with the help of a European scheme of data retention (EU direction 2006/24/EC and its national ratifications. Regarding this, two theses come up: First, governments try to achieve their logic of ‘real life’ internal security also within the internet regime. Second, the internet changed the society in so far as it opened space for new relevant communities and actors – lobbying more and more on institutionalised paths. This will be shown by analysing the processes in the UK and Germany. A focus will lie on each national implementation of the EU’s data retention directive. Societal and especially political differences will find some notion as well, as they build the framework of any political decision making process.

  1. Simple & Secure: Attitude and behaviour towards security and usability in internet products and services at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, R.; Broenink, E.G.; Fransen, F.; Schultz, S.; Vries, A. de

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the result of research on the security perception of users in ICT services and equipment. We analyze the rationale of users to have an interest in security and to decide to change security parameters of equipment and services. We focus on the home environment, where more and more

  2. Differences in High School and College Students' Basic Knowledge and Perceived Education of Internet Safety: Do High School Students Really Benefit from the Children's Internet Protection Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA; 2000) requires an Internet filtering and public awareness strategy to protect children under 17 from harmful visual Internet depictions. This study compared high school students who went online with the CIPA restriction and college students who went online without the restriction in order to…

  3. Computer Security: transparent monitoring for your protection

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2016-01-01

    Computer security can be handled in one of two ways: in secrecy, behind a black curtain; or out in the open, subject to scrutiny and with full transparency. We believe that the latter is the only right way for CERN, and have always put that belief into practice. In keeping with this spirit, here is a reminder of how we monitor (your) CERN activities in order to guarantee timely responses to computer security incidents.   We monitor all network traffic coming into and going out of CERN. Automatic tools look for suspicious patterns like connections to known malicious IP addresses, web pages or domains. They check for malicious files being downloaded and make statistical analyses of connections in order to identify unusual behaviour. The automatic analysis of the logs from the CERN Domain Name Servers complements this and provides a redundant means of detection. We also constantly scan the CERN office network and keep an inventory of the individual network services running on each device: w...

  4. Radiation Protection, Nuclear Safety and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faye, Ndeye Arame Boye; Ndao, Ababacar Sadikhe; Tall, Moustapha Sadibou

    2014-01-01

    Senegal has put in place a regulatory framework which allows to frame legally the use of radioactive sources. A regulatory authority has been established to ensure its application. It is in the process of carrying out its regulatory functions. It cooperates with appropriate national or international institutions operating in fields related to radiation protection, safety and nuclear safety.

  5. Secure Web-based Ground System User Interfaces over the Open Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, James H.; Murray, Henry L.; Hunt, Gary R.

    1998-01-01

    A prototype has been developed which makes use of commercially available products in conjunction with the Java programming language to provide a secure user interface for command and control over the open Internet. This paper reports successful demonstration of: (1) Security over the Internet, including encryption and certification; (2) Integration of Java applets with a COTS command and control product; (3) Remote spacecraft commanding using the Internet. The Java-based Spacecraft Web Interface to Telemetry and Command Handling (Jswitch) ground system prototype provides these capabilities. This activity demonstrates the use and integration of current technologies to enable a spacecraft engineer or flight operator to monitor and control a spacecraft from a user interface communicating over the open Internet using standard World Wide Web (WWW) protocols and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products. The core command and control functions are provided by the COTS Epoch 2000 product. The standard WWW tools and browsers are used in conjunction with the Java programming technology. Security is provided with the current encryption and certification technology. This system prototype is a step in the direction of giving scientist and flight operators Web-based access to instrument, payload, and spacecraft data.

  6. Radiological protection national system. Basic security rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This work has been prepared as the first one of a set of standards and regulations that will be enforced to provide the protection of men and the environment against the undesirable effects of ionizing radiations. It establishes, in the first place, the system of dose limits for the country and the principles of its utilization. It takes into account the CIPR's recommendations in this area and the mentioned frame of reference, it establishes further the necessary restrictions for the application of the limits to the professionally exposed workers, as well as to the isolated members of the public and the population in general. In addition it establishes the general conditions to be met for the implementation of radiological protection, among them, the classification of working areas and working conditions as well as the compulsory periodical medical surveillance. (H.D.N.)

  7. Enforcing Security Mechanisms in the IP-Based Internet of Things: An Algorithmic Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Veltri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT refers to the Internet-like structure of billions of interconnected constrained devices, denoted as “smart objects”. Smart objects have limited capabilities, in terms of computational power and memory, and might be battery-powered devices, thus raising the need to adopt particularly energy efficient technologies. Among the most notable challenges that building interconnected smart objects brings about, there are standardization and interoperability. The use of IP has been foreseen as the standard for interoperability for smart objects. As billions of smart objects are expected to come to life and IPv4 addresses have eventually reached depletion, IPv6 has been identified as a candidate for smart-object communication. The deployment of the IoT raises many security issues coming from (i the very nature of smart objects, e.g., the adoption of lightweight cryptographic algorithms, in terms of processing and memory requirements; and (ii the use of standard protocols, e.g., the need to minimize the amount of data exchanged between nodes. This paper provides a detailed overview of the security challenges related to the deployment of smart objects. Security protocols at network, transport, and application layers are discussed, together with lightweight cryptographic algorithms proposed to be used instead of conventional and demanding ones, in terms of computational resources. Security aspects, such as key distribution and security bootstrapping, and application scenarios, such as secure data aggregation and service authorization, are also discussed.

  8. Implementing Physical Protection Education for an Enhanced Nuclear Security Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, Hyun Chul; Shin, Ick Hyun; Lee, Hyung Kyung; Choe, Kwan Kyoo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we are going to outline our efforts and experiences at implementing physical protection education. KINAC (as the only designated educational institute) places great effort in delivering an effective and a high-quality education program for physical protection. We have also provided a way for nuclear operators to share the lessons they have gained through their own experiences. We made physical protection education an important communication channel, not only among nuclear operators but also between operators and a regulatory body. There is growing attention given to education and training on the subject of physical protection in order to enhance the nuclear security culture. The IAEA recommends that all personnel in organizations directly involved with the nuclear industry receive regularly education in physical protection according to the recently revised INFCIRC/225/Rev.5. The Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), which are mainly responsible for the national nuclear security regime, have already recognized the importance of education and training in physical protection. The NSSC enacted its decree on physical protection education and training in 2010. KINAC was designated as the first educational institute in 2011 and implemented physical protection education as mandatory from 2012

  9. Network Security Hacks Tips & Tools for Protecting Your Privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This second edition of Network Security Hacks offers 125 concise and practical hacks, including more information for Windows administrators, hacks for wireless networking (such as setting up a captive portal and securing against rogue hotspots), and techniques to ensure privacy and anonymity, including ways to evade network traffic analysis, encrypt email and files, and protect against phishing attacks. System administrators looking for reliable answers will also find concise examples of applied encryption, intrusion detection, logging, trending, and incident response.

  10. Cryptanalysis of a data security protection scheme for VoIP

    OpenAIRE

    Li, CQ; Li, SJ; Zhang, D; Chen, G

    2006-01-01

    A voice-over-Internet protocol technique with a new hierarchical data security protection (HDSP) scheme using a secret chaotic bit sequence has been recently proposed. Some insecure properties of the HDSP scheme are pointed out and then used to develop known/chosen-plaintext attacks. The main findings are: given n known plaintexts, about (100–(50/2n))% of secret chaotic bits can be uniquely determined; given only one specially-chosen plaintext, all secret chaotic bits can be uniquely derived;...

  11. Annual training manual for security training: Protective force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Westinghouse is committed to high quality training relevant to the need of the Protective Forces at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The training programs at WIPP are designed to qualify Security personnel to perform WIPP security missions in a professional and responsible manner. The program consists of basic as well as sustainment training, as further described in this plan. This plan documents the WIPP Security training program for security personnel for calendar year 1990. The programs detailed in this plan are designed to adequately train persons to ensure the uninterrupted continuity of Department of Energy (DOE)/Westinghouse operations. The Security Training Program consists of four basic elements. These elements are (1) basic level training; (2) on-the-job training; (3) refresher training; and (4) in-service training.

  12. Security Culture in Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susyanta-Widyatmaka; Koraag, Venuesiana-Dewi; Taswanda-Taryo

    2005-01-01

    In nuclear related field, there are three different cultures: safety, safeguards and security culture. Safety culture has established mostly in nuclear industries, meanwhile safeguards and security culture are relatively new and still developing. The latter is intended to improve the physical protection of material and nuclear facility. This paper describes concept, properties and factors affecting security culture and interactions among these cultures. The analysis indicates that anybody involving in nuclear material and facility should have strong commitment and awareness of such culture to establish it. It is concluded that the assessment of security culture outlined in this paper is still preliminary for developing and conduction rigorous security culture implemented in a much more complex facility such as nuclear power plant

  13. Securing SQL server protecting your database from attackers

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, Denny

    2015-01-01

    SQL server is the most widely-used database platform in the world, and a large percentage of these databases are not properly secured, exposing sensitive customer and business data to attack. In Securing SQL Server, Third Edition, you will learn about the potential attack vectors that can be used to break into SQL server databases as well as how to protect databases from these attacks. In this book, Denny Cherry - a Microsoft SQL MVP and one of the biggest names in SQL server - will teach you how to properly secure an SQL server database from internal and external threats using best practic

  14. Securing SQL Server Protecting Your Database from Attackers

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, Denny

    2011-01-01

    There is a lot at stake for administrators taking care of servers, since they house sensitive data like credit cards, social security numbers, medical records, and much more. In Securing SQL Server you will learn about the potential attack vectors that can be used to break into your SQL Server database, and how to protect yourself from these attacks. Written by a Microsoft SQL Server MVP, you will learn how to properly secure your database, from both internal and external threats. Best practices and specific tricks employed by the author will also be revealed. Learn expert techniques to protec

  15. How To Protect Children From Internet Predators: A Phenomenological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Teenage Internet users are the fastest growing segment in the Internet user population. These teenagers are at risk of sexual assault from Internet predators. This phenomenological study explored teacher and counselors' perceptions of how to prevent this sexual assault. Twenty-five teacher and counselor participants were interviewed. A modified van Kaam method was used to analyze the data and develop themes. Participants stated that mainly the lack of parental support and social networking website were the circumstances leading to teenage Internet sexual assault, while teen needs and gratification usually played a role in teen encounters with predators on the Internet. There were 5 emergent themes in this phenomenological study and those themes were; lack of parental support, social networking websites and chat rooms, teenage need for relationships, instant gratification among teenagers, improved parental support.

  16. Safeguarding the User - Developing a Multimodal Design for Surveying and Raising Internet Safety and Security Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Sharp, Robin; Andersen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    Internet safety and security for the user is an issue of great importance for the successful implementation of ICT, but since it is a complex field, with a specialist vocabulary that cannot immediately be understood by the common user, it is difficult to survey the field. The user may...... not understand the questions that are being asked, since the issues are often technical and outside the users’ domain. It is therefore pertinent to develop new ways of researching the users’ awareness of ICT safety and security issues that do not depend solely on the verbal mode of communication. This paper...

  17. Ensuring Freedoms and Protecting Rights in the Governance of the Internet: A Comparative Analysis on Blocking Measures and Internet Providers’ Removal of Illegal Internet Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Parti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Removing illegal or harmful material from the internet has been pursued for more than two decades. The advent of Web 2.0, with the prominent increase and diffusion of user-generated content, amplifies the necessity for technical and legal frameworks enabling the removal of illegal material from the network. This study deals with different levels and methods of Internet ‘cleansing’ measures, comparing government regulated and Internet service provider based removals of illegal Internet content. The paper aims at putting the regulatory option of internet blocking measures into the broader perspective of the legal framework regulating the (exemption from liability of Intermediary Service Providers (ISPs for user-generated contents. In addition, the paper suggests proposals on which regulatory options can better ensure the respect of freedoms and the protection of rights. The paper introduces several significant cases of blocking online copyright infringing materials. Copyright related blocking techniques have been devised for business reasons – by copyright holders’ associations. It must be recalled, however, that these blocking actions cannot be enforced without the states’ intervention. These business-level actions become isolated if they are not supported by both the European Union and its Member States. Conversely, state-centred initiatives cannot work out without the private sector’s cooperation. Internet service providers play a crucial role in this cooperative framework because of their task of providing access to the Internet and hosting web contents.

  18. Internet Protocol Security (IPSEC): Testing and Implications on IPv4 and IPv6 Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-27

    establishment of VPN tunnels with other networks. Due to time constraints, we did not modify OpenSwan or attempt any further application of IPSec ... VPNs Illustrated: Tunnels , VPNs , and IPsec , Addison-Wesley, 2006. [5] D. Maughan, Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol...setups. We were not able to test on the Linux machine due to the nature of the implementation of IPSec , namely that of VPNs solely. From the testing

  19. Operating Systems-Functions, Protection and Security Mechanisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 4. Operating Systems - Functions, Protection and Security Mechanisms. M Suresh Babu. General Article Volume 7 Issue 4 April 2002 pp 60-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Security Risks and Protection in Online Learning: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; He, Wu

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a survey of online learning which attempts to determine online learning providers' awareness of potential security risks and the protection measures that will diminish them. The authors use a combination of two methods: blog mining and a traditional literature search. The findings indicate that, while scholars have…

  1. Energy security and climate change protection: Complementarity or tradeoff?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Stephen P.A.; Huntington, Hillard G.

    2008-01-01

    Energy security and climate change protection have risen to the forefront of energy policy - linked in time and a perception that both goals can be achieved through the same or similar policies. Although such complementarity can exist for individual technologies, policymakers face a tradeoff between these two policy objectives. The tradeoff arises when policymakers choose the mix of individual technologies with which to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance energy security. Optimal policy is achieved when the cost of the additional use of each technology equals the value of the additional energy security and reduction in greenhouse gas emission that it provides. Such an approach may draw more heavily on conventional technologies that provide benefits in only one dimension than on more costly technologies that both increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  2. Education Organization Baseline Control Protection and Trusted Level Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasim A. Al-Hamdani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Many education organizations have adopted for security the enterprise best practices for implementation on their campuses, while others focus on ISO Standard (or/and the National Institution of Standards and Technology.All these adoptions are dependent on IT personal and their experiences or knowledge of the standard. On top of this is the size of the education organizations. The larger the population in an education organization, the more the problem of information and security become very clear. Thus, they have been obliged to comply with information security issues and adopt the national or international standard. The case is quite different when the population size of the education organization is smaller. In such education organizations, they use social security numbers as student ID, and issue administrative rights to faculty and lab managers – or they are not aware of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA – and release some personal information.The problem of education organization security is widely open and depends on the IT staff and their information security knowledge in addition to the education culture (education, scholarships and services has very special characteristics other than an enterprise or comparative organizationThis paper is part of a research to develop an “Education Organization Baseline Control Protection and Trusted Level Security.” The research has three parts: Adopting (standards, Testing and Modifying (if needed.

  3. A framework for an institutional high level security policy for the processing of medical data and their transmission through the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilioudis, C; Pangalos, G

    2001-01-01

    The Internet provides many advantages when used for interaction and data sharing among health care providers, patients, and researchers. However, the advantages provided by the Internet come with a significantly greater element of risk to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information. It is therefore essential that Health Care Establishments processing and exchanging medical data use an appropriate security policy. To develop a High Level Security Policy for the processing of medical data and their transmission through the Internet, which is a set of high-level statements intended to guide Health Care Establishment personnel who process and manage sensitive health care information. We developed the policy based on a detailed study of the existing framework in the EU countries, USA, and Canada, and on consultations with users in the context of the Intranet Health Clinic project. More specifically, this paper has taken into account the major directives, technical reports, law, and recommendations that are related to the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data, and the protection of privacy and medical data on the Internet. We present a High Level Security Policy for Health Care Establishments, which includes a set of 7 principles and 45 guidelines detailed in this paper. The proposed principles and guidelines have been made as generic and open to specific implementations as possible, to provide for maximum flexibility and adaptability to local environments. The High Level Security Policy establishes the basic security requirements that must be addressed to use the Internet to safely transmit patient and other sensitive health care information. The High Level Security Policy is primarily intended for large Health Care Establishments in Europe, USA, and Canada. It is clear however that the general framework presented here can only serve as reference material for developing an appropriate High Level Security Policy in a

  4. Securing SQL Server Protecting Your Database from Attackers

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, Denny

    2012-01-01

    Written by Denny Cherry, a Microsoft MVP for the SQL Server product, a Microsoft Certified Master for SQL Server 2008, and one of the biggest names in SQL Server today, Securing SQL Server, Second Edition explores the potential attack vectors someone can use to break into your SQL Server database as well as how to protect your database from these attacks. In this book, you will learn how to properly secure your database from both internal and external threats using best practices and specific tricks the author uses in his role as an independent consultant while working on some of the largest

  5. Security enhanced BioEncoding for protecting iris codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouda, Osama; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya

    2011-06-01

    Improving the security of biometric template protection techniques is a key prerequisite for the widespread deployment of biometric technologies. BioEncoding is a recently proposed template protection scheme, based on the concept of cancelable biometrics, for protecting biometric templates represented as binary strings such as iris codes. The main advantage of BioEncoding over other template protection schemes is that it does not require user-specific keys and/or tokens during verification. Besides, it satisfies all the requirements of the cancelable biometrics construct without deteriorating the matching accuracy. However, although it has been shown that BioEncoding is secure enough against simple brute-force search attacks, the security of BioEncoded templates against more smart attacks, such as record multiplicity attacks, has not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, a rigorous security analysis of BioEncoding is presented. Firstly, resistance of BioEncoded templates against brute-force attacks is revisited thoroughly. Secondly, we show that although the cancelable transformation employed in BioEncoding might be non-invertible for a single protected template, the original iris code could be inverted by correlating several templates used in different applications but created from the same iris. Accordingly, we propose an important modification to the BioEncoding transformation process in order to hinder attackers from exploiting this type of attacks. The effectiveness of adopting the suggested modification is validated and its impact on the matching accuracy is investigated empirically using CASIA-IrisV3-Interval dataset. Experimental results confirm the efficacy of the proposed approach and show that it preserves the matching accuracy of the unprotected iris recognition system.

  6. Internet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Internet. The latest communication revolution surrounds Internet. Some stats*:. 210 billion emails sent daily; 15 billion phone calls everyday; ~40 billion WWW links served everyday. * Source : The Radicati group.

  7. College Students, Internet Use, and Protection from Online Identity Theft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norum, Pamela S.; Weagley, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    The Internet has experienced phenomenal growth in higher education. In addition to many pedagogical benefits, there are potential risks to the student users, including identity theft. This study examined the extent to which selected online practices that could minimize the risk of financial identity theft are used by college students. Data were…

  8. Analysis of Techniques for Protection Against Spam over Internet Telephony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinten, Vincent M.; van de Meent, R.; Pras, A.; Pras, Aiko; van Sinderen, M.J.; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2007-01-01

    Spam in Internet telephony (SPIT) networks is likely to become a large problem in the future, as more and more people and companies switch from traditional telephone networks to Voice over IP (VoIP) networks, and as it is easy to spam VoIP users. The goal of this survey paper is to identify

  9. A Survey of How to Use Blockchain to Secure Internet of Things and the Stalker Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Ferreira Jesus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is increasingly a reality today. Nevertheless, some key challenges still need to be given particular attention so that IoT solutions further support the growing demand for connected devices and the services offered. Due to the potential relevance and sensitivity of services, IoT solutions should address the security and privacy concerns surrounding these devices and the data they collect, generate, and process. Recently, the Blockchain technology has gained much attention in IoT solutions. Its primary usage scenarios are in the financial domain, where Blockchain creates a promising applications world and can be leveraged to solve security and privacy issues. However, this emerging technology has a great potential in the most diverse technological areas and can significantly help achieve the Internet of Things view in different aspects, increasing the capacity of decentralization, facilitating interactions, enabling new transaction models, and allowing autonomous coordination of the devices. The paper goal is to provide the concepts about the structure and operation of Blockchain and, mainly, analyze how the use of this technology can be used to provide security and privacy in IoT. Finally, we present the stalker, which is a selfish miner variant that has the objective of preventing a node to publish its blocks on the main chain.

  10. A Malicious Pattern Detection Engine for Embedded Security Systems in the Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Doohwan; Kim, Deokho; Ro, Won Woo

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT), a large number of physical objects in daily life have been aggressively connected to the Internet. As the number of objects connected to networks increases, the security systems face a critical challenge due to the global connectivity and accessibility of the IoT. However, it is difficult to adapt traditional security systems to the objects in the IoT, because of their limited computing power and memory size. In light of this, we present a lightweight security system that uses a novel malicious pattern-matching engine. We limit the memory usage of the proposed system in order to make it work on resource-constrained devices. To mitigate performance degradation due to limitations of computation power and memory, we propose two novel techniques, auxiliary shifting and early decision. Through both techniques, we can efficiently reduce the number of matching operations on resource-constrained systems. Experiments and performance analyses show that our proposed system achieves a maximum speedup of 2.14 with an IoT object and provides scalable performance for a large number of patterns. PMID:25521382

  11. Performance evaluation of secured DICOM image communication with next generation internet protocol IPv6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fenghai; Zhang, Jianguo; Chen, Xiaomeng; Huang, H. K.

    2005-04-01

    Next Generation Internet (NGI) technology with new communication protocol IPv6 emerges as a potential solution for low-cost and high-speed networks for image data transmission. IPv6 is designed to solve many of the problems of the current version of IP (known as IPv4) with regard to address depletion, security, autoconfiguration, extensibility, and more. We choose CTN (Central Test Node) DICOM software developed by The Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology to implement IPv6/IPv4 enabled DICOM communication software on different operating systems (Windows/Linux), and used this DICOM software to evaluate the performance of the IPv6/IPv4 enabled DICOM image communication with different security setting and environments. We compared the security communications of IPsec with SSL/TLS on different TCP/IP protocols (IPv6/IPv4), and find that there are some trade-offs to choose security solution between IPsec and SSL/TLS in the security implementation of IPv6/IPv4 communication networks.

  12. Security Enhancement for Multicast over Internet of Things by Dynamically Constructed Fountain Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghe Du

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is expected to accommodate every object which exists in this world or likely to exist in the near future. The enormous scale of the objects is challenged by big security concerns, especially for common information dissemination via multicast services, where the reliability assurance for multiple multicast users at the cost of increasing redundancy and/or retransmissions also benefits eavesdroppers in successfully decoding the overheard signals. The objective of this work is to address the security challenge present in IoT multicast applications. Specifically, with the presence of the eavesdropper, an adaptive fountain code design is proposed in this paper to enhance the security for multicast in IoT. The main novel features of the proposed scheme include two folds: (i dynamical encoding scheme which can effectively decrease intercept probability at the eavesdropper; (ii increasing the transmission efficiency compared with the conventional nondynamical design. The analysis and simulation results show that the proposed scheme can effectively enhance information security while achieving higher transmission efficiency with a little accredited complexity, thus facilitating the secured wireless multicast transmissions over IoT.

  13. Classification of Device Behaviour in Internet of Things Infrastructures: Towards Distinguishing the Abnormal From Security Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrando, Roman; Stacey, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, Internet of Things (IoT) devices are being woven into the fabric of our physical world. With this rapidly expanding pervasive deployment of IoT devices, and supporting infrastructure, we are fast approaching the point where the problem of IoT based cyber-security attacks is a serious threat to industrial operations, business activity and social interactions that leverage IoT technologies. The number of threats and successful attacks against connected systems using IoT devices an...

  14. 17 CFR 403.4 - Customer protection-reserves and custody of securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customer protection-reserves... TREASURY REGULATIONS UNDER SECTION 15C OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 PROTECTION OF CUSTOMER SECURITIES AND BALANCES § 403.4 Customer protection—reserves and custody of securities. Every registered...

  15. Towards Formal Validation of Trust and Security of the Internet of Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Roberto; Minea, Marius; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Service designers and developers, while striving to meet the requirements posed by application scenarios, have a hard time to assess the trust and security impact of an option, a minor change, a combination of functionalities, etc., due to the subtle and unforeseeable situations and behaviors...... that can arise from this panoply of choices. This often results in the release of flawed products to end-users. This issue can be significantly mitigated by empowering designers and developers with tools that offer easy to use graphical interfaces and notations, while employing established verification...... techniques to efficiently tackle industrial-size problems. The formal verification of trust and security of the Internet of Services will significantly boost its development and public acceptance....

  16. Improving the Security of Internet Banking Applications by Using Multimodal Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Lupu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Online banking applications are used by more and more people all over the world. Most of the banks are providing these services to their customers. The authentication methods varies from the basic user and password to username and a onetime password (OTP generated by a virtual or a physical digipass. The common thing among authentication methods is that the login wepage is provided through a secure channel. Some banks have introduced (especially for testing purposes the authentication using common biometric characteristics, like fingerprint, voice or keystroke recognition. This paper will present some of the most common online banking authentication methods, together with basic biometric characteristics that could be used in these applications. The security in internet banking applications can be improved by using biometrics for the authentication process. Also, the authors have developed an application for authentication of users using fingerprint as the main characteristic, which will be presented at the end of this paper.

  17. A secure steganography for privacy protection in healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Tang, Guangming; Sun, Yifeng

    2013-04-01

    Private data in healthcare system require confidentiality protection while transmitting. Steganography is the art of concealing data into a cover media for conveying messages confidentially. In this paper, we propose a steganographic method which can provide private data in medical system with very secure protection. In our method, a cover image is first mapped into a 1D pixels sequence by Hilbert filling curve and then divided into non-overlapping embedding units with three consecutive pixels. We use adaptive pixel pair match (APPM) method to embed digits in the pixel value differences (PVD) of the three pixels and the base of embedded digits is dependent on the differences among the three pixels. By solving an optimization problem, minimal distortion of the pixel ternaries caused by data embedding can be obtained. The experimental results show our method is more suitable to privacy protection of healthcare system than prior steganographic works.

  18. Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Eun-Jeung; Song, Won-Young; Kim, Seohee; Youn, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. This study assessed the risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction in college students and compared these factors to those linked to Internet addiction. Methods College students (N?=?448) in South Korea completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Young?s Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck De...

  19. Computer Security: Protect your plant: a "serious game" about control system cyber-security

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Control system cyber-security is attracting increasing attention: from cybercriminals, from the media and from security researchers.   After the legendary “Stuxnet” attacks of 2010 against an Iranian uranium enrichment plant, the infiltration of Saudi Aramco in 2012, and most recently the hacking of German blast furnaces, we should be prepared. Just imagine what would happen if hackers turned off the lights in Geneva and the Pays-de-Gex for a month? (“Hacking control systems, switching lights off!"). Or if attackers infiltrated CERN’s accelerator or experiment control systems and stopped us from pursuing our core business: delivering beams and recording particle collisions (“Hacking control systems, switching... accelerators off?"). Now you can test your ability to protect an industrial plant against cyber-threats! The Computer Security Team, in collaboration with Kaspersky Lab, is organising a so-...

  20. Dissecting the Security and Protection Issues in Pervasive Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Javaid

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Human beings reflect nomadic behaviour as they keep on travelling place to place whole day for personal or organizational purposes. The inception of modern networking technologies and the advent of wide range of applications in terms of services and resources have facilitated the users in many ways. The advancements in numerous areas such as embedded systems, WN (Wireless Networks, mobile and context-aware computing, anticipated pervasive computing dominated the human communication at large. Pervasive computing refers to the environment where information is accessible anywhere and anytime while existing system is invisible to the user. On the other hand, the invisibility of pervasive computing is also a problem in its adoption as users are unaware when and what devices collect their personal data and how it is being used. It has caused new security chaos as the more information about user is collected the more privacy and security concerns it raises, thus, the pervasive computing applications became key concern for user. This paper is aimed at analyzing the security and protection issues that arise while traveling from place to place connected with wireless mobile networks. The paper reviews many existing systems that offer possible security to pervasive users. An easy, precise and relative analysis and evaluation of surveyed pervasive systems are presented and some future directions are highlighted.

  1. Experimentation Using Short-Term Spectral Features for Secure Mobile Internet Voting Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a secure mobile Internet voting architecture based on the Sensus reference architecture and report the experiments carried out using short-term spectral features for realizing the voice biometric based authentication module of the architecture being proposed. The short-term spectral features investigated are Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs, Mel-Frequency Discrete Wavelet Coefficients (MFDWC, Linear Predictive Cepstral Coefficients (LPCC, and Spectral Histogram of Oriented Gradients (SHOGs. The MFCC, MFDWC, and LPCC usually have higher dimensions that oftentimes lead to high computational complexity of the pattern matching algorithms in automatic speaker recognition systems. In this study, higher dimensions of each of the short-term features were reduced to an 81-element feature vector per Speaker using Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG algorithm while neural network ensemble was utilized as the pattern matching algorithm. Out of the four short-term spectral features investigated, the LPCC-HOG gave the best statistical results with R statistic of 0.9127 and mean square error of 0.0407. These compact LPCC-HOG features are highly promising for implementing the authentication module of the secure mobile Internet voting architecture we are proposing in this paper.

  2. Energy policy seesaw between security and protecting the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    1994-01-01

    It is just the price of oil that causes the energy policies of importing countries to vacillate. Changing perceptions of energy supply factors has had as much to do with transfiguring government action modes since 1973 as has the idea of the legitimacy of that action. The present paper thus draws a parallel between the goal of energy security twenty years ago and that of global environmental protection today, which explains the critical reversion to a view of minimum government action in the energy field - a view that marked the eighties. (author). 20 refs

  3. Model Based Cyber Security Analysis for Research Reactor Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sho, Jinsoo; Rahman, Khalil Ur; Heo, Gyunyoung; Son, Hanseong

    2013-01-01

    The study on the qualitative risk due to cyber-attacks into research reactors was performed using bayesian Network (BN). This was motivated to solve the issues of cyber security raised due to digitalization of instrumentation and control (I and C) system. As a demonstrative example, we chose the reactor protection system (RPS) of research reactors. Two scenarios of cyber-attacks on RPS were analyzed to develop mitigation measures against vulnerabilities. The one is the 'insertion of reactor trip' and the other is the 'scram halt'. The six mitigation measures are developed for five vulnerability for these scenarios by getting the risk information from BN

  4. Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Eun-Jeung; Song, Won-Young; Kim, Seohee; Youn, Hyunchul

    2015-12-01

    Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. This study assessed the risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction in college students and compared these factors to those linked to Internet addiction. College students (N = 448) in South Korea completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Young's Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck Depression Inventory I, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Trait Version), the Character Strengths Test, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses. The risk factors for smartphone addiction were female gender, Internet use, alcohol use, and anxiety, while the protective factors were depression and temperance. In contrast, the risk factors for Internet addiction were male gender, smartphone use, anxiety, and wisdom/knowledge, while the protective factor was courage. Discussion These differences may result from unique features of smartphones, such as high availability and primary use as a tool for interpersonal relationships. Our findings will aid clinicians in distinguishing between predictive factors for smartphone and Internet addiction and can consequently be utilized in the prevention and treatment of smartphone addiction.

  5. 49 CFR 387.303 - Security for the protection of the public: Minimum limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security for the protection of the public: Minimum... Insurance for Motor Carriers and Property Brokers § 387.303 Security for the protection of the public... security means public liability coverage provided by the insurance or surety company responsible for the...

  6. Does the Internet Limit Human Rights Protection? The Case of Revenge Porn

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnadóttir, María Rún

    2017-01-01

    With the enhanced distribution possibilities internet brings, online revenge porn has gained spotlight, as reports show that the act can cause serious consequences for victims. Research and reported cases have led to criticism of states lack of legal and executive means to protect victims, not least due to jurisdictional issues. Framing the matter within states responsibility to protect rights under Article 8 of the ECHR, presents the issue of possible breach of human rights obligations of st...

  7. Building an authorization model for external means of protection of APCS based on the Internet of things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharov, A. A.; Nissenbaum, O. V.; Ponomaryov, K. Y.; Nesgovorov, E. S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we study application of Internet of Thing concept and devices to secure automated process control systems. We review different approaches in IoT (Internet of Things) architecture and design and propose them for several applications in security of automated process control systems. We consider an Attribute-based encryption in context of access control mechanism implementation and promote a secret key distribution scheme between attribute authorities and end devices.

  8. Information security in the context of the protection of children's rights in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of information security of children and adolescents in our country. It gives organizational and legal basis of information security of children and teenagers in modern Russian society. Reflected the basic contradiction of the interaction between children and adolescents with information resources. The article gives examples of solutions to security problems of the Internet in Russia and other countries on the basis of a review of publications dealing with the problem.

  9. 75 FR 82037 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; President's National Security Telecommunications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Directorate; President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC... telecommunications policy. The new NSTAC Chair, James Crowe, Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Level 3 Communications...

  10. Cyber resilience: a review of critical national infrastructure and cyber security protection measures applied in the UK and USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Wayne; Matteson, Ashley

    This paper presents cyber resilience as key strand of national security. It establishes the importance of critical national infrastructure protection and the growing vicarious nature of remote, well-planned, and well executed cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. Examples of well-known historical cyber attacks are presented, and the emergence of 'internet of things' as a cyber vulnerability issue yet to be tackled is explored. The paper identifies key steps being undertaken by those responsible for detecting, deterring, and disrupting cyber attacks on critical national infrastructure in the United Kingdom and the USA.

  11. Current Trends in providing the Toys Security and Consumer Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiela Magdalena Csorba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goods and services market is not in equilibrium. This affects continuously the consumers under multiple aspects: economic, educational, health insurance and security, and so on. Not even the toys market outlets or the toys trading market aren’t trouble free. Because publications in the toys consumer protection field are seldom (legislation is the starting point in analyzing this area, the checks carried out at national level which showed the marketed toys insecurity and the abuses of the economic agents in this sector determined us to analyze the degree in which people knows the toy-related injuries and the danger to which they expose their own children when purchasing dangerous toys. That’s why a quantitative research was conducted, using the method of questionnaire, distributed through the Romanian consumers, with the aim to check the empirically awareness and the seriousness with which they relate the risks concerning the toys consume.

  12. Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for privacy protected multimodal biometric security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2016-04-01

    We propose a Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for multimodal biometric security. One modality of biometrics (such as face) is used as the plaintext, which is encrypted by another modality of biometrics (such as fingerprint). A private key is synthesized from the encrypted biometric signature by complex spatial Fourier processing. The encrypted biometric signature is further encrypted by other biometric modalities, and the corresponding private keys are synthesized. The resulting biometric signature is privacy protected since the encryption keys are provided by the human, and hence those are private keys. Moreover, the decryption keys are synthesized using those private encryption keys. The encrypted signatures are decrypted using the synthesized private keys and inverse complex spatial Fourier processing. Computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the technique proposed.

  13. 76 FR 75829 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK45 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a... guidance on the tax treatment of Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities issued with more than a de minimis... the coupon bond method described in Sec. 1.1275-7(d) applies to Treasury Inflation-Protected...

  14. Internet-Based Solutions for a Secure and Efficient Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, R.; Black, M.; Bruton, C.; Hauksson, E.; Stubailo, I.; Watkins, M.; Alvarez, M.; Thomas, V.

    2017-12-01

    The Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN), operated by Caltech and USGS, leverages modern Internet-based computing technologies to provide timely earthquake early warning for damage reduction, event notification, ShakeMap, and other data products. Here we present recent and ongoing innovations in telemetry, security, cloud computing, virtualization, and data analysis that have allowed us to develop a network that runs securely and efficiently.Earthquake early warning systems must process seismic data within seconds of being recorded, and SCSN maintains a robust and resilient network of more than 350 digital strong motion and broadband seismic stations to achieve this goal. We have continued to improve the path diversity and fault tolerance within our network, and have also developed new tools for latency monitoring and archiving.Cyberattacks are in the news almost daily, and with most of our seismic data streams running over the Internet, it is only a matter of time before SCSN is targeted. To ensure system integrity and availability across our network, we have implemented strong security, including encryption and Virtual Private Networks (VPNs).SCSN operates its own data center at Caltech, but we have also installed real-time servers on Amazon Web Services (AWS), to provide an additional level of redundancy, and eventually to allow full off-site operations continuity for our network. Our AWS systems receive data from Caltech-based import servers and directly from field locations, and are able to process the seismic data, calculate earthquake locations and magnitudes, and distribute earthquake alerts, directly from the cloud.We have also begun a virtualization project at our Caltech data center, allowing us to serve data from Virtual Machines (VMs), making efficient use of high-performance hardware and increasing flexibility and scalability of our data processing systems.Finally, we have developed new monitoring of station average noise levels at most stations

  15. On the security of consumer wearable devices in the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Hasan; Tahir, Ruhma; McDonald-Maier, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Miniaturization of computer hardware and the demand for network capable devices has resulted in the emergence of a new class of technology called wearable computing. Wearable devices have many purposes like lifestyle support, health monitoring, fitness monitoring, entertainment, industrial uses, and gaming. Wearable devices are hurriedly being marketed in an attempt to capture an emerging market. Owing to this, some devices do not adequately address the need for security. To enable virtualization and connectivity wearable devices sense and transmit data, therefore it is essential that the device, its data and the user are protected. In this paper the use of novel Integrated Circuit Metric (ICMetric) technology for the provision of security in wearable devices has been suggested. ICMetric technology uses the features of a device to generate an identification which is then used for the provision of cryptographic services. This paper explores how a device ICMetric can be generated by using the accelerometer and gyroscope sensor. Since wearable devices often operate in a group setting the work also focuses on generating a group identification which is then used to deliver services like authentication, confidentiality, secure admission and symmetric key generation. Experiment and simulation results prove that the scheme offers high levels of security without compromising on resource demands.

  16. How Robust Refugee Protection Policies Can Strengthen Human and National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes the case that refugee protection and national security should be viewed as complementary, not conflicting state goals. It argues that refugee protection can further the security of refugees, affected states, and the international community. Refugees and international migrants can also advance national security by contributing to a state’s economic vitality, military strength, diplomatic standing, and civic values. The paper identifies several strategies that would, if implemented, promote both security and refugee protection. It also outlines additional steps that the US Congress should take to enhance US refugee protection policies and security. Finally, it argues for the efficacy of political engagement in support of pro-protection, pro-security policies, and against the assumption that political populism will invariably impede support for refugee protection.

  17. Host based internet protocol (IP) packet analysis to enhance network security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.; Ahmad, S.Z.; Yasin, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Data communication in a computer network environment is facing serious security threats from numerous sources such as viruses, worms, Zombies etc. These threats can be broadly characterized as internal or external security threats. Internal threats are mainly attributed to sneaker-nets, utility modems and unauthorized users, which can be minimized by skillful network administration, password management and optimum usage policy definition. The external threats need more serious attention as these attacks are mostly coming from public networks such as Internet. Frequency and complexity of such attacks is much higher as compared to internal attacks. This paper presents a host based network layer screening of external and internal IP packets for logging, analyzing and real-time detection of possible IP spoofing and Denial of Service attacks. This work can also be used in tuning security rules definition for gateway firewalls. Software has been developed which intercepts IP traffic and analyses it with respect to integrity and origin of I P packet. The received IP packets are parsed and analyzed for possible signs of intrusion. The results show that by watching and categorizing composition of various transport protocol such as TCP, UDP, ICMP and others along with verifying the origin of received IP packet can help in devising real-time firewall rule and blocking possible external attack. This is highly desirable for fighting against zero day attacks and can result in a better Mean Time between Failures (MTBF) to increase the survivability of computer network. Used in a right context, packet screening and filtering can be a useful tool for provision of reliable and stable network services. (author)

  18. Transboundary natural area protection: Broadening the definition of national security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haven B. Cook

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at the definition and concept of national security, and examines how the environment is linked with national security. The traditional, state view of national security that guides most foreign policy includes the concepts of military power, sovereignty and geopolitical stability. This paper advocates broadening the definition of security to include...

  19. An Internet-based tailored hearing protection intervention for firefighters: development process and users' feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, OiSaeng; Eakin, Brenda L; Chin, Dal Lae; Feld, Jamie; Vogel, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a significant occupational injury for firefighters exposed to intermittent noise on the job. It is important to educate firefighters about using hearing protection devices whenever they are exposed to loud noise. Computer technology is a relatively new health education approach and can be useful for tailoring specific aspects of behavioral change training. The purpose of this study is to present the development process of an Internet-based tailored intervention program and to assess its efficacy. The intervention programs were implemented for 372 firefighters (mean age = 44 years, Caucasian = 82%, male = 95%) in three states (California, Illinois, and Indiana). The efficacy was assessed from firefighters' feedback through an Internet-based survey. A multimedia Internet-based training program was developed through (a) determining program content and writing scripts, (b) developing decision-making algorithms for tailoring, (c) graphic design and audio and video productions, (d) creating computer software and a database, and (e) postproduction quality control and pilot testing. Participant feedback regarding the training has been very positive. Participants reported that they liked completing the training via computer (83%) and also that the Internet-based training program was well organized (97%), easy to use (97%), and effective (98%) and held their interest (79%). Almost all (95%) would recommend this Internet training program to other firefighters. Interactive multimedia computer technology using the Internet was a feasible mode of delivery for a hearing protection intervention among firefighters. Participants' favorable feedback strongly supports the continued utilization of this approach for designing and developing interventions to promote healthy behaviors.

  20. Guarding America: Security Guards and U.S. Critical Infrastructure Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parfomak, Paul W

    2004-01-01

    The Bush Administration's 2003 National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets indicates that security guards are an important source of protection for critical facilities...

  1. Leadership and New Technologies. New Security Issues for Management of Internet Connectivity and Remote Control in Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Cătălin Olteanu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to illustrate the importance of implementing new security policies for infotainment systems in automotive industry. A car is full of technology and is easier today to control car systems through an internet connection linked to car system infotainment. This is how it is possible to gain control of critical car systems. More than 84% of users doesn’t even know the risk of remote control of the car in the presence of Internet connection.

  2. The Digital Divide and Patient Portals: Internet Access Explained Differences in Patient Portal Use for Secure Messaging by Age, Race, and Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Ilana; Gordon, Nancy; Fung, Vick; Hamity, Courtnee; Reed, Mary E

    2016-08-01

    Online access to health records and the ability to exchange secure messages with physicians can improve patient engagement and outcomes; however, the digital divide could limit access to web-based portals among disadvantaged groups. To understand whether sociodemographic differences in patient portal use for secure messaging can be explained by differences in internet access and care preferences. Cross-sectional survey to examine the association between patient sociodemographic characteristics and internet access and care preferences; then, the association between sociodemographic characteristics and secure message use with and without adjusting for internet access and care preference. One thousand forty-one patients with chronic conditions in a large integrated health care delivery system (76% response rate). Internet access, portal use for secure messaging, preference for in-person or online care, and sociodemographic and health characteristics. Internet access and preference mediated some of the differences in secure message use by age, race, and income. For example, using own computer to access the internet explained 52% of the association between race and secure message use and 60% of the association between income and use (Sobel-Goodman mediation test, Pinternet access and preference. As the availability and use of patient portals increase, it is important to understand which patients have limited access and the barriers they may face. Improving internet access and making portals available across multiple platforms, including mobile, may reduce some disparities in secure message use.

  3. 10 CFR 2.903 - Protection of restricted data and national security information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.903 Protection of restricted data and national security information. Nothing in this subpart shall relieve any person from safeguarding Restricted Data or National Security Information in accordance with the applicable provisions of laws of the United States and...

  4. Smartphone-based secure authenticated session sharing in Internet of Personal Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ram; Ninglekhu, Jiwan

    2015-03-01

    In the context of password-based authentication, a user can only memorize limited number of usernames and passwords. They are generally referred to as user-credentials. Longer character length of passwords further adds complication in mastering them. The expansion of the Internet and our growing dependency on it, has made it almost impossible for us to handle the big pool of user-credentials. Using simple, same or similar passwords is considered a poor practice, as it can easily be compromised by password cracking tools and social engineering attacks. Therefore, a robust and painless technique to manage personal credentials for websites is desirable. In this paper, a novel technique for user-credentials management via a smart mobile device such as a smartphone in a local network is proposed. We present a secure user-credential management scheme in which user's account login (username) and password associated with websites domain name is saved into the mobile device's database using a mobile application. We develop a custom browser extension application for client and use it to import user's credentials linked with the corresponding website from the mobile device via the local Wi-Fi network connection. The browser extension imports and identifies the authentication credentials and pushes them into the target TextBox locations in the webpage, ready for the user to execute. This scheme is suitably demonstrated between two personal devices in a local network.

  5. Risk and Protective Factors of Internet Addiction: A Meta-Analysis of Empirical Studies in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hoon Jung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A meta-analysis of empirical studies performed in Korea was conducted to systematically investigate the associations between the indices of Internet addiction (IA) and psychosocial variables. Materials and Methods Systematic literature searches were carried out using the Korean Studies Information Service System, Research Information Sharing Service, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and references in review articles. The key words were Internet addiction, (Internet) game addiction, and pathological, problematic, and excessive Internet use. Only original research papers using Korean samples published from 1999 to 2012 and officially reviewed by peers were included for analysis. Ninety-five studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Results The magnitude of the overall effect size of the intrapersonal variables associated with internet addiction was significantly higher than that of interpersonal variables. Specifically, IA demonstrated a medium to strong association with "escape from self" and "self-identity" as self-related variables. "Attention problem", "self-control", and "emotional regulation" as control and regulation-relation variables; "addiction and absorption traits" as temperament variables; "anger" and "aggression" as emotion and mood and variables; "negative stress coping" as coping variables were also associated with comparably larger effect sizes. Contrary to our expectation, the magnitude of the correlations between relational ability and quality, parental relationships and family functionality, and IA were found to be small. The strength of the association between IA and the risk and protective factors was found to be higher in younger age groups. Conclusion The findings highlight a need for closer examination of psychosocial factors, especially intrapersonal variables when assessing high-risk individuals and designing intervention strategies for both general IA and Internet game addiction. PMID:25323910

  6. The research of computer network security and protection strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian

    2017-05-01

    With the widespread popularity of computer network applications, its security is also received a high degree of attention. Factors affecting the safety of network is complex, for to do a good job of network security is a systematic work, has the high challenge. For safety and reliability problems of computer network system, this paper combined with practical work experience, from the threat of network security, security technology, network some Suggestions and measures for the system design principle, in order to make the masses of users in computer networks to enhance safety awareness and master certain network security technology.

  7. Analysis of radiological protection and security in the radioactive diagnosis area in a third level hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin Vega, J.C.; Aazorin Nieto, J.; Rivera Montalvo, T.

    1998-01-01

    Results from the evaluation made to radiological security and protection conditions prevailing in 13 medical diagnosis rooms with X rays at the National Nutrition Institute Zlavador Zubiran (third level hospital), aiming to give adequate protection and radiological security devices to the staff exposed from that hospital and to comply fully with requirements set by the standards

  8. 3. Normative Erosion of International Refugee Protection: Back to State Security

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlborn, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s the Security Council has used its enforcement measures under Chapter VII to strengthen different aspects of international refugee protection. It has addressed the root causes of forced displacement, supported the assistance to and protection of refugees and IDPs in on-going conflict situations and promoted durable solutions. However, apart from these positive normative effects on the security of refugees and displaced persons, the Security Council has also been criticize...

  9. Marco Civil da Internet: Limits From the Express and Unequivocal Requirement Consent as a Legal Protection of Personal Data on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Lima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the limits of the legal determination of express and unequivocal consent for the collection, use, storage, processing and protection of personal data as provided for in the Marco Civil da Internet (Law 12.965/2014 provided for in the list of rights and guarantees of users of the World Wide Web. With the increasing use of personal data from the Internet, for purposes of market analysis, prospecting investment trends, consumption and guidance of advertising campaigns - possible through technological resources for treatment and analysis of information - it is urgent to effectiveness the legal protection of this intangible property.

  10. Genetic-linked Inattentiveness Protects Individuals from Internet Overuse: A Genetic Study of Internet Overuse Evaluating Hypotheses Based on Addiction, Inattention, Novelty-seeking and Harm-avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The all-pervasive Internet has created serious problems, such as Internet overuse, which has triggered considerable debate over its relationship with addiction. To further explore its genetic susceptibilities and alternative explanations for Internet overuse, we proposed and evaluated four hypotheses, each based on existing knowledge of the biological bases of addiction, inattention, novelty-seeking, and harm-avoidance. Four genetic loci including DRD4 VNTR, DRD2 Taq1A, COMT Val158Met and 5-HTTLPR length polymorphisms were screened from seventy-three individuals. Our results showed that the DRD4 4R/4R individuals scored significantly higher than the 2R or 7R carriers in Internet Addiction Test (IAT. The 5-HTTLPR short/short males scored significantly higher in IAT than the long variant carriers. Bayesian analysis showed the most compatible hypothesis with the observed genetic results was based on attention (69.8%, whereas hypotheses based harm-avoidance (21.6%, novelty-seeking (7.8% and addiction (0.9% received little support. Our study suggests that carriers of alleles (DRD4 2R and 7R, 5-HTTLPR long associated with inattentiveness are more likely to experience disrupted patterns and reduced durations of Internet use, protecting them from Internet overuse. Furthermore, our study suggests that Internet overuse should be categorized differently from addiction due to the lack of shared genetic contributions.

  11. Differences in legislation of data privacy protection in internet marketing in USA, EU and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing number of companies that are, in its operations and dealings with consumers, turning to the Internet and using huge opportunities that it provides. Therefore, Internet marketing is now experiencing extreme expansion and it is considered to be the marketing segment that is vulnerable to intensive and continuous change. Along with the positive effects brought to both businesses and consumers, there are some negatives associated with this form of marketing, and one of them is the insufficient protection of privacy. The fact is that we must raise the level of data protection, and improve its quality. Intense changes have to be taken on the normative level, because there are still plenty of reasons for the dissatisfaction of consumers when it comes to protecting their privacy. Thus, the legislation must play a key role in building consumer confidence as well as in the establishment of a positive relationship with marketers. The aim of this paper is to show the importance of the construction of such levels of private data protection which will establish longterm partnerships between consumers, marketers and other participants in the market, since only the aforementioned relations can bring prosperity to all parties. The paper will make a comparative analysis of the legislative framework in this field in the United States, the European Union and Serbia, as well as stress still present significant backlog of Serbia in relation to the aforementioned developed countries.

  12. Toward a Robust Security Paradigm for Bluetooth Low Energy-Based Smart Objects in the Internet-of-Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Shi-Cho; Chen, Jyun-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has emerged as one of the most promising technologies to enable the Internet-of-Things (IoT) paradigm. In BLE-based IoT applications, e.g., wearables-oriented service applications, the Bluetooth MAC addresses of devices will be swapped for device pairings. The random address technique is adopted to prevent malicious users from tracking the victim’s devices with stationary Bluetooth MAC addresses and accordingly the device privacy can be preserved. However, there exists a tradeoff between privacy and security in the random address technique. That is, when device pairing is launched and one device cannot actually identify another one with addresses, it provides an opportunity for malicious users to break the system security via impersonation attacks. Hence, using random addresses may lead to higher security risks. In this study, we point out the potential risk of using random address technique and then present critical security requirements for BLE-based IoT applications. To fulfill the claimed requirements, we present a privacy-aware mechanism, which is based on elliptic curve cryptography, for secure communication and access-control among BLE-based IoT objects. Moreover, to ensure the security of smartphone application associated with BLE-based IoT objects, we construct a Smart Contract-based Investigation Report Management framework (SCIRM) which enables smartphone application users to obtain security inspection reports of BLE-based applications of interest with smart contracts. PMID:29036900

  13. Toward a Robust Security Paradigm for Bluetooth Low Energy-Based Smart Objects in the Internet-of-Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Shi-Cho; Yeh, Kuo-Hui; Chen, Jyun-Fu

    2017-10-14

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has emerged as one of the most promising technologies to enable the Internet-of-Things (IoT) paradigm. In BLE-based IoT applications, e.g., wearables-oriented service applications, the Bluetooth MAC addresses of devices will be swapped for device pairings. The random address technique is adopted to prevent malicious users from tracking the victim's devices with stationary Bluetooth MAC addresses and accordingly the device privacy can be preserved. However, there exists a tradeoff between privacy and security in the random address technique. That is, when device pairing is launched and one device cannot actually identify another one with addresses, it provides an opportunity for malicious users to break the system security via impersonation attacks. Hence, using random addresses may lead to higher security risks. In this study, we point out the potential risk of using random address technique and then present critical security requirements for BLE-based IoT applications. To fulfill the claimed requirements, we present a privacy-aware mechanism, which is based on elliptic curve cryptography, for secure communication and access-control among BLE-based IoT objects. Moreover, to ensure the security of smartphone application associated with BLE-based IoT objects, we construct a Smart Contract-based Investigation Report Management framework (SCIRM) which enables smartphone application users to obtain security inspection reports of BLE-based applications of interest with smart contracts.

  14. Toward a Robust Security Paradigm for Bluetooth Low Energy-Based Smart Objects in the Internet-of-Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cho Cha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE has emerged as one of the most promising technologies to enable the Internet-of-Things (IoT paradigm. In BLE-based IoT applications, e.g., wearables-oriented service applications, the Bluetooth MAC addresses of devices will be swapped for device pairings. The random address technique is adopted to prevent malicious users from tracking the victim’s devices with stationary Bluetooth MAC addresses and accordingly the device privacy can be preserved. However, there exists a tradeoff between privacy and security in the random address technique. That is, when device pairing is launched and one device cannot actually identify another one with addresses, it provides an opportunity for malicious users to break the system security via impersonation attacks. Hence, using random addresses may lead to higher security risks. In this study, we point out the potential risk of using random address technique and then present critical security requirements for BLE-based IoT applications. To fulfill the claimed requirements, we present a privacy-aware mechanism, which is based on elliptic curve cryptography, for secure communication and access-control among BLE-based IoT objects. Moreover, to ensure the security of smartphone application associated with BLE-based IoT objects, we construct a Smart Contract-based Investigation Report Management framework (SCIRM which enables smartphone application users to obtain security inspection reports of BLE-based applications of interest with smart contracts.

  15. Using Internet search behavior to assess public awareness of protected wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Yuno; Kim, Ji Yoon; Lineman, Maurice; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2015-02-01

    Improving public awareness of protected wetlands facilitates sustainable wetland management, which depends on public participation. One way of gauging public interest is by tracking Internet search behavior (ISB). We assessed public awareness of issues related to protected wetland areas (PWAs) in South Korea by examining the frequencies of specific queries (PWAs, Ramsar, Upo wetland, Sunchon Bay, etc.) using relative search volumes (RSVs) obtained from an Internet search engine. RSV shows how many times a search term is used relative to a second search term during a specific period. Public awareness of PWAs changed from 2007 to 2013. Initially the majority of Internet searches were related to the most well-known tidal and inland wetlands Sunchon Bay and Upo wetlands, which are the largest existing wetlands in Korea with the greatest historical exposure. Public awareness, as reflected in RSVs, of wetlands increased significantly following PWA designation for the wetlands in 2008, which followed the Ramsar 10th Conference of Contracting Parties to the Convention on Wetlands (COP10) meeting. Public interest was strongly correlated to the number of news articles in the popular media, as evidenced by the increase in Internet searches for specific wetlands and words associated with specific wetlands. Correspondingly, the number of visitors to specific wetlands increased. To increase public interest in wetlands, wetland aspects that enhance wetland conservation should be promoted by the government and enhanced via public education. Our approach can be used to gauge public awareness and participation in a wide range of conservation efforts. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Protecting human health and security in digital Europe: how to deal with the "privacy paradox"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büschel, Isabell; Mehdi, Rostane; Cammilleri, Anne; Marzouki, Yousri; Elger, Bernice

    2014-09-01

    This article is the result of an international research between law and ethics scholars from Universities in France and Switzerland, who have been closely collaborating with technical experts on the design and use of information and communication technologies in the fields of human health and security. The interdisciplinary approach is a unique feature and guarantees important new insights in the social, ethical and legal implications of these technologies for the individual and society as a whole. Its aim is to shed light on the tension between secrecy and transparency in the digital era. A special focus is put from the perspectives of psychology, medical ethics and European law on the contradiction between individuals' motivations for consented processing of personal data and their fears about unknown disclosure, transferal and sharing of personal data via information and communication technologies (named the "privacy paradox"). Potential benefits and harms for the individual and society resulting from the use of computers, mobile phones, the Internet and social media are being discussed. Furthermore, the authors point out the ethical and legal limitations inherent to the processing of personal data in a democratic society governed by the rule of law. Finally, they seek to demonstrate that the impact of information and communication technology use on the individuals' well-being, the latter being closely correlated with a high level of fundamental rights protection in Europe, is a promising feature of the socalled "e-democracy" as a new way to collectively attribute meaning to large-scale online actions, motivations and ideas.

  17. 78 FR 76251 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Electronic System Security Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... functions. However, electronic system network security considerations and functions have played a relatively... network configuration may allow the exploitation of network security vulnerabilities resulting in... System Security Protection From Unauthorized External Access AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...

  18. Kid's Privacy on the Internet : Collecting Children's Personal Data on the Internet and the Protection of Privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwt, J.

    2002-01-01

    The children of today are growing up with the Internet. At the same time, there is a lot of uncertainty and ignorance about collecting personal data from children on the Internet, for example for direct marketing purposes. There is also much uncertainty and ignorance about the applicability of data

  19. Secure transfer of surveillance data over Internet using Virtual Private Network technology. Field trial between STUK and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smartt, H.; Martinez, R.; Caskey, S.; Honkamaa, T.; Ilander, T.; Poellaenen, R.; Jeremica, N.; Ford, G.

    2000-01-01

    One of the primary concerns of employing remote monitoring technologies for IAEA safeguards applications is the high cost of data transmission. Transmitting data over the Internet has been shown often to be less expensive than other data transmission methods. However, data security of the Internet is often considered to be at a low level. Virtual Private Networks has emerged as a solution to this problem. A field demonstration was implemented to evaluate the use of Virtual Private Networks (via the Internet) as a means for data transmission. Evaluation points included security, reliability and cost. The existing Finnish Remote Environmental Monitoring System, located at the STUK facility in Helsinki, Finland, served as the field demonstration system. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) established a Virtual Private Network between STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) Headquarters in Helsinki, Finland, and IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria. Data from the existing STUK Remote Monitoring System was viewed at the IAEA via this network. The Virtual Private Network link was established in a proper manner, which guarantees the data security. Encryption was verified using a network sniffer. No problems were? encountered during the test. In the test system, fixed costs were higher than in the previous system, which utilized telephone lines. On the other hand transmission and operating costs are very low. Therefore, with low data amounts, the test system is not cost-effective, but if the data amount is tens of Megabytes per day the use of Virtual Private Networks and Internet will be economically justifiable. A cost-benefit analysis should be performed for each site due to significant variables. (orig.)

  20. Cyber Security Analysis by Attack Trees for a Reactor Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gee-Yong; Lee, Cheol Kwon; Choi, Jong Gyun; Kim, Dong Hoon; Lee, Young Jun; Kwon, Kee-Choon

    2008-01-01

    As nuclear facilities are introducing digital systems, the cyber security becomes an emerging topic to be analyzed and resolved. The domestic and other nation's regulatory bodies notice this topic and are preparing an appropriate guidance. The nuclear industry where new construction or upgrade of I and C systems is planned is analyzing and establishing a cyber security. A risk-based analysis for the cyber security has been performed in the KNICS (Korea Nuclear I and C Systems) project where the cyber security analysis has been applied to a reactor protection system (RPS). In this paper, the cyber security analysis based on the attack trees is proposed for the KNICS RPS

  1. Zephyr: A secure Internet-based process to streamline engineering procurements using the World Wide Web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, C.W.; Cavitt, R.E.; Niven, W.A.; Warren, F.E.; Taylor, S.S.; Sharick, T.M.; Vickers, D.L.; Mitschkowetz, N.; Weaver, R.L.

    1996-08-13

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is piloting an Internet- based paperless process called `Zephyr` to streamline engineering procurements. Major benefits have accrued by using Zephyr in reducing procurement time, speeding the engineering development cycle, facilitating industrial collaboration, and reducing overall costs. Programs at LLNL are benefiting by the efficiencies introduced since implementing Zephyr`s engineering and commerce on the Internet.

  2. The Development of X-Ray Training Program for Physical Protection Training of Nuclear Security Guards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Hyun Chul [KINAC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, there was a movement to strengthen the international effort to protect nuclear materials and other radioactive materials against malicious acts. By recognizing the importance of human resource development and training in nuclear security, the Republic of Korea (ROK) pledged to establish an international training center on nuclear security. Consequently, the International Nuclear Security Academy (INSA) was established in Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) in February 2014. The INSA contributes to meet not only the domestic needs but also international needs for nuclear nonproliferation and security training. Meanwhile, since 2012, KINAC is the only physical protection training provider for nuclear facility operators designated by Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC). In this paper, we are going to introduce our four-year physical protection training activities for nuclear facility operators and describe X-Ray Web-Based Training (WBT) program to be used for physical protection training of nuclear security guards. KINAC/INSA, as the only physical protection training provider for nuclear facility operators designated by NSSC, puts emphasis on delivering effective and high-quality training program. We, open a door for nuclear facility operators to share lessons they learned. Considering the survey result on the training program, we will apply X-Ray WBT program for training of nuclear security guards. Efforts to improve training quality will be continued.

  3. An Analysis of Fraud on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C. Richard

    1999-01-01

    Examines the issue of fraud on the Internet and discusses three areas with significant potential for misleading and fraudulent practices: securities sales and trading; electronic commerce, including privacy and information protection; and the rapid growth of Internet companies, including advertising issues. (Author/LRW)

  4. 76 FR 34299 - Securities Whistleblower Incentives and Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... Limited Government, Association of Corporate Counsel, AT&T, Center for Business Ethics, Dover Corporation... Federal Regulation of Securities, Section of Business Law, American Bar Association (``ABA''); Project of...

  5. Enterprise systems security management: a framework for breakthrough protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farroha, Bassam S.; Farroha, Deborah L.

    2010-04-01

    Securing the DoD information network is a tremendous task due to its size, access locations and the amount of network intrusion attempts on a daily basis. This analysis investigates methods/architecture options to deliver capabilities for secure information sharing environment. Crypto-binding and intelligent access controls are basic requirements for secure information sharing in a net-centric environment. We introduce many of the new technology components to secure the enterprise. The cooperative mission requirements lead to developing automatic data discovery and data stewards granting access to Cross Domain (CD) data repositories or live streaming data. Multiple architecture models are investigated to determine best-of-breed approaches including SOA and Private/Public Clouds.

  6. Physical protection solutions for security problems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, J.L.; Jacobs, J.

    1980-09-01

    Under Department of Energy sponsorship, Sandia National Laboratories has developed a broad technological base of components and integrated systems to address security concerns at facilities of importance, including nuclear reactors. The primary security concern at a light water reactor is radiological sabotage, a deliberate set of actions at a plant which could expose the public to a significant amount of radiation (on the order of 10 CFR 100 limits)

  7. Advanced User Interface Design and Advanced Internetting for Tactical Security Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, S

    1998-01-01

    ...), at the request of the U.S. Army Product Manager - Physical Security Equipment, initiated two exploratory development projects at SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego, to develop an Advanced User Interface for Tactical Security (AITS...

  8. Sandia's experience in designing and implementing integrated high security physical protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    As DOE's lead laboratory for physical security, Sandia National Laboratories has had a major physical security program for over ten years. Activities have ranged from component development and evaluation, to full scale system design and implementation. This paper presents some of the lessons learned in designing and implementing state-of-the-art high security physical protection systems for a number of government facilities. A generic system design is discussed for illustration purposes. Sandia efforts to transfer technology to industry are described

  9. 2. Normative Strengthening of International Refugee Protection : Towards More Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlborn, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    After having linked massive flows of refugees with peace and security in the case of Iraq in the early 1990s, the Security Council has increasingly used situations related to international refugee protection to declare a threat to international peace and security, triggering measures under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. The practice that has subsequently developed addresses the root causes of mass displacement, as originally requested by the Expert Group on International Cooperation to avert ...

  10. New security challenges in view of environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriša Hatidža A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At the global within policy, government, science and practice have noticed difficulties that cause climate change which reflect the entire population of the planet earth. Security challenges that manifest themselves at the global, regional and national levels, indicate the need strategies - doctrinal and systematic approach to solving the preservation of society and environmental security. The issue of environmental security is not only the global and the national government. This is an issue of great importance to the interests of civil society, which, as it is currently excluded from their own responsibility in the work of environmental security. This paper examines the obligation to take measures to give effect to the adopted strategies, policies, laws, conventions, declarations, resolutions, agreements and other norms that regulate the area of environmental security. The goal of these standards is to be based on scientific knowledge, experiential norms and estimated conditions make timely assessments and plans with defined scope risks and threats, as well as understanding the consequences levels and response to them. Ditto, the paper analyzes the power of man and its impact on the process of globalization and disorders that are incurred by climate change.

  11. The Training Deficiency in Corporate America: Training Security Professionals to Protect Sensitive Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth T.

    2017-01-01

    Increased internal and external training approaches are elements senior leaders need to know before creating a training plan for security professionals to protect sensitive information. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore training strategies telecommunication industry leaders use to ensure security professionals can protect…

  12. The Security Operations Center as a Basis for Automated Bank System Adaptive Protection

    OpenAIRE

    D. O. Kovalev; N. G. Miloslavskaya

    2010-01-01

    Different automated bank systems adaptive protection implementations are discussed. The necessity for migration from independent adaptive systems to collaborative adaptive systems based on security operations center (SOC) is explained. The description and working principles of automated bank system security based on SOC are provided.

  13. The Security Operations Center as a Basis for Automated Bank System Adaptive Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Kovalev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Different automated bank systems adaptive protection implementations are discussed. The necessity for migration from independent adaptive systems to collaborative adaptive systems based on security operations center (SOC is explained. The description and working principles of automated bank system security based on SOC are provided.

  14. Charting a Security Landscape in the Clouds: Data Protection and Collaboration in Cloud Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Other products that provide centralized encryption and key management include Barracuda CudaDrive [10], BlueCoat Data Protection Gateway [11], Citrix ...provider AWS S3, Barracuda CudaDrive, BlueCoat Data Protection Gateway, Citrix ShareFile, Cleversafe, CTERA, DropBox, Egnyte Enterprise File...Networks. (Retrieved 2016, January 25) CTERA Security Frequently Asked Questions. [15] Citrix . (Retrieved 2016, February 12) ShareFile Enterprise: security

  15. Including Internet insurance as part of a hospital computer network security plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Cyber attacks on a hospital's computer network is a new crime to be reckoned with. Should your hospital consider internet insurance? The author explains this new phenomenon and presents a risk assessment for determining network vulnerabilities.

  16. Proposed Embedded Security Framework for Internet of Things (IoT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babar, Sachin D.; Stango, Antonietta; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2011-01-01

    a detailed survey and analysis of embedded security especially in the area of IoT. Together with the conventional security solutions, the paper highlights the need to provide in-built security in the device itself to provide a flexible infrastructure for dynamic prevention, detection, diagnosis , isolation...... , and countermeasures against successful breaches. Based on this survey and analysis, the paper defines the security needs taking into account computational time, energy consumption and memory requirements of the devices Finally, this paper proposes the embedded security framework as a feature of software/hardware co......IoT is going to be an established part of life by extending the communication and networking anytime, anywhere. Security requirements for IoT will certainly underline the importance of properly formulated, implemented, and enforced security policies throughout their life-cycle. This paper gives...

  17. Convergence of Secure Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network and Cloud in Internet of Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkarni, Nandkumar P.; Prasad, Neeli R.; Lin, Tao

    2016-01-01

    that VANET could be the basis of many new applications in the field of Internet of Things (IoT). The applications of VANET are not limited to be the driver for safety, traffic management, entertainment, commerce, etc. In the future, VANETs are expected to transport the enormous amount of information. Some......-as-a-Service (STaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), etc. over the internet via Cloud vendors....

  18. A panoramic view of the social security and social protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lesotho is a constitutional state. The Constitution of Lesotho came into force on 2 April 1993. It provides for a Bill of Rights as well as principles of state policy. There is, however, no express provision in the Constitution for a right to social security. This is regrettable. Thus, the intersection between constitutional law and social ...

  19. Social Security Disability Insurance: Essential Protection when Work Incapacity Strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reno, Virginia P.; Ekman, Lisa D.

    2012-01-01

    Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) is an essential lifeline for millions of Americans. Without it, many families would be in deep financial distress. SSDI is insurance that workers pay for through premiums deducted from their pay. In return, workers gain the right to monthly benefits if a disabling condition ends their capacity to earn a…

  20. Protecting smallholders' food security by improving soils | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-04-21

    Apr 21, 2011 ... Now with almost 20 years of scientific training and research on food security and natural resource management behind him, Mapfumo sees more worries on the horizon for African smallholders. Though they have long experience with drought and the uncertainties of rainfall, the impacts of climate change ...

  1. Develop a solution for protecting and securing enterprise networks from malicious attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamuru, Harshitha; Nijim, Mais

    2014-05-01

    In the world of computer and network security, there are myriad ways to launch an attack, which, from the perspective of a network, can usually be defined as "traffic that has huge malicious intent." Firewall acts as one of the measure in order to secure the device from incoming unauthorized data. There are infinite number of computer attacks that no firewall can prevent, such as those executed locally on the machine by a malicious user. From the network's perspective, there are numerous types of attack. All the attacks that degrade the effectiveness of data can be grouped into two types: brute force and precision. The Firewall that belongs to Juniper has the capability to protect against both types of attack. Denial of Service (DoS) attacks are one of the most well-known network security threats under brute force attacks, which is largely due to the high-profile way in which they can affect networks. Over the years, some of the largest, most respected Internet sites have been effectively taken offline by Denial of Service (DOS) attacks. A DoS attack typically has a singular focus, namely, to cause the services running on a particular host or network to become unavailable. Some DoS attacks exploit vulnerabilities in an operating system and cause it to crash, such as the infamous Win nuke attack. Others submerge a network or device with traffic so that there are no more resources to handle legitimate traffic. Precision attacks typically involve multiple phases and often involves a bit more thought than brute force attacks, all the way from reconnaissance to machine ownership. Before a precision attack is launched, information about the victim needs to be gathered. This information gathering typically takes the form of various types of scans to determine available hosts, networks, and ports. The hosts available on a network can be determined by ping sweeps. The available ports on a machine can be located by port scans. Screens cover a wide variety of attack traffic

  2. Information and consent in internet paternity testing: focus on minors' protection in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caenazzo, Luciana; Tozzo, Pamela; Benciolini, Paolo; Rodriguez, Daniele

    2008-12-01

    Paternity testing in Italy is usually performed by private laboratories and universities having direct contacts with the applicants. Recently, the number of paternity tests offered through laboratory websites has increased in Italy and Europe. The execution of genetic tests, including paternity testing based on DNA analysis, represents a complex act, which contains three main steps. Paternity analyses carried out by laboratories via Internet are performed on samples collected by the applicants and then mailed back to the laboratories without any patient-physician relationship. Information is given to the subjects through the laboratory's website or mailed with the test order form. The execution of "household" DNA analysis without technical precautions may provide an incorrect response with severe consequences on the individual who has undergone testing, on the family involved, and on society in general. The problems connected with this kind of analysis are not technical, but ethical and deontological. In this work, we will discuss the problems related to information and consent by way of outlining the relevant Italian laws and codes of medical ethics. The Italian Privacy's Guarantor is assessing the ethical and legal implications, but regulations are not yet in place. We believe that adequate information related to this practice cannot be given via Internet, and, consequently, the validity of the consent expressed during this kind of procedure can be uncertain. Further, we will analyze issues regarding the importance of minors' protection when a paternity test is performed via Internet. In our opinion, the complexity of the situations and expectations linked to paternity investigations require a special sensitivity in dealing with each case, based on a patient-physician relationship in the decision-making process especially referring to the defense of the minors' well-being.

  3. Security and health protection during the transport of hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovic, Z.; Bobic, V.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of this work describes the legal regulations which regulate the conditions and method of the transport of hazardous substances, necessary documentation for storage, forwarding and transport. Hazardous substances are defined and classified according to the ADR. The necessary security measures which are taken for the transport of particular types of hazardous substances are mentioned. Marking and labeling of vehicles for the transport of hazardous substances (plates and lists of hazards), packing and marking of packaging is important. The safety measures which are taken at the filling stations of combustible liquids as well as places specially organized for filling, prohibitions and limitations and necessary transport documentation are mentioned. It is visible from the above mentioned that the activity of the whole security chain is necessary and depends on the good knowledge of basic characteristics and features of substances. All the participants in the security chain have to be familiar with and consistently obey the legal regulations. The manufacturer must know the features of the hazardous substance, supervisory services must be acquainted with the threat and potential danger. The hauler and intervention forces must, in case of accidents and damage, be familiar with the emergency procedures in case of accidents and act properly regarding the threatening dangerous substance.(author)

  4. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and accounting, and protection of certain information. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations that... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...

  5. Multimedia security using encryption and decryption

    OpenAIRE

    Bhetwal, Kshitij

    2016-01-01

    The importance of multimedia security is becoming more and more important with the continuous increment in digital communication on the internet. The increasing use of audio and video in a wide range of application security and privacy issues to serious attention. With the advancement of both computer and internet technology, multimedia data, such asimages, audio, videos, are being used more and more widely. In order to maintain privacy or security, sensitive data needs to be protected bef...

  6. Cyber security deterrence and it protection for critical infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Martellini, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The experts of the International Working Group-Landau Network Centro Volta (IWG-LNCV) discuss aspects of cyber security and present possible methods of deterrence, defense and resilience against cyber attacks. This SpringerBrief covers state-of-the-art documentation on the deterrence power of cyber attacks and argues that nations are entering a new cyber arms race. The brief also provides a technical analysis of possible cyber attacks towards critical infrastructures in the chemical industry and chemical safety industry. The authors also propose modern analyses and a holistic approach to resil

  7. Social Protection for Enhanced Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Devereux

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies several positive synergies between social protection programmes and food security outcomes. One function of social protection is to manage and reduce vulnerability, and several instruments are reviewed – weather-indexed insurance, public works programmes, emergency food aid and buffer stock management – which all contribute to stabilising income and access to food across good and bad years, or between the harvest and the hungry season. Other social protection instruments...

  8. Deploying Difference: Security Threat Narratives and State Displacement from Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lunstrum

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available State actors are increasingly treating protected areas as sites of security threats and policing resident communities as though they are the cause of this insecurity. This is translating into community eviction from protected areas that is authorised by security concerns and logics and hence not merely conservation concerns. We ground this claim by drawing upon empirical work from two borderland conservation areas: Mozambique's Limpopo National Park (LNP and Guatemala's Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR. In both cases, we show how these security-provoked evictions are authorised by the mobilisation of interlocking axes of difference that articulate notions of territorial trespass with that of a racialised enemy. Rather than a new problem or phenomena, we show how these axes are rooted in prior histories of state actors rendering racialised subjects dangerous, Cold War histories in both cases and a longer colonial history with the LNP. We also show how standing behind these evictions is the nation-state and its practices of protected area territorialisation. From here, we illustrate how the rationale behind displacement from protected areas matters, as evictions become more difficult to contest once they are authorised by security considerations. The cases, however, differ in one key respect. While displacement from the LNP is an instance of conservation-induced displacement (CID, although one re-worked by security considerations, eviction from the MBR is motivated more centrally by security concerns yet takes advantage of protected area legislation. The study hence offers insight into a growing literature on conservation-security encounters and into different articulations of conservation, security, and displacement.

  9. Safe and secure South Africa. Vehicle landmine protection validation testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reinecke, JD

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of vehicle landmine protection validation testing in South Africa. A short history of validation test standards is given, followed by a summary of current open test standards in general use...

  10. Home-Network Security Model in Ubiquitous Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Young Yoo; Jong-Whoi Shin; Jin-Young Choi

    2007-01-01

    Social interest and demand on Home-Network has been increasing greatly. Although various services are being introduced to respond to such demands, they can cause serious security problems when linked to the open network such as Internet. This paper reviews the security requirements to protect the service users with assumption that the Home-Network environment is connected to Internet and then proposes the security model based on the requirement. The proposed security mode...

  11. Electronic Contracts and the Personal data Protection of the Consumer: Sources Dialogue Between the Consumer Protection Code and the Internet Civil Mark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Leal Da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the personal data protection of the consumer and your vulnerability in interactive electronic contracts, aiming to point means of defense. For this, uses the deductive approach and starts of the electronic contracting to discuss the legal protection of the consumer in light of the capturing and processing of personal data by the furnisher. Considering the absence of law about personal data, concludes that electronic contracting expands the consumer vulnerability, which requires the principles application of the Consumer Protection Code, adding the Internet Civil Mark in relation to the privacy protection.

  12. Radiation Protection, Safety and Security Issues in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadu, Mary; Emi-Reynolds, Geoffrey; Amoako, Joseph Kwabena; Akrobortu, Emmanuel; Hasford, Francis

    2016-11-01

    Although the use of radioisotopes in Ghana began in 1952, the Radiation Protection Board of Ghana was established in 1993 and served as the national competent authority for authorization and inspection of practices and activities involving radiation sources until 2015. The law has been superseded by an Act of Parliament, Act 895 of 2015, mandating the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Ghana to take charge of the regulation of radiation sources and their applications. The Radiation Protection Institute in Ghana provided technical support to the regulatory authority. Regulatory and service activities that were undertaken by the Institute include issuance of permits for handling of a radiation sources, authorization and inspection of radiation sources, radiation safety assessment, safety assessment of cellular signal towers, and calibration of radiation-emitting equipment. Practices and activities involving application of radiation are brought under regulatory control in the country through supervision by the national competent authority.

  13. Protecting Our Future--Developing a National School Security Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    system is prevalent in other industries and could be quickly modified to bolster the protection needed for school buildings.2 Some component agencies...manufacturing, defense industrial base, emergency services, energy, financial services, food and agriculture, government facilities, healthcare and...School in Red Lion, Pennsylvania on April 24, 2003. The student attacker shot and killed his principal in the cafeteria prior to committing suicide.178

  14. Ensuring freedoms and protecting rights in the governance of the Internet : a comparative analysis of blocking measures and Internet Providers’ Removal of Illegal Internet Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parti, K.; Marin, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Removing illegal or harmful material from the internet has been pursued for more than two decades. The advent of Web 2.0, with the prominent increase and diffusion of user-generated content, amplifies the necessity for technical and legal frameworks enabling the removal of illegal material from the

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory Facilities, Security and Safeguards Division, Safeguards and Security Program Office, Protective Force Oversight Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify and describe the duties and responsibilities of Facility Security and Safeguards (FSS) Safeguards and Security (SS) organizations (groups/offices) with oversight functions over the Protection Force (PF) subcontractor. Responsible organizations will continue their present PF oversight functions under the Cost Plus Award Fee (CPAF) assessment, but now will be required to also coordinate, integrate, and interface with other FSS S and S organizations and with the PF subcontractor to measure performance, assess Department of Energy (DOE) compliance, reduce costs, and minimize duplication of effort. The role of the PF subcontractor is to provide the Laboratory with effective and efficient protective force services. PF services include providing protection for the special nuclear material, government property and classified or sensitive information developed and/or consigned to the Laboratory, as well as protection for personnel who work or participate in laboratory activities. FSS S and S oversight of both performance and compliance standards/metrics is essential for these PF objectives to be met

  16. Data Protection and the Prevention of Cybercrime: The EU as an area of security?

    OpenAIRE

    PORCEDDA, Maria Grazia

    2012-01-01

    (This working paper is a revised version of Ms. Porcedda's EUI LL.M. thesis, 2012.) Cybercrime and cyber-security are attracting increasing attention, both for the relevance of Critical Information Infrastructure to the national economy and security, and the interplay of the policies tackling them with ‘ICT sensitive’ liberties, such as privacy and data protection. This study addresses the subject in two ways. On the one hand, it aims to cast light on the (legal substantive) nature of, ...

  17. Online Piracy and Copyright Protection Through Internet (a Critical Review for the Intellectual Rights and Obligations Balance)

    OpenAIRE

    Makarim, Edmon

    2012-01-01

    Internet as a new communication medium, is the result the information and communication technology convergence, which came in the form of an electronic system. In the intellectual property rights perspective especially in copyright context, an intellectual creation is protected as one's property (a bundle of rights) that includes moral rights and economic rights. IPR protection paradigm actually dominated by private communication paradigm, so any communication of the intellectual work is the ...

  18. Security central processing unit applications in the protection of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzke, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    New or upgraded electronic security systems protecting nuclear facilities or complexes will be heavily computer dependent. Proper planning for new systems and the employment of new state-of-the-art 32 bit processors in the processing of subsystem reports are key elements in effective security systems. The processing of subsystem reports represents only a small segment of system overhead. In selecting a security system to meet the current and future needs for nuclear security applications the central processing unit (CPU) applied in the system architecture is the critical element in system performance. New 32 bit technology eliminates the need for program overlays while providing system programmers with well documented program tools to develop effective systems to operate in all phases of nuclear security applications

  19. Privacy and Security Issues Surrounding the Protection of Data Generated by Continuous Glucose Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Katherine E; Britton-Colonnese, Jennifer D

    2017-03-01

    Being able to track, analyze, and use data from continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and through platforms and apps that communicate with CGMs helps achieve better outcomes and can advance the understanding of diabetes. The risks to patients' expectation of privacy are great, and their ability to control how their information is collected, stored, and used is virtually nonexistent. Patients' physical security is also at risk if adequate cybersecurity measures are not taken. Currently, data privacy and security protections are not robust enough to address the privacy and security risks and stymies the current and future benefits of CGM and the platforms and apps that communicate with them.

  20. Economic security railway transport of Ukraine in the context of protecting national interests

    OpenAIRE

    Mishchenko, S.

    2014-01-01

    Article is devoted to defining the role and place of rail transport in the formation of a system of protection of national economic interests. As a result of the study was to identify the key threats to national interests in terms of economic security, revealed Wednesday the formation of advocacy, which is formed at the macro, meso and micro levels. Determined that the economic security of rail transport is an integral part of the economic security of the country and is influenced by the macr...

  1. Covering the Monitoring Network: A Unified Framework to Protect E-Commerce Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia applications in smart electronic commerce (e-commerce, such as online trading and Internet marketing, always face security in storage and transmission of digital images and videos. This study addresses the problem of security in e-commerce and proposes a unified framework to analyze the security data. First, to allocate the definite security resources optimally, we build our e-commerce monitoring model as an undirected network, where a monitored node is a vertex of the graph and a connection between vertices is an undirected edge. Moreover, we aim to find a minimal cover for the monitoring network as the optimal solution of resource allocation, which is defined as the network monitoring minimization problem (NMM. This problem is proved to be NP-hard. Second, by analyzing the latent threats, we design a novel and trusted monitoring system that can integrate incident monitoring, data analysis, risk assessment, and security warnings. This system does not touch users’ privacy data. Third, we propose a sequential model-based risk assessment method, which can predict the risk according to the text semantics. Our experimental results on web scale data demonstrate that our system is flexible enough when monitoring, which also verify the effectiveness and efficiency of our system.

  2. Big Data, Internet of Things and Cloud Convergence--An Architecture for Secure E-Health Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, George; Suciu, Victor; Martian, Alexandru; Craciunescu, Razvan; Vulpe, Alexandru; Marcu, Ioana; Halunga, Simona; Fratu, Octavian

    2015-11-01

    Big data storage and processing are considered as one of the main applications for cloud computing systems. Furthermore, the development of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm has advanced the research on Machine to Machine (M2M) communications and enabled novel tele-monitoring architectures for E-Health applications. However, there is a need for converging current decentralized cloud systems, general software for processing big data and IoT systems. The purpose of this paper is to analyze existing components and methods of securely integrating big data processing with cloud M2M systems based on Remote Telemetry Units (RTUs) and to propose a converged E-Health architecture built on Exalead CloudView, a search based application. Finally, we discuss the main findings of the proposed implementation and future directions.

  3. Avoiding the Internet of Insecure Industrial Things

    OpenAIRE

    Urquhart, Lachlan; McAuley, Derek

    2018-01-01

    Security incidents such as targeted distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks on power grids and hacking of factory industrial control systems (ICS) are on the increase. This paper unpacks where emerging security risks lie for the industrial internet of things, drawing on both technical and regulatory perspectives. Legal changes are being ushered by the European Union (EU) Network and Information Security (NIS) Directive 2016 and the General Data Protection Regulation 2016 (GDPR) (both to ...

  4. One-Time URL: A Proximity Security Mechanism between Internet of Things and Mobile Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Antonio; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad; González, Víctor

    2016-10-13

    The aim of this paper is to determine the physical proximity of connected things when they are accessed from a smartphone. Links between connected things and mobile communication devices are temporarily created by means of dynamic URLs (uniform resource locators) which may be easily discovered with pervasive short-range radio frequency technologies available on smartphones. In addition, a multi cross domain silent logging mechanism to allow people to interact with their surrounding connected things from their mobile communication devices is presented. The proposed mechanisms are based in web standards technologies, evolving our social network of Internet of Things towards the so-called Web of Things.

  5. Network security

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the security mechanisms deployed in Ethernet, Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Internet Protocol (IP) and MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. These mechanisms are grouped throughout the book according to the following four functions: data protection, access control, network isolation, and data monitoring. Data protection is supplied by data confidentiality and integrity control services. Access control is provided by a third-party authentication service. Network isolation is supplied by the Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Data monitoring consists of applying

  6. Mutual Authentication Scheme in Secure Internet of Things Technology for Comfortable Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Namje; Kang, Namhi

    2015-12-24

    The Internet of Things (IoT), which can be regarded as an enhanced version of machine-to-machine communication technology, was proposed to realize intelligent thing-to-thing communications by utilizing the Internet connectivity. In the IoT, "things" are generally heterogeneous and resource constrained. In addition, such things are connected to each other over low-power and lossy networks. In this paper, we propose an inter-device authentication and session-key distribution system for devices with only encryption modules. In the proposed system, unlike existing sensor-network environments where the key distribution center distributes the key, each sensor node is involved with the generation of session keys. In addition, in the proposed scheme, the performance is improved so that the authenticated device can calculate the session key in advance. The proposed mutual authentication and session-key distribution system can withstand replay attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, and wiretapped secret-key attacks.

  7. Health Monitoring System for Nursing Homes with Lightweight Security and Privacy Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu’e Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of aged population in China, it is urgent to design a safe and effective monitoring system for the nursing homes. An optimized scheme and high performance security and privacy protection for monitoring system have already become the focus studied especially. So this paper proposed a health monitoring system with lightweight security and privacy protection for nursing homes. Dual-band RFID, virtual routing location algorithm, and diet and exercise data collection based on RFID were adopted to obtain the location and health information. And that fused a mobile authentication protocol based on Hash function to realize security access and privacy protection, which can improve security and reduce the complexity of calculation and the implementation cost compared with the typical authentication protocols. The experiment results show that the ratio of relative network delay is below 35%. The system has strong real-time, high security, more comprehensive data, and lower cost of computation and communication. It can satisfy the requirements of health monitoring for nursing homes.

  8. Protecting America: Reorganizing the Nation's Security Forces to Ensure the Protection of Our Critical Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams

    2004-01-01

    .... This national strategy amplified the significant responsibilities of states, localities, the private sector, and private citizens to protect and defend our communities and our critical infrastructure...

  9. Policies and measures for economic efficiency, energy security and environment protection in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkaiah, M.; Kaushik, S.C.; Dewangan, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    India needs to sustain 8-10% economic growth to meet energy needs of people below poverty line. India would, at least, need to grow its primary energy supply (3-4 times) of present consumption to deliver a sustained growth of 8% by 2031. This paper discusses India's policies and measures for economic efficiency, environment protection and energy security (3-E). (author)

  10. 77 FR 15319 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Hearing Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK45 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a... proposed regulations ] (REG-130777-11), providing guidance on the tax treatment of Treasury Inflation...

  11. Risk and Protective Factors of Internet Addiction: A Meta-Analysis of Empirical Studies in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Hoon Jung; Kwon, Jung-Hye

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A meta-analysis of empirical studies performed in Korea was conducted to systematically investigate the associations between the indices of Internet addiction (IA) and psychosocial variables. Materials and Methods Systematic literature searches were carried out using the Korean Studies Information Service System, Research Information Sharing Service, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and references in review articles. The key words were Internet addiction, (Internet) game addiction, and...

  12. Implementing voice over Internet protocol in mobile ad hoc network – analysing its features regarding efficiency, reliability and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ahmed Sheikh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing secure and efficient real-time voice communication in mobile ad hoc network (MANET environment is a challenging problem. Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP has originally been developed over the past two decades for infrastructure-based networks. There are strict timing constraints for acceptable quality VoIP services, in addition to registration and discovery issues in VoIP end-points. In MANETs, ad hoc nature of networks and multi-hop wireless environment with significant packet loss and delays present formidable challenges to the implementation. Providing a secure real-time VoIP service on MANET is the main design objective of this paper. The authors have successfully developed a prototype system that establishes reliable and efficient VoIP communication and provides an extremely flexible method for voice communication in MANETs. The authors’ cooperative mesh-based MANET implementation can be used for rapidly deployable VoIP communication with survivable and efficient dynamic networking using open source software.

  13. Evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas for maintaining biodiversity, securing habitats, and reducing threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldmann, Jonas

    of this thesis has been to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of protected area in securing biodiversity, by evaluating their ability to either improve conservation responses, the state of biodiversity, or alternatively to reduce the human pressures responsible for the loss of biodiversity. The scope...... already published works. For protected areas ability to reduce habitat loss the evidence is stronger, suggesting that protected areas have been able to reduce the rate of habitat loss compared to a counterfactual scenario. In chapter II we evaluate the different types of methods to assess management...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1324 - Safety and Security Zone; Cruise Ship Protection, Elliott Bay and Pier-91, Seattle, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zone; Cruise... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1324 Safety and Security Zone; Cruise Ship Protection...

  15. Robust and Secure Watermarking Using Sparse Information of Watermark for Biometric Data Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit M Thanki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometric based human authentication system is used for security purpose in many organizations in the present world. This biometric authentication system has several vulnerable points. Two of vulnerable points are protection of biometric templates at system database and protection of biometric templates at communication channel between two modules of biometric authentication systems. In this paper proposed a robust watermarking scheme using the sparse information of watermark biometric to secure vulnerable point like protection of biometric templates at the communication channel of biometric authentication systems. A compressive sensing theory procedure is used for generation of sparse information on watermark biometric data using detail wavelet coefficients. Then sparse information of watermark biometric data is embedded into DCT coefficients of host biometric data. This proposed scheme is robust to common signal processing and geometric attacks like JPEG compression, adding noise, filtering, and cropping, histogram equalization. This proposed scheme has more advantages and high quality measures compared to existing schemes in the literature.

  16. 14 CFR 193.5 - How may I submit safety or security information and have it protected from disclosure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How may I submit safety or security information and have it protected from disclosure? 193.5 Section 193.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... SUBMITTED INFORMATION § 193.5 How may I submit safety or security information and have it protected from...

  17. Improvement of security techniques and protection of biometric data in biometric systems: Presentation of International Standard ISO 24745

    OpenAIRE

    Milinković, Milorad

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the International Standard ISO 24745 as a potential security tool for biometric information protection, more precisely as a tool for privacy protection in biometric systems. This is one of the latest internationally accepted standards that address the security issues of biometric systems.

  18. Evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas for maintaining biodiversity, securing habitats, and reducing threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldmann, Jonas

    Protected areas are amongst the most important conservation responses to halt the loss of biodiversity and cover more than 12.7% of the terrestrial surface of earth. Likewise, protected areas are an important political instrument and a key component of the Convention for Biological Diversity (CBD...... of this thesis has been to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of protected area in securing biodiversity, by evaluating their ability to either improve conservation responses, the state of biodiversity, or alternatively to reduce the human pressures responsible for the loss of biodiversity. The scope...... areas do have an effect and that many protected areas have seen an improvement in management over time. A second and perhaps equally important conclusion is that strong empirically based evidence on the effectiveness of protected areas is impeded by the lack of good data to measure change compared...

  19. SECURE INTERNET OF THINGS-BASED CLOUD FRAMEWORK TO CONTROL ZIKA VIRUS OUTBREAK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Sanjay; Sood, Sandeep K; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZikaV) is currently one of the most important emerging viruses in the world which has caused outbreaks and epidemics and has also been associated with severe clinical manifestations and congenital malformations. Traditional approaches to combat the ZikaV outbreak are not effective for detection and control. The aim of this study is to propose a cloud-based system to prevent and control the spread of Zika virus disease using integration of mobile phones and Internet of Things (IoT). A Naive Bayesian Network (NBN) is used to diagnose the possibly infected users, and Google Maps Web service is used to provide the geographic positioning system (GPS)-based risk assessment to prevent the outbreak. It is used to represent each ZikaV infected user, mosquito-dense sites, and breeding sites on the Google map that helps the government healthcare authorities to control such risk-prone areas effectively and efficiently. The performance and accuracy of the proposed system are evaluated using dataset for 2 million users. Our system provides high accuracy for initial diagnosis of different users according to their symptoms and appropriate GPS-based risk assessment. The cloud-based proposed system contributed to the accurate NBN-based classification of infected users and accurate identification of risk-prone areas using Google Maps.

  20. Privacy and security of patient data in the pathology laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Cucoranu, Ioan C.; Parwani, Anil V.; West, Andrew J.; Romero-Lauro, Gonzalo; Nauman, Kevin; Carter, Alexis B.; Balis, Ulysses J.; Tuthill, Mark J.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Data protection and security are critical components of routine pathology practice because laboratories are legally required to securely store and transmit electronic patient data. With increasing connectivity of information systems, laboratory work-stations, and instruments themselves to the Internet, the demand to continuously protect and secure laboratory information can become a daunting task. This review addresses informatics security issues in the pathology laboratory related to passwor...

  1. Informatics in Radiology (infoRAD): personal computer security: part 2. Software Configuration and file protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Ronald D

    2004-01-01

    Proper configuration of software security settings and proper file management are necessary and important elements of safe computer use. Unfortunately, the configuration of software security options is often not user friendly. Safe file management requires the use of several utilities, most of which are already installed on the computer or available as freeware. Among these file operations are setting passwords, defragmentation, deletion, wiping, removal of personal information, and encryption. For example, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine medical images need to be anonymized, or "scrubbed," to remove patient identifying information in the header section prior to their use in a public educational or research environment. The choices made with respect to computer security may affect the convenience of the computing process. Ultimately, the degree of inconvenience accepted will depend on the sensitivity of the files and communications to be protected and the tolerance of the user. Copyright RSNA, 2004

  2. [ELGA--the electronic health record in the light of data protection and data security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströher, Alexander; Honekamp, Wilfried

    2011-07-01

    The introduction of an electronic health record (ELGA) is a subject discussed for a long time in Austria. Another big step toward ELGA is made at the end of 2010 on the pilot project e-medication in three model regions; other projects should follow. In addition, projects of the ELGA structure are sped up on the part of the ELGA GmbH to install the base of a functioning electronic health record. Unfortunately, many of these initiatives take place, so to speak, secretly, so that in the consciousness of the general public - and that includes not only patients but also physicians and other healthcare providers - always concerns about protection and security of such a storage of health data arouse. In this article the bases of the planned act are discussed taking into account the data protection and data security.

  3. ConstitutionalJustice: Cases of Protection of Freedom and Personal Security in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Molinares Hassan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of an investigation about judicial protection of freedom and personal security granted by the Constitutional Court (cc of Colombia, with a comparative analysis between the period 1992-2001, to which governments have appointed period of postconstitucionales, which coincides with the issuance of the 1991 Constitution, and the creation of constitutional jurisdiction, and the period 2002-2010, during which it ran the Democratic Security Policy (dsp as a government policy proposal by former president Álvaro Uribe, whose aim was to achieve peace through the declaration of war to the guerrilla group Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (farc. Our interest is to show that the protection of freedom and personal security as the basis of the Constitutional (ec finds in the cc his greatest guarantor, even against closing courts in other jurisdictions that are still rooted in the failed legal positivist paradigm, ignoring the postulates of neoconstitutionalism dc sufficiently developed from a process of creative interpretation and decision-making. This coupled with the importance for the branches of power and knowledge associated scope of freedom and personal security developed by the cc in the difficult context of irregular warfare that exists in Colombia, yet it is, for universal constitutionalism, an example of the development of legal guarantor in the context of current constitutionalism.

  4. [securPharm e. V. - a protective shield against falsified medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Martin; Hoferichter, Reinhard

    2017-11-01

    It is the declared objective of the Falsified Medicines Directive 2011/62/EU to further improve the protection of patients from falsified pharmaceuticals. Therefore, it stipulates measures based on which falsified medicines in the supply chain can be more easily identified. This is the European legislature's reaction to an increase in falsified medicines. The EU Falsified Medicines Directive aims to create a uniform, standardized solution for protection from falsified drugs. From 9 February 2019 onward (according to the EU Regulation No. 2016/161), manufacturers may only release prescription drugs bearing two safety features into circulation and pharmacies may only dispense these drugs to patients following a successful authentication.The EU legislature demands that each EU member state establish a non-profit national medicines verification organisation (NMVO) that sets up and operates a national medicines verification system (NMVS) for the authentication of pharmaceuticals. In Germany, this is securPharm e. V., an alliance of the pharmaceutical industry, wholesalers and pharmacies. securPharm e. V. was established in 2011. Since 2013, pharmaceutical companies, wholesalers and pharmacies have been able to use the securPharm system for testing purposes. This article provides an overview of the current project progress of securPharm e. V. as of June 2017.

  5. THE PROTECTION OF CONSUMER RIGHTS FOR AVIATION SAFETY AND SECURITY IN INDONESIA AND MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Yahanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia and Malaysia have a good potency for cooperation in aviation industry. It can be seen in the establishing two aviation companies namely PT. Indonesia Air Asia and Malindo which both are low-cost carrier. These aviation industries are categorized as low-cost carrier, however safety and security are absolute factors because these are rights for consumers. This article will describe further about safety and security standard; protecting the rights for consumers in connection with safety aviation in Indonesia and Malaysia from the Consumer Protection Law and the Aviation Law. As a result of the research shows that safety standard passenger for air transportation in airport covers information and safety facility in the shape of availability of the emergency safety tools (fires, accidents and natural disasters; information, area and health facility; and healthcare workers. Moreover, safety standards for passenger in an aircraft include information and safety facility in the shape of availability information and the emergency safety tools for passenger in an aircraft. The protection for consumer rights for safety flight in Indonesia as follows: aviation industry has obligation to fulfill minimum standard of safety and security; consumers must be safety from false information which raises concern; aircraft operation which endanger of the passenger; and consumer protection in operating the electronic device which endanger flight. On the other hand, the law of consumer rights in Malaysia relating to aviation are ruled under the Aviation Law as a result of the Warsaw Convention 1929. In conclusion, the verdict of consumer rights related to security aviation begins when the passenger enter to an aircraft, in the aircraft, and by the time they get off the plane.

  6. Protecting food security when facing uncertain climate: Opportunities for Afghan communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Dina; Amer, Saud A.; Ward, Frank A.

    2017-11-01

    Climate change, population growth, and weakly developed water management institutions in many of the world's dry communities have raised the importance of designing innovative water allocation methods that adapt to water supply fluctuations while respecting cultural sensitivities. For example, Afghanistan faces an ancient history of water supply fluctuations that have contributed to periodic food shortage and famine. Poorly designed and weakly enforced water allocation methods continue to result in agriculture sector underperformance and periodic food shortages when water shortfalls occur. To date, little research has examined alternative water sharing rules on a multi-basin scale to protect food security for a subsistence irrigation society when the community faces water shortage. This paper's contribution examines the economic performance of three water-sharing mechanisms for three basins in Afghanistan with the goal of protecting food security for crop irrigation under ongoing threats of drought, while meeting growing demands for food in the face of anticipated population growth. We achieved this by formulating an integrated empirical optimization model to identify water-sharing measures that minimize economic losses while protecting food security when water shortages occur. Findings show that implementation of either a water trading policy or a proportional shortage policy that respects cultural sensitivities has the potential to raise economic welfare in each basin. Such a policy can reduce food insecurity risks for all trading provinces within each basin, thus being a productive institution for adapting to water shortage when it occurs. Total economic welfare gains are highest when drought is the most severe for which suffering would otherwise be greatest. Gains would be considerably higher if water storage reservoirs were built to store wet year flows for use in dry years. Our results light a path for policy makers, donors, water administrators, and farm

  7. Cyber Security Insider Threats :: Government’s Role in Protecting India’s Critical Infrastructure Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Vohra, Pulkit

    2014-01-01

    This research identifies the problem of insider threats in the critical infrastructure sectors of India. It is structured to answer the research question: "Why insider threats should be the primary concern for Indian government to protect its critical infrastructure sectors.” It defines the critical infrastructure sectors and portrays the cyber security scenario of India. Also, through the research study, it identifies the lack of awareness and non-seriousness of employees in the critical sec...

  8. The Issue of Data Protection and Data Security in the (Pre-Lisbon EU Third Pillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria O'Neill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The key functional operability in the pre-Lisbon PJCCM pillar of the EU is the exchange of intelligence and information amongst the law enforcement bodies of the EU. The twin issues of data protection and data security within what was the EU’s third pillar legal framework therefore come to the fore. With the Lisbon Treaty reform of the EU, and the increased role of the Commission in PJCCM policy areas, and the integration of the PJCCM provisions with what have traditionally been the pillar I activities of Frontex, the opportunity for streamlining the data protection and data security provisions of the law enforcement bodies of the post-Lisbon EU arises. This is recognised by the Commission in their drafting of an amending regulation for Frontex , when they say that they would prefer “to return to the question of personal data in the context of the overall strategy for information exchange to be presented later this year and also taking into account the reflection to be carried out on how to further develop cooperation between agencies in the justice and home affairs field as requested by the Stockholm programme.” The focus of the literature published on this topic, has for the most part, been on the data protection provisions in Pillar I, EC. While the focus of research has recently sifted to the previously Pillar III PJCCM provisions on data protection, a more focused analysis of the interlocking issues of data protection and data security needs to be made in the context of the law enforcement bodies, particularly with regard to those which were based in the pre-Lisbon third pillar. This paper will make a contribution to that debate, arguing that a review of both the data protection and security provision post-Lisbon is required, not only in order to reinforce individual rights, but also inter-agency operability in combating cross-border EU crime. The EC’s provisions on data protection, as enshrined by Directive 95/46/EC, do not apply

  9. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed. - Highlights: • The hazards associated to the use of radioactive sources must be taken into account. • Security issues are of paramount importance in the use of radioactive sources. • Radiation sources can be used to perpetrate terrorist acts (RDDs, INDs, REDs). • DSRS and orphan sources trigger radiological protection, safety and security concerns. • Regulatory control, from cradle to grave, of radioactive sources is mandatory.

  10. Internet enlightens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    This part of the issue gives Internet addresses in relation with nuclear energy, safety, radiation protection, legislation, at the national level and European and international level. A special part is devoted to non ionizing radiation. (N.C.)

  11. Internet enlightens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, S.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous Internet sites are given in relation with radiotherapy, nuclear activity, radiation protection,radioecology, nuclear laws. To note three sites treat the accident of radiotherapy arisen to Toulouse. (N.C.)

  12. Internet filters and entry pages do not protect children from online alcohol marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Thom, Jeffrey A; Davoren, Sondra; Barrie, Lance

    2014-02-01

    We review programs and policies to prevent children from accessing alcohol marketing online. To update the literature, we present our recent studies that assess (i) in-built barriers to underage access to alcohol brand websites and (ii) commercial internet filters. Alcohol websites typically had poor filter systems for preventing entry of underage persons; only half of the sites required the user to provide a date of birth, and none had any means of preventing users from trying again. Even the most effective commercial internet filters allowed access to one-third of the sites we examined.

  13. Security controls in an integrated Biobank to protect privacy in data sharing: rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai-Igarashi, Takako; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nagasaki, Masao; Ogishima, Soichi; Nakamura, Naoki; Nagase, Sachiko; Nagaie, Satoshi; Saito, Tomo; Nagami, Fuji; Minegishi, Naoko; Suzuki, Yoichi; Suzuki, Kichiya; Hashizume, Hiroaki; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Hozawa, Atsushi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Kure, Shigeo; Tamiya, Gen; Kawaguchi, Yoshio; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2017-07-06

    With the goal of realizing genome-based personalized healthcare, we have developed a biobank that integrates personal health, genome, and omics data along with biospecimens donated by volunteers of 150,000. Such a large-scale of data integration involves obvious risks of privacy violation. The research use of personal genome and health information is a topic of global discussion with regard to the protection of privacy while promoting scientific advancement. The present paper reports on our plans, current attempts, and accomplishments in addressing security problems involved in data sharing to ensure donor privacy while promoting scientific advancement. Biospecimens and data have been collected in prospective cohort studies with the comprehensive agreement. The sample size of 150,000 participants was required for multiple researches including genome-wide screening of gene by environment interactions, haplotype phasing, and parametric linkage analysis. We established the T ohoku M edical M egabank (TMM) data sharing policy: a privacy protection rule that requires physical, personnel, and technological safeguards against privacy violation regarding the use and sharing of data. The proposed policy refers to that of NCBI and that of the Sanger Institute. The proposed policy classifies shared data according to the strength of re-identification risks. Local committees organized by TMM evaluate re-identification risk and assign a security category to a dataset. Every dataset is stored in an assigned segment of a supercomputer in accordance with its security category. A security manager should be designated to handle all security problems at individual data use locations. The proposed policy requires closed networks and IP-VPN remote connections. The mission of the biobank is to distribute biological resources most productively. This mission motivated us to collect biospecimens and health data and simultaneously analyze genome/omics data in-house. The biobank also has the

  14. "Security Theater" in the Pediatric Wing: The Case for RFID Protection for Infants in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyld, David C.

    In a typical year, five infants are abducted by strangers from hospitals. These are devastating events for the families involved and for the health care facilities' staff and executives. This article looks at the nature of newborn and infant abductions, analyzing data on these kidnappings from the FBI and from the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. Then, the article examines the potential for RFID (radio frequency identification) based systems to improve security in the pediatric area of hospitals, providing an overview of the technology on the market today for infant protection. The article concludes with an analysis of the ROI (return on investment) equation for health care administrators to consider in weighing their options on how to prevent a statistically unlikely, but potentially cataclysmic occurrence, at their facility. In the end, RFID-based infant protection systems can be seen as a form of "security theater," serving as a "palliative countermeasure" that will indeed work - both substantively and psychologically - to promote a more secure hospital environment for moms and their newborns.

  15. Methodology of the Auditing Measures to Civil Airport Security and Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kolesár

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Airports similarly to other companies are certified in compliance with the International Standardization Organization (ISO standards of products and services (series of ISO 9000 Standards regarding quality management, to coordinate the technical side of standardizatioon and normalization at an international scale. In order for the airports to meet the norms and the certification requirements as by the ISO they are liable to undergo strict audits of quality, as a rule, conducted by an independent auditing organization. Focus of the audits is primarily on airport operation economics and security. The article is an analysis into the methodology of the airport security audit processes and activities. Within the framework of planning, the sequence of steps is described in line with the principles and procedures of the Security Management System (SMS and starndards established by the International Standardization Organization (ISO. The methodology of conducting airport security audit is developed in compliance with the national programme and international legislation standards (Annex 17 applicable to protection of civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference.

  16. Solidarity as the foundation of the Social Rule of Law, Social Security and social protection in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Cañon Ortegon, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Solidarity as a human value, as a philosophical principle of the Social Security and as a duty of the Colombians tightly connects the foundations of the Social Rule of Law with the Social Security Model, whose parameters were set by the Political Constitution of 1991 for the development of the model of social security and social protection. The last adopted by Colombia according to Law 100 of 1993 in its diverse applications: pensions, health, occupational risks, complementary social services...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. 165.1317 Section 165.1317 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1313 - Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington 165.1313 Section 165.1313 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY...

  19. 17 CFR 240.15c3-3 - Customer protection-reserves and custody of securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customer protection-reserves... Markets § 240.15c3-3 Customer protection—reserves and custody of securities. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of this section: (1) The term customer shall mean any person from whom or on whose behalf a broker...

  20. The Influence of Security Statement, Technical Protection, and Privacy on Satisfaction and Loyalty; A Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peikari, Hamid Reza

    Customer satisfaction and loyalty have been cited as the e-commerce critical success factors and various studies have been conducted to find the antecedent determinants of these concepts in the online transactions. One of the variables suggested by some studies is perceived security. However, these studies have referred to security from a broad general perspective and no attempts have been made to study the specific security related variables. This paper intends to study the influence on security statement and technical protection on satisfaction, loyalty and privacy. The data was collected from 337 respondents and after the reliability and validity tests, path analysis was applied to examine the hypotheses. The results suggest that loyalty is influenced by satisfaction and security statement and no empirical support was found for the influence on technical protection and privacy on loyalty. Moreover, it was found that security statement and technical protection have a positive significant influence on satisfaction while no significant effect was found for privacy. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that security statement have a positive significant influence on technical protection while technical protection was found to have a significant negative impact on perceived privacy.

  1. Information security governance: a risk assessment approach to health information systems protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia A H

    2013-01-01

    It is no small task to manage the protection of healthcare data and healthcare information systems. In an environment that is demanding adaptation to change for all information collection, storage and retrieval systems, including those for of e-health and information systems, it is imperative that good information security governance is in place. This includes understanding and meeting legislative and regulatory requirements. This chapter provides three models to educate and guide organisations in this complex area, and to simplify the process of information security governance and ensure appropriate and effective measures are put in place. The approach is risk based, adapted and contextualized for healthcare. In addition, specific considerations of the impact of cloud services, secondary use of data, big data and mobile health are discussed.

  2. Information governance and security protecting and managing your company's proprietary information

    CERN Document Server

    Iannarelli, John G

    2014-01-01

    Information Governance and Security shows managers in any size organization how to create and implement the policies, procedures and training necessary to keep their organization's most important asset-its proprietary information-safe from cyber and physical compromise. Many intrusions can be prevented if appropriate precautions are taken, and this book establishes the enterprise-level systems and disciplines necessary for managing all the information generated by an organization. In addition, the book encompasses the human element by considering proprietary information lost, damaged, or destroyed through negligence. By implementing the policies and procedures outlined in Information Governance and Security, organizations can proactively protect their reputation against the threats that most managers have never even thought of. Provides a step-by-step outline for developing an information governance policy that is appropriate for your organization Includes real-world examples and cases to help illustrate key ...

  3. An Examination of Organizational Information Protection in the Era of Social Media: A Study of Social Network Security and Privacy Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maar, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates information protection for professional users of online social networks. It addresses management's desire to motivate their employees to adopt protective measures while accessing online social networks and to help their employees improve their proficiency in information security and ability to detect deceptive…

  4. Design of a cyber security awareness campaign for internet Cafés users in rural areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, WA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available very low cyber literacy rates. A consequence of these two factors is that many Internet users access the Internet without understanding or even realising the dangers of the cyber world. Proactive measures need to be developed to ensure that these new...

  5. Multimedia security watermarking, steganography, and forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Shih, Frank Y

    2012-01-01

    Multimedia Security: Watermarking, Steganography, and Forensics outlines essential principles, technical information, and expert insights on multimedia security technology used to prove that content is authentic and has not been altered. Illustrating the need for improved content security as the Internet and digital multimedia applications rapidly evolve, this book presents a wealth of everyday protection application examples in fields including multimedia mining and classification, digital watermarking, steganography, and digital forensics. Giving readers an in-depth overview of different asp

  6. Network layer security and secret key authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Llovet Ureña, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this project is to update Von Mann Young Rhee’s book, ‘Internet Security: Cryptographic Principles, Algorithms and Protocols’ which is about network layer security and secret key authentication. It is an extremely important aspect in modern life to have security in the network to protect our information and prevent eavesdroppers or maleficent programs, for example. This is the reason why this project aims to update these kinds of algorithms and hash functions. This project uses me...

  7. Security Hi-tech Individual Extra-light Device Mask: a new protection for [soccer] players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascone, Piero; Petrucci, Bernardino; Ramieri, Valerio; Marianetti, Titto Matteo; TitoMatteo, Marianetti

    2008-05-01

    Among professional [soccer] players, a relevant incidence of maxillofacial trauma has been reported. The main challenge in these particular patients is to give them the possibility of a very short convalescence period and to make possible their agonistic activity as soon as possible. The authors here present an innovative technique to realize this--the Security Hi-tech Individual Extra-Light Device Mask, a customizable protective shield based on the player's face cast. A completely customized mask was forged over the player's face cast to protect the injured area. This mask shortens convalescence period, and due to its realization, it is comfortable and easy fitting, thus allowing the player to perform at a professional level in his sport activity in the shortest time possible.

  8. Systems Thinking Safety Analysis: Nuclear Security Assessment of Physical Protection System in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ho Woo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical assessment has been performed in the aspect of the nuclear power plants (NPPs security. The physical protection system (PPS is constructed by the cyber security evaluation tool (CSET for the nuclear security assessment. The systems thinking algorithm is used for the quantifications by the Vensim software package. There is a period of 60 years which is the life time of NPPs' operation. The maximum possibility happens as 3.59 in the 30th year. The minimum value is done as 1.26 in the 55th year. The difference is about 2.85 times. The results of the case with time delay have shown that the maximum possibility of terror or sabotage incident happens as 447.42 in the 58th year and the minimum value happens as 89.77 in the 51st year. The difference is about 4.98 times. Hence, if the sabotage happens, the worst case is that the intruder can attack the target of the nuclear material in about one and a half hours. The general NPPs are modeled in the study and controlled by the systematic procedures.

  9. Outline of a future security system to provide physical protection of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear energy, within three or four decades, may become a main pillar of the world's energy supply. The author discusses the problems entailed by the necessity to protect nuclear facilities against assaults, and whether this can be ensured without interference with civic rights. The method applied by the author to show the significance of the problems is to explain the current situation, and to compare it with a plausible outline of the developments to be expected over the next 50 years. He shows the hazards to be taken into account due to criminal actions by persons from outside, or by persons working in nuclear facilities. A main problem is the fact that the security system to be set up has to encompass not only the nuclear installation itself, but also the surrounding area, and the measures to be taken will have an impact on the society, which necessarily will curtail personal freedom. The author presumes that the necessity to guarantee physical protection of nuclear facilities will lead to a modification of the meaning of basic rights, and states his anxiety that security for nuclear installations might affect our concept of freedom. (HSCH) [de

  10. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  11. [Child protection network and the intersector implementation of the circle of security as alternatives to medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Ana Laura Martins M M; de Souza, Paulo Haddad; de Oliveira, Mônica Martins; Paraguay, Nestor Luiz Bruzzi B

    2014-09-01

    To describe the clinical history of a child with aggressive behavior and recurring death-theme speech, and report the experience of the team of authors, who proposed an alternative to medication through the establishment of a protection network and the inter-sector implementation of the circle of security concept. A 5-year-old child has a violent and aggressive behavior at the day-care. The child was diagnosed by the healthcare center with depressive disorder and behavioral disorder, and was medicated with sertraline and risperidone. Side effects were observed, and the medications were discontinued. Despite several actions, such as talks, teamwork, psychological and psychiatric follow-up, the child's behavior remained unchanged. A unique therapeutic project was developed by Universidade Estadual de Campinas' Medical School students in order to establish a connection between the entities responsible for the child's care (daycare center, healthcare center, and family). Thus, the team was able to develop a basic care protection network. The implementation of the inter-sector circle of security, as well as the communication and cooperation among the teams, produced very favorable results in this case. This initiative was shown to be a feasible and effective alternative to the use of medication for this child. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Security measurements and radiological protection in the source panoramic irradiators and storage in pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Valle O, C.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate and to study the safety and protecting measurements that must be taken into account in the design and the use of panoramic source irradiators with wet storage or pool, concerning to category IV. The generic characteristics in plants of kind, as well as their description, are mentioned in this paper. The devices, that comply the security and control systems based on their redundancy, diversity and independence, are examined. Likewise, it describes the design requirements of the overcast, of the irradiators, of the source frame, of the transporting system of product, of the procedure access, of the security system of the irradiator shelf control, of the irradiation room, of the irradiation storage pool, of the ventilation system, for the protection in case of fire of fire, for electric energy failures, for the warning symbols and signs. It contains scope about the organization and responsibilities that must be taken into account in plants of this type. A detailed plan has been made for its operation and maintenance, enclosing instructions and registers for this reason. The statement of emergency events and their respective answers, the analysis of cases and reasons that causes accidents and its implementation and regular inspection procedures for the improvement of the plant are also studied. (author). 2 refs

  13. Securing private communications: Protecting private communications security in EU law: fundamental rights, functional value chains and market incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnbak, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    As we increasingly depend on private communications security and realize our private communications are systematically insecure, communications security has become a major concern for law- and policymakers around the world. This study researches the central question: how should the EU lawmaker

  14. Appropriateness of using integrated security systems for better protection against terroristic threats to objects of high importance, vulnerable to acts of sabotage

    OpenAIRE

    Rogozhin, Alexander; Drimba, Stanislav; Gerba, Julius

    2008-01-01

    Questions of integrated security systems design of a large industrial object of vital importance, and choice of the optimal construction option, are described in the article. A structure of integrated security system, providing complete security of objects, is suggested by means of the following subsystems integration: access control, video surveillance, security and fire protection alarm system and life-support control.

  15. Consumer protection in electronic commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of the Internet and allows people to buy instant. Fast and easy development of e-commerce has led to the necessity of consumer protection in cyberspace, where trade takes place, so as to ensure consumer safety and security matters. This article examines e-commerce in terms of consumer protection and data security, which concerns equally all stakeholders in the electronic market: buyers, sellers, banks, courier cargo and other participants.

  16. Implementing an Information Security Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Clifford S.; Lenaeus, Joseph D.; Landine, Guy P.; O' Neil, Lori Ross; Leitch, Rosalyn; Johnson, Christopher; Lewis, John G.; Rodger, Robert M.

    2017-11-01

    The threats to information security have dramatically increased with the proliferation of information systems and the internet. Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNe) facilities need to address these threats in order to protect themselves from the loss of intellectual property, theft of valuable or hazardous materials, and sabotage. Project 19 of the European Union CBRN Risk Mitigation Centres of Excellence Initiative is designed to help CBRN security managers, information technology/cybersecurity managers, and other decision-makers deal with these threats through the application of cost-effective information security programs. Project 19 has developed three guidance documents that are publically available to cover information security best practices, planning for an information security management system, and implementing security controls for information security.

  17. Security, protection, and control of power systems with large-scale wind power penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Naresh

    As the number of wind generation facilities in the utility system is fast increasing, many issues associated with their integration into the power system are beginning to emerge. Of the various issues, this dissertation deals with the development of new concepts and computational methods to handle the transmission issues and voltage issues caused by large-scale integration of wind turbines. This dissertation also formulates a probabilistic framework for the steady-state security assessment of wind power incorporating the forecast uncertainty and correlation. Transmission issues are mainly related to the overloading of transmission lines, when all the wind power generated cannot be delivered in full due to prior outage conditions. To deal with this problem, a method to curtail the wind turbine outputs through Energy Management System facilities in the on-line operational environment is proposed. The proposed method, which is based on linear optimization, sends the calculated control signals via the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system to wind farm controllers. The necessary ramping of the wind farm outputs is implemented either by the appropriate blade pitch angle control at the turbine level or by switching a certain number of turbines. The curtailment strategy is tested with an equivalent system model of MidAmerican Energy Company. The results show that the line overload in high wind areas can be alleviated by controlling the outputs of the wind farms step-by-step over an allowable period of time. A low voltage event during a system fault can cause a large number of wind turbines to trip, depending on voltages at the wind turbine terminals during the fault and the under-voltage protection setting of wind turbines. As a result, an N-1 contingency may evolve into an N-(K+1) contingency, where K is the number of wind farms tripped due to low voltage conditions. Losing a large amount of wind power following a line contingency might lead to system

  18. Internet flash of lightning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    Seven Internet sites are given relative to European Research and IAEA; Three sites in relation with optimization of radiation protection and environment, Google scolar, medicine, radioecology, finally seventeen Internet sites are detailed in this article. (N.C.)

  19. Electronic Communication of Protected Health Information: Privacy, Security, and HIPAA Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Brian C; Marwaha, Jayson S; Hyatt, Brad; Blazar, Phillip E; Lifchez, Scott D

    2017-06-01

    Technology has enhanced modern health care delivery, particularly through accessibility to health information and ease of communication with tools like mobile device messaging (texting). However, text messaging has created new risks for breach of protected health information (PHI). In the current study, we sought to evaluate hand surgeons' knowledge and compliance with privacy and security standards for electronic communication by text message. A cross-sectional survey of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand membership was conducted in March and April 2016. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed of composite results as well as relevant subgroup analyses. A total of 409 responses were obtained (11% response rate). Although 63% of surgeons reported that they believe that text messaging does not meet Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 security standards, only 37% reported they do not use text messages to communicate PHI. Younger surgeons and respondents who believed that their texting was compliant were statistically significantly more like to report messaging of PHI (odds ratio, 1.59 and 1.22, respectively). A majority of hand surgeons in this study reported the use of text messaging to communicate PHI. Of note, neither the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 statute nor US Department of Health and Human Services specifically prohibits this form of electronic communication. To be compliant, surgeons, practices, and institutions need to take reasonable security precautions to prevent breach of privacy with electronic communication. Communication of clinical information by text message is not prohibited under Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, but surgeons should use appropriate safeguards to prevent breach when using this form of communication. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecological security pattern construction based on ecological protection redlines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Changxin

    2017-04-01

    China is facing huge environmental problems with its current rapid rate of urbanization and industrialization, thus causing biodiversity loss, ecosystem service degradation on a major scale. Against this background, three previous examples (the nature reserve policy, the afforestation policy, and the zoning policy) are implemented in China. These all play important roles in protecting natural ecosystems, although they can sometimes cause new problems and lack rigorous targets for environmental outcomes. To overcome current management conflicts, China has proposed a new "ecological protection redlines" policy (EPR). EPR can be defined as the ecological baseline area needed to provide ecosystem services to guarantee and maintain ecological safety. This study analyzed the scope, objectives and technical methods of delineating EPR in China, and put forward the proposed scheme for the ecological security pattern based on EPR. We constructed three kinds of redlines in China, including key ecological function area redlines, ecological sensitive or fragile areas redlines, and forbidden development areas redlines. For the key ecological function area redlines, a total of 38 water conservation functional zones have been designated, covering a total area of 3.23 million km2; 14 soil conservation zones have been designated, covering a total area of 881700 km2; wind-prevention and sand-fixation zones across the country cover a total area of about 1.73 million km2, accounting for 57.13% of the total land area of the whole country. With respect to the ecologically vulnerable redlines, 18 ecologically vulnerable zones has been designated across the country, covering 2.19 million km2, accounting for 22.86% of the total land area of the whole country. Forbidden development areas redlines covered a total area of 3.29 million km2, accounting for 34.3% of the total land area of the whole country. We also suggest to form a complete ecological security pattern including patterns of

  1. Using virtual reality in the training of security staff and evaluation of physical protection barriers in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusto, Silas C.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Mol, Pedro C.; Sales, Douglas S.

    2009-01-01

    The physical security of facilities containing radioactive objects, an already important matter, now has a new aggravating factor: the existence of groups intending to obtain radioactive materials for the purpose of intentionally induce radioactive contamination incidents, as for example the explosion of dirty bombs in populated regions, damaging both people and environment. In this context, the physical security of such facilities must be reinforced so to reduce the possibilities of such incidents. This paper presents a adapted game engine used as a virtual reality system, enabling the modeling and simulation of scenarios of nuclear facilities containing radioactive objects. In these scenarios, the physical protection barriers, as fences and walls, are simulated along with vigilance screens. Using a computer network, several users can participate simultaneously in the simulation, being represented by avatars. Users can play the roles of both invaders and security staff. The invaders have as objective to surpass the facility's physical protection barriers to steal radioactive objects and flee. The security staff have as objective to prevent and stop the theft of radioactive objects from the facility. The system can be used to analysis simulated scenarios and train vigilance/security staff. A test scenario was already developed and used, and the preliminary tests had satisfactory results, as they enabled the evaluation of the physical protection barriers of the virtual facility, and the training of those who participated in the simulations in the functions of a security staff. (author)

  2. Security

    OpenAIRE

    Leander, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that security belongs to a specific category of commodities: “contested commodities” around which there is an ongoing and unsettled symbolic struggle over whether or not they can and should be though of as commodities (section 1). The contested nature of commodification has implications for how markets function; market practices tend to be defined and organized in ways that minimize their contentiousness and obfuscate their expansion. The paper looks at the implications of t...

  3. The Department of Homeland Security’s Role in Protecting the National Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Revolution: A New Customs Security Framework to Secure and Facilitate Small Business eCommerce (New York: Center for Strategic and International Studies...Security Framework to Secure and Facilitate Small Business eCommerce . New York: Center for Strategic and International Studies, Rowman and Littlefield

  4. Final report and documentation for the security enabled programmable switch for protection of distributed internetworked computers LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Robertson, Perry J.; Durgin, Nancy Ann; Toole, Timothy J.; Kucera, Brent D.; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Pierson, Lyndon George

    2010-02-01

    An increasing number of corporate security policies make it desirable to push security closer to the desktop. It is not practical or feasible to place security and monitoring software on all computing devices (e.g. printers, personal digital assistants, copy machines, legacy hardware). We have begun to prototype a hardware and software architecture that will enforce security policies by pushing security functions closer to the end user, whether in the office or home, without interfering with users' desktop environments. We are developing a specialized programmable Ethernet network switch to achieve this. Embodied in this device is the ability to detect and mitigate network attacks that would otherwise disable or compromise the end user's computing nodes. We call this device a 'Secure Programmable Switch' (SPS). The SPS is designed with the ability to be securely reprogrammed in real time to counter rapidly evolving threats such as fast moving worms, etc. This ability to remotely update the functionality of the SPS protection device is cryptographically protected from subversion. With this concept, the user cannot turn off or fail to update virus scanning and personal firewall filtering in the SPS device as he/she could if implemented on the end host. The SPS concept also provides protection to simple/dumb devices such as printers, scanners, legacy hardware, etc. This report also describes the development of a cryptographically protected processor and its internal architecture in which the SPS device is implemented. This processor executes code correctly even if an adversary holds the processor. The processor guarantees both the integrity and the confidentiality of the code: the adversary cannot determine the sequence of instructions, nor can the adversary change the instruction sequence in a goal-oriented way.

  5. The Development and Evaluation of a Peer-Training Program for Elementary School Students Teaching Secure Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Murat; Esen, Binnaz Kiran

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to design and evaluate a peer-training program about changing students' internet use habits. This study was conducted with students from two different elementary schools in Mersin, Turkey, who were enrolled in 7th or 8th grade in the 2009-2010 academic year. A total of 24 students participated in the program, 12 of whom…

  6. Direct and Interaction Effects of Co-Existing Familial Risk Factors and Protective Factors Associated with Internet Addiction among Chinese Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M. S.; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Cheng, Kit-man; Law, Rita W.; Tse, Vincent W. S.; Lau, Mason M. C.

    2018-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is prevalent among adolescents and imposes a serious public health threat. Familial risk and protective factors may co-exist and interact with each other to determine IA. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 9,618 Secondary 1 to 4 students in Hong Kong, China. About 16% of the surveyed students were classified as…

  7. The Children's Internet Protection Act and E-Rate Policies in Louisiana: A Comparison of Policy Interpretations in Region III and Their Impact on Learning Opportunities of Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautreaux, Madge L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2000, President Bill Clinton enacted the "Children's Internet Protection Act" (CIPA) which requires all K-12 schools and publicly funded libraries to use Internet filters to protect children from pornography and other obscene or potentially harmful online content as a stipulation for receiving E-Rate funding. The varying…

  8. Energy Assurance: Essential Energy Technologies for Climate Protection and Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Dean, David Jarvis [ORNL; Fulkerson, William [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gaddis, Abigail [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Graves, Ronald L [ORNL; Hopson, Dr Janet L [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hughes, Patrick [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Mason, Thom [ORNL; Standaert, Robert F [ORNL; Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL; Zucker, Alexander [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    We present and apply a new method for analyzing the significance of advanced technology for achieving two important national energy goals: climate protection and energy security. Quantitative metrics for U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2050 and oil independence in 2030 are specified, and the impacts of 11 sets of energy technologies are analyzed using a model that employs the Kaya identity and incorporates the uncertainty of technological breakthroughs. The goals examined are a 50% to 80% reduction in CO2 emissions from energy use by 2050 and increased domestic hydrocarbon fuels supply and decreased demand that sum to 11 mmbd by 2030. The latter is intended to insure that the economic costs of oil dependence are not more than 1% of U.S. GDP with 95% probability by 2030. Perhaps the most important implication of the analysis is that meeting both energy goals requires a high probability of success (much greater than even odds) for all 11 technologies. Two technologies appear to be indispensable for accomplishment of both goals: carbon capture and storage, and advanced fossil liquid fuels. For reducing CO2 by more than 50% by 2050, biomass energy and electric drive (fuel cell or battery powered) vehicles also appear to be necessary. Every one of the 11 technologies has a powerful influence on the probability of achieving national energy goals. From the perspective of technology policy, conflict between the CO2 mitigation and energy security is negligible. These general results appear to be robust to a wide range of technology impact estimates; they are substantially unchanged by a Monte Carlo simulation that allows the impacts of technologies to vary by 20%.

  9. Protecting America's economy, environment, health, and security against invasive species requires a strong federal program in systematic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilda Diaz-Soltero; Amy Y. Rossman

    2011-01-01

    Systematics is the science that identifies and groups organisms by understanding their origins, relationships, and distributions. It is fundamental to understanding life on earth, our crops, wildlife, and diseases, and it provides the scientific foundation to recognize and manage invasive species. Protecting America's economy, environment, health, and security...

  10. 78 FR 11981 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the security of Department of Defense assets and military cargo in the navigable waters of Puget Sound... Sound Waterways Management Division, Coast Guard; telephone 206-217-6045, email SectorPugetSound WWM...

  11. Intelligence and Security Standards on Industrial Facilities Protection in Case of Terrorism and Military Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipetic, D.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial facilities, which use toxic chemicals in their production processes, are tempting targets for military and terrorist strategists. They know that these facilities when attacked could produce effects not realizable with conventional weapons. The resulting legal, policy and political consequences would be minimal as compared to that of disseminating toxic chemicals or chemical agents as weapons on enemy territory. At this time there is no clear definition of the legality or illegality of these types of actions used against specific industrial targets for the purpose of mass destruction or disruption. Without clearly defined international regulations covering these actions, we must depend solely on national defense systems. Not only are these regulation not defined, there are no implementation tools, which would be available if the various treaties (CWC/BWC) etc., were able to incorporate needed legislative action. Consequently we must depend on and put into practice defense security standards for industrial facilities for protection against both possible terrorist and military attacks. Emergency responses to incidents involving violent criminals and terrorists are extremely dangerous. Incidents involving weapons of mass destruction, firearms, and hazardous materials have resulted in the injury and death of many firefighters, police officers and medical personnel. We wish to intend display place and role of intelligence and counter intelligence system to prevention potential target and military attack. Security needs to be incorporated into the public safety culture and it must become the routine for how we operate. The recognition and identification process is an important skill that needs continual refinement. The use of transportation or facility paperwork assists in recognizing what potential hazards. A key factor in the successful command and management of a hazmat incident or terrorism event is the ability of public safety agencies to function as a

  12. Mobile Detection Assessment and Response Systems (MDARS): A Force Protection, Physical Security Operational Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shoop, Brian; Johnston, Michael; Goehring, Richard; Moneyhun, Jon; Skibba, Brian

    2006-01-01

    ... & barrier assessment payloads. Its functions include surveillance, security, early warning, incident first response and product and barrier status primarily focused on a depot/munitions security mission at structured/semi-structured facilities...

  13. Secure Threat Information Exchange across the Internet of Things for Cyber Defense in a Fog Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai-Gabriel IONITA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Threat information exchange is a critical part of any security system. Decisions regarding security are taken with more confidence and with more results when the whole security context is known. The fog computing paradigm enhances the use cases of the already used cloud computing systems by bringing all the needed resources to the end-users towards the edge of the network. While fog decentralizes the cloud, it is very important to correlate security events which happen in branch offices around the globe for correct and timely decisions. In this article, we propose an infrastructure based on custom locally installed OSSEC agents which communicate with a central AlienVault deployment for event correlation. The agents are based on a neural network which takes actions based on risk assessment inspired by the human immune system. All of the threat information is defined by STIX expressions and a TAXII server can share this information with foreign organizations. The proposed implementation can successfully be implemented in an IoT scenario, with added security for the “brownfiled” devices.

  14. 76 FR 27897 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... will enforce the security and safety zone in 33 CFR 165.1318 for large passenger vessels operating in... 2011. This action is necessary to ensure the security and safety of the large passenger vessels... person or vessel may enter the security and safety zone without permission from the Captain of the Port...

  15. Conceptual design of technical security systems for Russian nuclear facilities physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmailov, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    Conceptual design of technical security systems (TSS) used in the early stages of physical protection systems (PPS) design for Russia nuclear facilities is discussed. The importance of work carried out in the early stages was noted since the main design solutions are being made within this period (i.e. selection of a structure of TSS and its components). The methods of analysis and synthesis of TSS developed by ''Eleron'' (MINATOM of Russia) which take into account the specific conditions of Russian nuclear facilities and a scope of equipment available are described in the review. TSS effectiveness assessment is based on a probability theory and a simulation. The design procedure provides for a purposeful choice of TSS competitive options including a ''cost-benefit'' criterion and taking into account a prechosen list of design basis threats to be used for a particular facility. The attention is paid to a practical aspect of the methods application as well as to the bilateral Russian-American scientific and technical co-operation in the PPS design field

  16. Patient protection in radiotherapy (Radio neurosurgery National Service of the Social Security Mexican Institute)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espiritu R, R.

    2008-12-01

    The perspective of patient protection at the Radio neurosurgery National Service of the Social Security Mexican Institute is divided into three parts: the testing program for equipment acceptance, an assurance quality program based on periodic tests, an also other assurance quality based on tests during the application. Among the technical aspects that influence in the equipment acceptance tests, it is the collimation type, the characteristics of the lineal accelerator, the platform for planning and the network type. In the case of the collimation system and the accelerator characteristics, we consider the manufacturer's specifications and requirements of Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-NUCL-1999, T echnical Specifications for the Teletherapy Units Operation, Linear Accelerators . Planning for the platform takes into account the manufacturer's specifications. In the case of computed tomography as well as review the calibration according to manufacturer's specifications should be considered the standard NOM-229-SSA1-2002. In the case of the linear accelerator must be the radiological characterization of radiation beam as part of this, the absolute dose determination. As for the periodic tests is verified the dose constancy, as well as the flattening and symmetry of X-rays beam. There are also tests battery with daily, monthly and yearly frequencies, which make up the assurance quality program. (Author)

  17. Efficient Data Transfer Rate and Speed of Secured Ethernet Interface System

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanti, Shaila; Naik, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Embedded systems are extensively used in home automation systems, small office systems, vehicle communication systems, and health service systems. The services provided by these systems are available on the Internet and these services need to be protected. Security features like IP filtering, UDP protection, or TCP protection need to be implemented depending on the specific application used by the device. Every device on the Internet must have network interface. This paper proposes the design...

  18. INFORMATION SECURITY: Strengthened Management Needed to Protect Critical Federal Operations and Assets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dodaro, Gene

    1998-01-01

    .... Our most recent report, done at the request of this Committee, delineates the serious information security weaknesses placing critical operations and assets at risk and outlines actions needed...

  19. Information security of industrial control systems: possible attack vectors and protection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatiy A. Grachkov

    2018-03-01

    obtaining unauthorized access to industrial control systems using the Shodan search engine is described and recommendations how to ensure information security of the industrial control system are given.

  20. Population Protection in the 1990s: Managing Risk in the New Security Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donley, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    .... Using the protection interventions in northern Iraq, Bosnia, Rwanda, and Kosovo as case studies, this thesis demonstrates that the interveners prioritized the protection of their self-interests...

  1. Control Systems Security Center Comparison Study of Industrial Control System Standards against the Control Systems Protection Framework Cyber-Security Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-09-01

    Cyber security standards, guidelines, and best practices for control systems are critical requirements that have been delineated and formally recognized by industry and government entities. Cyber security standards provide a common language within the industrial control system community, both national and international, to facilitate understanding of security awareness issues but, ultimately, they are intended to strengthen cyber security for control systems. This study and the preliminary findings outlined in this report are an initial attempt by the Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) Standard Awareness Team to better understand how existing and emerging industry standards, guidelines, and best practices address cyber security for industrial control systems. The Standard Awareness Team comprised subject matter experts in control systems and cyber security technologies and standards from several Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories, including Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. This study was conducted in two parts: a standard identification effort and a comparison analysis effort. During the standard identification effort, the Standard Awareness Team conducted a comprehensive open-source survey of existing control systems security standards, regulations, and guidelines in several of the critical infrastructure (CI) sectors, including the telecommunication, water, chemical, energy (electric power, petroleum and oil, natural gas), and transportation--rail sectors and sub-sectors. During the comparison analysis effort, the team compared the requirements contained in selected, identified, industry standards with the cyber security requirements in ''Cyber Security Protection Framework'', Version 0.9 (hereafter referred to as the ''Framework''). For each of the seven sector/sub-sectors listed above, one standard was

  2. Privacy and security of patient data in the pathology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan C Cucoranu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data protection and security are critical components of routine pathology practice because laboratories are legally required to securely store and transmit electronic patient data. With increasing connectivity of information systems, laboratory work-stations, and instruments themselves to the Internet, the demand to continuously protect and secure laboratory information can become a daunting task. This review addresses informatics security issues in the pathology laboratory related to passwords, biometric devices, data encryption, internet security, virtual private networks, firewalls, anti-viral software, and emergency security situations, as well as the potential impact that newer technologies such as mobile devices have on the privacy and security of electronic protected health information (ePHI. In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA govern the privacy and protection of medical information and health records. The HIPAA security standards final rule mandate administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and security of ePHI. Importantly, security failures often lead to privacy breaches, invoking the HIPAA privacy rule as well. Therefore, this review also highlights key aspects of HIPAA and its impact on the pathology laboratory in the United States.

  3. Privacy and security of patient data in the pathology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucoranu, Ioan C; Parwani, Anil V; West, Andrew J; Romero-Lauro, Gonzalo; Nauman, Kevin; Carter, Alexis B; Balis, Ulysses J; Tuthill, Mark J; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Data protection and security are critical components of routine pathology practice because laboratories are legally required to securely store and transmit electronic patient data. With increasing connectivity of information systems, laboratory work-stations, and instruments themselves to the Internet, the demand to continuously protect and secure laboratory information can become a daunting task. This review addresses informatics security issues in the pathology laboratory related to passwords, biometric devices, data encryption, internet security, virtual private networks, firewalls, anti-viral software, and emergency security situations, as well as the potential impact that newer technologies such as mobile devices have on the privacy and security of electronic protected health information (ePHI). In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) govern the privacy and protection of medical information and health records. The HIPAA security standards final rule mandate administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and security of ePHI. Importantly, security failures often lead to privacy breaches, invoking the HIPAA privacy rule as well. Therefore, this review also highlights key aspects of HIPAA and its impact on the pathology laboratory in the United States.

  4. 10 CFR 95.25 - Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... container that has an automatic unit locking mechanism. All such receptacles will be accorded supplemental... leaving visible evidence of entry) and is secured by a rigid metal lock bar and an approved key operated or combination padlock. The keepers of the rigid metal lock bar must be secured to the cabinet by...

  5. Protection of personal information in South Africa: a framework for biometric data collection security

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mzila, Phiwa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available be replaced like passwords and tokens. In this paper we proposed a framework for biometric data collection security using South Africa as our case study. The framework aims to bridge the gap between the collectors of biometric data, biometric security experts...

  6. 78 FR 66621 - Protection of Collateral of Counterparties to Uncleared Swaps; Treatment of Securities in a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... involved in the assessment of risk and/or collateral management to receive this notification. However... Collateral of Counterparties to Uncleared Swaps; Treatment of Securities in a Portfolio Margining Account in... collateral posted by their counterparties to margin, guarantee, or secure uncleared swaps. Additionally, the...

  7. Expanding Protection Motivation Theory: The Role of Individual Experience in Information Security Policy Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Leigh Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to make contributions to the area of behavioral information security in the field of Information Systems and to assist in the improved development of Information Security Policy instructional programs to increase the policy compliance of individuals. The role of an individual's experience in the context of…

  8. Social Protection and Economic Security of North African Migrant Workers in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA PARASCHIVESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes and analyses the situation of Maghrebis in France, as far as social security is concerned. The paradoxical situation experienced by these immigrants is related to their eligibility for social security and their discrimination on the labour market. As such, Maghrebis form the precarious layer of French society.

  9. Social Security Number Protection Laws: State-by-State Summary Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As state policymakers implement statewide longitudinal data systems that collect, store, link and share student-level data, it is critical that they understand applicable privacy and data security standards and laws designed to ensure the privacy, security, and confidentiality of that data. To help state policymakers navigate this complex legal…

  10. Multi-Level Data-Security and Data-Protection in a Distributed Search Infrastructure for Digital Medical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Michael; Krefting, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Human sample data is stored in biobanks with software managing digital derived sample data. When these stand-alone components are connected and a search infrastructure is employed users become able to collect required research data from different data sources. Data protection, patient rights, data heterogeneity and access control are major challenges for such an infrastructure. This dissertation will investigate concepts for a multi-level security architecture to comply with these requirements.

  11. Refugees, security and development: Current experience and strategies of protection and assistance in the 'region of origin'

    OpenAIRE

    Steputat, Finn

    2004-01-01

    On the background of the recently increased political interest in protecting and assisting refugees in their ’regions of origin’ this working paper lays out a conceptual framework for analyzing the strategies, conditions and options for support to refugees areas in neighboring countries to countries in conflict. In particular relations between security – or the ‘securitization of refugees’ – and development and local integration are discussed. The working paper identifies the confinement and ...

  12. Protecting against network infections : A game theoretic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omic, J.; Orda, A.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2009-01-01

    Security breaches and attacks are critical problems in today’s networking. A key-point is that the security of each host depends not only on the protection strategies it chooses to adopt but also on those chosen by other hosts in the network. The spread of Internet worms and viruses is only one

  13. Implementation of QoSS (Quality-of-Security Service) for NoC-Based SoC Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Johanna; Pires, Ricardo; Strum, Marius; Chau, Wang Jiang

    Many of the current electronic systems embedded in a SoC (System-on-Chip) are used to capture, store, manipulate and access critical data, as well as to perform other key functions. In such a scenario, security is considered as an important issue. The Network-on-chip (NoC), as the foreseen communication structure of next-generation SoC devices, can be used to efficiently incorporate security. Our work proposes the implementation of QoSS (Quality of Security Service) to overcome present SoC vulnerabilities. QoSS is a novel concept for data protection that introduces security as a dimension of QoS. In this paper, we present the implementation of two security services (access control and authentication), that may be configured to assume one from several possible levels, the implementation of a technique to avoid denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, evaluate their effectiveness and estimate their impact on NoC performance.

  14. Assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The following report contains an assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) for the Y-12 National Security Complex at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. The GWPP is administered by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. for the purpose of groundwater surveillance monitoring. After over 20 years of extensive site characterization and delineation efforts, groundwater in the three hydrogeologic areas that comprise the Y-12 Complex requires a long-term monitoring network strategy that will efficiently satisfy surveillance monitoring objectives set forth in DOE Order 450.1. The GWPP assessment consisted of two phases, a qualitative review of the program and a quantitative evaluation of the groundwater monitoring network using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software methodology. The specific objective of the qualitative section of the review of the GWPP was to evaluate the methods of data collection, management, and reporting and the function of the monitoring network for the Y-12 facility using guidance from regulatory and academic sources. The results of the qualitative review are used to suggest modifications to the overall program that would be consistent with achieving objectives for long-term groundwater monitoring. While cost minimization is a consideration in the development of the monitoring program, the primary goal is to provide a comprehensive strategy to provide quality data to support site decision making during facility operations, long-term resource restoration, and property redevelopment. The MAROS software is designed to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network by applying statistical techniques to existing historic and current site analytical data. The MAROS methodology also considers hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors. The software identifies trends and suggests components for an improved monitoring plan by analyzing individual monitoring wells in the current

  15. Weapons of Mass Destruction and Domestic Force Protection: Basic Response Capability for Military, Police & Security Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manto, Samuel

    1999-01-01

    ... actions to improve preparedness. This paper examines what a minimum basic response capability for all military, police and security forces should be to ensure at least some chance for their own survival and possible early warning...

  16. Main control computer security model of closed network systems protection against cyber attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymen, Bilal

    2014-06-01

    The model that brings the data input/output under control in closed network systems, that maintains the system securely, and that controls the flow of information through the Main Control Computer which also brings the network traffic under control against cyber-attacks. The network, which can be controlled single-handedly thanks to the system designed to enable the network users to make data entry into the system or to extract data from the system securely, intends to minimize the security gaps. Moreover, data input/output record can be kept by means of the user account assigned for each user, and it is also possible to carry out retroactive tracking, if requested. Because the measures that need to be taken for each computer on the network regarding cyber security, do require high cost; it has been intended to provide a cost-effective working environment with this model, only if the Main Control Computer has the updated hardware.

  17. DoD Information Security Program and Protection of Sensitive Compartmented Information (SCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-21

    ah) Title 22, Code of Federal Regulations ( ai ) Title 22, United States Code (aj) Title 44, United States Code (ak) Public Law 113-187...pursuant to Executive Order 13526; part 2001 of Title 32, Code of Federal Regulations ; section 3038(a) of Title 50, United States Code; DoDD 5205.07; and...national security or as required by statute or regulation . d. The volume of classified national security information and CUI, in whatever format or

  18. An Energy Efficient Protocol For The Internet Of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Jusas, Nerijus; Kazanavičius, Egidijus; Štuikys, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a technological revolution that represents the future of computing and communications. One of the most important challenges of IoT is security: protection of data and privacy. The SSL protocol is the de-facto standard for secure Internet communications. The extra energy cost of encrypting and authenticating of the application data with SSL is around 15%. For IoT devices, where energy resources are limited, the increase in the cost of energy is a very significant factor. In this paper we present the energy efficient SSL protocol which ensures the maximum bandwidth and the required level of security with minimum energy consumption. The proper selection of the security level and CPU multiplier, can save up to 85% of the energy required for data encryption.

  19. Security an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Purpura, Philip P

    2011-01-01

    Section I The History and Profession of SecurityDefinition, Role, and History of Security Security Defined The Contexts of Security The Roles of Security The History of Security Security in an Environment of Threats, Terrorism, and All-Hazards Threats and Hazards Terrorism National Strategies The Profession and Business of Security The Business of Security Professionalism and Security Associations Ethics Regulation of the Security Industry Security Training Higher Education Careers Section II Protecting People and AssetsSecurity Methodology Methodology Defined Security Business Proposals Secur

  20. The implementation of nuclear security program and the improvement of physical protection in Indonesia: progress and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul

    2009-01-01

    facilities. The nuclear material and its installation is potential target in the facilities so that they needed physical protection measures in prevention and protection of nuclear material and radioactive source against theft and sabotage. The implementation of physical protection of nuclear material and radioactive sources in Indonesia complied with the international instruments such as the Convention of the Physical Protection on Nuclear Material and Facilities, amended on July 2005, and INFCIRC/225/Rev. 4, (corrected), the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities, June 1999. The application of nuclear energy for power program generation involve in the management of nuclear materials and other radioactive substance. According to international regulation and convention, an effective physical protection system is needed to protect nuclear materials and its facilities against theft and sabotage for both non-proliferation and radiation safety purpose. Further to implementation of the IAEA nuclear security program in the region, Indonesia received two nuclear security services, IPPAS and INSServ mission. Based on the expert mission recommendation, therefore Indonesia improved their physical protection system on nuclear material and facilities against theft and sabotage. One thing that should be considered by the Government of Indonesia is human resource development programmes. So far, some effort has developed to enhance the knowledge of the employee who deals with nuclear material and radioactive substances. It still needed to increase the awareness in particular to personal and other related agencies as well. The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration discussed security assistance with Indonesia's National Nuclear Energy Agency, BATAN. These upgrades not only reduced the threat of theft at the three research reactors, but also provided local physical protection expertise to use during the concept, design, and operation of

  1. The internet trade of counterfeit spirits in Russia – an emerging problem undermining alcohol, public health and youth protection policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Maria; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Walch, Stephan G.; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Counterfeit alcohol belongs to the category of unrecorded alcohol not reflected in official statistics. The internet trade of alcoholic beverages has been prohibited by the Russian Federation since 2007, but various sellers still offer counterfeit spirits (i.e., forged brand spirits) over the internet to Russian consumers, mostly in a non-deceptive fashion at prices up to 15 times lower than in regular sale. The public health issues arising from this unregulated trade include potential harm to underage drinkers, hazards due to toxic ingredients such as methanol, but most importantly alcohol harms due to potentially increased drinking volumes due to low prices and high availability on the internet. The internet sale also undermines existing alcohol policies such as restrictions of sale locations, sale times and minimum pricing. The need to enforce measures against counterfeiting of spirits, but specifically their internet trade should be implemented as key elements of alcohol policies to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption, which is currently about 33 % of total consumption in Russia. PMID:28663784

  2. The internet trade of counterfeit spirits in Russia - an emerging problem undermining alcohol, public health and youth protection policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Maria; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Walch, Stephan G; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Counterfeit alcohol belongs to the category of unrecorded alcohol not reflected in official statistics. The internet trade of alcoholic beverages has been prohibited by the Russian Federation since 2007, but various sellers still offer counterfeit spirits (i.e., forged brand spirits) over the internet to Russian consumers, mostly in a non-deceptive fashion at prices up to 15 times lower than in regular sale. The public health issues arising from this unregulated trade include potential harm to underage drinkers, hazards due to toxic ingredients such as methanol, but most importantly alcohol harms due to potentially increased drinking volumes due to low prices and high availability on the internet. The internet sale also undermines existing alcohol policies such as restrictions of sale locations, sale times and minimum pricing. The need to enforce measures against counterfeiting of spirits, but specifically their internet trade should be implemented as key elements of alcohol policies to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption, which is currently about 33 % of total consumption in Russia.

  3. The Future of the Internet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Komaroff, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    .... While the DoD no longer controls Internet decision making, its unique perspective deriving from its multiple roles as Internet user, operator, and research center is important to the development and protection of U.S. national interests...

  4. Exploring Factors Influencing Self-Efficacy in Information Security an Empirical Analysis by Integrating Multiple Theoretical Perspectives in the Context of Using Protective Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Dinesh Sampangirama

    2017-01-01

    Cybersecurity threats confront the United States on a daily basis, making them one of the major national security challenges. One approach to meeting these challenges is to improve user cybersecurity behavior. End user security behavior hinges on end user acceptance and use of the protective information technologies such as anti-virus and…

  5. 78 FR 15962 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Customs and Border Protection-DHS/CBP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ..../Mexico highway carriers; rail and sea carriers; licensed U.S. Customs brokers; U.S. marine port authority... World Customs Organization accredited security program administered by a foreign customs authority... 1974; Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Customs and Border Protection--DHS/CBP-018--Customs--Trade...

  6. Defining a Security Architecture for Real-Time Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Oppliger , Rolf , Internet and...particular, the Secure Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (SecIIOP) specification adds security functionality to CORBA’s Internet Inter- ORB Protocol (IIOP), which... Internet Security , Boston: Artech House, 1998. [6] IETF RFC for IPSec AH and ESP and IPv6. [7] S. Kent & R. Atkinson, Security

  7. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2013-01-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation’s electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments. PMID:25685516

  8. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments.

  9. The Impact of the Internet of Things (IoT) on the IT Security Infrastructure of Traditional Colleges and Universities in the State of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    The speed and availability of Internet-capable devices, such as computers, smartphones, gaming consoles, TVs, and tablets have made it possible for our society to be connected, and stay connected to the Internet 24 hours a day. The Internet of Things (IoT) describes a new environment where common objects are uniquely identifiable and accessible…

  10. Grid Security

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The aim of Grid computing is to enable the easy and open sharing of resources between large and highly distributed communities of scientists and institutes across many independent administrative domains. Convincing site security officers and computer centre managers to allow this to happen in view of today's ever-increasing Internet security problems is a major challenge. Convincing users and application developers to take security seriously is equally difficult. This paper will describe the main Grid security issues, both in terms of technology and policy, that have been tackled over recent years in LCG and related Grid projects. Achievements to date will be described and opportunities for future improvements will be addressed.

  11. Metric-Aware Secure Service Orchestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Secure orchestration is an important concern in the internet of service. Next to providing the required functionality the composite services must also provide a reasonable level of security in order to protect sensitive data. Thus, the orchestrator has a need to check whether the complex service is able to satisfy certain properties. Some properties are expressed with metrics for precise definition of requirements. Thus, the problem is to analyse the values of metrics for a complex business process. In this paper we extend our previous work on analysis of secure orchestration with quantifiable properties. We show how to define, verify and enforce quantitative security requirements in one framework with other security properties. The proposed approach should help to select the most suitable service architecture and guarantee fulfilment of the declared security requirements.

  12. 22 CFR 1101.5 - Security, confidentiality and protection of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... records. 1101.5 Section 1101.5 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED... administrative, technical and physical safeguards to ensure the security and confidentiality of records and to... maintained. (b) When maintained in manual form (typed, printed, handwritten, etc.) records shall be...

  13. 76 FR 75781 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... adjusted for any inflation or deflation that occurs over the term of the security. The rules for the taxation of inflation-indexed debt instruments, including TIPS, are contained in Sec. 1.1275-7 of the... submitted to the Chief Counsel for Advocacy of the Small Business Administration for comment on their impact...

  14. 78 FR 666 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Bond Premium Carryforward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... deflation that occurs over the term of the security. The rules for the taxation of inflation-indexed debt...), to provide a more uniform method for the federal income taxation of TIPS, the Treasury Department and... minimis amount is determined using the principles of Sec. 1.1273-1(d). (ii) Example. The following example...

  15. 78 FR 65155 - Special Conditions: Learjet Model 45 Series Airplanes; Isolation or Security Protection of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... instances with no substantive comments received. The FAA therefore finds that good cause exists for making... integration may result in security vulnerabilities from intentional or unintentional corruption of data and... historically proprietary. Therefore, they are not as susceptible to corruption from worms, viruses, and other...

  16. A New Element of National Security: Military Forces in Environmental Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    termination of hostilities will require a new paradigm for long term peace. 25 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Galtung , Johan . Environment, Development. and Military...diplomacy fails potesngenal serity.promotes general security." to reach an accord? Is the Galtung , p.190. use of military legitimate in this instance

  17. Internet advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Popelová, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    Aim of this thesis was to find out an attitude of internet users toward selected internet advertisement. Theoretical part introduces internet marketing and chosen types of internet advertisement. Hypotheses stated in advance were answered in a practical part by method of questionnaire. Result of thesis is recommendation for companies who are making business on internet or using internet for their business.

  18. A Security Audit Framework to Manage Information System Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Teresa; Santos, Henrique

    The widespread adoption of information and communication technology have promoted an increase dependency of organizations in the performance of their Information Systems. As a result, adequate security procedures to properly manage information security must be established by the organizations, in order to protect their valued or critical resources from accidental or intentional attacks, and ensure their normal activity. A conceptual security framework to manage and audit Information System Security is proposed and discussed. The proposed framework intends to assist organizations firstly to understand what they precisely need to protect assets and what are their weaknesses (vulnerabilities), enabling to perform an adequate security management. Secondly, enabling a security audit framework to support the organization to assess the efficiency of the controls and policy adopted to prevent or mitigate attacks, threats and vulnerabilities, promoted by the advances of new technologies and new Internet-enabled services, that the organizations are subject of. The presented framework is based on a conceptual model approach, which contains the semantic description of the concepts defined in information security domain, based on the ISO/IEC_JCT1 standards.

  19. Course on Radiological Protection and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiodiagnostic Practices (4th Ed.) : Tel educational through Internet on Health Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M.; Chico, P.; Armero, D.; Saura Iniesta, A. M.; Fernandez, H.; Vicente, V.

    2006-01-01

    The creation of an interdepartmental project subsidised by the Spanish Ministry of Education has made possible the elaboration of a series of specific didactic materials on Radiological Protection and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiodiagnostic Practices, which has led to the publication of a specific manual and practical notebook. As a consequence, this material now constitutes the working base for those professionals exposed to ionising radiation who are following the first Tel educational continuous formation course in Spanish via the Internet on this subject. (Author)

  20. United States Seaport Security: Protection Against a Nuclear Device Attack Delivered in a Shipping Cargo Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    military targets in various countries, including the 11 September 2001 attacks, 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings , USS Cole bombings , and 2002 Bali bombings ...off a radioactive dirty bomb , and on 29 June Moldavian undercover security agents posing as a North African buyer arrested six men trying to sell...eighteen grams of highly enriched uranium, which were weapons grade. Although a minimum of twenty-five grams is needed to create a dirty bomb , a terrorist

  1. Scaling up Agroforestry to Achieve Food Security and Environmental Protection among Smallholder Farmers in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Beedy, T.L.; Ajayi, O.C.; Sileshi, G.W.; Kundhlande, G.; Chiundu, G.; Simons, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Malawi is a land-locked country in southern Africa. Three-fourths of Malawi’s 13 million people rely on smallholder agriculture for their livelihoods. Increasing population, accelerating deforestation, poor soil and water management, and increasing poverty and land degradation directly impact the food security and human health of millions of Malawians. Cropping systems which combine cereal crops, agroforestry and small doses of inorganic fertilizers produce food-crop yields greater than inorg...

  2. Panel on protection and management of plutonium: Subpanel on safeguards and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear materials safeguards and security systems are described in the context of the nuclear nonproliferation regime. Materials of interest to safeguards, threats, proposals to strengthen International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards, evolving safeguards issues and requirements, system effectiveness, and elements of a global nuclear materials management regime are discussed. Safeguards are seen as an essential element of nuclear materials management, but not a driver for decisions regarding nuclear power or the disposal of excess weapon nuclear materials

  3. Hospital Security and Force Protection: A Guide to Ensuring Patient and Employee Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-28

    from both attacks were taken to al - Kindi hospital. At 8:45 a.m., a third car bomb was detonated at the hospital. Thirty-two Iraqi civilians and six...systems by Al -Qaeda. Many of the terrorists involved were not British Hospital Security 11 nationals but foreigners with ties to other European...countries. Currently, there are 10 known terrorist groups operating in Germany to include Al -Qaeda (Terrorism Research Center, 2005). The second condition

  4. 78 FR 39712 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Critical Infrastructure Protection and...: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is...

  5. Flexicurity as a measuring leakage protection of workers: between "social pollution" and "total security".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Massimo Cammalleri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Was not the labour problem the same everywhere? The paper at­tempts to answer this question by proposing a re-interpretation of flexicurity through the comparison with the economic concepts of externalities and distortion of competition. After a methodological and epistemological premise, based on a multidisciplinary literature, the paper - crit­ically addresses the origins of flexicurity and argues that it lacks an archetypical definition, especially in the formulation of the EU Commission. Hence, the paper considers flexicurity as any balance between flexibility and security and, therefore, pro­poses ordering any set of contracts, providing the same balance and with the same regulatory framework, in “communities”. It is assumed, therefore, that communities can differ either in terms of a “protective” trade­-off, where the differential is not a surrogate measure of security, or in terms of an economic trade-off, where it is met by the provision of social insurance or security. One of these sets is called community 0 and it corresponds to undeclared work, not only illegal, but also completely devoid of security and fully flexible. After identifying from ILO, EU and constitutional sources the foundation of the “incompressibility” of rights which guarantee decent work, the paper likens decent work to a public good of general interest, in the same way as laws generally recognize the natural environment. On the basis of this comparative axiom, the paper proposes considering the dispersion of security produced by undeclared work as “un-decent” work and, therefore, as a form of “pollution”. The paper proposes, conversely, to define as a “total secure” environment one where there is no loss of se­curity and, therefore, a non-polluted environment. Because an environment can be little or very polluted, the paper proposes considering as social pollution any form, even legal, of security leakage - such as that induced by the

  6. The use of information technology security assessment criteria to protect specialized computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykov, V.A.; Shein, A.V.; Piskarev, A.S.; Devaney, D.M.; Melton, R.B.; Hunteman, W.J.; Prommel, J.M.; Rothfuss, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the information security assessment criteria used in Russia and compare it with that used in the United States. The computer system security assessment criteria utilized by the State Technical Commission of Russia and similar criteria utilized by the US Department of Defense (TCSEC) are intended for the development and implementation of proven methods for achieving a required level of information security. These criteria are utilized, first and foremost, when conducting certification assessments of general purpose systems. The Russian Federation is creating specialized systems for nuclear material control and accountancy (MC and A) within the framework of the international laboratory-to-laboratory collaboration. Depending on the conditions in which the MC and A system is intended to operate, some of the criteria and the attendant certification requirements may exceed those established or may overlap the requirements established for attestation of such systems. In this regard it is possible to modify the certification and attestation requirements depending on the conditions in which a system will operate in order to achieve the ultimate goal--implementation of the systems in the industry

  7. Retailing and Shopping on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Internet advertising and commercial activity are increasing. This article examines challenges facing the retail industry on the Internet: location; comparison shopping; security, especially financial transactions; customer base and profile; nature of the shopping experience; and legal and marketplace controls. (PEN)

  8. Agroenergy production from biomass in integrated agroforestry systems: an alternative to achieve food security and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, J.; Martín, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to offer considerations about agroenergy production from biomass in integrated agroforestry systems. At present, worldwide, marked by a group of hazards that threaten human existence, there is a challenge mainly in the rural context: how can the coexistence of agroenergy, food security and environmental protection be achieved?, in the presence of climate changes, environmental degradation, food crises and the growing biofuels vs food contradiction, generated by a senseless policy for obtaining first-generation agrofuels from large extensions of food monocrops, which is morally rejectable. Biofuels are also considered an ecological alternative to fossil fuels, because of their reduction capacity in the emission of greenhouse gasses and because they promote the development of rural communities in southern countries; this is enhanced in integrated agroforestry systems, in which biofuels, of first as well as second generation, can be produced, especially with the application of the concept of biorefinery which allows converting biomass into many products, which total added value can be higher than the one generated by fossil fuels. International projects, which promote integrated and sustainable food and energy production in the context of agroforestry integrated systems, at local scale, contribute to this purpose. The authors consider that the execution of projects and experiences about agroenergy has the main objective of achieving energetic sustainability and food security at local scale, in rural areas, taking into account environmental protection. (author)

  9. Cybersecurity in European Union and In Mercosur: Big Data and Surveillance Versus Privacy and Data Protection On the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Favera, Rafaela Bolson Dalla; Silva, Rosane Leal da

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the surveillance practices, with the help of big data, especially after the revelations of Edward Snowden in 2013. It aims to analyze the acting of European Union in relation to the cybersecurity, besides to expose and discuss any existing strategies in Mercosur to face these problems, which will culminate with the analysis of the Internet Civil Mark in Brazil. It was found the need for the same block members act of transnational and cooperative manner, as recommend...

  10. Potential impact of internet addiction and protective psychosocial factors onto depression among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents - direct, mediation and moderation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Li, Jibin; Lau, Joseph T F; Mo, Phoenix K H; Lau, Mason M C

    2016-10-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is a risk factor while some psychosocial factors can be protective against depression among adolescents. Mechanisms of IA onto depression in terms of mediations and moderations involving protective factors are unknown and were investigated in this study. A representative cross-sectional study was conducted among Hong Kong Chinese secondary school students (n=9518). Among males and females, prevalence of depression at moderate or severe level (CES-D≥21) was 38.36% and 46.13%, and that of IA (CIAS>63) was 17.64% and 14.01%, respectively. Adjusted for socio-demographics, depression was positively associated with IA [males: adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=4.22, 95% CI=3.61-4.94; females: AOR=4.79, 95% CI=3.91-5.87] and negatively associated with psychosocial factors including self-esteem, positive affect, family support, and self-efficacy (males: AOR=0.76-0.94; females: AOR=0.72-0.92, psexes. Through significant moderations, IA also reduced magnitude of protective effects of self-efficacy and family support among males and that of positive affect among both sexes against depression. The high IA prevalence contributes to increased risk of prevalent depression through its direct effect, mediation (reduced level of protective factors) and moderation (reduced magnitude of protective effects) effects. Understanding to mechanisms between IA and depression through protective factors is enhanced. Screening and interventions for IA and depression are warranted, and should cultivate protective factors, and unlink negative impact of IA onto levels and effects of protective factors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. A Survey on Cyber Security awareness among college students in Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Easwaramoorthy, Sathishkumar

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study is to analyse the awareness of cyber security on college students in Tamil Nadu by focusing various security threats in the internet. In recent years cybercrime is an enormous challenge in all areas including national security, public safety and personal privacy. To prevent from a victim of cybercrime everyone must know about their own security and safety measures to protect by themselves. A well-structured questionnaire survey method will be applied to analyse the college student’s awareness in the area of cyber security. This survey will be going to conducted in major cities of Tamil Nadu by focusing various security threats like email, virus, phishing, fake advertisement, popup windows and other attacks in the internet. This survey examines the college students’ awareness and the level of awareness about the security issues and some suggestions are set forth to overcome these issues.

  12. A security approach based on honeypots: Protecting Online Social network from malicious profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatna Elmendili, Nisrine Maqran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the fast development and the exponential utilization of social networks have prompted an expansion of social Computing. In social networks users are interconnected by edges or links, where Facebook, twitter, LinkedIn are most popular social networks websites. Due to the growing popularity of these sites they serve as a target for cyber criminality and attacks. It is mostly based on how users are using these sites like Twitter and others. Attackers can easily access and gather personal and sensitive user’s information. Users are less aware and least concerned about the security setting. And they easily become victim of identity breach. To detect malicious users or fake profiles different techniques have been proposed like our approach which is based on the use of social honeypots to discover malicious profiles in it. Inspired by security researchers who used honeypots to observe and analyze malicious activity in the networks, this method uses social honeypots to trap malicious users. The two key elements of the approach are: (1 The deployment of social honeypots for harvesting information of malicious profiles. (2 Analysis of the characteristics of these malicious profiles and those of deployed honeypots for creating classifiers that allow to filter the existing profiles and monitor the new profiles.

  13. 75 FR 75432 - Protection of Collateral of Counterparties to Uncleared Swaps; Treatment of Securities in a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... and 190 RIN 3038-AD28 Protection of Collateral of Counterparties to Uncleared Swaps; Treatment of... participants (``MSPs'') with respect to the treatment of collateral posted by their counterparties to margin... futures account constitute ``customer property''; and owners of such account constitute ``customers...

  14. Foreign policy considerations in dealing with Afghanistan’s refugees: when security and protection collide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne van Selm

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The values of democracy, justice and freedom arestated goals of the foreign policies of Western states.These are the same values that the terrorist attacksof 11 September challenged. They are also the valuesthat should inform refugee protection policies.

  15. 78 FR 57485 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Sound and adjacent waters. Entry into this zone is prohibited unless otherwise exempted or excluded... INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this notice, call or email LTJG Johnny Zeng, Sector Puget Sound...

  16. Cybersecurity in European Union and In Mercosur: Big Data and Surveillance Versus Privacy and Data Protection On the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Bolson Dalla Favera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the surveillance practices, with the help of big data, especially after the revelations of Edward Snowden in 2013. It aims to analyze the acting of European Union in relation to the cybersecurity, besides to expose and discuss any existing strategies in Mercosur to face these problems, which will culminate with the analysis of the Internet Civil Mark in Brazil. It was found the need for the same block members act of transnational and cooperative manner, as recommended by the European Union Policies, betting on collaborative cybersecurity strategies, in favor of human and fundamental rights.

  17. ASurvey of causes of occupational accidents at working place under protection of Yazd Social Security Organization in 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Behjati

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsIn rapid development in industrialization, lack of attention to safetyprinciples causes a raise in work-related incidents. According to ILO, around one-third of workrelated deaths is due to. The aim of our study is to survey the causes of occupational incidents at working place under protection of Yazd Social Security Organization in 1384.MethodsThis is a descriptive study that was done to determine the incident frequency and factors affecting on it. The study included 776 incidents selected among all of the incidents occurred in 1384 inYazd. The data were collected from available information in social security organization.ResultsThe findings showed that the center of province, has had the most number of incidents (%41.2. Also, the mean age of people who had incident was 29.5. The most causes of incident were related to falling down (%20.8 fingers were injured more than other parts (%31.5. The highest consequence of the incidents was related to injuries (%34.ConclusionThe distribution of age among the subjects indicated the prevalence of incident in young workers more than others, which is in the same line with other researches. The cause of most incidents was falling.

  18. Security aspects and radiological protection analyzed in the Semi-industrial irradiation plant in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Valle O, C.

    1996-01-01

    The safety aspects and the radiological protection analyzed on regular and emergency operation of a multipurpose irradiation plant PIMU are shown. All its design requirements are described following a strict safety philosophy. The plant is classified into the generic category IV for storage in pool panoramic irradiators. This paper studies every aspect related to a safety operation of the gamma's facility, PIMU, being used as reference in order to obtain the corresponding licensing. Aspects related to the regular and safety operation of the whole plant are taken into account, so all the possible emergency cases and their respective answers will be known, analyzing cases and causes of accidents, as well as references to the program of radiological protection. Registers and documents are written in order to be used at the plant, all the lineament for the development of a good preventive and corrective maintenance are given, observing all the necessary adjustments. A list of the principal examinations of the technical condition of the plant is presented. (author). 2 refs

  19. 33 CFR 165.1321 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1983]. (3) Budd Inlet Security Zone: The Security Zone in Budd Inlet, West Bay, Olympia WA includes all... shoreline to the point of origin. [Datum: NAD 1983]. (d) Obtaining permission to enter, move within, or exit... enter, move within, or exit the security zones established in this section when these security zones are...

  20. E-LEARNING THROUGH INTERNET: RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION IN HEALTH SCIENCES TELE-ENSEÑANZA A TRAVÉS DE INTERNET: LA PROTECCIÓN RADIOLÓGICA EN CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alcaraz Baños

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The creation of an interdepartmental project subsidised by the Spanish Ministry of Education has made it possible to create teaching material for Radiological Protection, and led to the publication of several specific manuals and practical notebook. This material constitutes the working basis for the first continuous e-learning training course in Spanish via Internet on this subject (8 editions during the years 2000-2009. The use of appropriate teaching materials during the training cycles determines the level of knowledge that can be reached. Interactive multimedia teaching and e-learning increase interest in subjects that were previously regarded their as boring and difficult health science students’. When the students have finished their university studies, e-learning systems can provide continued professional training that achieves the basic goals of Radiological Protection, allowing professionals to acquaint themselves with this type of content, which they would usually fond difficult to do themselves.La obtención de un proyecto interdepartamental subvencionado por el Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia español ha permitido crear materiales didácticos específicos de Protección Radiológica que se han publicado en varios manuales y cuadernos de actividades prácticas. Estas publicaciones han constituido la base del primer curso continuado sobre Protección Radiológica realizado a través de Internet en España (8 ediciones, durante los años 2000-2009. Durante el pregrado y el grado, la utilización de material didáctico digital apropiado determina el nivel de conocimientos que puede alcanzarse. La enseñanza multimedia y la tele-educación incrementan el interés de los alumnos en los temas más complicados y difíciles en Ciencias de la Salud. Posteriormente, cuando se abandona la Universidad y comienza la actividad profesional, la tele-enseñanza permite la formación continuada en las actualizaciones básicas sobre Protecci

  1. Communication with the public in radiation protection or nuclear safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, J.; Sestak, B.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, the public perceives any peaceful application of atomic and nuclear physics as something very dangerous. It is not easy to eliminate the public's memories of nuclear bombings in Japan towards the end of World War II and subsequent nuclear weapons tests which resulted in spreading radioactive fallout across the globe. The current use of radiation and nuclear technologies in industry, medicine, science and other fields is known to meet very strict international safety standards ensuring the adequate protection of people's health and the minimization of threat to the environment. The paper summarizes the current problems in communicating radiation and nuclear safety to members of the public and focuses on the importance of using appropriate approaches as well as relevant terminology, including quantities and units for the realistic assessment of radiological exposure. (authors)

  2. Danish Rules on Securities and other protective rights in the chartparty trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    of ships’ finance under Danish Law relevant to the charterparty trade. The factual starting point for the paper is that a vessel is working in or intended to work in the charterparty trade, most particularly under long term time charterparties or Contracts of Affreightment. In such a situation, we find...... of their losses. The Charterers may wish to continue the use of the vessel, which may be inconsistent with a (forced) sale. Alternatively, the Charterers may wish to be freed of their obligations under the charterparty if the Owner enters into receivership or other types of insolvency proceedings. They may....... The paper will discuss the problem with the starting point in Danish law on the subject, and investigate whether Danish law is apt to protect the conflicting interests of the three parties. However, the paper will make comparisons to other laws, mainly English law and Norwegian law. Also, the paper...

  3. The Internet of Hackable Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragoni, Nicola; Giaretta, Alberto; Mazzara, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things makes possible to connect each everyday object to the Internet, making computing pervasive like never before. From a security and privacy perspective, this tsunami of connectivity represents a disaster, which makes each object remotely hackable. We claim that, in order...

  4. Privacy and Security Research Group workshop on network and distributed system security: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: NREN Security Issues: Policies and Technologies; Layer Wars: Protect the Internet with Network Layer Security; Electronic Commission Management; Workflow 2000 - Electronic Document Authorization in Practice; Security Issues of a UNIX PEM Implementation; Implementing Privacy Enhanced Mail on VMS; Distributed Public Key Certificate Management; Protecting the Integrity of Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail; Practical Authorization in Large Heterogeneous Distributed Systems; Security Issues in the Truffles File System; Issues surrounding the use of Cryptographic Algorithms and Smart Card Applications; Smart Card Augmentation of Kerberos; and An Overview of the Advanced Smart Card Access Control System. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Practical Computer Security through Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, David; Twetev, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The core protocols upon which the Internet was built are insecure. Weak authentication and the lack of low level encryption services introduce vulnerabilities that propagate upwards in the network stack. Using statistics based on CERT/CC Internet security incident reports, the relative likelihood of attacks via these vulnerabilities is analyzed. The primary conclusion is that the standard UNIX BSD-based authentication system is by far the most commonly exploited weakness. Encryption of Sensitive password data and the adoption of cryptographically-based authentication protocols can greatly reduce these vulnerabilities. Basic cryptographic terminology and techniques are presented, with attention focused on the ways in which technology such as encryption and digital signatures can be used to protect against the most commonly exploited vulnerabilities. A survey of contemporary security software demonstrates that tools based on cryptographic techniques, such as Kerberos, ssh, and PGP, are readily available and effectively close many of the most serious security holes. Nine practical recommendations for improving security are described.

  6. Cyber security risk management: public policy implications of correlated risk, imperfect ability to prove loss, and observability of self-protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğüt, Hulisi; Raghunathan, Srinivasan; Menon, Nirup

    2011-03-01

    The correlated nature of security breach risks, the imperfect ability to prove loss from a breach to an insurer, and the inability of insurers and external agents to observe firms' self-protection efforts have posed significant challenges to cyber security risk management. Our analysis finds that a firm invests less than the social optimal levels in self-protection and in insurance when risks are correlated and the ability to prove loss is imperfect. We find that the appropriate social intervention policy to induce a firm to invest at socially optimal levels depends on whether insurers can verify a firm's self-protection levels. If self-protection of a firm is observable to an insurer so that it can design a contract that is contingent on the self-protection level, then self-protection and insurance behave as complements. In this case, a social planner can induce a firm to choose the socially optimal self-protection and insurance levels by offering a subsidy on self-protection. We also find that providing a subsidy on insurance does not provide a similar inducement to a firm. If self-protection of a firm is not observable to an insurer, then self-protection and insurance behave as substitutes. In this case, a social planner should tax the insurance premium to achieve socially optimal results. The results of our analysis hold regardless of whether the insurance market is perfectly competitive or not, implying that solely reforming the currently imperfect insurance market is insufficient to achieve the efficient outcome in cyber security risk management. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Internet enlightens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, S.

    2011-01-01

    This section gathers a selection of Internet links to online articles dealing with radiation protection issues. Below are the titles of the papers with their web site source: 1 - A mission of the European Commission verifies the proper enforcement by France of the EURATOM treaty dispositions relative to the control of radioactivity in the vicinity of uranium mines (http://www.asn.fr); 2 - tritium contamination at Saint-Maur-des-Fosses: new results from measurements performed by IRSN in the environment; 3 - status of radioactivity monitoring in French Polynesia in 2009 (http://www.irsn.fr); 4 - study of mortality and cancers impact near the Aube facility for low- and medium-activity waste storage (http://www.invs.sante.fr); 5 - Marcel Jurien de la Graviere appointed president of the guidance committee of the defense nuclear expertise of the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN) (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr); 6 - radiation protection 163: 'Childhood Leukaemia - Mechanisms and Causes'; 7- Radiation Protection 164: Radioactive effluents from nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing sites in the European Union, 2004-08; 8 - Radiation Protection 165: Medical Effectiveness of Iodine Prophylaxis in a Nuclear Reactor Emergency Situation and Overview of European Practices Protection (http://ec.europa.eu); 9 - Report RIFE 15: Radioactivity in Food and the Environment - RIFE (SEPA - Scottish Environment Protection Agency, http://www.sepa.org.uk); 10 - HPA response statement: Advisory Group on Ionising Radiation's report on circulatory disease risk (HPA - Health Protection Agency, http://www.hpa.org.uk); 11 - launching of the national database for the voluntary registering of (quasi) incidents (AFCN - Federal agency of nuclear control, http://www.fanc.fgov.be); 12 - Radiation dose optimization in nuclear medicine (IAEA RPOP - Radiation Protection Of Patients, http://rpop.iaea.org); 13 - The government of Canada finances projects aiming at

  8. Efficient Data Transfer Rate and Speed of Secured Ethernet Interface System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanti, Shaila

    2016-01-01

    Embedded systems are extensively used in home automation systems, small office systems, vehicle communication systems, and health service systems. The services provided by these systems are available on the Internet and these services need to be protected. Security features like IP filtering, UDP protection, or TCP protection need to be implemented depending on the specific application used by the device. Every device on the Internet must have network interface. This paper proposes the design of the embedded Secured Ethernet Interface System to protect the service available on the Internet against the SYN flood attack. In this experimental study, Secured Ethernet Interface System is customized to protect the web service against the SYN flood attack. Secured Ethernet Interface System is implemented on ALTERA Stratix IV FPGA as a system on chip and uses the modified SYN flood attack protection method. The experimental results using Secured Ethernet Interface System indicate increase in number of genuine clients getting service from the server, considerable improvement in the data transfer rate, and better response time during the SYN flood attack. PMID:28116350

  9. Efficient Data Transfer Rate and Speed of Secured Ethernet Interface System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanti, Shaila; Naik, G M

    2016-01-01

    Embedded systems are extensively used in home automation systems, small office systems, vehicle communication systems, and health service systems. The services provided by these systems are available on the Internet and these services need to be protected. Security features like IP filtering, UDP protection, or TCP protection need to be implemented depending on the specific application used by the device. Every device on the Internet must have network interface. This paper proposes the design of the embedded Secured Ethernet Interface System to protect the service available on the Internet against the SYN flood attack. In this experimental study, Secured Ethernet Interface System is customized to protect the web service against the SYN flood attack. Secured Ethernet Interface System is implemented on ALTERA Stratix IV FPGA as a system on chip and uses the modified SYN flood attack protection method. The experimental results using Secured Ethernet Interface System indicate increase in number of genuine clients getting service from the server, considerable improvement in the data transfer rate, and better response time during the SYN flood attack.

  10. Security Risks in IP Telephony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Rezac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with VoIP communication security and various techniques of VoIP attacks. We divided these threats in several categories according to their specific behaviour and their impact on the affected system. We also tried to find effective methods to prevent or mitigate these attacks. We focused our work on Spam over Internet Telephony (SPIT as a real threat for the future. We have developed both a tool generating SPIT attacks and AntiSPIT tool defending communication systems against SPIT attacks. AntiSPIT represents an effective protection based on statistical blacklist and works without participation of the called party which is a significant advantage.

  11. Impacts of the Events on the 11. of September 2001 in the United States on Radiation Protection, the Nuclear Waste Management and the Nuclear Security in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbach, H.; Steinmetz, H.J.; Odoj, R.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the effects of the terrorist attacks of the 11 September 2001, when four airliners hijacked and crashed. These attacks take effects on radiation protection, nuclear disposal and nuclear safety in Germany. Some of the measures, which where taken after the September 11, 2001 in order to improve the safety of nuclear installations are presented in the following. The taken measures increasing security against terrorist attacks are also exemplarily described in this report. The examples include the introduction of new identity papers, which offer a higher security level as well as the prohibition of carrying liquids with more than 100 ml in the hand luggage. Also the human security measures taken by different companies since the attack happened are subject of the contribution. Due to the necessary confidentiality regarding the threat scenarios and the taken protective measures detailed descriptions of the measures in this report are limited. (authors)

  12. Internet Ethics Issues and Actions in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    江澤, 義典

    2013-01-01

    The International Symposium on Internet Ethics 2012 was planned and organized by the Korea Internet Security Agency and was held in September 2012 at the Lotte Hotel World in Seoul. This note relates to the presentation in Japan, it outlines current Internet ethics issues and actions in Japan. Moreover, four aspects of Japanese civilization were introduced as the bases of these ethics issues.

  13. Older Adults' Knowledge of Internet Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Galen A.; Hough, Michelle G.; Mazur, Elizabeth; Signorella, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    Older adults are less likely to be using computers and less knowledgeable about Internet security than are younger users. The two groups do not differ on trust of Internet information. The younger group shows no age or gender differences. Within the older group, computer users are more trusting of Internet information, and along with those with…

  14. ABOUT THE SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE PROTECTION OF THE TECHNICAL SECURITY SYSTEMS AGAINST INFORMATION LEAKAGE DUE TO THE ACOUSTO-ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Durakovskiy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available None of the critically important facilities can operate without the engineered safety system. Functionally varied security networks or a fire alarm system can refer to this system as well as safety and reliability which are provided by secured energy, water and heating supply. In the process of attestation according to the requirements of information security of information objects with such technical means, it is necessary to conduct special investigations of protection against leakage of acoustic speech information through the channels of the acousto-electrical transformations (AET. There are major aspects in the data leak via AET, which currently include the following: lack of and /or obtaining legal and safety norms to regulate specified parameters; lack of the automated hardware and software system for some AET variations to carry out measurements; lack of specified safety equipment for some AET variations; lack of shelter security units; high costs of AET measurement and control units; and low measurement repeatability.

  15. Supply Chain Security: U.S. Customs and Border Protection has Enhanced its Partnership with Import Trade Sectors by Challenges Remain in Verifying Security Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, Stephen L; Fossett, Christine A; Conrad, Christopher; Berbsteub, Amy; Berry, Fredrick; Camarillo, Yecenia; Cook, Frances; David, Katherine; Dye, Wendy; Gibson, Nkenge

    2008-01-01

    .... For example, between March 2005 and November 2007, CBP established requirements for C-TPAT members in nine trade sectors to meet minimum security criteria for their specific trade sector, including...

  16. Legislative Proposals To Protect Children from Inappropriate Materials on the Internet. Hearing on H.R. 3783, H.R. 774, H.R. 1180, H.R. 1964, H.R. 3177, and H.R. 3442 before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Trade, and Consumer Protection of the Committee on Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Commerce.

    This hearing addresses legislative proposals to protect children from inappropriate materials on the Internet. Among the issues discussed are federal investments and information access, defining standards for protection, child pornography and marketing to children, filtering technology and adult verification services, and freedom of speech.…

  17. 33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Portland, OR Captain of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security and Safety Zone... Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1318 Security and Safety Zone Regulations... suspension of enforcement. The large passenger vessel security and safety zone established by this section...

  18. Securing PCs and Data in Libraries and Schools: A Handbook with Menuing, Anti-Virus, and Other Protective Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Allen C.

    This handbook is designed to help readers identify and eliminate security risks, with sound recommendations and library-tested security software. Chapter 1 "Managing Your Facilities and Assessing Your Risks" addresses fundamental management responsibilities including planning for a secure system, organizing computer-related information, assessing…

  19. DATA SECURITY ISSUES IN CLOUD COMPUTING: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam Alddin Shihab Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an internet based model that empower on demand ease of access and pay for the usage of each access to shared pool of networks. It is yet another innovation that fulfills a client's necessity for computing resources like systems, stockpiling, servers, administrations and applications. Securing the Data is considered one of the principle significant challenges and concerns for cloud computing. This persistent problem is getting more affective due to the changes in improving cloud computing technology. From the perspective of the Clients, cloud computing is a security hazard especially when it comes to assurance affirmation issues and data security, remain the most basically which backs off for appropriation of Cloud Computing administrations. This paper audits and breaks down the essential issue of cloud computing and depicts the information security and protection of privacy issues in cloud.

  20. APPROACH TO CYBER SECURITY ISSUES IN NIGERIA: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ibikunle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-space refers to the boundless space known as the internet. Cyber-security is the body of rules put in place for the protection of the cyber space. Cyber-crime refers to the series of organized crime attacking both cyber space and cyber security. The Internet is one of the fastest-growing areas of technical infrastructure development. Over the past decades, the growth of the internet and its use afforded everyone this opportunity. Google, Wikipedia and Bing to mention a few, give detailed answers to millions of questions every day. Cyberspace is a world that contains just about anything one is searching for. With the advent of these advancements in information accessibility and the advantages and applications of the internet comes an exponentially growing disadvantage- Cyber Crime. Cyber security has risen to become a national concern as threats concerning it now need to be taken more seriously. This paper attempts to provide an overview of Cybercrime and Cyber-security. It defines the concept of cybercrime, identify reasons for cyber-crime and its eradication. It look at those involved and the reasons for their involvement. Methods of stepping up cyber security and the recommendations that would help in checking the increasing rate of cyber-crimes were highlighted. The paper also attempts to name some challenges of cybercrime and present practical and logical solutions to these threats.

  1. Internet Roadside Cafe #6. [Videotape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Library Association Video/Library Video Network, Towson, MD.

    This 30-minute videotape takes an in-depth look at World Wide Web business transactions, potential risks, client privacy and security issues by asking businesses and consumers how they do business on the Internet. Also featured in the program is advice about choosing a secure password, the use of credit cards for Web purchasing and a review of…

  2. A Privacy Protection User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Tailored for the Internet of Things Environment: PriAuth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwen Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a wearable sensor-based deployment, sensors are placed over the patient to monitor their body health parameters. Continuous physiological information monitored by wearable sensors helps doctors have a better diagnostic and a suitable treatment. When doctors want to access the patient’s sensor data remotely via network, the patient will authenticate the identity of the doctor first, and then they will negotiate a key for further communication. Many lightweight schemes have been proposed to enable a mutual authentication and key establishment between the two parties with the help of a gateway node, but most of these schemes cannot enable identity confidentiality. Besides, the shared key is also known by the gateway, which means the patient’s sensor data could be leaked to the gateway. In PriAuth, identities are encrypted to guarantee confidentiality. Additionally, Elliptic Curve Diffie–Hellman (ECDH key exchange protocol has been adopted to ensure the secrecy of the key, avoiding the gateway access to it. Besides, only hash and XOR computations are adopted because of the computability and power constraints of the wearable sensors. The proposed scheme has been validated by BAN logic and AVISPA, and the results show the scheme has been proven as secure.

  3. PENGGUNAAN TEKNOLOGI INTERNET DALAM BISNIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oviliani Yuliana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The uses of internet in business are for information exchange, product catalog, promotion media, electronic mail, bulletin boards, electronic questioner, and mailing list. Internet can also be used for dialog, discussion, and consultation with customer online, therefore consumer can be proactively and interactively involved in designing, developing, marketing, and selling products. There are 2 methods for marketing products via internet, which are push and pull marketing. The advantages of internet in business strategy are global and interactive communication, information supply; consumer based service; increased cooperation; possibility to open new marketplace, product or services; and integrated the activity on-line. There are 2 applications in electronic commerce, which are business-to-business and business-to-consumer commerce. Electronic commerce payment transaction is arranged by Electronic Funds Transfer system, whereas the data security is governed by Secure Socket Layer, which then be developed to Secure Electronic Transaction. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Internet dalam bisnis digunakan untuk pertukaran informasi, katalog produk, media promosi, surat elektronik, bulletin boards, kuesioner elektronik, dan mailing list. Internet juga bisa digunakan untuk berdialog, berdiskusi, dan konsultasi dengan konsumen secara on-line, sehingga konsumen dapat dilibatkan secara proaktif dan interaktif dalam perancangan, pengembangan, pemasaran, dan penjualan produk. Pemasaran lewat internet ada 2 metode, yaitu push dan pull marketing. Keunggulan strategi bisnis yang dapat diperoleh dari internet adalah komunikasi global dan interaktif; menyediakan informasi dan pelayanan sesuai dengan kebutuhan konsumen; meningkatkan kerja sama; memungkinkan untuk membuka pasar, produk, atau pelayanan baru; serta mengintegrasikan aktivitas secara on-line. Aplikasi Electronic Commerce ada 2, yaitu: Business-to-Consumer dan Business-to-Business Commerce. Pembayaran

  4. On technical security issues in cloud computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko; Schwenk, Jörg; Gruschka, Nils

    2009-01-01

    The Cloud Computing concept offers dynamically scalable resources provisioned as a service over the Internet. Economic benefits are the main driver for the Cloud, since it promises the reduction of capital expenditure (CapEx) and operational expenditure (OpEx). In order for this to become reality......, however, there are still some challenges to be solved. Amongst these are security and trust issues, since the user's data has to be released to the Cloud and thus leaves the protection sphere of the data owner. Most of the discussions on this topics are mainly driven by arguments related to organisational...... means. This paper focusses on technical security issues arising from the usage of Cloud services and especially by the underlying technologies used to build these cross-domain Internet-connected collaborations....

  5. Combining security risk assessment and security testing

    OpenAIRE

    Großmann, Jürgen; Seehusen, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Complex networked systems have become an integral part of our supply infrastructure. Mobile devices, home automation, smart grids and even vehicles are connected via the Internet and becoming accessible and thus vulnerable to hacker attacks. While the number of security incidents drastically increases, we are more than ever dependent on a secure and mature ICT infrastructure. One of the keys to maintain such a secure and dependable infrastructure are mature, systematic and capable proactive m...

  6. Internet factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes a novel concept for introducing new network technologies in network infrastructures. The concept, called Internet factories, describes the methodical process to create and manage application-specific networks from application programs, referred to as Netapps. An Internet

  7. Internet Factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes a novel concept for introducing new network technologies in network infrastructures. The concept, called Internet factories, describes the methodical process to create and manage application-specific networks from application programs, referred to as Netapps. An Internet

  8. Internet Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1998-01-01

    Article descibing and analysing the influence of the commercialisation of Internet on end-user and interconnect pricing.......Article descibing and analysing the influence of the commercialisation of Internet on end-user and interconnect pricing....

  9. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  10. Security in cyberspace targeting nations, infrastructures, individuals

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomello, Giampiero

    2014-01-01

    Today, the Internet has become a source of information that no country or company can forgo. It is not only used to communicate or entertain, but most importantly to operate utilities and public services such as banking or air traffic. As the reliance on computer networks across societies and economies keeps growing, so do security risks in cyberspace - referred to as ""cybersecurity."" Cybersecurity means protecting information and control systems from those who seek to compromise them. It also involves actors, both malicious or protective, policies and their societal consequences. This colle

  11. Internet marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zelený, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In the bachelor thesis are introduced theoretical concepts of the Internet and marketing, accented the need of marketing mix along with its specifics of the internet environment. Next is interpreted which tools can be used for marketing of firms and which marketing instruments are to be deployed. Final chapter illustrates socio-demographics of Czech internet users along with media market allocation from the perspective of all media as well as in the segment of the Internet.

  12. The Internet of things connecting objects

    CERN Document Server

    Chaouchi, Hakima

    2013-01-01

    Internet of Things: Connecting Objects… puts forward the technologies and the networking architectures which make it possible to support the Internet of Things. Amongst these technologies, RFID, sensor and PLC technologies are described and a clear view on how they enable the Internet of Things is given. This book also provides a good overview of the main issues facing the Internet of Things such as the issues of privacy and security, application and usage, and standardization.

  13. Internet Governance: exploring the development link

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Howard

    2005-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the issues of Internet governance from a development perspective. The WSIS process and the report of the UN Working group on Internet Governance provide an initial framework within which to develop the issues. These issues not only concern the equitable distribution of Internet resources and the ways in which a secure and reliable function of the Internet can be achieved, but also include issues of multi-lingualism and local content as well as the institutional ...

  14. Wireless Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Zarki, M.; Heijenk, Geert; Lee, Kenneth S.; Bidgoli, H.

    This chapter addresses the topic of wireless Internet, the extension of the wireline Internet architecture to the wireless domain. As such the chapter introduces the reader to the dominant characteristics of the Internet, from its structure to the protocols that control the forwarding of data and

  15. Internet accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pras, Aiko; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Sprenkels, Ron; Parhonyi, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Internet accounting and discusses the status of related work within the IETF and IRTF, as well as certain research projects. Internet accounting is different from accounting in POTS. To understand Internet accounting, it is important to answer questions like

  16. Advanced Internet Protocols, Services, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Oki, Eiji; Tatipamula, Mallikarjun; Vogt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Today, the internet and computer networking are essential parts of business, learning, and personal communications and entertainment. Virtually all messages or transactions sent over the internet are carried using internet infrastructure- based on advanced internet protocols. Advanced internet protocols ensure that both public and private networks operate with maximum performance, security, and flexibility. This book is intended to provide a comprehensive technical overview and survey of advanced internet protocols, first providing a solid introduction and going on to discu

  17. Securing Emergency State Data in a Tactical Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Exchange IP Internet Protocol IPComp IP Payload Compression Protocol IPSec Internet Protocol Security ISP Internet Service Provider LDAP ...Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Lightweight Directory Access Protocol ( LDAP ) [19]. The reason being these protocols embed the peer IP addresses within the

  18. Service Oriented Architecture Security Risks and their Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Standard HSM Hardware Security Module HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol IP Internet Protocol IPSec Internet Protocol Security LDAP Lightweight...native integration with business directory and identity systems such as Lightweight Directory Access Protocol ( LDAP ), Kerberos, Microsoft Active

  19. Nation State as Security Provider in Human Security Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Padmi, Made Fitri

    2015-01-01

    Human Security notion is emphasizing on human as the central of security studies, challenging the position of state as the core of security. Some studies are tried to separate the state security and human security, however there are strong connection between these two notions. State has important role in establishing and maintaining the security of its own citizens. Through social contract and social security protection, state are oblige to set the security of its own people as their security...

  20. A New Look at Security Education: YouTube as YouTool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Laurie A.; Frank, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching a computer security course which includes network administration and protection software is especially challenging because textbook tools are out of date by the time the text is published. In an effort to use lab activities that work effectively, we turned to the internet. This paper describes several resources for teaching computer…

  1. Security Properties of a Class of True Random Number Generators in Programmable Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, Knut

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, digital equipment such as computers with Internet and cellular phones arecommonly used for communication. The users want secure communications, meaning thatconfidentiality, integrity and authenticity are maintained throughout the session. Confidentialitymeans that only the intended recipient has access to the transmitted information,integrity ensures that the information is protected against modifications, and finally, authenticityguarantees the identities of the communicating parti...

  2. A Department of Homeland Security Reserves (DHS-R): Simultaneously Protecting the Homeland While Alleviating the Increased DoD Role in Homeland Defense and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schulz, David V

    2007-01-01

    .... The Department of Homeland Security does not directly address a conceited volunteer effort; instead it provides limited support for volunteer initiatives like Citizen Corps, which can be improved by a more concerted nation-wide effort like a DHS-Reserve...

  3. Identity Establishment and Capability Based Access Control (IECAC) Scheme for Internet of Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahalle, Parikshit N.; Anggorojati, Bayu; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) become discretionary part of everyday life and could befall a threat if security is not considered before deployment. Authentication and access control in IoT is equally important to establish secure communication between devices. To protect IoT from man in middle, replay...... and denial of service attacks, the concept of capability for access control is introduced. This paper presents Identity establishment and capability based access control (IECAC) protocol using ECC (Elliptical Curve Cryptography) for IoT along with protocol evaluation, which protect against the aforementioned...

  4. ASPECTS OF POLICIES AND STRATEGIES FOR CYBER SECURITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilina ARMENCHEVA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Freedom and prosperity of mankind greatly depend on an innovative, safe and reliable Internet that, of course, will keep evolving. Cyber space must be protected from incidents, misuse and abuse. Handling the increasing number of threats to cyber security is a challenge that national security and the trend in the international environment face. This makes taking fast and adequate measures at national, European and international level a must. Changing national security strategies and adopting new cyber security strategies are a part of these measures.

  5. DeviceGuard: External Device-Assisted System And Data Security

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Yipan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis addresses the threat that personal computer faced from malware when the personal computer is connected to the Internet. Traditional host-based security approaches, such as anti-virus scanning protect the host from virus, worms, Trojans and other malwares. One of the issues of the host-based security approaches is that when the operating system is compromised by the malware, the antivirus software also becomes vulnerable. In this thesis, we present a novel approach through usin...

  6. An Interagency Command for Homeland Protection: Taking the Next Steps to Integrate Defense and Security at the Operational Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sene, Darren E

    2005-01-01

    .... After four years, these new organizations are still wrestling with fundamental questions that require definitive answers in order to shape an effective homeland security and homeland defense solution...

  7. Biometric Security for Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones are already prime targets for theft. The increasing functionality of cell phones is making them even more attractive. With the increase of cell phone functionality including personal digital assistance, banking, e-commerce, remote work, internet access and entertainment, more and more confidential data is stored on these devices. What is protecting this confidential data stored on cell phones? Studies have shown that even though most of the cell phone users are aware of the PIN security feature more than 50% of them are not using it either because of the lack of confidence in it or because of the inconvenience. A large majority of those users believes that an alternative approach to security would be a good idea.

  8. A case study of the Secure Anonymous Information Linkage (SAIL) Gateway: a privacy-protecting remote access system for health-related research and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kerina H; Ford, David V; Jones, Chris; Dsilva, Rohan; Thompson, Simon; Brooks, Caroline J; Heaven, Martin L; Thayer, Daniel S; McNerney, Cynthia L; Lyons, Ronan A

    2014-08-01

    With the current expansion of data linkage research, the challenge is to find the balance between preserving the privacy of person-level data whilst making these data accessible for use to their full potential. We describe a privacy-protecting safe haven and secure remote access system, referred to as the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) Gateway. The Gateway provides data users with a familiar Windows interface and their usual toolsets to access approved anonymously-linked datasets for research and evaluation. We outline the principles and operating model of the Gateway, the features provided to users within the secure environment, and how we are approaching the challenges of making data safely accessible to increasing numbers of research users. The Gateway represents a powerful analytical environment and has been designed to be scalable and adaptable to meet the needs of the rapidly growing data linkage community. Copyright © 2014 The Aurthors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A case study of the Secure Anonymous Information Linkage (SAIL) Gateway: A privacy-protecting remote access system for health-related research and evaluation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kerina H.; Ford, David V.; Jones, Chris; Dsilva, Rohan; Thompson, Simon; Brooks, Caroline J.; Heaven, Martin L.; Thayer, Daniel S.; McNerney, Cynthia L.; Lyons, Ronan A.

    2014-01-01

    With the current expansion of data linkage research, the challenge is to find the balance between preserving the privacy of person-level data whilst making these data accessible for use to their full potential. We describe a privacy-protecting safe haven and secure remote access system, referred to as the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) Gateway. The Gateway provides data users with a familiar Windows interface and their usual toolsets to access approved anonymously-linked datasets for research and evaluation. We outline the principles and operating model of the Gateway, the features provided to users within the secure environment, and how we are approaching the challenges of making data safely accessible to increasing numbers of research users. The Gateway represents a powerful analytical environment and has been designed to be scalable and adaptable to meet the needs of the rapidly growing data linkage community. PMID:24440148

  10. Security Frameworks for Machine-to-Machine Devices and Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demblewski, Michael

    Attacks against mobile systems have escalated over the past decade. There have been increases of fraud, platform attacks, and malware. The Internet of Things (IoT) offers a new attack vector for Cybercriminals. M2M contributes to the growing number of devices that use wireless systems for Internet connection. As new applications and platforms are created, old vulnerabilities are transferred to next-generation systems. There is a research gap that exists between the current approaches for security framework development and the understanding of how these new technologies are different and how they are similar. This gap exists because system designers, security architects, and users are not fully aware of security risks and how next-generation devices can jeopardize safety and personal privacy. Current techniques, for developing security requirements, do not adequately consider the use of new technologies, and this weakens countermeasure implementations. These techniques rely on security frameworks for requirements development. These frameworks lack a method for identifying next generation security concerns and processes for comparing, contrasting and evaluating non-human device security protections. This research presents a solution for this problem by offering a novel security framework that is focused on the study of the "functions and capabilities" of M2M devices and improves the systems development life cycle for the overall IoT ecosystem.

  11. The role of NATO in the demilitarization of Kosovo Liberation Army and in establishment of Kosovo Protection Corps and Kosovo Security Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Bejtush Gashi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo Liberation Army was demilitarized and demobilized pursuant to Rambouillet accord articles and 1244 Resolution, under the control of military component of the international administration in Kosovo – Kosovo Forces (NATO. Establishment of Kosovo Protection Corps (KPC followed this process, with the civil emergency organizational mission, which operated until the adoption of constitution of Republic of Kosovo, promulgated on June 15, 2008. The constitution foresaw KPC disbandment and creation of a new security formation in Kosovo – Kosovo Security Forces (KSF. The decree of USA president, Xhorxh W. Bush, dated 19.03.2008 indicates the political importance of KSF creation in promotion of Kosovo’s independence. The Security Sector reform will keep its special focus in periodical review programming of KSF positional development in adaptation to new situation in security environment, reflecting concrete examples through new events, missions, tasks and roles for KSF units, always compliant with the concrete needs of the country and with the Euro-Atlantic collective protection structure standards.

  12. An implementation of a security infrastructure compliant with the Italian Personal Data Protection Code in a web-based cooperative work system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccher, Claudio; Eccher, Lorenzo; Izzo, Umberto

    2005-01-01

    In this poster we describe the security solutions implemented in a web-based cooperative work frame-work for managing heart failure patients among different health care professionals involved in the care process. The solution, developed in close collaboration with the Law Department of the University of Trento, is compliant with the new Italian Personal Data Protection Code, issued in 2003, that regulates also the storing and processing of health data.

  13. Employment and Efficiency Effects of Social Security (SS) and Social Protection (SP) Systems in the Context of an Informal Sector and Market Imperfections: A Conceptual Review

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Most developing countries suffer serious “imperfections “in their labour, capital and product markets; a high level of informality (lack of connection with the state, e.g. non-registration, non-compliance with tax and labour regulations, etc.); and attempts to improve the welfare of specified groups through social security (SS) systems in the formal sector and (increasingly in recent years) through social protection systems (SP) designed to achieve greater overall coverage, e.g. to reach info...

  14. Correlates of Food Security among Low-Resource Young People: An Assessment of Community Protective Factors within Public Housing Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbitt, Von E; Lombe, Margaret; Chu, Yoosun; Sinha, Aakanksha; Tirmazi, Tagi

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses how and/or whether household and community factors are associated with self-reported food security among young people living in public housing (N=151). Results suggest that food security was negatively related to age, particularly to older youth. Also, household size-have many people in the household, household hardships, and household conflict were negatively related to food security. On the contrary, food security was positively related to community cohesion and the presence of the extended family within the public housing neighborhood. Findings seem to suggest that non-specialty food previsions (e.g., community cohesion and family networks) may be important in understanding food security among families living in public housing. A number of program and policy implications are presented.

  15. Security guide for subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This security guide of the Department of Energy covers contractor and subcontractor access to DOE and Mound facilities. The topics of the security guide include responsibilities, physical barriers, personnel identification system, personnel and vehicular access controls, classified document control, protecting classified matter in use, storing classified matter repository combinations, violations, security education clearance terminations, security infractions, classified information nondisclosure agreement, personnel security clearances, visitor control, travel to communist-controlled or sensitive countries, shipment security, and surreptitious listening devices.

  16. Targeted exome sequencing for the identification of a protective variant against Internet gaming disorder at rs2229910 of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor, type 3 (NTRK3): A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Yu; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Rhee, Je-Keun; Cho, Hyun; Chun, Ji-Won; Kim, Tae-Min; Choi, Sam-Wook; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has gained recognition as a potential new diagnosis in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, but genetic evidence supporting this disorder remains scarce. Methods In this study, targeted exome sequencing was conducted in 30 IGD patients and 30 control subjects with a focus on genes linked to various neurotransmitters associated with substance and non-substance addictions, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results rs2229910 of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor, type 3 (NTRK3) was the only single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that exhibited a significantly different minor allele frequency in IGD subjects compared to controls (p = .01932), suggesting that this SNP has a protective effect against IGD (odds ratio = 0.1541). The presence of this potentially protective allele was also associated with less time spent on Internet gaming and lower scores on the Young's Internet Addiction Test and Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Adults. Conclusions The results of this first targeted exome sequencing study of IGD subjects indicate that rs2229910 of NTRK3 is a genetic variant that is significantly related to IGD. These findings may have significant implications for future research investigating the genetics of IGD and other behavioral addictions.

  17. An Efficient Electronic English Auction System with a Secure On-Shelf Mechanism and Privacy Preserving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the Internet, electronic commerce has become more and more popular. As an important element of e-commerce, many Internet companies such as Yahoo! and eBay have launched electronic auction systems. However, like most electronic commerce products, safety is an important issue that should be addressed. Many researchers have proposed secure electronic auction mechanisms, but we found that some of them do not exhibit the property of unlinkability, which leads to the leakage of users’ privacy. Considering the importance of privacy preservation, we have designed a new auction mechanism. Through symmetrical key establishment in the registration phase, all messages transmitted over the Internet would be protected and, meanwhile, achieve the property of unlinkability. The security analysis and performance analysis show that our protocol fulfills more security properties and is more efficient for implementation compared with recent works.

  18. Protecting Health and Saving Lives: The Part-Time/Internet-Based Master of Public Health Program at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Linda; Gresh, Kathy; Vanchiswaran, Rohini; Werapitiya, Deepthi

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the part-time/Internet-based Master of Public Health (MPH) program at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH). The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health was the first school of public health in the United States to offer a Master of Public Health program via the Internet. The JHSPH MPH Program…

  19. An Analysis Of Wireless Security

    OpenAIRE

    Salendra Prasad

    2017-01-01

    The WLAN security includes Wired Equivalent Primary WEP and WI-FI protected Access WPA. Today WEP is regarded as very poor security standard. WEP was regarded as very old security standard and has many security issues which users need to be addressed. In this Paper we will discuss Wireless Security and ways to improve on wireless security.

  20. Big data-based data mining modeling for nuclear security analysis in the modified physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the social networking-related strategies have been developed to prepare against the terror. The conventional PPS is composed of detection, delay, and response. In the systems, each stage has particular characteristics where the detection state is to find out the intrusion and unauthorized behavior by some devices, the delay stage is to slow the malicious acts by some barriers, and finally the response stage is to interrupt the actions by several kinds of methods like the arms response. It is said there are some data mining activities by the department of homeland security in the United States. The Automated Targeting System (ATS) compares several factors like traveler, cargo, and conveyance information against intelligence and other enforcement data, which is managed by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and includes modules for inbound (ATS-N) and outbound (ATS-AT) cargo, land border crossings (ATS-L), and passengers (ATS-P). The Data Analysis and Research for Trade Transparency System (DARTTS) analyzes possible data like the trade and financial stuff, which is administered by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE).The modeling has accomplished successfully the random number generation-based quantifications for nuclear security incorporated with several complex algorithms, which is one of popular strategies in the technological-social science areas. In the calculations, the data are processed in every 7.5 minutes in which this means the calculation is done as 8 times in one hour. So, the graph has 100 hours with 800 times data processing. This means that 35,673.516 graphs are available by the big data processing. That is, 1 tera byte = 1,000,000,000,000 bytes = 800 2,500,000,000 bytes So, it is needed to process 2,500,000,000 bytes more for 1 tera byte. In the similar way, 2,500,000,000 bytes are done for 8 times in 1 hour. Then, 312,500,000 bytes are done for 24 hours in 1 day. Then, 13,020,833.33 bytes are done for 365 days in 1 year

  1. Big data-based data mining modeling for nuclear security analysis in the modified physical protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Systemix Global Co. Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the social networking-related strategies have been developed to prepare against the terror. The conventional PPS is composed of detection, delay, and response. In the systems, each stage has particular characteristics where the detection state is to find out the intrusion and unauthorized behavior by some devices, the delay stage is to slow the malicious acts by some barriers, and finally the response stage is to interrupt the actions by several kinds of methods like the arms response. It is said there are some data mining activities by the department of homeland security in the United States. The Automated Targeting System (ATS) compares several factors like traveler, cargo, and conveyance information against intelligence and other enforcement data, which is managed by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and includes modules for inbound (ATS-N) and outbound (ATS-AT) cargo, land border crossings (ATS-L), and passengers (ATS-P). The Data Analysis and Research for Trade Transparency System (DARTTS) analyzes possible data like the trade and financial stuff, which is administered by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE).The modeling has accomplished successfully the random number generation-based quantifications for nuclear security incorporated with several complex algorithms, which is one of popular strategies in the technological-social science areas. In the calculations, the data are processed in every 7.5 minutes in which this means the calculation is done as 8 times in one hour. So, the graph has 100 hours with 800 times data processing. This means that 35,673.516 graphs are available by the big data processing. That is, 1 tera byte = 1,000,000,000,000 bytes = 800 2,500,000,000 bytes So, it is needed to process 2,500,000,000 bytes more for 1 tera byte. In the similar way, 2,500,000,000 bytes are done for 8 times in 1 hour. Then, 312,500,000 bytes are done for 24 hours in 1 day. Then, 13,020,833.33 bytes are done for 365 days in 1 year

  2. Internet piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Fiala, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to describe the Internet piracy phenomenon and to define responsibility of individuals for copyright violations on the Internet from the view of valid Czech legislation. In order to prevent Internet piracy, countries are pushed to swiftly react on continuous development of new technologies used by pirates - these efforts of individual countries are described in several chapters of this thesis that are exploring the most significant court rulings. These rul...

  3. Multilayered security and privacy protection in Car-to-X networks solutions from application down to physical layer

    CERN Document Server

    Stübing, Hagen

    2013-01-01

    Car-to-X (C2X) communication in terms of Car-to-Car (C2C) and Car-to-Infrastructure (C2I) communication aims at increasing road safety and traffic efficiency by exchanging foresighted traffic information. Thereby, security and privacy are regarded as an absolute prerequisite for successfully establishing the C2X technology on the market. Towards the paramount objective of covering the entire ITS reference model with security and privacy measures, Hagen Stübing develops dedicated solutions for each layer, respectively. On application layer a security architecture in terms of a Public Key Infras

  4. [Internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkeila, Jyrki

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction is defined as uncontrolled and harmful use of Internet, which manifests in three forms: gaming, various sexual activities and excessive use of emails, chats or SMS messaging. Several studies have found that abuse of alcohol and other substances, depression and other health problems are associated with Internet addiction. In boys and men depression may be more a consequence of the addiction than a cause for it. ADHD seems to be a significant background factor for developing the condition. Because it is almost impossible to lead a life without Internet and computers nowadays, it is unrealistic to aim towards full abstinence. Treatment has generally followed the guidelines adapted for pathological gambling.

  5. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  6. Computer Security: the security marathon, part 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2014-01-01

    Do you recall our latest article on the “Security Marathon” (see here) and why it’s wrong to believe that computer security is a sprint, that a quick hack is invulnerable, that quick bug-fixing is sufficient, that plugging security measures on top of existing structures is a good idea, that once you are secure, your life is cosy?   In fact, security is a marathon for us too. Again and again, we have felt comfortable with the security situation at CERN, with dedicated protections deployed on individual hosts, with the security measures deployed by individual service managers, with the attentiveness and vigilance of our users, and with the responsiveness of the Management. Again and again, however, we subsequently detect or receive reports that this is wrong, that protections are incomplete, that security measures are incomplete, that security awareness has dropped. Thus, unfortunately, we often have to go back to square one and address similar issues over and over...

  7. Cyber Security : Home User's Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ikonen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    Cyber security is important to understand for home users. New technology allows for new cyber threats to emerge and new solutions must be considered to counter them. Nearly every device is connected to the Internet and this opens new possibilities and threats to cyber security. This Bachelor's thesis explores the different aspects of cyber security and suggests solutions to different cyber security issues found. The different aspects of cyber security under research here include personal ...

  8. The enhancement of security in healthcare information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Hui; Chung, Yu-Fang; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Wang, Sheng-De

    2012-06-01

    With the progress and the development of information technology, the internal data in medical organizations have become computerized and are further established the medical information system. Moreover, the use of the Internet enhances the information communication as well as affects the development of the medical information system that a lot of medical information is transmitted with the Internet. Since there is a network within another network, when all networks are connected together, they will form the "Internet". For this reason, the Internet is considered as a high-risk and public environment which is easily destroyed and invaded so that a relevant protection is acquired. Besides, the data in the medical network system are confidential that it is necessary to protect the personal privacy, such as electronic patient records, medical confidential information, and authorization-controlled data in the hospital. As a consequence, a medical network system is considered as a network requiring high security that excellent protections and managerial strategies are inevitable to prevent illegal events and external attacks from happening. This study proposes secure medical managerial strategies being applied to the network environment of the medical organization information system so as to avoid the external or internal information security events, allow the medical system to work smoothly and safely that not only benefits the patients, but also allows the doctors to use it more conveniently, and further promote the overall medical quality. The objectives could be achieved by preventing from illegal invasion or medical information being stolen, protecting the completeness and security of medical information, avoiding the managerial mistakes of the internal information system in medical organizations, and providing the highly-reliable medical information system.

  9. Security guide for subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    This guide is provided to aid in the achievement of security objectives in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program. The objectives of security are to protect information that, if released, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation and to safeguard plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors to prevent the interruption of research and production programs. The security objective and means of achieving the objective are described. Specific security measures discussed in this guide include physical barriers, personnel identification systems, personnel and vehicular access control, classified document control, protection of classified matter in use, storing classified matter, and repository combinations. Means of dealing with security violations and security infractions are described. Maintenance of a security education program is discussed. Also discussed are methods of handling clearance terminations, visitor control, travel to sensitive countries, and shipment security. The Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Program (TSCM), the Computer Security Program, and the Operations Security Plan (OPSEC) are examined.

  10. Inspection methods for physical protection Task III review of other agencies' physical security activities for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Task I of this project, the current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) position-on physical security practices and procedures at research reactors were reviewed. In the second task, a sampling of the physical security plans was presented and the three actual reactor sites described in the security plans were visited. The purpose of Task III is to review other agencies' physical security activities for research reactors. During this phase, the actions, procedures and policies of two domestic and two foreign agencies other than the NRC that relate to the research reactor community were examined. The agencies examined were: International Atomic Energy Agency; Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board; Department of Energy; and American Nuclear Insurers

  11. An Analysis of Cloud Model-Based Security for Computing Secure Cloud Bursting and Aggregation in Real Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Pritesh Jain; Vaishali Chourey; Dheeraj Rane

    2011-01-01

    Cloud Computing has emerged as a major information and communications technology trend and has been proved as a key technology for market development and analysis for the users of several field. The practice of computing across two or more data centers separated by the Internet is growing in popularity due to an explosion in scalable computing demands. However, one of the major challenges that faces the cloud computing is how to secure and protect the data and processes the data of the user. ...

  12. 76 FR 66940 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/United States Secret Service-004 Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... agency conducting litigation or in proceedings before any court, adjudicative or administrative body... disposal: Protective intelligence case records, including non-judicial protective intelligence cases, are... Director, Office of Strategic Intelligence and Information; Assistant Director, Office of Technical...

  13. The wireless internet explained

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoton, John

    2001-01-01

    The Wireless Internet Explained covers the full spectrum of wireless technologies from a wide range of vendors, including initiatives by Microsoft and Compaq. The Wireless Internet Explained takes a practical look at wireless technology. Rhoton explains the concepts behind the physics, and provides an overview that clarifies the convoluted set of standards heaped together under the umbrella of wireless. It then expands on these technical foundations to give a panorama of the increasingly crowded landscape of wireless product offerings. When it comes to actual implementation the book gives abundant down-to-earth advice on topics ranging from the selection and deployment of mobile devices to the extremely sensitive subject of security.Written by an expert on Internet messaging, the author of Digital Press''s successful Programmer''s Guide to Internet Mail and X.400 and SMTP: Battle of the E-mail Protocols, The Wireless Internet Explained describes and evaluates the current state of the fast-growing and crucial...

  14. Internet Predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Estrin, Deborah; Chandy, K. Mani; Young, R. Michael; Smarr, Larry; Odlyzko, Andrew; Clark, David; Reding, Viviane; Ishida, Toru; Sharma, Sharad; Cerf, Vinton G.; Hölzle, Urs; Barroso, Luiz André; Mulligan, Geoff; Hooke, Adrian; Elliott, Chip

    2010-01-01

    More than a dozen leading experts give their opinions on where the Internet is headed and where it will be in the next decade in terms of technology, policy, and applications. They cover topics ranging from the Internet of Things to climate change to the digital storage of the future. A summary of the articles is available in the Web extras section.

  15. Internet effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.; Levesque, R.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents’ extensive use of Internet communication and the uncertainty about its consequences call for an integrative perspective that helps to understand both the appeal of Internet communication and its risks and opportunities. The aim of this essay is to theorize, and if possible, substantiate

  16. Volume of Requests for Internet Medicare Replacement Cards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides monthly volumes at the national level from federal fiscal year 2008 onwards for Internet Medicare Replacement Card. The dataset includes only...

  17. Raise your defence: a baseline for security

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    It is an unfair imbalance: the (computer) security of a system/service is only as strong as the weakest link in the chain of protection. This provides attackers with an incredible advantage: they can choose when to attack, where and with which means. The defence side is permanently under pressure: they must defend at all times all assets against all eventualities. For computer security, this means that every computer system, every account, every web site and every service must be properly protected --- always.   In particular, at CERN, those services visible to the Internet are permanently probed. Web sites and servers are permanently scanned by adversaries for vulnerabilities; attackers repeatedly try to guess user passwords on our remote access gateways like LXPLUS or CERNTS; computing services, e.g. for Grid computing, are analysed again and again by malicious attackers for weaknesses which can be exploited. Thanks to the vigilance of the corresponding system and service experts, these atta...

  18. The internet trade of counterfeit spirits in Russia – an emerging problem undermining alcohol, public health and youth protection policies? [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Neufeld; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Stephan G. Walch; Jürgen Rehm

    2017-01-01

    Counterfeit alcohol belongs to the category of unrecorded alcohol not reflected in official statistics. The internet trade of alcoholic beverages has been prohibited by the Russian Federation since 2007, but various sellers still offer counterfeit spirits (i.e., forged brand spirits) over the internet to Russian consumers, mostly in a non-deceptive fashion at prices up to 15 times lower than in regular sale. The public health issues arising from this unregulated trade include potential harm t...

  19. The internet trade of counterfeit spirits in Russia – an emerging problem undermining alcohol, public health and youth protection policies? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Neufeld; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Stephan G. Walch; Jürgen Rehm

    2017-01-01

    Counterfeit alcohol belongs to the category of unrecorded alcohol not reflected in official statistics. The internet trade of alcoholic beverages has been prohibited by the Russian Federation since 2007, but various sellers still offer counterfeit spirits (i.e., forged brand spirits) over the internet to Russian consumers, mostly in a non-deceptive fashion at prices up to 15 times lower than in regular sale. The public health issues arising from this unregulated trade include potential harm t...

  20. Evolution of Internet addiction in Greek adolescent students over a two-year period: the impact of parental bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomos, Konstantinos; Floros, Georgios; Fisoun, Virginia; Evaggelia, Dafouli; Farkonas, Nikiforos; Sergentani, Elena; Lamprou, Maria; Geroukalis, Dimitrios

    2012-04-01

    We present results from a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-18 of the island of Kos and their parents, on Internet abuse, parental bonding and parental online security practices. We also compared the level of over involvement with personal computers of the adolescents to the respective estimates of their parents. Our results indicate that Internet addiction is increased in this population where no preventive attempts were made to combat the phenomenon from the initial survey, 2 years ago. This increase is parallel to an increase in Internet availability. The best predictor variables for Internet and computer addiction were parental bonding variables and not parental security practices. Parents tend to underestimate the level of computer involvement when compared to their own children estimates. Parental safety measures on Internet browsing have only a small preventive role and cannot protect adolescents from Internet addiction. The three online activities most associated with Internet addiction were watching online pornography, online gambling and online gaming. © Springer-Verlag 2012

  1. Cyber security challenges in Smart Cities: Safety, security and privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaghraby, Adel S; Losavio, Michael M

    2014-07-01

    The world is experiencing an evolution of Smart Cities. These emerge from innovations in information technology that, while they create new economic and social opportunities, pose challenges to our security and expectations of privacy. Humans are already interconnected via smart phones and gadgets. Smart energy meters, security devices and smart appliances are being used in many cities. Homes, cars, public venues and other social systems are now on their path to the full connectivity known as the "Internet of Things." Standards are evolving for all of these potentially connected systems. They will lead to unprecedented improvements in the quality of life. To benefit from them, city infrastructures and services are changing with new interconnected systems for monitoring, control and automation. Intelligent transportation, public and private, will access a web of interconnected data from GPS location to weather and traffic updates. Integrated systems will aid public safety, emergency responders and in disaster recovery. We examine two important and entangled challenges: security and privacy. Security includes illegal access to information and attacks causing physical disruptions in service availability. As digital citizens are more and more instrumented with data available about their location and activities, privacy seems to disappear. Privacy protecting systems that gather data and trigger emergency response when needed are technological challenges that go hand-in-hand with the continuous security challenges. Their implementation is essential for a Smart City in which we would wish to live. We also present a model representing the interactions between person, servers and things. Those are the major element in the Smart City and their interactions are what we need to protect.

  2. Cyber security challenges in Smart Cities: Safety, security and privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel S. Elmaghraby

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The world is experiencing an evolution of Smart Cities. These emerge from innovations in information technology that, while they create new economic and social opportunities, pose challenges to our security and expectations of privacy. Humans are already interconnected via smart phones and gadgets. Smart energy meters, security devices and smart appliances are being used in many cities. Homes, cars, public venues and other social systems are now on their path to the full connectivity known as the “Internet of Things.” Standards are evolving for all of these potentially connected systems. They will lead to unprecedented improvements in the quality of life. To benefit from them, city infrastructures and services are changing with new interconnected systems for monitoring, control and automation. Intelligent transportation, public and private, will access a web of interconnected data from GPS location to weather and traffic updates. Integrated systems will aid public safety, emergency responders and in disaster recovery. We examine two important and entangled challenges: security and privacy. Security includes illegal access to information and attacks causing physical disruptions in service availability. As digital citizens are more and more instrumented with data available about their location and activities, privacy seems to disappear. Privacy protecting systems that gather data and trigger emergency response when needed are technological challenges that go hand-in-hand with the continuous security challenges. Their implementation is essential for a Smart City in which we would wish to live. We also present a model representing the interactions between person, servers and things. Those are the major element in the Smart City and their interactions are what we need to protect.

  3. Implementing an Internet-Delivered Skin Cancer Genetic Testing Intervention to Improve Sun Protection Behavior in a Diverse Population: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer L; Berwick, Marianne; Zielaskowski, Kate; White, Kirsten Am; Rodríguez, Vivian M; Robers, Erika; Guest, Dolores D; Sussman, Andrew; Talamantes, Yvonne; Schwartz, Matthew R; Greb, Jennie; Bigney, Jessica; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Hunley, Keith; Buller, David B

    2017-04-25

    Limited translational genomic research currently exists to guide the availability, comprehension, and appropriate use of personalized genomics in diverse general population subgroups. Melanoma skin cancers are preventable, curable, common in the general population, and disproportionately increasing in Hispanics. Variants in the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene are present in approximately 50% of the population, are major factors in determining sun sensitivity, and confer a 2-to-3-fold increase in melanoma risk in the general population, even in populations with darker skin. Therefore, feedback regarding MC1R risk status may raise risk awareness and protective behavior in the general population. We are conducting a randomized controlled trial examining Internet presentation of the risks and benefits of personalized genomic testing for MC1R gene variants that are associated with increased melanoma risk. We will enroll a total of 885 participants (462 participants are currently enrolled), who will be randomized 6:1 to personalized genomic testing for melanoma risk versus waiting list control. Control participants will be offered testing after outcome assessments. Participants will be balanced across self-reported Hispanic versus non-Hispanic ethnicity (n=750 in personalized genomic testing for melanoma risk arm; n=135 in control arm), and will be recruited from a general population cohort in Albuquerque, New Mexico, which is subject to year-round sun exposure. Baseline surveys will be completed in-person with study staff and follow-up measures will be completed via telephone. Aim 1 of the trial will examine the personal utility of personalized genomic testing for melanoma risk in terms of short-term (3-month) sun protection and skin screening behaviors, family and physician communication, and melanoma threat and control beliefs (ie, putative mediators of behavior change). We will also examine potential unintended consequences of testing among those who receive

  4. Security Proof for Password Authentication in TLS-Verifier-based Three-Party Group Diffie-Hellman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevassut, Olivier; Milner, Joseph; Pointcheval, David

    2008-04-21

    The internet has grown greatly in the past decade, by some numbers exceeding 47 million active web sites and a total aggregate exceeding100 million web sites. What is common practice today on the Internet is that servers have public keys, but clients are largely authenticated via short passwords. Protecting these passwords by not storing them in the clear on institutions's servers has become a priority. This paper develops password-based ciphersuites for the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol that are: (1) resistant to server compromise; (2) provably secure; (3) believed to be free from patent and licensing restrictions based on an analysis of relevant patents in the area.

  5. Internet Inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection of dialogues is the only textbook of its kind. Internet Inquiry: Conversations About Method takes students into the minds of top internet researchers as they discuss how they have worked through critical challenges as they research online social environments. Editors Annette N....... Markham and Nancy K. Baym illustrate that good research choices are not random but are deliberate, studied, and internally consistent. Rather than providing single "how to" answers, this book presents distinctive and divergent viewpoints on how to think about and conduct qualitative internet studies....

  6. Harmonizing the Interests of Free Speech, Obscenity, and Child Pornography in Cyberspace: The New Roles of Parents, Technology, and Legislation for Internet Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos O. Olagunju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Inadvertent access to website addresses and spam e-mails continue to make pornography rampant on the Internet in schools, homes, and libraries. Collectively, parents, teachers, and members of the community must become more aware of the risks and consequences of open access to the Internet, and the distinction between censorship and Internet access filtering. Parental involvement is crucial for raising children with healthy Internet habits to access social and educational materials. Although generations have coped with different times and trials, technology is ushering in new trials. Parents and communities cannot ignore the present and future technology ingrained into the lives of children. This paper contends that parents armed with legislation and technological security devices for access to the Internet ought to strengthen the character of online Internet safety. The discussion is focused on the roles that parents, communities, technology, and laws should play in order to protect children from obscene and pornographic threats from cyberspace. It is argued that the roles of education and technology should outweigh the legislative interventions of governments. A critique of significant litigations and laws on obscenity and pornography is presented. The paper offers a variety of security tools and techniques for protecting children from Internet access to obscene and pornographic materials. The impacts of pornographic materials on the welfare of children, adolescents, women, and families are discussed.

  7. Harmonizing the interests of free speech, obscenity, and child pornography in cyberspace: the new roles of parents, technology, and legislation for internet safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagunju, Amos O

    2009-11-18

    Inadvertent access to website addresses and spam e-mails continue to make pornography rampant on the Internet in schools, homes, and libraries. Collectively, parents, teachers, and members of the community must become more aware of the risks and consequences of open access to the Internet, and the distinction between censorship and Internet access filtering. Parental involvement is crucial for raising children with healthy Internet habits to access social and educational materials. Although generations have coped with different times and trials, technology is ushering in new trials. Parents and communities cannot ignore the present and future technology ingrained into the lives of children. This paper contends that parents armed with legislation and technological security devices for access to the Internet ought to strengthen the character of online Internet safety. The discussion is focused on the roles that parents, communities, technology, and laws should play in order to protect children from obscene and pornographic threats from cyberspace. It is argued that the roles of education and technology should outweigh the legislative interventions of governments. A critique of significant litigations and laws on obscenity and pornography is presented. The paper offers a variety of security tools and techniques for protecting children from Internet access to obscene and pornographic materials. The impacts of pornographic materials on the welfare of children, adolescents, women, and families are discussed.

  8. Harmonizing the Interests of Free Speech, Obscenity, and Child Pornography in Cyberspace: The New Roles of Parents, Technology, and Legislation for Internet Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagunju, Amos O.

    2009-01-01

    Inadvertent access to website addresses and spam e-mails continue to make pornography rampant on the Internet in schools, homes, and libraries. Collectively, parents, teachers, and members of the community must become more aware of the risks and consequences of open access to the Internet, and the distinction between censorship and Internet access filtering. Parental involvement is crucial for raising children with healthy Internet habits to access social and educational materials. Although generations have coped with different times and trials, technology is ushering in new trials. Parents and communities cannot ignore the present and future technology ingrained into the lives of children. This paper contends that parents armed with legislation and technological security devices for access to the Internet ought to strengthen the character of online Internet safety. The discussion is focused on the roles that parents, communities, technology, and laws should play in order to protect children from obscene and pornographic threats from cyberspace. It is argued that the roles of education and technology should outweigh the legislative interventions of governments. A critique of significant litigations and laws on obscenity and pornography is presented. The paper offers a variety of security tools and techniques for protecting children from Internet access to obscene and pornographic materials. The impacts of pornographic materials on the welfare of children, adolescents, women, and families are discussed. PMID:19936562

  9. Remote sensing evaluation of fire hazard : Towards operational tools for improving the security of citizens and protecting the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maffei, C.; Gambardella, C.; Menenti, M.

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires are a threat for both the environment and the security of citizens. This is particularly relevant in the Mediterranean, where the population density is high, and long dry summers drive vegetation into fireprone conditions. Policy makers underline the key role of prevention over damage

  10. Characterizing, Classifying, and Understanding Information Security Laws and Regulations: Considerations for Policymakers and Organizations Protecting Sensitive Information Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaw, David Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Current scholarly understanding of information security regulation in the United States is limited. Several competing mechanisms exist, many of which are untested in the courts and before state regulators, and new mechanisms are being proposed on a regular basis. Perhaps of even greater concern, the pace at which technology and threats change far…

  11. Critical Infrastructure Protection and Federal Statutory Authority for the Departments of Homeland Security and Defense to Perform Two Key Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-13

    Federal Protective Service, NPPD, DHS GAO US General Accountability Office GSA US General Services Administration JP Joint Publication NPPD...grid and the 2010 British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon oil well failure disaster, cast doubt on this reliance. This doubt is compounded when...6 US General Accountability Office (GAO), Critical Infrastructure Protection: DHS Has Made Progress in Enhancing

  12. A Multifactor Secure Authentication System for Wireless Payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Sugata; Tiwari, Ayu; Sanyal, Sudip

    Organizations are deploying wireless based online payment applications to expand their business globally, it increases the growing need of regulatory requirements for the protection of confidential data, and especially in internet based financial areas. Existing internet based authentication systems often use either the Web or the Mobile channel individually to confirm the claimed identity of the remote user. The vulnerability is that access is based on only single factor authentication which is not secure to protect user data, there is a need of multifactor authentication. This paper proposes a new protocol based on multifactor authentication system that is both secure and highly usable. It uses a novel approach based on Transaction Identification Code and SMS to enforce another security level with the traditional Login/password system. The system provides a highly secure environment that is simple to use and deploy with in a limited resources that does not require any change in infrastructure or underline protocol of wireless network. This Protocol for Wireless Payment is extended as a two way authentications system to satisfy the emerging market need of mutual authentication and also supports secure B2B communication which increases faith of the user and business organizations on wireless financial transaction using mobile devices.

  13. SPECIAL AND MILITARY COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS AS VITAL PART OF THE CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES IN ROMANIA. SECURING THEIR PHYSICAL AND INFORMATIONAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MINCU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents several arguments on the need to study the critical infrastructure in Romania including various systems (networks and special military communications. It emphasizes the role and place of such systems and networks to provide national defense and security and the risks and vulnerabilities faced by these infrastructures, and some necessary measures to be taken for the physical and informational protection in the case of hostile military actions, natural disasters or other negative phenomena. Finally some conclusions and proposals are formulated.

  14. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program CY 2009 Triennial Report Of The Monitoring Well Inspection And Maintenance Program, Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    This document is the triennial report for the Well Inspection and Maintenance Program of the Y- 12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). This report formally documents well inspection events conducted on active and inactive wells at Y-12 during calendar years (CY) 2007 through 2009; it documents well maintenance and plugging and abandonment activities completed since the last triennial inspection event (CY 2006); and provides summary tables of well inspection events, well maintenance events, and well plugging and abandonment events during the reference time period.

  15. Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Suryana Herman, Nanna; Leukfeldt, E.R.; Stol, W.Ph.

    2012-01-01

    Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is

  16. Delivering Multimedia Teaching Modules via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet for delivering teaching modules and makes recommendations for successful use of the Internet. Highlights include the availability of information at all times and from remote locations, multimedia capabilities, infrastructure needed, security issues, updating, needed skills, and…

  17. Security Information System Digital Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Kuang; Shanhong Zhu

    2015-01-01

    The study built a simulation model for the study of food security information system relay protection. MATLAB-based simulation technology can support the analysis and design of food security information systems. As an example, the food security information system fault simulation, zero-sequence current protection simulation and transformer differential protection simulation are presented in this study. The case studies show that the simulation of food security information system relay protect...

  18. Secure OpenID Authentication Model by Using Trusted Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ghazizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Internet online services has been very quick in recent years. Each online service requires Internet users to create a new account to use the service. The problem can be seen when each user usually needs more than one service and, consequently, has numerous accounts. These numerous accounts have to be managed in a secure and simple way to be protected against identity theft. Single sign-on (SSO and OpenID have been used to decrease the complexity of managing numerous accounts required in the Internet identity environment. Trusted Platform Module (TPM and Trust Multitenancy are great trusted computing-based technologies to solve security concerns in the Internet identity environment. Since trust is one of the pillars of security in the cloud, this paper analyzes the existing cloud identity techniques in order to investigate their strengths and weaknesses. This paper proposes a model in which One Time Password (OTP, TPM, and OpenID are used to provide a solution against phishing as a common identity theft in cloud environment.

  19. Internet Connectivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Internet Connectivity. BSNL, SIFY, HCL in Guwahati; only BSNL elsewhere in NE (local player in Shillong). Service poor; All vendors lease BW from BSNL.

  20. Center for computer security: Computer Security Group conference. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-06-01

    Topics covered include: computer security management; detection and prevention of computer misuse; certification and accreditation; protection of computer security, perspective from a program office; risk analysis; secure accreditation systems; data base security; implementing R and D; key notarization system; DOD computer security center; the Sandia experience; inspector general's report; and backup and contingency planning. (GHT)

  1. The internet trade of counterfeit spirits in Russia – an emerging problem undermining alcohol, public health and youth protection policies? [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neufeld

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Counterfeit alcohol belongs to the category of unrecorded alcohol not reflected in official statistics. The internet trade of alcoholic beverages has been prohibited by the Russian Federation since 2007, but various sellers still offer counterfeit spirits (i.e., forged brand spirits over the internet to Russian consumers, mostly in a non-deceptive fashion at prices up to 15 times lower than in regular sale. The public health issues arising from this unregulated trade include potential harm to underage drinkers, hazards due to toxic ingredients such as methanol, but most importantly alcohol harms due to potentially increased drinking volumes due to low prices and high availability on the internet. The internet sale also undermines existing alcohol policies such as restrictions of sale locations, sale times and minimum pricing. The need to enforce measures against counterfeiting of spirits, but specifically their internet trade should be implemented as key elements of alcohol policies to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption, which is currently about 33 % of total consumption in Russia.

  2. The internet trade of counterfeit spirits in Russia – an emerging problem undermining alcohol, public health and youth protection policies? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neufeld

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Counterfeit alcohol belongs to the category of unrecorded alcohol not reflected in official statistics. The internet trade of alcoholic beverages has been prohibited by the Russian Federation since 2007, but various sellers still offer counterfeit spirits (i.e., forged brand spirits over the internet to Russian consumers, mostly in a non-deceptive fashion at prices up to 15 times lower than in regular sale. The public health issues arising from this unregulated trade include potential harm to underage drinkers, hazards due to toxic ingredients such as methanol, but most importantly alcohol harms due to potentially increased drinking volumes due to low prices and high availability on the internet. The internet sale also undermines existing alcohol policies such as restrictions of sale locations, sale times and minimum pricing. The need to enforce measures against counterfeiting of spirits, but specifically their internet trade should be implemented as key elements of alcohol policies to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption, which is currently about 33 % of total consumption in Russia.

  3. INTERNET SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Sarhan M. Musa

    2017-01-01

    Safety is fundamentally important for everyone, whether online or offline and is everyone’s responsibility. Internet safety refers to how to be safe, confident, and responsible when using online technologies. Making the Internet safe for children has become a major technological challenge and a public policy issue. It is mainly taught in elementary and high schools. This paper provides a brief introduction on how individuals can keep themselves and their loved ones safe while they surf

  4. INTERNET ETHICS

    OpenAIRE

    Laurentiu Fratila

    2008-01-01

    In our age, Internet is the biggest information network in the world; it consists of a set of heterogeneous networks from over 100 countries displaying huge amounts of virtual resources; it provides facilities such as email, file transmission protocol (ftp), workgroups discussion or chat, information and dissemination of information (www – world wide web). Internet has a major impact over all activity fields: political, social, economic and private life of users, as well. Newly developed, mod...

  5. IAEA nuclear security program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Although nuclear security is a State responsibility, it is nevertheless an international concern, as the consequences of a nuclear security incident would have worldwide impact. These concerns have resulted in the development of numerous international instruments on nuclear security since the terrorist events in the USA on September 11, 2001. The IAEA Office of Nuclear Security has been charged to assist Member States to improvement their nuclear security and to meet the intent of these international obligations in order to ensure a cohesive thread of nuclear security protects the global community. The programs underway and planned by the Office of Nuclear Security will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. IAEA nuclear security program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, D.

    2006-01-01

    Although nuclear security is a State responsibility, it is nevertheless an international concern, as the consequences of a nuclear security incident would have worldwide impact. These concerns have resulted in the development of numerous international instruments on nuclear security since the terrorist events in the USA on September 11, 2001. The IAEA Office of Nuclear Security has been charged to assist Member States to improvement their nuclear security and to meet the intent of these international obligations in order to ensure a cohesive thread of nuclear security protects the global community. The programs underway and planned by the Office of Nuclear Security will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  7. VoIP Security

    OpenAIRE

    Fontanini, Piero

    2008-01-01

    VOIP or Voice Over Internet Protocol is a common term for phone service over IP based networks. There are much information about VoIP and some of how VoIP can be secured. There is however no standard for VoIP and no general solution for VoIP Security. The security in VoIP systems today are often non existing or in best case weak and often based on proprietary solutions. This master thesis investigates threats to VoIP system and describes existing alternatives for securing Vo...

  8. E-Commerce and Security Governance in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanayei, Ali.; Rajabion, Lila

    Security is very often mentioned as one of the preconditions for the faster growth of e-commerce. Without a secure and reliable internet, customer will continue to be reluctant to provide confidential information online, such as credit card number. Moreover, organizations of all types and sizes around the world rely heavily on technologies of electronic commerce (e-commerce) for conducting their day-to-day business transaction. Providing organizations with a secure e-commerce environment is a major issue and challenging one especially in Middle Eastern countries. Without secure e-commerce, it is almost impossible to take advantage of the opportunities offered by e-commerce technologies. E-commerce can create opportunities for small entrepreneurs in Middle Eastern countries. This requires removing infrastructure blockages in telecommunications and logistics alongside the governance of e-commerce with policies on consumer protection, security of transactions, privacy of records and intellectual property. In this paper, we will explore the legal implications of e-commerce security governance by establishing who is responsible for ensuring compliance with this discipline, demonstrating the value to be derived from information security governance, the methodology of applying information security governance, and liability for non-compliance with this discipline. Our main focus will be on analyzing the importance and implication of e-commerce security governance in developing countries.

  9. Bezbednost i zaštita telekomunikacionih širokopojasnih ATM mreža / Security and protection in the broadband ATM telecommunication networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojko V. Jevtović

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazana analiza problema bezbednosti i zaštite telekomunikacionih širokopojasnih ATM mreža. Analizirane su brojne moguće pretnje i oblici ugrožavanja širokopojasnih mreža i navedeni zahtevi za bezbednost i zaštitu mreža. Obrađena je koncepcija bezbednosnih mehanizama. Analizirane su bezbednosne mrežne usluge i opisan bezbednosni model ATM mreža. Navedeni su problemi koji se javljaju pri realizaciji bezbednosnih mera i zaštite u komunikaciji preko ATM mreža. / Security of communications over broadband ATM networks is analyzed in this paper. Attacks on ATM networks (faber tapping, SONET (Synchronous Optical network drop/add multiplexor attacks, eavesdropping, spoofing, virtual channel stealing, service denial, traffic analysis, protocol weaknesses, ILMI (Integrated Local Management Interface attacks, PNNI (Private Network to Network Interface attacks, model of ATM and ATM security framework are described. Some problems occurring within security and protection realization in the communication over ATM networks are also specified.

  10. Challenge theme 7: Information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

  11. Computer Security: the security marathon

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2014-01-01

    If you believe that “security” is a sprint, that a quick hack is invulnerable, that quick bug fixing is sufficient, that plugging security measures on top of existing structures is good, that once you are secure your life will be easy... then let me convince you otherwise.   An excellent example of this is when the summer students join us at CERN. As the summer period is short, software projects must be accomplished quickly, like a sprint. Rush, rush! But often, this sprint ends with aching muscles. Regularly, these summer students approach us to have their project or web server made visible to the Internet. Regularly, quick security reviews of those web servers diagnose severe underperformance with regards to security: the web applications are flawed or use insecure protocols; the employed software tools, databases or web frameworks are sub-optimal and not adequately chosen for that project; the operating system is non-standard and has never been brought up-to-date; and ...

  12. Secure and Reliable IPTV Multimedia Transmission Using Forward Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Huang Shih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the wide deployment of Internet Protocol (IP infrastructure and rapid development of digital technologies, Internet Protocol Television (IPTV has emerged as one of the major multimedia access techniques. A general IPTV transmission system employs both encryption and forward error correction (FEC to provide the authorized subscriber with a high-quality perceptual experience. This two-layer processing, however, complicates the system design in terms of computational cost and management cost. In this paper, we propose a novel FEC scheme to ensure the secure and reliable transmission for IPTV multimedia content and services. The proposed secure FEC utilizes the characteristics of FEC including the FEC-encoded redundancies and the limitation of error correction capacity to protect the multimedia packets against the malicious attacks and data transmission errors/losses. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme obtains similar performance compared with the joint encryption and FEC scheme.

  13. Building a Successful Security Infrastructure: What You Want vs. What You Need vs. What You Can Afford

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, Michele D.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    With the fast growing popularity of the Internet, many organizations are racing to get onto the on-ramp to the Information Superhighway. However, with frequent headlines such as 'Hackers' break in at General Electric raises questions about the Net's Security', 'Internet Security Imperiled - Hackers steal data that could threaten computers world-wide' and 'Stanford Computer system infiltrated; Security fears grow', organizations find themselves rethinking their approach to the on-ramp. Is the Internet safe? What do I need to do to protect my organization? Will hackers try to break into my systems? These are questions many organizations are asking themselves today. In order to safely travel along the Information Superhighway, organizations need a strong security framework. Developing such a framework for a computer site, whether it be just a few dozen hosts or several thousand hosts is not an easy task. The security infrastructure for a site is often developed piece-by-piece in response to security incidents which have affected that site over time. Or worse yet, no coordinated effort has been dedicated toward security. The end result is that many sites are still poorly prepared to handle the security dangers of the Internet. This paper presents guidelines for building a successful security infrastructure. The problem is addressed in a cookbook style method. First is a discussion on how to identify your assets and evaluate the threats to those assets; next are suggestions and tips for identifying the weak areas in your security armor. Armed with this information we can begin to think about what you really need for your site and what you can afford. In this stage of the process we examine the different categories of security tools and products that are available and then present some tips for deciding what is best for your site.

  14. Insider protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-07-01

    The government community is broadly addressing the insider threat. The first section of this paper defines protection approaches and the latter sections present various applicable technology developments. The bulk of the paper discusses technology developments applied to (1) personnel and material tracking and inventory, (2) classified document protection, and (3) protecting security systems. The personnel and material tracking system uses a PC based-host to (1) collect information from proximity tags and material movement sensors, (2) apply rules to this input to assure that the ongoing activity meets the site selectable rules and, (3) forward the results to either an automated inventory system or an alarm system. The document protection system uses a PC network to efficiently and securely control classified material which is stored on write-once-read-mostly optical media. The protection of sensor to multiplexer communications in a security system is emphasized in the discussion of protecting security systems.

  15. 5G internet of things: A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S.; Xu, L.; Zhao, S.

    2018-01-01

    The existing 4G networks have been widely used in the Internet of Things (IoT) and is continuously evolving to match the needs of the future Internet of Things (IoT) applications. The 5G networks are expected to massive expand today's IoT that can boost cellular operationgs, IoT security, and network challenges and driving the Internet future to the edge. The existing IoT solutions are facing a number of challenges such as large number of conneciton of nodes, security, and new standards. This...

  16. Towards a cyber security aware rural community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available innocent internet users from becoming victims of cyber attacks, a cyber security awareness campaign is developed to educate novice internet and technology users with regard to basic cyber security. The motivation for this awareness project is to educate all...

  17. SECURITY POLICIES APPROACHED BY VALUE ANALYSIS CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Varlanuta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to redefine the role of the end users of the Internet facilities, in the process of creation of more secure transactions on the Internet, in respect of their privacy. In this context, the purpose is to introduce the use of end user (customer value concept in the process of Security policy framework design.

  18. A Secure and Stable Multicast Overlay Network with Load Balancing for Scalable IPTV Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsao-Ta Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging multimedia Internet application IPTV over P2P network preserves significant advantages in scalability. IPTV media content delivered in P2P networks over public Internet still preserves the issues of privacy and intellectual property rights. In this paper, we use SIP protocol to construct a secure application-layer multicast overlay network for IPTV, called SIPTVMON. SIPTVMON can secure all the IPTV media delivery paths against eavesdroppers via elliptic-curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH key exchange on SIP signaling and AES encryption. Its load-balancing overlay tree is also optimized from peer heterogeneity and churn of peer joining and leaving to minimize both service degradation and latency. The performance results from large-scale simulations and experiments on different optimization criteria demonstrate SIPTVMON's cost effectiveness in quality of privacy protection, stability from user churn, and good perceptual quality of objective PSNR values for scalable IPTV services over Internet.

  19. Privatising Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mindova-Docheva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an analysis of the different approaches towards employing the international legal framework in the regulation and oversight of private military and security companies’ operation in armed conflicts and in peace time security systems. It proposes a partnership-based approach for public and private actors aiming at creating and sharing common values under the principles of solidarity, protection of human rights and rule of law. A focus of further research should be the process of shaping those common values.

  20. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Extent Of The Primary Groundwater Contaminants At The Y-12 National Security Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-12-01

    This report presents data summary tables and maps used to define and illustrate the approximate lateral extent of groundwater contamination at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The data tables and maps address the primary (i.e., most widespread and mobile) organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in the groundwater. The sampling locations, calculated contaminant concentrations, plume boundary values, and paired map format used to define, quantify, delineate, and illustrate the approximate extent of the primary organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in groundwater at Y-12 are described.

  1. Towards a quantum internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dür, Wolfgang; Lamprecht, Raphael; Heusler, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    A long-range quantum communication network is among the most promising applications of emerging quantum technologies. We discuss the potential of such a quantum internet for the secure transmission of classical and quantum information, as well as theoretical and experimental approaches and recent advances to realize them. We illustrate the involved concepts such as error correction, teleportation or quantum repeaters and consider an approach to this topic based on catchy visualizations as a context-based, modern treatment of quantum theory at high school.

  2. Secure pairing with biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhan, I.R.; Boom, B.J.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    Secure pairing enables two devices that share no prior context with each other to agree upon a security association, which they can use to protect their subsequent communication. Secure pairing offers guarantees of the association partner identity and it should be resistant to eavesdropping and to a

  3. Internet rural

    OpenAIRE

    Malla Esqué, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    El món rural és el més afectat pel que fa al retràs tecnològic del país. Una de les parts més afectades, són les comunicacions, i més en concretament, l'accés a Internet, un accés a Internet cada cop més necessari. En el projecte s'intenta donar accés a Internet a la població de San Esteban de Litera per mitjà de la tecnologia Wifi. En primer lloc és realitza un estudi de les tecnologies que es disposa per dur a terme el projecte, s'analitza la legislació vigent, i, és fa un estudi del ...

  4. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  5. COMPUTER SECURITY AND SECURITY TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Stošić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing development of computer and communications technology growth and increasing needs and development of information systems security. The problem of security must be approached with greater caution. With the development of computer and communication technologies have developed numerous tools to protect files and other information. A set of tools, procedures, policies and solutions to defend against attacks are collectively referred to as computer network security. It is necessary above all to define and learn about the concepts of attack, risk, threat, vulnerability and asset value. During the design and implementation of information systems should primarily take into account a set of measures to increase security and maintenance at an acceptable level of risk. In any case, there is a need to know the risks in the information system. Sources of potential security problems are challenges and attacks, while the risk relates to the probable outcome and its associated costs due to occurrence of certain events. There are numerous techniques help protect your computer: cryptography, authentication, checked the software, licenses and certificates, valid authorization... This paper explains some of the procedures and potential threats to break into the network and computers as well as potential programs that are used. Guidance and explanation of these programs is not to cause a break-in at someone else's computer, but to highlight the vulnerability of the computer's capabilities.

  6. Internet Usage In The Fresh Produce Supply Chainin China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; Duan, Yanqing; Fu, Zetian; Liu, Xue

    Although effective implementation of the Internet technologies has a great potential for improving efficiency and reducing wastage within the fresh produce supply chain. the situation of the Internet usage by SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises) in the fresh produce supply chain is still unclear in China. As the main players, SMEs haven't been given enough attention from both academics and governments. Therefore, this research attempts to address this issue by, first, investigating the current usage of the Internet and related software by Chinese SMEs in the fresh produce supply chain, and then, by identifying enablers and barriers faced by SMEs to call government's attention. As a part of an EU-Asia IT&C funded project, a survey was carried out with SMEs in this industry from five major cities in China. The results reveal that in the relatively developed areas of China, SMEs in the fresh produce supply chain are rapidly adopting the Internet and software packages, but the level of adoption varies greatly and there is a significant lack of integration among the supply chain partners. Chinese SMEs are keen to embrace emerging technologies and have acted to adopt new software and tools. Given that cost of implementation is not a barrier, their concern over legal protection and online security must be addressed for further development.

  7. Protecting the confidentiality and security of personal health information in low- and middle-income countries in the era of SDGs and Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard J. Beck

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: As increasing amounts of personal information are being collected through a plethora of electronic modalities by statutory and non-statutory organizations, ensuring the confidentiality and security of such information has become a major issue globally. While the use of many of these media can be beneficial to individuals or populations, they can also be open to abuse by individuals or statutory and non-statutory organizations. Recent examples include collection of personal information by national security systems and the development of national programs like the Chinese Social Credit System. In many low- and middle-income countries, an increasing amount of personal health information is being collected. The collection of personal health information is necessary, in order to develop longitudinal medical records and to monitor and evaluate the use, cost, outcome, and impact of health services at facility, sub-national, and national levels. However, if personal health information is not held confidentially and securely, individuals with communicable or non-communicable diseases (NCDs may be reluctant to use preventive or therapeutic health services, due to fear of being stigmatized or discriminated against. While policymakers and other stakeholders in these countries recognize the need to develop and implement policies for protecting the privacy, confidentiality and security of personal health information, to date few of these countries have developed, let alone implemented, coherent policies. The global HIV response continues to emphasize the importance of collecting HIV-health information, recently re-iterated by the Fast Track to End AIDS by 2030 program and the recent changes in the Guidelines on When to Start Antiretroviral Therapy and on Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for HIV. The success of developing HIV treatment cascades in low- and middle-income countries will require the development of National Health Identification Systems. The

  8. Protecting the confidentiality and security of personal health information in low- and middle-income countries in the era of SDGs and Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Eduard J; Gill, Wayne; De Lay, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    As increasing amounts of personal information are being collected through a plethora of electronic modalities by statutory and non-statutory organizations, ensuring the confidentiality and security of such information has become a major issue globally. While the use of many of these media can be beneficial to individuals or populations, they can also be open to abuse by individuals or statutory and non-statutory organizations. Recent examples include collection of personal information by national security systems and the development of national programs like the Chinese Social Credit System. In many low- and middle-income countries, an increasing amount of personal health information is being collected. The collection of personal health information is necessary, in order to develop longitudinal medical records and to monitor and evaluate the use, cost, outcome, and impact of health services at facility, sub-national, and national levels. However, if personal health information is not held confidentially and securely, individuals with communicable or non-communicable diseases (NCDs) may be reluctant to use preventive or therapeutic health services, due to fear of being stigmatized or discriminated against. While policymakers and other stakeholders in these countries recognize the need to develop and implement policies for protecting the privacy, confidentiality and security of personal health information, to date few of these countries have developed, let alone implemented, coherent policies. The global HIV response continues to emphasize the importance of collecting HIV-health information, recently re-iterated by the Fast Track to End AIDS by 2030 program and the recent changes in the Guidelines on When to Start Antiretroviral Therapy and on Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for HIV . The success of developing HIV treatment cascades in low- and middle-income countries will require the development of National Health Identification Systems. The success of programs like

  9. Internet Sexualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  10. Internet bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnerstein, Ed

    2012-06-01

    There is substantial literature on the impact of the mass media on children's and adolescents' health and development. The question of what role new technology plays in the media's influence is now a subject of both review and discussion, particularly regarding health risks and intervention. This article takes a brief look at online usage and the theoretical mechanisms that might make Internet access more problematic in terms of risks, compared with more traditional media such as television and film. One of these risks, known today as cyberbullying or Internet harassment, is scrutinized in detail. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Strategic water source areas for urban water security: Making the connection between protecting ecosystems and benefiting from their services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available source areas in southern Africa linked to major urban centers. We quantified the population size and economy they support, and their current levels of protection. We found that strategic water source areas form only 8% of the land area but contribute 50...

  12. Secure quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Secure communication is crucial in the Internet Age, and quantum mechanics stands poised to revolutionize cryptography as we know it today. In this Review, we introduce the motivation and the current state of the art of research in quantum cryptography. In particular, we discuss the present security model together with its assumptions, strengths and weaknesses. After briefly introducing recent experimental progress and challenges, we survey the latest developments in quantum hacking and countermeasures against it.

  13. The regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, the safety of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebeyehu Wolde, G.

    2003-01-01

    The application of Nuclear Techniques in Ethiopia started in the early sixties in the medical field and through time has gradually expanded to other areas. Following this growth the practice of Radiation Protection in Ethiopia dates back over 15 years. Radiation Protection Legislation 79/1993 was promulgated in December 1993, which has established an Autonomous Regulatory Authority to control and supervise the introduction and conduct of any practice involving ionizing radiation. Since 1998 the National Radiation Protection Authority has made a remarkable progress in terms of building a National Radiation Protection Infrastructure and is in a full swing transformation process towards a dynamic credible and competent regulatory Authority. The regulatory activities are designed in line with the main regulatory instruments, Notification, Authorization, Inspection and Enforcement. NRPA has a national inventory system and fully implemented the Regulatory Authority Information System (RAIS), which provides a systemic integration and will be instrumental to enhance the effectiveness of the regulatory system. A substantial progress has been made in the development and provision of support and technical services in the areas of Metrology and Calibration Services, Instrument Maintenance Service, Individual Monitoring of Personnel, Environmental and Food Monitoring and Interim Storage Facility for spent sources. Development of a national system for emergency preparedness and response is the current top agenda of NRPA. Towards ensuring an effective radiation protection and regulatory programme, NRPA is also making a proactive involvement in, expanding its outreach, information dissemination, awareness promotion and development of key human resources. In the last four years Ethiopia has been actively co-operating with IAEA in the framework of the Regional Model Projects RAF/9/024, RAF/9/028 and RAF/9/029. The inputs received through the project framework coupled with the

  14. [Internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hideki; Higuchi, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    Internet technologies have made a rapid progress, bringing convenience to daily life. On the other hand, internet use disorder and internet addiction (IA) have become reportedly serious health and social problems. In 2013, internet gaming disorder criteria have been proposed in the section of Conditions for Further Study of DSM-5. Existing epidemiological studies by questionnaire methods have reported that the prevalence of IA ranges between 2.8% and 9.9% among youths in Japan. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleeping disorders, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and phobic anxiety disorder are extremely common comorbid mental disorders with IA. Some psychotherapies (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medical treatments (e.g., antidepressant drugs, methylphenidate) for comorbid mental disorders as well as rehabilitation (e.g., treatment camp) are effective for IA remission. However, some serious cases of IA may be difficult to treat, and prevention is very important. In future, the prevention, rehabilitations and treatments for IA will be more required in Japan.

  15. A macro-economic framework for evaluation of cyber security risks related to protection of intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrijcic, Eva; Horowitz, Barry

    2006-08-01

    The article is based on the premise that, from a macro-economic viewpoint, cyber attacks with long-lasting effects are the most economically significant, and as a result require more attention than attacks with short-lasting effects that have historically been more represented in literature. In particular, the article deals with evaluation of cyber security risks related to one type of attack with long-lasting effects, namely, theft of intellectual property (IP) by foreign perpetrators. An International Consequence Analysis Framework is presented to determine (1) the potential macro-economic consequences of cyber attacks that result in stolen IP from companies in the United States, and (2) the likely sources of such attacks. The framework presented focuses on IP theft that enables foreign companies to make economic gains that would have otherwise benefited the U.S. economy. Initial results are presented.

  16. Hybrid Radio Frequency/Free-Space Optics (RF/FSO) Wireless Sensor Network: Security Concerns and Protective Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Koushik; Sharma, Hemant; Sengupta, Anasuya

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are ad hoc wireless networks that are written off as spread out structure and ad hoc deployment. Sensor networks have all the rudimentary features of ad hoc networks but to altered points—for instance, considerably lesser movement and far more energy necessities. Commonly used technology for communication is radio frequency (RF) communications. Free-space optics (FSO) is relatively new technology which has the prospective to deliver remarkable increases in network lifetime of WSN. Hybrid RF/FSO communications has been suggested to decrease power consumption by a single sensor node. It is observed that security plays a very important role for either RF WSN or hybrid RF/FSO WSN as those are vulnerable to numerous threats. In this paper, various possible attacks in RF/FSO WSN are discussed and aimed to propose some way out from those attacks.

  17. Children in internet space – the European Union policies on children’s safety online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojniak Justyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays more and more attention is paid to increasing activity of the young people, including children, in the Internet space. Making children aware of the dangers on the network and ways to protect them becomes crucial. This process involves not only parents and teachers. Issues related to security in the network are the focus of attention of the European Commission, as an executive body of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation and implementing decisions. The paper presents key assumptions of the European Union policy and initiatives aimed at protecting the youth against the consequences of irresponsible use of information and communication technology.

  18. Exploring and analyzing Internet crimes and their behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Arora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The world today is experiencing an exponential growth in cyberspace. Nevertheless, India too has witnessed a significant ascend in Internet activities and it is quite assertive to say that such phenomenal growth in access to information on one hand leads to empowered individuals and organization and on the other hand also poses new challenges to government and citizens. To make the cyber world safe is the need of the hour. Putting up deterrent measures against cybercrime is essential to national cyber security in protecting critical infrastructure of the nation as well as for individuals. In this regard, the prime objective of the government is to prevent cyber attacks and to protect the country's critical infrastructure. It also focuses on reducing vulnerability to cyber attacks so as to reduce and minimize damage and recovery time. To prevent the cyber crimes, individuals and governments need to clearly understand the crime schemes in the cyberspace and the contemporary and continuing Internet trends and behaviours of these criminals. This paper gives a brief outline of categories of cybercrimes. These crimes are categorized as crimes against individuals, property, organizations and governments. Various Internet crime scheme are evaluated and behaviour of criminals to perform the cybercrimes has been analyzed. A critical evaluation of report of cybercrime complaints under IT Act 2000 has been presented.

  19. Internet censorship in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akgül

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey passed an internet censorship law in 2007 with the declared objective of protecting families and minors (Akdeniz, 2010. It established a unit within the regulator BTK (Information and Communication Technologies Authority responsible for imposing bans and blocks on websites based on nine catalogue crimes defined by other national laws (Akgül 2008, 2009a, 2009b. As of May 2015, 80,000 websites were banned based on civil code related complaints and intellectual property rights violations, reports the independent website Engelliweb. Blocking decisions rendered by penal courts are enforced even when they are based on grounds other that the nine catalogue crimes - such as terrorism, organised crime and crime against the state. Passed in parliament while ignoring the pleas of NGOs and of the internet sector, the Internet Law No. 5651 has since been used to temporarily ban popular platforms such as Blogger, Last.fm, Vimeo, Wordpress and YouTube. At the same time, some blocking decisions by the courts (e.g., Google and Facebook were not enforced by the authorities. Since its introduction, the European Court of Human Rights has ruled that Law No. 5651 (Council of Europe, 2011 is against the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR, 2013. This article provides an overview of internet censorship and its social background in Turkey.

  20. Securing the Vista Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Peter

    2007-01-01

    "Securing the Vista Environment" takes you on a quick tour of the most significant security features in Vista, Microsoft's first revision of Windows in almost six years. You'll get background on threats and vulnerabilities that will make you think differently about security. Security is more than just the technology and configurations--it's about how we use the system that makes it secure or not. Then we'll cover Vista's security features, from user privileges to Windows Defender, User Account Control, and BitLocker, as well as strategies for protecting your information from unwanted disclo