WorldWideScience

Sample records for internatl magnetospheric study

  1. Achievements of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS). [Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battrick, B.; Rolfe, E.

    1984-09-01

    Investigations of auroral radiation; terrestrial nonthermal continuum radiation; magnetospheric electrostatic emissions; ELF-VLF wave observations in the ionosphere and magnetosphere; wave-particle interactions; plasma wave propagation; plasma parameters; and ground-based observations of the magnetosphere during the International Magnetospheric Study were discussed. The contributions of the GEOS and ISEE satellites, balloons, and sounding rockets were described.

  2. IMS (International Magnetospheric Study) contributions to the understanding of auroral precipitation, transport, and particle sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fennell, J.F.

    1985-03-01

    The progress in our understanding of plasma processes throughout the magnetosphere has increased dramatically during the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) period. In this report the auroral ionosphere as a source of particles for the magnetosphere and the auroral particle acceleration and precipitation are emphasized. Some of the processes involved in the transport of particles from the ionosphere out into the magnetosphere are treated as well as the precipitation of magnetospheric particles into the auroral and subauroral ionosphere. Some of the effects auroral ionospheric ions have on the magnetospheric plasma composition are described. A brief overview of pre-IMS results is also given to set the stage for a description of IMS contributions in these areas.

  3. Proxy studies of energy transfer to the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scurry, L.; Russell, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    The transfer of energy into the magnetosphere is studied using as proxy the Am geomagnetic index and multilinear regressions and correlations with solar wind data. In particular, the response of Am to the reconnection mechanism is examined in relation to the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field as well as the upstream plasma parameters. A functional dependence of Am on clock angle, the orientation of the IMF in the plane perpendicular to the flow, is derived after first correcting the index for nonreconnection effects due to dynamic pressure and velocity. An examination of the effect of upstream magnetosonic Mach number shows the reconnection mechanism to become less efficient at high Mach numbers. The reconnection mechanism is shown to be slightly enhanced by higher dynamic pressures

  4. Poloidal ULF oscillations in the dayside magnetosphere: a Cluster study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. I. Eriksson

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Three ULF wave events, all occurring in the dayside magnetopshere during magnetically quiet times, are studied using the Cluster satellites. The multi-point measurements obtained from Cluster are used to determine the azimuthal wave number for the events by means of the phase shift and the azimuthal separation between the satellites. Also, the polarisation of the electric and magnetic fields is examined in a field-aligned coordinate system, which, in turn, gives the mode of the oscillations. The large-inclination orbits of Cluster allow us to examine the phase relationship between the electric and magnetic fields along the field lines. The events studied have large azimuthal wave numbers (m~100, two of them have eastward propagation and all are in the poloidal mode, consistent with the large wave numbers. We also use particle data from geosynchronous satellites to look for signatures of proton injections, but none of the events show any sign of enhanced proton flux. Thus, the drift-bounce resonance instability seems unlikely to have played any part in the excitation of these pulsations. As for the drift-mirror instability we conclude that it would require an unreasonably high plasma pressure for the instability criterion to be satisfied.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Wave propagation – Magnetospheric physics (Plasma waves and instabilities; Instruments and techniques

  5. Theoretical studies of the plasmasphere as a coupled subsystem in the inner magnetosphere (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Fok, M. H.; Glocer, A.

    2013-12-01

    The inner magnetospheric plasma is a very unique composition of different kinds of plasmas and electromagnetic fields. It covers a huge plasma energy range with spatial and time variations of many orders of magnitude. Treating the vastly different but interconnected populations requires a kinetic approach to provide proper description of the complex inner magnetospheric plasma phenomena. The plasmasphere (together with the ionosphere) is the coldest of the inner magnetospheric populations with a velocity distribution function that is close to Maxwellian. The ionosphere is the major source of particles to this region, and interactions with superthermal electrons and the ring current control its energy balance. Colliding with the radiation belt and ring current particles, the plasmasphere serves as a vital catalyst for plasma wave excitation in the inner magnetosphere and energy redistribution throughout the entire ionosphere-magnetosphere system. The combination of the different plasmaspheric energy sources, as well as the anisotropy of the energy transport along and across the magnetic field lines, lead to anisotropies in the plasmaspheric electron and ion temperatures. These anisotropies, in turn, produce the plasma density and temperature redistributions along and across magnetic field lines. In this presentation we will consider the experimental background of theoretical studies of the plasmasphere as a coupled subsystem of the inner magnetospheric plasma.

  6. Pulsar magnetospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asseo, E.; Beaufils, D.; Pellat, R. (Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique)

    1984-07-15

    Static and dynamic solutions of the aligned rotator model introduced for pulsars by Goldreich and Julian (1969 Astrophys. J. 157,869) are examined. A cold and force-free pulsar plasma atmosphere, finite in extent is first studied. The possible existence of charged beams above the pulsar polar caps is then considered. A configuration in which particles are exchanged between the neutron-star surface and a force-free magnetospheric plasma is investigated.

  7. Coupled rotational dynamics of Saturn's thermosphere and magnetosphere: a thermospheric modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. A. Smith

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We use a numerical model of Saturn's thermosphere to investigate the flow of angular momentum from the atmosphere to the magnetosphere. The thermosphere model is driven by Joule heating and ion drag calculated from a simple model of the magnetospheric plasma flows and a fixed model of the ionospheric conductivity. We describe an initial study in which our plasma flow model is fixed and find that this leads to several inconsistencies in our results. We thus describe an improved model in which the plasma flows are allowed to vary in response to the structure of the thermospheric winds. Using this improved model we are able to analyse in detail the mechanism by which angular momentum extracted from the thermosphere by the magnetosphere is replaced by transport from the lower atmosphere. Previously, this transport was believed to be dominated by vertical transport due to eddy viscosity. Our results suggest that transport within the upper atmosphere by meridional winds is a much more important mechanism. As a consequence of this, we find that the rotational structures of the thermosphere and magnetosphere are related in a more complex way than the eddy viscosity model implies. Rather than the thermosphere behaving as a passive component of the system, the thermosphere-magnetosphere interaction is shown to be a two-way process in which rotational structures develop mutually. As an example of this, we are able to show that thermospheric dynamics offer an explanation of the small degree of super-corotation that has been observed in the inner magnetosphere. These results call into question the usefulness of the effective Pedersen conductivity as a parameterisation of the neutral atmosphere. We suggest that a two-parameter model employing the true Pedersen conductivity and the true thermospheric rotation velocity may be a more accurate representation of the thermospheric behaviour.

  8. Sounding-rocket experiments for detailed studies of magnetospheric substorm phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuedemann, W.; Wilhelm, K.

    1975-01-01

    Many of the substorm effects occur at or near the auroral oval in the upper atmosphere and can thus be studied by sounding-rocket experiments. As emphasis should be laid on understanding the physical processes, close co-ordination with other study programmes is of great importance. This co-ordination can best be accomplished within the framework of the ''International Magnetospheric Study 1976-1978''

  9. The magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliffe, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The structure of the magnetosphere, deduced from observations in space craft, is described, together with some of the phenomena that occur in it. A simple non-mathematical outline is given of some of the processes involved. The effects of the magnetosphere on the aurora, and on the magnetic field observed at the ground, are described, and the way they change during magnetospheric storms is discussed. (author)

  10. Study of the substorm: Part 2: Development of magnetosphere-ionosphere convection to the substorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tanaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been believed that the substorm is a manifestation of extraordinary plasma processes in the magnetosphere, such as instability, anomalous resistivity, and reconnection. In this paper, we show that this belief is a misleading concept and that the substorm must be understood as the development and transition of the convection system. Major observed signatures of the substorm have all become reproducible by the recent magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I coupling simulation. In order to understand the substorm as a change in convection system, we first study from these numerical solutions the energy conversion driving the convection and field-aligned current (FAC, namely the formation process of the dynamo. The dynamos for the region 1 and region 2 FACs are formed in the cusp-mantle region and inside the plasma sheet, respectively, and are driven by the expanding slow mode. These structures are unchanged even in the substorm case. The substorm onset is attributed to the phase space transition in the convection system, caused by a change in force balance in the plasma sheet. This process results in the formation of high-pressure region in the inner magnetosphere and an accompanying rapid increase in the region 2 FAC to cause the onset.

  11. Geophysical effects on magnetospheric images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Daniel L.; Chiu, Yam T.

    1993-12-01

    The concept of using solar EUV line resonance scattering to image ion populations in the magnetosphere has been studied extensively in the last decade. Global magnetospheric EUV images can display the effects of scatterer density, injection, the geomagnetic field, and the changing perspective of earthshine source intensity with altitude, latitude, and local time. Successful use of these images for magnetospheric plasma diagnostics or for examining the morphology of the magnetosphere depends on properly accounting for these effects and incorporating them into the models used to interpret such images. The importance of each of these effects is examined for varying levels of magnetospheric activity and different observer perspectives. Oxygen 834-angstroms resonance scattering is used as a testbed. A Tsyganenko 1987 magnetospheric model is employed to study the effects of different levels of magnetospheric activity.

  12. Jovian Substorms: A Study of Processes Leading to Transient Behavior in the Jovian Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.

    2000-01-01

    Solar system magnetospheres can be divided into two groups: induced and intrinsic. The induced magnetospheres are produced in the solar wind interaction of the magnetized solar wind with planetary obstacles. Examples of these magnetospheres are those of comets, Venus and Mars. Intrinsic magnetospheres are the cavities formed in the solar wind by the magnetic fields produced by dynamo current systems inside the planets: Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are known to have intrinsic magnetospheres. Intrinsic magnetospheres can be further subdivided as to how the circulating plasma is driven by external or internal processes. The magnetospheres of Mercury and Earth are driven by the solar wind. The magnetospheres of Jupiter and possibly of Saturn are principally driven by internal processes. These processes provide the energy for the powerful jovian radio signals that can be detected easily on the surface of the Earth.

  13. Terrestrial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, D.C.; Agarwal, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a review about terrestrial magnetosphere. During the last few years considerable investigation have been carried out about the properties of Solar Wind and its interaction with planetary magnetic fields. It is therefore of high importance to accumulate all the investigations in a comprehensive form. The paper reviews the property of earth's magnetosphere, magnetosheath, magneto pause, polar cusps, bow shook and plasma sheath. (author)

  14. Research at United States Antarctic stations during the International Magnetosphere Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    During the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) the U.S. operated programs at McMurdo, Siple, South Pole, and Palmer stations and at the Soviet Vostok station. Details concerning measurement locations are considered, and program summaries are provided. The programs are related to the study of geomagnetic variations, magnetic pulsations in the polar cap, cosmic noise absorption, VLF radio waves, auroral photometry, the morphology and dynamics of visible auroral forms, cosmic ray intensity variations, and auroral infrasonic waves. One program is based on the utilization of VHF Doppler auroral radar

  15. Analysis and study of magnetospheric ULF waves using multi-spacecraft and ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, Georgios; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Georgiou, Marina; Giamini, Sigiava

    In the past decade, a critical mass of high-quality scientific data on the electric and magnetic fields in the Earth’s magnetosphere and topside ionosphere has been progressively collected. This data pool will be further enriched by the measurements of ESA's Swarm mission, a constellation of three satellites in three different polar orbits between 400 and 550 km altitude, which was launched on the 22nd of November 2013. New analysis tools that can cope with measurements of various spacecraft at various regions of the magnetosphere and in the topside ionosphere as well as ground stations will effectively enhance the scientific exploitation of the accumulated data. Here, we report on a new suite of algorithms aiming at automated detection and classification of ultra-low frequency (ULF) wave events. Our approach is based on a combination of wavelet spectral methods and artificial neural network techniques. Moreover, we demonstrate the applicability of these recently developed analysis tools both for individual case studies and statistical studies of ULF waves. First, we provide evidence for a rare simultaneous observation of a ULF wave event in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere and surface: we have found a specific time interval during the Halloween 2003 magnetic storm, when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT) conjunction, and have examined the ULF wave activity in the Pc3 (22-100 mHz) and Pc4-5 (1-22 mHz) frequency bands using data from the Geotail, Cluster and CHAMP missions, as well as the CARISMA and GIMA magnetometer networks. Then, we perform a statistical study of Pc3 wave events observed by CHAMP: the creation of a database of such events enabled us to derive valuable statistics for many important physical properties relating to the spatio-temporal location of these waves, the wave power and frequency, as well as other parameters and their correlation with solar wind conditions, magnetospheric indices, electron density

  16. Pulsar magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseo, E.; Beaufils, D.; Pellat, R.

    1984-07-01

    Some static and dynamic solutions of the aligned rotator model for pulsars are examined. Attention is given to three different configurations of the pulsar magnetosphere including a finite, cold, force-free pulsar plasma atmosphere; a field of charged beams above the pulsar polar caps; and an alternative configuration in which particles are exchanged between the neutron-star surface and a force-free magnetospheric plasma. Two conclusions were drawn on the basis of inconsistencies found in these configurations: (1) an (axisymmetric) vacuum gap separating a noncorotating force-free magnetospheric plasma from a corotating plasma cannot exist in the aligned rotator; (2) a finite zone in which beams of particles move up and down in the 'open' magnetic field lines cannot be connected to the infinite vacuum. The results integrate a large body of evidence associated with the shape of the pulsar magnetosphere, and are therefore considered to be a reliable basis on which to develop a new configuration of the pulsar magnetosphere.

  17. Validation study of the magnetically self-consistent inner magnetosphere model RAM-SCB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yiqun; Jordanova, Vania; Zaharia, Sorin; Koller, Josef; Zhang, Jichun; Kistler, Lynn M.

    2012-03-01

    The validation of the magnetically self-consistent inner magnetospheric model RAM-SCB developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory is presented here. The model consists of two codes: a kinetic ring current-atmosphere interaction model (RAM) and a 3-D equilibrium magnetic field code (SCB). The validation is conducted by simulating two magnetic storm events and then comparing the model results against a variety of satellite in situ observations, including the magnetic field from Cluster and Polar spacecraft, ion differential flux from the Cluster/CODIF (Composition and Distribution Function) analyzer, and the ground-based SYM-H index. The model prediction of the magnetic field is in good agreement with observations, which indicates the model's capability of representing well the inner magnetospheric field configuration. This provides confidence for the RAM-SCB model to be utilized for field line and drift shell tracing, which are needed in radiation belt studies. While the SYM-H index, which reflects the total ring current energy content, is generally reasonably reproduced by the model using the Weimer electric field model, the modeled ion differential flux clearly depends on the electric field strength, local time, and magnetic activity level. A self-consistent electric field approach may be needed to improve the model performance in this regard.

  18. A study of the ionospheric signature of ion supply from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loranc, M.A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of the ionosphere as a source of magnetospheric plasma; in particular, the observations of upwelling ions (UWI) by the DE-1 Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer have illustrated the significance of low-energy ion supply to the magnetosphere. The composition of the UWI implies an ionospheric source, and the Dynamics Explorer dual satellite mission provides an opportunity to search for the ionospheric signature of UWI. Magnetometer data from both satellites are used to determine magnetic conjunctions of the satellites; these conjunctions are searched for correlated observations of UWI and upward flowing thermal ion (UFI) events. Four cases of correlated observations are presented as proof of that the UFI are indeed the ionospheric signature of UWI; it is found from these examples that the event are associated with intense field-aligned currents at both satellites and with anti-sunward convection, enhanced fluxes of low-energy precipitating electrons from the boundary plasma sheet, and upward thermal ion fluxes in excess of 10 9 cm -2 s -1 at DE-2. While USI are primarily a dayside phenomena, UFI are found in all local time sectors sampled by DE-2

  19. Modeling of the Jovian Magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Alexeev

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a global model of the Jovian magnetosphere which is valid not only in the equatorial plane and near the planet, as most of the existing models are, but also at high latitudes and in the outer regions of the magnetosphere. The model includes the Jovian dipole, magnetodisc, and tail current system. The tail currents are combined with the magnetopause closure currents. All inner magnetospheric magnetic field sources are screened by the magnetopause currents. It guarantees a zero normal magnetic field component for the inner magnetospheric field at the whole magnetopause surface. By changing magnetospheric scale (subsolar distance, the model gives a possibility to study the solar wind influence on the magnetospheric structure and auroral activity. A dependence of the magnetospheric size on the solar wind dynamic pressure psw (proportional to psw-0.23 is obtained. It is a stronger dependence than in the case of the Earth's magnetosphere (psw-1/6. The model of Jupiter's magnetospheric which is presented is a unique one, as it allows one to study the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF effects.

  20. Modeling of the Jovian Magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Alexeev

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a global model of the Jovian magnetosphere which is valid not only in the equatorial plane and near the planet, as most of the existing models are, but also at high latitudes and in the outer regions of the magnetosphere. The model includes the Jovian dipole, magnetodisc, and tail current system. The tail currents are combined with the magnetopause closure currents. All inner magnetospheric magnetic field sources are screened by the magnetopause currents. It guarantees a zero normal magnetic field component for the inner magnetospheric field at the whole magnetopause surface. By changing magnetospheric scale (subsolar distance, the model gives a possibility to study the solar wind influence on the magnetospheric structure and auroral activity. A dependence of the magnetospheric size on the solar wind dynamic pressure psw (proportional to psw-0.23 is obtained. It is a stronger dependence than in the case of the Earth's magnetosphere (psw-1/6. The model of Jupiter's magnetospheric which is presented is a unique one, as it allows one to study the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF effects.

  1. Magnetospheric convection electric field dynamics andstormtime particle energization: case study of the magneticstorm of 4 May 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Khazanov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that narrow channels of high electric field are an effective mechanism for injecting plasma into the inner magnetosphere. Analytical expressions for the electric field cannot produce these channels of intense plasma flow, and thus, result in less entry and adiabatic energization of the plasma sheet into near-Earth space. For the ions, omission of these channels leads to an underprediction of the strength of the stormtime ring current and therefore, an underestimation of the geoeffectiveness of the storm event. For the electrons, omission of these channels leads to the inability to create a seed population of 10-100 keV electrons deep in the inner magnetosphere. These electrons can eventually be accelerated into MeV radiation belt particles. To examine this, the 1-7 May 1998 magnetic storm is studied with a plasma transport model by using three different convection electric field models: Volland-Stern, Weimer, and AMIE. It is found that the AMIE model can produce particle fluxes that are several orders of magnitude higher in the L = 2 – 4 range of the inner magnetosphere, even for a similar total cross-tail potential difference. Key words. Space plasma physics (charged particle motion and acceleration – Magnetospheric physics (electric fields, storms and substorms

  2. Study of Oblique Propagating Whistler Mode Waves in Presence of Parallel DC Electric Field in Magnetosphere of Saturn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kaur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper whistler mode waves have been investigated in magnetosphere of Saturn. The derivation for perturbed distribution function, dispersion relation and growth rate have been determined by using the method of characteristic and kinetic approach. Analytical expressions for growth rate and real frequency of whistlers propagating oblique to magnetic field direction are attained. Calculations have been performed at 6 radial distances in plasma sheet region of Saturn’s magnetosphere as per data provided by Cassini. Work has been extended for bi-Maxwellian as well as Loss-cone distribution function. Parametric analysis show that temperature anisotropy, increase in number density, energy density and angle of propagation increases the growth rate of whistler waves along with significant shift in wave number. In case of Loss-cone distribution, increase in growth rate of whistlers is significantly more than for bi-Maxwellian distribution function. Generation of second harmonics can also be seen in the graphs plotted. It is concluded that parallel DC field stabilizes the wave and temperature anisotropy, angle of propagation, number density and energy density of electrons enhances the growth rate. Thus the results are of importance in analyzing observed VLF emissions over wide spectrum of frequency range in Saturnian magnetosphere. The analytical model developed can also be used to study various types of instabilities in planetary magnetospheres.

  3. Statistical study of waves distribution in the inner magnetosphere using geomagnetic indices and solar wind parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, H.; Yearby, K.; Balikhin, M. A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Agapitov, O. V.

    2013-12-01

    The interaction of gyroresonant wave particles with chorus waves largely determine the dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts that effects the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons. The common approach is to present model waves distribution in the inner magnetosphere under different values of geomagnetic activity as expressed by the geomagnetic indices. However it is known that solar wind parameters such as bulk velocity (V) and density (n) are more effective in the control of high energy fluxes at the geostationary orbit. Therefore in the present study the set of parameters of the wave distribution is expanded to include the solar wind parameters in addition to the geomagnetic indices. The present study examines almost four years (01, January, 2004 to 29, September, 2007) of Cluster STAFF-SA, Double Star TC1 and OMNI data in order to present a combined model of wave magnetic field intensities for the chorus waves as a function of magnetic local time (MLT), L-shell (L*), geomagnetic activity, and solar wind velocity and density. Generally, the largest wave intensities are observed during average solar wind velocities (3006cm-3. On the other hand the wave intensity is lower and limited between 06:00 to 18:00 MLT for V700kms-1.

  4. Traveling magnetospheric convection twin vortices: Another case study, global characteristics, and a model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassmeier, K.H.; Heppner, C.

    1992-01-01

    A case study of a transient geomagnetic field variation event associated with a traveling magnetospheric convection twin vortex is presented. The characteristics of this event are different from those of other presented cases, as the sense of rotation of the associated ionospheric current system is reversed, that is, it exhibits upward (downward) field-aligned currents in the tailward (dayside) part of the vortex structure. In particular, a clear tailward motion at high latitudes can be deduced from local as well as global magnetic field observations. At low dayside latitudes, magnetic field variations similar to sudden impulse (SI) variations are recorded. Almost simultaneous onset and no westward propagation are observed, too. As possible source mechanisms of such transient events, localized magnetic field reconnection as well as pressure pulses at the dayside magnetopause are discussed. If the switch-on of magnetic reconnection can be regarded as equivalent to an equivalent current flowing against the existing magnetopause current and if this countercurrent is spatially localized, an Alfven wave is generated with downward (upward) field-aligned current flow in the tailward (dayside) par of the wave, as observed for some of the reported transients. However, the SI-like behavior of the event studied in this paper, its reversed sense of rotation, and the vortex associated field-aligned current density excludes such localized magnetic reconnection as a possible source mechanism and argues in favor of the existence of pressure pulses at the magnetopause

  5. Report of the magnetospheric physics panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, J.L.; Potemra, T.A.; Ashourabdalla, M.; Baker, D.N.; Cattell, C.A.; Chang, A.F.; Frank, L.A.; Goertz, C.K.; Kivelson, M.G.; Lee, Lou-Chuang

    1991-01-01

    Magnetospheric research is a relatively new area in the study of the Earth's environment. The present report attempts to overview past and future research on this topic. The goals of magnetospheric research are numerous, and include: understanding large scale magnetospheres of the Earth and other planets; understanding the plasma physical processes operating within the various magnetospheres; to understand how mass, energy and momentum are transmitted from the solar wind; to understand quantitatively the coupling between magnetospheres and their ionospheres; and to understand the magnetospheric mechanisms which accelerate particles to high energies, as well as the ultimate fate of these particles. The report continues on to summarize a number of proposed space missions aimed at data acquisition. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the theory and modeling of magnetospheres

  6. Planetary magnetospheres: the in situ astrophysical laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimigis, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The magnetosphere of Earth is described first because it represents the one most extensively studied to date, and serve as the baseline for characterizing the phenomena to be observed in other planetary magnetospheres. The magnetospheres of the inner planets (Mercury, Venus and Mars) are examined next and then a description of the magnetospheres of the outer planets are presented. The description of the magnetosphere of Jupiter form the bulk of the paper, not only because of its enormous size and rich variety of physical phenomena within, but because it may represent the closest analog to the many astrophysical objects thought to possess magnetospheres. Several properties characteristic of magnetospheres in general will then be pointed out, and the significance of the findings is discussed in the context of solar system and astrophysical plasmas

  7. Initial studies of high latitude magnetic field data during different magnetospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cersosimo, D. O.; Wanliss, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of high-latitude magnetometer data for differing geomagnetic activity. This is achieved by characterizing changes in the nonlinear statistics of the geomagnetic field, by means of the Hurst exponent, measured from a single ground-based magnetometer station. The long-range statistical nature of the geomagnetic field at a local observation site can be described as a multifractional Brownian motion, thus suggesting the statistical structure required of mathematical models of magnetospheric activity. We also find that, in general, the average Hurst exponent for quiet magnetospheric intervals is smaller than that for more active intervals.

  8. Statistical study of high-latitude plasma flow during magnetospheric substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Provan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We have utilised the near-global imaging capabilities of the Northern Hemisphere SuperDARN radars, to perform a statistical superposed epoch analysis of high-latitude plasma flows during magnetospheric substorms. The study involved 67 substorms, identified using the IMAGE FUV space-borne auroral imager. A substorm co-ordinate system was developed, centred on the magnetic local time and magnetic latitude of substorm onset determined from the auroral images. The plasma flow vectors from all 67 intervals were combined, creating global statistical plasma flow patterns and backscatter occurrence statistics during the substorm growth and expansion phases. The commencement of the substorm growth phase was clearly observed in the radar data 18-20min before substorm onset, with an increase in the anti-sunward component of the plasma velocity flowing across dawn sector of the polar cap and a peak in the dawn-to-dusk transpolar voltage. Nightside backscatter moved to lower latitudes as the growth phase progressed. At substorm onset a flow suppression region was observed on the nightside, with fast flows surrounding the suppressed flow region. The dawn-to-dusk transpolar voltage increased from ~40kV just before substorm onset to ~75kV 12min after onset. The low-latitude return flow started to increase at substorm onset and continued to increase until 8min after onset. The velocity flowing across the polar-cap peaked 12-14min after onset. This increase in the flux of the polar cap and the excitation of large-scale plasma flow occurred even though the IMF Bz component was increasing (becoming less negative during most of this time. This study is the first to statistically prove that nightside reconnection creates magnetic flux and excites high-latitude plasma flow in a similar way to dayside reconnection and that dayside and nightside reconnection, are two separate time-dependent processes.

  9. Statistical study of chorus wave distributions in the inner magnetosphere using Ae and solar wind parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Homayon; Yearby, Keith; Balikhin, Michael; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Boynton, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Energetic electrons within the Earth's radiation belts represent a serious hazard to geostationary satellites. The interactions of electrons with chorus waves play an important role in both the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons. The common approach is to present model wave distributions in the inner magnetosphere under different values of geomagnetic activity as expressed by the geomagnetic indices. However, it has been shown that only around 50% of geomagnetic storms increase flux of relativistic electrons at geostationary orbit while 20% causes a decrease and the remaining 30% has relatively no effect. This emphasizes the importance of including solar wind parameters such as bulk velocity (V), density (n), flow pressure (P), and the vertical interplanetary magnetic field component (Bz) that are known to be predominately effective in the control of high energy fluxes at the geostationary orbit. Therefore, in the present study the set of parameters of the wave distributions is expanded to include the solar wind parameters in addition to the geomagnetic activity. The present study examines almost 4 years (1 January 2004 to 29 September 2007) of Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuation data from Double Star TC1 combined with geomagnetic indices and solar wind parameters from OMNI database in order to present a comprehensive model of wave magnetic field intensities for the chorus waves as a function of magnetic local time, L shell (L), magnetic latitude (λm), geomagnetic activity, and solar wind parameters. Generally, the results indicate that the intensity of chorus emission is not only dependent upon geomagnetic activity but also dependent on solar wind parameters with velocity and southward interplanetary magnetic field Bs (Bz < 0), evidently the most influential solar wind parameters. The largest peak chorus intensities in the order of 50 pT are observed during active conditions, high solar wind velocities, low solar wind densities, high

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of the Jovian Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Under this grant we have undertaken a series of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation and data analysis studies to help better understand the configuration and dynamics of Jupiter's magnetosphere. We approached our studies of Jupiter's magnetosphere in two ways. First we carried out a number of studies using our existing MHD code. We carried out simulation studies of Jupiter s magnetospheric boundaries and their dependence on solar wind parameters, we studied the current systems which give the Jovian magnetosphere its unique configuration and we modeled the dynamics of Jupiter s magnetosphere following a northward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Second we worked to develop a new simulation code for studies of outer planet magnetospheres.

  11. Cluster observations of near-Earth magnetospheric lobe plasma densities – a statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Svenes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cluster-mission has enabled a study of the near-Earth magnetospheric lobes throughout the waning part of solar cycle 23. During the first seven years of the mission the satellites crossed this region of space regularly from about July to October. We have obtained new and more accurate plasma densities in this region based on spacecraft potential measurements from the EFW-instrument. The plasma density measurements are found by converting the potential measurements using a functional relationship between these two parameters. Our observations have shown that throughout this period a full two thirds of the measurements were contained in the range 0.007–0.092 cm−3 irrespective of solar wind conditions or geomagnetic activity. In fact, the most probable density encountered was 0.047 cm−3, staying roughly constant throughout the entire observation period. The plasma population in this region seems to reflect an equilibrium situation in which the density is independent of the solar wind condition or geomagnetic activity. However, the high density tail of the population (ne>0.2 cm−3 seemed to decrease with the waning solar cycle. This points to a source region influenced by the diminishing solar UV/EUV-intensity. Noting that the quiet time polar wind has just such a development and that it is magnetically coupled to the lobes, it seems likely to assume that this is a prominent source for the lobe plasma.

  12. Applications of High Etendue Line-Profile Spectro-Polarimetry to the Study of the Atmospheric and Magnetospheric Environments of the Jovian Icy Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Walter M.; Roesler, Fred L.; Jaffel, Lotfi Ben; Ballester, Gilda E.; Oliversen, Ronald J.; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin

    2003-01-01

    Electrodynamic effects play a significant, global role in the state and energization of the Earth's ionosphere/magnetosphere, but even more so on Jupiter, where the auroral energy input is four orders of magnitude greater than on Earth. The Jovian magnetosphere is distinguished from Earth's by its rapid rotation rate and contributions from satellite atmospheres and internal plasma sources. The electrodynamic effects of these factors have a key role in the state and energization of the ionosphere-corona- plasmasphere system of the planet and its interaction with Io and the icy satellites. Several large scale interacting processes determine conditions near the icy moons beginning with their tenuous atmospheres produced from sputtering, evaporative, and tectonic/volcanic sources, extending out to exospheres that merge with ions and neutrals in the Jovian magnetosphere. This dynamic environment is dependent on a complex network of magnetospheric currents that act on global scales. Field aligned currents connect the satellites and the middle and tail magnetospheric regions to the Jupiter's poles via flux tubes that produce as bright auroral and satellite footprint emissions in the upper atmosphere. This large scale transfer of mass, momentum, and energy (e.g. waves, currents) means that a combination of complementary diagnostics of the plasma, neutral, and and field network must be obtained near simultaneously to correctly interpret the results. This presentation discusses the applicability of UV spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS) to the broad study of this system on scales from satellite surfaces to Jupiter's aurora and corona.

  13. THEMIS observations of compressional pulsations in the dawn-side magnetosphere: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Korotova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We present THEMIS-A low- and high-energy plasma, magnetic field, and energetic particle observations of long period (11–36 min irregular compressional pulsations in the dawnside magnetosphere from 08:00 to 12:24 UT on 7 November 2007. We demonstrate that the pulsations maintain thermal and magnetic pressure balance, then employ finite gyroradius techniques to determine wave properties from the gyrophase distributions of 5–10 keV ions. The waves generally move sunward at velocities ~10 km s−1 with the background plasma convection flow. Wavelengths range from 6700 to 23 300 km, corresponding to azimuthal wavenumbers m from 18 to 76. Wave periods decrease with increasing radial distance. Having determined the parameters describing the waves, we consider three previously proposed explanations: generation by substorm injection, generation by bounce or drift-bounce instabilities, and generation by the drift-mirror instability. The interval was quiet geomagnetically, arguing against any relationship to substorm injections. We found that ions with low energies of 69–628 eV or high energies of 28–615 keV would have been required to account for drift-bounce resonance during this interval, but inspection reveals ion fluxes at these energies near background levels during the time period considered. On the other hand, the criteria for the drift mirror instability are marginally satisfied. As predicted for the drift mirror instability, particle distributions peak more sharply near 90° pitch angles during magnetic field strength enhancements than during strength depressions. At this point we therefore interpret the compressional pulsations observed by THEMIS A in terms of the drift mirror instability.

  14. The Magnetospheric Multiscale Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, C. R.; Black, R. K.; Robertson, B. P.; Stone, J. M.; Pope, S. E.; Davis, G. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is the fourth mission of the Solar Terrestrial Probe (STP) program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The MMS mission was launched on March 12, 2015. The MMS mission consists of four identically instrumented spin-stabilized observatories which are flown in formation to perform the first definitive study of magnetic reconnection in space. The MMS mission was presented with numerous technical challenges, including the simultaneous construction and launch of four identical large spacecraft with 100 instruments total, stringent electromagnetic cleanliness requirements, closed-loop precision maneuvering and pointing of spinning flexible spacecraft, on-board GPS based orbit determination far above the GPS constellation, and a flight dynamics design that enables formation flying with separation distances as small as 10 km. This paper describes the overall mission design and presents an overview of the design, testing, and early on-orbit operation of the spacecraft systems and instrument suite.

  15. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  16. Diagnostic study of coupled solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere dynamics in D-region ionosphere via VLF signal propagation characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, Victor U. J.; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Geomagnetic disturbances and storms are known to produce significant global disturbances in the ionosphere, including the middle atmosphere and troposphere. There is little understanding about the mechanism and dynamics that drive these processes in lower ionosphere. The ionosphere is also thought to be sensitive to seismic events, and it is believed that it exhibits precursory characteristics as reported in studies via characteristic anomalies in VLF signal. However, distinguishing or separating seismically induced ionospheric fluctuations from those of other origins (e.g., Solar activity, planetary and tidal waves, stratospheric warming etc.) remain vital to robust conclusion, and challenging too. The unique propagation characteristic of VLF radio signal makes it an ideal tool for the study and diagnosis of variability of D-region ionosphere. In this work, we present the analysis of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling dynamics in D-region ionosphere using VLF signal characteristics, and performed an investigation of previously reported 'ionospheric precursors' to understand the true origins of measured anomalies.

  17. Magnetospheric and interplanetary physics 1979-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    Major trends in the study of magnetospheric and interplanetary physics during the 1979-1982 period are surveyed. Topics discussed include the exploration of the Saturnian and Jovian magnetospheres by Voyagers 1 and 2, the behavior of different ions in the earth magnetosphere, auroral kilometric radiation, computer modeling of global magnetospheric MHD flow, the magnetic substorm, the quiet state, the earth's bow shock, the heliospheric current sheet, and new techniques such as electron beam experiments, 'active' injection experiments, auroral radars, and observations of the earth's distant magnetic tail. The future of this area of research is seen in the combination of data from different spacecraft and ground observations in a single correlated data set, and in the consolidation of past gains by analysis of the large data backlog, while a small number of new missions goes forward.

  18. Field Line Resonance conjugate studies in the dayside inner magnetosphere using SAMBA antarctic magnetometers and THEMIS mission probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, V. A.; Stepanova, M. V.; Zesta, E.; Boudouridis, A.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    To test the robustness of the automated Field Line Resonance (FLR) technique described by [Boudouridis and Zesta 2007], and commonly used for the estimation of the plasma density in the inner magnetosphere, conjugate studies between the SAMBA magnetometer array and the THEMIS satellite were performed. An excellent conjunction, with a duration of nearly 40 minutes, between Escudero (ESC) and O'Higgins (OHI) antarctic fluxgate magnetometers from SAMBA and three probes from THEMIS was found on June 16, 2007. It is shown that the amplitude ratio method for the estimation of the frequency of resonance is more reliable than the phase difference method. For the amplitude ratio method we found time intervals in which we have the same resonance frequency in both ground and space measurements. We also compared this estimation with the in-situ ion number density measurements from the THEMIS satellites. It was found that the plasma density obtained from the FLR frequency is more fluctuating than the ion number density observed by THEMIS ESA and SST instruments. The time intervals for wich the plasma density and the number density are strongly correlated are much shorter than the intervals of high correlation between ground and space field line resonance frequencies. We investigate if the difference can be attributed to the orbital and/or ion composition effects.

  19. Energy Limits of Electron Acceleration in the Plasma Sheet During Substorms: A Case Study with the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Clemmons, J. H.; Mauk, B. H.; Cohen, I. J.; Jaynes, A. N.; Craft, J. V.; Wilder, F. D.; Baker, D. N.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present multipoint observations of earthward moving dipolarization fronts and energetic particle injections from NASAs Magnetospheric Multiscale mission with a focus on electron acceleration. From a case study during a substorm on 02 August 2015, we find that electrons are only accelerated over a finite energy range, from a lower energy threshold at approx. 7-9 keV up to an upper energy cutoff in the hundreds of keV range. At energies lower than the threshold energy, electron fluxes decrease, potentially due to precipitation by strong parallel electrostatic wavefields or initial sources in the lobes. Electrons at energies higher than the threshold are accelerated cumulatively by a series of impulsive magnetic dipolarization events. This case demonstrates how the upper energy cutoff increases, in this case from approx. 130 keV to >500 keV, with each depolarization/injection during sustained activity. We also present a simple model accounting for these energy limits that reveals that electron energization is dominated by betatron acceleration.

  20. On magnetospheric electron impact ionisation and dynamics in Titan's ram-side and polar ionosphere – a Cassini case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Lewis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We present data from the sixth Cassini flyby of Titan (T5, showing that the magnetosphere of Saturn strongly interacts with the moon's ionosphere and exo-ionosphere. A simple electron ionisation model provides a reasonable agreement with the altitude structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore, we suggest that the dense and cold exo-ionosphere (from the exobase at 1430 km and outward to several Titan radii from the surface can be explained by magnetospheric forcing and other transport processes whereas exospheric ionisation by impacting low energy electrons seems to play a minor role.

  1. Magnetic reconnection during steady magnetospheric convection and other magnetospheric modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hubert

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We use remote sensing of the proton aurora with the IMAGE-FUV SI12 (Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration–Far Ultraviolet–Spectrographic Imaging at 121.8 nm instrument and radar measurements of the ionospheric convection from the SuperDARN (Super Dual Aurora Radar Network facility to estimate the open magnetic flux in the Earth's magnetosphere and the reconnection rates at the dayside magnetopause and in the magnetotail during intervals of steady magnetospheric convection (SMC. We find that SMC intervals occur with relatively high open magnetic flux (average  ∼  0.745 GWb, standard deviation  ∼  0.16 GWb, which is often found to be nearly steady, when the magnetic flux opening and closure rates approximately balance around 55 kV on average, with a standard deviation of 21 kV. We find that the residence timescale of open magnetic flux, defined as the ratio between the open magnetospheric flux and the flux closure rate, is roughly 4 h during SMCs. Interestingly, this number is approximately what can be deduced from the discussion of the length of the tail published by Dungey (1965, assuming a solar wind speed of  ∼  450 km s−1. We also infer an enhanced convection velocity in the tail, driving open magnetic flux to the nightside reconnection site. We compare our results with previously published studies in order to identify different magnetospheric modes. These are ordered by increasing open magnetic flux and reconnection rate as quiet conditions, SMCs, substorms (with an important overlap between these last two and sawtooth intervals.

  2. Statistical study of phase relationships between magnetic and plasma thermal pressures in the near-earth magnetosphere using the THEMIS satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, K.; Kazuo, S.

    2017-12-01

    The auroral finger-like structures appear in the equatorward part of the auroral oval in the diffuse auroral region, and contribute to the auroral fragmentation into patches during substorm recovery phase. In our previous presentations, we reported the first conjugate observation of auroral finger-like structures using the THEMIS GBO cameras and the THEMIS satellites, which was located at a radial distance of 9 Re in the dawnside plasma sheet. In this conjugate event, we found anti-phase fluctuation of plasma pressure and magnetic pressure with a time scale of 5-20 min in the plasma sheet. This observational fact is consistent with the idea that the finger-like structures are caused by a pressure-driven instability in the balance of plasma and magnetic pressures in the magnetosphere. Then we also searched simultaneous observation events of auroral finger-like structures with the RBSP satellites which have an apogee of 5.8 Re in the inner magnetosphere. Contrary to the first result, the observed variation of plasma and magnetic pressures do not show systematic phase relationship. In order to investigate these phase relationships between plasma and magnetic pressures in the magnetosphere, we statistically analyzed these pressure data using the THEMIS-E satellite for one year in 2011. In the preliminary analysis of pressure variation spectra, we found that out of phase relationship between magnetic and plasma pressures occupied 40 % of the entire period of study. In the presentation, we will discuss these results in the context of relationships between the pressure fluctuations and the magnetospheric instabilities that can cause auroral finger-like structures.

  3. Magnetospheric processes preceding the onset of an isolated substorm: A case study of the March 31, 1978, substorm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, A.; Kamide, Y.

    1983-01-01

    We examined in detail the effect of a southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on the state of the magnetosphere, taking advantage of the availability of the data from IMS magnetometer meridian chains and from several spacecraft. A clear onset substorm occurred on March 31, 1978, when the magnetometer stations were located in the midnight to morning sector and the spacecraft were near the equatorial plane of the nightside magnetosphere. The onset time of the substorm expansion phase could be determined unambiguously in terms of both ground-based magnetic and auroral signatures, and there was an interval lasting about 1 hour between the IMF southward turning and this onset. In this intervening interval the ionospheric current system of the DP 2 type developed. This enhancement of the ionospheric current was driven directly by the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. The onset of the expansion phase was then associated with the decrease in the magnetic field energy density in the tail, providing evidence that the substorm energy was supplied by the release (unloading) of energy from the tail. It is most likely that substorm energy dissipated in the auroral ionosphere throughout this relatively isolated and simple event was supplied by two components, 'directly driven' and 'loading-unloading,' the relative importance of which varied depending on the different substorm phases

  4. Experimental study of electronic electrostatic waves detected in the terrestrial magnetosphere by the satellite GEOS 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canu, P.

    1982-09-01

    After reviewing the general characteristics of electrostator waves a brief resume is given of the observations made up to the present moment. The GEOS satellite and the ''wave'' experiment are described, as well as the method and results of the statistical study of the strong electrostatic wave observed. Creating mechanisms of diffuse auroras are discussed. In a later chapter a new method of using the relaxation probe is presented as well as the results it gives on the mode of propagation of waves in the neighbourhood of the FUH frequency [fr

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic calculations on pulsar magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, W.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper, the relativistic magnetohydrodynamic is presented in covariant form and applied to some problems in the field of pulsar magnetospheres. In addition, numerical methods to solve the resulting equations of motion are investigated. The theory of relativistic magnetohydrodynamic presented here is valid in the framework of the theory of general relativity, describing the interaction of electromagnetic fields with an ideal fluid. In the two-dimensional case, a Lax-Wendroff method is studied which should be optimally stable with the operator splitting of Strang. In the framework of relativistic magnetohydrodynamic also the model of a stationary aequatorial stellar pulsar wind as well as the parallel rotator is investigated. (orig.) [de

  6. On the Magnetospheric Heating Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykyri, K.; Moore, T.; Dimmock, A. P.; Ma, X.; Johnson, J.; Delamere, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    In the Earth's magnetosphere the specific entropy, increases by approximately two orders of magnitude when transitioning from the magnetosheath into the magnetosphere. However, the origin of this non-adiabatic heating is not well understood. In addition, there exists a dawn-dusk temperature asymmetry in the flanks of the plasma sheet - the cold component ions are hotter by 30-40% at the dawnside plasma sheet compared to the duskside plasma sheet. Our recent statistical study of magnetosheath temperatures using 7 years of THEMIS data indicates that ion magnetosheath temperatures downstream of quasi-parallel (dawn-flank for the Parker-Spiral IMF) bow shock are only 15 percent higher than downstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock. This magnetosheath temperature asymmetry is therefore inadequate to cause the observed level of the plasma sheet temperature asymmetry. In this presentation we address the origin of non-adiabatic heating from the magnetosheath into the plasma sheet by utilizing small Cluster spacecraft separations, 9 years of statistical THEMIS data as well as Hall-MHD and hybrid simulations. We present evidence of a new physical mechanism capable of cross-scale energy transport at the flank magnetopause with strong contributions to the non-adiabatic heating observed between the magnetosheath and plasma sheet. This same heating mechanism may occur and drive asymmetries also in the magnetospheres of gas giants: Jupiter and Saturn, as well as play role elsewhere in the universe where significant flow shears are present such as in the solar corona, and other astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.

  7. SMILE - New Mission to Image the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.

    2016-12-01

    Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE) is a novel self-standing mission to be jointly developed between European Space Agency (ESA) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). It is dedicated to study the dynamic coupling of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere in a global way never attempted so far. From a highly inclined elliptical Earth orbit, SMILE will obtain X-ray images of the magnetosheath and polar cusps simultaneously with UV images of the Northern aurora, while also carrying out in situ solar wind/magnetosheath plasma and magnetic field measurements. Remote sensing of the magnetosphere with X-ray imaging is now possible thanks to the relatively recent discovery of solar wind charge exchange (SWCX). This talk will present the science that SMILE will deliver and its impact, and will provide an overview of its payload and the mission's development.

  8. Magnetospheric plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawhan, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief history of plasma wave observations in the Earth's magnetosphere is recounted and a classification of the identified plasma wave phenomena is presented. The existence of plasma waves is discussed in terms of the characteristic frequencies of the plasma, the energetic particle populations and the proposed generation mechanisms. Examples are given for which plasmas waves have provided information about the plasma parameters and particle characteristics once a reasonable theory has been developed. Observational evidence and arguments by analogy to the observed Earth plasma wave processes are used to identify plasma waves that may be significant in other planetary magnetospheres. The similarities between the observed characteristics of the terrestrial kilometric radiation and radio bursts from Jupiter, Saturn and possibly Uranus are stressed. Important scientific problems concerning plasma wave processes in the solar system and beyond are identified and discussed. Models for solar flares, flare star radio outbursts and pulsars include elements which are also common to the models for magnetospheric radio bursts. Finally, a listing of the research and development in terms of instruments, missions, laboratory experiments, theory and computer simulations needed to make meaningful progress on the outstanding scientific problems of plasma wave research is given. (Auth.)

  9. Some recent results from European sounding rocket and satellite observations of the hot magnetospheric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1979-03-01

    A brief summary of some recent results from European studies of the hot magnetospheric plasma is presented. The material is organized in four main sections: 1) Observations of keV auroral electrons. 2) Observation of the hot ion component of the magnetospheric plasma. 3) Sudden changes of the distribution of the hot plasma in the dayside magnetosphere. 4) Banded electron cyclotron harmonic instability in the magnetosphere - a first comparison of theory and experiment. (E.R.)

  10. Saturn: atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombosi, Tamas I; Ingersoll, Andrew P

    2010-03-19

    The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since 30 June 2004, yielding a wealth of data about the Saturn system. This review focuses on the atmosphere and magnetosphere and briefly outlines the state of our knowledge after the Cassini prime mission. The mission has addressed a host of fundamental questions: What processes control the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of the atmosphere? Where does the magnetospheric plasma come from? What are the physical processes coupling the ionosphere and magnetosphere? And, what are the rotation rates of Saturn's atmosphere and magnetosphere?

  11. Magnetospheric ULF wave studies in the frame of Swarm mission: new advanced tools for automated detection of pulsations in magnetic and electric field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, Georgios; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Georgiou, Marina; Giamini, Sigiava A.; Sandberg, Ingmar; Haagmans, Roger

    2014-05-01

    The rekindling of the interest in space science in the last 15 years has led to many successful satellite missions in the Earth's magnetosphere and topside ionosphere, which were able to provide the scientific community with high-quality data on the magnetic and electric fields surrounding our planet. This data pool will be further enriched by the measurements of ESA's Swarm mission, a constellation of three satellites in different polar orbits, flying at altitudes from 400 to 550 km, which was launched on the 22nd of November 2013. Aiming at the best scientific exploitation of this corpus of accumulated data, we have developed a set of analysis tools that can cope with measurements of various spacecraft, at various regions of the magnetosphere and in the topside ionosphere. Our algorithms are based on a combination of wavelet spectral methods and artificial neural network techniques and are suited for the detection of waves and wave-like disturbances as well as the extraction of several physical parameters. Our recent work demonstrates the applicability of our developed analysis tools, both for individual case studies and statistical analysis of ultra low frequency (ULF) waves. We provide evidence for a rare simultaneous observation of a ULF wave event in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere and surface: we have found a specific time interval during the Halloween 2003 magnetic storm, when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT) conjunction, and have examined the ULF wave activity in the Pc3 (22-100 mHz), Pc4 (7-22 mHz) and Pc5 (1-7 mHz) bands using data from the Geotail, Cluster and CHAMP missions, as well as the CARISMA, GIMA and IMAGE magnetometer networks. Our study shows that the same wave event, characterized by increased activity in the high end of the Pc3 band, was simultaneously observed by all three satellite missions and by certain stations of ground networks. This observation provides a strong argument in favour of the

  12. A New Approach to Modeling Jupiter's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, K.; Katoh, Y.; Walker, R. J.; Kimura, T.; Tsuchiya, F.; Murakami, G.; Kita, H.; Tao, C.; Murata, K. T.

    2017-12-01

    The scales in planetary magnetospheres range from 10s of planetary radii to kilometers. For a number of years we have studied the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn by using 3-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. However, we have not been able to reach even the limits of the MHD approximation because of the large amount of computer resources required. Recently thanks to the progress in supercomputer systems, we have obtained the capability to simulate Jupiter's magnetosphere with 1000 times the number of grid points used in our previous simulations. This has allowed us to combine the high resolution global simulation with a micro-scale simulation of the Jovian magnetosphere. In particular we can combine a hybrid (kinetic ions and fluid electrons) simulation with the MHD simulation. In addition, the new capability enables us to run multi-parameter survey simulations of the Jupiter-solar wind system. In this study we performed a high-resolution simulation of Jovian magnetosphere to connect with the hybrid simulation, and lower resolution simulations under the various solar wind conditions to compare with Hisaki and Juno observations. In the high-resolution simulation we used a regular Cartesian gird with 0.15 RJ grid spacing and placed the inner boundary at 7 RJ. From these simulation settings, we provide the magnetic field out to around 20 RJ from Jupiter as a background field for the hybrid simulation. For the first time we have been able to resolve Kelvin Helmholtz waves on the magnetopause. We have investigated solar wind dynamic pressures between 0.01 and 0.09 nPa for a number of IMF values. These simulation data are open for the registered users to download the raw data. We have compared the results of these simulations with Hisaki auroral observations.

  13. Multi-Scale Modeling of Magnetospheric Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, M. M.; Hesse, M.; Toth, G.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a key element in many phenomena in space plasma, e.g. Coronal mass Ejections, Magnetosphere substorms. One of the major challenges in modeling the dynamics of large-scale systems involving magnetic reconnection is to quantifY the interaction between global evolution of the magnetosphere and microphysical kinetic processes in diffusion regions near reconnection sites. Recent advances in small-scale kinetic modeling of magnetic reconnection significantly improved our understanding of physical mechanisms controlling the dissipation in the vicinity of the reconnection site in collisionless plasma. However the progress in studies of small-scale geometries was not very helpful for large scale simulations. Global magnetosphere simulations usually include non-ideal processes in terms of numerical dissipation and/or ad hoc anomalous resistivity. Comparative studies of magnetic reconnection in small scale geometries demonstrated that MHD simulations that included non-ideal processes in terms of a resistive term 11 J did not produce fast reconnection rates observed in kinetic simulations. In collisionless magnetospheric plasma, the primary mechanism controlling the dissipation in the vicinity of the reconnection site is nongyrotropic pressure effects with spatial scales comparable with the particle Larmor radius. We utilize the global MHD code BATSRUS and replace ad hoc parameters such as "critical current density" and "anomalous resistivity" with a physically motivated model of dissipation. The primary mechanism controlling the dissipation in the vicinity of the reconnection site in incorporated into MHD description in terms of non-gyrotropic corrections to the induction equation. We will demonstrate that kinetic nongyrotropic effects can significantly alter the global magnetosphere evolution. Our approach allowed for the first time to model loading/unloading cycle in response to steady southward IMF driving. The role of solar wind parameters and

  14. On the mapping of ionospheric convection into the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, M.; Birn, J.; Hoffman, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Under steady state conditions and in the absence of parallel electric fields, ionospheric convection is a direct map of plasma and magnetic flux convection in the magnetosphere, and quantitative estimates can be obtained from the mapping along magnetic field lines of electrostatic ionospheric electric fields. The resulting magnetospheric electrostatic potential distribution then provides the convection electric field in various magnetospheric regions. We present a quantitative framework for the investigation of the applicability and limitations of this approach based on an analytical theory derived from first principles. Particular emphasis is on the role of parallel electric field regions and on inductive effects, such as expected during the growth and expansive phases of magnetospheric substorms. We derive quantitative estimates for the limits in which either effect leads to a significant decoupling between ionospheric and magnetospheric convection and provide an interpretation of ionospheric convection which is independent of the presence of inductive electric fields elsewhere in the magnetosphere. Finally, we present a study of the relation between average and instantaneous convection, using two periodic dynamical models. The models demonstrate and quantify the potential mismatch between the average electric fields in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere in strongly time-dependent cases that may exist even when they are governed entirely by ideal MHD

  15. Theory of neutron star magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis Michel, F

    1990-01-01

    An incomparable reference for astrophysicists studying pulsars and other kinds of neutron stars, "Theory of Neutron Star Magnetospheres" sums up two decades of astrophysical research. It provides in one volume the most important findings to date on this topic, essential to astrophysicists faced with a huge and widely scattered literature. F. Curtis Michel, who was among the first theorists to propose a neutron star model for radio pulsars, analyzes competing models of pulsars, radio emission models, winds and jets from pulsars, pulsating X-ray sources, gamma-ray burst sources, and other neutron-star driven phenomena. Although the book places primary emphasis on theoretical essentials, it also provides a considerable introduction to the observational data and its organization. Michel emphasizes the problems and uncertainties that have arisen in the research as well as the considerable progress that has been made to date.

  16. Particle Acceleration in Dissipative Pulsar Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Z.; Kalapotharakos, C.; Harding, A.; Contopoulos, I.

    2012-01-01

    Pulsar magnetospheres represent unipolar inductor-type electrical circuits at which an EM potential across the polar cap (due to the rotation of their magnetic field) drives currents that run in and out of the polar cap and close at infinity. An estimate ofthe magnitude of this current can be obtained by dividing the potential induced across the polar cap V approx = B(sub O) R(sub O)(Omega R(sub O)/c)(exp 2) by the impedance of free space Z approx eq 4 pi/c; the resulting polar cap current density is close to $n {GJ} c$ where $n_{GJ}$ is the Goldreich-Julian (GJ) charge density. This argument suggests that even at current densities close to the GJ one, pulsar magnetospheres have a significant component of electric field $E_{parallel}$, parallel to the magnetic field, a condition necessary for particle acceleration and the production of radiation. We present the magnetic and electric field structures as well as the currents, charge densities, spin down rates and potential drops along the magnetic field lines of pulsar magnetospheres which do not obey the ideal MHD condition $E cdot B = 0$. By relating the current density along the poloidal field lines to the parallel electric field via a kind of Ohm's law $J = sigma E_{parallel}$ we study the structure of these magnetospheres as a function of the conductivity $sigma$. We find that for $sigma gg OmegaS the solution tends to the (ideal) Force-Free one and to the Vacuum one for $sigma 11 OmegaS. Finally, we present dissipative magnetospheric solutions with spatially variable $sigma$ that supports various microphysical properties and are compatible with the observations.

  17. Upper ionosphere and magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzano, J.R.

    1989-02-01

    After a presentation of the ionospheric physics and of the earth magnetosphere morphology, generation and dynamics, the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in quiet and perturbed conditions is discussed. Some summary information about other planetary magnetospheres, particularly Venus and Jupiter magnetospheres, are finally given. 41 refs, 24 figs

  18. Magnetospheric Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Barry H.

    Magnetospheric Plasma Physics is volume 4 of an ongoing series of review books entitled Developments in Earth and Planetary Sciences organized by the Center for Academic Publications Japan. The series is intended to stress Japanese work; however, the present volume was written by seven internationally selected authors who have reviewed works from a broad range of sources. This volume is composed of articles drawn from five lecture series presented at the Autumn College o f Plasma Physics, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, October-November 1979. The audiences for these lecture series were plasma and/or space plasma physicists, or students of the same, and the level and tone of this volume clearly reflect that condition.

  19. A Telescopic and Microscopic Examination of Acceleration in the June 2015 Geomagnetic Storm: Magnetospheric Multiscale and Van Allen Probes Study of Substorm Particle Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Turner, D. L.; Nakamura, R.; Schmid, D.; Mauk, B. H.; Cohen, I. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Strangeway, R. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    An active storm period in June 2015 showed that particle injection events seen sequentially by the four (MagnetosphericMultiscale) MMS spacecraft subsequently fed the enhancement of the outer radiation belt observed by Van Allen Probes mission sensors. Several episodes of significant southward interplanetary magnetic field along with a period of high solar wind speed (Vsw 500kms) on 22 June occurred following strong interplanetary shock wave impacts on the magnetosphere. Key events on 22 June 2015 show that the magnetosphere progressed through a sequence of energy-loading and stress-developing states until the entire system suddenly reconfigured at 19:32 UT. Energetic electrons, plasma, and magnetic fields measured by the four MMS spacecraft revealed clear dipolarization front characteristics. It was seen that magnetospheric substorm activity provided a seed electron population as observed by MMS particle sensors as multiple injections and related enhancements in electron flux.

  20. Global Magnetospheric Modeling of 3D Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Daniel S.

    1999-01-01

    A review of approaches to the global modeling of the terrestrial magnetosphere, how these approaches are utilized to interpret satellite data, and how these approaches have been successful at predicting magnetospheric phenomena will be presented. In addition, the importance of the ionospheric boundary and its effect on the globally topology of the magnetospheric magnetic field will be reviewed. In particular, numerical results that are rapidly changing our view of magnetospheric reconnection within the magnetospheric magnetic field will be discussed.

  1. Physics of magnetospheric boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1995-01-01

    This final report was concerned with the ideas that: (1) magnetospheric boundary layers link disparate regions of the magnetosphere-solar wind system together; and (2) global behavior of the magnetosphere can be understood only by understanding its internal linking mechanisms and those with the solar wind. The research project involved simultaneous research on the global-, meso-, and micro-scale physics of the magnetosphere and its boundary layers, which included the bow shock, the magnetosheath, the plasma sheet boundary layer, and the ionosphere. Analytic, numerical, and simulation projects were performed on these subjects, as well as comparisons of theoretical results with observational data. Other related activity included in the research included: (1) prediction of geomagnetic activity; (2) global MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) simulations; (3) Alfven resonance heating; and (4) Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. In the appendixes are list of personnel involved, list of papers published; and reprints or photocopies of papers produced for this report.

  2. The Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, James

    Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), a NASA four-spacecraft mission scheduled for launch in November 2014, will investigate magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of the Earth’s magnetosphere, particularly along its dayside boundary with the solar wind and the neutral sheet in the magnetic tail. Among the important questions about reconnection that will be addressed are the following: Under what conditions can magnetic-field energy be converted to plasma energy by the annihilation of magnetic field through reconnection? How does reconnection vary with time, and what factors influence its temporal behavior? What microscale processes are responsible for reconnection? What determines the rate of reconnection? In order to accomplish its goals the MMS spacecraft must probe both those regions in which the magnetic fields are very nearly antiparallel and regions where a significant guide field exists. From previous missions we know the approximate speeds with which reconnection layers move through space to be from tens to hundreds of km/s. For electron skin depths of 5 to 10 km, the full 3D electron population (10 eV to above 20 keV) has to be sampled at rates greater than 10/s. The MMS Fast-Plasma Instrument (FPI) will sample electrons at greater than 30/s. Because the ion skin depth is larger, FPI will make full ion measurements at rates of greater than 6/s. 3D E-field measurements will be made by MMS once every ms. MMS will use an Active Spacecraft Potential Control device (ASPOC), which emits indium ions to neutralize the photoelectron current and keep the spacecraft from charging to more than +4 V. Because ion dynamics in Hall reconnection depend sensitively on ion mass, MMS includes a new-generation Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer (HPCA) that corrects problems with high proton fluxes that have prevented accurate ion-composition measurements near the dayside magnetospheric boundary. Finally, Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) measurements of electrons and

  3. Coupled rotational dynamics of Jupiter's thermosphere and magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. A. Smith

    2009-01-01

    heating due to fluctuations at low latitudes is able to explain the high equatorial temperatures, but the thermospheric wind systems generated by this heating cause super-corotation of the inner magnetosphere in contradiction to the observations. We conclude that the coupled model is a particularly useful tool for study of the thermosphere as it allows us to constrain the plausibility of predicted thermospheric structures using existing observations of the magnetosphere.

  4. Global Current Circuit Structure in a Resistive Pulsar Magnetosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yugo. E.

    2017-12-01

    Pulsar magnetospheres have strong magnetic fields and large amounts of plasma. The structures of these magnetospheres are studied using force-free electrodynamics. To understand pulsar magnetospheres, discussions must include their outer region. However, force-free electrodynamics is limited in it does not handle dissipation. Therefore, a resistive pulsar magnetic field model is needed. To break the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) condition E\\cdot B=0, Ohm’s law is used. This work introduces resistivity depending upon the distance from the star and obtain a self-consistent steady state by time integration. Poloidal current circuits form in the magnetosphere while the toroidal magnetic field region expands beyond the light cylinder and the Poynting flux radiation appears. High electric resistivity causes a large space scale poloidal current circuit and the magnetosphere radiates a larger Poynting flux than the linear increase outside of the light cylinder radius. The formed poloidal-current circuit has width, which grows with the electric conductivity. This result contributes to a more concrete dissipative pulsar magnetosphere model.

  5. How Giant Magnetospheres Maintain Their Magnetic Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic flux lost from a planet must be returned [Maxwell's first law, there are no magnetic monopoles (div(B) = 0)], and the dominant mechanism by which this is achieved is still to be determined. Here we compare a mechanism for magnetic flux return via small-scale plasma circulation. The existence of bi-modal superposed electron distributions at Jupiter and Saturn was a surprise to Voyager researchers [e.g. Sittler et al., 1983] that remains something of a mystery to this day. Electrons are virtually massless and are expected to rapidly thermalize to a single distribution. Observations by the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn have elucidated on the source of the hot electron component - small scale isolated flux tubes (commonly referred to as `injection events') that bubble planetward, returning magnetic flux that had been convected outward by centrifugal forces or stripped away during magnetospheric reconfigurations, such as substorms [Rymer et al., 2008]. Saturn is an ideal place to study injection events; relatively quiescent, aligned magnetic and geographic spins axes and a nice fast rotation rate in comparison to plasma drift speeds. The other magnetospheric laboratories in our solar system (Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune) will be more challenging. In this presentation we describe predictions for how plasma injection will be manifest as a function of magnetic field strength, topology and planetary spin rate and its importance in conservation of magnetic flux globally. Sittler, E. C., Jr., K. W. Ogilvie, and J. D. Scudder, 1983. Survey of low-energy plasma electrons in Saturn's magnetosphere: Voyager 1 and 2, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 8847- 8870. Rymer, A. M., Mauk, B. H. , Hill, T. W., Paranicas, C., Mitchell, D. G., Coates, A. J., Young, D. T. , 2008. Electron circulation in Saturn's magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res.113, A01201.

  6. The Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory at UCLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. J.; King, T. A.; Joy, S. P.; Bargatze, L. F.; Chi, P.; Weygand, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO) creates robust links to the world's relevant data bases and thereby provides one-stop shopping for the magnetospheric researcher seeking data. The VMO is a joint effort of scientists at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and UCLA. The VMO supports two ways for a scientist to find the data and access the data needed for a given study. One is a structured interface developed at GSFC and the other is a word based interface (Google like) developed at UCLA. Both interfaces provide well organized views of the diverse scientific data holdings needed for magnetospheric research. The word based interface will be demonstrated at the poster. Since data are dynamic, the VMO portal design allows frequent and asynchronous updating. The VMO will only succeed in serving the needs of the magnetospheric science community if most of the world's data repositories are part of the system. Therefore we have worked to make it simple to participate in the VMO. The registries for both data and services are designed to make it easy for suppliers to make their resources available and update information. The basis for resource descriptions is the SPASE data model. We have created tools to enable data repositories to populate the registries and to communicate with the VMO even if they use other data models. Scientists trained in data management, called domain experts, are available to work with data suppliers to prepare the metadata and to create archival quality data products. We describe how the domain experts bring information into the VMO.

  7. Electric fields in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.G.

    1989-12-01

    The electric field plays an important role in the complex plasma system called the magnetosphere. In spite of this, direct measurement of this quantity are still scarce except in its lowest-altitude part, i.e. the ionosphere. The large scale ionospheric electric field has been determined from measurement on the ground and in low satellite orbit. For most of the magnetosphere, our concepts of the electric field have mostly been based on theoretical considerations and extrapolations of the ionspheric electric field. Direct, in situ, electric field measurements in the outer parts of the magnetosphere have been made only relatively recently. A few satellite missions. most recently the Viking mission, have extended the direct empirical knowledge so as to include major parts of the magnetosphere. These measurements have revealed a number of unexpected features. The actual electric field has been found to have unexpectedly strong space and time variations, which reflect the dynamic nature of the system. Examples are give of measured electric fields in the plasmasphere, the plasmasheet, the neutral sheet, the magnetotail, the flanks of the magnetosphere, the dayside magnetopause and the auroral acceleration region. (author)

  8. Pair plasma in pulsar magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asseo, Estelle

    2003-01-01

    The main features of radiation received from pulsars imply that they are neutron stars which contain an extremely intense magnetic field and emit coherently in the radio domain. Most recent studies attribute the origin of the coherence to plasma instabilities arising in pulsar magnetospheres; they mainly concern the linear, or the nonlinear, character of the involved unstable waves. We briefly introduce radio pulsars and specify physical conditions in pulsar emission regions: geometrical properties, magnetic field, pair creation processes and repartition of relativistic charged particles. We point to the main ingredients of the linear theory, extensively explored since the 1970s: (i) a dispersion relation specific to the pulsar case; (ii) the characteristics of the waves able to propagate in relativistic pulsar plasmas; (iii) the different ways in which a two-humped distribution of particles may arise in a pulsar magnetosphere and favour the development of a two-stream instability. We sum up recent improvements of the linear theory: (i) the determination of a 'coupling function' responsible for high values of the wave field components and electromagnetic energy available; (ii) the obtention of new dispersion relations for actually anisotropic pulsar plasmas with relativistic motions and temperatures; (iii) the interaction between a plasma and a beam, both with relativistic motions and temperatures; (iv) the interpretation of observed 'coral' and 'conal' features, associated with the presence of boundaries and curved magnetic field lines in the emission region; (v) the detailed topology of the magnetic field in the different parts of the emission region and its relation to models recently proposed to interpret drifting subpulses observed from PSR 0943+10, showing 20 sub-beams of emission. We relate the nonlinear evolution of the two-stream instability and development of strong turbulence in relativistic pulsar plasmas to the emergence of relativistic solitons, able

  9. A correlative study of simultaneously measured He(++) fluxes in the solar wind and in the magnetosphere utilizing Imp-1 and 1971-089A satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, E. G.

    1975-01-01

    Simultaneously measured He(++) fluxes in the solar wind and in the magnetosphere were studied using data from the plasma spectrometer on the Imp I satellite and the energetic ion mass spectrometer on the low altitude polar orbiting satellite 1971-89A. A detailed comparison of the He(++) energy spectra measured simultaneously in the solar wind and in the low altitude dayside polar cusp on March 7, 1972 was made. The energy-per-unit-charge range of the energetic ion mass spectrometer on board the polar orbiting satellite was 700 eV to 12 keV. Within this range there was a clear maximum in the He(++) energy spectrum at approximately 1.5 keV/nucleon. There was not a clearly defined maximum in the H(+) spectrum, but the data were consistent with a peak between 0.7 and 1.0 keV/nucleon. Both spectra could be reasonably well fit with a convecting Maxwellian plus a high energy tail; however, the mean velocity for He(++) distribution was significantly greater than that for the H(+) distribution. The simultaneous solar wind measurements showed the mean velocities for both ion species to be approximately 600 km/sec. The discrepancies between the relative velocity distributions in the low altitude cusp and those in the solar wind are consistent with a potential difference of approximately 1.4 kV along their flow direction between the two points of observation.

  10. Structure of the Hermean magnetosphere: hybrid simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travnicek, P.; Hellinger, P.

    We examine the interaction of the Hermean magnetosphere with the solar wind using global three dimensional hybrid plasma simulations. Hybrid simulations treat ions as particles and electrons as a fluid. Having ions as particles allows ion kinetic behavior and waves to be included in the physical treatment of the plasma as compared to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling that treats the plasma as a single magnetized fluid and does not include such kinetic effects. Kinetic effects are essential for understanding magnetospheric physics. Hybrid simulations scale to the ion inertial length and thus on a global scale are somewhat limited in spatial extent compared to an MHD simulation. We note effects caused by the scalling of the numerical model of the magnetized obstacle interacting with the solar wind flow with the full scale simulation. In this paper we shall focus on the study of the overal structure of the bow shock and magnetosheath formed in front of Mercury under different solar wind conditions, namely, in the perihelion and aphelion points of the excentric Hermean orbit. We examine the formation of the magnetospheric tail. We study particle distribution functions in different locations of the numerical model of the Hermean magnetosphere. We make qualitative comparison of the numerical results with the observations of Mariner 10. Hermean magnetosphere is estimated to be only a few times the planetary radius, it can fit within a hybrid simulation system. The overal structure of the interaction between a magnetized obstacle in the solar wind flow is determined by few basic parameters (namely the solar wind density, background magnetic field, and the speed of solar wind, and also the strength of the magnetic dipole of the obstacle and its radius). The structure of the interaction of the solar wind flow with Mercury is to a large extend unique when compared to other planets. For example, the magnetic moment of the Mercury is over 1000 times smaller than that of the

  11. Magnetosphere imager science definition team interim report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. P.; Johnson, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    For three decades, magnetospheric field and plasma measurements have been made by diverse instruments flown on spacecraft in may different orbits, widely separated in space and time, and under various solar and magnetospheric conditions. Scientists have used this information to piece together an intricate, yet incomplete view of the magnetosphere. A simultaneous global view, using various light wavelengths and energetic neutral atoms, could reveal exciting new data nd help explain complex magnetospheric processes, thus providing a clear picture of this region of space. This report documents the scientific rational for such a magnetospheric imaging mission and provides a mission concept for its implementation.

  12. Magnetosphere imager science definition team: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. P.; Gallagher, D. L.; Johnson, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    For three decades, magnetospheric field and plasma measurements have been made by diverse instruments flown on spacecraft in many different orbits, widely separated in space and time, and under various solar and magnetospheric conditions. Scientists have used this information to piece together an intricate, yet incomplete view of the magnetosphere. A simultaneous global view, using various light wavelengths and energetic neutral atoms, could reveal exciting new data and help explain complex magnetospheric processes, thus providing a clear picture of this region of space. This report summarizes the scientific rationale for such a magnetospheric imaging mission and outlines a mission concept for its implementation.

  13. GAMERA - The New Magnetospheric Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, J.; Sorathia, K.; Zhang, B.; Merkin, V. G.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Daldorff, L. K. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) code has been a main-line magnetospheric simulation code for 30 years. The code base, designed in the age of memory to memory vector ma- chines,is still in wide use for science production but needs upgrading to ensure the long term sustainability. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent efforts to update and improve that code base and also highlight some recent results. The new project GAM- ERA, Grid Agnostic MHD for Extended Research Applications, has kept the original design characteristics of the LFM and made significant improvements. The original de- sign included high order numerical differencing with very aggressive limiting, the ability to use arbitrary, but logically rectangular, grids, and maintenance of div B = 0 through the use of the Yee grid. Significant improvements include high-order upwinding and a non-clipping limiter. One other improvement with wider applicability is an im- proved averaging technique for the singularities in polar and spherical grids. The new code adopts a hybrid structure - multi-threaded OpenMP with an overarching MPI layer for large scale and coupled applications. The MPI layer uses a combination of standard MPI and the Global Array Toolkit from PNL to provide a lightweight mechanism for coupling codes together concurrently. The single processor code is highly efficient and can run magnetospheric simulations at the default CCMC resolution faster than real time on a MacBook pro. We have run the new code through the Athena suite of tests, and the results compare favorably with the codes available to the astrophysics community. LFM/GAMERA has been applied to many different situations ranging from the inner and outer heliosphere and magnetospheres of Venus, the Earth, Jupiter and Saturn. We present example results the Earth's magnetosphere including a coupled ring current (RCM), the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, and the inner heliosphere.

  14. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of 'flux transfer events' and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics.

  15. Study of Static Microchannel Plate Saturation Effects for the Fast Plasma Investigation Dual Electron Spectrometers on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanov, L. A.; Gliese, U.; Pollock, C. J.; Moore, T. E.; Chornay, D. J.; Barrie, A. C.; Kujawski, J. T.; Gershman, D. J.; Tucker, C. J.; Mariano, A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Imaging detecting systems based on microchannel plates (MCPs) are the most common for low energy plasma measurements for both space borne and ground applications. One of the key parameters of these detection systems is the dynamic range of the MCP's response to the input fluxes of charged particles. For most applications the dynamic range of the linear response should be as wide as possible. This is especially true for the Dual Electron Spectrometers (DESs) of the Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission because a wide range of input fluxes are expected. To make use of the full available dynamic range, it is important to understand the MCP response behavior beyond the linear regime where the MCPs start to saturate. We have performed extensive studies of this during the characterization and calibration of the DES instruments and have identified several saturation effects of the detection system. The MCP itself exhibits saturation when the channels lack the ability to replenish charge sufficiently rapidly. It is found and will be shown that the ground system can significantly impact the correct measurement of this effect. As the MCP starts to saturate, the resulting pulse height distribution (PHD) changes shape and location (with less pulse height values), which leads to truncation of the PHD by the threshold set on the detection system discriminator. Finally, the detection system pulse amplifier exhibits saturation as the input flux drives pulse rates greater than its linear response speed. All of these effects effectively change the dead time of the overall detection system and as a result can affect the quality and interpretation of the flight data. We present results of detection system saturation effects and their interaction with special emphasis on the MCP related effects.

  16. AMPS Supporting Research and Technology (SR and T) report. Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas in Space (AMPS) definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A listing of candidate technology areas that require additional study is presented. These candidate tasks, identified during the AMPS Phase B studies, are requisites to the design, development, and operation of the AMPS concept selected for preliminary design.

  17. Magnetopause Waves Controlling the Dynamics of Earth’s Magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Joo Hwang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Earth’s magnetopause separating the fast and often turbulent magnetosheath and the relatively stagnant magnetosphere provides various forms of free energy that generate low-frequency surface waves. The source mechanism of this energy includes current-driven kinetic physical processes such as magnetic reconnection on the dayside magnetopause and flux transfer events drifting along the magnetopause, and velocity shear-driven (Kelvin-Helmholtz instability or density/ pressure gradient-driven (Rayleigh-Taylor instability magnetohydro-dynamics (MHD instabilities. The solar wind external perturbations (impulsive transient pressure pulses or quasi-periodic dynamic pressure variations act as seed fluctuations for the magnetopause waves and trigger ULF pulsations inside the magnetosphere via global modes or mode conversion at the magnetopause. The magnetopause waves thus play an important role in the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling, which is the key to space weather. This paper presents recent findings regarding the generation of surface waves (e.g., Kelvin- Helmholtz waves at the Earth’s magnetopause and analytic and observational studies accountable for the linking of the magnetopause waves and inner magnetospheric ULF pulsations, and the impacts of magnetopause waves on the dynamics of the magnetopause and on the inner magnetosphere.

  18. Structure of the Martian Dayside Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, M.; Andre, N.; Modolo, R.; Andersson, L.; Mazelle, C. X.; Garnier, P.; Steckiewicz, M.; Halekas, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Maven spacecraft has studied the Martian system since 2014. Thanks to its full plasma package and advantageous orbit configuration, the plasma environment of Mars is now being studied in more detail than ever before. We use Maven data, from five different instruments, and solar wind measurements from the MEX spacecraft to study the plasma environment in the dayside magnetosphere of Mars. The different pressure regimes on the dayside of Mars is investigated using estimates of the ionospheric thermal pressure (Pth,i), the magnetic pressure of the pileup region (PM), the magnetosheath thermal pressure (Pth,m), and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind (Pd,sw). The studied data includes 3 years of Maven measurements with quiet solar wind conditions and for low crustal field regions. The altitudes of the pressure balance boundaries are compared to the altitudes of the ionopause-like boundary, the photoelectron boundary (PEB), and the ion composition boundary (ICB). In order to study the structure of the induced Martian dayside magnetosphere, 8 typical orbits when both Maven and MEX were within SZA Pth,i ≈ PM) at around 225-255 km, the PEB at around 570 km, the ICB at 555-655 km, and the upper pressure boundary (PM ≈ Pth,m) at 710-785 km. For the 8 orbits no ionopause-like structures were found, a sharp ionopause-like density gradient was only found in about 20% of the studied Maven orbits.

  19. Outer Magnetospheric Boundaries Cluster Results

    CERN Document Server

    Paschmann, Goetz; Schwartz, S J

    2006-01-01

    When the stream of plasma emitted from the Sun (the solar wind) encounters Earth's magnetic field, it slows down and flows around it, leaving behind a cavity, the magnetosphere. The magnetopause is the surface that separates the solar wind on the outside from the Earth's magnetic field on the inside. Because the solar wind moves at supersonic speed, a bow shock must form ahead of the magnetopause that acts to slow the solar wind to subsonic speeds. Magnetopause, bow shock and their environs are rich in exciting processes in collisionless plasmas, such as shock formation, magnetic reconnection, particle acceleration and wave-particle interactions. They are interesting in their own right, as part of Earth's environment, but also because they are prototypes of similar structures and phenomena that are ubiquitous in the universe, having the unique advantage that they are accessible to in situ measurements. The boundaries of the magnetosphere have been the target of direct in-situ measurements since the beginning ...

  20. Magnetosphere as an Alfven maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trakhtengerts, V.Yu.

    1979-01-01

    The Earth magnetosphere is considered as an Alfven maser. The operation mechanism of such a maser is duscussed. The main fact of this mechanism is ''overpopulation'' of the Earth radiation belt with particles moving with cross velocities. The cross velocity particles excess results in the excitation of cyclotron instability in the radiation belt and in the self-arbitrary increase of Alfven waves. At late the theory of cyclotron instability of radiation belts has been universally developed. On the basis of ideas on magnetosphere maser on cyclotron resonance it was possible to explain many geophysical phenomena such as periodical spillings out of particles from the radiation belts, pulsing polar lights, oscillations of magnetic force tubes etc. It is proposed to carry out active cosmic experiments to understand deeper the processes occuring in radiation belts

  1. Numerical modeling of ionospheric parameters from global IMS (International Magnetospheric Study) magnetometer data for the CDAW-6 intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamide, Y.; Kroehl, H.W.; Hausman, B.A.; McPherron, R.L.; Akasofu, S.

    1983-11-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to present the results of modeling efforts to estimate the distribution of ionospheric electric potential, ionospheric and field-aligned currents, and Joule heating rate from ground-based magnetic records for two intervals; (1) 0600-1800 UT on March 22, 1979, and (2) 1200 UT on March 31 to 0600 UT on April 1, 1979. This global modeling study constitutes one of the major contributions to the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop (CDAW-6) sponsored by the National Space Science Data Center, NASA.

  2. On the penetration of solar wind inhomogeneities into the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimov, V.P.; Senatorov, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were used as a basis to study the process of interaction between solar wind inhomogeneities and the Earth's magnetosphere. The given inhomogeneity represents a lump of plasma characterized by an increased concentration of particles (nsub(e) approximately 20-30 cm -3 ), a discrete form (characteristic dimensions of the lump are inferior to the magnetosphere diameter) and the velocity v approximately 350 km/s. It is shown that there is the possibility of penetration of solar wind inhomogeneities inside the Earth's magnetosphere because of the appearance in the inhomogeneity of an electric field of transverse polarization. The said process is a possible mechanism of the formation of the magnetopshere entrance layer

  3. Electric fields in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falthammar, C.G.

    1989-01-01

    Electric field measurements on the satellites GEOS-1, GEOS-2, ISEE-1, and Viking have extended the empirical knowledge of electric fields in space so as to include the outer regions of the magnetosphere. While the measurements confirm some of the theoretically expected properties of the electric fields, they also reveal unexpected features and a high degree of complexity and variability. The existence of a magnetospheric dawn-to-dusk electric field, as expected on the basis of extrapolation from low altitude measurements, is confirmed in an average sense. However, the actual field exhibits large spatial and temporal variations, including strong fields of inductive origin. At the magnetopause, the average (dawn-to-dusk directed) tangential electric field component is typically obscured by irregular fluctuations of larger amplitude. The magnetic-field aligned component of the electric field, which is of particular importance for ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling and for auroral acceleration, is even now very difficult to measure directly. However, the data from electric field measurements provide further support for the conclusion, based on a variety of evidence, that a non-vanishing magnetic-field aligned electric field exists in the auroral acceleration region

  4. Does the Magnetosphere go to Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, M.; Moretto, T.; Friis-Christensen, E. A.; Kuznetsova, M.; Østgaard, N.; Tenfjord, P.; Opgenoorth, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    An interesting question in magnetospheric research is related to the transition between magnetospheric configurations under substantial solar wind driving, and a putative relaxed state after the driving ceases. While it is conceivable that the latter state may be unique and only dependent on residual solar wind driving, a more likely scenario has magnetospheric memory playing a key role. Memory processes may be manifold: constraints from conservation of flux tube entropy to neutral wind inertia in the upper atmosphere may all contribute. In this presentation, we use high-resolution, global, MHD simulations to begin to shed light on this transition, as well as on the concept of a quiet state of the magnetosphere. We will discuss key elements of magnetospheric memory, and demonstrate their influence, as well as the actual memory time scale, through simulations and analytical estimates. Finally, we will point out processes with the potential to effect magnetospheric memory loss.

  5. Expected Navigation Flight Performance for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Corwin; Wright, Cinnamon; Long, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four formation-flying spacecraft placed in highly eccentric elliptical orbits about the Earth. The primary scientific mission objective is to study magnetic reconnection within the Earth s magnetosphere. The baseline navigation concept is the independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements (referenced to an onboard Ultra Stable Oscillator) and accelerometer measurements during maneuvers. State estimation for the MMS spacecraft is performed onboard each vehicle using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System, which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the latest efforts to characterize expected navigation flight performance using upgraded simulation models derived from recent analyses.

  6. The driving force for magnetospheric convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F. S.

    1978-01-01

    Viscously driven magnetospheric models, as well as a model involving interconnection between the geomagnetic field and the magnetic field in the solar wind, have been proposed to describe the driving force for magnetospheric convection. Lack of a satisfactory theory for the interconnection in the latter model and, in the case of the viscous interaction models, inadequacies in predicting the quantity of the driving force, make these two classes of models less than successful. Accordingly, a mechanically driven magnetospheric model is proposed: solar wind plasma enters the magnetosphere around the neutral points, covers the inner surface of the magnetopause and subsequently expands, driving convection as it escapes from the open tail.

  7. Modelling Mercury's magnetosphere and plasma entry through the dayside magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, S.; Orsini, S.; Milillo, A.; Mura, A.

    2007-09-01

    Owing to the next space mission Messenger (NASA) and BepiColombo (ESA/JAXA), there is a renewed interest in modelling the Mercury's environment. The geometry of the Mercury's magnetosphere, as well as its response to the solar wind conditions, is one of the major issues. The weak magnetic field of the planet and the increasing weight of the IMF BX component at Mercury's orbit, introduce critical differences with respect to the Earth's case, such as a strong north-south asymmetry and a significant solar wind precipitation into the dayside magnetosphere even for non-negative IMF BZ. With the aim of analysing the interaction between the solar wind and Mercury's magnetosphere, we have developed an empirical-analytical magnetospheric model starting from the Toffoletto-Hill TH93 code. Our model has been tuned to reproduce the key features of the Mariner 10 magnetic data, and to mimic the magnetic field topology obtained by the self-consistent hybrid simulation developed by Kallio and Janhunen [Solar wind and magnetospheric ion impact on Mercury's magnetosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1877, doi: 10.1029/2003GL017842]. The new model has then been used to study the effect of the magnetic reconnection on the magnetosheath plasma entry through the open areas of the dayside magnetosphere (cusps), which are expected to be one of the main sources of charged particles circulating inside the magnetosphere. We show that, depending on the Alfvén speeds on both sides of the magnetopause discontinuity, the reconnection process would be able to accelerate solar wind protons up to few tens of keV: part of these ions can hit the surface and then trigger, via ion-sputtering, the refilling of the planetary exosphere. Finally, we show that non-adiabatic effects are expected to develop in the cusp regions as the energy gained by injected particles increases. The extent of these non-adiabatic regions is shown to be also modulated by upstream IMF condition.

  8. Cluster observations of a structured magnetospheric cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Balan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available On 18 April 2002 the Cluster spacecraft crossed through the northern outer magnetospheric cusp region during 16:25-17:55 UT when the solar wind dynamic pressure was rather low (<2 nPa and IMF Bz was more negative than IMF By. The Cluster data from the FGM, CIS, PEACE, EFW, WHISPER and STAFF instruments reveal that the cusp is structured with three anti-sunward ion flow events of durations ≈1.5, 17.5 and 19.0 min, with bulk plasma flow roughly parallel to the magnetopause toward north. The ion and electron densities within the events are much greater than those outside. The zonal electric field in the ion flow events turns eastward as expected from V×B effect. The sharp inward boundaries of the ion flow events cross the four spacecraft in one time sequence, and the outward boundaries of the events cross the spacecraft in the reverse time sequence. The observations studied using magnetosphere and magnetopause models suggest that the structured cusp is a temporal feature that arises due to three inward and outward movements of the magnetopause by about 1.5RE so that Cluster, while crossing through the cusp, happened to be in the magnetosheath (ion flow event and cusp alternately. The magnetopause moved due to the changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure by up to 100%.

  9. Recent investigation at INPE in magnetospheric physics and geomagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, W.D.; Trivedi, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    During recent years the following research activities related to the earth's magnetosphere have been intensified: a) studies on electric field and energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere; b) studies on high latitude magnetospheric electric fields and on their penetration into the plasmasphere; c) measurements of atmospheric-large scale-electric fields, related to the low latitude magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling and to the local atmospheric electrodynamics, using detectors on board stratospheric balloons; and d) measurements of atmospheric X-rays, related to the process of energetic particle precipitation at the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly, using detectors also on board stratospheric balloons. Similarly, the following research activities related to geomagnetism are being pursued: a) studies on the variability of the geomagnetic field and on the dynamics of the equatorial electrojet from local geomagnetic field measurements; b) studies on terrestrial electromagnetic induction through local measurements of the geo-electromagnetic field; and c) studies on the influence of geomagnetic activity on particle precipitation at the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. (Author) [pt

  10. Pulsar magnetospheres in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershkovich, A. I.; Dolan, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The criterion for stability of a tangential discontinuity interface in a magnetized, perfectly conducting inviscid plasma is investigated by deriving the dispersion equation including the effects of both gravitational and centrifugal acceleration. The results are applied to neutron star magnetospheres in X-ray binaries. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability appears to be important in determining whether MHD waves of large amplitude generated by instability may intermix the plasma effectively, resulting in accretion onto the whole star as suggested by Arons and Lea and leading to no X-ray pulsar behavior.

  11. The magnetosphere in relativistic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapffe, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present paper takes off from the author's earlier epistemological analysis and criticism of the Special Theory of Relativity, identifies the problem as lying in Einstein's choice of the inertial frame of Newtonian mechanics rather than the electromagnetic frame of the locally embedding Maxwellian field when discussing electrodynamics, then proposes this Maxwellian field of the magnetosphere as the specific rest frame proper to all experimentation of optical or electromagnetic sort conducted within its bounds. The result is shown to remove all paradoxes from relativistic physics. (author)

  12. Pulsar magnetosphere-wind or wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of both the interior and exterior pulsar magnetosphere depends upon the strength of its plasma source near the surface of the star. We review wave models of exterior pulsar magnetospheres in the light of a vacuum pair-production source model proposed by Sturrock, and Ruderman and Sutherland. This model predicts the existence of a cutoff, determined by the neutron star's spin rate and magnetic field strenght, beyond which coherent radio emission is no longer possible. Since the observed distribution of pulsar spin periods and period derivatives, and the distribution of pulsars with missing radio pulses, is consistent with the pair production threshold, those neutron stars observed as radio pulsars can have relativistic magnetohydrodynamic wind exterior magnetospheres, and cannot have relativistic plasma wave exterior magnetospheres. On the other hand, most erstwhile pulsars in the galaxy are probably halo objects that emit weak fluxes of energetic photons that can have relativistic wave exterior magnetospheres. Extinct pulsars have not been yet observed

  13. Optimal Orbit Design for the Magnetospheric Imaging Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Steven P.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Imaging Constellation (MagIC) is a NASA space science concept to study the Earth's Magnetosphere. The concept proposes to apply tomography techniques using an array of spacecraft to obtain three dimensional images of the Earth's magnetosphere. This paper presents an optimal orbit design to ensure that the constellation is in the desired region of the magnetosphere for maximum time. The solution is found using a steepest descent optimization algorithm that takes into account perturbations from the non-spherical Earth, drag, Sun, Moon and other significant bodies. The solution also satisfies constraints on maximum eclipse duration and geometry constraints to allow an adequate GPS navigation solution. We present three solutions depending upon the epoch of the primary science: vernal equinox, summer solstice, and a third midway between the vernal equinox and summer solstice. Orbit insertion is also considered. All spacecraft are assumed to be launched on a single vehicle into a nominal orbit and the (Delta)V's to achieve the nominal orbit are presented. After insertion into the nominal orbit, each spacecraft undergoes a phasing maneuver to place it in the appropriate position with respect to the rest of the constellation. We present a minimum fuel approach to maneuver each spacecraft from the nominal orbit into the desired final orbit.

  14. Laboratory simulation of energetic flows of magnetospheric planetary plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikhislamov, I F; Posukh, V G; Melekhov, A V; Boyarintsev, E L; Zakharov, Yu P; Prokopov, P A; Ponomarenko, A G

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic interaction of super-sonic counter-streaming plasmas moving in dipole magnetic dipole is studied in laboratory experiment. First, a quasi-stationary flow is produced by plasma gun which forms a magnetosphere around the magnetic dipole. Second, explosive plasma expanding from inner dipole region outward is launch by laser beams focused at the surface of the dipole cover. Laser plasma is energetic enough to disrupt magnetic field and to sweep through the background plasma for large distances. Probe measurements showed that far from the initially formed magnetosphere laser plasma carries within itself a magnetic field of the same direction but order of magnitude larger in value than the vacuum dipole field at considered distances. Because no compression of magnetic field at the front of laser plasma was observed, the realized interaction is different from previous experiments and theoretical models of laser plasma expansion into uniform magnetized background. It was deduced based on the obtained data that laser plasma while expanding through inner magnetosphere picks up a magnetized shell formed by background plasma and carries it for large distances beyond previously existing magnetosphere. (paper)

  15. The electron density of Saturn's magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Morooka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated statistically the electron density below 5 cm−3 in the magnetosphere of Saturn (7–80 RS, Saturn radii using 44 orbits of the floating potential data from the RPWS Langmuir probe (LP onboard Cassini. The density distribution shows a clear dependence on the distance from the Saturnian rotation axis (√X2+Y2 as well as on the distance from the equatorial plane (|Z|, indicating a disc-like structure. From the characteristics of the density distribution, we have identified three regions: the extension of the plasma disc, the magnetodisc region, and the lobe regions. The plasma disc region is at L<15, where L is the radial distance to the equatorial crossing of the dipole magnetic field line, and confined to |Z|<5 RS. The magnetodisc is located beyond L=15, and its density has a large variability. The variability has quasi-periodic characteristics with a periodicity corresponding to the planetary rotation. For Z>15 RS, the magnetospheric density distribution becomes constant in Z. However, the density still varies quasi-periodically with the planetary rotation also in this region. In fact, the quasi-periodic variation has been observed all over the magnetosphere beyond L=15. The region above Z=15 RS is identified as the lobe region. We also found that the magnetosphere can occasionally move latitudinally under the control of the density in the magnetosphere and the solar wind. From the empirical distributions of the electron densities obtained in this study, we have constructed an electron density model of the Saturnian nightside magnetosphere beyond 7 RS. The obtained model can well reproduce the observed density distribution, and can thus be useful for magnetospheric modelling studies.

  16. A Parametric Study of the Cold Plasma Refilling Rate on the Plasmasphere and Inner Magnetosphere Dynamics during the 17-March-2013 and 28-June-2013 Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, C.; Bishop, R. L.; Coster, A. J.; Nikoukar, R.; Chen, M.; Turner, D. L.; Roeder, J. L.; Shumko, M.; Payne, C.; Bhatt, R.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is a complex process, and researchers must consider a number of factors: particle transport in the electric and magnetic fields drives plasma from the high latitude tail to the mid-latitude inner magnetosphere; particle precipitation into the ionosphere, which is frequently driven by wave-particle interactions, enhances the ionospheric conductivities; feedback of the ionospheric conductivities on the electric fields determines how well the convection electric field penetrates to the mid-latitude ionosphere; and the erosion and refilling of cold plasma in the plasmasphere substantially determines the mass of plasma on magnetospheric field lines and the subsequent wave environment that drives particle precipitation. While we model all of these processes, in this presentation we focus on the role of the plasmasphere and its role in M-I coupling. We present RCM-E simulations in which particle transport through self-consistent fields controls the drainage of the plasmasphere, an outflow model determines the plasmasphere refilling rate, and electron and ion precipitation influences the electric field by enhancing the ionospheric conductivity. The plasmasphere significantly affects the spatial structure of the wave environment and electron precipitation rates. This impacts the dynamics of the sub-auroral polarization stream (SAPS) in the pre-midnight region equatorward of the auroral boundary, which itself drives erosion of the plasmasphere through strong westward electric fields near the plasmapause. We present comparisons with Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, the Plasmasphere Data Assimilation (PDA) model, and line-of-sight observations from Millstone Hill ISR and space-based GPS receivers, showing how our modeled plasmasphere compares with observational data during the 17-March-2013 and 28-June-2013 magnetic storms. To better understand refilling, we focus particular attention on densities in the recently-depleted flux tubes in the

  17. Magnetic Fluctuations in the Jovian Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher T.

    2002-01-01

    The engine that drives the jovian magnetosphere is the mass added to the Io ion torus, accelerated to corotational velocities by field-aligned currents that couple the Io torus to the jovian ionosphere. The mass of the torus builds up to an amount that the magnetic forces cannot contain and the plasma, first slowly and then more rapidly, drifts outward. Numerous authors have treated this problem based first on the observations of the Pioneer 10 and 11 flybys; then on Voyager 1 and 2, and Ulysses; and finally most recently the Galileo orbiter. The initial observations revealed the now familiar magnetodisk, in which the field above and below the magnetic equator became quite radial in orientation and much less dipolar. The Galileo observations show this transformation to occur on average at 24 R(sub J) and to often be quite abrupt. These observations are consistent with outward transport of magnetized plasma that moves ever faster radially until about 50 R(sub J) on the nightside where the field lines stretch to the breaking point, reconnection occurs, and plasma and field islands are transported down the tail ultimately removing the mass from the magnetosphere that Io had deposited deep in the inner torus. The reconnection process creates empty flux tubes connected to Jupiter that are buoyant and thought to float inward and replace the flux carried out with the torus plasma. As described above, the jovian magnetosphere could very well be in a state of steady laminar circulation, but indeed it is not. The process is very unsteady and the wave levels can be very intense. The existence of these waves in turn can lead to processes that compete with the radial circulation pattern in removing plasma from the system. These waves can scatter particles so that they precipitate into the ionosphere. This process should be important in the Io torus where the atmospheric loss cone is relatively large and becomes less important as the loss cone decreases in size with radial

  18. Surface conductivity of Mercury provides current closure and may affect magnetospheric symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We study what effect a possible surface conductivity of Mercury has on the closure of magnetospheric currents by making six runs with a quasi-neutral hybrid simulation. The runs are otherwise identical but use different synthetic conductivity models: run 1 has a fully conducting planet, run 2 has a poorly conducting planet ( m and runs 3-6 have one of the hemispheres either in the dawn-dusk or day-night directions, conducting well, the other one being conducting poorly. Although the surface conductivity is not known from observations, educated guesses easily give such conductivity values that magnetospheric currents may close partly within the planet, and as the conductivity depends heavily on the mineral composition of the surface, the possibility of significant horizontal variations cannot be easily excluded. The simulation results show that strong horizontal variations may produce modest magnetospheric asymmetries. Beyond the hybrid simulation, we also briefly discuss the possibility that in the nightside there may be a lack of surface electrons to carry downward current, which may act as a further source of surface-related magnetospheric asymmetry. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (planetary magnetospheres; current systems; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions.6

  19. 2008 GEM Modeling Challenge: Metrics Study of the Dst Index in Physics-Based Magnetosphere and Ring Current Models and in Statistical and Analytic Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Hesse, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Glocer, A.; Yu, Y.; Meng, X.; Raeder, J.; Wiltberger, M.; Welling, D.; hide

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the metrics-based results of the Dst part of the 2008-2009 GEM Metrics Challenge are reported. The Metrics Challenge asked modelers to submit results for 4 geomagnetic storm events and 5 different types of observations that can be modeled by statistical or climatological or physics-based (e.g. MHD) models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. We present the results of over 25 model settings that were run at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) and at the institutions of various modelers for these events. To measure the performance of each of the models against the observations we use comparisons of one-hour averaged model data with the Dst index issued by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, Japan, and direct comparison of one-minute model data with the one-minute Dst index calculated by the United States Geologic Survey (USGS).

  20. Enabling Breakthrough Kinetic Simulations of the Magnetosphere Using Petascale Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, H. X.; Karimabadi, H.; Omelchenko, Y.; Tatineni, M.; Majumdar, A.; Krauss-Varban, D.; Dorelli, J.

    2009-12-01

    Currently global magnetospheric simulations are predominantly based on single-fluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). MHD simulations have proven useful in studies of the global dynamics of the magnetosphere with the goal of predicting eminent features of substorms and other global events. But it is well known that the magnetosphere is dominated by ion kinetic effects, which is ignored in MHD simulations, and many key aspects of the magnetosphere relating to transport and structure of boundaries await global kinetic simulations. We are using our recent innovations in hybrid (electron fluid, kinetic ions) simulations, as being developed in our Hybrid3D (H3D) code, and the power of massively parallel machines to make, breakthrough 3D global kinetic simulations of the magnetosphere. The innovations include (i) multi-zone (asynchronous) algorithm, (ii) dynamic load balancing, and (iii) code adaptation and optimization to large number of processors. In this presentation we will show preliminary results of our progress to date using from 512 to over 8192 cores. In particular, we focus on what we believe to be the first demonstration of the formation of a flux rope in 3D global hybrid simulations. As in the MHD simulations, the resulting flux rope has a very complex structure, wrapping up field lines from different regions and appears to be connected on at least one end to Earth. Magnetic topology of the FTE is examined to reveal the existence of several separators (3D X-lines). The formation and growth of this structure will be discussed and spatial profile of the magnetic and plasma variables will be compared with those from MHD simulations.

  1. Phenomenology of magnetospheric radio emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, T. D.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    Jupiter has now been observed over 24 octaves of the radio spectrum, from about 0.01 MHz to 300,000 MHz. Its radio emissions fill the entire spectral region where interplanetary electromagnetic propagation is possible at wavelengths longer than infrared. Three distinct types of radiation are responsible for this radio spectrum. Thermal emission from the atmosphere accounts for virtually all the radiation at the high frequency end. Synchrotron emission from the trapped high-energy particle belt deep within the inner magnetosphere is the dominant spectral component from about 4000 to 40 MHz. The third class of radiation consists of several distinct components of sporadic low frequency emission below 40 MHz. The decimeter wavelength emission is considered, taking into account the discovery of synchrotron emission, radiation by high-energy electrons in a magnetic field, and the present status of Jovian synchrotron phenomenology. Attention is also given to the decameter and hectometer wavelength emission, and emissions at kilometric wavelengths.

  2. Does Enceladus govern magnetospheric dynamics at Saturn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelson, Margaret Galland

    2006-03-10

    Instruments on the Cassini spacecraft reveal that a heat source within Saturn's moon Enceladus powers a great plume of water ice particles and dust grains, a geyser that jets outward from the south polar regions and most likely serves as the dominant source of Saturn's E ring. The interaction of flowing magnetospheric plasma with the plume modifies the particle and field environment of Enceladus. The structure of Saturn's magnetosphere, the extended region of space threaded by magnetic-field lines linked to the planet, is shaped by the ion source at Enceladus, and magnetospheric dynamics may be affected by the rate at which fresh ions are created.

  3. The Magnetospheric Cusps Structure and Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fritz, Theodore A

    2005-01-01

    This collection of papers will address the question "What is the Magnetospheric Cusp?" and what is its role in the coupling of the solar wind to the magnetosphere as well as its role in the processes of particle transport and energization within the magnetosphere. The cusps have traditionally been described as narrow funnel-shaped regions that provide a focus of the Chapman-Ferraro currents that flow on the magnetopause, a boundary between the cavity dominated by the geomagnetic field (i.e., the magnetosphere) and the external region of the interplanetary medium. Measurements from a number of recent satellite programs have shown that the cusp is not confined to a narrow region near local noon but appears to encompass a large portion of the dayside high-latitude magnetosphere and it appears that the cusp is a major source region for the production of energetic charged particles for the magnetosphere. Audience: This book will be of interest to space science research organizations in governments and industries, ...

  4. Structure and Dynamics of the Martian Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Brain, D. A.; Luhmann, J. G.; Mitchell, D. L.; Mazelle, C. X.; McFadden, J. P.; Connerney, J. E. P.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Espley, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Martian magnetosphere is formed by the interaction between the incident solar wind and the atmosphere, through a combination of mass-loading and induced currents. The resulting induced magnetosphere has a superficially similar structure to those of the other three inner planets, including a bow shock and foreshock, magnetosheath, and magnetotail regions. However, Mars' small size, greater distance from the Sun, different atmospheric chemistry, and the presence of strong localized crustal magnetism all lead to distinctly different characteristics from both intrinsic and other induced magnetospheres. We utilize Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) measurements to investigate fundamental measurables including the vector magnetic field and ion density, velocity, and temperature, as well as derived parameters including pressure gradient forces, magnetic pressure/tension forces, and motional electric fields. Thanks to the large number of orbits already completed by MAVEN, we have good coverage of the magnetosphere for a variety of seasons and solar wind inputs. We utilize superposed epoch analyses of observations made under different conditions to investigate the structure and dynamics of the Martian magnetosphere and determine how it varies with seasonal and solar influences. We find that parameters such as the solar wind Mach number and the interplanetary magnetic field affect both the structure of the magnetosphere and the morphology and relative importance of the different force terms.

  5. Cellular automata model of magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Kozelov

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a cellular automata model (CAM to describe the substorm activity of the magnetospheric-ionospheric system. The state of each cell in the model is described by two numbers that correspond to the energy content in a region of the current sheet in the magnetospheric tail and to the conductivity of the ionospheric domain that is magnetically connected with this region. The driving force of the system is supposed to be provided by the solar wind that is convected along the two boundaries of the system. The energy flux inside is ensured by the penetration of the energy from the solar wind into the array of cells (magnetospheric tail with a finite velocity. The third boundary (near to the Earth is closed and the fourth boundary is opened, thereby modeling the flux far away from the tail. The energy dissipation in the system is quite similar to other CAM models, when the energy in a particular cell exceeds some pre-defined threshold, and the part of the energy excess is redistributed between the neighbouring cells. The second number attributed to each cell mimics ionospheric conductivity that can allow for a part of the energy to be shed on field-aligned currents. The feedback between "ionosphere" and "magnetospheric tail" is provided by the change in a part of the energy, which is redistributed in the tail when the threshold is surpassed. The control parameter of the model is the z-component of the interplanetary magnetic field (Bz IMF, "frozen" into the solar wind. To study the internal dynamics of the system at the beginning, this control parameter is taken to be constant. The dynamics of the system undergoes several bifurcations, when the constant varies from - 0.6 to - 6.0. The Bz IMF input results in the periodic transients (activation regions and the inter-transient period decreases with the decrease of Bz. At the same time the onset of activations in the array shifts towards the "Earth". When the modulus of the Bz IMF exceeds some

  6. Advances in Inner Magnetosphere Passive and Active Wave Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James L.; Fung, Shing F.

    2004-01-01

    This review identifies a number of the principal research advancements that have occurred over the last five years in the study of electromagnetic (EM) waves in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The observations used in this study are from the plasma wave instruments and radio sounders on Cluster, IMAGE, Geotail, Wind, Polar, Interball, and others. The data from passive plasma wave instruments have led to a number of advances such as: determining the origin and importance of whistler mode waves in the plasmasphere, discovery of the source of kilometric continuum radiation, mapping AKR source regions with "pinpoint" accuracy, and correlating the AKR source location with dipole tilt angle. Active magnetospheric wave experiments have shown that long range ducted and direct echoes can be used to obtain the density distribution of electrons in the polar cap and along plasmaspheric field lines, providing key information on plasmaspheric filling rates and polar cap outflows.

  7. Penetration of Magnetosheath Plasma into Dayside Magnetosphere. 2. ; Magnetic Field in Plasma Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Pollock, Craig; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Lyatskaya, Sonya Inna; Avanov, Levon Albert

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examined plasma structures (filaments), observed in the dayside magnetosphere but containing magnetosheath plasma. These filaments show the stable antisunward motion (while the ambient magnetospheric plasma moved in the opposite direction) and the existence of a strip of magnetospheric plasma, separating these filaments from the magnetosheath. These results, however, contradict both theoretical studies and simulations by Schindler (1979), Ma et al. (1991), Dai and Woodward (1994, 1998), and other researchers, who reported that the motion of such filaments through the magnetosphere is possible only when their magnetic field is directed very close to the ambient magnetic field, which is not the situation that is observed. In this study, we show that this seeming contradiction may be related to different events as the theoretical studies and simulations are related to the case when the filament magnetic field is about aligned with filament orientation, whereas the observations show that the magnetic field in these filaments may be rotating. In this case, the rotating magnetic field, changing incessantly its direction, drastically affects the penetration of plasma filaments into the magnetosphere. In this case, the filaments with rotating magnetic field, even if in each moment it is significantly inclined to the ambient magnetic field, may propagate through the magnetosphere, if their average (for the rotation period) magnetic field is aligned with the ambient magnetic field. This shows that neglecting the rotation of magnetic field in these filaments may lead to wrong results.

  8. Charged dust in saturn's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendis, D.A.; Hill, J.R.; Houpis, H.L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Gravito-electrodynamic theory of charged dust grains is used to explain a variety of phenomena in those portions of the Saturnian ring system that are known to be dominated by fine (micron- and submicron-sized) dust, and in which collisional forces and Coulomb drag can be neglected. Among the phenomena discussed are the formation and evolution of the rotating near-radial spokes in the B-ring, the formation of waves in the F-ring, the cause of eccentricities of certain isolated ringlets, and the origin and morphology of the broad diffuse E-ring. Several novel processes predicted by the gravitoelectrodynamic theory, including 'magneto-gravitational capture' of exogenic dust by the magnetosphere, '1:1 magneto-gravitational orbital resonances' of charged dust with nearby satellites, and 'gyro-orbital resonances,' are used to explain individual observations. The effect of a ring current associated with this charged dust is also evaluated. Finally, the cosmogonic implications of the magneto-gravitational theory are briefly discussed. While several (although not all) of these processes have been discussed by one or more of the present authors elsewhere, the purpose of this paper is to synthesize all these processes within the framework of gravito-electrodynamics, and also to show its range of applicability within Saturn's ring system

  9. Freak waves in Saturn's magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, R.

    2015-01-01

    Properties of planar as well as nonplanar ion acoustic freak waves that propagate in a plasma composed of warm ions and two-temperature electron plasma having kappa-distribution are reported. The dynamics of the nonlinear freak waves is governed by a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The possible region for the freak waves to exist is defined precisely for typical parameters of Saturn's magnetosphere. For planar case, stability/instability analyses reveals that there is a critical value ( f cr ) of f (i.e., the equilibrium density ratio of the hot-to-cold electron species) exists for low wave number k. For large wave number k, the stability domain is always a decreasing function in f. Low κ values, which indicate that an excess of suprathermal particles in the tail of the distribution, shifts f cr to higher values. Also, there exists a modulation instability period for the cylindrical and spherical envelope excitations, which does not exist in the one-dimensional case. Furthermore, cylindrical and spherical freak waves are investigated numerically. Spherical ion-acoustic freak waves are found to grow faster than the cylindrical waves.

  10. Mercury's magnetosphere and magnetotial revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergan, S.; Engle, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic observations which are not complicated by currents of trapped plasma are a good test of geomagnetopause and geomagnetotail predictions. Recent attempts to model the Hermean magnetospheric field based on a planet-centered magnetic multipole field with a quadrupole moment in addition to the planetary dipole field or a dipole field linearly displaced from planet center and no quadrupole moment have produced reasonably good fits to the Mercury magnetic field measurements. In this work we find a better fit for a dipole displacement from the planet center by making use of an improved representation of the magnetic field in the magnetotail, where many of the Mercury measurements were made. The rms deviation of the data was reduced from 10. or 11. γ to 9.3 γ by employing this new tail field representation. Also, by making use of this new tail field representation, we find a best fit for a dipole displacement of -0.0285 R/sub M/ (earlier, 0.026 R/sub M/) toward the dawn in the magnetic equatorial plane and 0.17 R/sub M/ (earlier, 0.189 R/sub M/ (earlier 0.189 R/sub M/) northward along the magnetic dipole axis, where R/sub M/ is the planet radius. Thus with only minor adjustments in the displacement vector of the dipole from the planet center we achieve a measurable improvement in the fit of the data by using the improved magnetotail field representation

  11. Closed model of the earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piddington, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The existence of large-scale motions within the earth's magnetosphere and that of a long magnetotail were predicted in 1960 as results of a hypothetical frictional interaction between the solar wind and the geomagnetic field. The boundary layer model of this interaction involves the flow of magnetosheath plasma in a magnetospheric boundary layer. The flow is across magnetic field lines, and so the layer must be polarized, with a space charge field nearly balancing the induction field V x B. The space charge tends to discharge through the ionosphere, thus providing some magnetic and related activity as well as the Lorentz frictional force. This closed magnetosphere model has been largely neglected in favor of the reconnection model but is now strongly supported by observational results and their interpretation as follows. (1) The evidence for the reconnection model, increasing activity with a southward interplanetary field and invasion of the polar caps by flare particles, is shown to be equally compatible with the closed field model. (2) The magnetotail grows by the motions of closed flux tubes through the dawn and dusk meridians, a process which depends on the nature of the boundary between magnetosphere and magnetosheath plasmas and perhaps also on the solar wind dynamo. Both of these features depend, in turn, on the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field. (3) Closed field lines entering the tail may be stretched to a few tens of earth radii and then contract back to the corotating magnetosphere. Others enter the long tail and are stretched to hundreds of earth radii and so are pervious to fast solar particles. (4) A new model of the magnetospheric substorm involves the entry of closed field lines into the tail and their rapid return to the corotating magnetosphere. The return is due, first, to the release of their trapped plasma as it becomes electrically polarized and, second, to mounting magnetic and plasma stresses in the inflated magnetotail

  12. Magnetosphere Modeling: From Cartoons to Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombosi, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last half a century physics-based global computer simulations became a bridge between experiment and basic theory and now it represents the "third pillar" of geospace research. Today, many of our scientific publications utilize large-scale simulations to interpret observations, test new ideas, plan campaigns, or design new instruments. Realistic simulations of the complex Sun-Earth system have been made possible by the dramatically increased power of both computing hardware and numerical algorithms. Early magnetosphere models were based on simple E&M concepts (like the Chapman-Ferraro cavity) and hydrodynamic analogies (bow shock). At the beginning of the space age current system models were developed culminating in the sophisticated Tsyganenko-type description of the magnetic configuration. The first 3D MHD simulations of the magnetosphere were published in the early 1980s. A decade later there were several competing global models that were able to reproduce many fundamental properties of the magnetosphere. The leading models included the impact of the ionosphere by using a height-integrated electric potential description. Dynamic coupling of global and regional models started in the early 2000s by integrating a ring current and a global magnetosphere model. It has been recognized for quite some time that plasma kinetic effects play an important role. Presently, global hybrid simulations of the dynamic magnetosphere are expected to be possible on exascale supercomputers, while fully kinetic simulations with realistic mass ratios are still decades away. In the 2010s several groups started to experiment with PIC simulations embedded in large-scale 3D MHD models. Presently this integrated MHD-PIC approach is at the forefront of magnetosphere simulations and this technique is expected to lead to some important advances in our understanding of magnetosheric physics. This talk will review the evolution of magnetosphere modeling from cartoons to current systems

  13. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin Zaharia; Cheng, C.Z.; Maezawa, K.

    2003-01-01

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions

  14. Magnetospheric conditions near the equatorial footpoints of proton isotropy boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sergeev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from a cluster of three THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms spacecraft during February–March 2009 frequently provide an opportunity to construct local data-adaptive magnetospheric models, which are suitable for the accurate mapping along the magnetic field lines at distances of 6–9 Re in the nightside magnetosphere. This allows us to map the isotropy boundaries (IBs of 30 and 80 keV protons observed by low-altitude NOAA POES (Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites to the equatorial magnetosphere (to find the projected isotropy boundary, PIB and study the magnetospheric conditions, particularly to evaluate the ratio KIB (Rc/rc; the magnetic field curvature radius to the particle gyroradius in the neutral sheet at that point. Special care is taken to control the factors which influence the accuracy of the adaptive models and mapping. Data indicate that better accuracy of an adaptive model is achieved when the PIB distance from the closest spacecraft is as small as 1–2 Re. For this group of most accurate predictions, the spread of KIB values is still large (from 4 to 32, with the median value KIB ~13 being larger than the critical value Kcr ~ 8 expected at the inner boundary of nonadiabatic angular scattering in the current sheet. It appears that two different mechanisms may contribute to form the isotropy boundary. The group with K ~ [4,12] is most likely formed by current sheet scattering, whereas the group having KIB ~ [12,32] could be formed by the resonant scattering of low-energy protons by the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC waves. The energy dependence of the upper K limit and close proximity of the latter event to the plasmapause locations support this conclusion. We also discuss other reasons why the K ~ 8 criterion for isotropization may fail to work, as well as a possible relationship between the two scattering mechanisms.

  15. Magnetospheric Gamma-Ray Emission in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulakos, Grigorios; Rieger, Frank M.

    2018-01-01

    The rapidly variable, very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has been frequently associated with non-thermal processes occurring in the magnetospheres of their supermassive black holes. The present work aims to explore the adequacy of different gap-type (unscreened electric field) models to account for the observed characteristics. Based on a phenomenological description of the gap potential, we estimate the maximum extractable gap power L gap for different magnetospheric setups, and study its dependence on the accretion state of the source. L gap is found in general to be proportional to the Blandford–Znajek jet power L BZ and a sensitive function of gap size h, i.e., {L}{gap}∼ {L}{BZ}{(h/{r}g)}β , where the power index β ≥slant 1 is dependent on the respective gap setup. The transparency of the vicinity of the black hole to VHE photons generally requires a radiatively inefficient accretion environment and thereby imposes constraints on possible accretion rates, and correspondingly on L BZ. Similarly, rapid variability, if observed, may allow one to constrain the gap size h∼ c{{Δ }}t. Combining these constraints, we provide a general classification to assess the likelihood that the VHE gamma-ray emission observed from an AGN can be attributed to a magnetospheric origin. When applied to prominent candidate sources these considerations suggest that the variable (day-scale) VHE activity seen in the radio galaxy M87 could be compatible with a magnetospheric origin, while such an origin appears less likely for the (minute-scale) VHE activity in IC 310.

  16. Observations of Heavy Ions in the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    There are two sources for the hot ions in the magnetosphere: the solar wind and the ionosphere. The solar wind is predominantly protons, with about 4% He++ and less than 1% other high charge state heavy ions. The ionospheric outflow is also predominantly H+, but can contain a significant fraction of heavy ions including O+, N+, He+, O++, and molecular ions (NO+, N2+, O2+). The ionospheric outflow composition varies significantly both with geomagnetic activity and with solar EUV. The variability in the contribution of the two sources, the variability in the ionospheric source itself, and the transport paths of the different species are all important in determining the ion composition at a given location in the magnetosphere. In addition to the source variations, loss processes within the magnetosphere can be mass dependent, changing the composition. In particular, charge exchange is strongly species dependent, and can lead to heavy ion dominance at some energies in the inner magnetosphere. In this talk we will review the current state of our understanding of the composition of the magnetosphere and the processes that determine it.

  17. Different magnetospheric modes: solar wind driving and coupling efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Partamies

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a systematic statistical comparison of isolated non-storm substorms, steady magnetospheric convection (SMC intervals and sawtooth events. The number of events is approximately the same in each group and the data are taken from about the same years to avoid biasing by different solar cycle phase. The very same superposed epoch analysis is performed for each event group to show the characteristics of ground-based indices (AL, PCN, PC potential, particle injection at the geostationary orbit and the solar wind and IMF parameters. We show that the monthly occurrence of sawtooth events and isolated non-stormtime substorms closely follows maxima of the geomagnetic activity at (or close to the equinoxes. The most strongly solar wind driven event type, sawtooth events, is the least efficient in coupling the solar wind energy to the auroral ionosphere, while SMC periods are associated with the highest coupling ratio (AL/EY. Furthermore, solar wind speed seems to play a key role in determining the type of activity in the magnetosphere. Slow solar wind is capable of maintaining steady convection. During fast solar wind streams the magnetosphere responds with loading–unloading cycles, represented by substorms during moderately active conditions and sawtooth events (or other storm-time activations during geomagnetically active conditions.

  18. Electron and ion Bernstein waves in Saturnian Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, M. F.; Waheed, A.; Ilie, R.; Naeem, I.; Maqsood, U.; Yoon, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    The study of Bernstein mode is presented in order to interpret the observed micro-structures (MIS) and banded emission (BEM) in the Saturnian magnetosphere. The general dispersion relation of Bernstein wave is derived using the Lerche-NewBerger sum rule for the kappa distribution function and further analyzed the both electron Bernstein (EB) and ion Bernstein (IB) waves. The observational data of particle measurements is obtained from the electron spectrometer (ELS) and the ion mass spectrometer (IMS), which are part of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instrument suite on board the Cassini spacecraft. For additional electron data, the measurements of Low Energy Magnetospheric Measurements System of the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (LEMMS /MIMI) are also utilized. The effect of kappa spectral index, density ratio (nohe/noce for EB and nohe/noi for IB) and the temperature ratio (The/Tce for EB and The/T(h,c)i for IB) on the dispersion properties are discussed employing the exact numerical analysis to explain the appearing of additional maxima/minima (points where the perpendicular group velocity vanishes, i.e., ∂w/∂k = 0) above/below the lower (for IB) and upper hybrid (EB) bands in the observation and their relation to the MIS and BED. The results of these waves may also be compared with the simulation results of Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) .

  19. Imaging of laboratory magnetospheric plasmas using coherence imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Masaki; Takahashi, Noriki; Yoshida, Zensho; Nakamura, Kaori; Kawazura, Yohei; Kenmochi, Naoki; Nakatsuka, Masataka; Sugata, Tetsuya; Katsura, Shotaro; Howard, John

    2017-10-01

    The ring trap 1 (RT-1) device creates a laboratory magnetosphere for the studies on plasma physics and advanced nuclear fusion. A levitated superconducting coil produces magnetic dipole fields that realize a high beta plasma confinement that is motivated by self-organized plasmas in planetary magnetospheres. The electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) with 8.2 GHz and 50 kW produces the plasmas with hot electrons in a few ten keV range. The electrons contribute to the local electron beta that exceeded 1 in RT-1. For the ion heating, ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating with 2-4 MHz and 10 kW has been performed in RT-1. The radial profile of ion temperature by a spectroscopic measurement indicates the signature of ion heating. In the holistic point of view, a coherence imaging system has been implemented for imaging the entire ion dynamics in the laboratory magnetosphere. The diagnostic system and obtained results will be presented.

  20. Advances in magnetospheric physics, 1971--1974: energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, H.I. Jr.

    1974-12-01

    An account is given of energetic particle research in magnetospheric physics for the time period 1971--1974. Emphasis is on relating the various aspects of energetic particles to magnetospheric processes. 458 refs. (U.S.)

  1. Plasma sources of solar system magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Michel; Chappell, Charles; Krupp, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    This volume reviews what we know of the corresponding plasma source for each intrinsically magnetized planet. Plasma sources fall essentially in three categories: the solar wind, the ionosphere (both prevalent on Earth), and the satellite-related sources. Throughout the text, the case of each planet is described, including the characteristics, chemical composition and intensity of each source. The authors also describe how the plasma generated at the source regions is transported to populate the magnetosphere, and how it is later lost. To summarize, the dominant sources are found to be the solar wind and sputtered surface ions at Mercury, the solar wind and ionosphere at Earth (the relative importance of the two being discussed in a specific introductory chapter), Io at Jupiter and – a big surprise of the Cassini findings – Enceladus at Saturn. The situation for Uranus and Neptune, which were investigated by only one fly-by each, is still open and requires further studies and exploration. In the final cha...

  2. Lunar biological effects and the magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevington, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The debate about how far the Moon causes biological effects has continued for two millennia. Pliny the Elder argued for lunar power "penetrating all things", including plants, fish, animals and humans. He also linked the Moon with tides, confirmed mathematically by Newton. A review of modern studies of biological effects, especially from plants and animals, confirms the pervasive nature of this lunar force. However calculations from physics and other arguments refute the supposed mechanisms of gravity and light. Recent space exploration allows a new approach with evidence of electromagnetic fields associated with the Earth's magnetotail at full moon during the night, and similar, but more limited, effects from the Moon's wake on the magnetosphere at new moon during the day. The disturbance of the magnetotail is perhaps shown by measurements of electric fields of up to 16V/m compared with the usual effects on some sensitive organisms. Similar intensities found in sferics, geomagnetic storms, aurora disturbance, sensations of a 'presence' and pre-seismic electromagnetic radiation are known to affect animals and 10-20% of the human population. There is now evidence for mechanisms such as calcium flux, melatonin disruption, magnetite and cryptochromes. Both environmental and receptor variations explain confounding factors and inconsistencies in the evidence. Electromagnetic effects might also account for some evolutionary changes. Further research on lunar biological effects, such as acute myocardial infarction, could help the development of strategies to reduce adverse effects for people sensitive to geomagnetic disturbance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. General-relativistic pulsar magnetospheric emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétri, J.

    2018-03-01

    Most current pulsar emission models assume photon production and emission within the magnetosphere. Low frequency radiation is preferentially produced in the vicinity of the polar caps whereas the high-energy tail is shifted to regions closer but still inside the light-cylinder. We conducted a systematic study of the merit of several popular radiation sites like the polar cap, the outer gap and the slot gap. We computed sky maps emanating from each emission site according to a prescribed distribution function for the emitting particles made of an electron/positron mixture. Calculations are performed using a three dimensional integration of the plasma emissivity in the vacuum electromagnetic field of a rotating and centred general-relativistic dipole. We compare Newtonian electromagnetic fields to their general-relativistic counterpart. In the latter case, light bending is also taken into account. As a typical example, light-curves and sky maps are plotted for several power-law indices of the particle distribution function. The detailed pulse profiles strongly depend on the underlying assumption about the fluid motion subject to strong electromagnetic fields. This electromagnetic topology enforces the photon propagation direction directly, or indirectly, from aberration effects. We also discuss the implication of a net stellar electric charge on to sky maps. Taking into account the electric field strongly affects the light-curves originating close to the light-cylinder where the electric field strength becomes comparable to the magnetic field strength.

  4. Magnetospheric structure of rotation powered pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arons, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA) California Univ., Livermore, CA (USA). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics)

    1991-01-07

    I survey recent theoretical work on the structure of the magnetospheres of rotation powered pulsars, within the observational constraints set by their observed spindown, their ability to power synchrotron nebulae and their ability to produce beamed collective radio emission, while putting only a small fraction of their energy into incoherent X- and gamma radiation. I find no single theory has yet given a consistent description of the magnetosphere, but I conclude that models based on a dense outflow of pairs from the polar caps, permeated by a lower density flow of heavy ions, are the most promising avenue for future research. 106 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. 3-D force-balanced magnetospheric configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zaharia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving mag-netosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has, however, eluded the community, as most in situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations,by either (a mapping observed data (e.g. in the ionosphere along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model, or (b computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3-D code that solves the 3-D force balance equation ${vec J} times {vec B} = nabla P$ computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as ${vec B} = nabla psi times nabla alpha$. The pressure distribution, $P = P(psi, alpha$, is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for ψ surfaces are imposed using empirical field models

  6. Testing pair production in pulsar magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timokhin, Andrey

    2017-09-01

    We propose to test whether electron-positron pair creation in the outer parts of pulsar magnetosphere, strongly preferred by the most recent pulsar models, can provide enough pair plasma to account for X-ray emission of pulsar wind nebulae. We will develop a theoretical foundation for such test and apply this test to several pulsars and their nebulae observed by Chandra. The proposed method is largely independent of the details of magnetosphere models and can be used as a powerful test for a broad range of pulsar models.

  7. Coupled storm-time magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere simulations including microscopic ionospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkin, V. G.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Zhang, B.; Liu, J.; Wang, W.; Dimant, Y. S.; Oppenheim, M. M.; Lyon, J.

    2017-12-01

    During geomagnetic storms the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system becomes activated in ways that are unique to disturbed conditions. This leads to emergence of physical feedback loops that provide tighter coupling between the system elements, often operating across disparate spatial and temporal scales. One such process that has recently received renewed interest is the generation of microscopic ionospheric turbulence in the electrojet regions (electrojet turbulence, ET) that results from strong convective electric fields imposed by the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. ET leads to anomalous electron heating and generation of non-linear Pedersen current - both of which result in significant increases in effective ionospheric conductances. This, in turn, provides strong non-linear feedback on the magnetosphere. Recently, our group has published two studies aiming at a comprehensive analysis of the global effects of this microscopic process on the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. In one study, ET physics was incorporated in the TIEGCM model of the ionosphere-thermosphere. In the other study, ad hoc corrections to the ionospheric conductances based on ET theory were incorporated in the conductance module of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetosphere model. In this presentation, we make the final step toward the full coupling of the microscopic ET physics within our global coupled model including LFM, the Rice Convection Model (RCM) and TIEGCM. To this end, ET effects are incorporated in the TIEGCM model and propagate throughout the system via thus modified TIEGCM conductances. The March 17, 2013 geomagnetic storm is used as a testbed for these fully coupled simulations, and the results of the model are compared with various ionospheric and magnetospheric observatories, including DMSP, AMPERE, and Van Allen Probes. Via these comparisons, we investigate, in particular, the ET effects on the global magnetosphere indicators such as the

  8. Centrifugal acceleration of plasma in pulsar magnetosphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a relativistic model for the centrifugal acceleration of plasma bunches and the coherent radio emission in pulsar magnetosphere. We find that rotation broadens the width of leading component compared to the width of trailing component. We explain this difference in the component widths using the nested cone ...

  9. Whistler instability in a magnetospheric duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, I.; Tripathi, V.K. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Physics); Jain, V.K. (Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). School of Environmental Sciences)

    1989-04-01

    A whistler wave propagating through a preformed magnetospheric duct is susceptible to growth/amplification by an electron beam. The interaction is non-local and could be of Cerenkov or slow-cyclotron type. First-order perturbation theory is employed to obtain the growth rate for flat and Gaussian beam densities. (author).

  10. The Magnetospheric Boundary in Cataclysmic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellier Coel

    2014-01-01

    During outbursts, when the accretion flow increases by orders of magnitude, the disk pushes the magnetosphere inwards, and appears to feed field lines over a much greater range of magnetic azimuth. The non-equilibrium outburst behaviour shows an even richer phenomenology than in quiescence, adding DNOs and QPOs into the mix.

  11. Magnetospheric Ion Evolution Across the Low-Latitude Boundary Layer Separatrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, S. K.; Fuselier, S. A.; Trattner, K. J.; Burch, J. L.; Allen, R. C.; Petrinec, S. M.; Anderson, B. J.; Webster, J. M.; Ergun, R. E.; Giles, B. L.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-10-01

    On 20 September 2015, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft crossed the dusk magnetopause after a compression of the magnetosphere. Enhanced densities and fluxes of both colder (≤10 eV) and hotter (>1 keV) magnetospheric and magnetosheath heavy ion species were observed reaching the magnetopause. The evolution of the velocity distributions for H+, He+, and O+ measured by the Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer on MMS during this magnetopause crossing is presented. In particular, this study focuses on the changes in the species' distribution functions as MMS passes from the magnetosphere through the electron edge of the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) separatrix and then into the LLBL. Two types of processes are suggested to play a role in the heating of colder magnetospheric ions across the LLBL separatrix in the region between the separatrix and the electron and ion edges of the LLBL. One mechanism leads to the formation and enhancement of ring distributions in this layer of the LLBL as the magnetospheric ions propagate across the separatrix. A second mechanism leading first to perpendicular heating and then to parallel heating of colder protons may arise from a possible two-stream instability as the magnetospheric ions first encounter the warmer magnetosheath electrons in the electron layer and then the warmer magnetosheath ions between the electron and ion edges of the LLBL separatrix. Perpendicular heating of He+ and O+ is seen more so in the main reconnection exhaust, due to nonadiabatic behavior of these ions as they are accelerated up to the bulk flow speed.

  12. Surface conductivity of Mercury provides current closure and may affect magnetospheric symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We study what effect a possible surface conductivity of Mercury has on the closure of magnetospheric currents by making six runs with a quasi-neutral hybrid simulation. The runs are otherwise identical but use different synthetic conductivity models: run 1 has a fully conducting planet, run 2 has a poorly conducting planet ( $sigma{=}10^{-8} Omega^{-1}$ m$^{-1}$ and runs 3-6 have one of the hemispheres either in the dawn-dusk or day-night directions, conducting well, the other one being conducting poorly. Although the surface conductivity is not known from observations, educated guesses easily give such conductivity values that magnetospheric currents may close partly within the planet, and as the conductivity depends heavily on the mineral composition of the surface, the possibility of significant horizontal variations cannot be easily excluded. The simulation results show that strong horizontal variations may produce modest magnetospheric asymmetries. Beyond the hybrid simulation, we also briefly discuss the possibility that in the nightside there may be a lack of surface electrons to carry downward current, which may act as a further source of surface-related magnetospheric asymmetry.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (planetary magnetospheres; current systems; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions.6

  13. Causes of convection in the earth's magnetosphere: a review of developments during the IMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, S.W.H.

    1982-08-01

    The physical processes which give rise to convection in the earth's magnetosphere have been the subject of active debate for many years. Most of the discussion has centered on two basic pictures, one in which closed magnetospheric flux tubes are transported from dayside to nightside in a boundary layer around the flanks of the magnetosphere by a 'viscouslike' process occurring at the magnetopause and the other in which open flux tubes are transported over the poles of the earth after reconnection has taken place with the interplanetary magnetic field. These processes may coexist on a continuous basis, and the question then arises as to their relative contributions to usual total cross-magnetospheric voltages of approx.40--100 kV. The first detailed observations of plasmas and fields in the vicinity of the dayside magnetopause have recently been made during the International Magnetospheric Study by the ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft and are discussed in this paper in relation to this question. Observations which relate to the occurrence of 'quasi-steady' as well as impulsive flux transfer event (FTE) reconnection are reviewed in detail in the paper, together with measurements of the properties of the boundary layer on the magnetospheric flanks. Particular emphasis is given to the interpretation of these data in terms of the physical process occurring. It is argued that the ISEE observations of quasi-steady reconnection are indeed compatible with the process playing a major role in magnetospheric dynamics.

  14. Enceladus' varying imprint on the magnetosphere of Saturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G H; Roussos, E; Krupp, N; Paranicas, C; Woch, J; Lagg, A; Mitchell, D G; Krimigis, S M; Dougherty, M K

    2006-03-10

    The bombardment of Saturn's moon Enceladus by >20-kiloelectron volt magnetospheric particles causes particle flux depletions in regions magnetically connected to its orbit. Irrespective of magnetospheric activity, proton depletions are persistent, whereas electron depletions are quickly erased by magnetospheric processes. Observations of these signatures by Cassini's Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument allow remote monitoring of Enceladus' gas and dust environments. This reveals substantial outgassing variability at the moon and suggests increased dust concentrations at its Lagrange points. The characteristics of the particle depletions additionally provide key radial diffusion coefficients for energetic electrons and an independent measure of the inner magnetosphere's rotation velocity.

  15. Characteristics of the Inner and Middle Magnetosphere: Results From the Coupled Michigan MHD Model and the Rice Convection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zeeuw, D.; Sazykin, S.; Wolf, D.; Gombosi, T.; Powell, K.

    2002-05-01

    A new high performance Rice Convection Model (RCM) has been coupled to the adaptive-grid Michigan MHD model (BATSRUS). This fully coupled code allows us to self-consistently simulate the physics in the inner and middle magnetosphere. A study will be presented of the basic characteristics of the inner and middle magnetosphere in the context of a single coupled-code run with steady inputs. The analysis will include region-2 currents, shielding of the inner magnetosphere, partial ring currents, pressure distribution, magnetic field inflation, and distribution of pV**gamma. The coupled-code simulation will be compared with results from RCM runs and algorithms.

  16. First results from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavraud, B.

    2017-12-01

    Since its launch in March 2015, NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) provides a wealth of unprecedented high resolution measurements of space plasma properties and dynamics in the near-Earth environment. MMS was designed in the first place to study the fundamental process of collision-less magnetic reconnection. The two first results reviewed here pertain to this topic and highlight how the extremely high resolution MMS data (electrons, in particular, with full three dimensional measurements at 30 ms in burst mode) have permitted to tackle electron dynamics in unprecedented details. The first result demonstrates how electrons become demagnetized and scattered near the magnetic reconnection X line as a result of increased magnetic field curvature, together with a decrease in its magnitude. The second result demonstrates that electrons form crescent-shaped, agyrotropic distribution functions very near the X line, suggestive of the existence of a perpendicular current aligned with the local electric field and consistent with the energy conversion expected in magnetic reconnection (such that J\\cdot E > 0). Aside from magnetic reconnection, we show how MMS contributes to topics such as wave properties and their interaction with particles. Thanks again to extremely high resolution measurements, the lossless and periodical energy exchange between wave electromagnetic fields and particles, as expected in the case of kinetic Alfvén waves, was confirmed. Although not discussed, MMS has the potential to solve many other outstanding issues in collision-less plasma physics, for example regarding shock or turbulence acceleration, with obvious broader impacts in astrophysics in general.

  17. Artificial electron beams in the magnetosphere and ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winckler, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Plasma Diagnostics Payload of the Echo 7 satellite carried TV cameras and photometers by means of which the luminosity around an electron beam in the polar ionosphere could be studied. It was found that, while the beam Larmor spiral could be clearly seen near 100 km, above this only a column due to suprathermal electrons was observable. At high altitudes, the emission of neutral gas both generated powerful luminosity and substantially reduced accelerator potentials. An analysis of conjugate echoes indicates that inferred magnetospheric electric fields do not map well into the ionosphere, as well as the presence of strong pitch-angle scattering. 11 refs

  18. Magnetic signatures of ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems during geomagnetic quiet conditions - An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    High-precision magnetic measurements taken by LEO satellites (flying at altitudes between 300 and 800 km) allow for studying the ionosphericand magnetospheric processes and electric currents that causes only weak magnetic signature of a few nanotesla during geomagnetic quiet conditions. Of partic......High-precision magnetic measurements taken by LEO satellites (flying at altitudes between 300 and 800 km) allow for studying the ionosphericand magnetospheric processes and electric currents that causes only weak magnetic signature of a few nanotesla during geomagnetic quiet conditions....... Of particular importance for this endeavour are multipoint observationsin space, such as provided by the Swarm satellite constellation mission, inorder to better characterize the space-time-structure of the current systems. Focusing on geomagnetic quiet conditions, we provide an overview of ionospheric...... and magnetospheric sources and illustrate their magnetic signatureswith Swarm satellite observations....

  19. The application of dimensional analysis to the problem of solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Baker, D. N.; Hones, E. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The constraints imposed by dimensional analysis are used to find how the solar wind-magnetosphere energy transfer rate depends upon interplanetary parameters. The analyses assume that only magnetohydrodynamic processes are important in controlling the rate of energy transfer. The study utilizes ISEE-3 solar wind observations, the AE index, and UT from three 10-day intervals during the International Magnetospheric Study. Simple linear regression and histogram techniques are used to find the value of the magnetohydrodynamic coupling exponent, alpha, which is consistent with observations of magnetospheric response. Once alpha is estimated, the form of the solar wind energy transfer rate is obtained by substitution into an equation of the interplanetary variables whose exponents depend upon alpha.

  20. Electromagnetic field for an open magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkila, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The boundary-layer-dominated models of the earth EM field developed by Heikkila (1975, 1978, 1982, and 1983) and Heikkila et al. (1979) to account for deficiencies in the electric-field descriptions of quasi-steady-state magnetic-field-reconnection models (such as that of Cowley, 1980) are characterized, reviewing the arguments and indicating the most important implications. The mechanisms of boundary-layer formation and field direction reversal are explained and illustrated with diagrams, and it is inferred that boundary-layer phenomena rather than magnetic reconnection may be the cause of large-scale magnetospheric circulation, convection, plasma-sheet formation and sunward convection, and auroras, the boundary layer acting basically as a viscous process mediating solar-wind/magnetosphere interactions. 23 references

  1. Magnetosphere - Ionosphere - Thermosphere (MIT) Coupling at Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, J. N.; Ray, L. C.; Achilleos, N.

    2017-12-01

    Jupiter's upper atmospheric temperature is considerably higher than that predicted by Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) heating alone. Simulations incorporating magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling effects into general circulation models have, to date, struggled to reproduce the observed atmospheric temperatures under simplifying assumptions such as azimuthal symmetry and a spin-aligned dipole magnetic field. Here we present the development of a full three-dimensional thermosphere model coupled in both hemispheres to an axisymmetric magnetosphere model. This new coupled model is based on the two-dimensional MIT model presented in Yates et al., 2014. This coupled model is a critical step towards to the development of a fully coupled 3D MIT model. We discuss and compare the resulting thermospheric flows, energy balance and MI coupling currents to those presented in previous 2D MIT models.

  2. The electromagnetic field for an open magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkila, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    The boundary-layer-dominated models of the earth EM field developed by Heikkila (1975, 1978, 1982, and 1983) and Heikkila et al. (1979) to account for deficiencies in the electric-field descriptions of quasi-steady-state magnetic-field-reconnection models (such as that of Cowley, 1980) are characterized, reviewing the arguments and indicating the most important implications. The mechanisms of boundary-layer formation and field direction reversal are explained and illustrated with diagrams, and it is inferred that boundary-layer phenomena rather than magnetic reconnection may be the cause of large-scale magnetospheric circulation, convection, plasma-sheet formation and sunward convection, and auroras, the boundary layer acting basically as a viscous process mediating solar-wind/magnetosphere interactions.

  3. Observations and models of centrifugally supported magnetospheres in massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksala, Mary Elizabeth

    Magnetic massive stars, via their strong magnetic fields and radiation-driven winds, strongly influence the dynamical and chemical evolution of their surroundings. The interaction between these two intrinsic stellar properties can produce dynamic circumstellar structures, and, in the case of rapidly rotating stars, centrifugally supported magnetospheres. This thesis uses new observations to confront current magnetosphere models, testing their predictive power using photometry and spectropolarimetry of the prototypical magnetic B2Vp star sigma Ori E. In addition, we present the discovery of a magnetic field in a second rapidly rotating massive star. At the time of its discovery, this star was the most rapidly rotating non-degenerate magnetic star. We begin with an overview of magnetism in massive stars and wind-field interactions (Chapter 2) and the observational techniques involved in their study (Chapter 3), and summarize historical studies of sigma Ori E (Chapter 4). Chapter 5 describes the detection of rotational braking in sigma Ori E. We find a 77 ms yr-1 lengthening of the rotational period, corresponding to a spindown time of 1.34+0.10 -0.09 Myr. This observed period change agrees well with theoretical predictions for angular momentum loss in a magnetically channeled, line-driven wind. Next we present new spectropolarimetric observations of sigma Ori E (Chapter 6). The observed Halpha variability matches the predictions from a rigidly rotating magnetosphere (RRM) model with an offset dipole magnetic field configuration. However, our new, precise longitudinal magnetic field measurements reveal significant discrepancies with respect to the RRM model, challenging the current form as applied to sigma Ori E and suggesting that the field configuration of this star is more complex than a simple dipole. Chapter 7 describes the first detection of a magnetic field in the B2Vn star HR 7355. From analyzing photometric data, we find a 0.5214404(6) d rotational period

  4. The magnetosphere under weak solar wind forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Farrugia

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The Earth's magnetosphere was very strongly disturbed during the passage of the strong shock and the following interacting ejecta on 21–25 October 2001. These disturbances included two intense storms (Dst*≈−250 and −180 nT, respectively. The cessation of this activity at the start of 24 October ushered in a peculiar state of the magnetosphere which lasted for about 28 h and which we discuss in this paper. The interplanetary field was dominated by the sunward component [B=(4.29±0.77, −0.30±0.71, 0.49±0.45 nT]. We analyze global indicators of geomagnetic disturbances, polar cap precipitation, ground magnetometer records, and ionospheric convection as obtained from SuperDARN radars. The state of the magnetosphere is characterized by the following features: (i generally weak and patchy (in time low-latitude dayside reconnection or reconnection poleward of the cusps; (ii absence of substorms; (iii a monotonic recovery from the previous storm activity (Dst corrected for magnetopause currents decreasing from ~−65 to ~−35 nT, giving an unforced decreased of ~1.1 nT/h; (iv the probable absence of viscous-type interaction originating from the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH instability; (v a cross-polar cap potential of just 20–30 kV; (vi a persistent, polar cap region containing (vii very weak, and sometimes absent, electron precipitation and no systematic inter-hemisphere asymmetry. Whereas we therefore infer the presence of a moderate amount of open flux, the convection is generally weak and patchy, which we ascribe to the lack of solar wind driver. This magnetospheric state approaches that predicted by Cowley and Lockwood (1992 but has never yet been observed.

  5. A Comet Engulfs Mars: MAVEN Observations of Comet Siding Spring's Influence on the Martian Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espley, Jared R.; Dibraccio, Gina A.; Connerney, John E. P.; Brain, David; Gruesbeck, Jacob; Soobiah, Yasir; Halekas, Jasper S.; Combi, Michael; Luhmann, Janet; Ma, Yingjuan

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) passed within 141,000?km of Mars on 19 October 2014. Thus, the cometary coma and the plasma it produces washed over Mars for several hours producing significant effects in the Martian magnetosphere and upper atmosphere. We present observations from Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN's (MAVEN's) particles and field's instruments that show the Martian magnetosphere was severely distorted during the comet's passage. We note four specific major effects: (1) a variable induced magnetospheric boundary, (2) a strong rotation of the magnetic field as the comet approached, (3) severely distorted and disordered ionospheric magnetic fields during the comet's closest approach, and (4) unusually strong magnetosheath turbulence lasting hours after the comet left. We argue that the comet produced effects comparable to that of a large solar storm (in terms of incident energy) and that our results are therefore important for future studies of atmospheric escape, MAVEN's primary science objective.

  6. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere: effect of precipitation-induced enhancement of the ionospheric Pedersen conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Nichols

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the effect of precipitation-induced enhancement of the Jovian ionospheric Pedersen conductivity on the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling current system which is associated with the breakdown of the corotation of iogenic plasma in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere. In previous studies the Pedersen conductivity has been taken to be simply a constant, while it is expected to be significantly enhanced in the regions of upward-directed auroral field-aligned current, implying downward precipitating electrons. We develop an empirical model of the modulation of the Pedersen conductivity with field-aligned current density based on the modelling results of Millward et al. and compute the currents flowing in the system with the conductivity self-consistently dependent on the auroral precipitation. In addition, we consider two simplified models of the conductivity which provide an insight into the behaviour of the solutions. We compare the results to those obtained when the conductivity is taken to be constant, and find that the empirical conductivity model helps resolve some outstanding discrepancies between theory and observation of the plasma angular velocity and current system. Specifically, we find that the field-aligned current is concentrated in a peak of magnitude ~0.25µAm-2 in the inner region of the middle magnetosphere at ~20 RJ, rather than being more uniformly distributed as found with constant conductivity models. This peak maps to ~17° in the ionosphere, and is consistent with the position of the main oval auroras. The energy flux associated with the field-aligned current is ~10mWm-2 (corresponding to a UV luminosity of ~100kR, in a region ~0.6° in width, and the Pedersen conductivity is elevated from a background of ~0.05mho to ~0.7mho. Correspondingly, the total equatorial radial current increases greatly in the region of peak field-aligned current, and plateaus with increasing distance thereafter. This form is consistent with

  7. The influence of solar wind variability on magnetospheric ULF wave power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhotelov, D.; Rae, I.J.; Mann, I.R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetospheric ultra-low frequency (ULF) oscillations in the Pc 4-5 frequency range play an important role in the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts, both by enhancing the radial diffusion through incoherent interactions and through the coherent drift-resonant interactions with trapped radiation belt electrons. The statistical distributions of magnetospheric ULF wave power are known to be strongly dependent on solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation. Statistical characterisation of ULF wave power in the magnetosphere traditionally relies on average solar wind-IMF conditions over a specific time period. In this brief report, we perform an alternative characterisation of the solar wind influence on magnetospheric ULF wave activity through the characterisation of the solar wind driver by its variability using the standard deviation of solar wind parameters rather than a simple time average. We present a statistical study of nearly one solar cycle (1996-2004) of geosynchronous observations of magnetic ULF wave power and find that there is significant variation in ULF wave powers as a function of the dynamic properties of the solar wind. In particular, we find that the variability in IMF vector, rather than variabilities in other parameters (solar wind density, bulk velocity and ion temperature), plays the strongest role in controlling geosynchronous ULF power. We conclude that, although time-averaged bulk properties of the solar wind are a key factor in driving ULF powers in the magnetosphere, the solar wind variability can be an important contributor as well. This highlights the potential importance of including solar wind variability especially in studies of ULF wave dynamics in order to assess the efficiency of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling.

  8. Effects of electrojet turbulence on a magnetosphere-ionosphere simulation of a geomagnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltberger, M.; Merkin, V.; Zhang, B.; Toffoletto, F.; Oppenheim, M.; Wang, W.; Lyon, J. G.; Liu, J.; Dimant, Y.; Sitnov, M. I.; Stephens, G. K.

    2017-05-01

    Ionospheric conductance plays an important role in regulating the response of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system to solar wind driving. Typically, models of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling include changes to ionospheric conductance driven by extreme ultraviolet ionization and electron precipitation. This paper shows that effects driven by the Farley-Buneman instability can also create significant enhancements in the ionospheric conductance, with substantial impacts on geospace. We have implemented a method of including electrojet turbulence (ET) effects into the ionospheric conductance model utilized within geospace simulations. Our particular implementation is tested with simulations of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global magnetosphere model coupled with the Rice Convection Model of the inner magnetosphere. We examine the impact of including ET-modified conductances in a case study of the geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2013. Simulations with ET show a 13% reduction in the cross polar cap potential at the beginning of the storm and up to 20% increases in the Pedersen and Hall conductance. These simulation results show better agreement with Defense Meteorological Satellite Program observations, including capturing features of subauroral polarization streams. The field-aligned current (FAC) patterns show little differences during the peak of storm and agree well with Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) reconstructions. Typically, the simulated FAC densities are stronger and at slightly higher latitudes than shown by AMPERE. The inner magnetospheric pressures derived from Tsyganenko-Sitnov empirical magnetic field model show that the inclusion of the ET effects increases the peak pressure and brings the results into better agreement with the empirical model.

  9. The aurora at quite magnetospheric conditions: Repeatability and dipole tilt angle dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oznovich, I.; Eastes, R.W.; Huffman, R.E.; Tur, M.; Glaser, I.

    1993-01-01

    Is there a magnetospheric ground state? Do the position and size of the auroral oval depend on the magnetic dipole tilt angle at quiet magnetospheric conditions? In order to address these questions, northern hemisphere images of the aurora at 1356 Angstrom, obtained by Polar BEAR at solar minimum (beginning of 1987), were related to high temporal resolution IPM 8 measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field, to solar wind velocity, and to the ground-based activity index Kp. The first problem was addressed by a two-dimensional correlation study of the repeatability of auroral emissions in corrected geomagnetic space at conditions of minimum energy transfer from the magnetosphere. The correlation measure of auroral images was 0.6-0.85. Error simulations indicate that given the uncertainties in pixel position and intensity, the maximum expected value of the correlation measure is 0.65-0.9. The notion of a ground state magnetosphere is therefore supported by this data. Repeatability was found at the same level regardless of time or reconfigurations of the magnetosphere between images and independent of magnetic time sector. The second problem was addressed by relating latitudinal shifts of the aurora with dipole tilt angle without resorting to auroral boundary specification. This data indicate that the latitude of the continuous aurora is related to the dipole tilt angle at quiet magnetospheric conditions. In the winter hemisphere a 10 degrees increase in the dipole tilt angle causes a 1 degree decrease (increase) in the latitude of auroral emissions at noon (midnight). The magnetic local time distribution of the latitudinal shifts with dipole tilt angle support a simple model in which the dipole tilt angle determines the position of the center of the auroral circle along the magnetic meridian 1320-0120 MLT (for IMF B y positive) and does not affect its radius. 22 refs., 8 figs

  10. The role of the ionosphere in coupling upstream ULF wave power into the dayside magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engebretson, M.J.; Cahill, L.J. Jr.; Arnoldy, R.L.; Anderson, B.J.; Rosenberg, T.J.; Carpenter, D.L.; Inan, U.S.; Eather, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    A series of recent studies of Pc 3 magnetic pulsations in the dayside outer magnetosphere has given new insights into the possible mechanisms of entry of ULF wave power into the magnetosphere from a bow shock related upstream source. In this paper, the authors first review many of these new observational results by presenting a comparison of data from two 10-hour intervals on successive days in April 1986 and then present a possible model for transmission of pulsation signals from the magnetosheath into the dayside magnetosphere. Simultaneous multi-instrument observations at South Pole Station, located below the cusp/cleft ionosphere near local noon, magnetic field observations by the AMPTE CCE satellite in the dayside outer magnetosphere, and upstream magnetic field observations by the IMP 8 satellite show clear interplanetary magnetic field field magnitude control of dayside resonant harmonic pulsations and band-limited very high latitude pulsations, as well as pulsation-modulated precipitation of what appear to be magnetosheath/boundary layer electrons. They believe that this modulated precipitation may be responsible for the propagation of upstream wave power in the Pc 3 frequency band into the high-latitude ionosphere, from whence it may be transported throughout the dayside outer magnetosphere by means of an ionospheric transistor. In this model, modulations in ionospheric conductivity caused by cusp/cleft precipitation cause varying ionospheric currents with frequency spectra determined by the upstream waves; these modulations will be superimposed on the Birkeland currents, which close via these ionospheric currents. Modulated region 2 Birkeland currents will in turn provide a narrow-band source of wave energy to a wide range of dayside local times in the outer magnetosphere

  11. Compression of Jupiter's magnetosphere by the solar wind: Reexamination via MHD simulation of evolving corotating interaction regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Z.K.; Dryer, M.; Fillius, R.W.; Smith, E.J.; Wolfe, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    We examine the major changes in the solar wind before, during, and after the Pioneer 10 and 11 encounters with the Jovian magnetosphere during 1973 and 1974, respectively. In an earlier study, Smith et al. (1978) concluded that the Jovian magnetosphere was subjected to large-scale compression during at least three or four intervals during which it appeared that the spacecraft had reentered the solar wind or magnetosheath near 50 R/sub J/ after having first entered the magnetosphere near 100 R/sub J/. They based this suggestion on the observations of the sister spacecraft, which indicated--on the basis of a kinematic translation of corotating interaction regions (CIR's)--that these structures would be expected to arrive at Jupiter at the appropriate beginning of these three intervals. Our reexamination of this suggestion involved the numerical simulation of the multiple CIR evolutions from one spacecraft to the sister spacecraft. This approach, considered to be a major improvement, confirms the suggestion by Smith et al. (1978) that Jupiter's magnetosphere was compressed by interplanetary CIR's during three or four of these events. Our MHD simulation also suggests that Jupiter's magnetosphere reacts to solar wind rarefactions in the opposite way--by expanding. A previously unexplained pair of magnetopause crossings on the Pioneer 11 outbound pass may simply be due to a delayed reexpansion of Jupiter's magnetosphere from a compression that occurred during the inbound pass

  12. Launch Window Analysis for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor W.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission will fly four spinning spacecraft in formation in highly elliptical orbits to study the magnetosphere of the Earth. This paper describes the development of an MMS launch window tool that uses the orbitaveraged Variation of Parameter equations as the basis for a semi-analytic quantification of the dominant oblateness and lunisolar perturbation effects on the MMS orbit. This approach, coupled with a geometric interpretation of all of the MMS science and engineering constraints, allows a scan of 180(sup 2) = 32,400 different (RAAN, AOP) pairs to be carried out for a specified launch day in less than 10 s on a typical modern laptop. The resulting plot indicates the regions in (RAAN, AOP) space where each constraint is satisfied or violated: their intersection gives, in an easily interpreted graphical manner, the final solution space for the day considered. This tool, SWM76, is now used to provide launch conditions to the full fidelity (but far slower) MMS simulation code: very good agreement has been observed between the two methods.

  13. Near-Earth Magnetic Field Effects of Large-Scale Magnetospheric Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Hermann; Xiong, Chao; Olsen, Nils

    2017-01-01

    Magnetospheric currents play an important role in the electrodynamics of near-Earth space. This has been the topic of many space science studies. Here we focus on the magnetic fields they cause close to Earth. Their contribution to the geomagnetic field is the second largest after the core field....

  14. Origins Of Magnetospheric Physics An Expanded Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Van Allen, James A

    2004-01-01

    Early in 1958, instruments on the space satellites Explorer I and Explorer III revealed the presence of radiation belts, enormous populations of energetic particles trapped in the magnetic field of the earth. Originally published in 1983 but long out of print until now, Origins of Magnetospheric Physics tells the story of this dramatic and hugely transformative period in scientific and Cold War history. Writing in an accessible style and drawing on personal journals, correspondence, published papers, and the recollections of colleagues, James Van Allen documents a trail-blazing era in space hi

  15. A statistical approach for identifying the ionospheric footprint of magnetospheric boundaries from SuperDARN observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lointier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and tracking the projection of magnetospheric regions on the high-latitude ionosphere is of primary importance for studying the Solar Wind-Magnetosphere-Ionosphere system and for space weather applications. By its unique spatial coverage and temporal resolution, the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN provides key parameters, such as the Doppler spectral width, which allows the monitoring of the ionospheric footprint of some magnetospheric boundaries in near real-time. In this study, we present the first results of a statistical approach for monitoring these magnetospheric boundaries. The singular value decomposition is used as a data reduction tool to describe the backscattered echoes with a small set of parameters. One of these is strongly correlated with the Doppler spectral width, and can thus be used as a proxy for it. Based on this, we propose a Bayesian classifier for identifying the spectral width boundary, which is classically associated with the Polar Cap boundary. The results are in good agreement with previous studies. Two advantages of the method are: the possibility to apply it in near real-time, and its capacity to select the appropriate threshold level for the boundary detection.

  16. The Dayside Aurora Brightening Associated with Magnetosheath High-Speed Jets and Their Related Magnetospheric Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Nishimura, Y.; Hietala, H.; Lyons, L. R.; Angelopoulos, V.; Ebihara, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetosheath high speed jets (HSJs) are dayside transient disturbances with high speed velocity and large dynamic pressure. They are observed to be associated with significant magnetopause perturbations, ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves in the dayside magnetosphere, and localized flow enhancements in the ionosphere. However, whether HSJs also affect dayside aurora is still an open question, and if so, aurora properties can be used to deduce 2-d structure and evolution of HSJ effects in the magnetosphere. In this study, we use 11 HSJ events identified by the THEMIS satellites located within ±1 MLT of the center FOV of the South Pole station all sky imager (ASI). In 8 of those, the HSJs are observed to have a nearly one-to-one relationship with each localized discrete/diffuse auroral brightening. The azimuthal size of HSJ-related diffuse aurora signatures is 4 Re in the magnetosphere, which is slightly larger but of the order of the cross-sectional diameter of HSJs ( 1 Re). Besides, most of those aurora signatures have azimuthally motion ( 121 km/s), which shows consistency with magnetosheath background flows. This study for the first time showed the connection between magnetosheath HSJs and localized diffuse auroras. Diffuse aurora brightenings are also correlated with ULF waves in the dayside magnetosphere and ionosphere.

  17. Solar wind dependence of ion parameters in the Earth's magnetospheric region calculated from CLUSTER observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Denton

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Moments calculated from the ion distributions (~0–40 keV measured by the Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS instrument are combined with data from the Cluster Flux Gate Magnetometer (FGM instrument and used to characterise the bulk properties of the plasma in the near-Earth magnetosphere over five years (2001–2005. Results are presented in the form of 2-D xy, xz and yz GSM cuts through the magnetosphere using data obtained from the Cluster Science Data System (CSDS and the Cluster Active Archive (CAA. Analysis reveals the distribution of ~0–40 keV ions in the inner magnetosphere is highly ordered and highly responsive to changes in solar wind velocity. Specifically, elevations in temperature are found to occur across the entire nightside plasma sheet region during times of fast solar wind. We demonstrate that the nightside plasma sheet ion temperature at a downtail distance of ~12 to 19 Earth radii increases by a factor of ~2 during periods of fast solar wind (500–1000 km s−1 compared to periods of slow solar wind (100–400 km s−1. The spatial extent of these increases are shown in the xy, xz and yz GSM planes. The results from the study have implications for modelling studies and simulations of solar-wind/magnetosphere coupling, which ultimately rely on in situ observations of the plasma sheet properties for input/boundary conditions.

  18. Evidence for global electron transportation into the jovian inner magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, K; Murakami, G; Yamazaki, A; Tsuchiya, F; Kimura, T; Kagitani, M; Sakanoi, T; Uemizu, K; Kasaba, Y; Yoshikawa, I; Fujimoto, M

    2014-09-26

    Jupiter's magnetosphere is a strong particle accelerator that contains ultrarelativistic electrons in its inner part. They are thought to be accelerated by whistler-mode waves excited by anisotropic hot electrons (>10 kiloelectron volts) injected from the outer magnetosphere. However, electron transportation in the inner magnetosphere is not well understood. By analyzing the extreme ultraviolet line emission from the inner magnetosphere, we show evidence for global inward transport of flux tubes containing hot plasma. High-spectral-resolution scanning observations of the Io plasma torus in the inner magnetosphere enable us to generate radial profiles of the hot electron fraction. It gradually decreases with decreasing radial distance, despite the short collisional time scale that should thermalize them rapidly. This indicates a fast and continuous resupply of hot electrons responsible for exciting the whistler-mode waves. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Effects of magnetosphere interactions on origin and evolution of atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, A.F.; Johnson, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Interactions with planetary magnetospheres can affect the origin and evolution of atmospheres, especially tenuous ones in which the exosphere comprises a significant portion of the whole. Magnetospheric plasma incident on an atmosphere deposits energy, causes ejection of atmospheric species into space, and produces chemical modifications of atmospheric species. For sufficiently tenuous atmospheres, energetic-particles and photons can reach the surface of the planet or satellite, causing sputtering as well as physical and chemical modifications of the surface. This can result in the ejection of new species into the atmosphere, affecting its composition. Magnetospheric interactions can be the dominant source and loss processes for tenuous atmospheres and cause formation of spatially extended sputter coronae and/or neutral clouds in planetary magnetospheres. Magnetospheric interactions are discussed for the atmospheres of Mercury, Io and the icy satellites of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus

  20. Cosmogony as an extrapolation of magnetospheric research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1984-03-01

    A theory of the origin and evolution of the Solar System (Alfven and Arrhenius, 1975: 1976) which considered electromagnetic forces and plasma effects is revised in the light of new information supplied by space research. In situ measurements in the magnetospheres and solar wind have changed our views of basic properties of cosmic plasmas. These results can be extrapolated both outwards in space, to interstellar clouds, backwards in time, to the formation of the solar system. The first extrapolation leads to a revision of some cloud properties which are essential for the early phases in the formation of stars and solar nebule. The latter extrapolation makes possible to approach the cosmogonic processes by extrapolation of (rather) well-known magnetospheric phenomena. Pioneer-Voyager observations of the Saturnian rings indicate that essential parts of their structure are fossils from cosmogonic times. By using detailed information from these space missions, it seems possible to reconstruct certain events 4-5 billion years ago with an accuracy of a few percent. This will cause a change in our views of the evolution of the solar system.(author)

  1. Fast Plasma Investigation for Magnetospheric Multiscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, C.; Moore, T.; Coffey, V.; Dorelli J.; Giles, B.; Adrian, M.; Chandler, M.; Duncan, C.; Figueroa-Vinas, A.; Garcia, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) was developed for flight on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission to measure the differential directional flux of magnetospheric electrons and ions with unprecedented time resolution to resolve kinetic-scale plasma dynamics. This increased resolution has been accomplished by placing four dual 180-degree top hat spectrometers for electrons and four dual 180-degree top hat spectrometers for ions around the periphery of each of four MMS spacecraft. Using electrostatic field-of-view deflection, the eight spectrometers for each species together provide 4pi-sr-field-of-view with, at worst, 11.25-degree sample spacing. Energy/charge sampling is provided by swept electrostatic energy/charge selection over the range from 10 eVq to 30000 eVq. The eight dual spectrometers on each spacecraft are controlled and interrogated by a single block redundant Instrument Data Processing Unit, which in turn interfaces to the observatory's Instrument Suite Central Instrument Data processor. This paper described the design of FPI, its ground and in-flight calibration, its operational concept, and its data products.

  2. Juno Magnetometer Observations in the Earth's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E.; Oliversen, R. J.; Espley, J. R.; MacDowall, R. J.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Odom, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Joergensen, J. L.; Joergensen, P. S.; Merayo, J. M.; Denver, T.; Bloxham, J.; Smith, E. J.; Murphy, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Juno spacecraft enjoyed a close encounter with Earth on October 9, 2013, en route to Jupiter Orbit Insertion (JOI) on July 5, 2016. The Earth Flyby (EFB) provided a unique opportunity for the Juno particles and fields instruments to sample mission relevant environments and exercise operations anticipated for orbital operations at Jupiter, particularly the period of intense activity around perijove. The magnetic field investigation onboard Juno is equipped with two magnetometer sensor suites, located at 10 and 12 m from the spacecraft body at the end of one of the three solar panel wings. Each contains a vector fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located non-magnetic star tracker camera heads which provide accurate attitude determination for the FGM sensors. This very capable magnetic observatory sampled the Earth's magnetic field at 64 vector samples/second throughout passage through the Earth's magnetosphere. We present observations of the Earth's magnetic field and magnetosphere obtained throughout the encounter and compare these observations with those of other Earth-orbiting assets, as available, and with particles and fields observations acquired by other Juno instruments operated during EFB.

  3. Fast Plasma Investigation for Magnetospheric Multiscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, C.; Moore, T.; Jacques, A.; Burch, J.; Gliese, U.; Saito, Y.; Omoto, T.; Avanov, L.; Barrie, A.; Coffey, V.; Dorelli, J.; Gershman, D.; Giles, B.; Rosnack, T.; Salo, C.; Yokota, S.; Adrian, M.; Aoustin, C.; Auletti, C.; Aung, S.; Bigio, V.; Cao, N.; Chandler, M.; Chornay, D.; Christian, K.; Clark, G.; Collinson, G.; Corris, T.; De Los Santos, A.; Devlin, R.; Diaz, T.; Dickerson, T.; Dickson, C.; Diekmann, A.; Diggs, F.; Duncan, C.; Figueroa-Vinas, A.; Firman, C.; Freeman, M.; Galassi, N.; Garcia, K.; Goodhart, G.; Guererro, D.; Hageman, J.; Hanley, J.; Hemminger, E.; Holland, M.; Hutchins, M.; James, T.; Jones, W.; Kreisler, S.; Kujawski, J.; Lavu, V.; Lobell, J.; LeCompte, E.; Lukemire, A.; MacDonald, E.; Mariano, A.; Mukai, T.; Narayanan, K.; Nguyan, Q.; Onizuka, M.; Paterson, W.; Persyn, S.; Piepgrass, B.; Cheney, F.; Rager, A.; Raghuram, T.; Ramil, A.; Reichenthal, L.; Rodriguez, H.; Rouzaud, J.; Rucker, A.; Saito, Y.; Samara, M.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Schuster, D.; Shappirio, M.; Shelton, K.; Sher, D.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.; Smith, S.; Steinfeld, D.; Szymkiewicz, R.; Tanimoto, K.; Taylor, J.; Tucker, C.; Tull, K.; Uhl, A.; Vloet, J.; Walpole, P.; Weidner, S.; White, D.; Winkert, G.; Yeh, P.-S.; Zeuch, M.

    2016-03-01

    The Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) was developed for flight on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission to measure the differential directional flux of magnetospheric electrons and ions with unprecedented time resolution to resolve kinetic-scale plasma dynamics. This increased resolution has been accomplished by placing four dual 180-degree top hat spectrometers for electrons and four dual 180-degree top hat spectrometers for ions around the periphery of each of four MMS spacecraft. Using electrostatic field-of-view deflection, the eight spectrometers for each species together provide 4pi-sr field-of-view with, at worst, 11.25-degree sample spacing. Energy/charge sampling is provided by swept electrostatic energy/charge selection over the range from 10 eV/q to 30000 eV/q. The eight dual spectrometers on each spacecraft are controlled and interrogated by a single block redundant Instrument Data Processing Unit, which in turn interfaces to the observatory's Instrument Suite Central Instrument Data Processor. This paper describes the design of FPI, its ground and in-flight calibration, its operational concept, and its data products.

  4. Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) System Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Conrad; Maher, Francis Alfred; Henely, Sean Philip; Rand, David

    2014-01-01

    The Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission is an ambitious NASA space science mission in which 4 spacecraft are flown in tight formation about a highly elliptical orbit. Each spacecraft has multiple instruments that measure particle and field compositions in the Earths magnetosphere. By controlling the members relative motion, MMS can distinguish temporal and spatial fluctuations in a way that a single spacecraft cannot.To achieve this control, 2 sets of four maneuvers, distributed evenly across the spacecraft must be performed approximately every 14 days. Performing a single maneuver on an individual spacecraft is usually labor intensive and the complexity becomes clearly increases with four. As a result, the MMS flight dynamics team turned to the System Manager to put the routine or error-prone under machine control freeing the analysts for activities that require human judgment.The System Manager is an expert system that is capable of handling operations activities associated with performing MMS maneuvers. As an expert system, it can work off a known schedule, launching jobs based on a one-time occurrence or on a set reoccurring schedule. It is also able to detect situational changes and use event-driven programming to change schedules, adapt activities, or call for help.

  5. Magnetospheric considerations for solar system ice state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranicas, C.; Hibbitts, C. A.; Kollmann, P.; Ligier, N.; Hendrix, A. R.; Nordheim, T. A.; Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Blaney, D.; Cassidy, T. A.; Clark, G.

    2018-03-01

    The current lattice configuration of the water ice on the surfaces of the inner satellites of Jupiter and Saturn is likely shaped by many factors. But laboratory experiments have found that energetic proton irradiation can cause a transition in the structure of pure water ice from crystalline to amorphous. It is not known to what extent this process is competitive with other processes in solar system contexts. For example, surface regions that are rich in water ice may be too warm for this effect to be important, even if the energetic proton bombardment rate is very high. In this paper, we make predictions, based on particle flux levels and other considerations, about where in the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn the ∼MeV proton irradiation mechanism should be most relevant. Our results support the conclusions of Hansen and McCord (2004), who related relative level of radiation on the three outer Galilean satellites to the amorphous ice content within the top 1 mm of surface. We argue here that if magnetospheric effects are considered more carefully, the correlation is even more compelling. Crystalline ice is by far the dominant ice state detected on the inner Saturnian satellites and, as we show here, the flux of bombarding energetic protons onto these bodies is much smaller than at the inner Jovian satellites. Therefore, the ice on the Saturnian satellites also corroborates the correlation.

  6. Kinetic Simulation and Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging of the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching H.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced simulation tools and measurement techniques have been developed to study the dynamic magnetosphere and its response to drivers in the solar wind. The Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) is a kinetic code that solves the 3D distribution in space, energy and pitch-angle information of energetic ions and electrons. Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imagers have been carried in past and current satellite missions. Global morphology of energetic ions were revealed by the observed ENA images. We have combined simulation and ENA analysis techniques to study the development of ring current ions during magnetic storms and substorms. We identify the timing and location of particle injection and loss. We examine the evolution of ion energy and pitch-angle distribution during different phases of a storm. In this talk we will discuss the findings from our ring current studies and how our simulation and ENA analysis tools can be applied to the upcoming TRIO-CINAMA mission.

  7. Propagation of Dipolarization Signatures Observed by the Van Allen Probes in the Inner Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, S.; Motoba, T.; Gkioulidou, M.; Takahashi, K.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-12-01

    Dipolarization, the change of the local magnetic field from a stretched to a more dipolar configuration, is one of the most fundamental processes of magnetospheric physics. It is especially critical for the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere. The associated electric field accelerates ions and electrons and transports them closer to Earth. Such injected ions intensify the ring current, and electrons constitute the seed population of the radiation belt. Those ions and electrons may also excite various waves that play important roles in the enhancement and loss of the radiation belt electrons. Despite such critical consequences, the general characteristics of dipolarization in the inner magnetosphere still remain to be understood. The Van Allen Probes mission, which consists of two probes that orbit through the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere, provides an ideal opportunity to examine dipolarization signatures in the core of the ring current. In the present study we investigate the spatial expansion of the dipolarization region by examining the correlation and time delay of dipolarization signatures observed by the two probes. Whereas in general it requires three-point measurements to deduce the propagation of a signal on a certain plane, we statically examined the observed time delays and found that dipolarization signatures tend to propagate radially inward as well as away from midnight. In this paper we address the propagation of dipolarization signatures quantitatively and compare with the propagation velocities reported previously based on observations made farther away from Earth. We also discuss how often and under what conditions the dipolarization region expands.

  8. The Warm Plasma Composition in the Inner Magnetosphere During 2012-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, J.-M.; Goldstein, J.; Reeves, G. D.; Fernandes, P. A.; Skoug, R. M.; Larsen, B. A.; Spence, H. E.

    2017-11-01

    Ionospheric heavy ions play an important role in the dynamics of Earth's magnetosphere. The greater mass and gyroradius of ionospheric oxygen differentiates its behavior from protons at the same energies. Oxygen may have an impact on tail reconnection processes, and it can at least temporarily dominate the energy content of the ring current during geomagnetic storms. At sub-keV energies, multispecies ion populations in the inner magnetosphere form the warm plasma cloak, occupying the energy range between the plasmasphere and the ring current. Lastly, cold lighter ions from the midlatitude ionosphere create the corotating plasmasphere whose outer regions can interact with the plasma cloak, plasma sheet, ring current, and outer electron belt. In this paper we present a statistical view of warm, cloak-like ion populations in the inner magnetosphere, contrasting, in particular, the warm plasma composition during quiet and active times. We study the relative abundances and absolute densities of warm plasma measured by the Van Allen Probes, whose two spacecraft cover the inner magnetosphere from plasmaspheric altitudes close to Earth to just inside geostationary orbit. We observe that warm (>30 eV) oxygen is most abundant closer to the plasmasphere boundary, whereas warm hydrogen dominates closer to geostationary orbit. Warm helium is usually a minor constituent but shows a noticeable enhancement in the near-Earth dusk sector.

  9. Global X-ray Imaging of the Earth's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.

    2012-04-01

    Plasma and magnetic field environments can be studied in situ, or by remote sensing. In situ measurements return precise information about plasma composition, instabilities and dynamics, but cannot provide the global view necessary to understand the overall behaviour and evolution of the plasma, which instead can be explored by remote imaging. We propose a new approach by remote global X-ray imaging, now possible thanks to the relatively recent discovery of solar wind charge-exchange X-ray emission; this has been found, by observatories such as XMM-Newton, to occur in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosphere and to peak in the sub-solar magnetosheath, where both solar wind and neutral exospheric densities are high. We describe how an appropriately designed and located X-ray telescope, supported by simultaneous in situ measurements of the solar wind, can be used to image the Earth's dayside magnetosphere, magnetosheath and bow shock, with temporal and spatial resolutions sufficient to address key outstanding questions concerning how the solar wind interacts with planetary magnetospheres. This medium-size mission incorporates a wide-field soft X-ray telescope, using micropore optics and CCD detectors, for imaging and spectroscopy, a proton and alpha particle sensor designed to measure the bulk properties of the solar wind, an ion composition analyser which aims to characterise the populations of minor ions in the solar wind, and a magnetometer for accurate measurements of the strength and direction of the magnetic field. Details of the mission profile will be presented, as well as simulations of the expected performance for possible mission configurations. The AXIOM Team: G. Branduardi-Raymont(1), S. F. Sembay(2), J. P. Eastwood(3), D. G. Sibeck(4), A. Abbey(2), P. Brown(3), J. A. Carter(2), C. M. Carr(3), C. Forsyth(1), D. Kataria(1), S. Milan(2), C. J. Owen(1), A. M. Read(2), C. S. Arridge(1), A. J. Coates(1), M. R. Collier(4), S. W. H. Cowley(2), G. Fraser(2), G

  10. Monitoring magnetosheath-magnetosphere interconnection topology from the aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    Full Text Available A strong southward rotation of the IMF (BZ from 5 to -6 nT in ~ 20 s on 4 January 1995 caused an abrupt reconfiguration of midday aurorae and plasma convection consisting of the following: (1 the red-line aurora associated with magnetosheath plasma transfer at the low-latitude magnetopause appeared at the same time that (2 the green-line aurora from precipitating energetic plasma sheet particles equatorward of the cusp (near the open-closed field line boundary weakened visibly and shifted equatorward, (3 the high-latitude aurora during the previous northward IMF, which is associated with lobe reconnection, persisted briefly (3 min and brightened, before it disappeared from the field-of-view, (4 the activation of a strong convection bay (DPY current at cusp and sub-cusp latitudes when the field turned strongly south, (5 a distinct wave motion of the plasma sheet outer boundary, as inferred from the aurora, which correlates closely with Pc 5 magnetic pulsations. Our interpretation of the dramatic reconfiguration is that reconnection poleward of the cusp coexisted briefly with reconnection at sub-cusp latitudes. The latter provided a magnetic field connection which enabled, on the one hand, magnetosheath particles to enter and cause the red-line cusp aurora, and on the other hand, allowed for magnetospheric energetic particles to escape and weaken the outer plasma sheet source of the green-line emission. The coexistence of the two cusp auroras reflects the time required for one field line topology to replace another, which, under the prevailing high speed wind ( ~ 650 km/s, lasts ~ 3–4 min. The motion of open flux tubes propagating from equator to pole during this transition is traced in the aurora by a poleward moving form. The waves on the outer boundary of the plasma sheet are most likely due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The study illustrates the ability of local auroral observations to monitor even a global change in

  11. The earth's palaeomagnetosphere as the third type of planetary magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T; Sakurai, T.; Yumoto, K.

    1978-01-01

    From the viewpoint of dynamical topology, planetary magnetospheres are classified into three: Types 1,2 and 3. When the rotation vector and dipole moment of a planet and the velocity vector of the solar wind are denoted as Ω,M, and V, respectively, the planetary magnetosphere with Ωparallel to M perpendicular to V is called Type 1. The magnetospheres of the present Earth, Jupiter, and Uranus at its equinoctial points belong to this type. The magnetosphere with Ωparallel to M parallel to V is called Type 2, which includes the Uranium magnetosphere at its solstitial points. The magnetosphere with Ωperpendicular M and perpendicular V is called Type 3. The Earth's palaeomagnetosphere is considered to have experienced Type 3 during excursions and transition stages of palaeomagnetic polarity reversals. In the Type 3 magnetosphere, drastic variations are expected in configurations of the dayside cusps, tail axis, neutral sheet, polar caps, and so on. A possible relation between the Type 3 palaeomagnetosphere and palaeoclimate of the Earth during polarity reversals and geomagnetic excursions is suggested. It is also suggested that the heliomagnetosphere during polarity reversals of the general field of the Sun exhibits a drastic configuration change similar to the Type 3 palaeomagnetosphere of the Earth. A relation between the perpendicular condition Ω perpendicular to M and magnetic variable stars and pulsars is briefly discussed. (author)

  12. Global Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriver, D.; Travnicek, P. M.; Lapenta, G.; Amaya, J.; Gonzalez, D.; Richard, R. L.; Berchem, J.; Hellinger, P.

    2017-12-01

    Spacecraft observations of Mercury's magnetosphere have shown that kinetic ion and electron particle effects play a major role in the transport, acceleration, and loss of plasma within the magnetospheric system. Kinetic processes include reconnection, the breakdown of particle adiabaticity and wave-particle interactions. Because of the vast range in spatial scales involved in magnetospheric dynamics, from local electron Debye length scales ( meters) to solar wind/planetary magnetic scale lengths (tens to hundreds of planetary radii), fully self-consistent kinetic simulations of a global planetary magnetosphere remain challenging. Most global simulations of Earth's and other planet's magnetosphere are carried out using MHD, enhanced MHD (e.g., Hall MHD), hybrid, or a combination of MHD and particle in cell (PIC) simulations. Here, 3D kinetic self-consistent hybrid (ion particle, electron fluid) and full PIC (ion and electron particle) simulations of the solar wind interaction with Mercury's magnetosphere are carried out. Using the implicit PIC and hybrid simulations, Mercury's relatively small, but highly kinetic magnetosphere will be examined to determine how the self-consistent inclusion of electrons affects magnetic reconnection, particle transport and acceleration of plasma at Mercury. Also the spatial and energy profiles of precipitating magnetospheric ions and electrons onto Mercury's surface, which can strongly affect the regolith in terms of space weathering and particle outflow, will be examined with the PIC and hybrid codes. MESSENGER spacecraft observations are used both to initiate and validate the global kinetic simulations to achieve a deeper understanding of the role kinetic physics play in magnetospheric dynamics.

  13. Kinetic Theory of the Inner Magnetospheric Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Khazanov, George V

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction to the kinetic theory of space plasma physics with the major focus on the inner magnetospheric plasma. It is designed to provide a comprehensive description of the different kinds of transport equations for both plasma particles and waves with an emphasis on the applicability and limitations of each set of equations. The major topics are: Kinetic Theory of Superthermal Electrons, Kinetic Foundation of the Hydrodynamic Description of Space Plasmas (including wave-particle interaction processes), and Kinetic Theory of the Terrestrial Ring Current. Distinguishable features of this book are the analytical solutions of simplified transport equations. Approximate analytic solutions of transport phenomena are very useful because they help us gain physical insight into how the system responds to varying sources of mass, momentum and energy and also to various external boundary conditions. They also provide us a convenient method to test the validity of complicated numerical mod...

  14. Investigation of Magnetospheric Line Radiation above China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, X.; Wu, J.; Pu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetospheric Line Radiation (MLR) is a kind of VLF emission that is considered by some researchers to be related with the power system on ground, and in frequency-time spectrograms of electromagnetic field, it has a line structure with large frequency bandwidth. These emission waves propagate through the magnetosphere and strongly interact with energetic electrons trapped in the earth's magnetic field. Such a wave-particle interaction amplifies the radiation and scatters energetic electrons, which may trigger new radiations. We detected 328 MLR events by analyzing the electric field data observed by DEMETER satellite in the space above China from the year of 2008 to 2010. Their characteristics and possible cause have been investigated systematically. There were more MLR events in daytime than in nighttime and more in winter than in summer. Such diurnal and seasonal differences were closely associated with whistlers and ionosphere conditions. Comparing Kp indices at the occurring time of MLR events and nationwide Kp indices through the analyzed years, we found these MLR events were not significantly dependent on geomagnetic activity. Most of events were distributed in the low latitude, while their peak intensities in frequency-time spectrograms seemed to be independent of latitude. The frequency intervals of MLR events were between 50 to 95Hz, and the frequency drifts were mostly in 0 0.4Hz/s. The above characteristics of MLR events were similar to those of Power Line Harmonic Radiation (PLHR) events observed in the space above China, therefore we inferred that these two emissions have close relation.

  15. Voyager 1: energetic ions and electrons in the jovian magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, R E; Cook, W R; Cummings, A C; Garrard, T L; Gehrels, N; Stone, E C; Trainor, J H; Schardt, A W; Conlon, T; Lal, N; McDonald, F B

    1979-06-01

    The observations of the cosmic-ray subsystem have added significantly to our knowledge of Jupiter's magnetosphere. The most surprising result is the existence of energetic sulfur, sodium, and oxygen nuclei with energies above 7 megaelectron volts per nucleon which were found inside of Io's orbit. Also, significant fluxes of similarly energetic ions reflecting solar cosmic-ray composition were observed throughout the magnetosphere beyond 11 times the radius of Jupiter. It was also found that energetic protons are enhanced by 30 to 70 percent in the active hemisphere. Finally, the first observations were made of the magnetospheric tail in the dawn direction out to 160 Jupiter radii.

  16. GO JUPITER MAG MAGNETOSPHERIC SURVEY V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains magnetic field vectors acquired by the Galileo Orbiter magnetometer during the magnetospheric survey portion of the mission. These data were...

  17. Modeling the Saturnian magnetosphere for the Cassini Mission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skubis, Mark

    1996-01-01

    .... The magnetosphere field of Saturn is the sum of three contributions. The first two contributions, known as interior field sources, are the inherent planetary field and the field due to a co-rotating plasma ring around the planet...

  18. Problems related to macroscopic electric fields in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.

    1977-01-01

    The macroscopic electric fields in the magnetosphere originate from internal as well as external sources. The fields are intimately coupled with the dynamics of magnetospheric plasma convection. They also depend on the complicated electrical properties of the hot collisionless plasma. Macroscopic electric fields are responsible for some important kinds of energization of charged particles that take place in the magnetosphere and affect not only particles of auroral energy but also, by multistep processes, trapped high-energy particles. A particularly interesting feature of magnetospheric electric fields is that they can have substantial components along the geomagnetic field, as has recently been confirmed by observations. Several physical mechanisms have been identified by which such electric fields can be supported even when collisions between particles are negligible. Comments are made on the magnetic mirror effect, anomalous resistivity, the collisionless thermoelectric effect, and electric double layers, emphasizing key features and differences and their significance in the light of recent observational data

  19. Interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, A.F.; Haff, P.K.; Johnson, R.E.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    When natural satellites and ring particles are embedded within magnetospheric plasmas, the charged particles interact with the surfaces of these solid bodies. These interactions have important implications for the surface, the atmosphere of the parent body, and the magnetosphere as a whole. Significant erosion of the surface by sputtering, as well as redeposition of sputter ejecta, can occur over geologic time. The surface can also be chemically modified. Sputter ejecta can make important contributions to the atmosphere; sputtering provides a lower limit to the atmospheric column density even for arbitrarily cold satellite surfaces. Sputter ejecta escaping from the parent body can form extensive neutral clouds within the magnetosphere. Ionization and dissociation within these neutral clouds can be dominant sources of low-energy plasma. The importance of these processes is discussed for the satellites and magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus

  20. The Nonlinear Magnetosphere: Expressions in MHD and in Kinetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael; Birn, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Like most plasma systems, the magnetosphere of the Earth is governed by nonlinear dynamic evolution equations. The impact of nonlinearities ranges from large scales, where overall dynamics features are exhibiting nonlinear behavior, to small scale, kinetic, processes, where nonlinear behavior governs, among others, energy conversion and dissipation. In this talk we present a select set of examples of such behavior, with a specific emphasis on how nonlinear effects manifest themselves in MHD and in kinetic models of magnetospheric plasma dynamics.

  1. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.

    2007-05-01

    The Earth's radiation belts could be populated, besides with electrons and protons, also by antiparticles, such as positrons (Basilova et al., 1982) and antiprotons (pbar). Positrons are born in the decay of pions that are directly produced in nuclear reactions of trapped relativistic inner zone protons with the residual atmosphere at altitudes in the range of about 500 to 3000 km over the Earth's surface. Antiprotons are born by high energy (E > 6 GeV) cosmic rays in p+p - p+p+p+ pbar and in p+p - p+p+n+nbar reactions. The trapping and storage of these charged anti-particles in the magnetosphere result in radiation belts similar to the classical Van Allen belts of protons and electrons. We describe the mathematical techniques used for numerical simulation of the trapped positron and antiproton belt fluxes. The pion and antiproton yields were simulated on the basis of the Russian nuclear reaction computer code MSDM, a Multy Stage Dynamical Model, Monte Carlo code, (i.e., Dementyev and Sobolevsky, 1999). For estimates of positron flux there we have accounted for ionisation, bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron energy losses. The resulting numerical estimates show that the positron flux with energy >100 MeV trapped into the radiation belt at L=1.2 is of the order ~1000 m-2 s-1 sr-1, and that it is very sensitive to the shape of the trapped proton spectrum. This confined positron flux is found to be greater than that albedo, not trapped, mixed electron/positron flux of about 50 m-2 s-1 sr-1 produced by CR in the same region at the top of the geomagnetic field line at L=1.2. As we show in report, this albedo flux also consists mostly of positrons. The trapped antiproton fluxes produced by CR in the Earth's upper rarified atmosphere were calculated in the energy range from 10 MeV to several GeV. In the simulations we included a mathematic consideration of the radial diffusion process, both an inner and an outer antiproton source, losses of particles due to ionization process

  2. Ground-based ULF methods of monitoring the magnetospheric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Natalia; Pilipenko, Viacheslav; Stepanova, Marina; Kozyreva, Olga; Kawano, Hideaki

    The terrestrial magnetosphere is a giant natural MHD resonator. The magnetospheric Alfven resonator is formed by the geomagnetic field lines terminated by the conductive ionospheres. Though a source of Pc3-5 waves is not reliably known, the identification of resonant frequency enables one to determine the magnetospheric plasma density and ionospheric conductance from ground magnetometer observations. However, a spectral peak does not necessarily correspond to a local resonant frequency, and the width of a spectral peak cannot be directly used to determine the quality factor of the magnetospheric resonator. This ambiguity can be resolved with the help of various gradient and polarization methods, reviewed in this presentation: Gradient method (GM), Amplitude-Phase Gradient method (APGM),Polarization methods (including H/D method), and Hodograph (H) method. These methods can be regarded as tools for the "hydromagnetic spectroscopy“ to diagnose the magnetosphere. The H-method has additional possibilities as compared with the gradient method: one can determine continuous distribution of the magnetospheric resonant frequencies and Q-factors in the range of latitudes beyond the observation baseline. These methods are illustrated by results of their application to the SAMBA magnetometers array data.

  3. Plasma Magnetosphere of Oscillating and Rotating Neutron Stars in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Morozova, Viktoriya; Zanotti, Olindo

    2016-07-01

    We discuss a number of analytical studies, aimed at adding the influence of oscillations experienced by a pulsar/magnetar on its plasma magnetopshere. We show that particular modes of oscillations may considerably increase the pulsar/magnetar luminosity and apply the obtained theoretical results on the plasma magnetosphere of oscillating and rotating neutron stars i) to propose a qualitative model for the explanation of the phenomenology of intermittent part time pulsars, ii) to study the conditions for radio emission in rotating and oscillating magnetars by focusing on the main physical processes determining the position of their death lines, i.e. of those lines that separate the regions where the neutron star may be radio loud or radio quiet, iii) to explain the subpulse drift phenomena adopting the space-charge limited flow model and comparing the plasma drift velocity in the inner region of pulsar magnetospheres with the observed velocity of drifting subpulses.

  4. Two Dual Ion Spectrometer Flight Units of the Fast Plasma Instrument Suite (FPI) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi

    2014-01-01

    Two Dual Ion Spectrometer flight units of the Fast Plasma Instrument Suite (FPI) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) have returned to MSFC for flight testing. Anticipated to begin on June 30, tests will ensue in the Low Energy Electron and Ion Facility of the Heliophysics and Planetary Science Office (ZP13), managed by Dr. Victoria Coffey of the Natural Environments Branch of the Engineering Directorate (EV44). The MMS mission consists of four identical spacecraft, whose purpose is to study magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of Earth's magnetosphere.

  5. Wave propagation in the magnetosphere of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    A systematic procedure is developed for identifying the spatial regimes of various modes of wave propagation in the Jupiter magnetosphere that may be encountered by flyby missions. The Clemmow-Mullaly-Allis (CMA) diagram of plasma physics is utilized to identify the frequency regimes in which different modes of propagation occur in the magnetoplasma. The Gledhill model and the Ioannidis and Brice model of the magnetoplasma are summarized, and configuration-space CMA diagrams are constructed for each model for frequencies from 10 Hz to 1 MHz. The distinctive propagation features, the radio noise regimes, and the wave-particle interactions are discussed. It is concluded that the concentration of plasma in the equatorial plane makes this region of vital importance for radio observations with flyby missions. Local radio noise around the electron cyclotron frequency will probably differ appreciably from its terrestrial counterpart due to the lack of field-line guidance. Hydromagnetic wave properties at frequencies near the ion cyclotron frequency and below will probably be similar to the terrestrial case.

  6. Navigation Operations for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Anne; Farahmand, Mitra; Carpenter, Russell

    2015-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission employs four identical spinning spacecraft flying in highly elliptical Earth orbits. These spacecraft will fly in a series of tetrahedral formations with separations of less than 10 km. MMS navigation operations use onboard navigation to satisfy the mission definitive orbit and time determination requirements and in addition to minimize operations cost and complexity. The onboard navigation subsystem consists of the Navigator GPS receiver with Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System (GEONS) software, and an Ultra-Stable Oscillator. The four MMS spacecraft are operated from a single Mission Operations Center, which includes a Flight Dynamics Operations Area (FDOA) that supports MMS navigation operations, as well as maneuver planning, conjunction assessment and attitude ground operations. The System Manager component of the FDOA automates routine operations processes. The GEONS Ground Support System component of the FDOA provides the tools needed to support MMS navigation operations. This paper provides an overview of the MMS mission and associated navigation requirements and constraints and discusses MMS navigation operations and the associated MMS ground system components built to support navigation-related operations.

  7. Inductive ionospheric solver for magnetospheric MHD simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vanhamäki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new scheme for solving the ionospheric boundary conditions required in magnetospheric MHD simulations. In contrast to the electrostatic ionospheric solvers currently in use, the new solver takes ionospheric induction into account by solving Faraday's law simultaneously with Ohm's law and current continuity. From the viewpoint of an MHD simulation, the new inductive solver is similar to the electrostatic solvers, as the same input data is used (field-aligned current [FAC] and ionospheric conductances and similar output is produced (ionospheric electric field. The inductive solver is tested using realistic, databased models of an omega-band and westward traveling surge. Although the tests were performed with local models and MHD simulations require a global ionospheric solution, we may nevertheless conclude that the new solution scheme is feasible also in practice. In the test cases the difference between static and electrodynamic solutions is up to ~10 V km−1 in certain locations, or up to 20-40% of the total electric field. This is in agreement with previous estimates. It should also be noted that if FAC is replaced by the ground magnetic field (or ionospheric equivalent current in the input data set, exactly the same formalism can be used to construct an inductive version of the KRM method originally developed by Kamide et al. (1981.

  8. Energetic Particles Dynamics in Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Ryou, A.S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Alexeev, I. I.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the drift paths of energetic particles in Mercury's magnetosphere by tracing their motion through a model magnetic field. Test particle simulations solving the full Lorentz force show a quasi-trapped energetic particle population that gradient and curvature drift around the planet via "Shabansky" orbits, passing though high latitudes in the compressed dayside by equatorial latitudes on the nightside. Due to their large gyroradii, energetic H+ and Na+ ions will typically collide with the planet or the magnetopause and will not be able to complete a full drift orbit. These simulations provide direct comparison for recent spacecraft measurements from MESSENGER. Mercury's offset dipole results in an asymmetric loss cone and therefore an asymmetry in particle precipitation with more particles precipitating in the southern hemisphere. Since the planet lacks an atmosphere, precipitating particles will collide directly with the surface of the planet. The incident charged particles can kick up neutrals from the surface and have implications for the formation of the exosphere and weathering of the surface

  9. Doppler effects on periodicities in Saturn's magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbary, J. F.

    2015-11-01

    The magnetosphere of Saturn exhibits a wide variety of periodic phenomena in magnetic fields, charged particles, and radio emissions. The periodicities are observed from a moving spacecraft, so an issue arises about the periodicities being influenced by the Doppler effects. Doppler effects can be investigated using models of the periodicities and then flying the spacecraft through the model, effectively measuring any Doppler phenomena with the simulation. Using 200 days of typical elliptical orbits from the Cassini mission at Saturn, three models were tested: an azimuthal wave (or "searchlight") model, a radial wave (or "pond ripple") model, and a model of an outwardly traveling spiral wave. The azimuthal wave model produced virtually no Doppler effects in the periodicities because its wave vector is nearly perpendicular to the spacecraft trajectory. The radial wave model generated strong Doppler effects of an upshifted and a downshifted signal (a dual period) on either side of the true period, because the wave vector is either parallel or antiparallel to the spacecraft trajectory. Being intermediate to the searchlight and radial waves, the spiral wave produced Doppler effects but only for low wave speeds (<10 RS/h). For higher wave speeds the Doppler effects were not as clear. The Doppler effects can be mitigated by employing only observations beyond ~15 RS where the spacecraft speed is low compared to the wave speed. The observed periodicities over the same 200 day interval do not show evidence of Doppler effects but generally display a single feature at the expected ~10.7 h period.

  10. Precipitation of Trapped Relativistic Electrons by Amplified Whistler Waves in the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    From - To) 27-06-2007 1 REPRINT I 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Precipitation of trapped relativistic electrons by amplified whistler waves...in the magnetosphere 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62101F 6. AUTHORS 5d. PROJECT NUMBER S.P. Kuo*, Steven S. Kuo**, James T. Huynh...Airborne Systems, El Segundo, CA 90245 14. ABSTRACT Numerical study of a loss-cone negative mass instability to amplify whistler waves by energewtic

  11. Role of the magnetospheric and ionospheric currents in the generation of the equatorial scintillations during geomagnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Z. Biktash

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The equatorial ionosphere parameters, Kp, Dst, AU and AL indices characterized contribution of different magnetospheric and ionospheric currents to the H-component of geomagnetic field are examined to test the geomagnetic activity effect on the generation of ionospheric irregularities producing VLF scintillations. According to the results of the current statistical studies, one can predict near 70% of scintillations from Aarons' criteria using the Dst index, which mainly depicts the magnetospheric ring current field. To amplify Aarons' criteria or to propose new criteria for predicting scintillation characteristics is the question. In the present phase of the experimental investigations of electron density irregularities in the ionosphere new ways are opened up because observations in the interaction between the solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere during magnetic storms have progressed greatly. According to present view, the intensity of the electric fields and currents at the polar regions, as well as the magnetospheric ring current intensity, are strongly dependent on the variations of the interplanetary magnetic field. The magnetospheric ring current cannot directly penetrate the equatorial ionosphere and because of this difficulties emerge in explaining its relation to scintillation activity. On the other hand, the equatorial scintillations can be observed in the absence of the magnetospheric ring current. It is shown that in addition to Aarons' criteria for the prediction of the ionospheric scintillations, models can be used to explain the relationship between the equatorial ionospheric parameters, h'F, foF2, and the equatorial geomagnetic variations with the polar ionosphere currents and the solar wind.

  12. Effect of parallel electric fields on the whistler mode wave propagation in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, G.P.; Singh, R.N.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of parallel electric fields on whistler mode wave propagation has been studied. To account for the parallel electric fields, the dispersion equation has been analyzed, and refractive index surfaces for magnetospheric plasma have been constructed. The presence of parallel electric fields deforms the refractive index surfaces which diffuse the energy flow and produce defocusing of the whistler mode waves. The parallel electric field induces an instability in the whistler mode waves propagating through the magnetosphere. The growth or decay of whistler mode instability depends on the direction of parallel electric fields. It is concluded that the analyses of whistler wave records received on the ground should account for the role of parallel electric fields

  13. Magnetospheric Dynamical and Morphological Response to Multi-species Plasma Supply From the Ionosphere:New Comprehensive 3D PIC Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraka, S. M.; Ben-Jaffel, L.

    2015-12-01

    The outflow of thermal plasma from the high latitude ionosphere to the magnetosphere (polar wind) has been under investigation using observations and statistical studies for four decades in the altitude range from 1000km to ~ 10 Re, yet we are still missing a global and consistent three-dimensional time-dependent picture of the wind system at the interface between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere. Several questions remain unanswered, such as: I) How the ionospheric ions plasma impact the global structure of the magnetosphere. II) What are the energisation processes of that plasma and where they operate (plasma sheet, ring currents). III) What fraction of the supplied plasma returns to the ionosphere and with what properties after a journey in the magnetosphere; etc. Here, we use a spherical symmetric ionospheric model (International reference ionosphere IRI-2007) that we merge with 3D PIC EM Global code to simulate Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Our aim is to investigate the time-dependent content and dynamics of the 3D magnetosphere in response to thermal ions plasma supply from the ionosphere. Following a comprehensive approach, in this first step, we do not consider chemical reactions nor any feedback from the magnetosphere into the ionosphere. Our newly developed 3D PIC model has a finer grid size (0.1-0.2 RE), a H+ to electron mass ratio of up to 100, includes Earth gravity and tilt of the dipole field. Most importantly, the new tool has the capability to consider distinct species with different masses and charges and to follow them in time separately in the simulation box. We present our first results for the content and dynamics of the magnetosphere following H+ and O+ supply from the ionosphere in the conditions of northern IMF of the solar wind.

  14. Velocity shear Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with inhomogeneous DC electric field in the magnetosphere of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandpal, Praveen; Kaur, Rajbir; Pandey, R. S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper parallel flow velocity shear Kelvin-Helmholtz instability has been studied in two different extended regions of the inner magnetosphere of Saturn. The method of the characteristic solution and kinetic approach has been used in the mathematical calculation of dispersion relation and growth rate of K-H waves. Effect of magnetic field (B), inhomogeneity (P/a), velocity shear scale length (Ai), temperature anisotropy (T⊥ /T||), electric field (E), ratio of electron to ion temperature (Te /Ti), density gradient (εnρi) and angle of propagation (θ) on the dimensionless growth rate of K-H waves in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn has been observed with respect to k⊥ρi . Calculations of this theoretical analysis have been done taking the data from the Cassini in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn in the two extended regions of Rs ∼4.60-4.01 and Rs ∼4.82-5.0. In our study velocity shear, temperature anisotropy and magnitude of the electric field are observed to be the major sources of free energy for the K-H instability in both the regions considered. The inhomogeneity of electric field, electron-ion temperature ratio, and density gradient have been observed playing stabilizing effect on K-H instability. This study also indicates the effect of the vicinity of icy moon Enceladus on the growth of K-H instability.

  15. Two-Species, 3D, MHD Simulation of Europa's Interaction with Jupiter's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifan; Nagy, Andrew F.; Kabin, Konstantin; Combi, Michael R.; DeZeeuw, Darren L.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Powell, Kenneth G.

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of Europa with the Jovian a magnetosphere has been studied by using a two species in ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model. This model considers the upstream plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere and the molecular oxygen ions in the ionosphere of Europa, separately. We present results a from simulation studies, which take into account impact ionization, recombination, and the effect of a possible induced dipole magnetic field of Europa. The total mass loading of the magnetospheric flow and the ionization frequency used in the model are consistent with the estimates of Europa's ionosphere and atmosphere. The multi-species MHD equations are solved by using a finite volume, high-order, Godunov-type method on an adoptively refined unstructured grid, which allows a detailed modeling of the region near Europa's surface, while still resolving both the upstream region and the satellite's wake. We have paid special attention to the wake of Europa, in order to be able to make comparisons with the Galileo's E4 flyby observations, as well as other model calculations. The calculated escape flux of a O2+ down the tail was found to be about 5.6 x 10(exp 25) s(sup -1).

  16. Effect of hot injections on electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves in inner magnetosphere of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Jyoti; Kaur, Rajbir; Pandey, R. S.

    2018-02-01

    Encounter of Voyager with Saturn's environment revealed the presence of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves (EMIC) in Saturnian magnetosphere. Cassini provided the evidence of dynamic particle injections in inner magnetosphere of Saturn. Also inner magnetosphere of Saturn has highest rotational flow shear as compared to any other planet in our solar system. Hence during these injections, electrons and ions are transported to regions of stronger magnetic field, thus gaining energy. The dynamics of the inner magnetosphere of Saturn are governed by wave-particle interaction. In present paper we have investigated those EMIC waves pertaining in background plasma which propagates obliquely with respect to the magnetic field of Saturn. Applying kinetic approach, the expression for dispersion relation and growth rate has been derived. Magnetic field model has been used to incorporate magnetic field strength at different latitudes for radial distance of 6.18 R_{{s}} (1 R_{{s}}= 60{,}268 km). Various parameters affecting the growth of EMIC waves in cold bi-Maxwellian background and after the hot injections has been studied. Parametric analysis inferred that after hot injections, growth rate of EMIC waves increases till 10° and decreases eventually with increase in latitude due to ion density distribution in near-equatorial region. Also, growth rate of EMIC waves increases with increasing value of temperature anisotropy and AC frequency, but the growth rate decreases as the angle of propagation with respect to B0 (Magnetic field at equator) increases. The injection events which assume the Loss-cone distribution of particles, affect the lower wave numbers of the spectra.

  17. Jupiter's Magnetosphere: Plasma Description from the Ulysses Flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bame, S J; Barraclough, B L; Feldman, W C; Gisler, G R; Gosling, J T; McComas, D J; Phillips, J L; Thomsen, M F; Goldstein, B E; Neugebauer, M

    1992-09-11

    Plasma observations at Jupiter show that the outer regions of the Jovian magnetosphere are remarkably similar to those of Earth. Bow-shock precursor electrons and ions were detected in the upstream solar wind, as at Earth. Plasma changes across the bow shock and properties of the magnetosheath electrons were much like those at Earth, indicating that similar processes are operating. A boundary layer populated by a varying mixture of solar wind and magnetospheric plasmas was found inside the magnetopause, again as at Earth. In the middle magnetosphere, large electron density excursions were detected with a 10-hour periodicity as planetary rotation carried the tilted plasma sheet past Ulysses. Deep in the magnetosphere, Ulysses crossed a region, tentatively described as magnetically connected to the Jovian polar cap on one end and to the interplanetary magnetic field on the other. In the inner magnetosphere and lo torus, where corotation plays a dominant role, measurements could not be made because of extreme background rates from penetrating radiation belt particles.

  18. Solar wind and its interaction with the Earth magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grib, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    A critical review is given regarding the research of the stationary and non-stationary interaction of the solar wind with the Earth magnetosphere. Highlighted is the significance of the interplanetary magnetic field in the non-stationary movement of the solar wind flux. The problem of the solar wind shock waves interaction with the ''bow wave-Earth's magnetosphere'' system is being solved. Considered are the secondary phenomena, as a result of which the depression-type wave occurs, that lowers the pressure on the Earth's maanetosphere. The law, governing the movement of the magnetosphere subsolar point during the abrupt start of a geomagnetic storm has been discovered. Stationary circumvention of the magnetosphere by the solar wind flux is well described by the gas dynamic theory of the hypersonic flux. Non-stationary interaction of the solar wind shock waves with the magnetosphere is magnetohydrodynamic. It is pointed out, that the problems under consideration are important for the forecasting of strong geomagnetic perturbations on the basis of cosmic observations

  19. Observations of convection in the dayside magnetosphere by the beam instrument on Geotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Matsui

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We report observations of magnetospheric convection by the beam instrument, EFD-B, on Geotail. The region analyzed in this study is mainly the afternoon sector of the magnetosphere between L = 9.7 - 11.5. When the instrument is operated, electron beams are emitted from guns and some of them return to detectors attached to the main body of the satellite. However, we find that the return beams are often spread over a wide range of satellite spin phase angles, so that the calculated convection is unreliable. In order to remove noisy data, we set up suitable selection criteria. We infer that the convection strength is of the order of 20 km/s. The convection has generally westward and outward components. This indicates that the plasma located at the satellite positions is being convected toward the magnetopause. Moreover, the obtained convection is highly variable because standard deviations are comparable to the strength. We then compare the convection estimated by the beam instrument with that by the particle instrument, LEP. We find that the convections derived from the two instruments are positively correlated, with correlation coefficients above 0.7. The analysis reported here is expected to be useful in the interpretation of the multi-spacecraft data from the Cluster II mission.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems; electric fields; instruments and techniques

  20. Simultaneous ionospheric and magnetospheric observations of azimuthally propagating transient features during substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Yeoman

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available During the 6th August 1995, the CUTLASS Finland HF radar ran in a high time resolution mode, allowing measurements of line-of-sight convection velocities along a single beam with a temporal resolution of 14 s. Data from such scans, during the substorm expansion phase, revealed pulses of equatorward flow exceeding ~600 m s–1 with a duration of ~5 min and a repetition period of ~8 min. Each pulse of enhanced equatorward flow was preceded by an interval of suppressed flow and enhanced ionospheric Hall conductance. These transient features, which propagate eastwards away from local midnight, have been interpreted as ionospheric current vortices associated with field-aligned current pairs. The present study reveals that these ionospheric convection features appear to have an accompanying signature in the magnetosphere, comprising a dawnward perturbation and dipolarisation of the magnetic field and dawnward plasma flow, measured in the geomagnetic tail by the Geotail spacecraft, located at L = 10 and some four hours to the east, in the postmidnight sector. These signatures are suggested to be the consequence of the observation of the same field aligned currents in the magnetosphere. Their possible relationship with bursty Earthward plasma flow and magnetotail reconnection is discussed.Key words. Ionosphere (Auroral · ionosphere · Magnetospheric Physics (Magnetotail; Storms and substorms

  1. Simultaneous ionospheric and magnetospheric observations of azimuthally propagating transient features during substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Yeoman

    Full Text Available During the 6th August 1995, the CUTLASS Finland HF radar ran in a high time resolution mode, allowing measurements of line-of-sight convection velocities along a single beam with a temporal resolution of 14 s. Data from such scans, during the substorm expansion phase, revealed pulses of equatorward flow exceeding ~600 m s–1 with a duration of ~5 min and a repetition period of ~8 min. Each pulse of enhanced equatorward flow was preceded by an interval of suppressed flow and enhanced ionospheric Hall conductance. These transient features, which propagate eastwards away from local midnight, have been interpreted as ionospheric current vortices associated with field-aligned current pairs. The present study reveals that these ionospheric convection features appear to have an accompanying signature in the magnetosphere, comprising a dawnward perturbation and dipolarisation of the magnetic field and dawnward plasma flow, measured in the geomagnetic tail by the Geotail spacecraft, located at L = 10 and some four hours to the east, in the postmidnight sector. These signatures are suggested to be the consequence of the observation of the same field aligned currents in the magnetosphere. Their possible relationship with bursty Earthward plasma flow and magnetotail reconnection is discussed.

    Key words. Ionosphere (Auroral · ionosphere · Magnetospheric Physics (Magnetotail; Storms and substorms

  2. Spatial distribution of upstream magnetospheric ≥50 keV ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaliabetsos

    Full Text Available We present for the first time a statistical study of geq50 keV ion events of a magnetospheric origin upstream from Earth's bow shock. The statistical analysis of the 50-220 keV ion events observed by the IMP-8 spacecraft shows: (1 a dawn-dusk asymmetry in ion distributions, with most events and lower intensities upstream from the quasi-parallel pre-dawn side (4 LT-6 LT of the bow shock, (2 highest ion fluxes upstream from the nose/dusk side of the bow shock under an almost radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF configuration, and (3 a positive correlation of the ion intensities with the solar wind speed and the index of geomagnetic index Kp, with an average solar wind speed as high as 620 km s-1 and values of the index Kp > 2. The statistical results are consistent with (1 preferential leakage of ~50 keV magnetospheric ions from the dusk magnetopause, (2 nearly scatter free motion of ~50 keV ions within the magnetosheath, and (3 final escape of magnetospheric ions from the quasi-parallel dawn side of the bow shock. An additional statistical analysis of higher energy (290-500 keV upstream ion events also shows a dawn-dusk asymmetry in the occurrence frequency of these events, with the occurrence frequency ranging between ~16%-~34% in the upstream region.Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; planetary bow shocks

  3. Spatial distribution of upstream magnetospheric ≥50 keV ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Anagnostopoulos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We present for the first time a statistical study of \\geq50 keV ion events of a magnetospheric origin upstream from Earth's bow shock. The statistical analysis of the 50-220 keV ion events observed by the IMP-8 spacecraft shows: (1 a dawn-dusk asymmetry in ion distributions, with most events and lower intensities upstream from the quasi-parallel pre-dawn side (4 LT-6 LT of the bow shock, (2 highest ion fluxes upstream from the nose/dusk side of the bow shock under an almost radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF configuration, and (3 a positive correlation of the ion intensities with the solar wind speed and the index of geomagnetic index Kp, with an average solar wind speed as high as 620 km s-1 and values of the index Kp > 2. The statistical results are consistent with (1 preferential leakage of ~50 keV magnetospheric ions from the dusk magnetopause, (2 nearly scatter free motion of ~50 keV ions within the magnetosheath, and (3 final escape of magnetospheric ions from the quasi-parallel dawn side of the bow shock. An additional statistical analysis of higher energy (290-500 keV upstream ion events also shows a dawn-dusk asymmetry in the occurrence frequency of these events, with the occurrence frequency ranging between ~16%-~34% in the upstream region.Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; planetary bow shocks

  4. Measuring the magnetic connectivity of the geosynchronous region of the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, M.; Hones, E.; McComas, D.; Reeves, G.; Weiss, L.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to determine the magnetic connectivity of the geosynchronous region of the magnetosphere to the auroral zone in the polar ionosphere in order to test and refine current magnetospheric magnetic field models. The authors used plasma data from LANL instruments on three geosynchronous satellites and from USAF instruments on three low-altitude, polar-orbiting, DMSP satellites. Magnetic connectivity is tested by comparing plasma energy spectra at DMSP and geosynchronous satellites when they are in near conjunction. The times of closest conjugacy are used to evaluate the field models. They developed the tools for each step of the process and applied them to the study of a one-week test set of conjunctions. They automated the analysis tools and applied them to four months of two-satellite observations. This produced a database of about 130 definitive magnetic conjunctions. They compared this database with the predictions of the widely-used Tsyganenko magnetic field model and showed that in most cases one of the various parameterizations of the model could reproduce the observed field line connection. Further, they explored various measurables (e.g., magnetospheric activity indices or the geosynchronous field orientation) that might point to the appropriate parameterization of the model for these conjunctions, and ultimately, for arbitrary times

  5. Near-Earth Magnetic Field Effects of Large-Scale Magnetospheric Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehr, Hermann; Xiong, Chao; Olsen, Nils; Le, Guan

    2016-01-01

    Magnetospheric currents play an important role in the electrodynamics of near- Earth space. This has been the topic of many space science studies. Here we focus on the magnetic fields they cause close to Earth. Their contribution to the geomagnetic field is the second largest after the core field. Significant progress in interpreting the magnetic fields from the different sources has been achieved thanks to magnetic satellite missions like Ørsted, CHAMP and now Swarm. Of particular interest for this article is a proper representation of the magnetospheric ring current effect. Uncertainties in modelling its effect still produce the largest residuals between observations and present-day geomagnetic field models. A lot of progress has been achieved so far, but there are still open issues like the characteristics of the partial ring current. Other currents discussed are those flowing in the magnetospheric tail. Also their magnetic contribution at LEO orbits is non-negligible. Treating them as an independent source is a more recent development, which has cured some of the problems in geomagnetic field modelling. Unfortunately there is no index available for characterizing the tail current intensity. Here we propose an approach that may help to properly quantify the magnetic contribution from the tail current for geomagnetic field modelling. Some open questions that require further investigation are mentioned at the end.

  6. Modeling the Interaction of Europa with the Jovian Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, M.; Combi, M. R.; Daldorff, L.; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, K. C.; Jia, X.; Kivelson, M. G.; Tenishev, V.

    2011-12-01

    The interaction of Jupiter's corotating magnetosphere with Europa's subsurface water ocean is responsible for the observed induced dipolar magnetic field. Furthermore the pick-up process of newly ionized particles from Europa's neutral atmosphere alters the magnetic and electric field topology around the moon. We use the Block-Adaptive-Tree-Solarwind-Roe-Upwind-Scheme (BATS-R-US) of the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to model the interaction of Europa with the Jovian magnetosphere. The BATS-R-US code solves the governing equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in a fully 3D adaptive mesh. In our approach we solve the equations for one single ion species, starting from the work by Kabin et al. (J. Geophys. Res., 104, A9, 19983-19992, 1999) accounting for the exospheric mass loading, ion-neutral charge exchange, and ion-electron recombination. We continue by separately solving the electron pressure equation and furthermore extend the magnetic induction equation by the resistive and Hall terms. The resistive term accounts for the finite electron diffusivity and thus allows a more adequate description of the effect of magnetic diffusion due to collisions [Ledvina et al., Sp. Sci. Rev., 139:143-189, 2008]. For this purpose we use ion-electron and electron-neutral collision rates presented by Schunk and Nagy (Ionospheres, Cambridge University Press, 2000). The Hall term allows ions and electrons to move at different velocities while the magnetic field remains frozen to the electrons. The assumed charge neutrality of the ion-electron plasma is maintained everywhere at all times. The model is run at different phases of Jupiter's rotation reflecting the different locations of Europa with respect to the center of the plasma sheet and is compared to measurements obtained by the Galileo magnetometer [Kivelson et al., J. Geophys. Res., 104:4609-4626, 1999]. The resulting influence on the induced magnetic dipolar field is studied and compared to the results from the

  7. Competing processes of whistler and electrostatic instabilities in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Y.; Matsumoto, H.

    1987-01-01

    Competing processes of whistler mode and electrostatic mode instabilities induced by an electron beam are studied by a linear growth rate analysis and by an electromagnetic particle simulation. In addition to a background cold plasma we assumed an electron beam drifting along a static magnetic field. We studied excitation of whistler and electrostatic mode waves in the direction of the static magnetic field. We first calculated linear growth rates for the whistler mode and electrostatic mode instabilities, assuming various possible parameters in the equatorial magnetosphere. We found that the growth rate for the electrostatic instability is always larger than that of the whistler mode instability. A short simulation run with a monoenergetic electron beam demonstrates that a monoenergetic beam can hardly give energy to whistler mode waves as a result of competition with faster growing electrostatic waves, because the beam electrons are trapped and diffused by the electrostatic waves, and hence the growth rates for whistler mode waves become very small. A long simulation run starting with a warm electron beam demonstrates that whistler mode waves are excited in spite of the small growth rates and the coexisting quasi-linear electrostatic diffusion process

  8. Corotating Magnetic Reconnection Site in Saturn’s Magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Z. H.; Coates, A. J.; Ray, L. C.; Rae, I. J.; Jones, G. H.; Owen, C. J.; Dunn, W. R.; Lewis, G. R. [UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Grodent, D.; Radioti, A.; Gérard, J.-C. [Laboratoire de Physique Atmosphérique et Planétaire, STAR institute, Université de Liège, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Dougherty, M. K. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Space and Atmospheric Physics Group, Department of Physics, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Guo, R. L. [Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Pu, Z. Y. [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Waite, J. H., E-mail: z.yao@ucl.ac.uk [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2017-09-10

    Using measurements from the Cassini spacecraft in Saturn’s magnetosphere, we propose a 3D physical picture of a corotating reconnection site, which can only be driven by an internally generated source. Our results demonstrate that the corotating magnetic reconnection can drive an expansion of the current sheet in Saturn’s magnetosphere and, consequently, can produce Fermi acceleration of electrons. This reconnection site lasted for longer than one of Saturn’s rotation period. The long-lasting and corotating natures of the magnetic reconnection site at Saturn suggest fundamentally different roles of magnetic reconnection in driving magnetospheric dynamics (e.g., the auroral precipitation) from the Earth. Our corotating reconnection picture could also potentially shed light on the fast rotating magnetized plasma environments in the solar system and beyond.

  9. Global simulation of the magnetosphere with a long tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, A.; Watanabe, K.; Sato, T.

    1990-09-01

    A global simulation of the formation of the magnetosphere with along tail is performed. A magnetosphere with a neutral sheet is constructed from a dipole field by solar wind dynamic pressure (no IMF). Subsequently, magnetic reconnection occurs in the plasma sheet and a large lump of plasma surrounded by reconnected field lines, a plasmoid, is formed and ejected tailward. The time scale of the plasmoid formation and ejection process is several hours. After ejecting the plasmoid, reconnection occurs again in the plasma sheet and the second plasmoid is formed and ejected. This result shows that the magnetosphere which has a sufficiently long tail and a neutral sheet is slightly unstable even though a solar wind does not contain an IMF. (author)

  10. The GEMSIS-Magnetosphere project: New models of the inner magnetosphere to investigate high-energy particle variation and the ERG science center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Amano, T.; Saito, S.; Miyashita, Y.; Matsumoto, Y.; Umeda, T.; Ebihara, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Geospace storms are the largest electromagnetic disturbance in near-Earth space and facilitate extensive particle acceleration in the inner magnetosphere, which causes development of the ring current and a drastic increase of relativistic electrons in the radiation belt. GEMSIS (Geospace Environment Modeling System for Integrated Studies) of STEL, Nagoya University, is the observation-based modeling project for understanding energy and mass transportation from the Sun to the Earth in the geospace environment. Aiming at understanding the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere during the geospace storms, the GEMSIS-Magnetosphere working team has addressed the development of new physics-based models for the global dynamics of the ring current (GEMSIS-RC model) and radiation belt (GEMSIS-RB model). The GEMSIS-RC model is a self-consistent and kinetic numerical simulation code solving the five-dimensional collisionless drift-kinetic equation for the ring-current ions in the inner-magnetosphere coupled with Maxwell equations. It is demonstrated that the propagation of magnetohydrodynamic waves can successfully be described by the present model. It is also found that the self-consistent coupling could affect the transport of energetic particles especially at low energies as well as the intensity and spatial distribution of field-aligned currents. Our approach is unique in the sense that it includes MHD wave modes as well as deformation of magnetic field configuration due to the ring current self-consistently. To understand the dynamics of the radiation belt, we have developed the GEMSIS-RB model that calculates relativistic charged particle trajectories in the magnetosphere. By applying time-varying magnetic field data calculated from the Tsyganenko model and using observed solar wind data and the Dst index, we first examined the drift loss of relativistic electrons by magnetopause shadowing (MPS). Initial results show a split in the outer radiation belt after the

  11. Observational Tests of Magnetospheric Accretion Models in Young Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johns–Krull Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetically controlled accretion of disk material onto the surface of Classical T Tauri stars is the dominant paradigm in our understanding of how these young stars interact with their surrounding disks. These stars provide a powerful test of magnetically controlled accretion models since all of the relevant parameters, including the magnetic field strength and geometry, are in principle measureable. Both the strength and the field geometry are key for understanding how these stars interact with their disks. This talk will focus on recent advances in magnetic field measurements on a large number of T Tauri stars, as well as very recent studies of the accretion rates onto a sample of young stars in NGC 2264 with known rotation periods. We discuss how these observations provide critical tests of magnetospheric accretion models which predict a rotational equilibrium is reached. We find good support for the model predictions once the complex geometry of the stellar magnetic field is taken into account. We will also explore how the observations of the accretion properties of the 2264 cluster stars can be used to test emerging ideas on how magnetic fields on young stars are generated and organized as a function of their internal structure (i.e. the presence of a radiative core. We do not find support for the hypothesis that large changes in the magentic field geometry occur when a radiative core appears in these young stars.

  12. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission Commissioning Phase Orbit Determination Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Lauren R.; Novak, Stefan; Long, Anne; Gramling, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission commissioning phase starts in a 185 km altitude x 12 Earth radii (RE) injection orbit and lasts until the Phase 1 mission orbits and orientation to the Earth-Sun li ne are achieved. During a limited time period in the early part of co mmissioning, five maneuvers are performed to raise the perigee radius to 1.2 R E, with a maneuver every other apogee. The current baseline is for the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility to p rovide MMS orbit determination support during the early commissioning phase using all available two-way range and Doppler tracking from bo th the Deep Space Network and Space Network. This paper summarizes th e results from a linear covariance analysis to determine the type and amount of tracking data required to accurately estimate the spacecraf t state, plan each perigee raising maneuver, and support thruster cal ibration during this phase. The primary focus of this study is the na vigation accuracy required to plan the first and the final perigee ra ising maneuvers. Absolute and relative position and velocity error hi stories are generated for all cases and summarized in terms of the ma ximum root-sum-square consider and measurement noise error contributi ons over the definitive and predictive arcs and at discrete times inc luding the maneuver planning and execution times. Details of the meth odology, orbital characteristics, maneuver timeline, error models, and error sensitivities are provided.

  13. Definition of Saturn's magnetospheric model parameters for the Pioneer 11 flyby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a description of a method for selection parameters for a global paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetosphere. The model is based on the preexisting paraboloid terrestrial and Jovian models of the magnetospheric field. Interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere, i.e. the magnetotail current system, and the magnetopause currents screening all magnetospheric field sources, is taken into account. The input model parameters are determined from observations of the Pioneer 11 inbound flyby.

  14. Outstanding Issues and Future Directions of Inner Magnetospheric Research (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, P. C.

    2009-12-01

    Several research areas of the inner magnetosphere and ionosphere (MI) system have reached a state, where the coupling mechanisms can no longer be treated as boundary conditions or ad-hoc assumptions in our physical models. It is nothing new that our community has become increasingly aware of the necessity to use global measurements from multiple observation platforms and missions, in order to understand both the system as a whole as well as its individual subsystems. In this presentation we briefly review the current status and outstanding issues of inner MI research. We attempt to establish a working definition of the term "Systems Approach", then present observational tools and techniques that enable such an approach. Physical modeling plays a central role not only in understanding the mechanisms at work, but also in determining the key quantities to be measured. We conclude by discussing questions relevant to future directions. Are there new techniques that need more attention? Should multi-platform observations be included as a default component already at the mission-level in the future? Is solar minimum uninteresting from an MI perspective? Should we actively compare to magnetospheres of other planets? Examples of outstanding issues in inner MI research include the circulation of ionospheric plasma from low to high latitudes and its escape to the magnetosphere, where it is energized by magnetospheric processes and becomes a part of the plasma pressure that in turn affects the ionospheric and magnetospheric electric field. The electric field, in turn, plays a controlling role in the transport of both magnetospheric and ionospheric plasma, which is intimately linked with ionospheric conductance. The conductance, in turn, is controlled by thermospheric chemistry coupled with plasma flow and heating and magnetospheric precipitation and Joule heating. Several techniques have emerged as important tools: auroral imaging, inversions of ENA images to retrieve the

  15. Dynamics of electrons and heavy ions in Mercury's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    The present investigation of Mercury magnetosphere processes employs simple models for the adiabatic acceleration and convection of equatorially mirroring charged particles, as well as the current sheet acceleration effect and the acceleration of such exospheric ions as that of Na(+) by both electric and magnetic magnetospheric fields near Mercury's surface. The large gyroradii of such heavy ions as those of Na allow surface reimpact as well as magnetopause-interception losses to occur; gyromotion-derived kinetic energy could in the case of the latter process account for the loss of as many as half of the planet's exospheric ions. 27 references

  16. Auroral phenomenology and magnetospheric processes earth and other planets

    CERN Document Server

    Keiling, Andreas; Bagenal, Fran; Karlsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series. Many of the most basic aspects of the aurora remain unexplained. While in the past terrestrial and planetary auroras have been largely treated in separate books, Auroral Phenomenology and Magnetospheric Processes: Earth and Other Planets takes a holistic approach, treating the aurora as a fundamental process and discussing the phenomenology, physics, and relationship with the respective planetary magnetospheres in one volume. While there are some behaviors common in auroras of the diffe

  17. Solar wind dependence of ion parameters in the Earth's magnetospheric region calculated from CLUSTER observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Denton

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Moments calculated from the ion distributions (~0–40 keV measured by the Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS instrument are combined with data from the Cluster Flux Gate Magnetometer (FGM instrument and used to characterise the bulk properties of the plasma in the near-Earth magnetosphere over five years (2001–2005. Results are presented in the form of 2-D xy, xz and yz GSM cuts through the magnetosphere using data obtained from the Cluster Science Data System (CSDS and the Cluster Active Archive (CAA. Analysis reveals the distribution of ~0–40 keV ions in the inner magnetosphere is highly ordered and highly responsive to changes in solar wind velocity. Specifically, elevations in temperature are found to occur across the entire nightside plasma sheet region during times of fast solar wind. We demonstrate that the nightside plasma sheet ion temperature at a downtail distance of ~12 to 19 Earth radii increases by a factor of ~2 during periods of fast solar wind (500–1000 km s−1 compared to periods of slow solar wind (100–400 km s−1. The spatial extent of these increases are shown in the xy, xz and yz GSM planes. The results from the study have implications for modelling studies and simulations of solar-wind/magnetosphere coupling, which ultimately rely on in situ observations of the plasma sheet properties for input/boundary conditions.

  18. Hybrid Simulations of the Interaction Between Solar Wind Flow and the Hermean Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travnicek, P.; Hellinger, P.; Schriver, D.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    2003-12-01

    We examine the magnetosphere of Mercury using global three dimensional hybrid plasma simulations. Hybrid simulations treat ions as particles and electrons as a fluid. Having ions as particles allows ion kinetic behavior and waves to be included in the physical treatment of the plasma as compared to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling that treats the plasma as a single magnetized fluid and does not include such kinetic effects. Kinetic effects are essential for understanding magnetospheric physics. Hybrid simulations scale to the ion inertial length and thus on a global scale are somewhat limited in spatial extent compared to an MHD simulation. We note effects caused by the scalling of the numerical model of the magnetized obstacle interacting with the solar wind flow with the full scale simulation. Hermean magnetosphere is estimated to be only a few times the planetary radius, it can fit within a hybrid simulation system. The overal structure of the interaction between a magnetized obstacle in the solar wind flow is determined by few basic parameters (namely the solar wind density, background magnetic field, and the speed of solar wind, and also the strength of the magnetic dipole of the obstacle and its radius). The structure of the interaction of the solar wind flow with Mercury is to a large extend unique when compared to other planets. For example, the magnetic moment of the Mercury is over 1000 times smaller than that of the Earth and also the solar wind is stronger nearby Mercury than at Earth's vicinity. The typical magnetosperic scales are comparable to the ion gyroradii and hence kinetic effects are important for the overall structure of the interaction between the Hermean magnetospere and the solar wind. In this paper we shall focus on the study of the overal structure of the bow shock and magnetosheath of Mercury. We shall examine the formation of the magnetospheric tail. We shall study particle distribution functions in different locations of the

  19. Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter and Trojan Asteroid Explorer in EJSM (Europa Jupiter System Mission)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Sho; Fujimoto, Masaki; Takashima, Takeshi; Yano, Hajime; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Kimura, Jun; Tsuda, Yuichi; Funase, Ryu; Mori, Osamu

    2010-05-01

    Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) is an international mission to explore and Jupiter, its satellites and magnetospheric environment in 2020s. EJSM consists of (1) The Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) by NASA, (2) the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) by ESA, and (3) the Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter (JMO) studied by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). In February 2009, NASA and ESA decided to continue the study of EJSM as a candidate of the outer solar system mission. JMO will have magnetometers, low-energy plasma spectrometers, medium energy particle detectors, energetic particle detectors, electric field / plasma wave instruments, an ENA imager, an EUV spectrometer, and a dust detector. Collaborating with plasma instruments on board JEO and JGO, JMO will investigate the fast and huge rotating magnetosphere to clarify the energy procurement from Jovian rotation to the magnetosphere, to clarify the interaction between the solar wind the magnetosphere. Especially when JEO and JGO are orbiting around Europa and Ganymede, respectively, JMO will measure the outside condition in the Jovian magnetosphere. JMO will clarify the characteristics of the strongest accelerator in the solar system with the investigation of the role of Io as a source of heavy ions in the magnetosphere. JAXA started a study of a solar power sail for deep space explorations. Together with a solar sail (photon propulsion), it will have very efficient ion engines where electric power is produced solar panels within the sail. JAXA has already experienced ion engine in the successful Hayabusa mission, which was launched in 2003 and is still in operation in 2010. For the purpose of testing solar power sail technology, an engineering mission IKAROS (Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun) will be launched in 2010 together with Venus Climate Orbiter PLANET-C. The shape of the IKAROS' membrane is square, with a diagonal distance of 20m. It is made of polyimide film only 0.0075mm

  20. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere: effect of precipitation-induced enhancement of the ionospheric Pedersen conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Nichols

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the effect of precipitation-induced enhancement of the Jovian ionospheric Pedersen conductivity on the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling current system which is associated with the breakdown of the corotation of iogenic plasma in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere. In previous studies the Pedersen conductivity has been taken to be simply a constant, while it is expected to be significantly enhanced in the regions of upward-directed auroral field-aligned current, implying downward precipitating electrons. We develop an empirical model of the modulation of the Pedersen conductivity with field-aligned current density based on the modelling results of Millward et al. and compute the currents flowing in the system with the conductivity self-consistently dependent on the auroral precipitation. In addition, we consider two simplified models of the conductivity which provide an insight into the behaviour of the solutions. We compare the results to those obtained when the conductivity is taken to be constant, and find that the empirical conductivity model helps resolve some outstanding discrepancies between theory and observation of the plasma angular velocity and current system. Specifically, we find that the field-aligned current is concentrated in a peak of magnitude ~0.25µAm-2 in the inner region of the middle magnetosphere at ~20 RJ, rather than being more uniformly distributed as found with constant conductivity models. This peak maps to ~17° in the ionosphere, and is consistent with the position of the main oval auroras. The energy flux associated with the field-aligned current is ~10mWm-2 (corresponding to a UV luminosity of ~100kR, in a region ~0.6° in width, and the Pedersen conductivity is elevated from a background of ~0.05mho to ~0.7mho. Correspondingly, the total equatorial radial current increases greatly in the region of peak field-aligned current, and plateaus with increasing

  1. A comparison between ion characteristics observed by the POLAR and DMSP spacecraft in the high-latitude magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Stubbs

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We study here the injection and transport of ions in the convection-dominated region of the Earth's magnetosphere. The total ion counts from the CAMMICE MICS instrument aboard the POLAR spacecraft are used to generate occurrence probability distributions of magnetospheric ion populations. MICS ion spectra are characterised by both the peak in the differential energy flux, and the average energy of ions striking the detector. The former permits a comparison with the Stubbs et al. (2001 survey of He2+ ions of solar wind origin within the magnetosphere. The latter can address the occurrences of various classifications of precipitating particle fluxes observed in the topside ionosphere by DMSP satellites (Newell and Meng, 1992. The peak energy occurrences are consistent with our earlier work, including the dawn-dusk asymmetry with enhanced occurrences on the dawn flank at low energies, switching to the dusk flank at higher energies. The differences in the ion energies observed in these two studies can be explained by drift orbit effects and acceleration processes at the magnetopause, and in the tail current sheet. Near noon at average ion energies of ≈1keV, the cusp and open LLBL occur further poleward here than in the Newell and Meng survey, probably due to convection- related time-of-flight effects. An important new result is that the pre-noon bias previously observed in the LLBL is most likely due to the component of this population on closed field lines, formed largely by low energy ions drifting earthward from the tail. There is no evidence here of mass and momentum transfer from the solar wind to the LLBL by non-reconnection coupling. At higher energies ≈2–20keV, we observe ions mapping to the auroral oval and can distinguish between the boundary and central plasma sheets. We show that ions at these energies relate to a transition from dawnward to duskward dominated flow, this is evidence of how ion drift orbits in the

  2. A comparison between ion characteristics observed by the POLAR and DMSP spacecraft in the high-latitude magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Stubbs

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We study here the injection and transport of ions in the convection-dominated region of the Earth's magnetosphere. The total ion counts from the CAMMICE MICS instrument aboard the POLAR spacecraft are used to generate occurrence probability distributions of magnetospheric ion populations. MICS ion spectra are characterised by both the peak in the differential energy flux, and the average energy of ions striking the detector. The former permits a comparison with the Stubbs et al. (2001 survey of He2+ ions of solar wind origin within the magnetosphere. The latter can address the occurrences of various classifications of precipitating particle fluxes observed in the topside ionosphere by DMSP satellites (Newell and Meng, 1992. The peak energy occurrences are consistent with our earlier work, including the dawn-dusk asymmetry with enhanced occurrences on the dawn flank at low energies, switching to the dusk flank at higher energies. The differences in the ion energies observed in these two studies can be explained by drift orbit effects and acceleration processes at the magnetopause, and in the tail current sheet. Near noon at average ion energies of ≈1keV, the cusp and open LLBL occur further poleward here than in the Newell and Meng survey, probably due to convection- related time-of-flight effects. An important new result is that the pre-noon bias previously observed in the LLBL is most likely due to the component of this population on closed field lines, formed largely by low energy ions drifting earthward from the tail. There is no evidence here of mass and momentum transfer from the solar wind to the LLBL by non-reconnection coupling. At higher energies ≈2–20keV, we observe ions mapping to the auroral oval and can distinguish between the boundary and central plasma sheets. We show that ions at these energies relate to a transition from dawnward to duskward dominated flow, this is evidence of how ion drift orbits in the tail influence

  3. Plasma Transport and Magnetic Flux Circulation in Saturn's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, B. R.; Delamere, P. A.; Ma, X.; Wilson, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Radial transport of plasma in the rapidly rotating magnetospheres is an important dynamical process. Radial transport is due to the centrifugally driven interchange instability and magnetodisc reconnection, allowing net mass to be transported outward while conserving magnetic flux. Using Cassini Plasma Spectrometer instrument (CAPS) data products (e.g., Thomsen et al., [2010]; Wilson et al., [2017]) we estimate plasma mass and magnetic flux transport rates as functions of radial distance and local time. The physical requirement for zero net magnetic flux transport provides a key benchmark for assessing the validity of our mass transport estimate. We also evaluate magnetodisc stability using a two-dimensional axisymmetric equilibrium model [Caudal, 1986]. Observed local properties (e.g., specific entropy and estimates of flux tube mass and entropy content) are compared with modeled equilibrium conditions such that departures from equilibrium can be correlated with radial flows and local magnetic field structure. Finally, observations of specific entropy indicate that plasma is non-adiabatic heated during transport. However, the values of specific entropy are well organized in inner magnetosphere (i.e. L<10), and become widely scattered in the middle magnetosphere, suggesting that the transport dynamics of the inner and middle magnetosphere are different.

  4. Analysis of narrowband emission observed in the Saturn magnetosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menietti, J. D.; Ye, S.; Y.; Yoon, P. H.; Santolík, Ondřej; Rymer, A. M.; Gurnett, D. A.; Coates, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 114, - (2009), A06206/1-A06206/13 ISSN 0148-0227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : narrowband emission * Saturn magnetosphere * Cassini Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.082, year: 2009

  5. Terrestrial magnetospheric imaging: Numerical modeling of low energy neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, K.R.; Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Scime, E.E.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging of the terrestrial magnetosphere can be performed by detection of low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) that are produced by charge exchange between magnetospheric plasma ions and cold neutral atoms of the Earth's geocorona. As a result of recent instrumentation advances it is now feasible to make energy-resolved measurements of LENAs from less than I key to greater than 30 key. To model expected LENA fluxes at a spacecraft, we initially used a simplistic, spherically symmetric magnetospheric plasma model. 6 We now present improved calculations of both hydrogen and oxygen line-of-sight LENA fluxes expected on orbit for various plasma regimes as predicted by the Rice University Magnetospheric Specification Model. We also estimate expected image count rates based on realistic instrument geometric factors, energy passbands, and image accumulation intervals. The results indicate that presently proposed LENA instruments are capable of imaging of storm time ring current and potentially even quiet time ring current fluxes, and that phenomena such as ion injections from the tail and subsequent drifts toward the dayside magnetopause may also be deduced

  6. MESSENGER observations of Mercury's magnetosphere during northward IMF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavin, J.A.; Anderson, B.J.; Zurbuchen, T.H.; Baker, D. N.; Krimigis, S.M.; Acuna, M. H.; Benna, M.; Boardsen, S.A.; Gloeckler, G.; Gold, R.E.; Ho, G.C.; Korth, H.; McNutt, Jr., R.L.; Raines, J.M.; Sarantos, M.; Schriver, D.; Solomon, S.C.; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2009), L02101/1-L02101/6 ISSN 0094-8276 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : magnetosphere * Mercury Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.204, year: 2009

  7. Magnetospheric and atmospheric physics at the University of Natal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, A.D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A historical outline of geophysical work done at the University of Natal from 1938-1982 is given. Mention is also made of experimental work concerning whistlers and VLF, low-light level TV and geomagnetic pulsations. Current work on the magnetosphere, namely plasma convection in plasmasphere, auroral features, geomagnetic pulsations and the measuring of plasma properties is discussed

  8. Magnetosonic resonance in a dipole-like magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Leonovich

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A theory of resonant conversion of fast magnetosonic (FMS waves into slow magnetosonic (SMS oscillations in a magnetosphere with dipole-like magnetic field has been constructed. Monochromatic FMS waves are shown to drive standing (along magnetic field lines SMS oscillations, narrowly localized across magnetic shells. The longitudinal and transverse structures, as well as spectrum of resonant SMS waves are determined. Frequencies of fundamental harmonics of standing SMS waves lie in the range of 0.1–1 mHz, and are about two orders of magnitude lower than frequencies of similar Alfvén field line resonance harmonics. This difference makes an effective interaction between these MHD modes impossible. The amplitude of SMS oscillations rapidly decreases along the field lines from the magnetospheric equator towards the ionosphere. In this context, magnetospheric SMS oscillations cannot be observed on the ground, and the ionosphere does not play any role either in their generation or dissipation. The theory developed can be used to interpret the occurrence of compressional Pc5 waves in a quiet magnetosphere with a weak ring current.

  9. Quasiperiodic ULF-pulsations in Saturn's magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kleindienst

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent magnetic field investigations made onboard the Cassini spacecraft in the magnetosphere of Saturn show the existence of a variety of ultra low frequency plasma waves. Their frequencies suggest that they are presumably not eigenoscillations of the entire magnetospheric system, but excitations confined to selected regions of the magnetosphere. While the main magnetic field of Saturn shows a distinct large scale modulation of approximately 2 nT with a periodicity close to Saturn's rotation period, these ULF pulsations are less obvious superimposed oscillations with an amplitude generally not larger than 3 nT and show a package-like structure. We have analyzed these wave packages and found that they are correlated to a certain extent with the large scale modulation of the main magnetic field. The spatial localization of the ULF wave activity is represented with respect to local time and Kronographic coordinates. For this purpose we introduce a method to correct the Kronographic longitude with respect to a rotation period different from its IAU definition. The observed wave packages occur in all magnetospheric regions independent of local time, elevation, or radial distance. Independent of the longitude correction applied the wave packages do not occur in an accentuated Kronographic longitude range, which implies that the waves are not excited or confined in the same selected longitude ranges at all times or that their lifetime leads to a variable phase with respect to the longitudes where they have been exited.

  10. Chaotic motion of dust particles in planetary magnetospheres

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    June 2010 physics pp. 907–917. Chaotic motion of dust particles in planetary magnetospheres. JIA XU, XIN WU∗ and DA-ZHU MA. Department of Physics ... MS received 13 February 2009; revised 1 March 2010; accepted 17 March 2010 ..... is supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China under Contract No.

  11. Modeling whistler wave generation regimes in magnetospheric cyclotron maser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Pasmanik

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of the model for cyclotron instability in the Earth's magnetosphere is performed. This model, based on the self-consistent set of equations of quasi-linear plasma theory, describes different regimes of wave generation and related energetic particle precipitation. As the source of free energy the injection of energetic electrons with transverse anisotropic distribution function to the interaction region is considered. A parametric study of the model is performed. The main attention is paid to the analysis of generation regimes for different characteristics of energetic electron source, such as the shape of pitch angle distributions and its intensity. Two mechanisms of removal of energetic electrons from a generation region are considered, one is due to the particle precipitation through the loss cone and another one is related to the magnetic drift of energetic particles. It was confirmed that two main regimes occur in this system in the presence of a constant particle source, in the case of precipitation losses. At small source intensity relaxation oscillations were found, whose parameters are in good agreement with simplified analytical theory developed earlier. At a larger source intensity, transition to a periodic generation occurs. In the case of drift losses the regime of self-sustained periodic generation regime is realized for source intensity higher than some threshold. The dependencies of repetition period and dynamic spectrum shape on the source parameters were studied in detail. In addition to simple periodic regimes, those with more complex spectral forms were found. In particular, alteration of spikes with different spectral shape can take place. It was also shown that quasi-stationary generation at the low-frequency band can coexist with periodic modulation at higher frequencies. On the basis of the results obtained, the model for explanation of quasi-periodic whistler wave emissions is verified.

  12. Modeling whistler wave generation regimes in magnetospheric cyclotron maser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Pasmanik

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of the model for cyclotron instability in the Earth's magnetosphere is performed. This model, based on the self-consistent set of equations of quasi-linear plasma theory, describes different regimes of wave generation and related energetic particle precipitation. As the source of free energy the injection of energetic electrons with transverse anisotropic distribution function to the interaction region is considered. A parametric study of the model is performed. The main attention is paid to the analysis of generation regimes for different characteristics of energetic electron source, such as the shape of pitch angle distributions and its intensity. Two mechanisms of removal of energetic electrons from a generation region are considered, one is due to the particle precipitation through the loss cone and another one is related to the magnetic drift of energetic particles.

    It was confirmed that two main regimes occur in this system in the presence of a constant particle source, in the case of precipitation losses. At small source intensity relaxation oscillations were found, whose parameters are in good agreement with simplified analytical theory developed earlier. At a larger source intensity, transition to a periodic generation occurs. In the case of drift losses the regime of self-sustained periodic generation regime is realized for source intensity higher than some threshold. The dependencies of repetition period and dynamic spectrum shape on the source parameters were studied in detail. In addition to simple periodic regimes, those with more complex spectral forms were found. In particular, alteration of spikes with different spectral shape can take place. It was also shown that quasi-stationary generation at the low-frequency band can coexist with periodic modulation at higher frequencies.

    On the basis of the results obtained, the model for explanation of

  13. Effect of magnetospheric convection on thermal plasma in the inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Rasmussen, C. E.; Konikov, Yu. V.; Gombosi, T. I.; Nagy, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of E x B convection on the distribution of plasma parameters in the inner magnetosphere have been examined. Analytical solutions describing density distributions along convective trajectories in the equatorial plane have been found. These solutions suggest the following dependence of plasma concentration n on the magnetic field B along convective trajectories: n proportional to B(exp alpha), where the parameter alpha varies between alpha is less than or = between 4/3 and 2. The alpha = 2 case corresponds to disregarding transport parallel to B. The lower bound alpha = 4/3 describes the situation when parallel transport dominates over convective motions perpendicular to B. A solution has also been obtained describing the effect of convection on diffusive equilibrium profiles in the dayside plasmasphere. In addition, ion temperature variations due to adiabatic effects associated with plasma convection have been analyzed in detail. Convective drifts lead to ion temperature anisotropies with the value and sign of the anisotropy contingent on density and temperature variations, local time, and the location of the convective trajectory with respect to the location of the plasmapause. We have also found that convective motions lead to a substantial exchange of energy between the ionosphere and the plasmasphere through electron heat fluxes.

  14. Modeling Whistler Wave Generation Regimes In Magnetospheric Cyclotron Maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasmanik, D. L.; Demekhov, A. G.; Trakhtengerts, V. Y.; Parrot, M.

    Numerical analysis of the model for cyclotron instability development in the Earth magnetosphere is made.This model, based on the self-consistent set of equations of quasi-linear plasma theory, describes different regimes of wave generation and related energetic particle precipitation. As the source of free energy the injection of energetic electrons with transverse anisotropic distribution function to the interaction region is considered. Two different mechanisms of energetic electron loss from the interaction region are discussed. The first one is precipitation of energetic particles via the loss cone. The other mechanism is drift of particles away from the interaction region across the mag- netic field line. In the case of interaction in plasmasphere or rather large areas of cold plasma density enhancement the loss cone precipitation are dominant. For interaction in a subauroral duct losses due to drift are most effective. A parametric study of the model for both mechanisms of particle losses is made. The main attention is paid to the analysis of generation regimes for different characteristics of energetic electron source, such as the shape of pitch-angle distributions and elec- tron density. We show that in addition to the well-known stationary generation and periodic regime with successive spikes of similar shape, more complex forms of wave spectrum exist. In particular, we found a periodic regime, in which a single period in- cludes two separate spikes with different spectral shapes. In another regime, periodic generation of spikes at higher frequencies together with quasi-stationary generation at lower frequencies occurs. Quasi-periodic regime with spike overlapping, i.e. when generation of a new spike begins before the previous one is over is also found. Results obtained are compared with experimental data on quasi-periodic regimes of whistler wave generation.

  15. A two-step along-track spectral analysis for estimating the magnetic signals of magnetospheric ring current from Swarm data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinec, Zdeněk; Velímský, Jakub; Haagmans, Roger; Šachl, Libor

    2018-02-01

    This study deals with the analysis of Swarm vector magnetic field measurements in order to estimate the magnetic field of magnetospheric ring current. For a single Swarm satellite, the magnetic measurements are processed by along-track spectral analysis on a track-by-track basis. The main and lithospheric magnetic fields are modelled by the CHAOS-6 field model and subtracted from the along-track Swarm magnetic data. The mid-latitude residual signal is then spectrally analysed and extrapolated to the polar regions. The resulting model of the magnetosphere (model MME) is compared to the existing Swarm Level 2 magnetospheric field model (MMA_SHA_2C). The differences of up to 10 nT are found on the nightsides Swarm data from 2014 April 8 to May 10, which are due to different processing schemes used to construct the two magnetospheric magnetic field models. The forward-simulated magnetospheric magnetic field generated by the external part of model MME then demonstrates the consistency of the separation of the Swarm along-track signal into the external and internal parts by the two-step along-track spectral analysis.

  16. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Observation of Plasma Velocity-Space Cascade Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, T. N.; Servidio, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Chasapis, A.; Perrone, D.; Valentini, F.; Veltri, P.; Gershman, D. J.; Schwartz, S. J.; Giles, B. L.; Fuselier, S. A.; Phan, T.; Burch, J.

    2017-12-01

    Plasma turbulence is investigated using high-resolution ion velocity distributions, measured by theMagnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) in the Earth's magnetosheath. The particle distributionmanifests large fluctuations, suggesting a cascade-like process in velocity space, invoked by theoristsfor many years. This complex velocity space structure is investigated using a three-dimensional Hermitetransform that reveals a power law distribution of moments. A Kolmogorov approach leads directlyto a range of predictions for this phase-space cascade. The scaling theory is in agreement withobservations, suggesting a new path for the study of plasma turbulence in weakly collisional spaceand astrophysical plasmas.

  17. Application of a global magnetospheric-ionospheric current model for dayside and terminator Pi2 pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imajo, S.; Yoshikawa, A.; Uozumi, T.; Ohtani, S.; Nakamizo, A.; Chi, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Pi2 magnetic oscillations on the dayside are considered to be produced by the ionospheric current that is driven by Pi2-associated electric fields from the high-latitude region, but this idea has not been quantitatively tested. The present study numerically tested the magnetospheric-ionospheric current system for Pi2 consisting of field-aligned currents (FACs) localized in the nightside auroral region, the perpendicular magnetospheric current flowing in the azimuthal direction, and horizontal ionospheric currents driven by the FACs. We calculated the spatial distribution of the ground magnetic field produced by these currents using the Biot-Savart law in a stationary state. The calculated magnetic field reproduced the observational features reported by previous studies; (1) the sense of the H component does not change a wide range of local time sectors at low latitudes; (2) the amplitude of the H component on the dayside is enhanced at the equator; (3) The D component reverses its phase near the dawn and dusk terminators; (4) the meridian of the D-component phase reversal near the dusk terminator is shifted more sunward than that near the dawn terminator; (5) the amplitude of the D component in the morning is larger than that in the early evening. We also derived the global distributions of observed equivalent currents for two Pi2 events. The spatial patterns of dayside equivalent currents were similar to the spatial pattern of numerically derived equivalent currents. The results indicate that the oscillation of the magnetospheric-ionospheric current system is a plausible explanation of Pi2s on the dayside and near the terminator. These results are included in an accepted paper by Imajo et al. [2017JGR, DOI: 10.1002/2017JA024246].

  18. Characterizing the Meso-scale Plasma Flows in Earth's Coupled Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielse, C.; Nishimura, T.; Lyons, L. R.; Gallardo-Lacourt, B.; Deng, Y.; McWilliams, K. A.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Heliophysics Decadal Survey put forth several imperative, Key Science Goals. The second goal communicates the urgent need to "Determine the dynamics and coupling of Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere and their response to solar and terrestrial inputs...over a range of spatial and temporal scales." Sun-Earth connections (called Space Weather) have strong societal impacts because extreme events can disturb radio communications and satellite operations. The field's current modeling capabilities of such Space Weather phenomena include large-scale, global responses of the Earth's upper atmosphere to various inputs from the Sun, but the meso-scale ( 50-500 km) structures that are much more dynamic and powerful in the coupled system remain uncharacterized. Their influences are thus far poorly understood. We aim to quantify such structures, particularly auroral flows and streamers, in order to create an empirical model of their size, location, speed, and orientation based on activity level (AL index), season, solar cycle (F10.7), interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) inputs, etc. We present a statistical study of meso-scale flow channels in the nightside auroral oval and polar cap using SuperDARN. These results are used to inform global models such as the Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM) in order to evaluate the role of meso-scale disturbances on the fully coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. Measuring the ionospheric footpoint of magnetospheric fast flows, our analysis technique from the ground also provides a 2D picture of flows and their characteristics during different activity levels that spacecraft alone cannot.

  19. Simultaneous Double Star and Cluster FTEs observations on the dawnside flank of the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchaudon

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We present Cluster and Double Star-1 (TC-1 observations from a close magnetic conjunction on 8 May 2004. The five spacecraft were on the dawnside flank of the magnetosphere, with TC-1 located near the equatorial plane and Cluster at higher geographic latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. TC-1, at its apogee, skimmed the magnetopause for almost 8h (between 08:00-16:00 UT. Flux Transfer Events (FTEs, moving southward/tailward from the reconnection site, were observed by TC-1 throughout almost all of the period. Cluster, travelling on a mainly dawn-dusk trajectory, crossed the magnetopause at around 10:30 UT in the same Magnetic Local Time (MLT sector as TC-1 and remained close to the magnetopause boundary layer in the Southern Hemisphere. The four Cluster spacecraft observed FTEs for a period of 6.5h between 07:30 and 14:00 UT.

    The very clear signatures and the finite transverse sizes of the FTEs observed by TC-1 and Cluster imply that, during this event, sporadic reconnection occurred. From the properties of these FTEs, the reconnection site was located northward of both TC-1 and Cluster on the dawn flank of the magnetosphere. Reconnection occurred between draped magnetosheath and closed magnetospheric field lines. Despite variable interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions and IMF-Bz turnings, the IMF clock angle remained greater than 70° and the location site appeared to remain relatively stable in position during the whole period. This result is in agreement with previous studies which reported that the dayside reconnection remained active for an IMF clock angle greater than 70°. The simultaneous observation of FTEs at both Cluster and TC-1, separated by 2h in MLT, implies that the reconnection site on the magnetopause must have been extended over several hours in MLT.

  20. Simultaneous Double Star and Cluster FTEs observations on the dawnside flank of the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchaudon

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We present Cluster and Double Star-1 (TC-1 observations from a close magnetic conjunction on 8 May 2004. The five spacecraft were on the dawnside flank of the magnetosphere, with TC-1 located near the equatorial plane and Cluster at higher geographic latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. TC-1, at its apogee, skimmed the magnetopause for almost 8h (between 08:00-16:00 UT. Flux Transfer Events (FTEs, moving southward/tailward from the reconnection site, were observed by TC-1 throughout almost all of the period. Cluster, travelling on a mainly dawn-dusk trajectory, crossed the magnetopause at around 10:30 UT in the same Magnetic Local Time (MLT sector as TC-1 and remained close to the magnetopause boundary layer in the Southern Hemisphere. The four Cluster spacecraft observed FTEs for a period of 6.5h between 07:30 and 14:00 UT. The very clear signatures and the finite transverse sizes of the FTEs observed by TC-1 and Cluster imply that, during this event, sporadic reconnection occurred. From the properties of these FTEs, the reconnection site was located northward of both TC-1 and Cluster on the dawn flank of the magnetosphere. Reconnection occurred between draped magnetosheath and closed magnetospheric field lines. Despite variable interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions and IMF-Bz turnings, the IMF clock angle remained greater than 70° and the location site appeared to remain relatively stable in position during the whole period. This result is in agreement with previous studies which reported that the dayside reconnection remained active for an IMF clock angle greater than 70°. The simultaneous observation of FTEs at both Cluster and TC-1, separated by 2h in MLT, implies that the reconnection site on the magnetopause must have been extended over several hours in MLT.

  1. Climatology of high-β plasma measurements in Earth's inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ross; Gerrard, Andrew J.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.; Soto-Chavez, A. R.; Kim, Hyomin; Manweiler, Jerry W.

    2017-01-01

    Since their launch in August 2012, the Radiation Belt Storm Probe Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instruments on the NASA Van Allen Probes spacecraft have been making continuous high-resolution measurements of Earth's ring current plasma environment. After a full traversal through all magnetic local times, a climatology (i.e., a survey of observations) of high-beta (β) plasma events (defined here as β > 1) as measured by the RBSPICE instrument in the ˜45 keV to ˜600 keV proton energy range in the inner magnetosphere (L < 5.8) has been constructed. In this paper we report this climatology of such high-β plasma occurrences, durations, and their general characteristics. Specifically, we show that most high-β events in the RBSPICE energy range are associated with postdusk/premidnight sector particle injections or plasma patches and can last from minutes to hours. While most of these events have a β less than 2, there are a number of observations reaching β greater than 4. Other observations of particular note are high-β events during relatively minor geomagnetic storms and examples of very long duration high-β plasmas. We show that high-β plasmas are a relatively common occurrence in the inner magnetosphere during both quiet and active times. As such, the waves generated by these plasmas may have an underappreciated role in the inner magnetosphere, and thus the study of these plasmas and their instabilities may be more important than has been currently addressed.

  2. The Effect of Storm Driver and Intensity on Magnetospheric Ion Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesee, Amy M.; Katus, Roxanne M.; Scime, Earl E.

    2017-09-01

    Energy deposited in the magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms drives ion heating and convection. Ions are also heated and transported via internal processes throughout the magnetosphere. Injection of the plasma sheet ions to the inner magnetosphere drives the ring current and, thus, the storm intensity. Understanding the ion dynamics is important to improving our ability to predict storm evolution. In this study, we perform superposed epoch analyses of ion temperatures during storms, comparing ion temperature evolution by storm driver and storm intensity. The ion temperatures are calculated using energetic neutral atom measurements from the Two Wide-Angle Imaging Neutral-Atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission. The global view of these measurements provide both spatial and temporal information. We find that storms driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) tend to have higher ion temperatures throughout the main phase than storms driven by corotating interaction regions (CIRs) but that the temperatures increase during the recovery phase of CIR-driven storms. Ion temperatures during intense CME-driven storms have brief intervals of higher ion temperatures than those during moderate CME-driven storms but have otherwise comparable ion temperatures. The highest temperatures during CIR-driven storms are centered at 18 magnetic local time and occur on the dayside for moderate CME-driven storms. During the second half of the main phase, ion temperatures tend to decrease in the postmidnight to dawn sector for CIR storms, but an increase is observed for CME storms. This increase begins with a sharp peak in ion temperatures for intense CME storms, likely a signature of substorm activity that drives the increased ring current.

  3. The mechanical advantage of the magnetosphere: solar-wind-related forces in the magnetosphere-ionosphere-Earth system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vasyliūnas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions involve electric currents that circulate between the two regions; the associated Lorentz forces, existing in both regions as matched opposite pairs, are generally viewed as the primary mechanism by which linear momentum, derived ultimately from solar wind flow, is transferred from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere, where it is further transferred by collisions to the neutral atmosphere. For a given total amount of current, however, the total force is proportional to ℒB and in general, since ℒ2B~ constant by flux conservation, is much larger in the ionosphere than in the magnetosphere (ℒ = effective length, B = magnetic field. The magnetosphere may be described as possesing a mechanical advantage: the Lorentz force in it is coupled with a Lorentz force in the ionosphere that has been amplified by a factor given approximately by the square root of magnetic field magnitude ratio (~20 to 40 on field lines connected to the outer magnetosphere. The linear momentum transferred to the ionosphere (and thence to the atmosphere as the result of magnetic stresses applied by the magnetosphere can thus be much larger than the momentum supplied by the solar wind through tangential stress. The added linear momentum comes from within the Earth, extracted by the Lorentz force on currents that arise as a consequence of magnetic perturbation fields from the ionosphere (specifically, the shielding currents within the Earth that keep out the time-varying external fields. This implies at once that Fukushima's theorem on the vanishing of ground-level magnetic perturbations cannot be fully applicable, a conclusion confirmed by re-examining the assumptions from which the theorem is derived. To balance the inferred Lorentz force within the Earth's interior, there must exist an antisunward mechanical stress there, only a small part of which is the acceleration of the entire Earth system

  4. Cosmic Rays in Magnetospheres of the Earth and other Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, Lev

    2009-01-01

    This monograph describes the behaviour of cosmic rays in the magnetosphere of the Earth and of some other planets. Recently this has become an important topic both theoretically, because it is closely connected with the physics of the Earth’s magnetosphere, and practically, since cosmic rays determine a significant part of space weather effects on satellites and aircraft. The book contains eight chapters, dealing with – The history of the discovery of geomagnetic effects caused by cosmic rays and their importance for the determination of the nature of cosmic rays or gamma rays – The first explanations of geomagnetic effects within the framework of the dipole approximation of the Earth’s magnetic field – Trajectory computations of cutoff rigidities, transmittance functions, asymptotic directions, and acceptance cones in the real geomagnetic field taking into account higher harmonics – Cosmic ray latitude-longitude surveys on ships, trains, tracks, planes, balloons and satellites for determining the...

  5. Magnetospheres of accreting compact objects in binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, J.J.

    1985-09-01

    Bright pulsating X-ray sources (X-ray pulsars, AM Her stars,...) have been identified as strongly magnetized compact objects accreting matter from a binary companion. We give here a summary of some of the work which has been recently done to try to understand the interaction between the magnetic field of the compact object and the matter around. We examine in turn the models describing the interaction of the field with: i) a spherically symmetric accretion flow; ii) a thin keplerian accretion disk; iii) the companion itself. In all these cases, we pay particular attention to the following problems: i) how the external plasma interacting with the magnetosphere can get mixed with the field; ii) by which mechanism the magnetic field controls the mass-momentum-energy exchanges between the two stars. In conclusion, we compare the magnetosphere of an accreting compact object with that one of a planet [fr

  6. Electron beam sounding rocket experiments for probing the distant magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemzek, R. J.; Winckler, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    Electron accelerators on sounding rockets have injected 8-40-keV electrons on closed magnetospheric tail field lines near 250 km altitude in the northern auroral zone. These beams mirrored at the southern conjugate point ad returned as 'echoes' which were detected on the rocket system. The 20 percent of the beam that returned was sufficient to measure field line lengths and verify magnetospheric magnetic models, to measure fluctuating electric fields, and electron pitch angle scattering (6-10) R(E) distant, and to identify 10-100 V field-aligned potentials above the rocket. The experiment gives new insight into the motion of natural electrons in the outer Van Allen radiation belt.

  7. Enhanced ionosphere-magnetosphere data from the DMSP satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, F.J.; Hardy, D.A.; Gussenhoven, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The satellites of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) represent a series of low-altitude (835 km) polar-orbiting satellites. Their primary objective is related to the observation of the tropospheric weather with a high-resolution white light and infrared imaging system. It is also possible to make images of auroras. On a daily basis, information about auroras is used to assist various communication systems which are affected by the ionospheric disturbances associated with auroras. In the past few years, there have been several improvements in the ionospheric monitoring instrumentation. Since the high-latitude ionosphere is connected to the magnetosphere, the DMSP data are used to monitor magnetospheric processes. The instrumentation of the DMSP satellites is discussed, taking into account the data provided by them. 7 references

  8. MESSENGER observations of magnetic reconnection in Mercury's magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A; Acuña, Mario H; Anderson, Brian J; Baker, Daniel N; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E; Ho, George C; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M; McNutt, Ralph L; Raines, Jim M; Sarantos, Menelaos; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C; Trávnícek, Pavel; Zurbuchen, Thomas H

    2009-05-01

    Solar wind energy transfer to planetary magnetospheres and ionospheres is controlled by magnetic reconnection, a process that determines the degree of connectivity between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and a planet's magnetic field. During MESSENGER's second flyby of Mercury, a steady southward IMF was observed and the magnetopause was threaded by a strong magnetic field, indicating a reconnection rate ~10 times that typical at Earth. Moreover, a large flux transfer event was observed in the magnetosheath, and a plasmoid and multiple traveling compression regions were observed in Mercury's magnetotail, all products of reconnection. These observations indicate that Mercury's magnetosphere is much more responsive to IMF direction and dominated by the effects of reconnection than that of Earth or the other magnetized planets.

  9. New Understanding of Mercury's Magnetosphere from MESSENGER'S First Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Acuna, Mario H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Killen, M.; Korth, Haje; hide

    2008-01-01

    Observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft on 14 January 2008 have revealed new features of the solar system's smallest planetary magnetosphere. The interplanetary magnetic field orientation was unfavorable for large inputs of energy from the solar wind and no evidence of magnetic substorms, internal magnetic reconnection, or energetic particle acceleration was detected. Large-scale rotations of the magnetic field were measured along the dusk flank of the magnetosphere and ultra-tow frequency waves were frequently observed beginning near closest approach. Outbound the spacecraft encountered two current-sheet boundaries across which the magnetic field intensity decreased in a step-like manner. The outer current sheet is the magnetopause boundary. The inner current sheet is similar in structure, but weaker and -1000 km closer to the planet. Between these two current sheets the magnetic field intensity is depressed by the diamagnetic effect of planetary ions created by the photo-ionization of Mercury's exosphere.

  10. Mercury's Atmosphere and Magnetosphere: MESSENGER Third Flyby Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Johnson, Catherine L.; Gloeckler, George; Killen, Rosemary M.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McClintock, William; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; hide

    2009-01-01

    MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury en route to orbit insertion about the innermost planet took place on 29 September 2009. The earlier 14 January and 6 October 2008 encounters revealed that Mercury's magnetic field is highly dipolar and stable over the 35 years since its discovery by Mariner 10; that a structured, temporally variable exosphere extends to great altitudes on the dayside and forms a long tail in the anti-sunward direction; a cloud of planetary ions encompasses the magnetosphere from the dayside bow shock to the downstream magnetosheath and magnetotail; and that the magnetosphere undergoes extremely intense magnetic reconnect ion in response to variations in the interplanetary magnetic field. Here we report on new results derived from observations from MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS), Magnetometer (MAG), and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) taken during the third flyby.

  11. Analysis of plasma waves observed in the inner Saturn magnetosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menietti, J. D.; Santolík, Ondřej; Rymer, A. M.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.; Coates, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 9 (2008), s. 2631-2644 ISSN 0992-7689 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA301120601 Grant - others:Jet Propulsion Laboratory(US) 1279973; NSF award(US) 030719 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Saturn magnetosphere * plasma waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.660, year: 2008 http://www.ann-geophys.net/26/2631/2008/

  12. Kinetic instabilities in Mercury's magnetosphere: Three-dimensional simulation results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Pavel M.; Hellinger, Petr; Schriver, D.; Herčík, David; Slavin, J.A.; Anderson, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2009), L07104/1-L07104/5 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300030805 Grant - others:ESA PECS(XE) 98068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Mercury * magnetosphere * instability * ion temperature anisotropy * plasma flow * magnetosheath Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.204, year: 2009

  13. A novel look at the pulsar force-free magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, S. A.; Flanchik, A. B.

    2018-03-01

    The stationary axisymmetric force-free magnetosphere of a pulsar is considered. We present an exact dipolar solution of the pulsar equation, construct the magnetospheric model on its basis and examine its observational support. The new model has toroidal rather than common cylindrical geometry, in line with that of the plasma outflow observed directly as the pulsar wind nebula at much larger spatial scale. In its new configuration, the axisymmetric magnetosphere consumes the neutron star rotational energy much more efficiently, implying re-estimation of the stellar magnetic field, B_{new}0=3.3×10^{-4}B/P, where P is the pulsar period. Then the 7-order scatter of the magnetic field derived from the rotational characteristics of the pulsars observed appears consistent with the \\cotχ-law, where χ is a random quantity uniformly distributed in the interval [0,π/2]. Our result is suggestive of a unique actual magnetic field strength of the neutron stars along with a random angle between the magnetic and rotational axes and gives insight into the neutron star unification on the geometrical basis.

  14. Low-energy neutral atom emission from the Earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, K.R.; Scime, E.E.; Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Imaging of the terrestrial magnetosphere is possible through the detection of low-energy neutral atoms (LENAs) produced by charge exchange between magnetospheric plasma ions and neutral atoms of the Earth's geocorona. The authors present calculations of both hydrogen and oxygen line-of-sight LENA fluxes expected on orbit for various plasma regimes as predicted by the Rice University Magnetospheric Specification Model. To decrease the required computation time, they are in the process of adapting their code for massively parallel computers. The speed gains achieved from parallel algorithms are substantial, and they present results from computational runs on the Connection Machine CM-2 data parallel supercomputer. They also estimate expected image count rates and image quality based on realistic instrument geometric factors, energy passbands, neutral atom scattering in the instrument, and image accumulation intervals. The results indicate that LENA imaging instruments will need a geometric factor (G) on the order of 0.1 cm 2 sr eV/eV to be capable of imaging storm time ring currents, and a G of 1.0 cm 2 sr eV/eV in order to image the quiet time ring current fluxes, ion injections from the tail, and subsequent ion drifts toward the dayside magnetopause

  15. Three-dimensional magnetospheric equilibrium with isotropic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1995-05-01

    In the absence of the toroidal flux, two coupled quasi two-dimensional elliptic equilibrium equations have been derived to describe self-consistent three-dimensional static magnetospheric equilibria with isotropic pressure in an optimal (Ψ,α,χ) flux coordinate system, where Ψ is the magnetic flux function, χ is a generalized poloidal angle, α is the toroidal angle, α = φ - δ(Ψ,φ,χ) is the toroidal angle, δ(Ψ,φ,χ) is periodic in φ, and the magnetic field is represented as rvec B = ∇Ψ x ∇α. A three-dimensional magnetospheric equilibrium code, the MAG-3D code, has been developed by employing an iterative metric method. The main difference between the three-dimensional and the two-dimensional axisymmetric solutions is that the field-aligned current and the toroidal magnetic field are finite for the three-dimensional case, but vanish for the two-dimensional axisymmetric case. With the same boundary flux surface shape, the two-dimensional axisymmetric results are similar to the three-dimensional magnetosphere at each local time cross section

  16. Crafoord Symposium on Magnetospheric Physics : Achievements and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Fälthammar, C-G

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1989 Crafoord Symposium organized by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The scientific field for the Crafoord Prize of 1989 was decided in 1988 by the Academy to be Magnetospheric Physics. On September 27,1989 the Academy awarded the 1989 Crafoord Prize to Professor J. A. Van Allen, Iowa City, USA "for his pioneer work in space research, in particular for the discovery of the high energy charged particles that are trapped in the Earth's magnetic field and form the radiation belts -often called the Van Allen belts - around the Earth". The subject for the Crafoord Symposium, which was held on September 28-29 at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, was Magnetospheric Physics, Achievements and Prospects. Some seventy of the world's leading scientists in magnetospheric physics (see list of participants) were invited to the Symposium. The program contained only invited papers. After the ?resentation of the Crafoord Prize Laureate, Prof. J . A. Van Allen, ...

  17. What controls energetic oxygen in the inner magnetosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, E.; Haaland, S.; Daly, P. W.; Fraenz, M.; Kistler, L. M.; Dandouras, I. S.

    2011-12-01

    The ion composition plays a significant role in magnetospheric dynamics and ring current development during geomagnetic activity. It is, for example, important to include the observed ion composition into ring current models or consider it in calculations of the plasma instabilities. We investigate the oxygen to proton ratio in the plasma sheet region of the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The results are based on 7 years of ion flux measurements in the energy range ~10 keV (intermediate) to ~1 MeV (energetic) from the RAPID and CIS instruments on board the Cluster satellites. We found that (1) Short time disturbances associated with substorm, reflected by the AE index and storm activity, reflected by a more negative Dst index, show a positive correlation with the oxygen to proton ratio. Under strongly disturbed conditions the flux of energetic oxygen can be as high as, or higher than the flux of protons; (2) The southward directed IMF, favourable for magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetosphere is associated with energetic oxygen intensity higher than proton intensity; (3) The ion composition maps show dawn-dusk assymetries which change under different disturbance levels. As a conclusion, much of the observations indicate that the ionosphere is an important source and that disturbed conditions/high activity seems to favour oxygen outflow/acceleration.

  18. A Cumulant-based Analysis of Nonlinear Magnetospheric Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jay R.; Wing, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Understanding magnetospheric dynamics and predicting future behavior of the magnetosphere is of great practical interest because it could potentially help to avert catastrophic loss of power and communications. In order to build good predictive models it is necessary to understand the most critical nonlinear dependencies among observed plasma and electromagnetic field variables in the coupled solar wind/magnetosphere system. In this work, we apply a cumulant-based information dynamical measure to characterize the nonlinear dynamics underlying the time evolution of the Dst and Kp geomagnetic indices, given solar wind magnetic field and plasma input. We examine the underlying dynamics of the system, the temporal statistical dependencies, the degree of nonlinearity, and the rate of information loss. We find a significant solar cycle dependence in the underlying dynamics of the system with greater nonlinearity for solar minimum. The cumulant-based approach also has the advantage that it is reliable even in the case of small data sets and therefore it is possible to avoid the assumption of stationarity, which allows for a measure of predictability even when the underlying system dynamics may change character. Evaluations of several leading Kp prediction models indicate that their performances are sub-optimal during active times. We discuss possible improvements of these models based on this nonparametric approach

  19. Analysis of plasma waves observed in the inner Saturn magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Menietti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasma waves observed in the Saturn magnetosphere provide an indication of the plasma population present in the rotationally dominated inner magnetosphere. Electrostatic cyclotron emissions often with harmonics and whistler mode emission are a common feature of Saturn's inner magnetosphere. The electron observations for a region near 5 RS outside and near a plasma injection region indicate a cooler low-energy (<100 eV, nearly isotropic plasma, and a much warmer (E>1000 eV more pancake or butterfly distribution. We model the electron plasma distributions to conduct a linear dispersion analysis of the wave modes. The results suggest that the electrostatic electron cyclotron emissions can be generated by phase space density gradients associated with a loss cone that may be up to 20° wide. This loss cone is sometimes, but not always, observed because the field of view of the electron detectors does not include the magnetic field line at the time of the observations. The whistler mode emission can be generated by the pancake-like distribution and temperature anisotropy (T⊥/T||>1 of the warmer plasma population.

  20. Analysis of plasma waves observed in the inner Saturn magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Menietti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasma waves observed in the Saturn magnetosphere provide an indication of the plasma population present in the rotationally dominated inner magnetosphere. Electrostatic cyclotron emissions often with harmonics and whistler mode emission are a common feature of Saturn's inner magnetosphere. The electron observations for a region near 5 RS outside and near a plasma injection region indicate a cooler low-energy (<100 eV, nearly isotropic plasma, and a much warmer (E>1000 eV more pancake or butterfly distribution. We model the electron plasma distributions to conduct a linear dispersion analysis of the wave modes. The results suggest that the electrostatic electron cyclotron emissions can be generated by phase space density gradients associated with a loss cone that may be up to 20° wide. This loss cone is sometimes, but not always, observed because the field of view of the electron detectors does not include the magnetic field line at the time of the observations. The whistler mode emission can be generated by the pancake-like distribution and temperature anisotropy (T/T||>1 of the warmer plasma population.

  1. Impact of solar wind depression on the dayside magnetosphere under northward interplanetary magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baraka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a follow up study of the sensitivity of the Earth's magnetosphere to solar wind activity using a particles-in-cell model (Baraka and Ben Jaffel, 2007, but here during northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF. The formation of the magnetospheric cavity and its elongation around the planet is obtained with the classical structure of a magnetosphere with parallel lobes. An impulsive disturbance is then applied to the system by changing the bulk velocity of the solar wind to simulate a decrease in the solar wind dynamic pressure followed by its recovery. In response to the imposed drop in the solar wind velocity, a gap (abrupt depression in the incoming solar wind plasma appears moving toward the Earth. The gap's size is a ~15 RE and is comparable to the sizes previously obtained for both Bz<0 and Bz=0. During the initial phase of the disturbance along the x-axis, the dayside magnetopause (MP expands slower than the previous cases of IMF orientations as a result of the abrupt depression. The size of the MP expands nonlinearly due to strengthening of its outer boundary by the northward IMF. Also, during the initial 100 Δt, the MP shrank down from 13.3 RE to ~9.2 RE before it started expanding, a phenomenon that was also observed for southern IMF conditions but not during the no IMF case. As soon as they felt the solar wind depression, cusps widened at high altitude while dragged in an upright position. For the field's topology, the reconnection between magnetospheric and magnetosheath fields is clearly observed in both the northward and southward cusps areas. Also, the tail region in the northward IMF condition is more confined, in contrast to the fishtail-shape obtained in the southward IMF case. An X-point is formed in the tail at ~110 RE compared to ~103 RE and ~80 RE for Bz=0 and Bz<0, respectively. Our findings are consistent with existing reports from many space observatories (Cluster, Geotail, Themis, etc. for which predictions

  2. Uncertainties in field-line tracing in the magnetosphere. Part I: the axisymmetric part of the internal geomagnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Comer

    Full Text Available The technique of tracing along magnetic field lines is widely used in magnetospheric physics to provide a "magnetic frame of reference'' that facilitates both the planning of experiments and the interpretation of observations. The precision of any such magnetic frame of reference depends critically on the accurate representation of the various sources of magnetic field in the magnetosphere. In order to consider this important problem systematically, a study is initiated to estimate first the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing in the magnetosphere that arise solely from the published (standard errors in the specification of the geomagnetic field of internal origin. Because of the complexity in computing these uncertainties for the complete geomagnetic field of internal origin, attention is focused in this preliminary paper on the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing that result from the standard errors in just the axisymmetric part of the internal geomagnetic field. An exact analytic equation exists for the magnetic field lines of an arbitrary linear combination of axisymmetric multipoles. This equation is used to derive numerical estimates of the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing that are due to the published standard errors in the axisymmetric spherical harmonic coefficients (i.e. gn0 ± δgn0. Numerical results determined from the analytic equation are compared with computational results based on stepwise numerical integration along magnetic field lines. Excellent agreement is obtained between the analytical and computational methods in the axisymmetric case, which provides great confidence in the accuracy of the computer program used for stepwise numerical integration along magnetic field lines. This computer program is then used in the following paper to estimate the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing in the magnetosphere that arise from the published standard errors in the full set of spherical

  3. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere: effect of magnetosphere-ionosphere decoupling by field-aligned auroral voltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Nichols

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the effect of field-aligned voltages on the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling current system associated with the breakdown of rigid corotation of equatorial plasma in Jupiter's middle magnetosphere. Previous analyses have assumed perfect mapping of the electric field and flow along equipotential field lines between the equatorial plane and the ionosphere, whereas it has been shown that substantial field-aligned voltages must exist to drive the field-aligned currents associated with the main auroral oval. The effect of these field-aligned voltages is to decouple the flow of the equatorial and ionospheric plasma, such that their angular velocities are in general different from each other. In this paper we self-consistently include the field-aligned voltages in computing the plasma flows and currents in the system. A third order differential equation is derived for the ionospheric plasma angular velocity, and a power series solution obtained which reduces to previous solutions in the limit that the field-aligned voltage is small. Results are obtained to second order in the power series, and are compared to the original zeroth order results with no parallel voltage. We find that for system parameters appropriate to Jupiter the effect of the field-aligned voltages on the solutions is small, thus validating the results of previously-published analyses.

  4. The novel programmable riometer for in-depth ionospheric and magnetospheric observations (PRIAMOS) using direct sampling DSP techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Dekoulis, G.; Honary, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the feasibility study and simulation results for the unique multi-frequency, multi-bandwidth, Programmable Riometer for in-depth Ionospheric And Magnetospheric ObservationS (PRIAMOS) based on direct sampling digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. This novel architecture is based on sampling the cosmic noise wavefront at the antenna. It eliminates the usage of any intermediate frequency (IF) mixer stages (-6 dB) and the noise balancing technique (-3 dB), providing a m...

  5. Geometric corrections due to inhomogeneous field in the magnetospheric double current layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callebaut, D.K.; Van den Buys, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The case of oblique incidence and of a slope in the magnetic field for plane parallel models of the magnetospheric double layer is considered. The two models are the Magnetospheric Double Layer (MDL) and the Magnetospheric Double Current Layer (MDCL). The latter is more appropriate but due to some approximations it gives sometimes incorrect results. An improved model uses a triple current layer. (R.P.)

  6. The substorm loading-unloading cycle as reproduced by community-available global MHD magnetospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, Evgeny; Sergeev, Victor; Tsyganenko, Nikolay; Kuznetsova, Maria; Rastaetter, Lutz; Raeder, Joachim; Toth, Gabor; Lyon, John; Merkin, Vyacheslav; Wiltberger, Michael

    2017-04-01

    In this study we investigate how well the three community-available global MHD models, supported by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC NASA), reproduce the global magnetospheric dynamics, including the loading-unloading substorm cycle. We found that in terms of global magnetic flux transport CCMC models display systematically different response to idealized 2-hour north then 2-hour south IMF Bz variation. The LFM model shows a depressed return convection in the tail plasma sheet and high rate of magnetic flux loading into the lobes during the growth phase, as well as enhanced return convection and high unloading rate during the expansion phase, with the amount of loaded/unloaded magnetotail flux and the growth phase duration being the closest to their observed empirical values during isolated substorms. BATSRUS and Open GGCM models exhibit drastically different behavior. In the BATS-R-US model the plasma sheet convection shows a smooth transition to the steady convection regime after the IMF southward turning. In the Open GGCM a weak plasma sheet convection has comparable intensities during both the growth phase and the following slow unloading phase. Our study shows that different CCMC models under the same solar wind conditions (north to south IMF variation) produce essentially different solutions in terms of global magnetospheric convection.

  7. Modelling Europa's interaction with Jupiter's magnetosphere: Influence of plumes in Europa's atmosphere on the plasma environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloecker, A.; Saur, J.; Roth, L.

    2015-12-01

    We study the influence of plumes in Europa's atmosphere on the interaction with Jupiter's magnetosphere and the plasma environment. We apply a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, which includes plasma production and loss due to electron impact ionization and dissociative recombination, and electromagnetic induction in a subsurface water ocean.The model considers the magnetospheric and ionospheric electrons separately. We show that an atmospherical inhomogeneity, such as a plume, affects the plasma interaction in the way that a pronounced north-south asymmetry in the near and the Alfvénic far field develops. Furthermore, a "small Alfvén winglet" within Europa's Alfvén wing forms. We also investigate if such signatures of atmospherical inhomogeneities are visible in magnetic field measurements of the Galileo magnetometer. In addition to our MHD model we apply an analytical approach based on the model by Saur et al. (2007) for our studies. We compare the model results with the observed magnetic field data from three flybys of Europa that occurred during the Alfvén wing crossing.

  8. The effects of magnetospheric processes on relativistic electron dynamics in the Earth's outer radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Ni, B.; Su, Z. P.; Reeves, G. D.; Zhang, J.-C.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.

    2017-10-01

    Using the electron phase space density (PSD) data measured by Van Allen Probe A from January 2013 to April 2015, we investigate the effects of magnetospheric processes on relativistic electron dynamics in the Earth's outer radiation belt during 50 geomagnetic storms. A statistical study shows that the maximum electron PSDs for various μ (μ = 630, 1096, 2290, and 3311 MeV/G) at L* 4.0 after the storm peak have good correlations with storm intensity (cc 0.70). This suggests that the occurrence and magnitude of geomagnetic storms are necessary for relativistic electron enhancements at the inner edge of the outer radiation belt (L* = 4.0). For moderate or weak storm events (SYM-Hmin > -100 nT) with weak substorm activity (AEmax 0.77). For storm events with intense substorms after the storm peak, relativistic electron enhancements at L* = 4.5 and 5.0 are observed. This shows that intense substorms during the storm recovery phase are crucial to relativistic electron enhancements in the heart of the outer radiation belt. Our statistics study suggests that magnetospheric processes during geomagnetic storms have a significant effect on relativistic electron dynamics.

  9. Definition of Saturn's magnetospheric model parameters for the Pioneer 11 flyby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a description of a method for selection parameters for a global paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetosphere. The model is based on the preexisting paraboloid terrestrial and Jovian models of the magnetospheric field. Interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere, i.e. the magnetotail current system, and the magnetopause currents screening all magnetospheric field sources, is taken into account. The input model parameters are determined from observations of the Pioneer 11 inbound flyby.

  10. Corotation-driven magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents in Saturn’s magnetosphere and their relation to the auroras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. H. Cowley

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the latitude profile of the equatorward-directed ionospheric Pedersen currents that are driven in Saturn’s ionosphere by partial corotation of the magnetospheric plasma. The calculation incorporates the flattened figure of the planet, a model of Saturn’s magnetic field derived from spacecraft flyby data, and angular velocity models derived from Voyager plasma data. We also employ an effective height-integrated ionospheric Pedersen conductivity of 1 mho, suggested by a related analysis of Voyager magnetic field data. The Voyager plasma data suggest that on the largest spatial scales, the plasma angular velocity declines from near-rigid corotation with the planet in the inner magnetosphere, to values of about half of rigid corotation at the outer boundary of the region considered. The latter extends to ~ 15–20 Saturn radii (RS in the equatorial plane, mapping along magnetic field lines to ~ 15° co-latitude in the ionosphere. We find in this case that the ionospheric Pedersen current peaks near the poleward (outer boundary of this region, and falls toward zero over ~ 5°–10° equator-ward of the boundary as the plasma approaches rigid corotation. The peak current near the poleward boundary, integrated in azimuth, is ~ 6 MA. The field-aligned current required for continuity is directed out of the ionosphere into the magnetosphere essentially throughout the region, with the current density peaking at ~ 10 nA m-2 at ~ 20° co-latitude. We estimate that such current densities are well below the limit requiring field-aligned acceleration of magnetospheric electrons in Saturn’s environment ( ~ 70 nAm-2, so that no significant auroral features associated with this ring of upward current is anticipated. The observed ultraviolet auroras at Saturn are also found to occur significantly closer to the pole (at ~ 10°–15° co-latitude, and show considerable temporal and local time variability, contrary to expectations for corotation

  11. Corotation-driven magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents in Saturn’s magnetosphere and their relation to the auroras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. H. Cowley

    Full Text Available We calculate the latitude profile of the equatorward-directed ionospheric Pedersen currents that are driven in Saturn’s ionosphere by partial corotation of the magnetospheric plasma. The calculation incorporates the flattened figure of the planet, a model of Saturn’s magnetic field derived from spacecraft flyby data, and angular velocity models derived from Voyager plasma data. We also employ an effective height-integrated ionospheric Pedersen conductivity of 1 mho, suggested by a related analysis of Voyager magnetic field data. The Voyager plasma data suggest that on the largest spatial scales, the plasma angular velocity declines from near-rigid corotation with the planet in the inner magnetosphere, to values of about half of rigid corotation at the outer boundary of the region considered. The latter extends to ~ 15–20 Saturn radii (RS in the equatorial plane, mapping along magnetic field lines to ~ 15° co-latitude in the ionosphere. We find in this case that the ionospheric Pedersen current peaks near the poleward (outer boundary of this region, and falls toward zero over ~ 5°–10° equator-ward of the boundary as the plasma approaches rigid corotation. The peak current near the poleward boundary, integrated in azimuth, is ~ 6 MA. The field-aligned current required for continuity is directed out of the ionosphere into the magnetosphere essentially throughout the region, with the current density peaking at ~ 10 nA m-2 at ~ 20° co-latitude. We estimate that such current densities are well below the limit requiring field-aligned acceleration of magnetospheric electrons in Saturn’s environment ( ~ 70 nAm-2, so that no significant auroral features associated with this ring of upward current is anticipated. The observed ultraviolet auroras at Saturn are also found to occur significantly closer to the pole (at ~ 10°–15° co-latitude, and show considerable temporal and local time variability, contrary

  12. Comparison of Echo 7 field line length measurements to magnetospheric model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemzek, R.J.; Winckler, J.R.; Malcolm, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Echo 7 sounding rocket experiment injected electron beams on central tail field lines near L = 6.5. Numerous injections returned to the payload as conjugate echoes after mirroring in the southern hemisphere. The authors compare field line lengths calculated from measured conjugate echo bounce times and energies to predictions made by integrating electron trajectories through various magnetospheric models: the Olson-Pfitzer Quiet and Dynamic models and the Tsyganenko-Usmanov model. Although Kp at launch was 3-, quiet time magnetic models est fit the echo measurements. Geosynchronous satellite magnetometer measurements near the Echo 7 field lies during the flight were best modeled by the Olson-Pfitzer Dynamic Model and the Tsyganenko-Usmanov model for Kp = 3. The discrepancy between the models that best fit the Echo 7 data and those that fit the satellite data was most likely due to uncertainties in the small-scale configuration of the magnetospheric models. The field line length measured by the conjugate echoes showed some temporal variation in the magnetic field, also indicated by the satellite magnetometers. This demonstrates the utility an Echo-style experiment could have in substorm studies

  13. Multiple discrete-energy ion features in the inner magnetosphere: 9 February 1998, event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ebihara

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple discrete-energy ion bands observed by the Polar satellite in the inner magnetosphere on 9 February 1998 were investigated by means of particle simulation with a realistic model of the convection electric field. The multiple bands appeared in the energy vs. L spectrum in the 1–100 keV range when Polar traveled in the heart of the ring current along the outbound and inbound paths. We performed particle tracing, and simulated the energy vs. L spectra of proton fluxes under the dipole magnetic field, the corotation electric field, and the realistic convection electric field model with its parameters depending on the solar wind data. Simulated spectra are shown to agree well with the observed ones. A better agreement is achieved when we rotate the convection electric potential eastward by 2h inMLT and we change the distribution function in time in the near-Earth magnetotail. It is concluded that the multiple bands are likely produced by two processes for this particular event, that is, changes in the convection electric field (for >3keV protons and changes in the distribution function in the near-Earth magnetotail (for <3keV protons. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; electric field – Space plasma physics (numerical simulation studies

  14. Non-extensive statistical analysis on solar activity dependence of magnetospheric dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Sumesh; Santhosh Kumar, G.; Prince, P. R.

    2018-01-01

    Tsallis q-Gaussian distributions and associated q-statistics have been used for the last couple of decades to describe non-equilibrium dynamical systems with varying degrees of complexity. In the present study, we use Tsallis non-extensive statistical analysis for a better understanding of magnetospheric dynamics and its relationship with solar activity. The Tsallis' q-triplet, a set of indices (such as qsens , qstat and qrel) used as empirical quantifiers of non-extensivity, has been estimated for magnetospheric proxies such as auroral electrojet (AE) and disturbance storm time (Dst) indices, for a period of 1985-2007. Our results indicate that the degree of non-extensivity of AE index is quite different from that of Dst index in relation with solar activity dependence. We have seen that the values of the q-triplets calculated from Dst index are more solar activity dependent than those computed from AE index. This shows that, other than solar wind exertions, certain complex phenomena of internal origin also modulate the dynamics of geomagnetic fluctuations in the auroral region.

  15. Evaluation of the total magnetospheric energy output parameter, U/sub T/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwickl, R.D.; Bargatze, L.F.; Baker, D.N.; Clauer, C.R.; McPherron, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Over the last few years the relationship between U/sub T/, the magnetospheric energy consumption or output rate, and epsilon, a commonly used solar wind-magnetosphere energy input function, has been explored in some detail. Very high correlations between U/sub T/ and epsilon are found during periods of strong activity, and by using linear prediction filtering techniques a ''delta-function'' impulse response was found for filter elements representing essentially zero delay. In light of these remarkable results, the derivation of U/sub T/ for these intervals is re-examined. We find that U/sub T/ is dominated in each event interval by the term containing tau/sub R/, the ring current decay time, and that when tau/sub R/ is defined as a function of epsilon the ''delta-function'' impulse response is present. If a constant tau/sub R/ is assumed, the delta-function part of the filter disappears completely. Thus, this delta-function, which has been taken as being indicative of the directly driven component is an artifact of the earlier analysis, and it is due to the dependence of U/sub T/ on epsilon. Our results imply that until U/sub T/ can be derived independently from epsilon, these two quantities cannot be compared in a meaningful way, and that results obtained in previous studies are not valid

  16. Generation of EMIC Waves Observed by Van Allen Probes at Low L-shells of Earth's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Zhang, J.; Saikin, A.; Rassoul, H.

    2017-12-01

    In a multi-ion magnetospheric plasma, where the major species are H+, He+, and O+, the He-band of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is the dominant band observed in the inner magnetosphere, and waves are generally quasi-field-aligned inside the geostationary orbit. Almost all the satellite-based studies of EMIC waves before Van Allen Probes, however, have not reported waves below L 3.5. There is probably only one exception from the Akebono satellite where both the H-band and He-band EMIC waves were observed at L 2. The situation has changed dramatically after two Van Allen Probes spacecraft were launched on 30 August, 2012, and many EMIC wave events have been observed below L=4. The Van Allen Probes observations confirm that the He-band of EMIC waves is a dominant band in the inner magnetosphere, but the observation of the He-band waves below L=4 is a new and quite unexpected result compared to our knowledge about EMIC waves before the Van Allen Probes era. In addition, observations show that almost all the He-band EMIC waves are linearly polarized in the region L field, and energetic ion distribution functions will be taken from the Van Allen Probes observations during the EMIC wave event to calculate growth rates of EMIC waves. We will then identify the energetic ions responsible for instability, frequencies and normals generated, and physical mechanism of instability.

  17. Revisiting the Inner Magnetospheric Oxygen Torus with DE 1 RIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Goldstein, J.; Craven, P. D.; Comfort, R. H.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 35 years ago direct observations of cold plasmaspheric ions found enhanced O(+), O(++), and even N(+) densities in the outer plasmasphere, in particular during storm recovery conditions. Enhancements were seen inside or just outside of the plasmapause at all magnetic local times. Whereas nominal O(+) concentrations were found to be 1% or less inside the plasmasphere, enhanced O(+) in the vicinity of the plasmapause was found to reach densities comparable to H(+). Enhanced ion outflow (including oxygen) from high latitudes has also become part of our picture of storm-time phenomena. More recently it has become apparent that high latitude outflow is a source of inner magnetospheric warm ions that convect into morning and afternoon local times, to form what we now call the warm plasma cloak. Low to middle latitude ionospheric outflow and high latitude outflow are thought to result from very different processes and can be expected to contribute differently as a function of conditions and locations to the dynamic processes of energy and particle transport in the inner magnetosphere. Given the apparent proximity of their delivery to the vicinity of the plasmapause during plasmaspheric refilling conditions it becomes worthwhile to question the origin of the oxygen torus and its role in this region. While the observations do not yet exist to settle this question, there are measurements that contribute to the discussion in the new emerging context of cold plasma in the inner magnetosphere. In this paper we present and discuss DE 1 RIMS derived ion densities and temperatures that contribute to answering these outstanding questions about the origin and dynamics of the oxygen torus.

  18. Investigating the Magnetospheres of Rapidly Rotating B-type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, C. L.; Petit, V.; Nazé, Y.; Wade, G. A.; Townsend, R. H.; Owocki, S. P.; Cohen, D. H.; David-Uraz, A.; Shultz, M.

    2017-11-01

    Recent spectropolarimetric surveys of bright, hot stars have found that ~10% of OB-type stars contain strong (mostly dipolar) surface magnetic fields (~kG). The prominent paradigm describing the interaction between the stellar winds and the surface magnetic field is the magnetically confined wind shock (MCWS) model. In this model, the stellar wind plasma is forced to move along the closed field loops of the magnetic field, colliding at the magnetic equator, and creating a shock. As the shocked material cools radiatively it will emit X-rays. Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy is a key tool in detecting and characterizing the hot wind material confined by the magnetic fields of these stars. Some B-type stars are found to have very short rotational periods. The effects of the rapid rotation on the X-ray production within the magnetosphere have yet to be explored in detail. The added centrifugal force due to rapid rotation is predicted to cause faster wind outflows along the field lines, leading to higher shock temperatures and harder X-rays. However, this is not observed in all rapidly rotating magnetic B-type stars. In order to address this from a theoretical point of view, we use the X-ray Analytical Dynamical Magnetosphere (XADM) model, originally developed for slow rotators, with an implementation of new rapid rotational physics. Using X-ray spectroscopy from ESA's XMM-Newton space telescope, we observed 5 rapidly rotating B-types stars to add to the previous list of observations. Comparing the observed X-ray luminosity and hardness ratio to that predicted by the XADM allows us to determine the role the added centrifugal force plays in the magnetospheric X-ray emission of these stars.

  19. Recent highlights from Cluster, the first 3-D magnetospheric mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Escoubet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cluster mission has been operated successfully for 14 years. During this time period, the evolution of the orbit has enabled Cluster to sample many more magnetospheric regions than was initially anticipated. So far, the separation of the Cluster spacecraft has been changed more than 30 times and has ranged from a few kilometres up to 36 000 km. These orbital changes have enabled the science team to address a wide variety of scientific objectives in key regions of Earth's geospace environment: the solar wind and bow shock, the magnetopause, polar cusps, magnetotail, plasmasphere and the auroral acceleration region. Recent results have shed new light on solar wind turbulence. They showed that the magnetosheath can be asymmetric under low Mach number and that it can contain density enhancement that may affect the magnetosphere. The magnetopause was found to be thinner and to have a higher current density on the duskside than on the dawnside. New methods have been used to obtain characteristic of the magnetotail current sheet and high-temporal-resolution measurements of electron pitch angle within flux transfer events (FTEs. Plasmaspheric wind has been discovered, and the refilling of the plasmasphere was observed for the first time over a very wide range of L shells. New models of global electric and magnetic fields of the magnetosphere have been obtained where Cluster, due to its polar orbit, has been essential. Finally, magnetic reconnection was viewed for the first time with high-resolution wave and electron measurements and acceleration of plasma was observed during times of varying rate of magnetic reconnection. The analysis of Cluster data was facilitated by the creation of the Cluster Science Data System (CSDS and the Cluster Science Archive (CSA. Those systems were implemented to provide, for the first time for a plasma physics mission, a long-term public archive of all calibrated high-resolution data from all instruments.

  20. Capture of interplanetary and interstellar dust by the jovian magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, J E; Horányi, M; Grün, E

    1998-04-03

    Interplanetary and interstellar dust grains entering Jupiter's magnetosphere form a detectable diffuse faint ring of exogenic material. This ring is composed of particles in the size range of 0. 5 to 1.5 micrometers on retrograde and prograde orbits in a 4:1 ratio, with semimajor axes 3 jovian radii, eccentricities 0. 1 < e < 0.3, and inclinations i less, similar 20 degrees or i greater, similar 160 degrees. The size range and the orbital characteristics are consistent with in situ detections of micrometer-sized grains by the Galileo dust detector, and the measured rates match the number densities predicted from numerical trajectory integrations.

  1. Physical processes for the onset of magnetospheric substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.R.; Akasofu, S-I.; Lee, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    There are at least three important advances in observational as well as theoretical understanding of substorm processes during the last several years; they are: (i) the 'V-shaped' potential structure for auroral acceleration, (ii) deflation as the cause of thinning of the distant plasma sheet, and (iii) interruption and subsequent diversion of the cross-tail current during the expansive phase of magnetospheric substorms. A possible chain of processes is suggested, including (i), (ii) and (iii) as vital parts, which leads to substorm onset. (Auth.)

  2. Particle tracing in the magnetosphere: New algorithms and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, R.B.; Gaffey, J.D. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The authors present new algorithms for calculating charged-particle trajectories in realistic magnetospheric fields in fast and efficient manners. The scheme is based on a hamiltonian energy conservation principle. It requires that particles conserve the first two adiabatic invariants, and thus also conserve energy. It is applicable for particles ranging in energy from 0.01 to 100 keV, having arbitrary charge, and pitch angle. In addition to rapid particle trajectory calculations, it allows topological boundaries to be located efficiently. The results can be combined with fluid models to provide quantitative models of the time development of the whole convecting plasma model

  3. Earth's magnetosphere formed by the low-latitude boundary layer

    CERN Document Server

    Heikkila, W J

    2011-01-01

    The author argues that, after five decades of debate about the interactive of solar wind with the magnetosphere, it is time to get back to basics. Starting with Newton's law, this book also examines Maxwell's equations and subsidiary equations such as continuity, constitutive relations and the Lorentz transformation; Helmholtz' theorem, and Poynting's theorem, among other methods for understanding this interaction. Includes chapters on prompt particle acceleration to high energies, plasma transfer event, and the low latitude boundary layer More than 200 figures illustrate the text Includes a color insert.

  4. Relationship between PC index and magnetospheric field-aligned currents measured by Swarm satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troshichev, О.; Sormakov, D.; Behlke, R.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between the magnetospheric field-aligned currents (FAC) monitored by the Swarm satellites and the magnetic activity PC index (which is a proxy of the solar wind energy incoming into the magnetosphere) is examined. It is shown that current intensities measured in the R1...

  5. Sheared magnetospheric plasma flows and discrete auroral arcs: a quasi-static coupling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Echim

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider sheared flows in magnetospheric boundary layers of tangential discontinuity type, forming a structure that is embedded in a large-scale convergent perpendicular electric field. We construct a kinetic model that couples the magnetospheric structure with the topside ionosphere. The contribution of magnetospheric electrons and ionospheric electrons and ions is taken into account into the current-voltage relationship derived for an electric potential monotonically decreasing with the altitude. The solution of the current continuity equation gives the distribution of the ionospheric potential consistent with the given magnetospheric electric potential. The model shows that a sheared magnetospheric flow generates current sheets corresponding to upward field-aligned currents, field-aligned potential drops and narrow bands of precipitating energy, as in discrete auroral arcs. Higher velocity magnetospheric sheared flows have the tendency to produce brighter and slightly broader arcs. An increase in arc luminosity is also associated with enhancements of magnetospheric plasma density, in which case the structures are narrower. Finally, the model predicts that an increase of the electron temperature of the magnetospheric flowing plasma corresponds to slightly wider arcs but does not modify their luminosity.

  6. Charged Particle Environments in Earth's Magnetosphere and their Effects on Space System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews information on space radiation environments important to magnetospheric missions including trapped radiation, solar particle events, cosmic rays, and solar winds. It also includes information about ion penetration of the magnetosphere, galactic cosmic rays, solar particle environments, CRRES internal discharge monitor, surface charging and radiation effects.

  7. Instrument technology for magnetosphere plasma imaging from high Earth orbit. Design of a radio plasma sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, D. Mark; Reinisch, Bodo W.

    1995-01-01

    The use of radio sounding techniques for the study of the ionospheric plasma dates back to G. Briet and M. A. Tuve in 1926. Ground based swept frequency sounders can monitor the electron number density (N(sub e)) as a function of height (the N(sub e) profile). These early instruments evolved into a global network that produced high-resolution displays of echo time delay vs frequency on 35-mm film. These instruments provided the foundation for the success of the International Geophysical Year (1958). The Alouette and International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) programs pioneered the used of spaceborne, swept frequency sounders to obtain N(sub e) profiles of the topside of the ionosphere, from a position above the electron density maximum. Repeated measurements during the orbit produced an orbital plane contour which routinely provided density measurements to within 10%. The Alouette/ISIS experience also showed that even with a high powered transmitter (compared to the low power sounder possible today) a radio sounder can be compatible with other imaging instruments on the same satellite. Digital technology was used on later spacecraft developed by the Japanese (the EXOS C and D) and the Soviets (Intercosmos 19 and Cosmos 1809). However, a full coherent pulse compression and spectral integrating capability, such as exist today for ground-based sounders (Reinisch et al., 1992), has never been put into space. NASA's 1990 Space Physics Strategy Implementation Study "The NASA Space Physics Program from 1995 to 2010" suggested using radio sounders to study the plasmasphere and the magnetopause and its boundary layers (Green and Fung, 1993). Both the magnetopause and plasmasphere, as well as the cusp and boundary layers, can be observed by a radio sounder in a high-inclination polar orbit with an apogee greater than 6 R(sub e) (Reiff et al., 1994; Calvert et al., 1995). Magnetospheric radio sounding from space will provide remote density measurements of

  8. The Force-Free Magnetosphere of a Rotating Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Papadopoulos, Demetrios B.

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the Blandford-Znajek process and solve the fundamental equation that governs the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole. The solution depends on the distributions of the magnetic field angular velocity and the poloidal electric current. These are not arbitrary. They are determined self-consistently by requiring that magnetic field lines cross smoothly the two singular surfaces of the problem: the inner "light surface" located inside the ergosphere and the outer "light surface" which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder.We find the solution for the simplest possible magnetic field configuration, the split monopole, through a numerical iterative relaxation method analogous to the one that yields the structure of the steady-state axisymmetric force-free pulsar magnetosphere. We obtain the rate of electromagnetic extraction of energy and confirm the results of Blandford and Znajek and of previous time-dependent simulations. Furthermore, we discuss the physical applicability of magnetic field configurations that do not cross both "light surfaces."

  9. Discovery of Suprathermal Fe+ in and near Earth's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, S. P.; Hamilton, D. C.; Plane, J. M. C.; Mitchell, D. G.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.; Nylund, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Suprathermal (87-212 keV/e) singly charged iron, Fe+, has been observed in and near Earth's equatorial magnetosphere using long-term ( 21 years) Geotail/STICS ion composition data. Fe+ is rare compared to dominant suprathermal solar wind and ionospheric origin heavy ions. Earth's suprathermal Fe+ appears to be positively associated with both geomagnetic and solar activity. Three candidate lower-energy sources are examined for relevance: ionospheric outflow of Fe+ escaped from ion layers altitude, charge exchange of nominal solar wind Fe+≥7, and/or solar wind transported inner source pickup Fe+ (likely formed by solar wind Fe+≥7 interaction with near sun interplanetary dust particles, IDPs). Semi-permanent ionospheric Fe+ layers form near 100 km altitude from the tons of IDPs entering Earth's atmosphere daily. Fe+ scattered from these layers is observed up to 1000 km altitude, likely escaping in strong ionospheric outflows. Using 26% of STICS's magnetosphere-dominated data at low-to-moderate geomagnetic activity levels, we demonstrate that solar wind Fe charge exchange secondaries are not an obvious Fe+ source then. Earth flyby and cruise data from Cassini/CHEMS, a nearly identical instrument, show that inner source pickup Fe+ is likely not important at suprathermal energies. Therefore, lacking any other candidate sources, it appears that ionospheric Fe+ constitutes at least an important portion of Earth's suprathermal Fe+, comparable to observations at Saturn where ionospheric origin suprathermal Fe+ has also been observed.

  10. Eigenmode analysis of coupled magnetohydrodynamic oscillations in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, S.; Patel, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have performed an eigenmode analysis of the coupled magnetohydrodynamic oscillations in the magnetosphere with a dipole magnetic field. To understand the behavior of the spatial structure of the field perturbations with a great accuracy, they use the finite element method. The azimuthal and radial electric field perturbations are assumed to vanish at the ionosphere, and the azimuthal electric field is assumed to be zero on the outer boundary. The global structures of the electromagnetic field perturbations associated with the coupled magnetohydrodynamic oscillations are presented. In addition, the three-dimensional current system associated with the coupled oscillations is numerically calculated and the following characteristics are found: (1) A strong field-aligned current flows along a resonant field line. The current is particularly strong near the ionosphere. (2) The radial current changes its direction on the opposite sides of the resonant L shell. Unlike the field-aligned current, the radial currents exist in the entire magnetosphere. (3) Although the azimuthal and radial currents are intense on the resonant field line, these currents do not form a loop in the plane perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. Therefore the field-aligned component of the perturbed magnetic field does not have a maximum at the resonant L shell

  11. Plasma Transport at the Magnetospheric Flank Boundary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Antonius

    2012-01-01

    Progress is highlighted in these areas: 1. Model of magnetic reconnection induced by three-dimensional Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) modes at the magnetospheric flank boundary; 2. Quantitative evaluation of mass transport from the magnetosheath onto closed geomagnetic field for northward IMF; 3. Comparison of mass transfer by cusp reconnection and Flank Kelvin Helmholtz modes; 4. Entropy constraint and plasma transport in the magnetotail - a new mechanism for current sheet thinning; 5. Test particle model for mass transport onto closed geomagnetic field for northward IMF; 6. Influence of density asymmetry and magnetic shear on (a) the linear and nonlinear growth of 3D Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) modes, and (b) three-dimensional KH mediated mass transport; 7. Examination of entropy and plasma transport in the magnetotail; 8. Entropy change and plasma transport by KH mediated reconnection - mixing and heating of plasma; 9. Entropy and plasma transport in the magnetotail - tail reconnection; and, 10. Wave coupling at the magnetospheric boundary and generation of kinetic Alfven waves

  12. Impact of Interplanetary Magnetic Clouds On The Earthss Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osherovich, V. A.; Benson, R. F.; Fainberg, J.

    We present data collected by Wind in March 2001 for magnetic clouds along with the Dst index and IMAGE/RPI sounder data in the magnetosphere. The normal state of the solar wind is characterized by a solar wind quasi-invariant (QI = (B2/8)/(v2/2) ) where B is the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field , v is the bulk solar wind speed and is the plasma density. While the yearly median QI follows sunspot num- bers with a 98 per cent correlation (Osherovich et al 1999), the arrival of a magnetic cloud increases QI by two orders of magnitude (Osherovich et al. 1997). Sounder stimulated resonances such as harmonics of the electron gyro frequency fce, electron plasma resonance fpe, Bernstein mode resonances Qn with frequencies above fpe and Dn resonances with frequencies below fpe are used to deduce the ratio between the electron gyro radius rce and the Debye radius rde. We suggest that the ratio rce/rde as a measure of the magnetospheric response to the magnetic cloud. We show that profiles of QI and rce/rde are similar and we find the delay time between the signal (QI) and the response (rce/rde). References: Osherovich, V.A., et al., Proc. 31st ESLAB Symp., ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Nether- lands, 171, 1997. Osherovich, V.A. , J. Fainberg and R.G. Stone, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(16), 2597, 1999.

  13. Magnetospheric particle detection efficiency of a conical telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Wefel, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    A semianalytic program has been developed to map the pitch angles of magnetospheric particles onto a detector telescope acceptance cone. The telescope fractional efficiency is defined as the fraction of the pitch angle cone in common with the telescope cone multiplied by the fractional perpendicular component of the exposed detector area, and normalized by 2π. Calculations have been performed as a function of the satellite's location, orbital inclination and the zenith angle of the telescope axis, both in dipole and real geomagnetic field models. At the dipole equator, the peak efficiency occurs at 90 0 pitch angle. In the real geomagnetic field model, the average value of the pitch angle for maximum efficiency is ≅ 88 0 . The efficiency function depends strongly upon latitude and is independent of longitude in a dipole field, but depends on longitude in the real field model. In either field model, altitude, angle of tilt and orbital inclination have little effect upon efficiency. The efficiency function calculated at the dipole equator can be used at the minimum magnetic field equator with little error, but not for points away from the B min position. The results are applied to calculate the absolute flux of magnetospheric particles observed near the equator. (orig.)

  14. Electron dynamics during substorm dipolarization in Mercury's magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Delcourt

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine the nonlinear dynamics of electrons during the expansion phase of substorms at Mercury using test particle simulations. A simple model of magnetic field line dipolarization is designed by rescaling a magnetic field model of the Earth's magnetosphere. The results of the simulations demonstrate that electrons may be subjected to significant energization on the time scale (several seconds of the magnetic field reconfiguration. In a similar manner to ions in the near-Earth's magnetosphere, it is shown that low-energy (up to several tens of eV electrons may not conserve the second adiabatic invariant during dipolarization, which leads to clusters of bouncing particles in the innermost magnetotail. On the other hand, it is found that, because of the stretching of the magnetic field lines, high-energy electrons (several keVs and above do not behave adiabatically and possibly experience meandering (Speiser-type motion around the midplane. We show that dipolarization of the magnetic field lines may be responsible for significant, though transient, (a few seconds precipitation of energetic (several keVs electrons onto the planet's surface. Prominent injections of energetic trapped electrons toward the planet are also obtained as a result of dipolarization. These injections, however, do not exhibit short-lived temporal modulations, as observed by Mariner-10, which thus appear to follow from a different mechanism than a simple convection surge.

  15. The Scientific Foundations of Forecasting Magnetospheric Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, J. P.; Nakamura, R.; Turc, L.; Mejnertsen, L.; Hesse, M.

    2017-11-01

    The magnetosphere is the lens through which solar space weather phenomena are focused and directed towards the Earth. In particular, the non-linear interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetic field leads to the formation of highly inhomogenous electrical currents in the ionosphere which can ultimately result in damage to and problems with the operation of power distribution networks. Since electric power is the fundamental cornerstone of modern life, the interruption of power is the primary pathway by which space weather has impact on human activity and technology. Consequently, in the context of space weather, it is the ability to predict geomagnetic activity that is of key importance. This is usually stated in terms of geomagnetic storms, but we argue that in fact it is the substorm phenomenon which contains the crucial physics, and therefore prediction of substorm occurrence, severity and duration, either within the context of a longer-lasting geomagnetic storm, but potentially also as an isolated event, is of critical importance. Here we review the physics of the magnetosphere in the frame of space weather forecasting, focusing on recent results, current understanding, and an assessment of probable future developments.

  16. Sodium Ion Dynamics in the Magnetospheric Flanks of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Sae; Delcourt, Dominique; Terada, Naoki

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the transport of planetary ions in the magnetospheric flanks of Mercury. In situ measurements from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging spacecraft show evidences of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability development in this region of space, due to the velocity shear between the downtail streaming flow of solar wind originating protons in the magnetosheath and the magnetospheric populations. Ions that originate from the planet exosphere and that gain access to this region of space may be transported across the magnetopause along meandering orbits. We examine this transport using single-particle trajectory calculations in model Magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. We show that heavy ions of planetary origin such as Na+ may experience prominent nonadiabatic energization as they E × B drift across large-scale rolled up vortices. This energization is controlled by the characteristics of the electric field burst encountered along the particle path, the net energy change realized corresponding to the maximum E × B drift energy. This nonadiabatic energization also is responsible for prominent scattering of the particles toward the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field.

  17. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission Attitude Ground System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Joseph E.; Superfin, Emil; Raymond, Juan C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the attitude ground system (AGS) design to be used for support of the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission. The AGS exists as one component of the mission operations control center. It has responsibility for validating the onboard attitude and accelerometer bias estimates, calibrating the attitude sensors and the spacecraft inertia tensor, and generating a definitive attitude history for use by the science teams. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland is responsible for developing the MMS spacecraft, for the overall management of the MMS mission, and for mission operations. MMS is scheduled for launch in 2014 for a planned two-year mission. The MMS mission consists of four identical spacecraft flying in a tetrahedral formation in an eccentric Earth orbit. The relatively tight formation, ranging from 10 to 400 km, will provide coordinated observations giving insight into small-scale magnetic field reconnection processes. By varying the size of the tetrahedron and the orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity, and making use of the changing solar phase, this geometry allows for the study of both bow shock and magnetotail plasma physics, including acceleration, reconnection, and turbulence. The mission divides into two phases for science; these phases will have orbit dimensions of l.2xl2 Earth radii in the first phase and l.2x25 Earth radii in the second in order to study the dayside magnetopause and the nightside magnetotail, respectively. The orbital periods are roughly one day and three days for the two mission phases. Each of the four MMS spacecraft will be spin stabilized at 3 revolutions per minute (rpm), with the spin axis oriented near the ecliptic north pole but tipped approximately 2.5 deg towards the Sun line. The main body of each spacecraft will be an eight-sided platform with diameter of 3.4 m and height of 1.2 m. Several booms are attached to this central core: two axial booms of 14.9 m length, two radial

  18. New GOES High-Resolution Magnetic Measurements and their Contribution to Understanding Magnetospheric Particle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, R. J.; Loto'aniu, P. T. M.; Boudouridis, A.; Chi, P. J.; Singer, H. J.; Kress, B. T.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Abdelqader, A.; Tilton, M.

    2017-12-01

    The era of NOAA observations of the geomagnetic field started with SMS-1 in May 1974 and continues to this day with GOES-13-16 (on-orbit). We describe the development of a new 20+ year archive of science-quality, high-cadence geostationary measurements of the magnetic field from eight NOAA spacecraft (GOES-8 through GOES-15), the status of GOES-16 and new scientific results using these data. GOES magnetic observations provide an early warning of impending space weather, are the core geostationary data set used for the construction of magnetospheric magnetic models, and can be used to estimate electromagnetic wave power in frequency bands important for plasma processes. Many science grade improvements are being made across the GOES archive to unify the format and content from GOES-8 through the new GOES-R series (with the first of that series launched on November 19, 2016). A majority of the 2-Hz magnetic observations from GOES-8-12 have never before been publicly accessible due to processing constraints. Now, a NOAA Big Earth Data Initiative project is underway to process these measurements starting from original telemetry records. Overall the new archive will include vector measurements in geophysically relevant coordinates (EPN, GSM, and VDH), comprehensive documentation, highest temporal cadence, best calibration parameters, recomputed means, updated quality flagging, full spacecraft ephemeris information, a unified standard format and public access. We are also developing spectral characterization tools for estimating power in standard frequency bands (up to 1 Hz for G8-15), and detecting ULF waves related to field-line resonances. We present the project status and findings, including in-situ statistical and extreme ULF event properties, and case studies where the ULF oscillations along the same field line were observed simultaneously by GOES near the equator in the magnetosphere, the ST-5 satellites at low altitudes, and ground magnetometer stations. For event

  19. Different facets of dynamical complexity in the magnetosphere - A recurrence perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolbova, Veronika; Donner, Reik V.; Donges, Jonathan F.; Georgiou, Marina; Balasis, Georgios; Potirakis, Stelios; Kurths, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Modern human civilizations rely to a great extent on the proper functioning of infrastructures such as communication and electrical power generation and supply. Natural hazards present an ongoing threat to these infrastructures. Whereas earthquakes, storms and other types of disasters associated with the Earth's internal dynamics have mostly local to regional effects, severe magnetic storms (most prominently those following strong solar eruptions) and related phenomena have the particular potential of affecting large parts of the globe at once (in case of damaging communication infrastructures relying on satellite transmissions, they even have global hazardous potential). In order to better understanding the variations between quiescence and activity phases of the Earth's magnetic field, the complex structure of fluctuations of magnetic field strength needs to be carefully analyzed. In this work, we utilize the powerful framework of recurrence analysis for studying the properties of the Earth's magnetosphere during one year of observations including several quiescence and activity phases. Specifically, we apply several measures of recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and recurrence network analysis (RNA) to hourly values of the disturbance storm-time (Dst) index for the year 2001. Both RQA and RNA have recently shown their great potentials for tracing variations in dynamical complexity in non-stationary models as well as real-world time series, including various applications to geoscientific problems. Here, both frameworks are used for the first time to study the complex signatures of magnetospheric fluctuations during non-storm and storm conditions. Our results reveal that recurrence characteristics provide excellent tracers for changes in the dynamical complexity along non-stationary records of geomagnetic activity. In particular, trapping time (characterizing the typical length of "laminar phases" in the observed dynamics) and network transitivity

  20. Results from Navigator GPS Flight Testing for the Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulich, Tyler D.; Bamford, William A.; Wintermitz, Luke M. B.; Price, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    The recent delivery of the first Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Navigator Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission spacecraft is a high water mark crowning a decade of research and development in high-altitude space-based GPS. Preceding MMS delivery, the engineering team had developed receivers to support multiple missions and mission studies, such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) navigation for the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), above the constellation navigation for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) proof-of-concept studies, cis-Lunar navigation with rapid re-acquisition during re-entry for the Orion Project and an orbital demonstration on the Space Shuttle during the Hubble Servicing Mission (HSM-4).

  1. Project: Modeling Relativistic Electrons from Nuclear Explosions in the Magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowee, Misa [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gary, S. Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Winske, Dan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Kaijun [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-17

    We present a summary of the FY12 activities for DTRA-funded project 'Modeling Relativistic Electrons from Nuclear Explosions in the Magnetosphere'. We briefly review the outstanding scientific questions and discuss the work done in the last year to try to answer these questions. We then discuss the agenda for this Technical Meeting with the DTRA sponsors. In the last year, we have continued our efforts to understand artificial radiation belts from several different perspectives: (1) Continued development of Electron Source Model (ESM) and comparison to HANE test data; (2) Continued studies of relativistic electron scattering by waves in the natural radiation belts; (3) Began study of self-generated waves from the HANE electrons; and (4) Began modeling for the UCLA laser experiment.

  2. Dayside response of the magnetosphere to a small shock compression: Van Allen Probes, Magnetospheric MultiScale, and GOES‐13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A.; Colpitts, C.; Dombeck, J.; Thaller, S.; Tian, S.; Wygant, J.; Fennell, J.; Hudson, M. K.; Ergun, Robert; Russell, C. T.; Torbert, Roy; Lindqvist, Per‐Arne; Burch, J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Observations from Magnetospheric MultiScale (~8 Re) and Van Allen Probes (~5 and 4 Re) show that the initial dayside response to a small interplanetary shock is a double‐peaked dawnward electric field, which is distinctly different from the usual bipolar (dawnward and then duskward) signature reported for large shocks. The associated E × B flow is radially inward. The shock compressed the magnetopause to inside 8 Re, as observed by Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS), with a speed that is comparable to the E × B flow. The magnetopause speed and the E × B speeds were significantly less than the propagation speed of the pulse from MMS to the Van Allen Probes and GOES‐13, which is consistent with the MHD fast mode. There were increased fluxes of energetic electrons up to several MeV. Signatures of drift echoes and response to ULF waves also were seen. These observations demonstrate that even very weak shocks can have significant impact on the radiation belts. PMID:29104327

  3. Dayside response of the magnetosphere to a small shock compression: Van Allen Probes, Magnetospheric MultiScale, and GOES-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattell, C.; Breneman, A.; Colpitts, C.; Dombeck, J.; Thaller, S.; Tian, S.; Wygant, J.; Fennell, J.; Hudson, M. K.; Ergun, Robert; Russell, C. T.; Torbert, Roy; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Burch, J.

    2017-09-01

    Observations from Magnetospheric MultiScale ( 8 Re) and Van Allen Probes ( 5 and 4 Re) show that the initial dayside response to a small interplanetary shock is a double-peaked dawnward electric field, which is distinctly different from the usual bipolar (dawnward and then duskward) signature reported for large shocks. The associated E × B flow is radially inward. The shock compressed the magnetopause to inside 8 Re, as observed by Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS), with a speed that is comparable to the E × B flow. The magnetopause speed and the E × B speeds were significantly less than the propagation speed of the pulse from MMS to the Van Allen Probes and GOES-13, which is consistent with the MHD fast mode. There were increased fluxes of energetic electrons up to several MeV. Signatures of drift echoes and response to ULF waves also were seen. These observations demonstrate that even very weak shocks can have significant impact on the radiation belts.

  4. Possibility of Ionospheric Cause of FACs and Convection Field in the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere System: The Harang Reversal, Premidnight Upward-FAC, and the Ionospheric Hall Polarization Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamizo, A.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2016-12-01

    Whereas it is generally thought that Birkeland Currents (FACs) are generated in the magnetosphere and that the ionospheric convection reflects the magnetospheric convection, we present a possibility that the ionosphere drives FACs and the convection field in the M-I system. We apply this idea to the Harang Reversal (HR) for demonstration. By using an ionospheric potential solver we calculate the electrostatic field for given distributions of FACs and conductance. The result shows that a conspicuous structure resembling HR is generated even for a symmetric distribution of the R1-type FACs and that the Hall polarization field is produced at the equatorward boundary of the auroral region as the primary currents diverge/converge at the conductance gradient there, which causes the potential deformation (HR). Conventionally HR has been considered to be of the magnetospheric origin, and a ring current model actually produces the corresponding structure in the magnetosphere [e.g., Erickson et al., 1991]. Observationally the divE equivalent to HR is consistent with the premidnight upward-FAC seen in Iijima and Potemra's diagram. A recent theoretical study [Ohtani et al., 2016] proposes that HR is a required structure for the interchange stability of the magnetotail in the presence of the R1 and R2-FAC systems including a premidnight upward-FAC. Returning to our result, the important point is that HR is reproduced at the conductance edge by the ionospheric polarization field, for which the primary field originates from the R1-FACs distributed far from that region. We also suggest: (i) In a more realistic finite ΣA, the total ionospheric polarization is partly released by a FAC, which may be a part of the premidnight upward-FAC. (ii) However, existing simulation models do not allow this type of current closure, and accordingly they may enhance the HR structure in the magnetosphere. This discussion should hold generally and would promote the global M-I coupling studies to the

  5. Radio Sounding Techniques for the Galilean Icy Moons and their Jovian Magnetospheric Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James L.; Markus, Thursten; Fung, Shing F.; Benson, Robert F.; Reinich, Bodo W.; Song, Paul; Gogineni, S. Prasad; Cooper, John F.; Taylor, William W. L.; Garcia, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    Radio sounding of the Earth's topside ionosphere and magnetosphere is a proven technique from geospace missions such as the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) and the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE). Application of this technique to Jupiter's icy moons and the surrounding Jovian magnetosphere will provide unique remote sensing observations of the plasma and magnetic field environments and the subsurface conductivities, of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Spatial structures of ionospheric plasma above the surfaces of the moons vary in response to magnetic-field perturbations from (1) magnetospheric plasma flows, (2) ionospheric currents from ionization of sputtered surface material, and (3) induced electric currents in salty subsurface oceans and from the plasma flows and ionospheric currents themselves. Radio sounding from 3 kHz to 10 MHz can provide the global electron densities necessary for the extraction of the oceanic current signals and supplements in-situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. While radio sounding requires high transmitter power for subsurface sounding, little power is needed to probe the electron density and magnetic field intensity near the spacecraft. For subsurface sounding, reflections occur at changes in the dielectric index, e.g., at the interfaces between two different phases of water or between water and soil. Variations in sub-surface conductivity of the icy moons can be investigated by radio sounding in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 50 MHz, allowing the determination of the presence of density and solid-liquid phase boundaries associated with oceans and related structures in overlying ice crusts. The detection of subsurface oceans underneath the icy crusts of the Jovian moons is one of the primary objectives of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission. Preliminary modeling results show that return signals are clearly distinguishable be&een an ice crust with a thickness of

  6. Hot Plasma and Energetic Particles in Neptune's Magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, S M; Armstrong, T P; Axford, W I; Bostrom, C O; Cheng, A F; Gloeckler, G; Hamilton, D C; Keath, E P; Lanzerotti, L J; Mauk, B H; Van Allen, J A

    1989-12-15

    The low-energy charged particle (LECP) instrument on Voyager 2 measured within the magnetosphere of Neptune energetic electrons (22 kiloelectron volts /=0.5 MeV per nucleon) energies, using an array of solid-state detectors in various configurations. The results obtained so far may be summarized as follows: (i) A variety of intensity, spectral, and anisotropy features suggest that the satellite Triton is important in controlling the outer regions of the Neptunian magnetosphere. These features include the absence of higher energy (>/=150 keV) ions or electrons outside 14.4 R(N) (where R(N) = radius of Neptune), a relative peak in the spectral index of low-energy electrons at Triton's radial distance, and a change of the proton spectrum from a power law with gamma >/= 3.8 outside, to a hot Maxwellian (kT [unknown] 55 keV) inside the satellite's orbit. (ii) Intensities decrease sharply at all energies near the time of closest approach, the decreases being most extended in time at the highest energies, reminiscent of a spacecraft's traversal of Earth's polar regions at low altitudes; simultaneously, several spikes of spectrally soft electrons and protons were seen (power input approximately 5 x 10(-4) ergs cm(-2) s(-1)) suggestive of auroral processes at Neptune. (iii) Composition measurements revealed the presence of H, H(2), and He(4), with relative abundances of 1300:1:0.1, suggesting a Neptunian ionospheric source for the trapped particle population. (iv) Plasma pressures at E >/= 28 keV are maximum at the magnetic equator with beta approximately 0.2, suggestive of a relatively empty magnetosphere, similar to that of Uranus. (v) A potential signature of satellite 1989N1 was seen, both inbound and outbound; other possible signatures of the moons and rings are evident in the data but cannot be positively identified in the absence of an accurate magnetic-field model close to the planet. Other results indude the absence of upstream ion increases or energetic neutrals

  7. Dynamics of the Solar Wind Electromagnetic Energy Transmission Into Magnetosphere during Large Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Tamara; Laptukhov, Alexej; Petrov, Valery

    Causes of the geomagnetic activity (GA) in the report are divided into temporal changes of the solar wind parameters and the changes of the geomagnetic moment orientation relative directions of the solar wind electric and magnetic fields. Based on our previous study we concluded that a reconnection based on determining role of mutual orientation of the solar wind electric field and geomagnetic moment taking into account effects of the Earth's orbital and daily motions is the most effective compared with existing mechanisms. At present a reconnection as paradigma that has applications in broad fields of physics needs analysis of experimental facts to be developed. In terms of reconnection it is important not only mutual orientation of vectors describing physics of interaction region but and reconnection rate which depends from rate of energy flux to those regions where the reconnection is permitted. Applied to magnetosphere these regions first of all are dayside magnetopause and polar caps. Influence of rate of the energy flux to the lobe magnetopause (based on calculations of the Poyting electromagnetic flux component controlling the reconnection rate along the solar wind velocity Pv) on planetary GA (Dst, Kp indices) is investigated at different phases of geomagnetic storms. We study also the rate of energy flux to the polar caps during storms (based on calculations of the Poyting flux vector component along the geomagnetic moment Pm) and its influence on magnetic activity in the polar ionosphere: at the auroral zone (AU,AL indices). Results allow to evaluate contributions of high and low latitude sources of electromagnetic energy to the storm development and also to clear mechanism of the electromagnetic energy transmission from the solar wind to the magnetosphere. We evaluate too power of the solar wind electromagnetic energy during well-known large storms and compare result with power of the energy sources of other geophysical processes (atmosphere, ocean

  8. Upstream magnetospheric ion flux tube within a magnetic cloud: Wind/STICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Arik; Liemohn, Michael W.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2003-03-01

    We present a case study of a remarkable upstream O+ and N+ ion outflow event. We present observational evidence for spatially structured outflow of these Low Charge State Heavy Ions (LCSHIs) of magnetospheric origin along a small reconnected field line region within the framework of a magnetic cloud of an ICME. From the particles' in situ 3D distribution function we conclude that in this case the interaction of the outflow with the bow shock is small. We conclude further that the gyrophases of outflowing ions at the reconnection point are randomly distributed. This leads to the formation of a flux tube with a specific geometry. In particular, the outflow reveals spatial dispersion and non-gyrotropy. This result has implications for the size of the dayside reconnection site.

  9. Wide Field-of-View Soft X-Ray Imaging for Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B. M.; Collier, M. R.; Kuntz, K. D.; Porter, F. S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Snowden, S. L.; Carter, J. A.; Collado-Vega, Y.; Connor, H. K.; Cravens, T. E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Soft X-ray imagers can be used to study the mesoscale and macroscale density structures that occur whenever and wherever the solar wind encounters neutral atoms at comets, the Moon, and both magnetized and unmagnetized planets. Charge exchange between high charge state solar wind ions and exospheric neutrals results in the isotropic emission of soft X-ray photons with energies from 0.1 to 2.0 keV. At Earth, this process occurs primarily within the magnetosheath and cusps. Through providing a global view, wide field-of-view imaging can determine the significance of the various proposed solar wind-magnetosphere interaction mechanisms by evaluating their global extent and occurrence patterns. A summary of wide field-of-view (several to tens of degrees) soft X-ray imaging is provided including slumped micropore microchannel reflectors, simulated images, and recent flight results.

  10. Solar protons on closed magnetospheric field lines after an interplanetary flux decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholer, M.

    1975-01-01

    Particle measurements from the low altitude polar-orbiting satellite GRS-A/Azur and from Explorer 41 in the magnetosheath during a time period after the sudden commencement at 14:30 UT on 8 March 1970, have been used in order to study the access mode of solar particles into the closed field line region of the magnetosphere. A particle decrease in the magnetosheath and over the central polar cap but not in the stable trapping region indicates that solar particles are temporarily trapped and can complete several drifts around the Earth. A single loss cone distribution approximately 2 0 inside of the stable trapping region cannot be explained by strong pitch angle scattering but is probably due to non-adiabatic particle motion. (author)

  11. Van Allen Probe observations of EMIC wave propagation in the inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikin, A.; Zhang, J.; Smith, C. W.; Spence, H. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the propagation of inner magnetosphere (L vector, , analysis on all observed EMIC wave events to determine the direction of propagation, with bi-directionally propagating EMIC waves indicating the presence of the EMIC wave source region. EMIC waves were considered bi-directional (i.e., in the source region) if at least two wave packets exhibited opposing flux components, and (W/km2), consistently for 60 seconds. Events not observed to have opposing flux components are considered unidirectional. EMIC wave events observed at relatively high magnetic latitudes, generally, are found to propagate away from the magnetic equator (i.e., unidirectional). Bi-directionally propagating EMIC waves are preferably observed at lower magnetic latitudes. The occurrence rate, spatial distribution, and the energy propagation angle of both unidirectionally and bi-directionally propagating EMIC waves are examined with respect to L, MLT, and MLAT.

  12. Penetration of magnetosonic waves into the magnetosphere: influence of a transition layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Leonovich

    Full Text Available We have constructed a theory for the penetration of magnetosonic waves from the solar wind into the magnetosphere through a transition layer in a plane-stratified model for the medium. In this model the boundary layer is treated as a region, inside of which the parameters of the medium vary from values characteristic for the magnetosphere, to values typical of the solar wind. It is shown that if such a layer has sufficiently sharp boundaries, then magnetosonic eigen-oscillations can be excited inside of it. The boundaries of such a layer are partially permeable for magnetosonic waves. Therefore, if the eigen-oscillations are not sustained by an external source, they will be attenuated, because some of the energy is carried away by the oscillations that penetrate the solar wind and the magnetosphere. It is shown that about 40% of the energy flux of the waves incident on the transition layer in the magnetotail region penetrate to the magnetosphere’s interior. This energy flux suffices to sustain the stationary convection of magnetospheric plasma. The total energy input to the magnetosphere during a time interval of the order of the substorm growth phase time is comparable with the energetics of an average substorm.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind–magnetosphere interactions – Space plasma physics (kinetic and MHD theory

  13. Penetration of magnetosonic waves into the magnetosphere: influence of a transition layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Leonovich

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed a theory for the penetration of magnetosonic waves from the solar wind into the magnetosphere through a transition layer in a plane-stratified model for the medium. In this model the boundary layer is treated as a region, inside of which the parameters of the medium vary from values characteristic for the magnetosphere, to values typical of the solar wind. It is shown that if such a layer has sufficiently sharp boundaries, then magnetosonic eigen-oscillations can be excited inside of it. The boundaries of such a layer are partially permeable for magnetosonic waves. Therefore, if the eigen-oscillations are not sustained by an external source, they will be attenuated, because some of the energy is carried away by the oscillations that penetrate the solar wind and the magnetosphere. It is shown that about 40% of the energy flux of the waves incident on the transition layer in the magnetotail region penetrate to the magnetosphere’s interior. This energy flux suffices to sustain the stationary convection of magnetospheric plasma. The total energy input to the magnetosphere during a time interval of the order of the substorm growth phase time is comparable with the energetics of an average substorm.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind–magnetosphere interactions – Space plasma physics (kinetic and MHD theory

  14. Tail modeling in a stretched magnetosphere. I - Methods and transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David P.

    1987-01-01

    A new method is developed for representing the magnetospheric field B as a distorted dipole field. Because Delta-B = 0 must be maintained, such a distortion may be viewed as a transformation of the vector potential A. The simplest form is a one-dimensional 'stretch transformation' along the x axis, concisely represented by the 'stretch function' f(x), which is also a convenient tool for representing features of the substorm cycle. One-dimensional stretch transformations are extended to spherical, cylindrical, and parabolic coordinates and then to arbitrary coordinates. It is shown that distortion transformations can be viewed as mappings of field lines from one pattern to another; the final result only requires knowledge of the field and not of the potentials. General transformations in Cartesian and arbitrary coordinates are derived, and applications to field modeling, field line motion, MHD modeling, and incompressible fluid dynamics are considered.

  15. On the injection of fine dust from the Jovian magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravilla, D.; Flammer, K. R.; Mendis, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Using a simple aligned dipole model of the Jovian magnetic field, and exploiting integrals of the gravito-electrodynamic equation of motion of charged dust, we obtain an analytic result which characterizes the nature of the orbits of grains of different (fixed) charge-to-mass ratios launched at different velocities from different radial distances from Jupiter. This enables us to consider various possible sources of the dust-streams emanating from Jupiter which have been observed by the Ulysses spacecraft. We conclude that Jupiter's volcanically active satellite Io is the likely source, in agreement with the earlier calculations and simulations of Horanyi et al. using a detailed three-dimensional model of the Jovian magnetosphere. Our estimates of the size range and the velocity range of these dust grains are also in good agreement with those of the above authors and are within the error bars of the observations.

  16. Magnetospheric ion deposition on Titan's ionosphere in hybrid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpaa, I.; Johnson, R. E.; Crary, F. J.; Young, D. T.; Kallio, E. J.; Jarvinen, R.

    2010-12-01

    Hybrid modelling allows tracking ion particle in self-consist electromagnetic fields. Titan is a specific case where ion gyromotion plays a significant role in the interaction with the ambient plasma flow. We present hybrid simulation results from a medium-strength magnetospheric flow case. The water-group ions are shown to dominate the energy deposition by particles into Titan's ionosphere, while incident protons and pickup ions deposit about a total of a third of the water-group energy. Neutral collisions for the incident ions were taken into account via stopping cross sections. We show that Titan's neutral exosphere reduces the flux and energy deposit of especially lighter flow ions into Titan's atmosphere. Distribution of impacts and energy deposit by incident watergroup ions onto Titan's exobase.

  17. On the relaxation of magnetospheric convection when Bz turns northward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Kelley

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The solar wind inputs considerable energy into the upper atmosphere, particularly when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF is southward. According to Poynting's theorem (Kelley, 2009, this energy becomes stored as magnetic fields and then is dissipated by Joule heat and by energizing the plasmasheet plasma. If the IMF turns suddenly northward, very little energy is transferred into the system while Joule dissipation continues. In this process, the polar cap potential (PCP decreases. Experimentally, it was shown many years ago that the energy stored in the magnetosphere begins to decay with a time constant of two hours. Here we use Poynting's theorem to calculate this time constant and find a result that is consistent with the data.

  18. Education and Communication for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Patricia H.; Cline, Troy D.

    2016-03-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) proposed a balanced portfolio of education and communication activities and products, including broadly distributed materials for the general public, special programs and materials for teachers, targeted activities and materials for underserved groups, and intensive experiences for future scientists and engineers. Our plan includes creation and dissemination of educational software, podcasts and vodcasts, planetarium shows, teacher and student activities, 3D models, social media and smartphone apps. We have surveyed users of NASA data to determine which modes of learning were effective in their youth and which are the most effective now, and use those results to inform our education and communication plans. All materials will be reviewed and placed in NASA online educational archives for broad dissemination.

  19. Auroral Phenomenology and Magnetospheric Processes: Earth and Other Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-07-01

    The dancing glow of the aurorae, the long tendrils of light that seem to reach up into space, has mesmerized scientists for centuries. More than a beautiful display, the aurorae tell us about the Earth—about its atmosphere, its magnetic field, and its relationship with the Sun. As technology developed, researchers looking beyond Earth's borders discovered an array of auroral processes on planets throughout the solar system. In the AGU monograph Auroral Phenomenology and Magnetospheric Processes: Earth and Other Planets, editors Andreas Keiling, Eric Donovan, Fran Bagenal, and Tomas Karlsson explore the many open questions that permeate the science of auroral physics and the relatively recent field of extraterrestrial aurorae. In this interview, Eos talks to Karlsson about extraterrestrial aurorae, Alfvén waves, and the sounds of the northern lights.

  20. Relativistic Electron Pitch Angle Distributions in the Inner Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Reiner; Zhao, Hong; Reeves, Geoff; Chen, Yue; Henderson, Mike; Kanekal, Shri; Baker, Dan; Jaynes, Allison

    2017-04-01

    Relativistic electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) in the trapped inner region of the magnetosphere are a sensitive measure of many processes that govern the dynamics of these particles. We report here on statistical observations of relativistic electron PADs from the REPT (Relativistic Electron/Proton Telescope) instrument aboard the Van Allen Probes mission, which show an unexpected dawn/dusk asymmetry that seems to be a persistent feature during quiet times of Dst > -20 nT. The observed PADs show a more peaked pancake distribution at dusk compared to dawn for energies above 1.8 MeV only. Energies from a few 100 KeV to 1 m,eV do NOT show these asymmetries, ruling out magnetic field model effects. These observations hint at persistent processes that can act on relativistic electrons on timescales on the order of the outer radiation belt drift period (10 minutes).

  1. Electromagnetic radiation trapped in the magnetosphere above the plasma frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Shaw, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electromagnetic noise band is frequently observed in the outer magnetosphere by the Imp 6 spacecraft at frequencies from about 5 to 20 kHz. This noise band generally extends throughout the region from near the plasmapause boundary to near the magnetopause boundary. The noise typically has a broadband field strength of about 5 microvolts/meter. The noise band often has a sharp lower cutoff frequency at about 5 to 10 kHz, and this cutoff has been identified as the local electron plasma frequency. Since the plasma frequency in the plasmasphere and solar wind is usually above 20 kHz, it is concluded that this noise must be trapped in the low-density region between the plasmapause and magnetopause boundaries. The noise bands often contain a harmonic frequency structure which suggests that the radiation is associated with harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency.

  2. On the relaxation of magnetospheric convection when Bz turns northward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, M. C.

    2012-06-01

    The solar wind inputs considerable energy into the upper atmosphere, particularly when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is southward. According to Poynting's theorem (Kelley, 2009), this energy becomes stored as magnetic fields and then is dissipated by Joule heat and by energizing the plasmasheet plasma. If the IMF turns suddenly northward, very little energy is transferred into the system while Joule dissipation continues. In this process, the polar cap potential (PCP) decreases. Experimentally, it was shown many years ago that the energy stored in the magnetosphere begins to decay with a time constant of two hours. Here we use Poynting's theorem to calculate this time constant and find a result that is consistent with the data.

  3. MESSENGER Observations of Magnetic Reconnection in Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin. James A.

    2009-01-01

    During MESSENGER'S second flyby of Mercury on October 6,2008, very intense reconnection was observed between the planet's magnetic field and a steady southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The dawn magnetopause was threaded by a strong magnetic field normal to its surface, approx.14 nT, that implies a rate of reconnection approx.10 times the typical rate at Earth and a cross-magnetospheric electric potential drop of approx.30 kV. The highest magnetic field observed during this second flyby, approx.160 nT, was found at the core of a large dayside flux transfer event (FTE). This FTE is estimated to contain magnetic flux equal to approx.5% that of Mercury's magnetic tail or approximately one order of magnitude higher fraction of the tail flux than is typically found for FTEs at Earth. Plasmoid and traveling compression region (TCR) signatures were observed throughout MESSENGER'S traversal of Mercury's magnetotail with a repetition rate comparable to the Dungey cycle time of approx.2 min. The TCR signatures changed from south-north, indicating tailward motion, to north-south, indicating sunward motion, at a distance approx.2.6 RM (where RM is Mercury's radius) behind the terminator indicating that the near-Mercury magnetotail neutral line was crossed at that point. Overall, these new MESSENGER observations suggest that magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause is very intense relative to what is found at Earth and other planets, while reconnection in Mercury's tail is similar to that in other planetary magnetospheres, but with a very short Dungey cycle time.

  4. Modeling of the propagation of low-frequency electromagnetic radiation in the Earth’s magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, N. V.; Rudenko, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    A numerical algorithm for solving the set of differential equations describing the propagation of low-frequency electromagnetic radiation in the magnetospheric plasma, including in the presence of geomagnetic waveguides in the form of large-scale plasma density inhomogeneities stretched along the Earth’s magnetic field, has been developed. Calculations of three-dimensional ray trajectories in the magnetosphere and geomagnetic waveguide with allowance for radiation polarization have revealed characteristic tendencies in the behavior of electromagnetic parameters along the ray trajectory. The results of calculations can be used for magnetospheric plasma diagnostics

  5. Optical observations of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere coupling: Inter-hemispheric electron reflections within pulsating aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Khazanov, G. V.; Grubbs, G. A., II

    2017-12-01

    Magnetosphere-Ionosphere coupling is exhibited in reflected primary and secondary electrons which constitute the second step in the formation of the total precipitating electron distribution. While they have largely been missing from the current theoretical studies of particle precipitation, ground based observations point to the existence of a reflected electron population. We present evidence that pulsating aurora is caused by electrons bouncing back and forth between the two hemispheres. This means that these electrons are responsible for some of the total light in the aurora, a possibility that has largely been ignored in theoretical models. Pulsating auroral events imaged optically at high time resolution present direct observational evidence in agreement with the inter-hemispheric electron bouncing predicted by the SuperThermal Electron Trans-port (STET) model. Immediately following each of the `pulsation-on' times are equally spaced, and subsequently fainter pulsations, which can be explained by the primary precipitating electrons reflecting upwards from the ionosphere, traveling to the opposite hemisphere, and reflecting upwards again. The high time-resolution of these data, combined with the short duration of the `pulsation-on' time ( 1 s) and the relatively long spacing between pulsations ( 6 to 9 s) made it possible to observe the faint optical pulses caused by the reflected electrons coming from the opposite hemisphere. These results are significant and have broad implications because they highlight that the formation of the auroral electron distributions within regions of diffuse and pulsating aurora contain contributions from reflected primary and secondary electrons. These processes can ultimately lead to larger fluxes than expected when considering only the primary injection of magnetospheric electrons.

  6. Three-dimensional Kinetic Pulsar Magnetosphere Models: Connecting to Gamma-Ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Brambilla, Gabriele; Timokhin, Andrey; Harding, Alice K.; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2018-04-01

    We present three-dimensional (3D) global kinetic pulsar magnetosphere models, where the charged particle trajectories and the corresponding electromagnetic fields are treated self-consistently. For our study, we have developed a Cartesian 3D relativistic particle-in-cell code that incorporates radiation reaction forces. We describe our code and discuss the related technical issues, treatments, and assumptions. Injecting particles up to large distances in the magnetosphere, we apply arbitrarily low to high particle injection rates, and obtain an entire spectrum of solutions from close to the vacuum-retarded dipole to close to the force-free (FF) solution, respectively. For high particle injection rates (close to FF solutions), significant accelerating electric field components are confined only near the equatorial current sheet outside the light cylinder. A judicious interpretation of our models allows the particle emission to be calculated, and consequently, the corresponding realistic high-energy sky maps and spectra to be derived. Using model parameters that cover the entire range of spin-down powers of Fermi young and millisecond pulsars, we compare the corresponding model γ-ray light curves, cutoff energies, and total γ-ray luminosities with those observed by Fermi to discover a dependence of the particle injection rate, { \\mathcal F }, on the spin-down power, \\dot{{ \\mathcal E }}, indicating an increase of { \\mathcal F } with \\dot{{ \\mathcal E }}. Our models, guided by Fermi observations, provide field structures and particle distributions that are not only consistent with each other but also able to reproduce a broad range of the observed γ-ray phenomenologies of both young and millisecond pulsars.

  7. Highly relativistic magnetospheric electrons: A role in coupling to the middle atmosphere?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Blake, J.B.; Gorney, D.J.; Higbie, P.R.; Klebesadel, R.W.; King, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Long-term (1979-present) observations of relativistic electrons (2--15 MeV) at geostationary orbit show a strong solar cycle dependence. Such electrons were largely absent near the last solar maximum (1979--80), while they were prominent during the approach to solar minimum (1983--85). This population now is dwindling as solar minimum has been reached. The strong magnetospheric presence of high-speed solar wind streams which results from solar coronal hole structures during the approach to solar activity (sunspot) minimum. We clearly observe 27-day periodic enhancements of the relativistic electrons in association with concurrently measured solar wind streams (V/sub S//sub W/approx. >600 km/s). We have used a numerical transport code to study the coupling of these high-energy electrons to earth's upper and middle atmosphere. We calculate using the observed energy spectra of the electrons that, when precipitated, these electrons show a large (maximum of ∼100 keV/cm 3 -s) energy deposition at 40--60 km altitude, which is 3--4 orders of magnitude greater than the galactic cosmic ray or solar EUV energy deposition at these altitudes. We also find that the global energy deposition in the mid-latitudes totals nearly 10 21 ergs for a typical 2--3 day event period. We conclude that this previously unrecognized electron population could play an important role in coupling solar wind and magnetospheric variability (on 27--day and 11--year cycles) to the middle atmosphere through a modulating effect on lower D-region ionization and, possibly, on upper level ozone chemistry. These electrons also may contribute to the recent Antarctic polar ozone depletion phenomenon. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  8. Examining Coherency Scales, Substructure, and Propagation of Whistler Mode Chorus Elements With Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. L.; Lee, J. H.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Jaynes, A. N.; Leonard, T.; Wilder, F. D.; Ergun, R. E.; Baker, D. N.; Cohen, I. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Strangeway, R. J.; Hartley, D. P.; Kletzing, C. A.; Breuillard, H.; Le Contel, O.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Torbert, R. B.; Allen, R. C.; Burch, J. L.; Santolik, O.

    2017-11-01

    Whistler mode chorus waves are a naturally occurring electromagnetic emission observed in Earth's magnetosphere. Here, for the first time, data from NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission were used to analyze chorus waves in detail, including the calculation of chorus wave normal vectors, fi>k. A case study was examined from a period of substorm activity around the time of a conjunction between the MMS constellation and NASA's Van Allen Probes mission on 07 April 2016. Chorus wave activity was simultaneously observed by all six spacecraft over a broad range of L shells (5.5 flat or falling frequency following the peak, and all the elements exhibited complex and well-organized substructure observed consistently at all four MMS spacecraft at separations up to 70 km (60 km perpendicular and 38 km parallel to the background magnetic field). The waveforms in field-aligned coordinates also demonstrated that these waves were all phase coherent, allowing for the direct calculation of fi>k. Error estimates on calculated fi>k revealed that the plane wave approximation was valid for six of the eight elements and most of the subelements. The wave normal vectors were within 20-30° from the direction antiparallel to the background field for all elements and changed from subelement to subelement through at least two of the eight elements. The azimuthal angle of fi>k in the perpendicular plane was oriented earthward and was oblique to that of the Poynting vector, which has implications for the validity of cold plasma theory.

  9. Kappa distributions in Saturn's magnetosphere: energetic ion moments using Cassini/MIMI measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialynas, K.; Roussos, E.; Regoli, L.; Paranicas, C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Kane, M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Hamilton, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Moments of the charged particle distribution function are a compact way of characterizing some of the properties of different magnetospheric regions. Following our previous analyses (Dialynas et al. 2009) and the techniques described in Dialynas et al. (2017), in the present study we use κ-Distribution fits to combine CHEMS (3 to 236 keV/e), LEMMS (0.024 220 keV) H+ and O+ energetic ion spectra covering measurements made in 2004-2016 to calculate the >20 keV energetic ion moments inside Saturn's magnetosphere. We use the Khurana et al. [2007] magnetic field model to map the ion measurements to the equatorial plane and produce the equatorial distributions of all ion integral moments, focusing on partial density (n), integral intensity (In), partial pressure (P), integral energy intensity (IE); as well as the characteristic energy (Ec=Ie/In), Temperature and κ-index of these ions as a function of Local Time (00:00 to 24:00 hrs) and L-Shell (5-20 Rs). The Roelof and Skinner [2000] model is then utilized to retrieve the equatorial H+ and O+ P, n and T in both local time and L-shell. We find that a) although the PH+ and PO+ are nearly comparable, H+ have higher IE and In at all radial distances (L>5) and local times; b) the 12Η+, ΓΟ+), are consistent with the Arridge et al. [2009] results. Dialynas K. et al. 2009, JGR, 114, A01212 Dialynas K. et al. 2017, Elsevier, ISBN: 9780128046388 Khurana K. K. et al. 2007, AGU, abstract #P44A-01 Roelof E. & A. Skinner 2000, SSR, 91, 437-459 Arridge C. S. et al. 2009, PSS, 57, 2032-2047

  10. Multipoint observation of the response of the magnetosphere and ionosphere related to the sudden impulse event on 19 November 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segarra Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide a complete scope of a magnetic sudden impulse (SI event along its way through interplanetary space and the magnetosphere until its arrival to the ground. In our case, we chose the event of 19th November 2007 because of the availability of enough well-located spacecraft at that moment for our purpose. We have used a 16 spacecraft data set. We calculated the mass flux variation and the change in magnetic field components across the discontinuity. Thus, we identified the solar wind discontinuity as a shock. We also calculated the orientation of the solar wind shock front. Then, we examined the effects of the shock front propagation in detail. With this large data set, we obtained a global view of the travelling wave front and identified the effects of the compressional wave front. Thus, we determined in detail the shock front passing through the different parts of the magnetosphere. We described the compressional effects in the bow shock, the magnetosheath, and the magnetopause and we depicted the propagation inside the inner magnetosphere. Moreover, we used an extensive data set from magnetic observatories on the ground and so we studied the global distribution of the SI waveform. Finally, the comparison of the observational facts with those derived from the theoretical model showed a good consistency. On the basis of the waveforms and polarizations of this SI, we determined the location in latitude where ionospheric currents (ICs changed their sense. And also, we related polarization at ground to polarization measured by GOES spacecraft.

  11. Field line projections of 6300 AA auroral emissions into the outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, M.M.

    1979-07-01

    An empirical magnetospheric model is employed to project auroral intensity boundaries into the magnetosphere. The auroral data are in the form of instantaneous maps of 6300AA emission, acquired with the ISIS-II spacecraft and correspond to fluxes of low energy electrons. These are specific to a particular universal time and date. The magnetospheric model used is a purely empirical one, designed by Mead and Fairfield (1975) from 44.76 x 10 6 magnetic measurements made by 4 IMP satellites. Their model includes the dipole tilt as a variable, and permits selection from four different disturbance levels, so is particularly suited to these data. In a general way, the auroral projections agree with what is expected, giving some confidence in this application of the model. But a number of features appear that were not predicted, and which should permit new insights into the relationship of specific auroral boundaries to the structure of the magnetosphere. (author)

  12. Thick Escaping Magnetospheric Ion Layer in Magnetopause Reconnection with MMS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, T.; Kitamura, N.; Hasagawa, H.; Shinohara, I.; Yokota, S.; Saito, Y.; Nakamura, R.; Giles, B. L.; Pollock, C.; Moore, T. E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The structure of asymmetric magnetopause reconnection is explored with multiple point and high-time-resolution ion velocity distribution observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. On 9 September 2015, reconnection took place at the magnetopause, which separated the magnetosheath and the magnetosphere with a density ratio of 25:2. The magnetic field intensity was rather constant, even higher in the asymptotic magnetosheath. The reconnected field line region had a width of approximately 540 km. In this region, streaming and gyrating ions are discriminated. The large extension of the reconnected field line region toward the magnetosheath can be identified where a thick layer of escaping magnetospheric ions was formed. The scale of the magnetosheath side of the reconnected field line region relative to the scale of its magnetospheric side was 4.5:1.

  13. A Compact Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (CREPT) to Investigate Magnetospheric Electron Microbursts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Compact Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (CREPT) to Investigate Magnetospheric Electron Microbursts is a project to build a solid-state (SSD) particle...

  14. Analysis of multidimensional measurements of electromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Pechal, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Title: Analysis of multidimensional measurements of electromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere Author: Radim Pechal Department: Department of Surface and Plasma Science Supervisor: doc. RNDr. Lubomír Přech, Dr. Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: The thesis introduces into basic knowledge of waves in plasma, especially waves in the Earth's magnetosphere. There are mentioned some space projects focused on chorus waves. The second part of this thesis is a la...

  15. Ensemble downscaling in coupled solar wind-magnetosphere modeling for space weather forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, M J; Horbury, T S; Wicks, R T; McGregor, S L; Savani, N P; Xiong, M

    2014-06-01

    Advanced forecasting of space weather requires simulation of the whole Sun-to-Earth system, which necessitates driving magnetospheric models with the outputs from solar wind models. This presents a fundamental difficulty, as the magnetosphere is sensitive to both large-scale solar wind structures, which can be captured by solar wind models, and small-scale solar wind "noise," which is far below typical solar wind model resolution and results primarily from stochastic processes. Following similar approaches in terrestrial climate modeling, we propose statistical "downscaling" of solar wind model results prior to their use as input to a magnetospheric model. As magnetospheric response can be highly nonlinear, this is preferable to downscaling the results of magnetospheric modeling. To demonstrate the benefit of this approach, we first approximate solar wind model output by smoothing solar wind observations with an 8 h filter, then add small-scale structure back in through the addition of random noise with the observed spectral characteristics. Here we use a very simple parameterization of noise based upon the observed probability distribution functions of solar wind parameters, but more sophisticated methods will be developed in the future. An ensemble of results from the simple downscaling scheme are tested using a model-independent method and shown to add value to the magnetospheric forecast, both improving the best estimate and quantifying the uncertainty. We suggest a number of features desirable in an operational solar wind downscaling scheme. Solar wind models must be downscaled in order to drive magnetospheric models Ensemble downscaling is more effective than deterministic downscaling The magnetosphere responds nonlinearly to small-scale solar wind fluctuations.

  16. Correlation-based characterisation of time-varying dynamical complexity in the Earth's magnetosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Donner, R. V.; Balasis, G.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamical behaviour of the magnetosphere is known to be a sensitive indicator for the response of the system to solar wind coupling. Since the solar activity commonly displays very interesting non-stationary and multi-scale dynamics, the magnetospheric response also exhibits a high degree of dynamical complexity associated with fundamentally different characteristics during periods of quiescence and magnetic storms. The resulting temporal complexity profile has been expl...

  17. Current and high-β sheets in CIR streams: statistics and interaction with the HCS and the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Thirty events of CIR streams (corotating interaction regions between fast and slow solar wind) were analyzed in order to study statistically plasma structure within the CIR shear zones and to examine the interaction of the CIRs with the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) and the Earth's magnetosphere. The occurrence of current layers and high-beta plasma sheets in the CIR structure has been estimated. It was found that on average, each of the CIR streams had four current layers in its structure with a current density of more than 0.12 A/m2 and about one and a half high-beta plasma regions with a beta value of more than five. Then we traced how and how often the high-speed stream associated with the CIR can catch up with the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) and connect to it. The interface of each fourth CIR stream coincided in time within an hour with the HCS, but in two thirds of cases, the CIR connection with the HCS was completely absent. One event of the simultaneous observation of the CIR stream in front of the magnetosphere by the ACE satellite in the vicinity of the L1 libration point and the Wind satellite in the remote geomagnetic tail was considered in detail. Measurements of the components of the interplanetary magnetic field and plasma parameters showed that the overall structure of the stream is conserved. Moreover, some details of the fine structure are also transferred through the magnetosphere. In particular, the so-called "magnetic hole" almost does not change its shape when moving from L1 point to a neighborhood of L2 point.

  18. Fast Flows in the Magnetotail and Energetic Particle Transport: Multiscale Coupling in the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Wang, X.; Fok, M. C. H.; Buzulukova, N.; Perez, J. D.; Chen, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    The interaction between the Earth's inner and outer magnetospheric regions associated with the tail fast flows is calculated by coupling the Auburn 3-D global hybrid simulation code (ANGIE3D) to the Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere/Ionosphere (CIMI) model. The global hybrid code solves fully kinetic equations governing the ions and a fluid model for electrons in the self-consistent electromagnetic field of the dayside and night side outer magnetosphere. In the integrated computation model, the hybrid simulation provides the CIMI model with field data in the CIMI 3-D domain and particle data at its boundary, and the transport in the inner magnetosphere is calculated by the CIMI model. By joining the two existing codes, effects of the solar wind on particle transport through the outer magnetosphere into the inner magnetosphere are investigated. Our simulation shows that fast flows and flux ropes are localized transients in the magnetotail plasma sheet and their overall structures have a dawn-dusk asymmetry. Strong perpendicular ion heating is found at the fast flow braking, which affects the earthward transport of entropy-depleted bubbles. We report on the impacts from the temperature anisotropy and non-Maxwellian ion distributions associated with the fast flows on the ring current and the convection electric field.

  19. Recent successes and emerging challenges for coordinated satellite/ground-based magnetospheric exploration and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    With the availability of a distributed constellation of spacecraft (THEMIS, Geotail, Cluster) and increased capability ground based arrays (SuperDARN, THEMIS/GBOs), it is now pos-sible to infer simply from timing significant information regarding mapping of magnetospheric phenomena. Optical, magnetometer and radar data can pinpoint the location and nature of onset signatures. On the other hand, magnetic field modeling constrained by physical bound-aries (such as the isotropy boundary) the measured magnetic field and total pressure values at a distibuted network of satellites has proven to do a much better job at correlating ionospheric precipitation and diffuse auroral boundaries to magnetospheric phenomena, such as the inward boundary of the dipolarization fronts. It is now possible to routinely compare in-situ measured phase space densities of ion and electron distributions during ionosphere -magnetosphere con-junctions, in the absense of potential drops. It is also possible to not only infer equivalent current systems from the ground, but use reconstruction of the ionospheric current system from space to determine the full electrodynamics evolution of the ionosphere and compare with radars. Assimilation of this emerging ground based and global magnetospheric panoply into a self consistent magnetospheric model will likely be one of the most fruitful endeavors in magnetospheric exploration during the next few years.

  20. A summary of observational records on periodicities above the rotational period in the Jovian magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kronberg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Jovian magnetosphere is a very dynamic system. The plasma mass-loading from the moon Io and the fast planetary rotation lead to regular release of mass from the Jovian magnetosphere and to a change of the magnetic topology. These regular variations, most commonly on several (2.5–4 days scale, were derived from various data sets obtained by different spacecraft missions and instruments ranging from auroral images to in situ measurements of magnetospheric particles. Specifically, ion measurements from the Galileo spacecraft represent the periodicities, very distinctively, namely the periodic thinning of the plasma sheet and subsequent dipolarization, and explosive mass release occurring mainly during the transition between these two phases. We present a review of these periodicities, particularly concentrating on those observed in energetic particle data. The most distinct periodicities are observed for ions of sulfur and oxygen. The periodic topological change of the Jovian magnetosphere, the associated mass-release process and auroral signatures can be interpreted as a global magnetospheric instability with analogies to the two step concept of terrestrial substorms. Different views on the triggering mechanism of this magnetospheric instability are discussed.

  1. X-ray probes of magnetospheric interactions with Jupiter's auroral zones, the Galilean satellites, and the Io plasma torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, R. F.; Ramsey, B. D.; Waite, J. H.; Rehak, P.; Johnson, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Swartz, D. A.

    2005-11-01

    Remote observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown that the jovian system is a source of X-rays with a rich and complicated structure. The planet's polar auroral zones and its disk are both powerful sources of X-ray emission. Chandra observations revealed X-ray emission from the Io plasma torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from the moons is due to bombardment of their surfaces by highly energetic magnetospheric protons, and oxygen and sulfur ions. These ions excite atoms in their surfaces leading to fluorescent X-ray emission lines. These lines are produced against an intense background continuum, including bremsstrahlung radiation from surface interactions of primary magnetospheric and secondary electrons. Although the X-ray emission from the Galilean moons is faint when observed from Earth orbit, an imaging X-ray spectrometer in orbit around one or more of these moons, operating from 200 eV to 8 keV with 150 eV energy resolution, would provide a detailed mapping of the elemental composition in their surfaces. Surface resolution of 40 m for small features could be achieved in a 100-km orbit around one moon while also remotely imaging surfaces of other moons and Jupiter's upper atmosphere at maximum regional resolutions of hundreds of kilometers. Due to its relatively more benign magnetospheric radiation environment, its intrinsic interest as the largest moon in the Solar System, and its mini-magnetosphere, Ganymede would be the ideal orbital location for long-term observational studies of the jovian system. Here we describe the physical processes leading to X-ray emission from the surfaces of Jupiter's moons and the properties required for the technique of imaging X-ray spectroscopy to map the elemental composition of their surfaces, as well as studies of the X-ray emission from the planet's aurora and disk and from the Io plasma torus.

  2. GPS Navigation for the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, William; Mitchell, Jason; Southward, Michael; Baldwin, Philip; Winternitz, Luke; Heckler, Gregory; Kurichh, Rishi; Sirotzky, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In 2014. NASA is scheduled to launch the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS), a four-satellite formation designed to monitor fluctuations in the Earth's magnetosphere. This mission has two planned phases with different orbits (1? x 12Re and 1.2 x 25Re) to allow for varying science regions of interest. To minimize ground resources and to mitigate the probability of collisions between formation members, an on-board orbit determination system consisting of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver and crosslink transceiver was desired. Candidate sensors would be required to acquire GPS signals both below and above the constellation while spinning at three revolutions-per-minute (RPM) and exchanging state and science information among the constellation. The Intersatellite Ranging and Alarm System (IRAS), developed by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was selected to meet this challenge. IRAS leverages the eight years of development GSFC has invested in the Navigator GPS receiver and its spacecraft communication expertise, culminating in a sensor capable of absolute and relative navigation as well as intersatellite communication. The Navigator is a state-of-the-art receiver designed to acquire and track weak GPS signals down to -147dBm. This innovation allows the receiver to track both the main lobe and the much weaker side lobe signals. The Navigator's four antenna inputs and 24 tracking channels, together with customized hardware and software, allow it to seamlessly maintain visibility while rotating. Additionally, an extended Kalman filter provides autonomous, near real-time, absolute state and time estimates. The Navigator made its maiden voyage on the Space Shuttle during the Hubble Servicing Mission, and is scheduled to fly on MMS as well as the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM). Additionally, Navigator's acquisition engine will be featured in the receiver being developed for the Orion vehicle. The crosslink transceiver is a 1/4 Watt transmitter

  3. Structure of the latitudinal profile of solar cosmic rays in the Earth's magnetosphere during substorm activity on October 26-27, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazutin, L. L.; Kuznetsov, S. N.

    2010-08-01

    The structure of penetration of solar cosmic rays (SCRs) with energies of 1-100 MeV into the Earth’s magnetosphere before a strong magnetic storm of October 29-31, 2003, is studied based on the CORONAS-F satellite data. The effect of north-south asymmetry was observed in the polar caps for more than 12 h, which made it possible to study the dynamics of the boundary between the polar cap (the magnetotail) and the auroral zone (the quasi-trapping region). A previously unknown effect of dropouts in the SCR intensity latitudinal profile during the substorm active phases has been detected in the auroral magnetosphere. The mechanism by which dropouts are formed owing to the local distortion of the magnetic field line configuration, resulting in radial diffusion of particles from this region, has been proposed.

  4. Jupiter's Magnetic Field and Magnetosphere after Juno's First 8 Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Oliversen, R. J.; Espley, J. R.; Gruesbeck, J.; Kotsiaros, S.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Joergensen, J. L.; Joergensen, P. S.; Merayo, J. M. G.; Denver, T.; Benn, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Malinnikova Bang, A.; Bloxham, J.; Moore, K.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S.; Gershman, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Juno spacecraft entered polar orbit about Jupiter on July 4, 2016, embarking upon an ambitious mission to map Jupiter's magnetic and gravitational potential fields and probe its deep atmosphere, in search of clues to the planet's formation and evolution. Juno is also instrumented to conduct the first exploration of the polar magnetosphere and to acquire images and spectra of its polar auroras and atmosphere. Juno's 53.5-day orbit trajectory carries her science instruments from pole to pole in approximately 2 hours, with a closest approach to within 1.05 Rj of the center of the planet (one Rj = 71,492 km, Jupiter's equatorial radius), just a few thousand km above the clouds. Repeated periapsis passes will eventually encircle the planet with a dense net of observations equally spaced in longitude (solar panel wings. Each contains a vector fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located non-magnetic star tracker camera heads, providing accurate attitude determination for the FGM sensors. We present an overview of the magnetometer observations obtained during Juno's first year in orbit in context with prior observations and those acquired by Juno's other science instruments.

  5. Theory and Modeling for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, M.; Aunai, N.; Birn, J.; Cassak, P.; Denton, R. E.; Drake, J. F.; Gombosi, T.; Hoshino, M.; Matthaeus, W.; Sibeck, D.; Zenitani, S.

    2016-03-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission will provide measurement capabilities, which will exceed those of earlier and even contemporary missions by orders of magnitude. MMS will, for the first time, be able to measure directly and with sufficient resolution key features of the magnetic reconnection process, down to the critical electron scales, which need to be resolved to understand how reconnection works. Owing to the complexity and extremely high spatial resolution required, no prior measurements exist, which could be employed to guide the definition of measurement requirements, and consequently set essential parameters for mission planning and execution. Insight into expected details of the reconnection process could hence only been obtained from theory and modern kinetic modeling. This situation was recognized early on by MMS leadership, which supported the formation of a fully integrated Theory and Modeling Team (TMT). The TMT participated in all aspects of mission planning, from the proposal stage to individual aspects of instrument performance characteristics. It provided and continues to provide to the mission the latest insights regarding the kinetic physics of magnetic reconnection, as well as associated particle acceleration and turbulence, assuring that, to the best of modern knowledge, the mission is prepared to resolve the inner workings of the magnetic reconnection process. The present paper provides a summary of key recent results or reconnection research by TMT members.

  6. Electron-acoustic solitary waves in the Earth's inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, C. S.; Vasko, I. Y.; Mozer, F. S.; Agapitov, O. V.; Bonnell, J. W.

    2018-02-01

    The broadband electrostatic turbulence observed in the inner magnetosphere is produced by large-amplitude electrostatic solitary waves of generally two types. The solitary waves with symmetric bipolar parallel (magnetic field-aligned) electric field are electron phase space holes. The solitary waves with highly asymmetric bipolar parallel electric field have been recently shown to correspond to the electron-acoustic plasma mode (existing due to two-temperature electron population). Through theoretical and numerical analysis of hydrodynamic and modified Korteweg-de Vries equations, we demonstrate that the asymmetric solitary waves appear due to the steepening of initially quasi-monochromatic electron-acoustic perturbation arrested at some moment by collisionless dissipation (Landau damping). The typical steepening time is found to be from a few to tens of milliseconds. The steepening of the electron-acoustic waves has not been reproduced in self-consistent kinetic simulations yet, and factors controlling the formation of steepened electron-acoustic waves, rather than electron phase space holes, remain unclear.

  7. Excitation of Banded Whistler Waves in the Magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, S. Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Kaijun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Winske, Dan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-13

    Banded whistler waves can be generated by the whistler anisotropy instability driven by two bi-Maxwellian electron components with T{sub {perpendicular}}/T{sub {parallel}} > 1 at different T{sub {parallel}} For typical magnetospheric condition of 1 < {omega}{sub e}/{Omega}{sub e} < 5 in regions associated with strong chorus, upper-band waves can be excited by anisotropic electrons below {approx} 1 keV, while lower-band waves are excited by anisotropic electrons above {approx} 10 keV. Lower-band waves are generally field-aligned and substantially electromagnetic, while upper-band waves propagate obliquely and have quasi-electrostatic fluctuating electric fields. The quasi-electrostatic feature of upper-band waves suggests that they may be more easily identified in electric field observations than in magnetic field observations. Upper-band waves are liable to Landau damping and the saturation level of upperband waves is lower than lower-band waves, consistent with observations that lower-band waves are stronger than upper-band waves on average. The oblique propagation, the lower saturation level, and the more severe Landau damping together would make upper-band waves more tightly confined to the geomagnetic equator (|{lambda}{sub m}| < {approx}10{sup o}) than lower-band waves.

  8. Global Magnetospheric Simulations: coupling with ionospheric and solar wind models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Olshevskyi, Vyacheslav; Amaya, Jorge; Deca, Jan; Markidis, Stefano; Vapirev, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    We present results on the global fully kinetic model of the magnetosphere of the Earth. The simulations are based on the iPic3D code [1] that treats kinetically all plasma species solving implicitly the equations of motion for electrons and ions, coupled with the Maxwell equations. We present results of our simulations and discuss the coupling at the inner boundary near the Earth with models of the ionosphere and at the outer boundary with models of the arriving solar wind. The results are part of the activities of the Swiff FP7 project: www.swiff.eu [1] Stefano Markidis, Giovanni Lapenta, Rizwan-uddin, Multi-scale simulations of plasma with iPIC3D, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Volume 80, Issue 7, March 2010, Pages 1509-1519, ISSN 0378-4754, 10.1016/j.matcom.2009.08.038 [2] Giovanni Lapenta, Particle simulations of space weather, Journal of Computational Physics, Volume 231, Issue 3, 1 February 2012, Pages 795-821, ISSN 0021-9991, 10.1016/j.jcp.2011.03.035.

  9. Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) Phase 2B Navigation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaperoth, Paige Thomas; Long, Anne; Carpenter, Russell

    2009-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) formation flying mission, which consists of four spacecraft flying in a tetrahedral formation, has challenging navigation requirements associated with determining and maintaining the relative separations required to meet the science requirements. The baseline navigation concept for MMS is for each spacecraft to independently estimate its position, velocity and clock states using GPS pseudorange data provided by the Goddard Space Flight Center-developed Navigator receiver and maneuver acceleration measurements provided by the spacecraft's attitude control subsystem. State estimation is performed onboard in real-time using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System flight software, which is embedded in the Navigator receiver. The current concept of operations for formation maintenance consists of a sequence of two maintenance maneuvers that is performed every 2 weeks. Phase 2b of the MMS mission, in which the spacecraft are in 1.2 x 25 Earth radii orbits with nominal separations at apogee ranging from 30 km to 400 km, has the most challenging navigation requirements because, during this phase, GPS signal acquisition is restricted to less than one day of the 2.8-day orbit. This paper summarizes the results from high-fidelity simulations to determine if the MMS navigation requirements can be met between and immediately following the maintenance maneuver sequence in Phase 2b.

  10. An exploration of the effectiveness of artificial mini-magnetospheres as a potential Solar Storm shelter for long term human space missions

    OpenAIRE

    Bamford, Ruth; Kellett, Barry; Bradford, John; Todd, Tom N.; Stafford-Allen, Robin; Alves, E. Paulo; Silva, Luis; Collingwood, Cheryl; Crawford, Ian A.; Bingham, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore the effectiveness of an artificial mini-magnetosphere as a potential radiation shelter for long term human space missions. Our study includes the differences that the plasma environment makes to the efficiency of the shielding from the high energy charged particle component of solar and cosmic rays, which radically alters the power requirements. The incoming electrostatic charges are shielded by fields supported by the self captured environmental plasma of the solar w...

  11. Characteristic frequencies of a non-Maxwellian plasma - A method for localizing the exact frequencies of magnetospheric intense natural waves near fpe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmont, G.

    1981-01-01

    Intense natural waves are commonly observed onboard satellites in the outer earth's magnetosphere, inside a narrow frequency range, including the electron plasma and upper hybrid frequencies. In order to progress in the understanding of their emission processes, it is necessary to determine precisely the relationship which exists between their frequencies and the characteristic frequencies of the magnetospheric plasma. For this purpose, it is necessary to take into account the fact that some of these characteristic frequencies, which are provided by active sounding of the plasma, not only depend on the total density, but also on the shape of the distribution function (which has generally been assumed to be Maxwellian). A method providing a fine diagnosis of general non-Maxwellian plasmas is developed. This method of analysis of the experimental data is based on a theoretical study which points out the influence of the shape of the distribution function on the dispersion curves (for wave vectors perpendicular to the static magnetic field)

  12. The latitudinal structure of the nightside outer magnetosphere of Saturn as revealed by velocity moments of thermal ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nemeth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the latitudinal behavior of the azimuthal plasma velocities in the outer magnetosphere of Saturn using the numerical ion moments derived from the measurements of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer. One of the new results presented is that although these moments display some scatter, a significant positive correlation is found to exist between the azimuthal velocity and the plasma density, such that on average, the higher the density the higher the rotation speed. We also found that both the azimuthal velocity and the density anticorrelate with the magnitude of the radial component of the magnetic field and drop rapidly with increasing distance from the magnetic equator. The azimuthal velocities show periodic behavior with a period near the planetary rotation period, which can also be explained by the strong dependence on magnetic latitude, taking into account the flapping of the magnetodisk. It is thus found that the dense plasma near the magnetic equator rotates around the planet at high speed, while the dilute plasma at higher latitudes in the northern and southern hemispheres rotates significantly slower. The latitudinal gradient observed in the azimuthal speed is suggested to be a direct consequence of the sub-corotation of the plasma in the outer magnetosphere, with highest speeds occurring on field lines at lowest latitudes mapping to the rapidly rotating inner regions of the plasma sheet, and the speed falling as one approaches the lobe, where the field lines are connected to strongly sub-corotating plasma.

  13. What Might We Learn About Magnetospheric Substorms at the Earth from the MESSENGER Measurements at Mercury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite observations at the Earth, supported by theory and modeling, have established a close connection between the episodes of intense magnetospheric convection termed substorms and the occurrence of magnetic reconnection. Magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause results in strong energy input to the magnetosphere. This energy can either be stored or used immediately to power the magnetospheric convection that produces the phenomena that collectively define the 'substorm.' However, many aspects of magnetic reconnection and the dynamic response of the coupled solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere system at the Earth during substorms remain poorly understood. For example, the rate of magnetic reconnection is thought to be proportional to the local Alfven speed, but the limited range of changes in this solar wind parameter at 1 AU have made it difficult to detect its influence over energy input to the Earth's magnetosphere. In addition, the electrical conductance of the ionosphere and how it changes in response to auroral charged particle precipitation are hypothesized to play a critical role in the development of substorms, but the nature of this electrodynamic interaction remain difficult to deduce from Earth observations alone. The amount of energy the terrestrial magnetosphere can store in its tail, the duration of the storage, and the trigger(s) for its dissipation are all thought to be determined by not only the microphysics of the cross-tail current layer, but also the properties of the coupled magnetosphere - ionosphere system. Again, the separation of microphysics effects from system response has proved very difficult using measurements taken only at the Earth. If MESSENGER'S charged particle and magnetic field measurements confirm the occurrence of terrestrial-style substorms in Mercury's miniature magnetosphere, then it may be possible to determine how magnetospheric convection, field-aligned currents, charged particle acceleration

  14. Physical conditions in the reconnection layer in pulsar magnetospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A. [Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, Physics Department, University of Colorado, UCB 390, Boulder, CO 80309-0390 (United States); Spitkovsky, Anatoly, E-mail: uzdensky@colorado.edu, E-mail: anatoly@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The magnetosphere of a rotating pulsar naturally develops a current sheet (CS) beyond the light cylinder (LC). Magnetic reconnection in this CS inevitably dissipates a nontrivial fraction of the pulsar spin-down power within a few LC radii. We develop a basic physical picture of reconnection in this environment and discuss its implications for the observed pulsed gamma-ray emission. We argue that reconnection proceeds in the plasmoid-dominated regime, via a hierarchical chain of multiple secondary islands/flux ropes. The inter-plasmoid reconnection layers are subject to strong synchrotron cooling, leading to significant plasma compression. Using the conditions of pressure balance across these current layers, the balance between the heating by magnetic energy dissipation and synchrotron cooling, and Ampere's law, we obtain simple estimates for key parameters of the layers—temperature, density, and layer thickness. In the comoving frame of the relativistic pulsar wind just outside of the equatorial CS, these basic parameters are uniquely determined by the strength of the reconnecting upstream magnetic field. For the case of the Crab pulsar, we find them to be of order 10 GeV, 10{sup 13} cm{sup –3}, and 10 cm, respectively. After accounting for the bulk Doppler boosting due to the pulsar wind, the synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission from the reconnecting CS can explain the observed pulsed high-energy (GeV) and very high energy (∼100 GeV) radiation, respectively. Also, we suggest that the rapid relative motions of the secondary plasmoids in the hierarchical chain may contribute to the production of the pulsar radio emission.

  15. Loss-cone-driven ion cyclotron waves in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denton, R.E.; Hudson, M.K.; Roth, I.

    1992-01-01

    The theoretical properties of linear ion cyclotron waves propagating in the magnetosphere at arbitrary angles to the background magnetic field are explored. It is found that in some cases the linear wave growth of modes with oblique propagation can dominate that of the parallel propagating electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave. In particular, when the hot ring current protons have a loss cone and their temperature anisotropy A ≡ T perpendicular /T parallel - 1 is reduced, the parallel propagating EMIC wave becomes stable, while the obliquely propagating loss-cone-driven mode persists. The growth rate of the loss-cone-driven model depends strongly on the depth of the loss cone. Unlike the parallel propagating EMIC wave, it can be unstable with A = 0. Other conditions that favor the loss-cone-driven mode in comparison to the parallel mode are stronger background magnetic field, lower density of cold hydrogen, and a lower temperature for the hot anisotropic component of hydrogen. A simple analytical theory is presented which explains the scaling of the growth rate of the oblique mode with respect to various parameters. The loss-cone-driven mode is an electromagnetic mode which is preferentially nearly linearly polarized. It is nearly electrostatic in the sense that the wave electric field is aligned with the perpendicular (to B 0 ) component of the wave vector k and k perpendicular > k parallel . Since the electric and magnetic wave fields are perpendicular to B 0 , they would be difficult to distinguish from those of a linearly polarized parallel propagating electromagnetic wave with the same k parallel

  16. Anisotropic Alfven-ballooning modes in the Earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.A.; Xia, Mengfen; Chen, Liu

    1993-05-01

    We have carried out a theoretical analysis of the stability and parallel structure of coupled shear-Alfven and slow-magnetosonic waves in the Earth's inner magnetosphere including effects of finite anisotropic plasma pressure. Multiscale perturbation analysis of the anisotropic Grad-Shafranov equation yields an approximate self-consistent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium. This MHD equilibrium is used in the numerical solution of a set of eigenmode equations which describe the field line eigenfrequency, linear stability, and parallel eigenmode structure. We call these modes anisotropic Alfven-ballooning modes. The main results are: The field line eigenfrequency can be significantly lowered by finite pressure effects. The parallel mode structure of the transverse wave components is fairly insensitive to changes in the plasma pressure but the compressional magnetic component can become highly peaked near the magnetic equator due to increased pressure, especially when P perpendicular > P parallel. For the isotropic case ballooning instability can occur when the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure, exceeds a critical value β o B ∼ 3.5 at the equator. Compared to the isotropic case the critical beta value is lowered by anisotropy, either due to decreased field-line-bending stabilization when P parallel > P perpendicular, or due to increased ballooning-mirror destabilization when P perpendicular > P parallel. We use a ''β-6 stability diagram'' to display the regions of instability with respect to the equatorial values of the parameters bar β and δ, where bar β = (1/3)(β parallel + 2 β perpendicular) is an average beta value and δ = 1 - P parallel/P perpendicular is a measure of the plasma anisotropy

  17. Energetic particle drift motions in the outer dayside magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Models of the geomagnetic field predict that within a distance of approximately one earth radius inside the dayside magnetopause, magnetic fields produced by the Chapman-Ferraro magnetopause currents create high-latitude minimum-B ''pockets'' in the geomagnetic field. Drift-shell branching caused by the minimum-B pockets is analyzed and interpreted in terms of an adiabatic shell branching and rejoining process. We examine the shell-branching process for a static field in detail, using the Choe-Beard 1974 magnetospheric magnetic field model. We find that shell branching annd rejoining conserves the particle mirror field B/sub M/, the fieldline integral invariant I, and the directional electron flux j. We determine the spatial extent of the stable trapping regions for the Choe-Beard model. We develop an adiabatic branching map methodology which completely identifies and describes the location of shell-branching points and the adiabatic trajectories of particles on branched shells, for any model field. We employ the map to develop synthetic pitch angle distributions near the dayside magnetopause by adiabatically transforming observed midnight distributions to the dayside. We find that outer dayside lines contain particles moving on branched and unbranched shells, giving rise to distinctive pitch angle distribution features. We find a good correlation between the pitch angles which mark the transition from branched to unbranched shells in the model, and the distinctive features of the OGO-5 distributions. In the morning sector, we observe large flux changes at critical pitch angles which correspond to B-pocket edges in the model. Measurements on inbound passes in the afternoon sector show first the adiabatic particle shadow, then the arrival of fluxes on rejoined shells, then fluxes on unbranced shells - in accord with model predictions. 204 refs., 138 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Energetic particle drift motions in the outer dayside magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Models of the geomagnetic field predict that within a distance of approximately one earth radius inside the dayside magnetopause, magnetic fields produced by the Chapman-Ferraro magnetopause currents create high-latitude minimum-B ''pockets'' in the geomagnetic field. Drift-shell branching caused by the minimum-B pockets is analyzed and interpreted in terms of an adiabatic shell branching and rejoining process. We examine the shell-branching process for a static field in detail, using the Choe-Beard 1974 magnetospheric magnetic field model. We find that shell branching annd rejoining conserves the particle mirror field B/sub M/, the fieldline integral invariant I, and the directional electron flux j. We determine the spatial extent of the stable trapping regions for the Choe-Beard model. We develop an adiabatic branching map methodology which completely identifies and describes the location of shell-branching points and the adiabatic trajectories of particles on branched shells, for any model field. We employ the map to develop synthetic pitch angle distributions near the dayside magnetopause by adiabatically transforming observed midnight distributions to the dayside. We find that outer dayside lines contain particles moving on branched and unbranched shells, giving rise to distinctive pitch angle distribution features. We find a good correlation between the pitch angles which mark the transition from branched to unbranched shells in the model, and the distinctive features of the OGO-5 distributions. In the morning sector, we observe large flux changes at critical pitch angles which correspond to B-pocket edges in the model. Measurements on inbound passes in the afternoon sector show first the adiabatic particle shadow, then the arrival of fluxes on rejoined shells, then fluxes on unbranced shells - in accord with model predictions. 204 refs., 138 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Simulation of the interchange instability in a magnetospheric substorm site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Mingalev

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We perform modeling of the interchange instability driven by longitudinal pressure asymmetry in the region of the pressure buildup that forms in the inner magnetosphere at the substorm growth phase. The simulation refers to the dawnward side of the Harang discontinuity and times after Bz IMF turning northward. The solution for the equilibrium state indicates tailward flows associated with vortices, which is in agreement with a previous finding of Ashour-Abdalla et al. (1999, 2002. We show that in the regions of equilibrium field-aligned currents (FACs, small initial perturbations in pVγ (p is the isotropic plasma pressure, V is the unit magnetic flux tube volume, γ=5/3 the adiabatic exponent, set up as ripples inclined to azimuth, grow in time. For the background FAC of ~10-6 A/m2, the linear growth rate of the instability is ~6 min. Starting from the 12th min of evolution, the perturbations exhibit nonlinear deformations, develop undulations and front steepening. An interesting peculiarity in the distribution of the associated small-scale FACs is that they become asymmetric with time. Specifically, the downward currents are more localised, reaching densities up to 15×10-6 A/m2 at the nonlinear stage. The upward FACs are more dispersed. When large enough, these currents are likely to produce the aurora. We also run our simulation for the initial perturbations of large transverse scales in order to demonstrate that the interchange instability can be responsible for pressure and cross-tail current spatial variations of great extent.

  20. Europa's Interaction with Jupiter's Magnetosphere: Galileo Plasma Observations Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, S. V.; Rymer, A. M.; Westlake, J. H.; Paterson, W. R.; Collinson, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Galileo spacecraft was active at Jupiter from December 1995 to September 2003, carrying the Galileo Plasma Science Instrument (PLS), an electrostatic analyzer with three spherical-segment plates which directed energy selected particles into one of seven electron sensors or seven ion channels with field-of-views which combined to cover 80% of the 4pi-sr unit sphere (Frank et al., 1992). While Galileo accomplished most of its primary scientific objectives, the mission did not reach its full potential due to a failed high-gain antenna deployment which severely limited the available bandwidth for data transmission. Consequently, the PLS was limited by bandwidth availability, and only collected data with high temporal and energy resolution for short periods of time (e.g. review by Bagenal et al., 2016). The electron sensors were also negatively affected by the gaseous environment around Jupiter, which is suspected to have deposited a layer of contaminants on the detectors, raising the threshold energy required to pass through the aperture and effectively preventing the measurement of electrons below 1keV (Frank et al., 2002). As a result, data from the PLS is challenging to process and interpret. Ion plasma moments have been computed (and published on the PDS) in the magnetosphere, but moon flybys were excluded (Bagenal et al., 2016). In anticipation of future in-situ exploration of the Europa plasma environment, we present analysis of full-resolution plasma data acquired by the PLS during the nine Europa flybys and compare our results with existing data in order to further inform designs currently being worked for the Europa Clipper and JUICE missions.

  1. Diamagnetic depression observations at Saturn's magnetospheric cusp by the Cassini spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Jamie M.; Arridge, Christopher S.; Coates, Andrew J.; Jones, Geraint H.; Sergis, Nick; Thomsen, Michelle F.; Krupp, Norbert

    2017-06-01

    The magnetospheric cusp is a region where shocked solar wind plasma can enter a planetary magnetosphere, after magnetic reconnection has occurred at the dayside magnetopause or in the lobes. The dense plasma that enters the high-latitude magnetosphere creates diamagnetic effects whereby a depression is observed in the magnetic field. We present observations of the cusp events at Saturn's magnetosphere where these diamagnetic depressions are found. The data are subtracted from a magnetic field model, and the calculated magnetic pressure deficits are compared to the particle pressures. A high plasma pressure layer in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp is discovered to also depress the magnetic field, outside of the cusp. This layer is observed to contain energetic He++ (up to ˜100 keV) from the solar wind as well as heavy water group ions (W+) originating from the moon Enceladus. We also find a modest correlation of diamagnetic depression strength to solar wind dynamic pressure and velocity; however, unlike at Earth, there is no correlation found with He++ counts.

  2. Response of the Earth's Magnetosphere to Changes in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherron, Robert L.; Weygand, James M.; Hsu, Tung-Shin

    2007-01-01

    The solar wind couples to the magnetosphere via dynamic pressure and electric field. Pressure establishes the size and shape of the system, while the electric field transfers energy, mass, and momentum to the magnetosphere. When the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is antiparallel to the dayside magnetic field, magnetic reconnection connects the IMF to the dipole field. Solar wind transport of the newly opened field lines to the nightside creates an internal convection system. These open field lines must ultimately be closed by reconnection on the nightside. For many decades, it was thought that a magnetospheric substorm was the process for accomplishing this and that all magnetic activity was a consequence of substorms. It is now recognized that there are a variety of modes of response of the magnetosphere to the solar wind. In this paper, we briefly describe these modes and the conditions under which they occur. They include substorms, pseudo-breakups, poleward boundary intensifications (PBI), steady magnetospheric convection (SMC), sawtooth injection events, magnetic storms, high-intensity long-duration continuous AE activities (HILDCAAs), and storm-time activations. There are numerous explanations for these different phenomena, some of which do not involve magnetic reconnection. However, we speculate that it is possible to interpret each mode in terms of differences in the way magnetic reconnection occurs on the nightside.

  3. Calculation of the Initial Magnetic Field for Mercury's Magnetosphere Hybrid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Igor; Parunakian, David; Dyadechkin, Sergey; Belenkaya, Elena; Khodachenko, Maxim; Kallio, Esa; Alho, Markku

    2018-03-01

    Several types of numerical models are used to analyze the interactions of the solar wind flow with Mercury's magnetosphere, including kinetic models that determine magnetic and electric fields based on the spatial distribution of charges and currents, magnetohydrodynamic models that describe plasma as a conductive liquid, and hybrid models that describe ions kinetically in collisionless mode and represent electrons as a massless neutralizing liquid. The structure of resulting solutions is determined not only by the chosen set of equations that govern the behavior of plasma, but also by the initial and boundary conditions; i.e., their effects are not limited to the amount of computational work required to achieve a quasi-stationary solution. In this work, we have proposed using the magnetic field computed by the paraboloid model of Mercury's magnetosphere as the initial condition for subsequent hybrid modeling. The results of the model have been compared to measurements performed by the Messenger spacecraft during a single crossing of the magnetosheath and the magnetosphere. The selected orbit lies in the terminator plane, which allows us to observe two crossings of the bow shock and the magnetopause. In our calculations, we have defined the initial parameters of the global magnetospheric current systems in a way that allows us to minimize paraboloid magnetic field deviation along the trajectory of the Messenger from the experimental data. We have shown that the optimal initial field parameters include setting the penetration of a partial interplanetary magnetic field into the magnetosphere with a penetration coefficient of 0.2.

  4. The penetration of ions into the magnetosphere through the magnetopause turbulent current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Taktakishvili

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of numerical modeling of magnetosheath ion motion in the magnetopause current sheet (MCS in the presence of magnetic fluctuations. Our model of magnetic field turbulence has a power law spectrum in the wave vector space, reaches maximum intensity in the center of MCS, and decreases towards the magnetosheath and magnetosphere boundaries. We calculated the density profile across the MCS. We also calculated the number of particles entering the magnetosphere, reflected from the magnetopause and escaping from the flanks, as a function of the fluctuation level of the turbulence and magnetic field shear parameter. All of these quantities appeared to be strongly dependent on the fluctuation level, but not on the magnetic field shear parameter. For the highest fluctuation levels the number of particles entering the magnetosphere does not exceed 15% of the total number of particles launched from the magnetosheath side of the MCS; the modeling also reproduced the effective reflection of the magnetosheath flow from very high levels of magnetic fluctuations.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetosheath; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; turbulence

  5. Comparative time-series analysis of MeV electron data by Ulysses and Pioneer 10/11 in the Jovian magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dunzlaff

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere is dominated by the planet's fast rotation with a period of ~ 10 h. Within the magnetosphere, this periodicity can in particular be seen in the temporal variation of the spectral index of MeV electrons: every ~ 10 h the counting rates show a maximum (minimum, while the spectral index shows a minimum (maximum known as the Jovian "clock" mechanism. In this study we re-analyse Ulysses and Pioneer 10/11 data and show that another periodic modulation in the MeV electrons can be identified, manifested by local maxima of the spectral index and local minima of the counting rates. For Ulysses, this modulation can be observed throughout the magnetosphere near the magnetic equator, suggesting an azimuthal asymmetric distribution of MeV electrons near the current sheet. This modulation is found to trail the "clock" mechanism by ~ 3.25 h. The Pioneer 10 data, however, only show occasional evidence of the presence of these local maxima while there is no evidence of this modulation in the Pioneer 11 data. A comparison of the times of observed minor peaks and Ulysses' distance from the current sheet using a simple rigid disc model as well as the model of Khurana and Schwarzl (2005 is performed.

  6. Nonlinear analysis of magnetospheric data Part I. Geometric characteristics of the AE index time series and comparison with nonlinear surrogate data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pavlos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A long AE index time series is used as a crucial magnetospheric quantity in order to study the underlying dynainics. For this purpose we utilize methods of nonlinear and chaotic analysis of time series. Two basic components of this analysis are the reconstruction of the experimental tiine series state space trajectory of the underlying process and the statistical testing of an null hypothesis. The null hypothesis against which the experimental time series are tested is that the observed AE index signal is generated by a linear stochastic signal possibly perturbed by a static nonlinear distortion. As dis ' ' ating statistics we use geometrical characteristics of the reconstructed state space (Part I, which is the work of this paper and dynamical characteristics (Part II, which is the work a separate paper, and "nonlinear" surrogate data, generated by two different techniques which can mimic the original (AE index signal. lie null hypothesis is tested for geometrical characteristics which are the dimension of the reconstructed trajectory and some new geometrical parameters introduced in this work for the efficient discrimination between the nonlinear stochastic surrogate data and the AE index. Finally, the estimated geometric characteristics of the magnetospheric AE index present new evidence about the nonlinear and low dimensional character of the underlying magnetospheric dynamics for the AE index.

  7. Comparative time-series analysis of MeV electron data by Ulysses and Pioneer 10/11 in the Jovian magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunzlaff, P. [North-West Univ., Potchefstroom (South Africa). Centre for Space Research; Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik; Heber, B. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik; Kopp, A. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik; North-West Univ., Potchefstroom (South Africa). Centre for Space Research; Potgieter, M.S. [North-West Univ., Potchefstroom (South Africa). Centre for Space Research

    2013-11-01

    The dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere is dominated by the planet's fast rotation with a period of {proportional_to} 10 h.Within the magnetosphere, this periodicity can in particular be seen in the temporal variation of the spectral index of MeV electrons: every {proportional_to} 10 h the counting rates show a maximum (minimum), while the spectral index shows a minimum (maximum) known as the Jovian ''clock'' mechanism. In this study we re-analyse Ulysses and Pioneer 10/11 data and show that another periodic modulation in the MeV electrons can be identified, manifested by local maxima of the spectral index and local minima of the counting rates. For Ulysses, this modulation can be observed throughout the magnetosphere near the magnetic equator, suggesting an azimuthal asymmetric distribution of MeV electrons near the current sheet. This modulation is found to trail the ''clock'' mechanism by {proportional_to} 3.25 h. The Pioneer 10 data, however, only show occasional evidence of the presence of these local maxima while there is no evidence of this modulation in the Pioneer 11 data. A comparison of the times of observed minor peaks and Ulysses' distance from the current sheet using a simple rigid disc model as well as the model of Khurana and Schwarzl (2005) is performed.

  8. Comparative time-series analysis of MeV electron data by Ulysses and Pioneer 10/11 in the Jovian magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunzlaff, P.; Kiel Univ.; Heber, B.; Kopp, A.; North-West Univ., Potchefstroom; Potgieter, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere is dominated by the planet's fast rotation with a period of ∝ 10 h.Within the magnetosphere, this periodicity can in particular be seen in the temporal variation of the spectral index of MeV electrons: every ∝ 10 h the counting rates show a maximum (minimum), while the spectral index shows a minimum (maximum) known as the Jovian ''clock'' mechanism. In this study we re-analyse Ulysses and Pioneer 10/11 data and show that another periodic modulation in the MeV electrons can be identified, manifested by local maxima of the spectral index and local minima of the counting rates. For Ulysses, this modulation can be observed throughout the magnetosphere near the magnetic equator, suggesting an azimuthal asymmetric distribution of MeV electrons near the current sheet. This modulation is found to trail the ''clock'' mechanism by ∝ 3.25 h. The Pioneer 10 data, however, only show occasional evidence of the presence of these local maxima while there is no evidence of this modulation in the Pioneer 11 data. A comparison of the times of observed minor peaks and Ulysses' distance from the current sheet using a simple rigid disc model as well as the model of Khurana and Schwarzl (2005) is performed.

  9. Saturation of superstorms and finite compressibility of the magnetosphere: Results of the magnetogram inversion technique and global PPMLR-MHD model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishin, V. V.; Mishin, V. M.; Karavaev, Yu.; Han, J. P.; Wang, C.

    2016-07-01

    We report on novel features of the saturation process of the polar cap magnetic flux and Poynting flux into the magnetosphere from the solar wind during three superstorms. In addition to the well-known effect of the interplanetary electric (Esw) and southward magnetic (interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz) fields, we found that the saturation depends also on the solar wind ram pressure Pd. By means of the magnetogram inversion technique and a global MHD numerical model Piecewise Parabolic Method with a Lagrangian Remap, we explore the dependence of the magnetopause standoff distance on ram pressure and the southward IMF. Unlike earlier studies, in the considered superstorms both Pd and Bz achieve extreme values. As a result, we show that the compression rate of the dayside magnetosphere decreases with increasing Pd and the southward Bz, approaching very small values for extreme Pd ≥ 15 nPa and Bz ≤ -40 nT. This dependence suggests that finite compressibility of the magnetosphere controls saturation of superstorms.

  10. The Earth’s magnetosphere response to interplanetary medium conditions on January 21-22, 2005 and on December 14-15, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalegaev, V. V.; Vlasova, N. A.

    2014-08-01

    The Earth’s magnetosphere response to interplanetary medium conditions on January 21-22, 2005 and on December 14-15, 2006 has been studied. The analysis of solar wind parameters measured by ACE spacecraft, of geomagnetic indices variations, of geomagnetic field measured by GOES 11, 12 satellites, and of energetic particle fluxes measured by POES 15, 16, 17 satellites was performed together with magnetospheric modeling based in terms of A2000 paraboloid model. We found the similar dynamics of three particle populations (trapped, quasi-trapped, and precipitating) during storms of different intensities developed under different external conditions: the maximal values of particle fluxes and the latitudinal positions of the isotropic boundaries were approximately the same. The main sources caused RC build-up have been determined for both magnetic storms. Global magnetospheric convection controlled by IMF and substorm activity driven magnetic storm on December 14-15, 2006. Extreme solar wind pressure pulse was mainly responsible for RC particle injection and unusual January 21, 2005 magnetic storm development under northward IMF during the main phase.

  11. Thermal Testing and Model Correlation of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong S.; Teti, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth's magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration, and turbulence. This paper presents the complete thermal balance (TB) test performed on the first of four observatories to go through thermal vacuum (TV) and the minibalance testing that was performed on the subsequent observatories to provide a comparison of all four. The TV and TB tests were conducted in a thermal vacuum chamber at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington, D.C. with the vacuum level higher than 1.3 x 10 (sup -4) pascals (10 (sup -6) torr) and the surrounding temperature achieving -180 degrees Centigrade. Three TB test cases were performed that included hot operational science, cold operational science and a cold survival case. In addition to the three balance cases a two hour eclipse and a four hour eclipse simulation was performed during the TV test to provide additional transient data points that represent the orbit in eclipse (or Earth's shadow) The goal was to perform testing such that the flight orbital environments could be simulated as closely as possible. A thermal model correlation between the thermal analysis and the test results was completed. Over 400 1-Wire temperature sensors, 200 thermocouples and 125 flight thermistor temperature sensors recorded data during TV and TB testing. These temperature versus time profiles and their agreements with the analytical results obtained using Thermal Desktop and SINDA/FLUINT are discussed. The model correlation for the thermal mathematical model (TMM) is conducted based on the numerical analysis results and the test data. The philosophy of model correlation was to correlate the model to within 3 degrees Centigrade of the test data using the standard deviation and mean deviation error

  12. Magnetospherically reflected chorus waves revealed by ray tracing with CLUSTER data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parrot

    Full Text Available This paper is related to the propagation characteristics of a chorus emission recorded simultaneously by the 4 satellites of the CLUSTER mission on 29 October 2001 between 01:00 and 05:00 UT. During this day, the spacecraft (SC 1, 2, and 4 are relatively close to each other but SC3 has been delayed by half an hour. We use the data recorded aboard CLUSTER by the STAFF spectrum analyser. This instrument provides the cross spectral matrix of three magnetic and two electric field components. Dedicated software processes this spectral matrix in order to determine the wave normal directions relative to the Earth’s magnetic field. This calculation is done for the 4 satellites at different times and different frequencies and allows us to check the directions of these waves. Measurements around the magnetic equator show that the parallel component of the Poynting vector changes its sign when the satellites cross the equator region. It indicates that the chorus waves propagate away from this region which is considered as the source area of these emissions. This is valid for the most intense waves observed on the magnetic and electric power spectrograms. But it is also observed on SC1, SC2, and SC4 that lower intensity waves propagate toward the equator simultaneously with the SC3 intense chorus waves propagating away from the equator. Both waves are at the same frequency. Using the wave normal directions of these waves, a ray tracing study shows that the waves observed by SC1, SC2, and SC4 cross the equatorial plane at the same location as the waves observed by SC3. SC3 which is 30 minutes late observes the waves that originate first from the equator; meanwhile, SC1, SC2, and SC4 observe the same waves that have suffered a Lower Hybrid Resonance (LHR reflection at low altitudes (based on the ray tracing analysis and now return to the equator at a different location with a lower intensity. Similar phenomenon is observed when all SC are on the other side

  13. Magnetospherically reflected chorus waves revealed by ray tracing with CLUSTER data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parrot

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is related to the propagation characteristics of a chorus emission recorded simultaneously by the 4 satellites of the CLUSTER mission on 29 October 2001 between 01:00 and 05:00 UT. During this day, the spacecraft (SC 1, 2, and 4 are relatively close to each other but SC3 has been delayed by half an hour. We use the data recorded aboard CLUSTER by the STAFF spectrum analyser. This instrument provides the cross spectral matrix of three magnetic and two electric field components. Dedicated software processes this spectral matrix in order to determine the wave normal directions relative to the Earth’s magnetic field. This calculation is done for the 4 satellites at different times and different frequencies and allows us to check the directions of these waves. Measurements around the magnetic equator show that the parallel component of the Poynting vector changes its sign when the satellites cross the equator region. It indicates that the chorus waves propagate away from this region which is considered as the source area of these emissions. This is valid for the most intense waves observed on the magnetic and electric power spectrograms. But it is also observed on SC1, SC2, and SC4 that lower intensity waves propagate toward the equator simultaneously with the SC3 intense chorus waves propagating away from the equator. Both waves are at the same frequency. Using the wave normal directions of these waves, a ray tracing study shows that the waves observed by SC1, SC2, and SC4 cross the equatorial plane at the same location as the waves observed by SC3. SC3 which is 30 minutes late observes the waves that originate first from the equator; meanwhile, SC1, SC2, and SC4 observe the same waves that have suffered a Lower Hybrid Resonance (LHR reflection at low altitudes (based on the ray tracing analysis and now return to the equator at a different location with a lower intensity. Similar phenomenon is observed when all SC are on the other side

  14. Exploration of Jupiter's atmosphere and magnetosphere with the European Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalié, T.; Fletcher, L.; Krupp, N.; Masters, A.; Witasse, O.

    2017-09-01

    JUICE - JUpiter ICy moons Explorer - is the first large mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme. The mission was selected in May 2012 and adopted in November 2014. The implementation phase started in July 2015. Planned for launch in June 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in October 2029, it will spend at least three years making detailed observations of Jupiter and three of its largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. JUICE will then orbit Ganymede for almost a year. JUICE will perform a varied and extensive orbital tour with access to high latitudes to provide a comprehensive study of the unique environmental conditions at Jupiter's poles. The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. JUICE will also perform a multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter as an archetype for gas giants. In this paper, we will present the science objectives and key measurements performed by the instrument suite, relevant to the study of the atmosphere and magnetosphere of Jupiter. We will also present the first steps of the science implementation, as performed by the ESA Working Groups and Science Working Team.

  15. Bicoherence Analysis of Electrostatic Interchange Mode Coupling in a Turbulent Laboratory Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, M. C.; Mauel, M. E.; Saperstein, A.

    2017-12-01

    Plasmas confined by a strong dipole field exhibit interchange and entropy mode turbulence, which previous experiments have shown respond locally to active feedback [1]. On the Collisionless Terrella Experiment (CTX), this turbulence is characterized by low frequency, low order, quasi-coherent modes with complex spectral dynamics. We apply bicoherence analysis [2] to study nonlinear phase coupling in a variety of scenarios. First, we study the self-interaction of the naturally occurring interchange turbulence; this analysis is then expanded to include the effects of single or multiple driven modes in the frequency range of the background turbulent oscillations. Initial measurements of coupling coefficients are presented in both cases. Driven low frequency interchange modes are observed to generate multiple harmonics which persist throughout the plasma, becoming weaker as they propagate away from the actuator in the direction of the electron magnetic drift. Future work is also discussed, including application of wavelet bicoherence analysis and applications to planetary magnetospheres. [1] Roberts, Mauel, and Worstell, Phys Plasmas (2015). [2] Grierson, Worstell, and Mauel, Phys Plasmas (2009). Supported by NSF-DOE Partnership for Plasma Science Grants DOE-DE-FG02-00ER54585 and NSF-PHY-1201896.

  16. Computer simulation of inner magnetospheric dynamics for the magnetic storm of July 29, 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R. A.; Spiro, R. W.; Voigt, G.-H.; Reiff, P. H.; Chen, C.-K.; Harel, M.

    1982-08-01

    The Rice University convection model is applied to the early main phase of the July 29, 1977 magnetic storm through a computer implementation that self-consistently calculates electric fields, currents, and plasma distributions and velocities in the inner magnetosphere/ionosphere system. On the basis of solar wind parameters and AL index as inputs, the model predicts the injection of plasma sheet plasma to form a substantial storm time ring current whose total predicted strength agrees with the observed Dst index. The possibility that the magnetic field may be sufficiently inflated to make 60 deg field lines extend to the outer magnetosphere is examined. In the model, distortion of the plasma sheet inner edge by magnetospheric compression associated with the sudden commencement temporarily disrupts the normal Birkeland current pattern. Normal Birkeland currents and shielding reassert themselves in about an hour.

  17. Ultrathin foils used for low-energy neutral atom imaging of the terrestrial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Barraclough, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetospheric imaging by remote detection of low-energy neutral atoms (LENAs) that are created by charge exchange between magnetospheric plasma ions and neutral geocoronal atoms has been proposed as a method to provide global information of magnetospheric dynamics. For LENA detecting, carbon foils can be implemented to (1) ionize the LENAs and electrostatically remove them from the large background of solar UV scattered by the geocorona to which LENA detectors (e.g., microchannel plates) are sensitive and (2) generate secondary electrons to provide coincidence and/or LENA trajectory information. Quantification of LENA-foil interactions are crucial in defining LENA imager performance. The authors present equilibrium charge state distributions due to foil contamination from exposure to air. Angular scattering that results from the projectile-foil interaction is quantified and is shown to be independent of the charge state distribution

  18. Advances in magnetospheric physics by numerical simulations - A critical analysis by an outsider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    This is a selective, somewhat editorialized assessment, based on a literature survey, of computer simulation as it exists today in magnetospheric physics. Both large (MHD) and small scale dynamical simulations are described and considered from the perspective of what they are trying to do and with what success. Several specific problem areas where simulations are being carried out are called for commentary: global magnetospheric structure, magnetotail and magnetopause reconnection, Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, hydrodynamic expansion of ionospheric ions, electric double layers, heavy ion heating, and auroral kilometric radiation. It is concluded that simulation is a necessary tool for understanding magnetospheric physics and that significant progress has been made in simulation development. However, results should be evaluated knowing that many factors, some real and physical, others structural, may contribute to such output. A plea is made for greater intercalibration among different simulators working in parallel areas, so that facts can be distinguished from artifacts.

  19. Coupling of the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere/Thermosphere and Oxygen Outflow-- MIT Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, S.

    2017-12-01

    The goal of the MIT mission is to understand the coupling of the magnetosphere and ionosphere from the prospective of particles. It will focus on the outflow of the ionosphere particles (mainly oxygen ions) from the Earth, including the acceleration mechanisms of oxygen ions and their relative importance in different regions, the importance of these ions while transferred into the magnetosphere and the roles they played in magnetosphere activities. A constellation of four satellites orbiting at three elliptical orbits will provide the unique opportunities to observed there ions at three different altitude with temporal changes of the flux of these particles and the magnetic field environments. The conceptual design of the spacecraft and a summary of the payload will be presented. The MIT mission was selected as one of the five candidates for the upcoming mission plan in China.

  20. Periodic modulation of gas giant magnetospheres by the neutral upper atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. A. Smith

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Periodic signatures present in the magnetospheres of both Jupiter and Saturn have yet to be fully explained. At Jupiter the unexplained signatures are related to emissions from the Io torus ("System IV"; at Saturn they are observed in emissions of kilometric radiation (SKR and in magnetometer data. These signatures are often interpreted in terms of magnetic field anomalies. This paper describes an alternative mechanism by which the neutral atmosphere may impose such periodic signatures on the magnetosphere. The mechanism invokes a persistent zonal asymmetry in the neutral wind field that rotates with the planet. This asymmetry must be coupled to substantial ionospheric conductivity. It is then able to drive divergent currents in the upper atmosphere that close in and perturb the magnetosphere. We estimate the conductivities and wind speeds required for these perturbations to be significant, and argue that they are most likely to be important at auroral latitudes where the conductivity may be enhanced by particle precipitation.

  1. Particle-in-cell simulations of Earth-like magnetosphere during a magnetic field reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, M. V. G.; Alves, M. V.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Schmitz, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    The geologic record shows that hundreds of pole reversals have occurred throughout Earth's history. The mean interval between the poles reversals is roughly 200 to 300 thousand years and the last reversal occurred around 780 thousand years ago. Pole reversal is a slow process, during which the strength of the magnetic field decreases, become more complex, with the appearance of more than two poles for some time and then the field strength increases, changing polarity. Along the process, the magnetic field configuration changes, leaving the Earth-like planet vulnerable to the harmful effects of the Sun. Understanding what happens with the magnetosphere during these pole reversals is an open topic of investigation. Only recently PIC codes are used to modeling magnetospheres. Here we use the particle code iPIC3D [Markidis et al, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 2010] to simulate an Earth-like magnetosphere at three different times along the pole reversal process. The code was modified, so the Earth-like magnetic field is generated using an expansion in spherical harmonics with the Gauss coefficients given by a MHD simulation of the Earth's core [Glatzmaier et al, Nature, 1995; 1999; private communication to L.E.A.V.]. Simulations show the qualitative behavior of the magnetosphere, such as the current structures. Only the planet magnetic field was changed in the runs. The solar wind is the same for all runs. Preliminary results show the formation of the Chapman-Ferraro current in the front of the magnetosphere in all the cases. Run for the middle of the reversal process, the low intensity magnetic field and its asymmetrical configuration the current structure changes and the presence of multiple poles can be observed. In all simulations, a structure similar to the radiation belts was found. Simulations of more severe solar wind conditions are necessary to determine the real impact of the reversal in the magnetosphere.

  2. Magnetic absorption of VHE photons in the magnetosphere of the Crab pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Contopoulos, I.; Prosekin, A.; Tronin, I.; Aharonian, F. A.

    2018-05-01

    The detection of the pulsed ˜1 TeV gamma-ray emission from the Crab pulsar reported by MAGIC and VERITAS collaborations demands a substantial revision of existing models of particle acceleration in the pulsar magnetosphere. In this regard model independent restrictions on the possible production site of the very high energy (VHE) photons become an important issue. In this paper, we consider limitations imposed by the process of conversion of VHE gamma-rays into e± pairs in the magnetic field of the pulsar magnetosphere. Photons with energies exceeding 1 TeV are effectively absorbed even at large distances from the surface of the neutron star. Our calculations of magnetic absorption in the force-free magnetosphere show that the twisting of the magnetic field due to the pulsar rotation makes the magnetosphere more transparent compared to the dipole magnetosphere. The gamma-ray absorption appears stronger for photons emitted in the direction of rotation than in the opposite direction. There is a small angular cone inside which the magnetosphere is relatively transparent and photons with energy 1.5 TeV can escape from distances beyond 0.1 light cylinder radius (Rlc). The emission surface from where photons can be emitted in the observer's direction further restricts the sites of VHE gamma-ray production. For the observation angle 57° relative to the Crab pulsar axis of rotation and the orthogonal rotation, the emission surface in the open field line region is located as close as 0.4 Rlc from the stellar surface for a dipole magnetic field, and 0.1 Rlc for a force-free magnetic field.

  3. Mercury's Solar Wind Interaction as Characterized by Magnetospheric Plasma Mantle Observations With MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Jamie M.; Slavin, James A.; Raines, Jim M.; DiBraccio, Gina A.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze 94 traversals of Mercury's southern magnetospheric plasma mantle using data from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The mean and median proton number densities in the mantle are 1.5 and 1.3 cm-3, respectively. For sodium number density these values are 0.004 and 0.002 cm-3. Moderately higher densities are observed on the magnetospheric dusk side. The mantle supplies up to 1.5 × 108 cm-2 s-1 and 0.8 × 108 cm-2 s-1 of proton and sodium flux to the plasma sheet, respectively. We estimate the cross-electric magnetospheric potential from each observation and find a mean of 19 kV (standard deviation of 16 kV) and a median of 13 kV. This is an important result as it is lower than previous estimations and shows that Mercury's magnetosphere is at times not as highly driven by the solar wind as previously thought. Our values are comparable to the estimations for the ice giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, but lower than Earth. The estimated potentials do have a very large range of values (1-74 kV), showing that Mercury's magnetosphere is highly dynamic. A correlation of the potential is found to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) magnitude, supporting evidence that dayside magnetic reconnection can occur at all shear angles at Mercury. But we also see that Mercury has an Earth-like magnetospheric response, favoring -BZ IMF orientation. We find evidence that -BX orientations in the IMF favor the southern cusp and southern mantle. This is in agreement with telescopic observations of exospheric emission, but in disagreement with modeling.

  4. Observations of magnetospheric ionization enhancements using upper-hybrid resonance noise band data from the RAE-1 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    Noise bands associated with the upper-hybrid resonance were used to provide direct evidence for the existence of regions of enhanced density in the equatorial magnetosphere near L = 2. Density enhancements ranging from several percent to as high as 45 percent are observed with radial dimensions of several hundred kilometers. The enhancement characteristics strongly suggest their identification as magnetospheric whistler ducts.

  5. The Solar Wind - Magnetosphere Energy Coupling Function and Open Magnetic Flux Estimation: Two Science Aspects of the SMILE Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Dai, L.; Sun, T.; Han, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE) is a novel self-standing mission to observe solar wind - magnetosphere coupling via simultaneous in situ solar wind /magnetosheath plasma and magnetic field measurements, X-ray images of the magnetosphere, and UV images of global auroral distribution defining system - level consequences. The SMILE mission is jointly supported by ESA and CSA, and the launch date is expected to be in 2021. SMILE will address several key outstanding questions concerning how the solar wind interacts with the magnetospheres on a global level. Quantitatively estimating the energy input from the solar wind into the magnetosphere on a global scale is still an observational challenge. Using global MHD simulations, we derive a new solar wind - magnetosphere energy coupling function. The X-ray images of the magnetosphere from the SMILE mission will help estimate the energy transfer from the solar wind into the magnetosphere. A second aspect SMILE can address is the open magnetic flux, which is closely related to magnetic reconnections in the dayside magnetopause and magnetotail. In a similar way, we find that the open magnetic flux can be estimated through a combined parameter f, which is a function of the solar wind velocity, number density, the southern interplanetary magnetic field strength, and the ionospheric Pederson conductance. The UV auroral images from SMILE will be used to determine the open magnetic flux, which may serve as a key space weather forecast element in the future.

  6. Mosaic CCD method: A new technique for observing dynamics of cometary magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, T.; Takeuchi, H.; Kozuba, Y.; Okamura, S.; Konno, I.; Hamabe, M.; Aoki, T.; Minami, S.; Isobe, S.

    1992-12-01

    On April 29, 1990, the plasma tail of Comet Austin was observed with a CCD camera on the 105-cm Schmidt telescope at the Kiso Observatory of the University of Tokyo. The area of the CCD used in this observation is only about 1 sq cm. When this CCD is used on the 105-cm Schmidt telescope at the Kiso Observatory, the area corresponds to a narrow square view of 12 ft x 12 ft. By comparison with the photograph of Comet Austin taken by Numazawa (personal communication) on the same night, we see that only a small part of the plasma tail can be photographed at one time with the CCD. However, by shifting the view on the CCD after each exposure, we succeeded in imaging the entire length of the cometary magnetosphere of 1.6 x 106 km. This new technique is called 'the mosaic CCD method'. In order to study the dynamics of cometary plasma tails, seven frames of the comet from the head to the tail region were twice imaged with the mosaic CCD method and two sets of images were obtained. Six microstructures, including arcade structures, were identified in both the images. Sketches of the plasma tail including microstructures are included.

  7. The spatial distribution of magnetospheric convection electric fields at ionospheric altitudes: a review. 1. Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudal, G.; Blanc, M.

    1983-01-01

    The different techniques used for the study of the large-scale pattern of magnetospheric convection in the auroral zone are reviewed, with particular emphasis on incoherent and coherent scatter radars. For each technique, typical results are presented that illustrate its most important contributions to our knowledge of plasma convection at ionospheric altitudes, and its main advantages, limitations, and typical spatial and temporal coverage are described. Based upon the results gathered to date, the main features of the convection pattern are presented, namely: the double cell system and its asymmetry depending in particular on the Bsub(y) component of the IMF, the Harang discontinuity and its latitudinal dependence, the dayside throat, the attenuation of convection toward lower latitudes and its reversal at the polar cap boundary. The most interesting problems still open include the establishment of a quantitative model of the latitudinal variation of the electric field intensity at the planetary scale. Others entail separating universal time and local time effects in the field variations. Longitude variations have not yet been evaluated, and the characteristic signature of substorms has not been clearly separated from mere global modulations of the intensity of convection. Global coordinated campaigns, taking advantage of the best that each measurement technique has to offer to achieve the spatial and temporal coverage needed, are the only possible way to attack these problems

  8. Gamma-Ray Light Curves from Pulsar Magnetospheres with Finite Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, A. K.; Kalapotharakos, C.; Kazanas, D.; Contopoulos, I.

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope has provided an unprecedented database for pulsar emission studies that includes gamma-ray light curves for over 100 pulsars. Modeling these light curves can reveal and constrain the geometry of the particle accelerator, as well as the pulsar magnetic field structure. We have constructed 3D magnetosphere models with finite conductivity, that bridge the extreme vacuum and force-free solutions used in previous light curves modeling. We are investigating the shapes of pulsar gamma-ray light curves using these dissipative solutions with two different approaches: (l) assuming geometric emission patterns of the slot gap and outer gap, and (2) using the parallel electric field provided by the resistive models to compute the trajectories and . emission of the radiating particles. The light curves using geometric emission patterns show a systematic increase in gamma-ray peak phase with increasing conductivity, introducing a new diagnostic of these solutions. The light curves using the model electric fields are very sensitive to the conductivity but do not resemble the observed Fermi light curves, suggesting that some screening of the parallel electric field, by pair cascades not included in the models, is necessary

  9. Attitude Ground System (AGS) for the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Juan C.; Sedlak, Joseph E.; Vint, Babak

    2015-01-01

    MMS Overview Recall from Conrads presentation earlier today MMS launch: March 13, 2015 on an Atlas V from Space Launch Complex 40, Cape Canaveral, Florida MMS Observatory Separation: five minute intervals spinning at 3 rpm approximately 1.5 hours after launch MMS Science Goals: study magnetospheric plasma physics and understand the processes that cause power grids, communication disruptions and Aurora formation Mission: 4 identical spacecraft in tetrahedral formation with variable size1.2 x 12 RE in Phase 1, with apogee on dayside to observe bow shock1.2 x 25 RE in Phase 2, with apogee on night side to observe magneto tail Challenges Tight attitude control box, orbit and formation maintenance requirements Maneuvers on thrusters every two weeks Delta-H Spin axis direction and spin rate maintenance Delta-V Orbit and Formation maintenance Mission phase transitions AGS support Smart targeting prediction of Spin-Axis attitude in the presence of environmental torques to stay within the science attitude Determination of the spacecraft attitude and spin rate (sensitive to knowledge of inertia tensor)Calibrations to improve attitude determination results and improve orbit maneuvers Mass properties (Center of Mass, and inertia tensor for nutation and coning) Accelerometer bias (sensitive to the accuracy of the rate estimates) Sensor alignments.

  10. Monte Carlo Simulations of the Formation Flying Dynamics for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Conrad; Dove, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The MMS mission is an ambitious space physics mission that will fly 4 spacecraft in a tetrahedron formation in a series of highly elliptical orbits in order to study magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. The mission design is comprised of a combination of deterministic orbit adjust and random maintenance maneuvers distributed over the 2.5 year mission life. Formal verification of the requirements is achieved by analysis through the use of the End-to-End (ETE) code, which is a modular simulation of the maneuver operations over the entire mission duration. Error models for navigation accuracy (knowledge) and maneuver execution (control) are incorporated to realistically simulate the possible maneuver scenarios that might be realized These error models, coupled with the complex formation flying physics, lead to non-trivial effects that must be taken into account by the ETE automation. Using the ETE code, the MMS Flight Dynamics team was able to demonstrate that the current mission design satisfies the mission requirements.

  11. Auroral signature of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 in the jovian magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prangé, R; Engle, I M; Clarke, J T; Dunlop, M; Ballester, G E; Ip, W H; Maurice, S; Trauger, J

    1995-03-03

    The electrodynamic interaction of the dust and gas comae of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with the jovian magnetosphere was unique and different from the atmospheric effects. Early theoretical predictions of auroral-type processes on the comet magnetic field line and advanced modeling of the time-varying morphology of these lines allowed dedicated observations with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 and resulted in the detection of a bright auroral spot. In that respect, this observation of the surface signature of an externally triggered auroral process can be considered as a "magnetospheric active experiment" on Jupiter.

  12. Spontaneous generation of auroral arcs in a three dimensionally coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kunihiko; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the first full three-dimensional dynamic simulation of auroral arc formation. The magnetospheric and ionospheric dynamics are represented by one-fluid magnetohydrodynamic equations and two-fluid weakly ionized plasma equations, respectively. The feedback coupling between magnetospheric Alfven waves and ionospheric density waves are self-consistently and three-dimensionally solved. Obtained is a spontaneous generation of longitudinally elongated striations of field-aligned currents and ionospheric electron densities, which compare very well with many features of quiet auroral arcs. (author)

  13. Electric currents and magnetic fields of a plasma inhomogeneity located in the inner magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershenzon, N.I.

    1983-01-01

    In the approximation of a dipole geomagnetic field analytical expressions are obtained which connect the longitudinal currents with the magnetospheric plasma pressure. The Earth's magnetic field variations are calculated versus the current system related with a plasma inhomogeneity. The Dessler-Parker-Skobke theorem is generalized for a case of an arbitrary distribution of plasma in the inner magnetosphere at a uniform ionospheric conductivity. The Dsub(st)-index in the first approximation permits to observe the energy inflow to the magnitoshpere or variations in the solar wind pressure

  14. Impulsive penetration of filamentary plasma elements into the magnetospheres of the earth and Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, J.

    1977-01-01

    Assuming that the solar wind plasma is usually nonuniform over distances of 10,000 km or less, it is shown that filamentary plasma elements stretched out from the sun can penetrate impulsively and become engulfed into the magnetosphere. The diamagnetic effects associated with these plasma inhomogeneities are observed in outer magnetospheres and magnetosheaths as dips or directional discontinuities in the magnetic field measurements. From the mean penetration distances of these diamagnetic plasma elements one can deduce a mean deceleration time, as well as an approximate value of the integrated Pedersen conductivity in the polar cusp of the earth and Jupiter.

  15. An Overview of Energetic Particle Measurements in the Jovian Magnetosphere with the EPAC Sensor on Ulysses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, E; Blake, J B; Fränz, M; Korth, A; Krupp, N; Quenby, J J; Witte, M; Woch, J

    1992-09-11

    Observations of ions and electrons of probable Jovian origin upstream of Jupiter were observed after a corotating interplanetary particle event. During the passage of Ulysses through the Jovian bow shock, magnetopause, and outer magnetosphere, the fluxes of energetic particles were surprisingly low. During the passage through the "middle magnetosphere," corotating fluxes were observed within the current sheet near the jovimagnetic equato. During the outbound pass, fluxes were variably directed; in the later part of the flyby, they were probably related to high-latitude phenomena.

  16. UK review of radio science, 1984-1986. Ionosphere and magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rishbeth, H.; Jones, D.

    1986-12-01

    The paper contains the United Kingdom (U.K.) review of Radio Science, 1984-1986, covering ionospheric and magnetospheric science. This is the current UK contribution towards an international review published by the International Union of Radio Science (URSI). The UK review is divided into topics prescribed by URSI and covers work that is actually published within the period October 1983 - Sept. 1986, also as prescribed by URSI. The topics discussed in the review include: incoherent and coherent scatter, probing the magnetosphere, plasma instabilities, ionospheric modification, composition, ionization and chemistry and ionospheric dynamics. (U.K.)

  17. Volcanic activity on Io and its influence on the dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere observed by EXCEED/Hisaki in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Suzuki, Fumiharu; Hikida, Reina; Yoshioka, Kazuo; Murakami, Go; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Tao, Chihiro; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Kimura, Tomoki; Kita, Hajime; Nozawa, Hiromasa; Fujimoto, Masaki

    2017-08-01

    Jupiter's moon Io, which orbits deep inside the magnetosphere, is the most geologically active object in the solar system. Kurdalagon Patera, a volcano on Io, erupted in 2015 and became a substantial source of Jovian magnetospheric plasma. Based on Earth-orbiting spacecraft observations, Io plasma torus (IPT) exhibited the peak intensity (nearly double) of ionic sulfur emissions roughly 2 month later, followed by a decay phase. This environmental change provides a unique opportunity to determine how the more heavily loaded magnetosphere behaves. Indeed, the extreme ultraviolet spectroscope for exospheric dynamics onboard the Earth-orbiting spacecraft Hisaki witnessed the whole interval via aurora and IPT observations. A simple-minded idea would be that the centrifugal force acting on fast co-rotating magnetic flux tubes loaded with heavier contents intensifies their outward transport. At the same time, there must be increased inward convection to conserve the magnetic flux. The latter could be accompanied by (1) increased inward velocity of field lines, (2) increased frequency of inward transport events, (3) increased inward flux carried per event, or (4) combinations of them. The Hisaki observations showed that the densities of major ions in the IPT increased and roughly doubled compared with pre-eruption values. The hot electron fraction, which sustains the EUV radiation from the IPT, gradually increased on a timescale of days. Pairs of intensified aurora and IPT brightening due to the enhanced supply of hot electrons from the mid-magnetosphere to the IPT upon aurora explosions observed during both quiet and active times, enabled the study of the mid-magnetosphere/IPT relationship. Hisaki observations under active Io conditions showed that: (1) the hot electron fraction in the torus gradually increased; (2) brightening pairs were more intense; (3) the energy supplied by the largest event maintained enhanced torus emission for less than a day; (4) the time delay

  18. Stationary magnetospheric convection on November 24, 1981. 2. Small-scale structures in the dayside cusp/cleft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Galperin

    Full Text Available A case study of the dayside cusp/cleft region during an interval of stationary magnetospheric convection (SMC on November, 24, 1981 is presented, based on detailed measurements made by the AUREOL-3 satellite. Layered small-scale field-aligned current sheets, or loops, superimposed to a narrow V-shaped ion dispersion structure, were observed just equatorward from the region of the "cusp proper". The equatorward sheet was accompanied by a very intense and short (less than 1 s ion intensity spike at 100 eV. No major differences were noted of the characteristics of the LLBL, or "boundary cusp", and plasma mantle precipitation during this SMC period from those typical of the cusp/cleft region for similar IMF conditions. Simultaneous NOAA-6 and NOAA-7 measurements described in Despirak et al. were used to estimate the average extent of the "cusp proper" (defined by dispersed precipitating ions with the energy flux exceeding 10-3 erg cm-2 s-1 during the SMC period, as ~0.73° ILAT width, 2.6-3.4 h in MLT, and thus the recently merged magnetic flux, 0.54-0.70 × 107 Wb. This, together with the average drift velocity across the cusp at the convection throat, ~0.5 km s-1, allowed to evaluate the cusp merging contribution to the total cross-polar cap potential difference, ~33.8-43.8 kV. It amounts to a quite significant part of the total cross-polar cap potential difference evaluated from other data. A "shutter" scenario is suggested for the ion beam injection/penetration through the stagnant plasma region in the outer cusp to explain the pulsating nature of the particle injections in the low- and medium-altitude cusp region.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems; magnetopause · cusp · and boundary layers; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions.

  19. Solar wind energy transfer through the magnetopause of an open magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.C.; Roederer, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    An expression for the total power P/sub T/ transferred from the solar wind to an ''open'' magnetopause with a nonzero normal component of the magnetic field, which is identified as a rotational discontinuity. The total power P/sub T/ consists of (1) the power P/sub EM/ representing the electromagnetic energy transfer and (2) the power P/sub KE/ representing the rate of kinetic energy carried by particles penetrating into the magnetosphere. It is found that P/sub EM/approx. =V/sub SW/ B/sub SW/psi, P/sub KE/approx. =(1/2 M/sub A/-1) P/sub EM/ and P/sub T/approx. =1/2M/sub A/P/sub EM/, where V/sub SW/, B/sub SW/, and M/sub A/ are the velocity, magnetic field, and the Alfven--Mach number in the solar wind, respectively, and Psi is the open magnetic flux in the magnetosphere. The Alfven--Mach number of flow at the magnetopause determines the nature of the local energy transfer; the power per unit area transferred from the solar wind to the magnetosphere consists mainly of kinetic energy. The electromagnetic energy rate P/sub EM/ controls the near-earth magnetospheric activity, whereas the kinetic energy rate P/sub KE/(approx. =3--4 P/sub EM/) should dominate the dynamics of the distant magnetotail

  20. Heavy Plasma Ions in the Jovian Magnetosphere: What will Juno Encounter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, L.; Bagenal, F.; Bodisch, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Io produces a cloud of neutral atoms, dissociation products of SO2 from volcanic outgassing. Electron impact ionization of these particles produces the plasma in the magnetosphere of Jupiter. The species of interest have M/Q ratios of 8, 102/3, 16, 32, and 64, where M is in amu and Q is the charge state. The strong magnetic field of Jupiter forces these ions to accelerate to the rotation rate of the planet. The bulk of this plasma is in the Io plasma torus, but it can slowly radially diffuse further into the magnetosphere, corotating with the planetary spin via coupling to the ionosphere. At a certain point, the plasma can no longer be accelerated to the speed of rigid rotation and the speed of the plasma reaches an upper limit. Re-analysis of plasma measurements from the Voyager 1 and 2 plasma instruments provide density, temperature, and flow measurements near the equatorial region in the magnetosphere of Jupiter. The plasma is distributed along the field line according to diffusive equilibrium with lighter elements and higher charge states spread further from the centrifugal equator. Using models of the magnetic field and previous plasma measurements, we determine how the plasma is distributed throughout the entire magnetosphere. Combining such models with the orbital path of the Juno spacecraft, we predict the plasma conditions that will be measured by Juno.

  1. Survey of magnetospheric line radiation events observed by the DEMETER spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, František; Parrot, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Rodger, C. J.; Rycroft, M. J.; Hayosh, Mykhaylo; Shklyar, D.; Demekhov, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 114, May 7 (2009), A05203/1-A05203/11 ISSN 0148-0227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Magnetospheric Line Radiation * MLR * DEMETER Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.082, year: 2009 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2008JA014016/abstract

  2. Magnetospherically reflected chorus waves revealed by ray tracing with CLUSTER data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parrot, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Maksimovic, M.; Harvey, C. C.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 21, - (2003), s. 1111-1120 ISSN 0992-7689 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0832; GA MŠk ME 650 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : magnetospheric physics * ionosphere * radio science Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2003

  3. Challenges Handling Magnetospheric and Ionospheric Signals in Internal Geomagnetic Field Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Lesur, V.; Thébault, E.

    2017-01-01

    systems in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. In order to fully exploit magnetic data to probe the physical properties and dynamics of the Earth’s interior, field models with suitable treatments of external sources, and their associated induced signals, are essential. Here we review the methods presently...

  4. ULF turbulence in magnetospheric boundary layers during April 1997 as measured aboard Magion-4 subsatellite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hristov, P.; Nenovski, P.; Teodosiev, D.; Koleva, R.; Shibaev, I.; Vojta, Jaroslav; Tříska, Pavel; Chum, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 5 (2003), s. 1297-1302 ISSN 0273-1177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : magnetospheric physics * plasmasphere * wave propagation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.483, year: 2003

  5. Magnetic effects of magnetospheric currents at ground and in low orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolle, Claudia; Naemi Willer, Anna; Finlay, Chris

    Since the advent of high precision vector magnetic field observations from satellites in low orbit it has been recognized that magnetospheric currents contribute by about 20nT to the geomagnetic field even during quiet times (when Dst=0nT) (Langel et al., 1980). Comparing spherical harmonic models...

  6. Relativistic electrons in pulsar magnetospheres: quantum corrections to the classical regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A.A. da (Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Centro de Electrodinamica Univ. de Evora (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica); Kahn, F.D. (Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept of Astronomy)

    1991-08-15

    A classical description of the motion of plasmas in pulsar magnetospheres has been developed following the single-particle approach. It will be shown that this description needs to take into account quantum corrections due to radiative effects. Instead of deterministic trajectories we shall find stochastic ones and radiative effects will be stronger than expected. (author).

  7. Magnetospheric Plasma Physics : the Impact of Jim Dungey’s Research

    CERN Document Server

    Southwood, David; Mitton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This book makes good background reading for much of modern magnetospheric physics. Its origin was a Festspiel for Professor Jim Dungey, former professor in the Physics Department at Imperial College on the occasion of his 90th birthday, 30 January 2013. Remarkably, although he retired 30 years ago, his pioneering and, often, maverick work in the 50’s through to the 70’s on solar terrestrial physics is probably more widely appreciated today than when he retired. Dungey was a theoretical plasma physicist. The book covers how his reconnection model of the magnetosphere evolved to become the standard model of solar-terrestrial coupling. Dungey’s open magnetosphere model now underpins a holistic picture explaining not only the magnetic and plasma structure of the magnetosphere, but also its dynamics which can be monitored in real time. The book also shows how modern day simulation of solar terrestrial coupling can reproduce the real time evolution of the solar terrestrial system in ways undreamt of in 1961 w...

  8. Theory of magnetospheric hydromagnetic waves excited by energetic ring-current protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liu; Hasegawa, Akira.

    1987-06-01

    A general theoretical formulation, allowing finite ion Larmor radii, general magnetic field geometries and plasma equilibria, has been developed to investigate excitations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Alfven waves within the earth's magnetosphere by the storm-time energetic ring-current protons. In particular, it is found that for adiabatically injected protons, various predicted instability properties are consistent with satellite observations. 8 refs

  9. The contribution of inductive electric fields to particle energization in the inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, R.; Toth, G.; Liemohn, M. W.; Chan, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Assessing the relative contribution of potential versus inductive electric fields at the energization of the hot ion population in the inner magnetosphere is only possible by thorough examination of the time varying magnetic field and current systems using global modeling of the entire system. We present here a method to calculate the inductive and potential components of electric field in the entire magnetosphere region. This method is based on the Helmholtz vector decomposition of the motional electric field as calculated by the BATS-R-US model, and is subject to boundary conditions. This approach removes the need to trace independent field lines and lifts the assumption that the magnetic field lines can be treated as frozen in a stationary ionosphere. In order to quantify the relative contributions of potential and inductive electric fields at driving plasma sheet ions into the inner magnetosphere, we apply this method for the March 17th, 2013 geomagnetic storm. We present here the consequences of slow continuous changes in the geomagnetic field as well as the strong tail dipolarizations on the distortion of the near-Earth magnetic field and current systems. Our findings indicate that the inductive component of the electric field is comparable, and even higher at times than the potential component, suggesting that the electric field induced by the time varying magnetic field plays a crucial role in the overall particle energization in the inner magnetosphere.

  10. Dispersion equations for field-aligned cyclotron waves in axisymmetric magnetospheric plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Grishanov

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we derive the dispersion equations for field-aligned cyclotron waves in two-dimensional (2-D magnetospheric plasmas with anisotropic temperature. Two magnetic field configurations are considered with dipole and circular magnetic field lines. The main contribution of the trapped particles to the transverse dielectric permittivity is estimated by solving the linearized Vlasov equation for their perturbed distribution functions, accounting for the cyclotron and bounce resonances, neglecting the drift effects, and assuming the weak connection of the left-hand and right-hand polarized waves. Both the bi-Maxwellian and bi-Lorentzian distribution functions are considered to model the ring current ions and electrons in the dipole magnetosphere. A numerical code has been developed to analyze the dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves in an electron-proton magnetospheric plasma with circular magnetic field lines, assuming that the steady-state distribution function of the energetic protons is bi-Maxwellian. As in the uniform magnetic field case, the growth rate of the proton-cyclotron instability (PCI in the 2-D magnetospheric plasmas is defined by the contribution of the energetic ions/protons to the imaginary part of the transverse permittivity elements. We demonstrate that the PCI growth rate in the 2-D axisymmetric plasmasphere can be significantly smaller than that for the straight magnetic field case with the same macroscopic bulk parameters.

  11. Comparing Jupiter and Saturn: dimensionless input rates from plasma sources within the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vasyliūnas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative significance for a planetary magnetosphere of plasma sources associated with a moon of the planet can be assessed only by expressing the plasma mass input rate in dimensionless form, as the ratio of the actual mass input to some reference value. Traditionally, the solar wind mass flux through an area equal to the cross-section of the magnetosphere has been used. Here I identify another reference value of mass input, independent of the solar wind and constructed from planetary parameters alone, which can be shown to represent a mass input sufficiently large to prevent corotation already at the source location. The source rate from Enceladus at Saturn has been reported to be an order of magnitude smaller (in absolute numbers than that from Io at Jupiter. Both reference values, however, are also smaller at Saturn than at Jupiter, by factors ~40 to 60; expressed in dimensionless form, the estimated mass input from Enceladus may be larger than that from Io by factors ~4 to 6. The magnetosphere of Saturn may thus, despite a lower mass input in kg s−1, intrinsically be more heavily mass-loaded than the magnetosphere of Jupiter.

  12. Comparing Jupiter and Saturn: dimensionless input rates from plasma sources within the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vasyliūnas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative significance for a planetary magnetosphere of plasma sources associated with a moon of the planet can be assessed only by expressing the plasma mass input rate in dimensionless form, as the ratio of the actual mass input to some reference value. Traditionally, the solar wind mass flux through an area equal to the cross-section of the magnetosphere has been used. Here I identify another reference value of mass input, independent of the solar wind and constructed from planetary parameters alone, which can be shown to represent a mass input sufficiently large to prevent corotation already at the source location. The source rate from Enceladus at Saturn has been reported to be an order of magnitude smaller (in absolute numbers than that from Io at Jupiter. Both reference values, however, are also smaller at Saturn than at Jupiter, by factors ~40 to 60; expressed in dimensionless form, the estimated mass input from Enceladus may be larger than that from Io by factors ~4 to 6. The magnetosphere of Saturn may thus, despite a lower mass input in kg s−1, intrinsically be more heavily mass-loaded than the magnetosphere of Jupiter.

  13. Pick-Up Ion Instabilities at Planetary Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangeway, Robert J.; Sharber, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This effort involved the analysis of low frequency waves as observed by the Galileo spacecraft near the Galilean moon, Io. Io is a significant source of material, especially SO2, and various products of dissociation, and further these atoms and molecules are readily ionized. The initial velocity of the ions is essentially that of the neutral species, i.e., the Keplerian velocity. The plasma, on the other hand is co-rotating, and there is a differential flow of the order 57 km/s between the plasma and the neutral particles. Thus pick-up ion instabilities are Rely to occur within the Jovian magnetosphere. Indeed, magnetometer observations from the Galileo spacecraft clearly show ion cyclotron waves that have been identified with a large variety of plasma species, such as O+, S++ (which has the same gyro-frequency as O+), S+, and SO2+. Typically, however, the dominant frequency is near the SO2+ gyro-frequency. The research effort was originally planned to be a team effort between Robert J. Strangeway as the Principal Investigator, and Debbie Huddleston, who was an Assistant Research Geophysicist at UCLA. Unfortunately, Dr. Huddleston took a position within Industry. The effort was therefore descoped, and Dr. Strangeway instead pursued a collaboration with Dr. Xochitl Blanco-Cano, of the Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. This has proved to be a productive collaboration, with several papers and publications arising out of the effort. The magnetic field oscillations near lo generally fall into two types: ion cyclotron waves, with frequencies near an ion gyro-frequency, and lower frequency mirror-mode waves. The ion cyclotron waves are mainly transverse, and frequently propagate along the ambient magnetic field. The mirror-mode waves are compressional waves, and they have essentially zero frequency in the plasma rest frame. One of the purposes of our investigation is to understand what controls the types of wave modes that occur, since both

  14. Coupled Solar Wind-Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere System by QFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    shoot to Sun from the center of Galaxy. The dynamic balance of forces on the solar surface plasma at once is broken and the plasma will upwards eject as the solar wind with redundant negative charge, at the same time, the solar surface remain a cavity as a sunspot whorl with the positive electric potential relative to around. The whorl caused by that the reaction of plasma eject front and upwards with the different velocity at different latitude of solar rotation, leads to the cavity around in the downwards and backwards helix movement. The solar rotation more slow, when the cavity is filled by around plasma in the reverse turn direction, the Jupiter at front had been produced a new cavity, so that we had observe the sunspot pair with different whorl directions and different magnetic polarity. Jupiter possess half mass of all planets in solar system, its action to stop net nuν _{0} flux is primary, so that Jupiter’s period of 11.8 sidereal years accord basically with the period of sunspot eruptions. The solar wind is essentially the plasma with additional electrons flux ejected from the solar surface: its additional electrons come from the ionosphere again eject into the ionosphere and leads to the direct connect between the solar wind and the ionosphere; its magnetism from its redundant negative charge and leads to the connect between the solar wind and the magnetosphere; it possess the high temperature of the solar surface and ejecting kinetic energy leads to the thermo-exchange connect between the solar wind and the thermosphere. Through the solar wind ejecting into and cross over the outside atmosphere carry out the electromagnetic, particles material and thermal exchanges, the Coupled Solar Wind-Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere System to be came into being. This conclusion is inferred only by QFT.

  15. Dawn-dusk asymmetry in particles of solar wind origin within the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Stubbs

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar wind/magnetosheath plasma in the magnetosphere can be identified using a component that has a higher charge state, lower density and, at least soon after their entry into the magnetosphere, lower energy than plasma from a terrestrial source. We survey here observations taken over 3 years of He2+ ions made by the Magnetospheric Ion Composition Sensor (MICS of the Charge and Mass Magnetospheric Ion Composition Experiment (CAMMICE instrument aboard POLAR. The occurrence probability of these solar wind ions is then plotted as a function of Magnetic Local Time (MLT and invariant latitude (7 for various energy ranges. For all energies observed by MICS (1.8–21.4 keV and all solar wind conditions, the occurrence probabilities peaked around the cusp region and along the dawn flank. The solar wind conditions were filtered to see if this dawnward asymmetry is controlled by the Svalgaard-Mansurov effect (and so depends on the BY component of the interplanetary magnetic field, IMF or by Fermi acceleration of He2+ at the bow shock (and so depends on the IMF ratio BX /BY . It is shown that the asymmetry remained persistently on the dawn flank, suggesting it was not due to effects associated with direct entry into the magnetosphere. This asymmetry, with enhanced fluxes on the dawn flank, persisted for lower energy ions (below a "cross-over" energy of about 23 keV but reversed sense to give higher fluxes on the dusk flank at higher energies. This can be explained by the competing effects of gradient/curvature drifts and the convection electric field on ions that are convecting sunward on re-closed field lines. The lower-energy He2+ ions E × B drift dawnwards as they move earthward, whereas the higher energy ions curvature/ gradient drift towards dusk. The convection electric field in the tail is weaker for northward IMF. Ions then need less energy to drift to the dusk flank, so that the cross-over energy, at which the asymmetry changes sense, is reduced

  16. Dawn-dusk asymmetry in particles of solar wind origin within the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Stubbs

    Full Text Available Solar wind/magnetosheath plasma in the magnetosphere can be identified using a component that has a higher charge state, lower density and, at least soon after their entry into the magnetosphere, lower energy than plasma from a terrestrial source. We survey here observations taken over 3 years of He2+ ions made by the Magnetospheric Ion Composition Sensor (MICS of the Charge and Mass Magnetospheric Ion Composition Experiment (CAMMICE instrument aboard POLAR. The occurrence probability of these solar wind ions is then plotted as a function of Magnetic Local Time (MLT and invariant latitude (7 for various energy ranges. For all energies observed by MICS (1.8–21.4 keV and all solar wind conditions, the occurrence probabilities peaked around the cusp region and along the dawn flank. The solar wind conditions were filtered to see if this dawnward asymmetry is controlled by the Svalgaard-Mansurov effect (and so depends on the BY component of the interplanetary magnetic field, IMF or by Fermi acceleration of He2+ at the bow shock (and so depends on the IMF ratio BX /BY . It is shown that the asymmetry remained persistently on the dawn flank, suggesting it was not due to effects associated with direct entry into the magnetosphere. This asymmetry, with enhanced fluxes on the dawn flank, persisted for lower energy ions (below a "cross-over" energy of about 23 keV but reversed sense to give higher fluxes on the dusk flank at higher energies. This can be explained by the competing effects of gradient/curvature drifts and the convection electric field on ions that are convecting sunward on re-closed field lines. The lower-energy He2+ ions E × B drift dawnwards as they move earthward, whereas the higher energy ions curvature/ gradient drift towards dusk. The convection electric field in the tail is weaker for

  17. Propagation and Loss-Cone Properties of Relativistic Electron Beams in the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, E. R.; Powis, A.; Greklek, M.; Porazik, P.; Kaganovich, I.

    2017-12-01

    One of the main obstacles for achieving closure of several key outstanding questions in magnetospheric physics has been the lack of accurate magnetic field mapping between processes or regions in the magnetosphere and their ionospheric foot-points. Accurate correspondence between magnetospheric processes or regions and their ionospheric foot-points can be achieved with beams of MeV electrons that propagate along magnetic-field lines in fractions of a second, emitted by compact linear accelerators under controlled conditions at specified points in the magnetosphere, while the atmospheric imprint created by their precipitation is detected by an array of ground-based optical imagers, radars, riometers or X-ray detectors. To prove that successful magnetic field mapping is possible, we must ensure that the beam can be injected into the loss cone, that the spacecraft potentials induced by the beam emission are manageable, that the beam propagates all the way into the topside ionosphere, and that the beam produces a signature detectable from the ground or from low altitude. In this work, we present the latest results of calculations of beam injection and propagation for a wide range of injection distances in the magnetotail equator and geomagnetic conditions to determine under what conditions beams emitted from the magnetosphere would be able to propagate to the topside ionosphere with enough intensity to be detected by ground-based or low-altitude instrumentation. Using ballistic simulations of charged particle motion, we demonstrate that relativistic electron beams can be successfully injected into the loss cone under both ideal (analytic dipole) and realistic (MHD modeled) magnetosphere conditions from a wide range of injection positions. For identical injection coordinates, the impact location on the top of the atmosphere is dependent on the current magnetosphere conditions, demonstrating that this technique can distinguish between the phases of a geomagnetic storm

  18. Comparison of Magnetospheric Magnetic Field Variations at Quasi-Zenith Orbit Based on Michibiki Observation and REPPU Global MHD Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Y.; Nagatsuma, T.; Den, M.; Nakamizo, A.; Matsumoto, H.; Tanaka, T.

    2017-12-01

    We are developing a numerical simulator for future space weather forecast using magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling global MHD simulation called REPPU (REProduce Plasma Universe) code. We investigate the validity of the MHD simulation result as compared with observation. In this study we simulate some events including both quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions using OMNIWeb solar wind data. The simulation results are compared with magnetic field observations from Michibiki satellite, which is on the quasi-zenith orbit (QZO). In quiet geomagnetic condition, magnetic field variations at QZO obtained from simulation results have good consistency as compared correspondence with those from Michibiki observation. In disturbed geomagnetic condition in which the Dst Dst and solar wind.

  19. Modular model for Mercury's magnetospheric magnetic field confined within the average observed magnetopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Haje; Tsyganenko, Nikolai A; Johnson, Catherine L; Philpott, Lydia C; Anderson, Brian J; Al Asad, Manar M; Solomon, Sean C; McNutt, Ralph L

    2015-06-01

    Accurate knowledge of Mercury's magnetospheric magnetic field is required to understand the sources of the planet's internal field. We present the first model of Mercury's magnetospheric magnetic field confined within a magnetopause shape derived from Magnetometer observations by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging spacecraft. The field of internal origin is approximated by a dipole of magnitude 190 nT R M 3 , where R M is Mercury's radius, offset northward by 479 km along the spin axis. External field sources include currents flowing on the magnetopause boundary and in the cross-tail current sheet. The cross-tail current is described by a disk-shaped current near the planet and a sheet current at larger (≳ 5  R M ) antisunward distances. The tail currents are constrained by minimizing the root-mean-square (RMS) residual between the model and the magnetic field observed within the magnetosphere. The magnetopause current contributions are derived by shielding the field of each module external to the magnetopause by minimizing the RMS normal component of the magnetic field at the magnetopause. The new model yields improvements over the previously developed paraboloid model in regions that are close to the magnetopause and the nightside magnetic equatorial plane. Magnetic field residuals remain that are distributed systematically over large areas and vary monotonically with magnetic activity. Further advances in empirical descriptions of Mercury's magnetospheric external field will need to account for the dependence of the tail and magnetopause currents on magnetic activity and additional sources within the magnetosphere associated with Birkeland currents and plasma distributions near the dayside magnetopause.

  20. Widespread confusion in the modeling of Europa's magnetospheric interaction: what the potential modeler should consider before getting started

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding Europa's interaction with Jupiter's magnetosphere is a critical part of the ocean sounding objective of the upcoming Clipper mission and interpretation of these observations will require modeling efforts that build upon studies done over the last four decades. Unfortunately, these studies are often confusing and contradictory. There is, as yet, no community consensus on the assumptions and parameters that go into such models. There is enough uncertainty in this problem that I cannot tell anyone, with certainty, what they should and should not do, but in this presentation I will outline what modelers should at least consider before starting. The most important consideration that is often missing in the literature is plasma flow diversion. Many papers assume that Europa's interaction is lunar-like; a completely absorbing barrier. Data and plasma models show that there is likely significant diversion, and such diversion could prevent the bulk of magnetospheric plasa particles from reaching the surface. On the other hand, some models likely overestimate the amount of diversion: we do know that a significant amount of plasma must reach the surface in order to produce the atmosphere via sputtering and radiolysis, but most plasma models usually treat the atmosphere as a fixed boundary condition. A second consideration is energy range of particles responsible for radiolysis and sputtering. The particles bombarding the surface range from thermal plasma (eV-keV) to non-thermal (keV-MeV), but to many modelers, it seems, these are indistinguishable despite drastic differences in how these populations interact with the moon. To illustrate this confusion, the attached figure shows the O2 source rate (O2 is likely the dominant atmospheric component) from published Europa atmosphere/plasma models. There is little agreement on either the source rate or the particle population responsible for its production. Finally, I will discuss how experiences with other planetary

  1. The distribution of waves in the inner magnetosphere as a function of solar wind parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Homayon; Balikhin, Michael A.; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Yearby, Keith

    Energetic electrons within the Earth’s radiation belts represent a serious hazard to geostationary satellites. The interactions of electrons with chorus waves play an important role in both the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons. Studies of the evolution of energetic electron fluxes rely heavily on numerical codes in order to model energy and pitch angle diffusion due to electron interaction with plasma waves in the frame of quasilinear approximation. Application of these codes requires knowledge of statistical wave models to present wave distributions in the magnetosphere. A number of such models are based on CRESS, Cluster, THEMIS and other mission data. These models present wave distributions as a function of L-shell, magnetic local time, magnetic latitude and geomagnetic activity expressed by geomagnetic indices (Kp or Ae). However, it has been shown by G. Reeves and co-authors that only 50% of geomagnetic storms increase flux of relativistic electrons at GEO while 20% cause a decrease. This emphasizes the importance of including solar wind parameters in addition to geomagnetic indices. The present study examines almost four years (01, January, 2004 to 29, September, 2007) of STAFF (Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuation) data from Double Star TC1 combined with geomagnetic indices and solar wind parameters from OMNI database in order to present a comprehensive model of chorus wave intensities as a function of L-shell, magnetic local time, magnetic latitude, geomagnetic indices and solar wind parameters. The results show that chorus emission is not only sub-storm dependent but also dependent upon solar wind parameters with solar wind velocity evidently the most influential solar wind parameter. The largest peak intensities are observed for lower band chorus during active conditions, high solar wind velocity, low density and high pressure.

  2. A survey of solar wind conditions at 5 AU: a tool for interpreting solar wind-magnetosphere interactions at Jupiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Robert W. [Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Bagenal, Fran [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McComas, David J. [Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Fowler, Christopher M., E-mail: rebert@swri.edu [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-09-19

    We examine Ulysses solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) observations at 5 AU for two ~13 month intervals during the rising and declining phases of solar cycle 23 and the predicted response of the Jovian magnetosphere during these times. The declining phase solar wind, composed primarily of corotating interaction regions and high-speed streams, was, on average, faster, hotter, less dense, and more Alfvénic relative to the rising phase solar wind, composed mainly of slow wind and interplanetary coronal mass ejections. Interestingly, none of solar wind and IMF distributions reported here were bimodal, a feature used to explain the bimodal distribution of bow shock and magnetopause standoff distances observed at Jupiter. Instead, many of these distributions had extended, non-Gaussian tails that resulted in large standard deviations and much larger mean over median values. The distribution of predicted Jupiter bow shock and magnetopause standoff distances during these intervals were also not bimodal, the mean/median values being larger during the declining phase by ~1–4%. These results provide data-derived solar wind and IMF boundary conditions at 5 AU for models aimed at studying solar wind-magnetosphere interactions at Jupiter and can support the science investigations of upcoming Jupiter system missions. Here, we provide expectations for Juno, which is scheduled to arrive at Jupiter in July 2016. Accounting for the long-term decline in solar wind dynamic pressure reported by McComas et al. (2013a), Jupiter's bow shock and magnetopause is expected to be at least 8–12% further from Jupiter, if these trends continue.

  3. A survey of solar wind conditions at 5 AU: A tool for interpreting solar wind-magnetosphere interactions at Jupiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wilkes Ebert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine Ulysses solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF observations at 5 AU for two ~13 month intervals during the rising and declining phases of solar cycle 23 and the predicted response of the Jovian magnetosphere during these times. The declining phase solar wind, composed primarily of corotating interaction regions and high-speed streams, was, on average, faster, hotter, less dense, and more Alfvénic relative to the rising phase solar wind, composed mainly of slow wind and interplanetary coronal mass ejections. Interestingly, none of solar wind and IMF distributions reported here were bimodal, a feature used to explain the bimodal distribution of bow shock and magnetopause standoff distances observed at Jupiter. Instead, many of these distributions had extended, non-Gaussian tails that resulted in large standard deviations and much larger mean over median values. The distribution of predicted Jupiter bow shock and magnetopause standoff distances during these intervals were also not bimodal, the mean/median values being larger during the declining phase by ~1 – 4%. These results provide data-derived solar wind and IMF boundary conditions at 5 AU for models aimed at studying solar wind-magnetosphere interactions at Jupiter and can support the science investigations of upcoming Jupiter system missions. Here, we provide expectations for Juno, which is scheduled to arrive at Jupiter in July 2016. Accounting for the long-term decline in solar wind dynamic pressure reported by McComas et al. (2013, Jupiter’s bow shock and magnetopause is expected to be at least 8 – 12% further from Jupiter, if these trends continue.

  4. Theory of ballooning-mirror instabilities for anisotropic pressure plasmas in the magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Qian, Q.

    1993-09-01

    This paper deals with a kinetic-MHD eigenmode stability analysis of low frequency ballooning-mirror instabilities for anisotropic pressure plasmas in the magnetosphere. The ballooning mode is a dominant transverse wave driven unstable by pressure gradient in the bad curvature region. The mirror mode with a dominant compressional magnetic field perturbation is excited when the product of plasma beta and pressure anisotropy is large. The field-aligned eigenmode equations take into account the coupling of the transverse and compressional components of the perturbed magnetic field and describe the coupled ballooning-mirror mode. Because the energetic trapped ions precess very rapidly across the {rvec B} field, their motion becomes very rigid with respect to low frequency MHD perturbations with symmetric structure of parallel perturbed magnetic field {delta}B{sub {parallel}} and electrostatic potential {Phi} along the north-south ambient magnetic field, and the symmetric ballooning-mirror mode is shown to be stable. On the other hand, the ballooning-mirror mode with antisymmetric {delta}B{sub {parallel}}, and {Phi} structure along the north-south ambient magnetic field is only weakly influenced by energetic trapped particle kinetic effects due to rapid trapped particle bounce motion and has the lowest instability threshold determined by MHD theory. With large plasma beta ({beta}{sub {parallel}} {ge} O(1)) and pressure anisotropy (P{sub {perpendicular}}/P{sub {parallel}} > 1) at equator the antisymmetric ballooning-mirror mode structures resemble the field-aligned wave structures of the multisatellite observations of a long lasting compressional Pc 5 wave event during November 14--15, 1979 [Takahashi et al.]. The study provides the theoretical basis for identifying the internal excitation mechanism of ULF (Pc 4-5) waves by comparing the plasma stability parameters computed from the satellite particle data with the theoretical values.

  5. Self-Consistent Model of Magnetospheric Electric Field, Ring Current, Plasmasphere, and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fok, M.-C.; Ridley, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Further development of our self-consistent model of interacting ring current (RC) ions and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is presented. This model incorporates large scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and treats self-consistently not only EMIC waves and RC ions, but also the magnetospheric electric field, RC, and plasmasphere. Initial simulations indicate that the region beyond geostationary orbit should be included in the simulation of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Additionally, a self-consistent description, based on first principles, of the ionospheric conductance is required. These initial simulations further show that in order to model the EMIC wave distribution and wave spectral properties accurately, the plasmasphere should also be simulated self-consistently, since its fine structure requires as much care as that of the RC. Finally, an effect of the finite time needed to reestablish a new potential pattern throughout the ionosphere and to communicate between the ionosphere and the equatorial magnetosphere cannot be ignored.

  6. Van Allen Probes Observations of Magnetic Field Dipolarization and Its Associated O+ Flux Variations in the Inner Magnetosphere at L 6.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, M.; Keika, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Spence, H. E.; Smith, C. W.; MacDowall, R. J.; Reeves, G. D.; Larsen, B. A.; Mitchell, D. G.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic field dipolarization in the inner magnetosphere and its associated ion flux variations, using the magnetic field and energetic ion flux data acquired by the Van Allen Probes. From a study of 74 events that appeared at L= 4.5-6.6 between 1 October 2012 and 31 October 2013, we reveal the following characteristics of the dipolarization in the inner magnetosphere: (1) its time scale is approximately 5 min; (2) it is accompanied by strong magnetic fluctuations that have a dominant frequency close to the O+ gyrofrequency; (3) ion fluxes at 20-50 keV are simultaneously enhanced with larger magnitudes for O+ than for H+; (4) after a few minutes of the dipolarization, the flux enhancement at 0.1-5 keV appears with a clear energy-dispersion signature only for O+; and (5) the energy-dispersed O+ flux enhancement appears in directions parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field. From these characteristics, we discuss possible mechanisms that can provide selective acceleration to O+ ions at > 20 keV. We conclude that O+ ions at L= 5.4-6.6 undergo nonadiabatic local acceleration caused by oscillating electric field associated with the magnetic fluctuations and/or adiabatic convective transport from the plasma sheet to the inner magnetosphere by the impulsive electric field. At L= 4.5-5.4, however, only the former acceleration is plausible. We also conclude that the field-aligned energy-dispersed O+ ions at 0.1-5 keV originate from the ionosphere and are extracted nearly simultaneously to the onset of the dipolarization.

  7. Jupiter's magnetosphere and aurorae observed by the Juno spacecraft during its first polar orbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J E P; Adriani, A; Allegrini, F; Bagenal, F; Bolton, S J; Bonfond, B; Cowley, S W H; Gerard, J-C; Gladstone, G R; Grodent, D; Hospodarsky, G; Jorgensen, J L; Kurth, W S; Levin, S M; Mauk, B; McComas, D J; Mura, A; Paranicas, C; Smith, E J; Thorne, R M; Valek, P; Waite, J

    2017-05-26

    The Juno spacecraft acquired direct observations of the jovian magnetosphere and auroral emissions from a vantage point above the poles. Juno's capture orbit spanned the jovian magnetosphere from bow shock to the planet, providing magnetic field, charged particle, and wave phenomena context for Juno's passage over the poles and traverse of Jupiter's hazardous inner radiation belts. Juno's energetic particle and plasma detectors measured electrons precipitating in the polar regions, exciting intense aurorae, observed simultaneously by the ultraviolet and infrared imaging spectrographs. Juno transited beneath the most intense parts of the radiation belts, passed about 4000 kilometers above the cloud tops at closest approach, well inside the jovian rings, and recorded the electrical signatures of high-velocity impacts with small particles as it traversed the equator. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Internally and externally induced deformations of the magnetospheric equatorial current as inferred from spacecraft data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tsyganenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a data pool of 79 yearly files of space magnetometer data by Polar, Cluster, Geotail, and THEMIS satellites between 1995 and 2013, we developed a new quantitative model of the global shape of the magnetospheric equatorial current sheet as a function of the Earth's dipole tilt angle, solar wind ram pressure, and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. This work upgrades and generalizes an earlier model of Tsyganenko and Fairfield (2004 by extending the modeling region to all local times, including the dayside sector. In particular, an essential feature of the new model is the bowl-shaped tilt-related deformation of the equatorial surface of minimum magnetic field, similar to that observed at Saturn, whose existence in the Earth's magnetosphere has been demonstrated in our recent work (Tsyganenko and Andreeva, 2014.

  9. Excitation of electromagnetic proton cyclotron instability by parallel electric field in the equatorial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, S.K.; Azif, Z.A.; Gwal, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    The characteristics of the growth rate of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) instability is investigated in a mixture of cold species of ions and warm proton in the presence of weak parallel static electric field. An attempt has been made to explain the excitation of EMIC waves through linear wave-particle (W-P) interaction in the equatorial magnetospheric region. The proton cyclotron instability is modified in presence of weak parallel electric field and the growth rate is computed for equatorial magnetospheric plasma parameters. The results of theoretical investigations of the growth rate are used to explain the excitation mechanism of extremely low frequency/very low frequency (ELF/VLF) waves as observed by satellites. (author). 29 refs., 4 figs

  10. Flux and transformation of the solar wind energy in the magnetosheath of the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudovkin, M.I.; Semenov, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    Energy flux, incoming from the solar wind to the Earth magnetosphere is calculated. It is shown that Poynting vector flux, incoming to the reconnection area is generated mainly in the transitional area between the departed shock wave front and magnetopause in the result of the retardation of the solar wind and partial transformation of its kinetic energy into magnetic one. In this case the energy transformation coefficient depends on the interplanetary magnetic field intensity. Solar wind energy gets into the area of magnetic field reconnection at the magnetopause mainly in two forms: electromagnetic and thermal energy. In the course of reconnection process magnetic energy converts into kinetic energy of the accelerated plasma mass movement and subsequently turns (in a high-latitude boundary layer) into electromagnetic energy, incoming directly to magnetosphere tail

  11. Synchronous x-ray and radio mode switches: a rapid global transformation of the pulsar magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, W; Hessels, J W T; Kuiper, L; van Leeuwen, J; Mitra, D; de Plaa, J; Rankin, J M; Stappers, B W; Wright, G A E; Basu, R; Alexov, A; Coenen, T; Grießmeier, J-M; Hassall, T E; Karastergiou, A; Keane, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Noutsos, A; Serylak, M; Pilia, M; Sobey, C; Weltevrede, P; Zagkouris, K; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Batejat, F; Bell, M E; Bell, M R; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bîrzan, L; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Falcke, H; Fender, R; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Gunst, A W; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Horneffer, A; Iacobelli, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Macario, G; Markoff, S; McKean, J P; Mevius, M; Miller-Jones, J C A; Morganti, R; Munk, H; Orrú, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pandey, V N; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Rawlings, S; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schoenmakers, A; Shulevski, A; Sluman, J; Steinmetz, M; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; ter Veen, S; Vermeulen, R; van de Brink, R H; van Weeren, R J; Wijers, R A M J; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P

    2013-01-25

    Pulsars emit from low-frequency radio waves up to high-energy gamma-rays, generated anywhere from the stellar surface out to the edge of the magnetosphere. Detecting correlated mode changes across the electromagnetic spectrum is therefore key to understanding the physical relationship among the emission sites. Through simultaneous observations, we detected synchronous switching in the radio and x-ray emission properties of PSR B0943+10. When the pulsar is in a sustained radio-"bright" mode, the x-rays show only an unpulsed, nonthermal component. Conversely, when the pulsar is in a radio-"quiet" mode, the x-ray luminosity more than doubles and a 100% pulsed thermal component is observed along with the nonthermal component. This indicates rapid, global changes to the conditions in the magnetosphere, which challenge all proposed pulsar emission theories.

  12. Conditions for double layers in the Earth's magnetosphere and perhaps in other astrophysical objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    Double layers (i.e., electric fields parallel to B) form along auroral field lines in the Earth's magnetosphere. They form in order to maintain current continuity in the ionosphere in the presence of a magnetospheric electric field E with DEL.E not= O. Features which govern the formation of the double layers are: 1) the divergence of E; 2) the conductivity of the ionosphere; and 3) the current-voltage characteristics of auroral magnetic field lines. Astrophysical situations where DEL.E not= O is applied to a conducting plasma similar to the Earth's ionosphere are potential candidates for the formation of double layers. The region with DEL.E not= O can be generated within, or along field lines connected to, the conducting plasma. In addition to DEL.E, shear neutral flow in the conducting plasma can also form double layers. (author)

  13. Conditions for double layers in the Earth's magnetosphere and perhaps in other astrophysical objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    Double layers form along auroral field lines in the Earth's magnetosphere. They form in order to maintain current continuity in the ionosphere in the presence of a magnetospheric electric field E with nabla x E is not equal to 0. Features which govern the formation of the double layers are: (1) the divergence of E, (2) the conductivity of the ionosphere, and (3) the current-voltage characteristics of auroral magnetic field lines. Astrophysical situations where nabla x E is not equal to 0 is applied to a conducting plasma similar to the Earth's ionosphere are potential candidates for the formation of double layers. The region with nabla x E is not equal to 0 can be generated within, or along field lines connected to, the conducting plasma. In addition to nabla x E, shear neutral flow in the conducting plasma can also form double layers

  14. Kinetic models of magnetic flux ropes observed in the Earth magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, A. A.; Vasko, I. Y.; Petrukovich, A. A.; Zelenyi, L. M.; Artemyev, A. V.; Yushkov, E. V.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFR) are universal magnetoplasma structures (similar to cylindrical screw pinches) formed in reconnecting current sheets. In particular, MFR with scales from about the ion inertial length to MHD range are widely observed in the Earth magnetosphere. Typical MFR have force-free configuration with the axial magnetic field peaking on the MFR axis, whereas bifurcated MFR with an off-axis peak of the axial magnetic field are observed as well. In the present paper, we develop kinetic models of force-free and bifurcated MFR and determine consistent ion and electron distribution functions. The magnetic field configuration of the force-free MFR represents well-known Gold-Hoyle MFR (uniformly twisted MFR). We show that bifurcated MFR are characterized by the presence of cold and hot current-carrying electrons. The developed models are capable to describe MFR observed in the Earth magnetotail as well as MFR recently observed by Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission at the Earth magnetopause.

  15. Dynamics of the earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere (geophysical monograph series)

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of the Earth's Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere draws together current knowledge of the radiation belts prior to the launch of Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RPSP) and other imminent space missions, making this volume timely and unique. The volume will serve as a useful benchmark at this exciting and pivotal period in radiation belt research in advance of the new discoveries that the RPSP mission will surely bring. Highlights include the following: a review of the current state of the art of radiation belt science; a complete and up-to-date account of the wave-particle interactions that control the dynamical acceleration and loss processes of particles in the Earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere; a discussion emphasizing the importance of the cross-energy coupling of the particle populations of the radiation belts, ring current, and plasmasphere in controlling the dynamics of the inner magnetosphe...

  16. Electric fields in the outer magnetosphere - Recent progress and outstanding problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.-G.

    1979-03-01

    The electric field is a crucial parameter in theories of solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere. During the IMS this parameter has, for the first time, been directly measured in the interacting regions: outer magnetosphere, magnetopause, magnetosheath, bow shock and the adjacent solar wind. Among the first results are the verification of a large-scale dawn-to-dusk tangential electric field component at the magnetopause of typically 1 - 2 mV/m and a corresponding power dissipation of 50 Wkm -2 . The normal component of the electric field is typically of the same order of magnitude as the tangential component. Fine-structure features, possibly related to the entry of plasma, remain to be analyzed. (author)

  17. Nonlinear standing shear Alfven waves in the Earth`s magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, R.; Frycz, P.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Samson, J. C. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    1994-11-01

    We present theory and numerical simulations of strong nonlinear effects in standing shear Alfven waves (SAWs) in the Earth`s magnetosphere, which is modeled as a finite size box with straight magnetic lines and (partially) reflecting boundaries. In a low beta plasma it is shown that the ponderomotive force can lead to a large-amplitude SAW spatial harmonic generation due to nonlinear coupling between the SAW and a slow magnetosonic wave. The nonlinear coupling leads to secularly growing frequency shifts, and in the case of driven systems, nonlinear dephasing can lead to saturation of the driven wave fields. The results are discussed on the context of their possible relevance to the theory of standing ionospheric cavity wave modes and field line resonances in the high-latitude magnetosphere.

  18. Correlation-based characterisation of time-varying dynamical complexity in the Earth's magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Reik V.; Balasis, George; Kurths, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    The dynamical behaviour of the magnetosphere is known to be a sensitive indicator for the response of the system to solar wind coupling. Since the solar activity commonly displays very interesting non-stationary and multi-scale dynamics, the magnetospheric response also exhibits a high degree of dynamical complexity associated with fundamentally different characteristics during periods of quiescence and magnetic storms. The resulting temporal complexity profile has been explored regarding several approaches from applied statistics, dynamical systems theory and statistical mechanics. Here, we propose an alternative way of looking at time-varying dynamical complexity of nonlinear geophysical time series utilising subtle but significant changes in the linear auto-correlation structure of the recorded data. Our approach is demonstrated to sensitively trace the dynamic signatures associated with intense magnetic storms, and to display reasonable skills in distinguishing between quiescence and storm periods. The potentials and methodological limitations of this new viewpoint are discussed in some detail.

  19. Toy Model of Frame-Dragging Magnetosphere for the M87 Jet Lei ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sponding magnetosphere has a foot-point R0 in the vicinity of event- horizon, and rotating at a frequency. F equal to that of the frame- dragging ω(R0). Key words. Black hole physics—magnetic fields—galaxies: individual. (M87)—galaxies: jets. 1. Introduction. The proper motion profile of M87 jet, or the so-called apparent ...

  20. Toy Model of Frame-Dragging Magnetosphere for the M87 Jet Lei ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004) are conserved quantities on the surface of each magnetosphere. F is equal to ω(R0) with a foot-point R0 and a black hole spin parameter a is selected. As a first step, we adopt the self-similar forms of. = rνP (θ ) and Hφ = h0 F( ) with constants ν and h0. With a specific location of the outer light surface (rLS,θLS), the.

  1. SC-Associated Electric Field Variations in the Magnetosphere and Ionospheric Convective Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.-I.; Kim, K.-H.; Kwon, H.-J.; Jin, H.; Lee, E.; Jee, G.; Nishitani, N.; Hori, T.; Lester, M.; Wygant, J. R.

    2017-11-01

    We examine magnetic and electric field perturbations associated with a sudden commencement (SC), caused by an interplanetary (IP) shock passing over the Earth's magnetosphere on 16 February 2013. The SC was identified in the magnetic and electric field data measured at Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS-E; THE-E: magnetic local time (MLT) = 12.4, L = 6.3), Van Allen Probe-A (VAP-A: MLT = 3.2, L = 5.1), and Van Allen Probe-B (VAP-B: MLT = 0.2. L = 4.9) in the magnetosphere. During the SC interval, THE-E observed a dawnward-then-duskward electric (E) field perturbation around noon, while VAP-B observed a duskward E field perturbation around midnight. VAP-A observed a dawnward-then-duskward E field perturbation in the postmidnight sector, but the duration and magnitude of the dawnward E perturbation are much shorter and weaker than that at THE-E. That is, the E field signature changes with local time during the SC interval. The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radar data indicate that the ionospheric plasma motions during the SC are mainly due to the E field variations observed in space. This indicates that the SC-associated E field in space plays a significant role in determining the dynamic variations of the ionospheric convection flow. By comparing previous SC MHD simulations and our observations, we suggest that the E field variations observed at the spacecraft are produced by magnetospheric convection flows due to deformation of the magnetosphere as the IP shock sweeps the magnetopause.

  2. Structure of Mercury's magnetosphere for different pressure of the solar wind: Three dimensional hybrid simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Pavel; Hellinger, Petr; Schriver, D.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 5 (2007), L05104/1-L05104/5 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/1011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Global simulations * Mercury's magnetosphere * solar wind * hybrid simulations * ion drift driven rings Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2007

  3. Detailed properties of magnetospheric line radiation events observed by the DEMETER spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, F.; Parrot, M.; Santolík, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 117, A5 (2012), A05210/1-A05210/9 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1253; GA MŠk ME09107 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : magnetospheric line radiation * electromagnetic waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.174, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2012JA017517/abstract

  4. The spatial structure of magnetospheric plasma disturbance estimated by using magnetic data obtained by SWARM satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Iyemori, T.; Aoyama, T.

    2017-12-01

    Field-aligned currents with various spatial scales flow into and out from high-latitude ionosphere. The magnetic fluctuations observed by LEO satellites along their orbits having period longer than a few seconds can be regarded as the manifestations of spatial structure of field aligned currents.This has been confirmed by using the initial orbital characteristics of 3 SWARM-satellites. From spectral analysis, we evaluated the spectral indices of these magnetic fluctuations and investigated their dependence on regions, such as magnetic latitude and MLT and so on. We found that the spectral indices take quite different values between the regions lower than the equatorward boundary of the auroral oval (around 63 degrees' in magnetic latitude) and the regions higher than that. On the other hands, we could not find the clear MLT dependence. In general, the FACs are believed to be generated in the magnetiospheric plasma sheet and boundary layer, and they flow along the field lines conserving their currents.The theory of FAC generation [e.g., Hasegawa and Sato ,1978] indicates that the FACs are strongly connected with magnetospheric plasma disturbances. Although the spectral indices above are these of spatial structures of the FACs over the ionosphere, by using the theoretical equation of FAC generation, we evaluate the spectral indices of magnetospheric plasma disturbance in FAC's generation regions. Furthermore, by projecting the area of fluctuations on the equatorial plane of magnetosphere (i.e. plasma sheet), we can estimate the spatial structure of magnetospheric plasma disturbance. In this presentation, we focus on the characteristics of disturbance in midnight region and discuss the relations to the substorm.

  5. A Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere Model for the Circumstellar Environments of Magnetic OB Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, R.; Owocki, S.; Groote, D.

    2005-11-01

    We report on a new model for the circumstellar environments of rotating, magnetic hot stars. This model predicts the channeling of wind plasma into a corotating magnetosphere, where -- supported against gravity by centrifugal forces -- it can steadily accumulate over time. We apply the model to the B2p star σ Ori E, demonstrating that it can simultaneously reproduce the spectroscopic, photometric and magnetic variations exhibited by the star.

  6. Properties of the magnetospheric backward wave oscillator inferred from CLUSTER measurements of VLF chorus elements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Titova, E.; Demekhov, A.; Kozelov, B.; Santolík, Ondřej; Macúšová, Eva; Rauch, J. L.; Trotignon, J. G.; Gurnett, D.; Pickett, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 117, A8 (2012), A08210/1-A08210/10 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10001 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : chorus emission * cyclotron maser * magnetosphere * very low frequency * waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.174, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2012JA017713/abstract

  7. Modelling of the ring current in Saturn's magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giampieri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a ring current inside Saturn's magnetosphere was first suggested by Smith et al. (1980 and Ness et al. (1981, 1982, in order to explain various features in the magnetic field observations from the Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Connerney et al. (1983 formalized the equatorial current model, based on previous modelling work of Jupiter's current sheet and estimated its parameters from the two Voyager data sets. Here, we investigate the model further, by reconsidering the data from the two Voyager spacecraft, as well as including the Pioneer 11 flyby data set.

    First, we obtain, in closed form, an analytic expression for the magnetic field produced by the ring current. We then fit the model to the external field, that is the difference between the observed field and the internal magnetic field, considering all the available data. In general, through our global fit we obtain more accurate parameters, compared to previous models. We point out differences between the model's parameters for the three flybys, and also investigate possible deviations from the axial and planar symmetries assumed in the model. We conclude that an accurate modelling of the Saturnian disk current will require taking into account both of the temporal variations related to the condition of the magnetosphere, as well as non-axisymmetric contributions due to local time effects.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems; planetary magnetospheres; plasma sheet

  8. A SEARCH FOR X-RAY EMISSION FROM COLLIDING MAGNETOSPHERES IN YOUNG ECCENTRIC STELLAR BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getman, Konstantin V.; Broos, Patrick S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kóspál, Ágnes [Konkoly Observatory, Research Center for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Salter, Demerese M. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Garmire, Gordon P. [Huntingdon Institute for X-ray Astronomy, LLC, 10677 Franks Road, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Among young binary stars whose magnetospheres are expected to collide, only two systems have been observed near periastron in the X-ray band: the low-mass DQ Tau and the older and more massive HD 152404. Both exhibit elevated levels of X-ray emission at periastron. Our goal is to determine whether colliding magnetospheres in young high-eccentricity binaries commonly produce elevated average levels of X-ray activity. This work is based on Chandra snapshots of multiple periastron and non-periastron passages in four nearby young eccentric binaries (Parenago 523, RX J1622.7-2325 Nw, UZ Tau E, and HD 152404). We find that for the merged sample of all four binaries the current X-ray data show an increasing average X-ray flux near periastron (at a ∼2.5-sigma level). Further comparison of these data with the X-ray properties of hundreds of young stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster, produced by the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP), indicates that the X-ray emission from the merged sample of our binaries cannot be explained within the framework of the COUP-like X-ray activity. However, due to the inhomogeneities of the merged binary sample and the relatively low statistical significance of the detected flux increase, these findings are regarded as tentative only. More data are needed to prove that the flux increase is real and is related to the processes of colliding magnetospheres.

  9. Mini-magnetospheric plasma propulsion (M2P2): High speed propulsion sailing the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winglee, Robert; Slough, John; Ziemba, Tim; Goodson, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Mini-Magnetospheric Plasma Propulsion (M2P2) seeks the creation of a magnetic wall or bubble (i.e. a magnetosphere) that will intercept the supersonic solar wind which is moving at 300-800 km/s. In so doing, a force of about 1 N will be exerted on the spacecraft by the spacecraft while only requiring a few mN of force to sustain the mini-magnetosphere. Equivalently, the incident solar wind power is about 1 MW while about 1 kW electrical power is required to sustain the system, with about 0.25-0.5 kg being expended per day. This nominal configuration utilizing only solar electric cells for power, the M2P2 will produce a magnetic barrier approximately 15-20 km in radius, which would accelerate a 70-140 kg payload to speeds of about 50-80 km/s. At this speed, missions to the heliopause and beyond can be achieved in under 10 yrs. Design characteristics for a prototype are also described

  10. Electric fields in the magnetosphere - the evidence from ISEE, S3-3, GEOS and Viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.G.

    1988-08-01

    Electric field measurements on the satellites S3-3, GEOS-1, GEOS-2, ISEE-1 and Viking have extended the empirical knowledge of electric fields in space so as to include the outer regions of the magnetosphere. While the measurements confirm some of the theoretically expected properties of the electric fields, they also reveal unexpected features and a high degree of complexity and variability. The existence of a magnetospheric dawn-to-dusk electric field, as expected on the basis of extrapolation from low altitude measurements, is confirmed in an average sense. However, the actual field exhibits large spatial and temporal variations, including strong fields of inductive origin. At the magnetopause the average (dawn to dusk directed) tangential electric field component is typically obscured by irregular fluctuations of large amplitude. The magnetic-field aligned component of the electric field, which is of particular importance for ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling and for auroral acceleration is even now very difficult to measure directly. However, the data from electric field measurements provide further support for the conclusion, based on a variety of evidence, that a non-vanishing magnetic-field aligned electric field exists in the auroral acceleration region. (93 refs.) (author)

  11. Magnetic reconnection in 3D magnetosphere models: magnetic separators and open flux production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocer, A.; Dorelli, J.; Toth, G.; Komar, C. M.; Cassak, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are multiple competing definitions of magnetic reconnection in 3D (e.g., Hesse and Schindler [1988], Lau and Finn [1990], and Boozer [2002]). In this work we focus on separator reconnection. A magnetic separator can be understood as the 3D analogue of a 2D x line with a guide field, and is defined by the line corresponding to the intersection of the separatrix surfaces associated with the magnetic nulls. A separator in the magnetosphere represents the intersection of four distinct magnetic topologies: solar wind, closed, open connected to the northern hemisphere, and open connected to the southern hemisphere. The integral of the parallel electric field along the separator defines the rate of open flux production, and is one measure of the reconnection rate. We present three methods for locating magnetic separators and apply them to 3D resistive MHD simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere using the BATS-R-US code. The techniques for finding separators and determining the reconnection rate are insensitive to IMF clock angle and can in principle be applied to any magnetospheric model. The present work examines cases of high and low resistivity, for two clock angles. We also examine the separator during Flux Transfer Events (FTEs) and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

  12. Ultrathin foils used for low-energy neutral atom imaging of the terrestrial magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funsten, Herbert O.; McComas, David J.; Barraclough, Bruce L.

    1993-12-01

    Magnetospheric imaging by remote detection of low-energy neutral atoms (LENAs) that are created by charge exchange between magnetospheric plasma ions and neutral geocoronal atoms has been proposed as a method to provide global information of magnetospheric dynamics. For LENA detection, carbon foils can be implemented to (1) ionize the LENAs and electrostatically remove them from the large background of solar UV scattered by the geocorona and (2) generate secondary electrons to provide coincidence and/or LENA trajectory information. Quantification of LENA-foil interactions are crucial in defining LENA imager performance. We present equilibrium charge state and angular scatter distributions for 1 to 30-keV atomic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen transiting nominal 0.5 (mu) g cm-2 carbon foils. Results obtained after coating the exit surface of foils with either aluminum or gold suggest that the intended alteration of the exit surface chemistry has no effect on the charge state distributions due to foil contamination from exposure to air.

  13. Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission Observations of Magnetic Flux Ropes in the Earth's Plasma Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, J. A.; Akhavan-Tafti, M.; Poh, G.; Le, G.; Russell, C. T.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Torbert, R. B.; Gershman, D. J.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.; Moore, T. E.; Burch, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    A major discovery by the Cluster mission and the previous generation of science missions is the presence of earthward and tailward moving magnetic flux ropes in the Earth's plasma sheet. However, the lack of high-time resolution plasma measurements severely limited progress concerning the formation and evolution of these reconnection generated structures. We use high-time resolution magnetic and electric field and plasma measurements from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission's first tail season to investigate: 1) the distribution of flux rope diameters relative to the local ion and electron inertial lengths; 2) the internal force balance sustaining these structures; and 3) the magnetic connectivity of the flux ropes to the Earth and/or the interplanetary medium; 4) the specific entropy of earthward moving flux ropes and the possible effect of "buoyancy" on how deep they penetrate into the inner magnetosphere; and 5) evidence for coalescence of adjacent flux ropes and/or the division of existing flux ropes through the formation of secondary X-lines. The results of these initial analyses will be discussed in terms of their implications for reconnection-driven magnetospheric dynamics and substorms.

  14. First Observations of a Foreshock Bubble at Earth: Implications for Magnetospheric Activity and Energetic Particle Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. L.; Omidi, N.; Sibeck, D. G.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2011-01-01

    Earth?s foreshock, which is the quasi-parallel region upstream of the bow shock, is a unique plasma region capable of generating several kinds of large-scale phenomena, each of which can impact the magnetosphere resulting in global effects. Interestingly, such phenomena have also been observed at planetary foreshocks throughout our solar system. Recently, a new type of foreshock phenomena has been predicted: foreshock bubbles, which are large-scale disruptions of both the foreshock and incident solar wind plasmas that can result in global magnetospheric disturbances. Here we present unprecedented, multi-point observations of foreshock bubbles at Earth using a combination of spacecraft and ground observations primarily from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) mission, and we include detailed analysis of the events? global effects on the magnetosphere and the energetic ions and electrons accelerated by them, potentially by a combination of first and second order Fermi and shock drift acceleration processes. This new phenomena should play a role in energetic particle acceleration at collisionless, quasi-parallel shocks throughout the Universe.

  15. Detection of a plasmaspheric wind in the Earth's magnetosphere by the Cluster spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dandouras

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Plumes, forming at the plasmapause and released outwards, constitute a well-established mode for plasmaspheric material release to the Earth's magnetosphere. They are associated to active periods and the related electric field change. In 1992, Lemaire and Shunk proposed the existence of an additional mode for plasmaspheric material release to the Earth's magnetosphere: a plasmaspheric wind, steadily transporting cold plasmaspheric plasma outwards across the geomagnetic field lines, even during prolonged periods of quiet geomagnetic conditions. This has been proposed on a theoretical basis. Direct detection of this wind has, however, eluded observation in the past. Analysis of ion measurements, acquired in the outer plasmasphere by the CIS experiment onboard the four Cluster spacecraft, provide now an experimental confirmation of the plasmaspheric wind. This wind has been systematically detected in the outer plasmasphere during quiet and moderately active conditions, and calculations show that it could provide a substantial contribution to the magnetospheric plasma populations outside the Earth's plasmasphere. Similar winds should also exist on other planets, or astrophysical objects, quickly rotating and having an atmosphere and a magnetic field.

  16. Field Line Resonances in Quiet and Disturbed Time Three-dimensional Magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Chi Zhu Cheng

    2002-01-01

    Numerical solutions for field line resonances (FLR) in the magnetosphere are presented for three-dimensional equilibrium magnetic fields represented by two Euler potentials as B = -j Y -a, where j is the poloidal flux and a is a toroidal angle-like variable. The linearized ideal-MHD equations for FLR harmonics of shear Alfvin waves and slow magnetosonic modes are solved for plasmas with the pressure assumed to be isotropic and constant along a field line. The coupling between the shear Alfvin waves and the slow magnetosonic waves is via the combined effects of geodesic magnetic field curvature and plasma pressure. Numerical solutions of the FLR equations are obtained for a quiet time magnetosphere as well as a disturbed time magnetosphere with a thin current sheet in the near-Earth region. The FLR frequency spectra in the equatorial plane as well as in the auroral latitude are presented. The field line length, magnetic field intensity, plasma beta, geodesic curvature and pressure gradient in the poloidal flux...

  17. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents in Jupiter’s middle magnetosphere: dependence on the effective ionospheric Pedersen conductivity and iogenic plasma mass outflow rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Nichols

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The amplitude and spatial distribution of the coupling currents that flow between Jupiter’s ionosphere and middle magnetosphere, which enforce partial corotation on outward-flowing iogenic plasma, depend on the values of the effective Pedersen conductivity of the jovian ionosphere and the mass outflow rate of iogenic plasma. The values of these parameters are, however, very uncertain. Here we determine how the solutions for the plasma angular velocity and current components depend on these parameters over wide ranges. We consider two models of the poloidal magnetospheric magnetic field, namely the planetary dipole alone, and an empirical current sheet field based on Voyager data. Following work by Hill (2001, we obtain a complete normalized analytic solution for the dipole field, which shows in compact form how the plasma angular velocity and current components scale in space and in amplitude with the system parameters in this case. We then obtain an approximate analytic solution in similar form for a current sheet field in which the equatorial field strength varies with radial distance as a power law. A key feature of the model is that the current sheet field lines map to a narrow latitudinal strip in the ionosphere, at ≈ 15° co-latitude. The approximate current sheet solutions are compared with the results of numerical integrations using the full field model, for which a power law applies beyond ≈ 20 RJ, and are found to agree very well within their regime of applicability. A major distinction between the solutions for the dipole field and the current sheet concerns the behaviour of the field-aligned current. In the dipole model the direction of the current reverses at moderate equatorial distances, and the current system wholly closes if the model is extended to infinity in the equatorial plane and to the pole in the ionosphere. In the approximate current sheet model, however, the field-aligned current is unidirectional, flowing

  18. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents in Jupiter’s middle magnetosphere: dependence on the effective ionospheric Pedersen conductivity and iogenic plasma mass outflow rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Nichols

    Full Text Available The amplitude and spatial distribution of the coupling currents that flow between Jupiter’s ionosphere and middle magnetosphere, which enforce partial corotation on outward-flowing iogenic plasma, depend on the values of the effective Pedersen conductivity of the jovian ionosphere and the mass outflow rate of iogenic plasma. The values of these parameters are, however, very uncertain. Here we determine how the solutions for the plasma angular velocity and current components depend on these parameters over wide ranges. We consider two models of the poloidal magnetospheric magnetic field, namely the planetary dipole alone, and an empirical current sheet field based on Voyager data. Following work by Hill (2001, we obtain a complete normalized analytic solution for the dipole field, which shows in compact form how the plasma angular velocity and current components scale in space and in amplitude with the system parameters in this case. We then obtain an approximate analytic solution in similar form for a current sheet field in which the equatorial field strength varies with radial distance as a power law. A key feature of the model is that the current sheet field lines map to a narrow latitudinal strip in the ionosphere, at ≈ 15° co-latitude. The approximate current sheet solutions are compared with the results of numerical integrations using the full field model, for which a power law applies beyond ≈ 20 RJ, and are found to agree very well within their regime of applicability. A major distinction between the solutions for the dipole field and the current sheet concerns the behaviour of the field-aligned current. In the dipole model the direction of the current reverses at moderate equatorial distances, and the current system wholly closes if the model is extended to infinity in the equatorial plane and to the pole in the ionosphere. In the approximate current sheet model, however, the field-aligned current is unidirectional

  19. Magnetosphere dynamics during the 14 November 2012 storm inferred from TWINS, AMPERE, Van Allen Probes, and BATS-R-US-CRCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzulukova, Natalia; Goldstein, Jerry; Fok, Mei-Ching; Glocer, Alex; Valek, Phil; McComas, David; Korth, Haje; Anderson, Brian

    2018-01-01

    During the 14 November 2012 geomagnetic storm, the Van Allen Probes spacecraft observed a number of sharp decreases (dropouts) in particle fluxes for ions and electrons of different energies. In this paper, we investigate the global magnetosphere dynamics and magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) coupling during the dropout events using multipoint measurements by Van Allen Probes, TWINS, and AMPERE together with the output of the two-way coupled global BATS-R-US-CRCM model. We find different behavior for two pairs of dropouts. For one pair, the same pattern was repeated: (1) weak nightside Region 1 and 2 Birkeland currents before and during the dropout; (2) intensification of Region 2 currents after the dropout; and (3) a particle injection detected by TWINS after the dropout. The model predicted similar behavior of Birkeland currents. TWINS low-altitude emissions demonstrated high variability during these intervals, indicating high geomagnetic activity in the near-Earth tail region. For the second pair of dropouts, the structure of both Birkeland currents and ENA emissions was relatively stable. The model also showed quasi-stationary behavior of Birkeland currents and simulated ENA emissions with gradual ring current buildup. We confirm that the first pair of dropouts was caused by large-scale motions of the OCB (open-closed boundary) during substorm activity. We show the new result that this OCB motion was associated with global changes in Birkeland (M-I coupling) currents and strong modulation of low-altitude ion precipitation. The second pair of dropouts is the result of smaller OCB disturbances not related to magnetospheric substorms. The local observations of the first pair of dropouts result from a global magnetospheric reconfiguration, which is manifested by ion injections and enhanced ion precipitation detected by TWINS and changes in the structure of Birkeland currents detected by AMPERE. This study demonstrates that multipoint measurements along with the global

  20. Current Flow and Pair Creation at Low Altitude in Rotation-Powered Pulsars' Force-Free Magnetospheres: Space Charge Limited Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timokhin, A. N.; Arons, J.

    2013-01-01

    elucidate the conditions for pair creating beam flow to be steady (stationary with small fluctuations in the rotating frame), finding that such steady flows can occupy only a small fraction of the current density parameter space exhibited by the force-free magnetospheric model. The generic polar flow dynamics and pair creation are strongly time dependent. The model has an essential difference from almost all previous quantitative studies, in that we sought the accelerating voltage (with pair creation, when the voltage drops are sufficiently large; without, when they are small) as a function of the applied current.

  1. Fully kinetic 3D simulations of the Hermean magnetosphere under realistic conditions: a new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Jorge; Gonzalez-Herrero, Diego; Lembège, Bertrand; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Simulations of the magnetosphere of planets are usually performed using the MHD and the hybrid approaches. However, these two methods still rely on approximations for the computation of the pressure tensor, and require the neutrality of the plasma at every point of the domain by construction. These approximations undermine the role of electrons on the emergence of plasma features in the magnetosphere of planets. The high mobility of electrons, their characteristic time and space scales, and the lack of perfect neutrality, are the source of many observed phenomena in the magnetospheres, including the turbulence energy cascade, the magnetic reconnection, the particle acceleration in the shock front and the formation of current systems around the magnetosphere. Fully kinetic codes are extremely demanding of computing time, and have been unable to perform simulations of the full magnetosphere at the real scales of a planet with realistic plasma conditions. This is caused by two main reasons: 1) explicit codes must resolve the electron scales limiting the time and space discretisation, and 2) current versions of semi-implicit codes are unstable for cell sizes larger than a few Debye lengths. In this work we present new simulations performed with ECsim, an Energy Conserving semi-implicit method [1], that can overcome these two barriers. We compare the solutions obtained with ECsim with the solutions obtained by the classic semi-implicit code iPic3D [2]. The new simulations with ECsim demand a larger computational effort, but the time and space discretisations are larger than those in iPic3D allowing for a faster simulation time of the full planetary environment. The new code, ECsim, can reach a resolution allowing the capture of significant large scale physics without loosing kinetic electron information, such as wave-electron interaction and non-Maxwellian electron velocity distributions [3]. The code is able to better capture the thickness of the different boundary

  2. Plasma Turbulence in Earth's Magnetotail Observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, D. A.; Avanov, L. A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Pollock, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection, a process in which the magnetic topology undergoes multi-scale changes, is a significant mechanism for particle energization as well as energy dissipation. Reconnection is observed to occur in thin current sheets generated between two regions of magnetized plasma merging with a non-zero shear angle. Within a thinning current sheet, the dominant scale size approaches first the ion and then electron kinetic scale. The plasma becomes demagnetized, field lines transform, then once again the plasma becomes frozen-in. The reconnection process accelerates particles, leading to heated jets of plasma. Turbulence is another fundamental process in collision less plasmas. Despite decades of turbulence studies, an essential science question remains as to how turbulent energy dissipates at small scales by heating and accelerating particles. Turbulence in both plasmas and fluids has a fundamental property in that it follows an energy cascade into smaller scales. Energy introduced into a fluid or plasma can cause large scale motion, introducing vorticity, which merge and interact to make increasingly smaller eddies. It has been hypothesized that turbulent energy in magnetized plasmas may be dissipated by magnetic reconnection, just as viscosity dissipates energy in neutral fluid turbulence. The focus of this study is to use the new high temporal resolution suite of instruments on board the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission to explore this hypothesis. An observable feature of the energy cascade in a turbulent magnetized plasma is its similarity to classical hydrodynamics in that the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of turbulent fluctuations follows a Kolmogorov-like power law (Image-5/3). We use highly accurate (0.1 nT) Flux Gate Magnetometer (FGM) data to derive the PSD as a function of frequency in the magnetic fluctuations. Given that we are able to confirm the turbulent nature of the flow field; we apply the method of Partial Variance of Increments (PVI

  3. Axi-symmetric models of auroral current systems in Jupiter's magnetosphere with predictions for the Juno mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. H. Cowley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop two related models of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in the jovian system by combining previous models defined at ionospheric heights with magnetospheric magnetic models that allow system parameters to be extended appropriately into the magnetosphere. The key feature of the combined models is thus that they allow direct connection to be made between observations in the magnetosphere, particularly of the azimuthal field produced by the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents and the plasma angular velocity, and the auroral response in the ionosphere. The two models are intended to reflect typical steady-state sub-corotation conditions in the jovian magnetosphere, and transient super-corotation produced by sudden major solar wind-induced compressions, respectively. The key simplification of the models is that of axi-symmetry of the field, flow, and currents about the magnetic axis, limiting their validity to radial distances within ~30 RJ of the planet, though the magnetic axis is appropriately tilted relative to the planetary spin axis and rotates with the planet. The first exploration of the jovian polar magnetosphere is planned to be undertaken in 2016–2017 during the NASA New Frontiers Juno mission, with observations of the polar field, plasma, and UV emissions as a major goal. Evaluation of the models along Juno planning orbits thus produces predictive results that may aid in science mission planning. It is shown in particular that the low-altitude near-periapsis polar passes will generally occur underneath the corresponding auroral acceleration regions, thus allowing brief examination of the auroral primaries over intervals of ~1–3 min for the main oval and ~10 s for narrower polar arc structures, while the "lagging" field deflections produced by the auroral current systems on these passes will be ~0.1°, associated with azimuthal fields above the ionosphere of a few hundred nT.

  4. Axi-symmetric models of auroral current systems in Jupiter's magnetosphere with predictions for the Juno mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. H. Cowley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop two related models of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in the jovian system by combining previous models defined at ionospheric heights with magnetospheric magnetic models that allow system parameters to be extended appropriately into the magnetosphere. The key feature of the combined models is thus that they allow direct connection to be made between observations in the magnetosphere, particularly of the azimuthal field produced by the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents and the plasma angular velocity, and the auroral response in the ionosphere. The two models are intended to reflect typical steady-state sub-corotation conditions in the jovian magnetosphere, and transient super-corotation produced by sudden major solar wind-induced compressions, respectively. The key simplification of the models is that of axi-symmetry of the field, flow, and currents about the magnetic axis, limiting their validity to radial distances within ~30 RJ of the planet, though the magnetic axis is appropriately tilted relative to the planetary spin axis and rotates with the planet. The first exploration of the jovian polar magnetosphere is planned to be undertaken in 2016–2017 during the NASA New Frontiers Juno mission, with observations of the polar field, plasma, and UV emissions as a major goal. Evaluation of the models along Juno planning orbits thus produces predictive results that may aid in science mission planning. It is shown in particular that the low-altitude near-periapsis polar passes will generally occur underneath the corresponding auroral acceleration regions, thus allowing brief examination of the auroral primaries over intervals of ~1–3 min for the main oval and ~10 s for narrower polar arc structures, while the "lagging" field deflections produced by the auroral current systems on these passes will be ~0.1°, associated with azimuthal fields above the ionosphere of a few hundred nT.

  5. Transient plasma injections in the dayside magnetosphere: one-to-one correlated observations by Cluster and SuperDARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchaudon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctions in the cusp between the four Cluster spacecraft and SuperDARN ground-based radars offer unique opportunities to compare the signatures of transient plasma injections simultaneously in the high-altitude dayside magnetosphere and in the ionosphere. We report here on such observations on 17 March 2001, when the IMF initially northward and duskward, turns southward and dawnward for a short period. The changes in the convection direction at Cluster are well correlated with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF By variations. Moreover, the changes in the ionosphere follow those in the magnetosphere, with a 2–3min delay. When mapped into the ionosphere, the convection velocity at Cluster is about 1.5 times larger than measured by SuperDARN. In the high-altitude cusp, field and particle observations by Cluster display the characteristic signatures of plasma injections into the magnetosphere suggestive of Flux Transfer Events (FTEs. Simultaneous impulsive and localized convection plasma flows are observed in the ionospheric cusp by the HF radars. A clear one-to-one correlation is observed for three successive injections, with a 2–3min delay between the magnetospheric and ionospheric observations. For each event, the drift velocity of reconnected flux tubes (phase velocity has been compared in the magnetosphere and in the ionosphere. The drift velocity measured at Cluster is of the order of 400–600ms–1 when mapped into the ionosphere, in qualitative agreement with SuperDARN observations. Finally, the reconnected flux tubes are elongated in the north-south direction, with an east-west dimension of 30–60km in the ionosphere from mapped Cluster observations, which is consistent with SuperDARN observations, although slightly smaller. Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection – Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  6. First multispacecraft ion measurements in and near the Earth’s magnetosphere with the identical Cluster ion spectrometry (CIS experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rème

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available On board the four Cluster spacecraft, the Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS experiment measures the full, three-dimensional ion distribution of the major magnetospheric ions (H+, He+, He++, and O+ from the thermal energies to about 40 keV/e. The experiment consists of two different instruments: a COmposition and DIstribution Function analyser (CIS1/CODIF, giving the mass per charge composition with medium (22.5° angular resolution, and a Hot Ion Analyser (CIS2/HIA, which does not offer mass resolution but has a better angular resolution (5.6° that is adequate for ion beam and solar wind measurements. Each analyser has two different sensitivities in order to increase the dynamic range. First tests of the instruments (commissioning activities were achieved from early September 2000 to mid January 2001, and the operation phase began on 1 February 2001. In this paper, first results of the CIS instruments are presented showing the high level performances and capabilities of the instruments. Good examples of data were obtained in the central plasma sheet, magnetopause crossings, magnetosheath, solar wind and cusp measurements. Observations in the auroral regions could also be obtained with the Cluster spacecraft at radial distances of 4–6 Earth radii. These results show the tremendous interest of multispacecraft measurements with identical instruments and open a new area in magnetospheric and solar wind-magnetosphere interaction physics.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetopheric configuration and dynamics; solar wind - magnetosphere interactions

  7. Compositional Impact of Io Volcanic Emissions on Jupiter's Magnetosphere and the Icy Galilean Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John; Fegley, Bruce; Lipatov, Alexander; Richardson, John; Sittler, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The magnetospheric ion population of Jupiter is dominated by the 1000 kg/s of iogenic material constantly ejected by IO volcanism as neutral gas (approx. 1 kg/s goes out as high speed dust grains), subsequent atmospheric losses to the IO torus, and radial transport of torus ions throughout the magnetosphere. As that magnetosphere is greatly distended in radial size by the iogenic plasma loading, so are surfaces of the other Galilean moons also significantly, and perhaps even dominantly, affected by iogenic plasma bombardment, e.g. at the level up to 0.2 kg/s heavy ions (mostly O and S) onto Europa as per local plasma ion measurements. In comparison, cometary impacts onto IO deliver about 0.02 kg/s of impact ejecta to Europa via ballistic transfer through the Jupiter system. The magnetosphere of this system operates as a powerful engine to produce and transport ions from the IO source to the surfaces of these other moons, and any future orbiter missions to these moons must account for surface distributions of the iogenic material and its chemical effects before real assessments can be made of sensible chemical materials otherwise arising from primordial formation and subsequent evolution of these moons. This is a fundamental problem of space weathering that must be addressed for all planetary bodies with thin atmospheres and direct surface exposure to their space plasma environments. Long-standing debates from Galileo Orbiter measurements about the origins of hydrate sulfates at Europa present examples of this problem, as to whether the sulfates arise from oceanic minerals or from iogenic sulfur chemistry. Any orbiter or landed mission to Europa for astrobiological investigations would further need to separate the potential chemical biosignatures of life or its precursors from the highly abundant background of iogenic material. Although no single ion carries a tag identifying it as of iogenic or other origin, the elemental abundance distributions of ions to be

  8. The INTERBALL-Tail ELECTRON experiment: initial results on the low-latitude boundary layer of the dawn magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-A. Sauvaud

    Full Text Available The Toulouse electron spectrometer flown on the Russian project INTERBALL-Tail performs electron measurements from 10 to 26 000 eV over a 4 solid angle in a satellite rotation period. The INTERBALL-Tail probe was launched on 3 August 1995 together with a subsatellite into a 65° inclination orbit with an apogee of about 30 RE. The INTERBALL mission also includes a polar spacecraft launched in August 1996 for correlated studies of the outer magnetosphere and of the auroral regions. We present new observations concerning the low-latitude boundary layers (LLBL of the magnetosphere obtained near the dawn magnetic meridian. LLBL are encountered at the interface between two plasma regimes, the magnetosheath and the dayside extension of the plasma sheet. Unexpectedly, the radial extent of the region where LLBL electrons can be sporadically detected as plasma clouds can reach up to 5 RE inside the magnetopause. The LLBL core electrons have an average energy of the order of 100 eV and are systematically field-aligned and counterstreaming. As a trend, the temperature of the LLBL electrons increases with decreasing distance to Earth. Along the satellite orbit, the apparent time of occurrence of LLBL electrons can vary from about 5 to 20 min from one pass to another. An initial first comparison between electron- and magnetic-field measurements indicates that the LLBL clouds coincide with a strong increase in the magnetic field (by up to a factor of 2. The resulting strong magnetic field gradient can explain why the plasma-sheet electron flux in the keV range is strongly depressed in LLBL occurrence regions (up to a factor of sim10. We also show that LLBL electron encounters are related to field-aligned current structures and that wide LLBL correspond to northward interplanetary magnetic field. Evidence for LLBL/plasma-sheet electron leakage into the magnetosheath during southward IMF is also presented.

  9. Polar cap arcs from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere: kinetic modelling and observations by Cluster and TIMED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maggiolo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available On 1 April 2004 the GUVI imager onboard the TIMED spacecraft spots an isolated and elongated polar cap arc. About 20 min later, the Cluster satellites detect an isolated upflowing ion beam above the polar cap. Cluster observations show that the ions are accelerated upward by a quasi-stationary electric field. The field-aligned potential drop is estimated to about 700 V and the upflowing ions are accompanied by a tenuous population of isotropic protons with a temperature of about 500 eV. The magnetic footpoints of the ion outflows observed by Cluster are situated in the prolongation of the polar cap arc observed by TIMED GUVI. The upflowing ion beam and the polar cap arc may be different signatures of the same phenomenon, as suggested by a recent statistical study of polar cap ion beams using Cluster data. We use Cluster observations at high altitude as input to a quasi-stationary magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI coupling model. Using a Knight-type current-voltage relationship and the current continuity at the topside ionosphere, the model computes the energy spectrum of precipitating electrons at the top of the ionosphere corresponding to the generator electric field observed by Cluster. The MI coupling model provides a field-aligned potential drop in agreement with Cluster observations of upflowing ions and a spatial scale of the polar cap arc consistent with the optical observations by TIMED. The computed energy spectrum of the precipitating electrons is used as input to the Trans4 ionospheric transport code. This 1-D model, based on Boltzmann's kinetic formalism, takes into account ionospheric processes such as photoionization and electron/proton precipitation, and computes the optical and UV emissions due to precipitating electrons. The emission rates provided by the Trans4 code are compared to the optical observations by TIMED. They are similar in size and intensity. Data and modelling results are consistent with the scenario of quasi

  10. Fast Acceleration of ``Killer'' Electrons and Energetic Ions by Interplanetary Shock Stimulated ULF Waves in the Inner Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Q.

    2010-12-01

    Energetic electrons and ions in the Van Allen radiation belt are the number one space weather threat. How the energetic particles are accelerated in the Van Allen radiation belts is one of major problems in the space physics. Very Low Frequency (VLF) wave-particle interaction has been considered as one of primary electron acceleration mechanisms because electron cyclotron resonances can easily occur in the VLF frequency range. However, recently, by using four Cluster spacecraft observations, we have found that after interplanetary shocks impact on the Earth’s magnetosphere, the acceleration of the energetic electrons in the radiation belt started nearly immediately and lasted for a few hours. The time scale (a few days) for traditional acceleration mechanism of VLF wave-particle interaction, as proposed by Horne et al. [1], to accelerate electrons to relativistic energies is too long to explain the observations. It is further found that interplanetary shocks or solar wind pressure pulses with even small dynamic pressure change can play a non-negligible role in the radiation belt dynamics. Interplanetary shocks interact with and the Earth’s magnetosphere manifests many fundamental important space physics phenomena including energetic particle acceleration. The mechanism of fast acceleration of energetic electrons in the radiation belt response to interplanetary shock impact contains three contributing parts: (1) the initial adiabatic acceleration due to the strong shock-related magnetic field compression; (2) then followed by the drift-resonant acceleration with poloidal ULF waves excited at different L-shells; and (3) particle acceleration due to fast damping electric fields associated with ULF waves. Particles will have a net acceleration since particles in the second half circle will not lose all of the energy gained in the first half cycle. The results reported in this paper cast new lights on understanding the acceleration of energetic particles in the

  11. Propagation of magnetosonic and whistler-mode waves from the magnetosphere and atmosphere into the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolik, O.; Parrot, M.; Chum, J.; Nemec, F.

    2009-04-01

    We summarize observations of the DEMETER spacecraft in the top-side ionosphere related to the lightning activity, to the downward propagating magnetospheric chorus emissions and to the magnetosonic harmonic ELF emissions close to the geomagnetic equator. At the 707 km altitude of DEMETER, we have observed 3D electric and magnetic field waveforms of fractional-hop whistlers. We identify corresponding source lightning strokes and we perform multidimensional analysis of the measurements and obtain detailed information on wave polarization characteristics and propagation directions. This allows us for the first time to combine these measurements with ray tracing simulation in order to directly characterize how the radiation penetrates through the ionosphere. We also interpret observations of low-altitude electromagnetic ELF hiss observed on the dayside at subauroral latitudes. These waves propagate with downward directed wave vectors which are slightly equatorward inclined at lower magnetic latitudes and slightly poleward inclined at higher latitudes. Reverse ray tracing indicates a possible source region near the geomagnetic equator at a radial distance between 5 and 7 Earth radii and we find that low-altitude ELF hiss contains discrete time-frequency structures resembling wave packets of whistler mode chorus. The reverse raypaths of ELF hiss are consistent with the hypothesis that the frequently observed dayside ELF hiss is a low-altitude manifestation of natural magnetospheric emissions of whistler mode chorus. Finally, we analyze waves that propagate in the extraordinary magnetosonic mode to the ionosphere from larger radial distances close to the plane of the geomagnetic equator. These waves show a characteristic harmonic structure very similar to previously reported observations of equatorial noise in the magnetosphere. The observed mode structure is influenced by the presence of multiple ions in the plasma of the top-side ionosphere but the spectral and

  12. Prompt Acceleration of Magnetospheric Electrons to Ultrarelativistic Energies by the 17 March 2015 Interplanetary Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Fennell, J. F.; Jones, A.; Schiller, Q.; Richardson, I.G.; Li, X.; Turner, D. L.; Califf, S.; Claudepierre, S. G.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Trapped electrons in Earth's outer Van Allen radiation belt are influenced profoundly by solar phenomena such as high-speed solar wind streams, coronal mass ejections (CME), and interplanetary (IP) shocks. In particular, strong IP shocks compress the magnetosphere suddenly and result in rapid energization of electrons within minutes. It is believed that the electric fields induced by the rapid change in the geomagnetic field are responsible for the energization. During the latter part of March 2015, a CME impact led to the most powerful geomagnetic storm (minimum Dst = -223 nT at 17 March, 23 UT) observed not only during the Van Allen Probe era but also the entire preceding decade. Magnetospheric response in the outer radiation belt eventually resulted in elevated levels of energized electrons. The CME itself was preceded by a strong IP shock whose immediate effects vis-a-vis electron energization were observed by sensors on board the Van Allen Probes. The comprehensive and high-quality data from the Van Allen Probes enable the determination of the location of the electron injection, timescales, and spectral aspects of the energized electrons. The observations clearly show that ultrarelativistic electrons with energies E greater than 6 MeV were injected deep into the magnetosphere at L approximately equals 3 within about 2 min of the shock impact. However, electrons in the energy range of approximately equals 250 keV to approximately equals 900 keV showed no immediate response to the IP shock. Electric and magnetic fields resulting from the shock-driven compression complete the comprehensive set of observations that provide a full description of the near-instantaneous electron energization.

  13. Electromagnetic Pulse in the Magnetosphere Generated by Impulsive Current near the Lower Boundary of the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkov, V. V.; Galperin, Yu. I.

    2000-11-01

    A solution to the problem of current spreading is constructed in the case of relaxation of electric charges, which have arisen in the mesosphere for one reason or other. These currents penetrate into the conductive region with anisotropic conductivity of the D- and E-layers of the ionosphere, being transformed to a MHD-wave that propagates into the magnetosphere. Based on this solution, the form and spectrum of the generated MHD signal are calculated for Alfvenic and magnetosonic modes coming out to the ionosphere and magnetosphere. Electric charges and currents can arise, for example, in the space between a thunderstorm cloud and the ionosphere, or between the shock wave from a ground explosion and the ionosphere. Some signal parameters accepted in the model are close to those expected for high-altitude electric discharges of the Red Sprite type. The conditions are determined under which the Alfven impulse with an amplitude of up to 100 nT propagates in the magnetosphere above high-altitude discharge of this type. Such an impulse was recorded by the AUREOL-3 satellite after the ground explosion MASSA-1. Recently, this impulse was hypothesized to originate as a result of a high-altitude electric discharge. The hypothesis on a similar MHD pulse allows one to explain in a semiquantitative way the short burst of electron field-aligned acceleration observed by the DE-2 satellite over the Debbie hurricane. The high-altitude atmospheric discharge of this type can be a powerful, though short-time and local, source of electrons with kiloelectronvolt energies at low and middle latitudes. One could expect that such an effect causes a modified character of the so-called Trimpi-effect (a short-term disturbance of propagation of VLF waves in the ionosphere), and thus, it can be observable.

  14. Plasma in Saturn's nightside magnetosphere and the implications for global circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcandrews, Hazel J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henderson, M G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tokar, R L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jackman, C M [IMPERIAL COLLEGE; Khurana, K K [UNIV OF CAL; Sittler, E C [NASA/GSFC; Coates, A J [MSSL; Dougherty, M K [IMPERIAL COLLEGE

    2009-01-01

    We present a bulk ion flow map from the nightside equatorial region of Saturn's magnetosphere derived from the Cassini CAPS ion mass spectrometer data. The map clearly demonstrates the dominance of corotation flow over radial flow and suggests that the flux tubes sampled are still closed and attached to the planet up to distances of 50 R{sub s}. The plasma characteristics in the near-midnight region are described and indicate a transition between the region of the magnetosphere containing plasma on closed drift paths and that containing flux tubes which may not complete a full rotation around the planet. Data from the electron spectrometer reveal two plasma states of high and low density. These are attributed either to the sampling of mass-loaded and depleted flux tubes, respectively, or to the latitudinal structure of the plasma sheet Depleted, returning flux tubes are not, in general, directly observed in the ions, although the electron observations suggest that such a process must take place in order to produce the low density population. Flux tube content is conserved below a limIt defined by the mass-loading and magnetic field strength and indicates that the flux tubes sampled may survive their passage through the tail. The conditions for mass release are evaluated using measured densities, angular velocities and magnetic field strength, The results suggest that for the relatively dense ion populations detectable by IMS, the condition for flux-tube breakage has not yet been exceeded, However, the low-density regimes observed in the electron data suggest that loaded flux tubes at greater distances do exceed the threshold for mass loss and subsequently return to the inner magnetosphere significantly depleted of plasma.

  15. Duality of the magnetic flux tube and electric current descriptions magnetospheric plasma and energy flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, G.

    1981-01-01

    The duality between electric current and magnetic flux tubes is outlined for the magnetosphere. Magnetic flux tubes are regarded as fluid elements subjected to various stresses. Current closure then becomes the dual of stress balance, and Poynting vector energy flow a dual of J x E dissipation. The stresses acting on a flux tube are magnetic stresses, which correspond to currents at a distance, and plasma stresses, which correspond to local currents. The duality between current and stress is traced for ionospheric ion drag forces, solar wind stresses at the magnetopause, inertial effects, and the effects of energetic plasma on flux tubes. The stress balance and dual current systems are outlined for idealized magnetospheres of increasing complexity. For a simple magnetosphere with no convective flow, the balance stresses are solar wind pressure and neutral sheet plasma pressure. The corresponding current systems are the Chapman-Ferraro magnetopause currents and the magetotail current system. The introduction of convective flow introduces further stresses: ionospheric ion drag. Alfven layer shielding, and an imbalance in day-night magnetic stresses due to transport of flux tubes to the nightside by the solar wind. These stresses balance, and hence the corresponding additional currents (the ionospheric Pedersen current and the electrojets, the partial ring current, and two other current systems from the magnetopause and tail) must form a closed current system and do so by the region I and II field-aligned currents of Iijima and Potemra. The energy flow in the above models is described in terms of both Poynting vectors and the above current systems. Temporal variations examined are (1) an increase in dayside merging and/or nightside reconnection, (2) an increase in the energy density of plasma in the plasma sheet, (3) an increase in ionospheric conductivity, and (4) an increase in solar wind pressure

  16. A very bright SAR arc: implications for extreme magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Baumgardner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the polar aurora visible during geomagnetic storms, stable auroral red (SAR arcs offer a sub-visual manifestation of direct magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I coupling at midlatitudes. The SAR arc emission at 6300 Å is driven by field-aligned magnetospheric energy transport from ring current/plasmapause locations into the ionosphere-thermosphere system. The first SAR arc was observed at the dawn of the space age (1956, and the typical brightness levels and occurrence patterns obtained from subsequent decades of observations appear to be consistent with the downward heat conduction theory, i.e., heated ambient F-layer electrons excite oxygen atoms to produce a spectrally pure emission. On very rare occasions, a SAR arc has been reported to be at brightness levels visible to the naked eye. Here we report on the first case of a very bright SAR arc (~13 kilo-Rayleighs observed by four diagnostic systems that sampled various aspects of the sub-auroral domain near Millstone Hill, MA, on the night of 29 October 1991: an imaging spectrograph, an all-sky camera, an incoherent scatter radar (ISR, and a DMSP satellite. Simulations of emission using the ISR and DMSP data with the MSIS neutral atmosphere succeed in reproducing the brightness levels observed. This provides a robust confirmation of M-I coupling theory in its most extreme aeronomic form within the innermost magnetosphere (L~2 during a rare superstorm event. The unusually high brightness value appears to be due to the rare occurrence of the heating of dense ionospheric plasma just equatorward of the trough/plasmapause location, in contrast to the more typical heating of the less dense F-layer within the trough.

  17. A very bright SAR arc: implications for extreme magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Baumgardner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the polar aurora visible during geomagnetic storms, stable auroral red (SAR arcs offer a sub-visual manifestation of direct magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I coupling at midlatitudes. The SAR arc emission at 6300 Å is driven by field-aligned magnetospheric energy transport from ring current/plasmapause locations into the ionosphere-thermosphere system. The first SAR arc was observed at the dawn of the space age (1956, and the typical brightness levels and occurrence patterns obtained from subsequent decades of observations appear to be consistent with the downward heat conduction theory, i.e., heated ambient F-layer electrons excite oxygen atoms to produce a spectrally pure emission. On very rare occasions, a SAR arc has been reported to be at brightness levels visible to the naked eye. Here we report on the first case of a very bright SAR arc (~13 kilo-Rayleighs observed by four diagnostic systems that sampled various aspects of the sub-auroral domain near Millstone Hill, MA, on the night of 29 October 1991: an imaging spectrograph, an all-sky camera, an incoherent scatter radar (ISR, and a DMSP satellite. Simulations of emission using the ISR and DMSP data with the MSIS neutral atmosphere succeed in reproducing the brightness levels observed. This provides a robust confirmation of M-I coupling theory in its most extreme aeronomic form within the innermost magnetosphere (L~2 during a rare superstorm event. The unusually high brightness value appears to be due to the rare occurrence of the heating of dense ionospheric plasma just equatorward of the trough/plasmapause location, in contrast to the more typical heating of the less dense F-layer within the trough.

  18. The first year of observations of Jupiter's magnetosphere from Juno's Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, P. W.; Allegrini, F.; Angold, N. G.; Bagenal, F.; Bolton, S. J.; Chae, K.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Ebert, R. W.; Gladstone, R.; Kim, T. K. H.; Kurth, W. S.; Levin, S.; Louarn, P.; Loeffler, C. E.; Mauk, B.; McComas, D. J.; Pollock, C. J.; Reno, M. L.; Szalay, J. R.; Thomsen, M. F.; Weidner, S.; Wilson, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Juno observations of the Jovian plasma environment are made by the Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE) which consists of two nearly identical electron sensors - JADE-E - and an ion sensor - JADE-I. JADE-E measures the electron distribution in the range of 100 eV to 100 keV and uses electrostatic deflection to measure the full pitch angle distribution. JADE-I measures the composition separated energy per charge in the range of 10 eV / q to 46 keV / q. The large orbit - apojove 110 Rj, perijove 1.05 Rj - allows JADE to periodically cross through the magnetopause into the magnetosheath, transverse the outer, middle, and inner magnetosphere, and measures the plasma population down to the ionosphere. We present here in situ plasma observations of the Jovian magnetosphere and topside ionosphere made by the JADE instrument during the first year in orbit. Dawn-side crossings of the plasmapause have shown a general dearth of heavy ions except during some intervals at lower magnetic latitudes. Plasma disk crossings in the middle and inner magnetosphere show a mixture of heavy and light ions. During perijove crossings at high latitudes when Juno was connected to the Io torus, JADE-I observed heavy ions with energies consistent with a corotating pickup population. In the auroral regions the core of the electron energy distribution is generally from about 100 eV when on field lines that are connected to the inner plasmasheet, several keVs when connected to the outer plasmasheet, and tens of keVs when Juno is over the polar regions. JADE has observed upward electron beams and upward loss cones, both in the north and south auroral regions, and downward electron beams in the south. Some of the beams are of short duration ( 1 s) implying that the magnetosphere has a very fine spatial and/or temporal structure within the auroral regions. Joint observations with the Waves instrument have demonstrated that the observed loss cone distributions provide sufficient growth rates

  19. Effect of magnetic field-aligned currents on VLF emissions in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, V.H.

    1988-01-01

    The dispersion relation for the electromagnetic electron cyclotron waves in the presence of magnetic field-aligned currents has been obtained. The kinetic distribution of electrons for the main body of plasma with a temperature anisotropy and a loss cone distribution have been considered. In general, it has been seen that the current moving along the direction of resonant electrons reduce the growth rate. This effect has been analysed in the case of magnetospheric plasma to suggest possible correlations between the Birkeland currents and the emissions of very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic waves. (author). 19 refs

  20. Ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic waves in the Earth's crust and magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmi, A V

    2007-01-01

    Research on natural intra- and extraterrestrially produced electromagnetic waves with periods ranging from 0.2 to 600 s is reviewed. The way in which the energy of rock movements transforms into the energy of an alternating magnetic field is analyzed. Methods for detecting seismomagnetic signals against a strong background are described. In discussing the physics of ultra-low-frequency waves in the magnetosphere, the 11-year activity modulation of 1-Hz waves and ponderomotive forces affecting plasma distribution are emphasized. (reviews of topical problems)

  1. Theory of ultra-low-frequency magnetic pulsations in the earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liu.

    1991-03-01

    Long-period (T = 10-600 s) geomagnetic pulsations are known to be associated with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) perturbations in the Earth's magnetosphere. Broadly speaking, there are two categories of excitation mechanisms. The first category corresponds to impulsive/external excitations, where MHD waves exhibit the stable discrete as well as continuous spectra. The second category corresponds to spontaneous/internal excitations, where MHD instabilities are excited either reactively or via wave-particle interactions. In this tutorial lecture, we briefly review theories concerning both categories of excitation mechanisms and compare theoretical predictions with available satellite observations. 20 refs

  2. AMPS sciences objectives and philosophy. [Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas-in-Space project on Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerling, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle will open a new era in the exploration of earth's near-space environment, where the weight and power capabilities of Spacelab and the ability to use man in real time add important new features. The Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas-in-Space project (AMPS) is conceived of as a facility where flexible core instruments can be flown repeatedly to perform different observations and experiments. The twin thrusts of remote sensing of the atmosphere below 120 km and active experiments on the space plasma are the major themes. They have broader implications in increasing our understanding of plasma physics and of energy conversion processes elsewhere in the universe.

  3. Magnetospheric line radiation: 6.5 years of observations by the DEMETER spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezděková, B.; Němec, F.; Parrot, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Krupařová, Oksana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 11 (2015), s. 9442-9456 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/2280; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S; GA ČR GP13-37174P; GA MŠk LH12231 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : magnetospheric line radiation * MLR * DEMETER Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015JA021246/full

  4. Conditions for double layers in the earth's magnetosphere and perhaps in other astrophysical objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.

    1987-01-01

    It is suggested that the features which govern the formation of the double layers are: (1) the divergence of the magnetospheric electric field, (2) the ionospheric conductivity, and (3) the current-voltage characteristics of auroral magnetic field lines. Also considered are conditions in other astrophysical objects that could lead to the formation of DLs in a manner analogous to what occurs in the earth's auroral zones. It is noted that two processes can drive divergent Pedersen currents within a collisional conducting layer: (1) sheared plasma flow applied anywhere along the magnetic field lines connected to the conducting layer and (2) a neutral flow with shear within the conducting layer.

  5. Prediction of high-energy (> 0.3 MeV) substorm-related magnetospheric particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Belian, R.D.; Higbie, P.R.; Hones, E.W. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements both at 6.6 R/sub E/ and in the plasma sheet (greater than or equal to 18 R/sub E/) show that high energy substorm-accelerated particles occur preferentially when the solar wind speed (V/sub sw/) is high. Virtually no > 0.3 MeV protons, for example, are observed in association with substorms that occur when V/sub sw/ is 700 km/sec. These results suggest that realtime monitoring of interplanetary conditions could allow simple, effective prediction of high energy magnetospheric particle disturbances. 7 references

  6. The Role of Solar Wind Structures in the Generation of ULF Waves in the Inner Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, L. R.; Souza, V. M.; Jauer, P. R.; da Silva, L. A.; Medeiros, C.; Braga, C. R.; Alves, M. V.; Koga, D.; Marchezi, J. P.; de Mendonça, R. R. S.; Dallaqua, R. S.; Barbosa, M. V. G.; Rockenbach, M.; Dal Lago, A.; Mendes, O.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Banik, M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Wygant, J. R.; Kletzing, C. A.

    2017-07-01

    The plasma of the solar wind incident upon the Earth's magnetosphere can produce several types of geoeffective events. Among them, an important phenomenon consists of the interrelation of the magnetospheric-ionospheric current systems and the charged-particle population of the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts. Ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves resonantly interacting with such particles have been claimed to play a major role in the energetic particle flux changes, particularly at the outer radiation belt, which is mainly composed of electrons at relativistic energies. In this article, we use global magnetohydrodynamic simulations along with in situ and ground-based observations to evaluate the ability of two different solar wind transient (SWT) events to generate ULF (few to tens of mHz) waves in the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere. Magnetic field and plasma data from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite were used to characterize these two SWT events as being a sector boundary crossing (SBC) on 24 September 2013, and an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) in conjunction with a shock on 2 October 2013. Associated with these events, the twin Van Allen Probes measured a depletion of the outer belt relativistic electron flux concurrent with magnetic and electric field power spectra consistent with ULF waves. Two ground-based observatories apart in 90°C longitude also showed evidence of ULF-wave activity for the two SWT events. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation results show that the ULF-like oscillations in the modeled electric and magnetic fields observed during both events are a result from the SWT coupling to the magnetosphere. The analysis of the MHD simulation results together with the observations leads to the conclusion that the two SWT structures analyzed in this article can be geoeffective on different levels, with each one leading to distinct ring current intensities, but both SWTs are related to the same disturbance in the

  7. Magnetospheric energy inputs into the upper atmospheres of the giant planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. A. Smith

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the effects of Joule heating upon the upper atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. We show that in addition to direct Joule heating there is an additional input of kinetic energy – ion drag energy – which we quantify relative to the Joule heating. We also show that fluctuations about the mean electric field, as observed in the Earth's ionosphere, may significantly increase the Joule heating itself. For physically plausible parameters these effects may increase previous estimates of the upper atmospheric energy input at Saturn from ~10 TW to ~20 TW.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Electric fields and currents; Planetary ionosphere – Magnetospheric physics (Auroral phenomena

  8. Energetic particles precipitation from the magnetosphere above the epicenter of approaching earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'perin, Yu.I.; Gladyshev, V.A.; Dzhordzhio, N.V.; Larkina, V.I.; Mogilevskij, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of seismo-magnetospheric effects and a discussion of possible processes leading to the respective particles precipitation enhancements are presented. It is supposed that ELF electromagnetic noises mostly in the 0.1-10 Hz range are exicited by MHD-waves generated in the ionospheric dynamo-region above the epicenter zone under the action of weak but relatively large-scale (tens of km) intra-acoustic waves originating from staggering of geological blocks with periods of order of minutes

  9. Experimental observations of strong double layers. [in triple plasma device for lower magnetospheric simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, P.; Hershkowitz, N.; Hubbard, R.; Joyce, G.

    1978-01-01

    A computer simulation is applied to the production of strong electric potential double layers (DL) in a triple plasma device. The simulation is intended to represent DL in the low magnetosphere above the auroral zones. The DL are described as standing electrostatic shocks with different energy coefficients in their strong and weak forms. The strong DL was generally found to be unstable, but stability could be imparted if a population of trapped electrons was presented. Stability increased with the length of the system. A schematic for the system is presented, and a phase-space plot of electrons (indicating system stability) is graphed.

  10. Polarization properties of Gendrin mode waves observed in the Earth's magnetosphere: observations and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Verkhoglyadova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We show a case of an outer zone magnetospheric electromagnetic wave propagating at the Gendrin angle, within uncertainty of the measurements. The chorus event occurred in a "minimum B pocket". For the illustrated example, the measured angle of wave propagation relative to the ambient magnetic field θkB was 58°±4°. For this event the theoretical Gendrin angle was 62°. Cold plasma model is used to demonstrate that Gendrin mode waves are right-hand circularly polarized, in excellent agreement with the observations.

  11. The role of cold plasma and its composition on the growth of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, J. M.; Johnson, J.; Engebretson, M. J.; Kim, E. H.; Tian, S.

    2017-12-01

    While it is currently well accepted that the free energy for growth of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in Earth's magnetosphere comes from unstable configurations of hot anisotropic ions that are injected into the ring current, several questions remain about what controls the instability. A recent study of the occurrence of EMIC waves relative to the plasmapause in Vallen Probes Data showed that plasma density gradients or enhancements were not the dominant factor in determining the site of EMIC wave generation [Tetrick et al. 2017]. However, the factors that control wave growth on each of the branches are not fully understood. For example, in some cases, the measured anisotropy is not adequate to explain local instability, and the relative importance of the density and composition of a cold plasma population is still uncertain. Several intervals of EMIC wave activity are analyzed to determine the role of a cold population in driving instability on each of the wave branches. This study utilizes the WHAMP (Waves in Homogeneous Anisotropic Magnetized Plasma) stability code with plasma distributions optimized to fit the observed distributions including temperature anisotropy, loss cone, and ring beam populations.

  12. Magnetospheric M