WorldWideScience

Sample records for international x-ray observatory

  1. Enhancing the International X-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Rolf; Dailey, Dean; Lillie, Charles; Spittler, Connie

    2010-07-01

    Over the last two years, we have studied system concepts for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) with the goal of increasing the science return of the mission and to reduce technical and cost risk. We have developed an optical bench concept that has the potential to increase the focal length from 20 to 25 m within the current mass and stability requirements. Our deployable bench is a tensegrity structure formed by two telescoping booms (compression) and a hexapod cable (tension) truss. This arrangement achieves the required stiffness for the optical bench at minimal mass while employing only high TRL components and flight proven elements. The concept is based on existing elements, can be fully tested on the ground and does not require new technology. Our design further features hinged, articulating solar panels, an optical bench fully enclosed in MLI and an instrument module with radially facing radiator panels. We find that our design can be used over a wide range of sun angles, thereby greatly increasing IXO's field of regard, without distorting the optical bench. This makes a much larger fraction of the sky instantaneously accessible to IXO.

  2. The Wide Field Imager of the International X-ray Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanescu, A., E-mail: astefan@hll.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Inst. f. anorganische und analytische Chemie, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Bautz, M.W. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Burrows, D.N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bombelli, L.; Fiorini, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Milano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Fraser, G. [Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Heinzinger, K. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstr. 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Herrmann, S. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr., 85748 Garching (Germany); Kuster, M. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Schlossgartenstr. 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lauf, T. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr., 85748 Garching (Germany); Lechner, P. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstr. 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Lutz, G. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Majewski, P. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstr. 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Meuris, A. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr., 85748 Garching (Germany); Murray, S.S. [Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-12-11

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) will be a joint X-ray observatory mission by ESA, NASA and JAXA. It will have a large effective area (3 m{sup 2} at 1.25 keV) grazing incidence mirror system with good angular resolution (5 arcsec at 0.1-10 keV) and will feature a comprehensive suite of scientific instruments: an X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer, a High Time Resolution Spectrometer, an X-ray Polarimeter, an X-ray Grating Spectrometer, a Hard X-ray Imager and a Wide-Field Imager. The Wide Field Imager (WFI) has a field-of-view of 18 ftx18 ft. It will be sensitive between 0.1 and 15 keV, offer the full angular resolution of the mirrors and good energy resolution. The WFI will be implemented as a 6 in. wafer-scale monolithical array of 1024x1024 pixels of 100x100{mu}m{sup 2} size. The DEpleted P-channel Field-Effect Transistors (DEPFET) forming the individual pixels are devices combining the functionalities of both detector and amplifier. Signal electrons are collected in a potential well below the transistor's gate, modulating the transistor current. Even when the device is powered off, the signal charge is collected and kept in the potential well below the gate until it is explicitly cleared. This makes flexible and fast readout modes possible.

  3. The wide field imager for the International X-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treis, J.; Bombelli, L.; Fiorini, C.; Herrmann, S.; Lauf, T.; Lechner, P.; Lutz, G.; Majewski, P.; Porro, M.; Richter, R. H.; Stefanescu, A.; Strüder, L.; de Vita, G.

    2009-08-01

    The large collecting area of the X-ray optics on the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), their good angular resolution, the wide bandwidth of X-ray energies and the high radiation tolerance required for the X-ray detectors in the focal plane have stimulated a new development of devices which unify all those science driven specifications in one single detector. The concept of a monolithic, back-illuminated silicon active pixel sensor (APS) based on the DEPFET structure is proposed for the IXO mission, being a fully depleted, back-illuminated 450 μm thick detector with a physical size of about 10 × 10 cm2 corresponding to the 18 arcmin field of view. The backside will be covered with an integrated optical light and UV-filter. Corresponding to the 5 arcsec angular resolution of the X-ray optics, 100 x 100 cm2 large pixels in a format of approximately 1024 x 1024 are envisaged, matching the point spread function of approximately 500 μm HEW of the optics. The energy range from 100 eV to 15 keV is achieved by an ultra thin radiation entrance window for the low energies and 450 μm depleted silicon thickness for higher energies. The fast readout of 1.000 full frames per second is realized by a dedicated analog CMOS front end amplifier IC. The detector device is intrinsically radiation hard. The leakage current from the bulk damage is controlled through the operation temperature around -60 °C and by the high readout speed. Results of various prototype measurements will be shown.

  4. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, M. C.

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory, one of NASA's Great Observatories, was successfully launched on July 23, 1999 by the Space Shuttle Columbia. After release from Columbia, an Inertial Upper Stage was used to further boost the observatory. After five subsequent firings over 15 days of an internal propulsion system, the Observatory was placed in a highly elliptical orbit. The first x-rays focussed by the telescope were observed on August 12, 1999. Despite an initial surprise that the x-ray telescope was far more efficient for concentrating low-energy protons than had been anticipated, the observatory is performing well and is returning superb scientific data. Operating together with other space observatories, most notably the recently activated XMM-Newton, it is clear that with Chandra we are entering a new era of discovery in high-energy astrophysics.

  5. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Observations of the Jovian System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, R. F.; Bhardwaj, A.; Gladstone, R.; Waite, J. H.; Ford, P.; Branduari-Raymont, G.

    2005-01-01

    Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) and XMM-Newton observations of x-rays from the Jovian system have answered questions that arose from early observations with the Einstein and Rosat X-ray Observatories, but in the process of vastly increasing our knowledge of x-ray emission from Jupiter and its environs they have also raised new questions and point to new opportunities for future studies. We will review recent x-ray results on the Jovian system, from the point of view of the CXO, and discuss various questions that have arisen in the course of our studies. We will discuss prospects for more observations in the immediate future, and how they might address open questions. Finally we will briefly describe ways in which an imaging x-ray spectrometer in the vicinity of the Jovian system could provide a wealth of data and results concerning Jupiter's x-ray auroral and disk emission, elemental abundance measurements for the Galilean moons, and detailed studies of x-ray emission from the Io Plasma Torus.

  6. The Large Observatory for x-ray timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feroci, M.; den Herder, J. W.; Bozzo, E.; Barret, D.; Brandt, S.; Hernanz, M.; van der Klis, M.; Pohl, M.; Santangelo, A.; Stella, L.; Watts, A.; Wilms, J.; Zane, S.; Ahangarianabhari, M.; Albertus, C.; Alford, M.; Alpar, A.; Altamirano, D.; Alvarez, L.; Amati, L.; Amoros, C.; Andersson, N.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.; Artigue, R.; Artigues, B.; Atteia, J.-L.; Azzarello, P.; Bakala, P.; Baldazzi, G.; Balman, S.; Barbera, M.; van Baren, C.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Baykal, A.; Belloni, T.; Bernardini, F.; Bertuccio, G.; Bianchi, S.; Bianchini, A.; Binko, P.; Blay, P.; Bocchino, F.; Bodin, P.; Bombaci, I.; Bonnet Bidaud, J.-M.; Boutloukos, S.; Bradley, L.; Braga, J.; Brown, E.; Bucciantini, N.; Burderi, L.; Burgay, M.; Bursa, M.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Cackett, E.; Cadoux, F. R.; Caïs, P.; Caliandro, G. A.; Campana, R.; Campana, S.; Capitanio, F.; Casares, J.; Casella, P.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cerda-Duran, P.; Chakrabarty, D.; Château, F.; Chenevez, J.; Coker, J.; Cole, R.; Collura, A.; Cornelisse, R.; Courvoisier, T.; Cros, A.; Cumming, A.; Cusumano, G.; D'Ai, A.; D'Elia, V.; Del Monte, E.; de Luca, A.; de Martino, D.; Dercksen, J. P. C.; de Pasquale, M.; De Rosa, A.; Del Santo, M.; Di Cosimo, S.; Diebold, S.; Di Salvo, T.; Donnarumma, I.; Drago, A.; Durant, M.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Erkut, M. H.; Esposito, P.; Evangelista, Y.; Fabian, A.; Falanga, M.; Favre, Y.; Feldman, C.; Ferrari, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Finger, M.; Finger, M. H.; Fraser, G. W.; Frericks, M.; Fuschino, F.; Gabler, M.; Galloway, D. K.; Galvez Sanchez, J. L.; Garcia-Berro, E.; Gendre, B.; Gezari, S.; Giles, A. B.; Gilfanov, M.; Giommi, P.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Gogus, E.; Goldwurm, A.; Goluchová, K.; Götz, D.; Gouiffes, C.; Grassi, M.; Groot, P.; Gschwender, M.; Gualtieri, L.; Guidorzi, C.; Guy, L.; Haas, D.; Haensel, P.; Hailey, M.; Hansen, F.; Hartmann, D. H.; Haswell, C. A.; Hebeler, K.; Heger, A.; Hermsen, W.; Homan, J.; Hornstrup, A.; Hudec, R.; Huovelin, J.; Ingram, A.; In't Zand, J. J. M.; Israel, G.; Iwasawa, K.; Izzo, L.; Jacobs, H. M.; Jetter, F.; Johannsen, T.; Jonker, P.; Josè, J.; Kaaret, P.; Kanbach, G.; Karas, V.; Karelin, D.; Kataria, D.; Keek, L.; Kennedy, T.; Klochkov, D.; Kluzniak, W.; Kokkotas, K.; Korpela, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kuiper, L. M.; Kuvvetli, I.; Labanti, C.; Lai, D.; Lamb, F. K.; Laubert, P. P.; Lebrun, F.; Lin, D.; Linder, D.; Lodato, G.; Longo, F.; Lund, N.; Maccarone, T. J.; Macera, D.; Maestre, S.; Mahmoodifar, S.; Maier, D.; Malcovati, P.; Mandel, I.; Mangano, V.; Manousakis, A.; Marisaldi, M.; Markowitz, A.; Martindale, A.; Matt, G.; McHardy, I. M.; Melatos, A.; Mendez, M.; Mereghetti, S.; Michalska, M.; Migliari, S.; Mignani, R.; Miller, M. C.; Miller, J. M.; Mineo, T.; Miniutti, G.; Morsink, S.; Motch, C.; Motta, S.; Mouchet, M.; Mouret, G.; Mulačová, J.; Muleri, F.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Negueruela, I.; Neilsen, J.; Norton, A. J.; Nowak, M.; O'Brien, P.; Olsen, P. E. H.; Orienti, M.; Orio, M.; Orlandini, M.; Orleański, P.; Osborne, J. P.; Osten, R.; Ozel, F.; Pacciani, L.; Paolillo, M.; Papitto, A.; Paredes, J. M.; Patruno, A.; Paul, B.; Perinati, E.; Pellizzoni, A.; Penacchioni, A. V.; Perez, M. A.; Petracek, V.; Pittori, C.; Pons, J.; Portell, J.; Possenti, A.; Poutanen, J.; Prakash, M.; Le Provost, P.; Psaltis, D.; Rambaud, D.; Ramon, P.; Ramsay, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Rachevski, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Ray, P. S.; Rea, N.; Reddy, S.; Reig, P.; Reina Aranda, M.; Remillard, R.; Reynolds, C.; Rezzolla, L.; Ribo, M.; de la Rie, R.; Riggio, A.; Rios, A.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Rodriguez, J.; Rohlfs, R.; Romano, P.; Rossi, E. M. R.; Rozanska, A.; Rousseau, A.; Ryde, F.; Sabau-Graziati, L.; Sala, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Sanna, A.; Sandberg, J.; Scaringi, S.; Schanne, S.; Schee, J.; Schmid, C.; Shore, S.; Schneider, R.; Schwenk, A.; Schwope, A. D.; Seyler, J.-Y.; Shearer, A.; Smith, A.; Smith, D. M.; Smith, P. J.; Sochora, V.; Soffitta, P.; Soleri, P.; Spencer, A.; Stappers, B.; Steiner, A. W.; Stergioulas, N.; Stratta, G.; Strohmayer, T. E.; Stuchlik, Z.; Suchy, S.; Sulemainov, V.; Takahashi, T.; Tamburini, F.; Tauris, T.; Tenzer, C.; Tolos, L.; Tombesi, F.; Tomsick, J.; Torok, G.; Torrejon, J. M.; Torres, D. F.; Tramacere, A.; Trois, A.; Turolla, R.; Turriziani, S.; Uter, P.; Uttley, P.; Vacchi, A.; Varniere, P.; Vaughan, S.; Vercellone, S.; Vrba, V.; Walton, D.; Watanabe, S.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Weinberg, N.; Wende, H.; Wheatley, P.; Wijers, R.; Wijnands, R.; Wille, M.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Winter, B.; Wood, K.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Zampieri, L.; Zdunik, L.; Zdziarski, A.; Zhang, B.; Zwart, F.; Ayre, M.; Boenke, T.; Corral van Damme, C.; Kuulkers, Erik; Lumb, D.

    The Large Observatory For x-ray Timing (LOFT) was studied within ESA M3 Cosmic Vision framework and participated in the final downselection for a launch slot in 2022-2024. Thanks to the unprecedented combination of effective area and spectral resolution of its main instrument, LOFT will study the

  7. The Large Observatory For x-ray Timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feroci, M.; Herder, J. W. den; Bozzo, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Large Observatory For x-ray Timing (LOFT) was studied within ESA M3 Cosmic Vision framework and participated in the final down-selection for a launch slot in 2022-2024. Thanks to the unprecedented combination of effective area and spectral resolution of its main instrument, LOFT will study...

  8. Highlights and discoveries from the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tananbaum, H; Weisskopf, M C; Tucker, W; Wilkes, B; Edmonds, P

    2014-06-01

    Within 40 years of the detection of the first extra-solar x-ray source in 1962, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has achieved an increase in sensitivity of 10 orders of magnitude, comparable to the gain in going from naked-eye observations to the most powerful optical telescopes over the past 400 years. Chandra is unique in its capabilities for producing sub-arcsecond x-ray images with 100-200 eV energy resolution for energies in the range 0.08 black holes; the growth of supermassive black holes and their role in the regulation of star formation and growth of galaxies; impacts of collisions, mergers, and feedback on growth and evolution of groups and clusters of galaxies; and properties of dark matter and dark energy.

  9. Astronomical imaging with the X-ray observatory Hitomi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hitomi Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    We report an imaging capability of the Japan-led X-ray observatory Hitomi, formerly known as ASTRO-H. It carries four scientific instruments of Soft X-ray Imager (SXI: CCD camera), Hard X-ray Imager (HXI), Soft X-ray Spectrometer, and Soft Gamma-ray Detector, allowing us to perform a wide-band high-sensitive imaging spectroscopy. We highlight the specification and the performance we obtained with primarily regard to X-ray and soft gamma-ray imaging. Primary imaging instrument SXI utilizes four large-area X-ray CCDs positioned at the focal plane of Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT-I). Imaging area with a size of 62 mm square makes a largest field of view (FoV) of 38‧ square among the focal plane X-ray detectors, which enables us to observe extended objects such as clusters of galaxies and galactic supernova remnants with a single pointing in the soft X-ray band from 0.4 to 12 keV. HXI employs the hybrid sensors consisting of four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors and a single layer of cadmium telluride double-sided strip detector covering the energy band from 5 to 80 keV. After the successful launch of Hitomi on February 17th, 2016 and the subsequent start up of all the instruments, imaging performance of both imagers are verified as expected from the ground calibration tests. The position of the active galactic nucleus of the central galaxy NGC1275 in the Perseus cluster is precisely seen by SXI, while the positional difference of line-of-sight velocity dispersion of the hot intracluster medium is measured inside by SXS. From the observation of Crab nebula, we obtain the on-pulse hard X-ray image with HXI as well as the time-averaged image in which the torus of the pulsar wind nebula can be seen.

  10. The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feroci, M.; Stella, L.; van der Klis, M.

    2012-01-01

    High-time-resolution X-ray observations of compact objects provide direct access to strong-field gravity, to the equation of state of ultradense matter and to black hole masses and spins. A 10 m²-class instrument in combination with good spectral resolution is required to exploit the relevant......? The Large Observatory For X-ray Timing (LOFT), selected by ESA as one of the four Cosmic Vision M3 candidate missions to undergo an assessment phase, will revolutionise the study of collapsed objects in our galaxy and of the brightest supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei. Thanks...... diagnostics and answer two of the fundamental questions of the European Space Agency (ESA) Cosmic Vision Theme "Matter under extreme conditions", namely: does matter orbiting close to the event horizon follow the predictions of general relativity? What is the equation of state of matter in neutron stars...

  11. Studies of dark energy with X-ray observatories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2010-04-20

    I review the contribution of Chandra X-ray Observatory to studies of dark energy. There are two broad classes of observable effects of dark energy: evolution of the expansion rate of the Universe, and slow down in the rate of growth of cosmic structures. Chandra has detected and measured both of these effects through observations of galaxy clusters. A combination of the Chandra results with other cosmological datasets leads to 5% constraints on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, and limits possible deviations of gravity on large scales from general relativity.

  12. The Chandra X-ray Observatory data processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ian; Cresitello-Dittmar, Mark; Doe, Stephen; Evans, Janet; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Germain, Gregg; Glotfelty, Kenny; Plummer, David; Zografou, Panagoula

    2006-06-01

    Raw data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory are processed by a set of standard data processing pipelines to create scientifically useful data products appropriate for further analysis by end users. Fully automated pipelines read the dumped raw telemetry byte stream from the spacecraft and perform the common reductions and calibrations necessary to remove spacecraft and instrumental signatures and convert the data into physically meaningful quantities that can be further analyzed by observers. The resulting data products are subject to automated validation to ensure correct pipeline processing and verify that the spacecraft configuration and scheduling matched the observers request and any constraints. In addition, pipeline processing monitors science and engineering data for anomalous indications and trending, and triggers alerts if appropriate. Data products are ingested and stored in the Chandra Data Archive, where they are made available for downloading by users. In this paper, we describe the architecture of the data processing system, including the scientific algorithms that are applied to the data, and interfaces to other subsystems. We place particular emphasis on the impacts of design choices on system integrity and maintainability. We review areas where algorithmic improvements or changes in instrument characteristics have required significant enhancements, and the mechanisms used to effect these changes while assuring continued scientific integrity and robustness. We discuss major enhancements to the data processing system that are currently being developed to automate production of the Chandra Source Catalog.

  13. TRW Ships NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory To Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Two U.S. Air Force C-5 Galaxy transport planes carrying the observatory and its ground support equipment landed at Kennedy's Space Shuttle Landing Facility at 2:40 p.m. EST this afternoon. REDONDO BEACH, CA.--(Business Wire)--Feb. 4, 1999--TRW has shipped NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory ("Chandra") to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), in Florida, in preparation for a Space Shuttle launch later this year. The 45-foot-tall, 5-ton science satellite will provide astronomers with new information on supernova remnants, the surroundings of black holes, and other celestial phenomena that produce vast quantities of X-rays. Cradled safely in the cargo hold of a tractor-trailer rig called the Space Cargo Transportation System (SCTS), NASA's newest space telescope was ferried on Feb. 4 from Los Angeles International Airport to KSC aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy transporter. The SCTS, an Air Force container, closely resembles the size and shape of the Shuttle cargo bay. Over the next few months, Chandra will undergo final tests at KSC and be mated to a Boeing-provided Inertial Upper Stage for launch aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. A launch date for the Space Shuttle STS-93 mission is expected to be announced later this week. The third in NASA's family of Great Observatories that includes the Hubble Space Telescope and the TRW-built Compton Gamma Ray observatory, Chandra will use the world's most powerful X-ray telescope to allow scientists to "see" and monitor cosmic events that are invisible to conventional optical telescopes. Chandra's X-ray images will yield new insight into celestial phenomena such as the temperature and extent of gas clouds that comprise clusters of galaxies and the superheating of gas and dust particles as they swirl into black holes. A TRW-led team that includes the Eastman Kodak Co., Raytheon Optical Systems Inc., and Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. designed and built the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The

  14. High Resolution, Non-Dispersive X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers on EBITs and Orbiting Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Frederick S.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopy is the primary tool for performing atomic physics with Electron beam ion trap (EBITs). X-ray instruments have generally fallen into two general categories, 1) dispersive instruments with very high spectral resolving powers but limited spectral range, limited count rates, and require an entrance slit, generally, for EBITs, defined by the electron beam itself, and 2) non-dispersive solid-state detectors with much lower spectral resolving powers but that have a broad dynamic range, high count rate ability and do not require a slit. Both of these approaches have compromises that limit the type and efficiency of measurements that can be performed. In 1984 NASA initiated a program to produce a non-dispersive instrument with high spectral resolving power for x-ray astrophysics based on the cryogenic x-ray calorimeter. This program produced the XRS non-dispersive spectrometers on the Astro-E, Astro-E2 (Suzaku) orbiting observatories, the SXS instrument on the Astro-H observatory, and the planned XMS instrument on the International X-ray Observatory. Complimenting these spaceflight programs, a permanent high-resolution x-ray calorimeter spectrometer, the XRS/EBIT, was installed on the LLNL EBIT in 2000. This unique instrument was upgraded to a spectral resolving power of 1000 at 6 keV in 2003 and replaced by a nearly autonomous production-class spectrometer, the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), in 2007. The ECS spectrometer has a simultaneous bandpass from 0.07 to over 100 keV with a spectral resolving power of 1300 at 6 keV with unit quantum efficiency, and 1900 at 60 keV with a quantum efficiency of 30%. X-ray calorimeters are event based, single photon spectrometers with event time tagging to better than 10 us. We are currently developing a follow-on instrument based on a newer generation of x-ray calorimeters with a spectral resolving power of 3000 at 6 keV, and improved timing and measurement cadence. The unique capabilities of the x-ray

  15. Role of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Observations for the Study of Ionized Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2010-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory, launched in 1999, is now beginning its 12-th year of operation. Chandra, the X-ray component of NASA s Great Observatory program, continues to operate efficiently, somewhat remarkable considering that the Observatory was designed for three years of operation with a goal of five. The Observatory features X-ray optics with sub-arcsecond angular resolution and a small suite of instruments, including transmission gratings, which allow for high-resolution spectroscopy of point sources. We will detail the capabilities of the Observatory for making such spectroscopic measurements and discuss a number of examples of what has been learned about the astrophysical plasmas capable of producing bright X-ray emission.

  16. 14th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Menoni, Carmen; Marconi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings comprise invited and contributed papers presented at the 14th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2014). This conference is part of a continuing series dedicated to recent developments and applications of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with attention to supporting technologies and instrumentation. New results in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays and progress toward practical devices and their applications in numerous fields are reported. Areas of research in plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generation, and other x-ray generation schemes are covered.  The scope of ICXRL 2014 included, but was not limited to: Laser-pumped X-ray lasers Discharge excitation and other X-ray laser pumping methods Injection/seeding of X-ray amplifiers New lasing transitions and novel X-ray laser schemes High Harmonic sources-Free-electron laser generation in the XUV and X-ray range Novel schemes for coherent XUV and X-ray ge...

  17. LOFT: the Large Observatory For x-ray Timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feroci, M.; den Herder, J.W.; Bozzo, E.; Barret, D.; Brandt, S.; Hernanz, M.; van der Klis, M.; Pohl, M.; Santangelo, A.; Stella, L.; Watts, A.; Wilms, J.; Zane, S.; Ahangarianabhari, M.; Alpar, A.; Altamirano, D.; Alvarez, L.; Amati, L.; Amoros, C.; Andersson, N.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.; Artigue, R.; Azzarello, P.; Baldazzi, G.; Balman, S.; Barbera, M.; Belloni, T.; Bertuccio, G.; Bianchi, S.; Bianchini, A.; Bodin, P.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.M.; Boutloukos, S.; Braga, J.; Brown, E.; Bucciantini, N.; Burderi, L.; Bursa, M.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Cackett, E.; Cadoux, F.R.; Cais, P.; Caliandro, G.A.; Campana, R.; Campana, S.; Casella, P.; Chakrabarty, D.; Chenevez, J.; Coker, J.; Cole, R.; Collura, A.; Courvoisier, T.; Cros, A.; Cumming, A.; Cusumano, G.; D'Ai, A.; D'Elia, V.; Del Monte, E.; De Martino, D.; De Rosa, A.; Di Cosimo, S.; Diebold, S.; Di Salvo, T.; Donnarumma, I.; Drago, A.; Durant, M.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Evangelista, Y.; Fabian, A.; Falanga, M.; Favre, Y.; Feldman, C.; Ferrigno, C.; Finger, M.H.; Fraser, G.W.; Fuschino, F.; Galloway, D.; Galvez Sanchez, J.L.; Garcia-Berro, E.; Gendre, B.; Gezari, S.; Giles, A.B.; Gilfanov, M.; Giommi, P.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Goldwurm, A.; Götz, D.; Gouiffes, C.; Grassi, M.; Groot, P.; Guidorzi, C.; Haas, D.; Hansen, F.; Hartmann, D.H.; Haswell, C.A.; Heger, A.; Homan, J.; Hornstrup, A.; Hudec, R.; Huovelin, J.; Ingram, A.; in 't Zand, J.J.M.; Isern, J.; Israel, G.; Izzo, L.; Jonker, P.; Kaaret, P.; Karas, V.; Karelin, D.; Kataria, D.; Keek, L.; Kennedy, T.; Klochkov, D.; Kluzniak, W.; Kokkotas, K.; Korpela, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kuiper, L.M.; Kuvvetli, I.; Labanti, C.; Lai, D.; Lamb, F.K.; Lebrun, F.; Lin, D.; Linder, D.; Lodato, G.; Longo, F.; Lund, N.; Maccarone, T.J.; Macera, D.; Maier, D.; Malcovati, P.; Mangano, V.; Manousakis, A.; Marisaldi, M.; Markowitz, A.; Martindale, A.; Matt, G.; McHardy, I.M.; Melatos, A.; Mendez, M.; Migliari, S.; Mignani, R.; Miller, M.C.; Miller, J.M.; Mineo, T.; Miniutti, G.; Morsink, S.; Motch, C.; Motta, S.; Mouchet, M.; Muleri, F.; Norton, A.J.; Nowak, M.; O'Brien, P.; Orienti, M.; Orio, M.; Orlandini, M.; Orleanski, P.; Osborne, J.P.; Osten, R.; Ozel, F.; Pacciani, L.; Papitto, A.; Paul, B.; Perinati, E.; Petracek, V.; Portell, J.; Poutanen, J.; Psaltis, D.; Rambaud, D.; Ramsay, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Rachevski, A.; Ray, P.S.; Rea, N.; Reddy, S.; Reig, P.; Reina Aranda, M.; Remillard, R.; Reynolds, C.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Rodriguez, J.; Romano, P.; Rossi, E.M.R.; Ryde, F.; Sabau-Graziati, L.; Sala, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Sanna, A.; Schanne, S.; Schee, J.; Schmid, C.; Schwenk, A.; Schwope, A.D.; Seyler, J.Y.; Shearer, A.; Smith, A.; Smith, D.M.; Smith, P.J.; Sochora, V.; Soffitta, P.; Soleri, P.; Stappers, B.; Stelzer, B.; Stergioulas, N.; Stratta, G.; Strohmayer, T.E.; Stuchlik, Z.; Suchy, S.; Sulemainov, V.; Takahashi, T.; Tamburini, F.; Tenzer, C.; Tolos, L.; Torok, G.; Torrejon, J.M.; Torres, D.F.; Tramacere, A.; Trois, A.; Turriziani, S.; Uter, P.; Uttley, P.; Vacchi, A.; Varniere, P.; Vaughan, S.; Vercellone, S.; Vrba, V.; Walton, D.; Watanabe, S.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Weinberg, N.; Wende, H.; Wheatley, P.; Wijers, R.; Wijnands, R.; Wille, M.; Wilson-Hodge, C.A.; Winter, B.; Wood, K.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Zampieri, L.; Zdziarski, A.; Zhang, B.

    2012-01-01

    The LOFT mission concept is one of four candidates selected by ESA for the M3 launch opportunity as Medium Size missions of the Cosmic Vision programme. The launch window is currently planned for between 2022 and 2024. LOFT is designed to exploit the diagnostics of rapid X-ray flux and spectral

  18. LOFT: the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feroci, M.; den Herder, J. W.; Bozzo, E.; Barret, D.; Brandt, S.; Hernanz, M.; van der Klis, M.; Pohl, M.; Santangelo, A.; Stella, L.; Watts, A.; Wilms, J.; Zane, S.; Ahangarianabhari, M.; Alpar, A.; Altamirano, D.; Alvarez, L.; Amati, L.; Amoros, C.; Andersson, N.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.; Artigue, R.; Azzarello, P.; Baldazzi, G.; Balman, S.; Barbera, M.; Belloni, T.; Bertuccio, G.; Bianchi, S.; Bianchini, A.; Bodin, P.; Bonnet Bidaud, J.-M.; Boutloukos, S.; Braga, J.; Brown, E.; Bucciantini, N.; Burderi, L.; Bursa, M.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Cackett, E.; Cadoux, F. R.; Cais, P.; Caliandro, G. A.; Campana, R.; Campana, S.; Casella, P.; Chakrabarty, D.; Chenevez, J.; Coker, J.; Cole, R.; Collura, A.; Courvoisier, T.; Cros, A.; Cumming, A.; Cusumano, G.; D'Ai, A.; D'Elia, V.; Del Monte, E.; de Martino, D.; De Rosa, A.; Di Cosimo, S.; Diebold, S.; Di Salvo, T.; Donnarumma, I.; Drago, A.; Durant, M.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Evangelista, Y.; Fabian, A.; Falanga, M.; Favre, Y.; Feldman, C.; Ferrigno, C.; Finger, M. H.; Fraser, G. W.; Fuschino, F.; Galloway, D. K.; Galvez Sanchez, J. L.; Garcia-Berro, E.; Gendre, B.; Gezari, S.; Giles, A. B.; Gilfanov, M.; Giommi, P.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Goldwurm, A.; Götz, D.; Gouiffes, C.; Grassi, M.; Groot, P.; Guidorzi, C.; Haas, D.; Hansen, F.; Hartmann, D. H.; Haswell, C. A.; Heger, A.; Homan, J.; Hornstrup, A.; Hudec, R.; Huovelin, J.; Ingram, A.; In't Zand, J. J. M.; Isern, J.; Israel, G.; Izzo, L.; Jonker, P.; Kaaret, P.; Karas, V.; Karelin, D.; Kataria, D.; Keek, L.; Kennedy, T.; Klochkov, D.; Kluzniak, W.; Kokkotas, K.; Korpela, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kuiper, L. M.; Kuvvetli, I.; Labanti, C.; Lai, D.; Lamb, F. K.; Lebrun, F.; Lin, D.; Linder, D.; Lodato, G.; Longo, F.; Lund, N.; Maccarone, T. J.; Macera, D.; Maier, D.; Malcovati, P.; Mangano, V.; Manousakis, A.; Marisaldi, M.; Markowitz, A.; Martindale, A.; Matt, G.; McHardy, I. M.; Melatos, A.; Mendez, M.; Migliari, S.; Mignani, R.; Miller, M. C.; Miller, J. M.; Mineo, T.; Miniutti, G.; Morsink, S.; Motch, C.; Motta, S.; Mouchet, M.; Muleri, F.; Norton, A. J.; Nowak, M.; O'Brien, P.; Orienti, M.; Orio, M.; Orlandini, M.; Orleanski, P.; Osborne, J. P.; Osten, R.; Ozel, F.; Pacciani, L.; Papitto, A.; Paul, B.; Perinati, E.; Petracek, V.; Portell, J.; Poutanen, J.; Psaltis, D.; Rambaud, D.; Ramsay, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Rachevski, A.; Ray, P. S.; Rea, N.; Reddy, S.; Reig, P.; Reina Aranda, M.; Remillard, R.; Reynolds, C.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Rodriguez, J.; Romano, P.; Rossi, E. M. R.; Ryde, F.; Sabau-Graziati, L.; Sala, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Sanna, A.; Schanne, S.; Schee, J.; Schmid, C.; Schwenk, A.; Schwope, A. D.; Seyler, J.-Y.; Shearer, A.; Smith, A.; Smith, D. M.; Smith, P. J.; Sochora, V.; Soffitta, P.; Soleri, P.; Stappers, B.; Steltzer, B.; Stergioulas, N.; Stratta, G.; Strohmayer, T. E.; Stuchlik, Z.; Suchy, S.; Sulemainov, V.; Takahashi, T.; Tamburini, F.; Tenzer, C.; Tolos, L.; Torok, G.; Torrejon, J. M.; Torres, D. F.; Tramacere, A.; Trois, A.; Turriziani, S.; Uter, P.; Uttley, P.; Vacchi, A.; Varniere, P.; Vaughan, S.; Vercellone, S.; Vrba, V.; Walton, D.; Watanabe, S.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Weinberg, N.; Wende, H.; Wheatley, P.; Wijers, R.; Wijnands, R.; Wille, M.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Winter, B.; Wood, K.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Zampieri, L.; Zdziarski, A.; Zhang, B.

    2012-01-01

    The LOFT mission concept is one of four candidates selected by ESA for the M3 launch opportunity as Medium Size missions of the Cosmic Vision programme. The launch window is currently planned for between 2022 and 2024. LOFT is designed to exploit the diagnostics of rapid X-ray flux and spectral

  19. The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feroci, M.; Stella, L.; van der Klis, M.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Hernanz, M.; Hudec, R.; Santangelo, A.; Walton, D.; Zdziarski, A.; Barret, D.; Belloni, T.; Braga, J.; Brandt, S.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Campana, S.; den Herder, J.W.; Huovelin, J.; Israel, G.L.; Pohl, M.; Ray, P.; Vacchi, A.; Zane, S.; Argan, A.; Attinà, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bozzo, E.; Campana, R.; Chakrabarty, D.; Costa, E.; De Rosa, A.; Del Monte, E.; Di Cosimo, S.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Haas, D.; Jonker, P.; Korpela, S.; Labanti, C.; Malcovati, P.; Mignani, R.; Muleri, F.; Rapisarda, M.; Rashevsky, A.; Rea, N.; Rubini, A.; Tenzer, C.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Winter, B.; Wood, K.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Abramowicz, M.A.; Alpar, M.A.; Altamirano, D.; Alvarez, J.M.; Amati, L.; Amoros, C.; Antonelli, L.A.; Artigue, R.; Azzarello, P.; Bachetti, M.; Baldazzi, G.; Barbera, M.; Barbieri, C.; Basa, S.; Baykal, A.; Belmont, R.; Boirin, L.; Bonvicini, V.; Burderi, L.; Bursa, M.; Cabanac, C.; Cackett, E.; Caliandro, G.A.; Casella, P.; Chaty, S.; Chenevez, J.; Coe, M.J.; Collura, A.; Corongiu, A.; Covino, S.; Cusumano, G.; D'Amico, F.; Dall'Osso, S.; De Martino, D.; De Paris, G.; Di Persio, G.; Di Salvo, T.; Done, C.; Dovčiak, M.; Drago, A.; Ertan, U.; Fabiani, S.; Falanga, M.; Fender, R.; Ferrando, P.; Della Monica Ferreira, D.; Fraser, G.; Frontera, F.; Fuschino, F.; Galvez, J.L.; Gandhi, P.; Giommi, P.; Godet, O.; Göǧüş, E.; Goldwurm, A.; Götz, D.; Grassi, M.; Guttridge, P.; Hakala, P.; Henri, G.; Hermsen, W.; Horak, J.; Hornstrup, A.; in 't Zand, J.J.M.; Isern, J.; Kalemci, E.; Kanbach, G.; Karas, V.; Kataria, D.; Kennedy, T.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kokkotas, K.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Krolik, J.; Kuiper, L.; Kuvvetli, I.; Kylafis, N.; Lattimer, J.M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Leahy, D.; Lebrun, F.; Lin, D.; Lund, N.; Maccarone, T.; Malzac, J.; Marisaldi, M.; Martindale, A.; Mastropietro, M.; McClintock, J.; McHardy, I.; Mendez, M.; Mereghetti, S.; Miller, M.C.; Mineo, T.; Morelli, E.; Morsink, S.; Motch, C.; Motta, S.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Naletto, G.; Neustroev, V.; Nevalainen, J.; Olive, J.F.; Orio, M.; Orlandini, M.; Orleanski, P.; Ozel, F.; Pacciani, L.; Paltani, S.; Papadakis, I.E.; Papitto, A.; Patruno, A.; Pellizzoni, A.; Petráček, V.; Petri, J.; Petrucci, P.O.; Phlips, B.; Picolli, L.; Possenti, A.; Psaltis, D.; Rambaud, D.; Reig, P.; Remillard, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Romano, P.; Romanova, M.; Schanz, T.; Schmid, C.; Segreto, A.; Shearer, A.; Smith, A.; Smith, P.J.; Soffitta, P.; Stergioulas, N.; Stolarski, M.; Stuchlik, Z.; Tiengo, A.; Torres, D.; Török, G.; Turolla, R.; Uttley, P.; Vaughan, S.; Vercellone, S.; Waters, R.; Watts, A.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Wilms, J.; Zampieri, L.; Zezas, A.; Ziolkowski, J.

    2012-01-01

    High-time-resolution X-ray observations of compact objects provide direct access to strong-field gravity, to the equation of state of ultradense matter and to black hole masses and spins. A 10 m2-class instrument in combination with good spectral resolution is required to exploit the relevant

  20. LOFT - The large observatory for x-ray timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feroci, M.; Den Herder, J.W.; Argan, A.

    2012-01-01

    The LOFT mission concept is one of four candidates selected by ESA for the M3 launch opportunity as Medium Size missions of the Cosmic Vision programme. The launch window is currently planned for between 2022 and 2024. LOFT is designed to exploit the diagnostics of rapid X-ray flux and spectral...

  1. The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feroci, M.; Stella, L.; van der Klis, M.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Hernanz, M.; Hudec, René; Bursa, Michal; Dovčiak, Michal; Horák, Jiří; Karas, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2012), s. 415-444 ISSN 0922-6435 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : X-ray astronomy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.969, year: 2012

  2. Development Roadmap for an Adjustable X-Ray Optics Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Dan; Brissenden, R.; Bookbinder, J.; Davis, W.; Forman, W.; Freeman, M.; O'Dell, S.; Ramsey, B.; Reid, P.; Romaine, S.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We are developing adjustable X-ray optics to use on a mission such as SMART-X (see posters 38.02, 38.03 and Presentation 30.03). To satisfy the science problems expected to be posed by the next decadal survey, we anticipate requiring effective area greater than 1 square meter and Chandra-like angular resolution: approximately equal to 0.5 inches. To achieve such precise resolution we are developing adjustable mirror technology for X-ray astronomy application. This uses a thin film of piezoelectric material deposited on the back surface of the mirror to correct for figure distortions, including manufacturing errors and deflections due to gravity and thermal effects. We present here a plan to raise this technology from its current Level 2, to Level 6, by 2018.

  3. Modeling Contamination Migration on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory - III

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tice, Neil W.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Grant, Catherine E.; Marshall, Herman L.; Vikhlinin, Alexy A.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Dahmer, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    During its first 16 years of operation, the cold (about -60 C) optical blocking filter of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory, has accumulated a growing layer of molecular contamination that attenuates low-energy x rays. Over the past few years, the accumulation rate, spatial distribution, and composition have changed. This evolution has motivated further analysis of contamination migration within and near the ACIS cavity, in part to evaluate potential bake-out scenarios intended to reduce the level of contamination. Keywords: X-ray astronomy, CCDs, contamination, modeling and simulation, spacecraft operations

  4. The CHANDRA X-Ray Observatory: Thermal Design, Verification, and Early Orbit Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, David A.; Freeman, Mark D.; Lynch, Nicolie; Lavois, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The CHANDRA X-ray Observatory (formerly AXAF), one of NASA's "Great Observatories" was launched aboard the Shuttle in July 1999. CHANDRA comprises a grazing-incidence X-ray telescope of unprecedented focal-length, collecting area and angular resolution -- better than two orders of magnitude improvement in imaging performance over any previous soft X-ray (0.1-10 keV) mission. Two focal-plane instruments, one with a 150 K passively-cooled detector, provide celestial X-ray images and spectra. Thermal control of CHANDRA includes active systems for the telescope mirror and environment and the optical bench, and largely passive systems for the focal plans instruments. Performance testing of these thermal control systems required 1-1/2 years at increasing levels of integration, culminating in thermal-balance testing of the fully-configured observatory during the summer of 1998. This paper outlines details of thermal design tradeoffs and methods for both the Observatory and the two focal-plane instruments, the thermal verification philosophy of the Chandra program (what to test and at what level), and summarizes the results of the instrument, optical system and observatory testing.

  5. Modeling Contamination Migration on the Chandra X-ray Observatory II

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Steve; Swartz, Doug; Tice, Neil; Plucinsky, Paul; Grant, Catherine; Marshall, Herman; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    During its first 14 years of operation, the cold (about -60degC) optical blocking filter of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory, has accumulated a growing layer of molecular contamination that attenuates low-energy x rays. Over the past few years, the accumulation rate, spatial distribution, and composition may have changed, perhaps partially related to changes in the operating temperature of the ACIS housing. This evolution of the accumulation of the molecular contamination has motivated further analysis of contamination migration on the Chandra X-ray Observatory, particularly within and near the ACIS cavity. To this end, the current study employs a higher-fidelity geometric model of the ACIS cavity, detailed thermal modeling based upon monitored temperature data, and an accordingly refined model of the molecular transport.

  6. Development of manufacture of mirror glass substrate for x-ray timing and polarization observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenbo; Ge, Bing; Jin, Xin; Liu, Na; Liao, Yingyu; Ma, Bin; Bai, Yuhong; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-07-01

    In China, X-ray timing and polarization (XTP) observatory will have a collection area of 9,000 cm2 at 2 6 keV. The observatory consists of five identical hard X-ray telescopes and ten identical soft X-ray telescopes. The angular resolution is about 1 arcminute of HPD (half-power diameter). Each telescope consists of a large number of mirror segments precisely assembled together. Our development of the mirror glass substrate is presented in this manuscript. These substrates are produced by slumping commercially available thin glass sheets. Here, we report on our work of manufacturing these substrates. The optimization of the slumping procedure is described and optimal procedure parameters are reported. The figure error of slumped glass substrates was measured by a laser scanner and an interferometer with CGH. The measurement demonstrated that the figure error is lower enough for the construction of XTP telescopes.

  7. Observations of the Jovian System with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, R. F.; Tennant, A. F.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Crary, F. J.; Grodent, D.; Howell, R. R.; Johnson, R. E.; Bhardwaj, A.; hide

    2002-01-01

    The {\\sl Chandra X-ray Observatory) observed the Jovian system on 25-26 Nov 1999 with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), in support of the Galileo flyby of Io, and on 18 Dec 2000 with the imaging array of the High Resolution Camera (HRC-I), in support of the Cassini flyby of Jupiter. These sensitive, very high spatial-resolution X-ray observations have revealed that Jupiter's northern x-ray aurora originates at a spot fixed in a coordinate system rotating with the planet at latitude (60--70 deg north) and longitude (160--180 deg System III). Contrary to previous expectations, this location is poleward of the main FUV auroral oval and the foot of the Io Flux Tube, and is apparently connected magnetically to a region of the outer magnetosphere beyond $\\sim$30 Jupiter radii. The northern auroral x-ray emission varies with a period $\\sim$45 minute and has a an average power of $\\sim$1 GW. The earlier view that Jupiter's x-ray aurora resulted from the precipitation of heavy ions from the outer edge of the lo Plasma Torus is now in doubt. Jupiter's disk also emits x-rays with a power of $\\sim$2 GW, perhaps resulting from reprocessing of solar x-rays in its atmosphere. These observations reveal for the first time x-ray emission from the Io Plasma Torus, with a power of $\\sim$0.1 Gw. The origin of this emission is not currently understood, although bremmstrahlung from non-thermal electrons may play a significant role. Finally, we report the discovery of very faint ($\\sim$1--2 MW) soft x-ray emission from the Galilean satellites Io, Europa, and probably Ganymede, most likely as a result of bombardment of their surfaces by energetic ($ greater than $10 keV) H, O, and S ions from the region of the Io Plasma Torus.

  8. 3rd International Conference on X-ray Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrakhov, N. N.; Gryaznov, A. Yu; Lisenkov, A. A.; Kostrin, D. K.

    2017-02-01

    In this preface a brief history, modern aspects and future tendencies in development of the X-ray technique as seen from the 3rd International Conference on X-ray Technique that was held on 24-25 November 2016 in Saint Petersburg, Russia are described On 24-25 November 2016 in Saint Petersburg on the basis of Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI” n. a. V. I. Ulyanov (Lenin) was held the 3rd International Conference on X-ray Technique. The tradition to hold a similar conference in our country was laid in Soviet times. The last of them, the All-Union Conference on the Prospects of X-ray Tubes and Equipment was organized and held more than a quarter century ago - on 21-23 November 1999, at the initiative and under the leadership of the chief engineer of the Leningrad association of electronic industry “Svetlana” Borovsky Alexander Ivanovich and the chief of special design bureau of X-ray devices of “Svetlana” Shchukin Gennady Anatolievich. The most active part in the organization and work of the conference played members of the department of X-ray and electron beam instruments of Leningrad Electrotechnical Institute “LETI” (the former name of Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI”), represented by head of the department professor Ivanov Stanislav Alekseevich.

  9. The complete Einstein Observatory X-ray survey of the Orion Nebula region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Marc; Caillault, Jean-Pierre

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed archival Einstein Observatory images of a roughly 4.5 square degree region centered on the Orion Nebula. In all, 245 distinct X-ray sources have been detected in six High Resolution Imager (HRI) and 17 Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) observations. An optical database of over 2700 stars has been assembled to search for candidate counterparts to the X-ray sources. Roughly half the X-ray sources are identified with a single Orion Nebula cluster member. The 10 main-sequence O6-B5 cluster stars detected in Orion have X-ray activity levels comparable to field O and B stars. X-ray emission has also been detected in the direction of four main-sequence late-B and early-A type stars. Since the mechanisms producing X-rays in late-type coronae and early-type winds cannot operate in the late-B and early-A type atmospheres, we argue that the observed X-rays, with L(sub X) approximately = 3 x 10(exp 30) ergs/s, are probably produced in the coronae of unseen late-type binary companions. Over 100 X-ray sources have been associated with late-type pre-main sequence stars. The upper envelope of X-ray activity rises sharply from mid-F to late-G, with L(sub x)/L(sub bol) in the range 10(exp -4) to 2 x 10(exp -3) for stars later than approximately G7. We have looked for variability of the late-type cluster members on timescales of a day to a year and find that 1/4 of the stars show significantly variable X-ray emission. A handful of the late-type stars have published rotational periods and spectroscopic rotational velocities; however, we see no correlation between X-ray activity and rotation. Thus, for this sample of pre-main-sequence stars, the large dispersion in X-ray activity does not appear to be caused by the dispersion in rotation, in contrast with results obtained for low-mass main-sequence stars in the Pleiades and pre-main-sequence stars in Taurus-Auriga.

  10. Lessons from the development and operation of the Chandra x-ray observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.

    2014-07-01

    Genuine teamwork was a key ingredient of the success of the Chandra x-ray observatory mission. Examples are the science center personnel working as part of the instrument principal investigators (IPI) teams during pre-launch development, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) supporting NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by directly working with the prime contractor, TRW (now Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems), and TRW acceptance of outside scientists performing the data reduction and analysis for qualification of the aspect camera. An end-to-end thread was defined early on, based on the MSFC/SAO operation of the Einstein observatory x-ray telescope, and covered the cycle from solicitation and peer review of observation proposals through scheduling to data processing and delivery. An open science working group chaired by MSFC included instrument principal investigators and interdisciplinary scientists spanning diverse astrophysical and instrumental expertise.

  11. 13th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Gautier, Julien; Ros, David; Zeitoun, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings comprise of invited and contributed papers presented at the 13th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2012) which was held 11–15 June 2012 in Paris, in the famous Quartier Latin, inside the historical Center of Cordeliers. This conference is part of a continuing series dedicated to recent developments and applications of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with attention to supporting technologies and instrumentation. New results in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays and progress towards practical devices and their applications are reported in these proceedings, including areas of research in plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generation. Recent achievements related to the increase of the repetition rate up to 100 Hz and shorter wavelength collisional plasma-based soft x-ray lasers down to about 7 nm are presented. Seeding the amplifying plasma with a femtosecond high-order harmonic of infrared laser was fore...

  12. Modeling Contamination Migration on the Chandra X-ray Observatory - II

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tice, Neil W.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Grant, Catherine E.; Marshall, Herman L.; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.; Tennant, Allyn F.

    2013-01-01

    During its first 14 years of operation, the cold (about -60C) optical blocking filter of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory, has accumulated a growing layer of molecular contamination that attenuates low-energy x rays. Over the past few years, the accumulation rate, spatial distribution, and composition have changed. This evolution has motivated further analysis of contamination migration within and near the ACIS cavity. To this end, the current study employs a higher-fidelity geometric model of the ACIS cavity, detailed thermal modeling based upon temperature data, and a refined model of the molecular transport.

  13. Observations of the Crab Nebula with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    The Crab Nebula and its pulsar has been the subject of a number of detailed observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The superb angular resolution of Chandra s high-resolution telescope has made possible numerous remarkable results. Here we describe a number of specific studies of the Crab that I and my colleagues have undertaken. We discuss the geometry of the system, which indicates that the "inner X-ray ring", typically identified with the termination shock of the pulsar s particle wind, is most likely not in the equatorial plane of the pulsar. Other topics are the northern wisps and their evolution with time; the characterization of features in the jet to the southeast; pulse-phase spectroscopy and possible correlations with the features at other wavelengths, particularly the optical polarization; and a search for correlations of the X-ray flux with the recently-discovered gamma -ray flares.

  14. 10th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Nickles, P.V; X-Ray Lasers 2006

    2007-01-01

    The search for table-top and repetitive pump schemes during the last decade has been the driving force behind the spectacular advances demonstrated during the 10th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, organized in 2006 in Berlin. Since 1986, international experts have gathered every two years at this established conference to discuss the progress in theory, experiment and application of plasma-based soft X-ray lasers. Traditionally, the conference sessions devoted to complementary and alternative sources of short wavelength radiation, such as high harmonics, XFEL or incoherent X-rays are organized so as to emphasize the role of X-ray laser research in relation to the other short wavelength sources. Grazing incidence pumping (GRIP) and seeding with high harmonics were the dominant topics of the conference. High repetition rate and portable X-ray lasers were reported to have been applied in metrology and photochemistry for the first time. The proceedings of this series of conferences constitute a comprehen...

  15. Constellation X-Ray Observatory Unlocking the Mysteries of Black Holes, Dark Matter and Life Cycles of Matter in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kim; Wanjek, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the Contellation X-Ray Observatory and its mission. The observatory consists of four x-ray telescopes borne on a satellite constellation at the Earth-Sun L2 point.

  16. XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory Guest Observer program (AO-1) at CASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Stephen L.

    2003-01-01

    In this research program, we obtained and analyzed X-ray observations of the Wolf-Rayet (WR) star WR 110 (HD 165688) using the XMM-Newton space-based observatory. Radio observations were also obtained using the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope located in New Mexico and operated by the Natl. Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). This star was targeted for observations primarily because it is believed to be a single WR star without a companion. Single WR stars are thought to emit X-rays from cool plasma in shocks distributed throughout their powerful stellar winds. However, there has been little observational work done to test this idea since single WR stars are relatively weak X-ray sources and have been difficult to detect with previous generation telescopes. The launch of XMM-Newton provides a new telescope that is much more sensitive than its predecessors, allowing single WR stars to be studied in detail for the first time. X-ray emission was clearly detected from WR 110. Analysis of its spectrum yields a surprising result. Its X-ray emitting plasma is distributed over a range of temperatures and is dominated by relatively cool plasma with a characteristic temperature T is approximately 6 million K. Such plasma can be explained by existing theoretical wind shock models. However, the spectrum also shows hotter plasma whose temperature is uncertain but is thought to be in excess of T approximately 30 million K. The origin of this hotter plasma is yet unknown, but possible mechanisms are identified

  17. Monitoring and Detecting X-ray Transients with the Swift Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwardt, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Swift is a multi-wavelength observatory specifically designed to detect transients sources in the gamma-ray energy band 15-200 keV. The primary goals of the mission involve gamma ray burst (GRB) astronomy, namely to determine the origin of GRBs and their afterglows, and use bursts to probe the early Universe. However, Swift will also discover new X-ray transient sources, and it will be possible to bring Swift's considerable multi-wavelength capabilities to bear on these sources, and those discovered by other means. The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) is a coded mask instrument sensitive to 15-200 keV gamma rays, and has a field of view which covers approximately 1/8th of the sky in a single pointing. Over a typical observing day, the almost the entire sky will be observed and monitored for new transient sources. Sources will be detected within several hours of observation. The two narrow field instruments, the X-ray Telescope and Ultra-Violet Optical Telescope, can provide sensitive simultaneous imaging and spectroscopy observations in the optical through soft X-ray bands. The Swift science operations team will entertain requests for targets of opportunity for sources which are astrophysically significant. Swift will be ideally suited for the detection of transients which produce hard X-rays, such as black hole binaries and some neutron star systems.

  18. Automated X-ray and Optical Analysis of the Virtual Observatory and Grid Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, A.; Krughoff, S.; Connolly, A.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing a system to combine the Web Enabled Source Identification with X-Matching (WESIX) web service, which emphasizes source detection on optical images,with the XAssist program that automates the analysis of X-ray data. XAssist is continuously processing archival X-ray data in several pipelines. We have established a workflow in which FITS images and/or (in the case of X ray data) an X-ray field can be input to WESIX. Intelligent services return available data (if requested fields have been processed) or submit job requests to a queue to be performed asynchronously. These services will be available via web services (for non-interactive use by Virtual Observatory portals and applications) and through web applications (written in the Django web application framework). We are adding web services for specific XAssist functionality such as determining .the exposure and limiting flux for a given position on the sky and extracting spectra and images for a given region. We are improving the queuing system in XAssist to allow for "watch lists" to be specified by users, and when X-ray fields in a user's watch list become publicly available they will be automatically added to the queue. XAssist is being expanded to be used as a survey planning 1001 when coupled with simulation software, including functionality for NuStar, eRosita, IXO, and the Wide Field Xray Telescope (WFXT), as part of an end to end simulation/analysis system. We are also investigating the possibility of a dedicated iPhone/iPad app for querying pipeline data, requesting processing, and administrative job control.

  19. Automated X-ray and Optical Analysis of the Virtual Observatory and Grid Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, A.; Krughoff, S.; Connolly, A.

    2011-07-01

    We are developing a system to combine the Web Enabled Source Identification with X-Matching (WESIX) web service, which emphasizes source detection on optical images,with the XAssist program that automates the analysis of X-ray data. XAssist is continuously processing archival X-ray data in several pipelines. We have established a workflow in which FITS images and/or (in the case of X-ray data) an X-ray field can be input to WESIX. Intelligent services return available data (if requested fields have been processed) or submit job requests to a queue to be performed asynchronously. These services will be available via web services (for non-interactive use by Virtual Observatory portals and applications) and through web applications (written in the Django web application framework). We are adding web services for specific XAssist functionality such as determining the exposure and limiting flux for a given position on the sky and extracting spectra and images for a given region. We are improving the queuing system in XAssist to allow for "watch lists" to be specified by users, and when X-ray fields in a user's watch list become publicly available they will be automatically added to the queue. XAssist is being expanded to be used as a survey planning tool when coupled with simulation software, including functionality for NuStar, eRosita, IXO, and the Wide-Field Xray Telescope (WFXT), as part of an end-to-end simulation/analysis system. We are also investigating the possibility of a dedicated iPhone/iPad app for querying pipeline data, requesting processing, and administrative job control. This work was funded by AISRP grant NNG06GE59G.

  20. Contributions of the "Great" X-Ray Observatories (XMM-Newton and Chandra) to Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA s XMM-Newton made their first observations over a decade ago. The unprecedented and complementary capabilities of these observatories to detect, image, and measure the energy of cosmic X-rays, achieved less than 50 years after the first detection of an extra-solar X-ray source, represent an increase in sensitivity comparable in going from naked-eye observations to the most powerful optical telescopes over the past 400 years. In this presentation we highlight some of the many discoveries made using these powerful X-ray observatories that have transformed 21st century astronomy. We briefly discuss future prospects for this truly exciting field.

  1. Shelter from the Storm: Protecting the Chandra X-ray Observatory from Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Robert A.; Morris, David C.; Virani, Shanil N.; Wolk, Scott J.; Blackwell, William C.; Minow, Joseph I.; O'dell, Stephen L.

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory was launched in July 1999, and the first images were recorded by the ACIS x-ray detector in August 1999. Shortly after first light, degradation of the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency in the ACIS CCD detectors was observed, and this was quickly attributed to cumulative particle radiation damage in the CCD's, in particular from 100 keV to 200 keV protons. Since the onset of this radiation damage to ACIS, several improvements have been made to autonomous Chandra operation and ground-based operations and mission planning, to limit the effects of radiation while preserving optimum observing efficiency for the Observatory. These changes include implementing an automatic science instrument radiation protection system on Chandra, implementing a real-time radiation monitoring and alert system by the Science Operations Team, and improving the radiation prediction models used in mission planning for the Observatory. These satellite- and ground-based systems provide protection for Chandra from passages through the Earth's trapped radiation belts and outer magnetosphere and from flares and coronal mass ejections from the Sun. We describe the design and performance of the automatic on-board radiation protection system on Chandra, and the ground-based software systems and data products for real-time radiation monitoring. We also describe the development and characterize the performance of the Chandra Radiation Model (CRM), which provides predictions of the solar wind and magnetospheric proton fluxes along Chandra's orbit, indexed by the geomagnetic activity index, Kp. We compare the observed and predicted damage rates to ACIS based on net mission proton fluence, and outline planned enhancements to the CRM.

  2. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 1E: Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics, which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  3. Localization of the solar flare SF900610 in X-rays with the WATCH instrument of the GRANAT observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terekhov, O.V.; Kuzmin, A.G.; Shevchenko, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    -ray source do not coincide with the coordinates of the Ha-line flare. The X-ray source moved over the solar disk during the flare. This probably implies that, as the X-ray emission was generated, different parts of one loop or a system of magnetic loops dominated at different flare times.......During the solar flare of June 10, 1990, the WATCH instrument of the GRANAT space observatory obtained 110 localizations of the X-ray source in the X-ray range 8-20 keV. Its coordinates were measured with an accuracy of similar to2 arcmin at a 3sigma confidence level. The coordinates of the X...

  4. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-Ray Observatory Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Minow, Joseph I.; Miller, J. Scott; Wolk, Scott J.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Spitzbart, Bradley D.; Swartz. Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ( soft , 100 500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth s radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth s magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (Space Weather Prediction Center. This presentation describes the radiation mitigation strategies to minimize the proton damage in the ACIS CCD detectors and the importance of real-time data sources that are used to protect

  5. Quantum electrodynamics of the internal source x-ray holographies: Bremsstrahlung, fluorescence, and multiple-energy x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.; Sorensen, L.B.

    1997-01-01

    Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used to derive the differential cross sections measured in the three new experimental internal source ensemble x-ray holographies: bremsstrahlung (BXH), fluorescence (XFH), and multiple-energy (MEXH) x-ray holography. The polarization dependence of the BXH cross section is also obtained. For BXH, we study analytically and numerically the possible effects of the virtual photons and electrons which enter QED calculations in summing over the intermediate states. For the low photon and electron energies used in the current experiments, we show that the virtual intermediate states produce only very small effects. This is because the uncertainty principle limits the distance that the virtual particles can propagate to be much shorter than the separation between the regions of high electron density in the adjacent atoms. We also find that using the asymptotic form of the scattering wave function causes about a 5 10% error for near forward scattering. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. On-the-Fly Automated X-ray Data Analysis for Grid Computing and the Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Andrew; Krughoff, S.; Connolly, A.

    2010-03-01

    We are developing a system to combine the Web Enabled Source Identification with X-Matching (WESIX) web service, which emphasizes source detection on optical images,with the XAssist program that automates the analysis of X-ray data. XAssist is continuously processing archival X-ray data in several pipelines. We have established a workflow in which FITS images and/or (in the case of X-ray data) an X-ray field can be inputted to WESIX. If an X-ray field is requested, WESIX queries XAssist web services to see if the field is publicly available and if so if it has been fully processed in a pipeline. If it has been processed then image(s) and source lists are returned. If the X-ray data is public but has not been processed, XAssist returns the X-ray image for WESIX to perform quick-look analysis (using SExtractor) and the field is added to the XAssist queue for full processing. These services will be available via web services (for non-interactive use by Virtual Observatory portals and applications) and through web applications (written in the Django web application framework). We are also adding web services for specific XAssist functionality such as determining the exposure and limiting flux for a given position on the sky and extracting spectra and images for a given region. We are also improving the queuing system in XAssist to allow for "watch lists" to be specified by users, and when X-ray fields in a user's watch list become publicly available they will be automatically added to the queue. This work was funded by AISRP grant NNG06GE59G.

  7. PREFACE: 9th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmann, Christoph; David, Christian; Nolting, Frithjof; Pfeiffer, Franz; Stampanoni, Marco

    2009-09-01

    Conference logo This volume compiles the contributions to the International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy (XRM2008) held on 20-25 July 2008 in Zurich, Switzerland. The conference was the ninth in a series which started in Göttingen in 1984. Over the years the XRM conference series has served as a forum bringing together all relevant players working on the development of methods, building instrumentation, and applying x-ray microscopy to challenging issues in materials science, condensed matter research, environmental science and biology. XRM2008 was attended by about 300 participants who followed 44 oral presentations and presented 220 posters. Conference photograph Figure 1: Participants of the XRM2008 conference gathered in front of the main building of the ETH-Zurich. The conference showed that x-ray microscopy has become a mature field resting on three pillars. The first are workhorse instruments available even to non-specialist users. These exist at synchrotron sources world-wide as well as in laboratories. They allow the application of established microscopy methods to solve scientific projects in areas as diverse as soil science, the investigation of cometary dust particles, magnetic materials, and the analysis of ancient parchments. Examples of all of these projects can be found in this volume. These instruments have become so well understood that now they are also commercially available. The second pillar is the continued development of methods. Methods like stroboscopic imaging, wet cells or high and low temperature environments add versatility to the experiments. Methods like phase retrieval and ptychographic imaging allow the retrieval of information which hitero was thought to be inaccessible. The third pillar is the extension of such instruments and methods to new photon sources. With x-ray free electron lasers on the horizon the XRM community is working to transfer their know-how to these novel sources which will offer unprecedented brightness and

  8. A Comprehensive Spectral Analysis of the X-Ray Pulsar 4U 1907+09 from Two Observations with the Suzaku X-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Pottschmidt, Katja; Roth, Stefanie; Barragan, Laura; Furst, Felix; Suchy, Slawomir; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Wilms, Jorn; Rothschild, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We present results from two observations of the wind-accreting X-ray pulsar 4U 1907+09 using the Suzaku observatory, The broadband time-averaged spectrum allows us to examine the continuum emission of the source and the cyclotron resonance scattering feature at approx. 19 keV. Additionally, using the narrow CCD response of Suzaku near 6 ke V allows us to study in detail the Fe K bandpass and to quantify the Fe Kp line for this source for the first time. The source is absorbed by fully-covering material along the line of sight with a column density of N(sub H) approx. 2 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm, consistent with a wind accreting geometry, and a high Fe abundance (approx. 3 - 4 x solar). Time and phase-resolved analyses allow us to study variations in the source spectrum. In particular, dips found in the 2006 observation which are consistent with earlier observations occur in the hard X-ray bandpass, implying a variation of the whole continuum rather than occultation by intervening material, while a dip near the end of the 2007 observation occurs mainly in the lower energies implying an increase in NH along the line of sight, perhaps indicating clumpiness in the stellar wind

  9. IAXO - The International Axion Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, J.K.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J.M.; Caspi, S.; Cetin, S.A.; Christensen, F.E.; Dael, A.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Derbin, A.V.; Desch, K.; Diago, A.; Dudarev, A.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galan, J.; Garcia, J.A.; Garza, J.G.; Geralis, T.; Gimeno, B.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gomez, H.; Hailey, C.J.; Hiramatsu, T.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Isern, J.; Jaeckel, J.; Jakovcic, K.; Kaminski, J.; Kawasaki, M.; Krcmar, M.; Krieger, C.; Lakic, B.; Lindner, A.; Liolios, A.; Luzon, G.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Raffelt, G.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A.; Russenschuck, S.; Ruz, J.; Saikawa, K.; Savvidis, I.; Sekiguchi, T.; Shilon, I.; Silva, H.; ten Kate, H.H.J.; Tomas, A.; Troitsky, S.; van Bibber, K.; Vedrine, P.; Villar, J.A.; Walckiers, L.; Wester, W.; Yildiz, S.C.; Zioutas, K.

    2013-01-01

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a next generation axion helioscope aiming at a sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling of a few 10^{-12} GeV^{-1}, i.e. 1-1.5 orders of magnitude beyond sensitivities achieved by the currently most sensitive axion helioscope, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). Crucial factors in improving the sensitivity for IAXO are the increase of the magnetic field volume together with the extensive use of x-ray focusing optics and low background detectors, innovations already successfully tested at CAST. Electron-coupled axions invoked to explain the white dwarf cooling, relic axions, and a large variety of more generic axion-like particles (ALPs) along with other novel excitations at the low-energy frontier of elementary particle physics could provide additional physics motivation for IAXO.

  10. 11th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ciaran L. S; X-Ray Lasers 2008

    2009-01-01

    This book provides a thorough account of the current status of achievements made in the area of soft X-ray laser source development and of the increasingly diverse applications being demonstrated using such radiation sources. There is significant effort worldwide to develop very bright, short duration radiation sources in the X-ray spectral region – driven by the multitude of potential applications in all branches of science. This book contains updates on several different approaches for comparative purposes but concentrates on developments in the area of laser-produced plasmas, whereby transient population inversion and gain between ion states is pumped by optical lasers interacting with pre-formed plasmas. The most significant development here is the demonstrated increasing feasibility to produce useful soft X-ray laser beams with high repetition rates in a typical, small, university-class laboratory – as opposed to the requirement of access to a national facility some 20 years ago. Experimental progres...

  11. Early national and international recommendations for X-ray and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesinska, E.

    2008-01-01

    The first three decades of pioneering work in the field of X-ray and natural radioactivity research and use took its toll all over the world because of lack of knowledge and caution. Coordinated, international cooperation in the field of X-ray and radium protection and standardization of measures was established after the World War I. The First and the Second International Congress of Radiology held in London in 1925 and in Stockholm in 1928 respectively, played a crucial role in it. Based on these congresses' initiatives and resolutions, the International X-ray Unit Committee and the International X-ray and Radium Protection Committee were established in 1828. The early recommendations on the international X-ray unit and on X-ray and radium protection, as passed by the Second International Congress of Radiology in Stockholm in 1928, are presented and compared with two related national initiatives, namely with the Memorandum No. 1 (July 1921) of the British X-ray and Radium Protection Committee, and with a draft of a legal measure regarding the X-ray and radium treatment regulation in Czechoslovakia, which was put together by the Czechoslovak Society of Radiology and the Vereinigung der deutschen Roentgenologen und Radiologen in der Tschechoslowakischen Republik in 1927 at a request of the Chamber of Doctor of Medicine for Bohemia and Moravia and in response to the international initiatives in that field. (author)

  12. Developments of engineering model of the X-ray CCD camera of the MAXI experiment onboard the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Miyata, E; Kamazuka, T; Akutsu, D; Kouno, H; Tsunemi, H; Matsuoka, M; Tomida, H; Ueno, S; Hamaguchi, K; Tanaka, I

    2002-01-01

    MAXI, Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image, is an X-ray observatory on the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) Exposed Facility (EF) on the International Space Station (ISS). MAXI is a slit scanning camera which consists of two kinds of X-ray detectors: one is a one-dimensional position-sensitive proportional counter with a total area of approx 5000 cm sup 2 , the Gas Slit Camera (GSC), and the other is an X-ray CCD array with a total area approx 200 cm sup 2 , the Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC). The GSC subtends a field of view with an angular dimension of 1 deg. x180 deg. while the SSC subtends a field of view with an angular dimension of 1 deg. times a little less than 180 deg. . In the course of one station orbit, MAXI can scan almost the entire sky with a precision of 1 deg. and with an X-ray energy range 0.5-30 keV. We have developed an engineering model (EM) for all components of the SSC. Their performance test is underway. We have also developed several kinds of CCDs fabricated from different wafers. Since th...

  13. 12th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, Chang; Janulewicz, Karol

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the present status of achievements in the area of soft X-ray laser sources, supplemented by information about sources based on relativistic laser˗matter interaction and their future, and incoherent sources within a very broad spectral range. The diversity of demonstrated or planned applications presented in the book supports the thesis that such sources have now reached a mature stage of development. There is a significant effort worldwide to develop very bright, ultra-short duration, radiation sources in the extreme ultraviolet and X-ray spectral regions, driven by a diversity of potential applications in nearly all branches of science. This book updates the status in this field and focuses on developments in laser plasma-based methods. The scheme of transient inversion proves its robustness by being dominant in the area of repetitive X-ray lasers pumped at grazing-incidence-geometry by optical lasers of moderate energy at increasing repetition rates – these ch...

  14. High-energy radiation from thunderstorms and lightning with LOFT. White Paper in Support of the Mission Concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marisaldi, M.; Smith, D. M.; Brandt, Søren

    The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing, LOFT, is designed to perform fast X-ray timing and spectroscopy with uniquely large throughput (Feroci et al., 2014). LOFT focuses on two fundamental questions of ESA’s Cosmic Vision Theme “Matter under extreme conditions”: what is the equation of state of ...

  15. Proceedings of the international conference- hundred years of x-rays and radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.; Jain, H.C.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Ramakumar, K.L.; Kulkarni, S.G.

    1996-02-01

    The International Conference- Hundred Years of X-rays and Radioactivity was held during Feb 21-24, 1996 at Bhabha Atomic Radiation Centre, Mumbai. The topics covered in the conference included: i) historical aspects, ii) production of x-rays through synchrotron and lasers, iii) application of x-rays in quantum physics, materials science, biology and medicine, iv) nuclear physics and chemistry, v) radiation chemistry, vi) radiation biology, vii) health and safety, viii) applications of radioisotopes in medicine, industry and agriculture and ix) environmental aspects of radioactivity. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  16. Comparative Analysis and Variability of the Jovian X-Ray Spectra Detected by the Chandra and XMM-Newton Observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Yawei [ORNL; Schultz, David Robert [ORNL; Kharchenko, Vasili A [ORNL; Bhardwaj, Anil [Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Trivandrum, India; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella [University College, London; Stancil, Phillip C. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Cravens, Thomas E. E. [University of Kansas; Lisse, Carey M. [Johns Hopkins University; Dalgarno, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

    2010-01-01

    Expanding upon recent work, a more comprehensive spectral model based on charge exchange induced X-ray emission by ions precipitating into the Jovian atmosphere is used to provide new understanding of the polar auroras. In conjunction with the Xspec spectral fitting software, the model is applied to analyze observations from both Chandra and XMM-Newton by systematically varying the initial precipitating ion parameters to obtain the best fit model for the observed spectra. In addition to the oxygen and sulfur ions considered previously, carbon is included to discriminate between solar wind and Jovian magnetospheric ion origins, enabled by the use of extensive databases of both atomic collision cross sections and radiative transitions. On the basis of fits to all the Chandra observations, we find that carbon contributes negligibly to the observed polar X-ray emission suggesting that the highly accelerated precipitating ions are of magnetospheric origin. Most of the XMM-Newton fits also favor this conclusion with one exception that implies a possible carbon contribution. Comparison among all the spectra from these two observatories in light of the inferred initial energies and relative abundances of precipitating ions from the modeling show that they are significantly variable in time (observation date) and space (north and south polar X-ray auroras).

  17. Swift and Fermi Observations of X-Ray Flares: The Case of Late Internal Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troja, E.; Piro, L.; Vasileiou, V.; Omodei, N.; Burgess, J. M.; Cutini, S.; Connaughton, V.; McEnery, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous Swift and Fermi observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) offer a unique broadband view of their afterglow emission, spanning more than 10 decades in energy. We present the sample of X-ray flares observed by both Swift and Fermi during the first three years of Fermi operations. While bright in the X-ray band, X-ray flares are often undetected at lower (optical), and higher (MeV to GeV) energies. We show that this disfavors synchrotron self-Compton processes as the origin of the observed X-ray emission. We compare the broadband properties of X-ray flares with the standard late internal shock model, and find that in this scenario, X-ray flares can be produced by a late-time relativistic (gamma greater than 50) outflow at radii R approximately 10(exp 13) - 10(exp 14) cm. This conclusion holds only if the variability timescale is significantly shorter than the observed flare duration, and implies that X-ray flares can directly probe the activity of the GRB central engine.

  18. Chandra's Cosmos: Dark Matter, Black Holes, and Other Wonders Revealed by NASA's Premier X-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Wallace H.

    2017-03-01

    On July 23, 1999, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the most powerful X-ray telescope ever built, was launched aboard the space shuttle Columbia. Since then, Chandra has given us a view of the universe that is largely hidden from telescopes sensitive only to visible light. In Chandra's Cosmos, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Chandra science spokesperson Wallace H. Tucker uses a series of short, connected stories to describe the telescope's exploration of the hot, high-energy face of the universe. The book is organized in three parts: "The Big," covering the cosmic web, dark energy, dark matter, and massive clusters of galaxies; "The Bad," exploring neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes; and "The Beautiful," discussing stars, exoplanets, and life. Chandra has imaged the spectacular, glowing remains of exploded stars and taken spectra showing the dispersal of their elements. Chandra has observed the region around the supermassive black hole in the center of our Milky Way and traced the separation of dark matter from normal matter in the collision of galaxies, contributing to both dark matter and dark energy studies. Tucker explores the implications of these observations in an entertaining, informative narrative aimed at space buffs and general readers alike.

  19. Two strategies of lowering surface deformations of internally cooled X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberta, P.; Áč, V.; Hrdý, J.

    2013-01-01

    Internally cooled X-ray optics, like X-ray monochromators and reflecting X-ray mirrors, play a crucial role in defining a beamlines resolution, degree of coherence and flux. A great effort is invested in the development of these optical components. An important aspect of the functionality of high heat load optics is its cooling and its influence on surface deformation. The authors present a study of two different geometrical cooling approaches. Its influence on beam inhomogeneity due to the strain from the manufacturing process is presented. X-ray topographic images and FWHM measurements are presented. FEA simulations of cooling efficiency and surface deformations were performed. The best achieved results are under an enlargement of 0.4μrad of the measured rocking curve

  20. NASA Chandra X-ray Observatory Selected as Editor's Choice in 2000 Discover Magazine Awards for Technological Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory, NASA's newest and most powerful X-ray space telescope, has been selected as the winner of the Editor's Choice category of the 2000 Discover Magazine Awards for Technological Innovation. The team of government, industry, university and research institutions that designed, built and deployed Chandra for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala, will be formally recognized June 24 at a gala awards celebration at Epcot at the Walt Disney World Resort in Orlando, Fl. Dr. Harvey Tananbaum, director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Chandra X-ray Science Center, Cambridge, Mass., which conducts the Chandra science mission for NASA, will receive the award on behalf of the team. "Chandra has opened a new window for astronomers into the universe of high-energy cosmic events such as pulsars, supernova remnants and black holes," said Tananbaum. "We're now able to create spectacularly detailed images of celestial phenomena whose mere existence we could only hypothesize before." Among Chandra's most significant discoveries to date, he lists the detection of a giant ring around the heart of the Crab Nebula, details of the shock wave created by an exploding star and resolution of the high-energy X-ray "glow" in the universe into millions of specific light sources. "The successful launch, deployment and on-orbit operations of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory is a testament to the solid partnership between TRW, NASA and the science community that has been enabling NASA's most important space science missions for the past 40 years," said Timothy W. Hannemann, executive vice president and general manager, TRW Space & Electronics Group. "The extraordinary images that Chandra is delivering daily speaks loudly not only to the quality of the science instruments on board, but also to the engineering talents and dedication to mission success exhibited by every member of NASA's Chandra mission team." Chandra, named in honor of Nobel

  1. The CfA Einstein Observatory extended deep X-ray survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primini, F. A.; Murray, S. S.; Huchra, J.; Schild, R.; Burg, R.

    1991-01-01

    All IPC exposures in the Einstein Extended Deep X-ray Survey program have been reanalyzed. The current survey covers about 2.3 sq deg with a typical limiting sensitivity of about 5 x 10 to the -14th ergs/sq cm/s in the energy range from 0.8-3.5 keV. A total of 25 IPC sources are detected above a threshold of 4.5 sigma. A total of 18 are detected independently in the HRI, leading to the identification of six with stars and 11 with extragalactic objects. The remaining sources are classified as extragalactic. The population of identified extragalactic objects is dominated by QSOs, with one or two possible clusters. The basic conclusions of the original survey remain unchanged.

  2. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  3. X-ray endoscopic techniques for external and internal drainage of bile ducts in mechanical jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, V.P.; Sinev, Yu.V.; Solomatin, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    Generalized information is considered on the application of external-internal X-ray endoscopic drainage of stomach, gallbladder, bile ducts in case of mechanical jaundice caused by both neoplasms and other diseases of pancreatobiliary zone. Indications for drainage are presented as well as contraindications, necessary equipment and instruments, recommendations on procedure realization [ru

  4. Two strategies of lowering surface deformations of internally cooled X-ray optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Áč, V.; Hrdý, Jaromír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 729, NOV (2013), s. 302-306 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/412 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : internal cooling * X-ray optics * monochromator Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2013

  5. Microfocus X-ray imaging of the internal geometry of brachytherapy seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Hanada, Takashi; Yorozu, Atsunori; Ito, Hidetaka; Masuda, Shinji; Kawahara, Maki; Yogo, Katsunori; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2014-04-01

    Precise and reliable geometrical data on the internal structure of seeds are indispensable for dosimetric calculation in brachytherapy. We used a novel microfocus X-ray imaging technique for observing the internal structure of brachytherapy seeds. Two popular (125)I seed models were evaluated. Obtained high precision images enabled us to observe the internal structure of seeds qualitatively. Geometrical size parameters were evaluated quantitatively with uncertainty of 0.01-0.04 mm (k=2). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Soft x-ray camera for internal shape and current density measurements on a noncircular tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, R.J.; Jaehnig, K.P.; Powell, E.T.; Reusch, M.; Roney, P.; Simon, M.P.

    1988-05-01

    Soft x-ray measurements of the internal plasma flux surface shaped in principle allow a determination of the plasma current density distribution, and provide a necessary monitor of the degree of internal elongation of tokamak plasmas with a noncircular cross section. A two-dimensional, tangentially viewing, soft x-ray pinhole camera has been fabricated to provide internal shape measurements on the PBX-M tokamak. It consists of a scintillator at the focal plane of a foil-filtered pinhole camera, which is, in turn, fiber optically coupled to an intensified framing video camera (/DELTA/t />=/ 3 msec). Automated data acquisition is performed on a stand-alone image-processing system, and data archiving and retrieval takes place on an optical disk video recorder. The entire diagnostic is controlled via a PDP-11/73 microcomputer. The derivation of the polodial emission distribution from the measured image is done by fitting to model profiles. 10 refs., 4 figs

  7. Revealing the 3D internal structure of natural polymer microcomposites using X-ray ultra microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, A; Parikh, N; Heiden, P A; Yassar, R S

    2011-07-01

    Properties of composite materials are directly affected by the spatial arrangement of reinforcement and matrix. In this research, partially hydrolysed cellulose microcrystals were used to fabricate polycaprolactone microcomposites. The spatial distribution of cellulose microcrystals was characterized by a newly developed technique of X-ray ultra microscopy and microtomography. The phase and absorption contrast imaging of X-ray ultra microscopy revealed two-dimensional and three-dimensional information on CMC distribution in polymer matrices. The highest contrast and flux (signal-to-noise ratio) were obtained using vanadium foil targets with the accelerating voltage of 30 keV and beam current of >200 nA. The spatial distribution of cellulose microcrystals was correlated to the mechanical properties of the microcomposites. It was observed that heterogeneous distribution and clustering of cellulose microcrystals resulted in degradation of tensile strength and elastic modulus of composites. The utilization of X-ray ultra microscopy can open up new opportunities for composite researchers to explore the internal structure of microcomposites. X-ray ultra microscopy sample preparation is relatively simple in comparison to transmission electron microscopy and the spatial information is gathered at much larger scale. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2011 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  8. Soft x-ray measurement of internal tearing mode structure in a reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartas, G.; Hokin, S.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of internally resonant tearing modes has been studied in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch with a soft x-ray detector system consisting of an imaging array at one toroidal location and several detectors at different toroidal locations. The toroidal mode numbers of m = 1 structures are in the range n = -5, -6, -7. The modes propagate with phase velocity v = 1--6 x 10 6 cm/s, larger than the diamagnetic drift velocity v d ∼ 5 x 10 5 cm/s. Phase locking between modes with different n in manifested as a beating of soft x-ray signals which is found to be strongest near the resonant surfaces of the modes (r/a = 0.1 -- 0.5). 15 refs., 5 figs

  9. The LOFT perspective on neutron star thermonuclear bursts: White paper in support of the mission concept of the large observatory for X-ray timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    in' t Zand, J. J.M. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht (The Netherlands); Malone, Christopher M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Altamirano, D. [Univ. of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Ballantyne, D. R. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Bhattacharyya, S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Brown, E. F. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Cavecchi, Y. [Univ. of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (The Netherlands); Chakrabarty, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Chenevez, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Cumming, A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Degenaar, N. [Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Falanga, M. [International Space Science Institute, Bern (Switzerland); Galloway, D. K. [Monash Univ., VIC (Australia); Heger, A. [Monash Univ., VIC (Australia); Jose, J. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Keek, L. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Linares, M. [Univ. de La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Mahmoodifar, S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Mendez, M. [Univ. of Groningen, Groningen (The Netherlands); Miller, M. C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Paerels, F. B. S. [Columbia Astrophysics Lab., New York, NY (United States); Poutanen, J. [Univ. of Turku, Piikkio (Finland); Rozanska, A. [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center PAS, Warsaw (Poland); Schatz, H. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University; Serino, M. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN); Strohmayer, T. E. [NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Suleimanov, V. F. [Univ. Tubingen, Tubingen (Germany); Thielemann, F. -K. [Univ. Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Watts, A. L. [Univ. of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (The Netherlands); Weinberg, N. N. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Woosley, S. E. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Yu, W. [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai (China); Zhang, S. [Institute of High-Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Zingale, M. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2015-01-14

    The Large Area Detector (LAD) on the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing ( LOFT ), with a 8.5 m 2 photon- collecting area in the 2–30 keV bandpass at CCD-class spectral resolving power (λ/Δλ = 10 – 100), is designed for optimum performance on bright X-ray sources. Thus, it is well-suited to study thermonuclear X-ray bursts from Galactic neutron stars. These bursts will typically yield 2 x 105 photon detections per second in the LAD, which is at least 15 times more than with any other instrument past, current or anticipated. The Wide Field Monitor (WFM) foreseen for LOFT uniquely combines 2–50 keV imaging with large (30%) prompt sky coverage. This will enable the detection of tens of thousands of thermonuclear X-ray bursts during a 3-yr mission, including tens of superbursts. Both numbers are similar or more than the current database gathered in 50 years of X-ray astronomy.

  10. Development of the superconducting detectors and read-out for the X-IFU instrument on board of the X-ray observatory Athena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottardi, L., E-mail: l.gottardi@sron.nl [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht (Netherlands); Akamatsu, H.; Bruijn, M.P.; Hartog, R. den; Herder, J.-W. den; Jackson, B. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kiviranta, M. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kuur, J. van der; Weers, H. van [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-07-11

    The Advanced Telescope for High-Energy Astrophysics (Athena) has been selected by ESA as its second large-class mission. The future European X-ray observatory will study the hot and energetic Universe with its launch foreseen in 2028. Microcalorimeters based on superconducting Transition-edge sensor (TES) are the chosen technology for the detectors array of the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on board of Athena. The X-IFU is a 2-D imaging integral-field spectrometer operating in the soft X-ray band (0.3–12 keV). The detector consists of an array of 3840 TESs coupled to X-ray absorbers and read out in the MHz bandwidth using Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) based on Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs). The proposed design calls for devices with a high filling-factor, high quantum efficiency, relatively high count-rate capability and an energy resolution of 2.5 eV at 5.9 keV. The paper will review the basic principle and the physics of the TES-based microcalorimeters and present the state-of-the art of the FDM read-out.

  11. NASA's Great Observatories Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for larger version In 1609, Galileo improved the newly invented telescope, turned it toward the heavens, and revolutionized our view of the universe. In celebration of the 400th anniversary of this milestone, 2009 has been designated as the International Year of Astronomy. Today, NASA's Great Observatories are continuing Galileo's legacy with stunning images and breakthrough science from the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. While Galileo observed the sky using visible light seen by the human eye, technology now allows us to observe in many wavelengths, including Spitzer's infrared view and Chandra's view in X-rays. Each wavelength region shows different aspects of celestial objects and often reveals new objects that could not otherwise be studied. This image of the spiral galaxy Messier 101 is a composite of views from Spitzer, Hubble, and Chandra. The red color shows Spitzer's view in infrared light. It highlights the heat emitted by dust lanes in the galaxy where stars can form. The yellow color is Hubble's view in visible light. Most of this light comes from stars, and they trace the same spiral structure as the dust lanes. The blue color shows Chandra's view in X-ray light. Sources of X-rays include million-degree gas, exploded stars, and material colliding around black holes. Such composite images allow astronomers to see how features seen in one wavelength match up with those seen in another wavelength. It's like seeing with a camera, night vision goggles, and X-ray vision all at once. In the four centuries since Galileo, astronomy has changed dramatically. Yet our curiosity and quest for knowledge remain the same. So, too, does our wonder at the splendor of the universe. The International Year of Astronomy Great Observatories Image Unveiling is supported by the NASA Science Mission Directorate Astrophysics Division. The project is a

  12. Flat panel X-ray detector with reduced internal scattering for improved attenuation accuracy and dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter D [Santa Fe, NM; Claytor, Thomas N [White Rock, NM; Berry, Phillip C [Albuquerque, NM; Hills, Charles R [Los Alamos, NM

    2010-10-12

    An x-ray detector is disclosed that has had all unnecessary material removed from the x-ray beam path, and all of the remaining material in the beam path made as light and as low in atomic number as possible. The resulting detector is essentially transparent to x-rays and, thus, has greatly reduced internal scatter. The result of this is that x-ray attenuation data measured for the object under examination are much more accurate and have an increased dynamic range. The benefits of this improvement are that beam hardening corrections can be made accurately, that computed tomography reconstructions can be used for quantitative determination of material properties including density and atomic number, and that lower exposures may be possible as a result of the increased dynamic range.

  13. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on X-ray Microscopy (XRM2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongjie; Wu, Ziyu; Tai, Renzhong

    2013-10-01

    The Eleventh International Conference on X-ray Microscopy (XRM2012) was held on 5-10 August 2012 at the Hope hotel in Shanghai. Historically, for the first time the XRM conference took place in China. The conference was jointly hosted by the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) and the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). The series of XRM conferences dates back to 1983 in Göttingen, Germany. Since the Zürich conference, XRM2008, it has been held every two years, showing its increasing popularity among the x-ray microscopy communities around the world. Research in the area of x-ray microscopy is advancing very fast with the development of synchrotron radiation techniques, especially the emergence of third generation light sources with low natural emittance which has significantly pushed forward the development of technologies and applications in this area. This has been fully demonstrated in presentations from this and previous XRM conferences. XRM2012 was attended by 295 people including 21 invited speakers, 53 contributing speakers, 55 students, and 13 industry exhibitors. Over 232 abstracts were submitted for oral or poster presentation and 56 original, peer-reviewed papers are published in these proceedings. The conference was sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11210301016/A0802), and three gold sponsors active in industrial and technological fields related to x-ray microscopy. An exhibition booth was offered free to Australia synchrotron, the host for XRM2014, to promote the next conference which will be held in Melbourne, Australia in 2014. An unforgettable memory for most conference participants might be the charming night cruise along Pujiang river which was part of the welcome reception on the first evening. The Werner Meyer-Ilse Award (WMIA) prize this year was awarded to Irene Zanette (TU-München) and Stephan Werner (HZB-Berlin), the former for her pioneering

  14. Observations of the Crab Nebula with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory During the Gamma-Ray Flare of 2011 April

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, using the AGILE and Fermi satellites, gamma-ray flares have been discovered from the direction of the Crab Nebula (Tavani et al. 2011, Abdo et al. 2011). We have been using the Chandra X-Ray observatory to monitor the Crab on a monthly cadence since just after the 2010 September gamma-ray flare. We were fortunate to trigger series of pre-planned target of opportunity observations during the 2011 April flare. We present the results of these observations and address some implications both for now and for the future.

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  16. A hybrid x-ray and microscopy method for diametrical profile measurement of internal holes in steel components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Malcolm, A. A.; Yin, X. M.; Liew, S. J.; Prawiradiraja, T. P.

    2008-09-01

    High-resolution X-ray is now an essential tool for internal defect and structure inspection in electronics and advanced materials industry. However, it is always a challenge to use it for accurate dimensional measurement due to the nature of the fan-beam X-ray source, particularly for cylindrical objects. This paper presents a novel hybrid X-ray and microscopy method for the profile measurement of the internal hole of a cylinder-shaped steel component. The part to be measured has a beer bottle shape but is open at the bottom side. The objective is to measure the diametrical profile of the internal hole with an accuracy of about 10μm. Traditionally this is measured with using a microscope after cutting and polishing the specimen. This is not only a tedious work, but is also inaccurate due to the uncertainty in cutting and polishing. This report demonstrates that the two edge-profiles of the internal hole can be obtained with X-ray inspection by sequentially placing each of them at the central of the X-ray beam so that the fan-beam effect can be minimized. The resolution of the X-ray inspection is about 6µm under a 20x magnification. Subsequently, the diameter of the hole is measured at two positions through the open end using a microscope with a 20x and a 10x objectives respectively. The results obtained with the two methods are then combined to generate the whole diametrical profile of the internal hole.

  17. Chandra's X-ray Vision

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1999-07-23

    Jul 23, 1999 ... GENERAL I ARTICLE. Chandra's X-ray Vision. K P Singh. Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) is a scientific satellite (moon/ chandra), named after the Indian-born Nobel laureate. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar - one of the foremost astro- physicists of the twentieth century and popularly known as. Chandra.

  18. The International Virtual Observatory: Summary of the first decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, O. Yu.

    2012-01-01

    International Virtual Observatory is a collection of integrated astronomical data archives and software tools that utilize computer networks to create an environment in which research can be conducted. Several countries have initiated national virtual observatory programs that will combine existing databases from ground-based and space-born observatories and make them easily accessible to researchers. As a result, data from all the world's major observatories will be available to all users and to the public. This is significant not only because of the immense volume of astronomical data but also because the data on stars and galaxies have been compiled from observations in a variety of wavelengths: optical, radio, infrared, gamma ray, X-ray and more. Each wavelength can provide different information about a celestial event or object, but also requires a special expertise to interpret. In a virtual observatory environment, all of this data is integrated so that it can be synthesized and used in a given study. The International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) represents 20 national and international projects working in coordination to realize the essential technologies and interoperability standards necessary to create a new research infrastructure. Russian Virtual Observatory is one of the founders and important members of the IVOA. The International Virtual Observatory project was launched about ten years ago, and its major achievements in science and technology in recent years are discussed in this paper. Standards for accessing large astronomical data sets were developed. Such data sets can accommodate the full range of wavelengths and observational techniques for all types of astronomical data: catalogues, images, spectra and time series. The described standards include standards for metadata, data formats, query language, etc. Services for the federation of massive, distributed data sets, regardless of the wavelength, resolution and type of data were

  19. Automated chemical analysis of internally mixed aerosol particles using X-ray spectromicroscopy at the carbon K-edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffet, Ryan C; Henn, Tobias; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K

    2010-10-01

    We have developed an automated data analysis method for atmospheric particles using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near edge X-ray fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). This method is applied to complex internally mixed submicrometer particles containing organic and inorganic material. Several algorithms were developed to exploit NEXAFS spectral features in the energy range from 278 to 320 eV for quantitative mapping of the spatial distribution of elemental carbon, organic carbon, potassium, and noncarbonaceous elements in particles of mixed composition. This energy range encompasses the carbon K-edge and potassium L2 and L3 edges. STXM/NEXAFS maps of different chemical components were complemented with a subsequent analysis using elemental maps obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). We demonstrate the application of the automated mapping algorithms for data analysis and the statistical classification of particles.

  20. Internal structure of an intact Convallaria majalis pollen grain observed with X-ray Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancuso, Adrian P; Groves, Matthew R; Polozhentsev, Oleg E; Williams, Garth J; McNulty, Ian; Antony, Claude; Santarella-Mellwig, Rachel; Soldatov, Aleksander V; Lamzin, Victor; Peele, Andrew G; Nugent, Keith A; Vartanyants, Ivan A

    2012-01-01

    We have applied Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging (FCDI) to image an intact pollen grain from Convallaria majalis. This approach allows us to resolve internal structures without the requirement to chemically treat or slice the sample into thin sections. Coherent X-ray diffraction data from this

  1. Visualization of the internal structure of Didymosphenia geminata frustules using nano X-ray tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgłobicka, Izabela; Li, Qiong; Gluch, Jürgen; Płocińska, Magdalena; Noga, Teresa; Dobosz, Romuald; Szoszkiewicz, Robert; Witkowski, Andrzej; Zschech, Ehrenfried; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J

    2017-08-22

    For the first time, the three-dimensional (3D) internal structure of naturally produced Didymosphenia geminata frustules were nondestructively visualized at sub-100 nm resolution. The well-optimized hierarchical structures of these natural organisms provide insight that is needed to design novel, environmentally friendly functional materials. Diatoms, which are widely distributed in freshwater, seawater and wet soils, are well known for their intricate, siliceous cell walls called 'frustules'. Each type of diatom has a specific morphology with various pores, ribs, minute spines, marginal ridges and elevations. In this paper, the visualization is performed using nondestructive nano X-ray computed tomography (nano-XCT). Arbitrary cross-sections through the frustules, which can be extracted from the nano-XCT 3D data set for each direction, are validated via the destructive focused ion beam (FIB) cross-sectioning of regions of interest (ROIs) and subsequent observation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These 3D data are essential for understanding the functionality and potential applications of diatom cells.

  2. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Setti, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  3. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 7E: Right ascension range 20h 00m to 23h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  4. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 2E: Right ascension range 00h 00m to 03h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  5. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 6E: Right ascension range 16h 00m to 19h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2 launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics, which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  6. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 5E: Right ascension range 12h 00m to 15h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics, which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  7. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 4E: Right ascension range 08h 00m to 11h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images, The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentaion describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers, and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  8. The Einstein Observatory catalog of IPC x ray sources. Volume 3E: Right ascension range 04h 00m to 07h 59m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; Forman, W.; Gioia, I. M.; Hale, J. A.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Jones, C.; Karakashian, T.; Maccacaro, T.; Mcsweeney, J. D.; Primini, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2, launched November 13, 1978) achieved radically improved sensitivity over previous x-ray missions through the use of focusing optics which simultaneously afforded greatly reduced background and produced true images. During its 2.5-yr mission, the Einstein X-Ray Telescope was pointed toward some 5,000 celestial targets, most of which were detected, and discovered several thousand additional 'serendipitous' sources in the observed fields. This catalog contains contour diagrams and source data, obtained with the imaging proportional counter in the 0.16 to 3.5 keV energy band, and describes methods for recovering upper limits for any sky position within the observed images. The main catalog consists of six volumes (numbered 2 through 7) of right ascension ordered pages, each containing data for one observation. Along with the primary documentation describing how the catalog was constructed, volume 1 contains a complete source list, results for merged fields, a reference system to published papers and data useful for calculating upper limits and fluxes.

  9. International workshop on resonant X-ray scattering in electrically-ordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.P.; Pettifer, R.F.; Laundy, D.; Ishida, K.; Kokubun, J.; Giles, C.; Yokaichiya, F.; Song, C.; Lee, K.B.; Ji, S.; Koo, J.; Park, Y.J.; Kim, J.Y.; Park, J.H.; Shin, H.J.; Rhyee, J.S.; Oh, B.H.; Cho, B.K.; Wilkins Stuart, B.; Paixao, J.A.; Caciuffo, R.; Javorsky, P.; Wastin, F.; Rebizant, J.; Detlefs, C.; Bernheoft, N.; Lander, G.H.; Bombardi, A.; Bergevin, F. de; Matteo, S. di; Paolasini, L.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.; Carretta, P.; Millet, P.; Caciuffo, R.; Goff, J.P.; Deen, P.P.; Lee, S.; Stunault, A.; Brown, S.; Mannix, D.; McIntyre, G.J.; Ward, R.C.C.; Wells, M.R.; Lorenzo, J.E.; Joly, Y.; Nazarenko, E.; Staub, U.; Srajer, G.; Haskel, D.; Choi, Y.; Lee, D.R.; Lang, J.C.; Meersschaut, J.; Jiang, J.S.; Bader, S.D.; Bouchenoire, L.; Brown, S.D.; Beesley, A.; Herring, A.; Thomas, M.; Thompson, P.; Langridge, S.; Stirling, W.G.; Mirone, A.; Lander, G.; Wilkins, S.; Ward, R.C.C.; Wells, M.R.; Zochowski, S.W.; Garcia, J.; Subias, G.; Blasco, J.; Sanchez, M.C.; Proietti, M.G.; Lovesey, S.W.; Dmitrienko, V.E.; Ovchinnikova, E.N.; Ishida, K.; Kokubun, J.; Kirfel, A.; Collins, S.P.; Laundy, D.; Oreshko, A.P.; Strange, P.; Horne, M.; Arola, E.; Winter, H.; Szotek, Z.; Temmerman, W.M.; Igarashi, J.; Usuda, M.; Takahashi, M.; Matteo, S. di; Bernhoeft, N.; Hill, J.P.; Lang, J.C.; McWhan, D.; Lee, D.R.; Haskel, D.; Srajer, G.; Hatton Peter, D.; Katsumata, K.; Braithwaite, D.

    2004-01-01

    The research field of Resonant X-ray Scattering (RXS) has achieved tremendous progress in the last years. Nowadays RXS is rapidly becoming the crucial technique for investigating the subtleties of microscopic magnetism in systems where the ground state properties reflect a delicate balance between several different correlated processes. The aim of this workshop is to discuss present and future possibilities for RXS investigations of electronic order, including studies of charge, magnetic, and multipolar ordered states. The sessions will cover experimental and theoretical aspects of hard and soft X-ray resonant scattering from single crystals and thin films. This document gathers the summaries of the presentations

  10. Measurements of internal stresses in bond coating using high energy x-rays from synchrotron radiation source

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, K; Akiniwa, Y; Nishio, K; Kawamura, M; Okado, H

    2002-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) techniques enable high temperature combustion of turbines made of Ni-base alloy. TBC is made of zirconia top coating on NiCoCrAlY bond coating. The internal stresses in the bond coating play essential role in the delamination or fracture of TBC in service. With the X-rays from laboratory equipments, it is impossible to measure nondestructively the internal stress in the bond coating under the top coating. synchrotron radiations with a high energy and high brightness have a large penetration depth as compared with laboratory X-rays. Using the high energy X-rays from the synchrotron radiation, it is possible to measure the internal stress in the bond coating through the top coating. In this study, the furnace, which can heat a specimen to 1473 K, was developed for the stress measurement of the thermal barrier coatings. The internal stresses in the bond coating were measured at the room temperature, 773 K, 1073 K and 1373 K by using the 311 diffraction from Ni sub 3 Al with about 73...

  11. Special tablets containing cellulose binder and Sr internal standard for simplifying X-ray fluorescence analysis of powder samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzyk, Zofia; Anyszkiewicz, Jacek; Gorewoda, Tadeusz

    2015-12-01

    The addition of a constant amount of SrCO3 was observed to be the proper internal standard for analysis by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to correct the matrix and grain size effects of many constituents. The weighing of constant amounts of SrCO3, binder and sample allowed for the preparation time for analysis to be extended, and special tablets containing binder and SrCO3 were developed. Several substances were tested as binders, among which microcrystalline cellulose was chosen for further study. The prepared tablets were checked for their weight stability and the repeatability of SrCO3 addition. The tablets were then used to prepare pellets from geological samples for X-ray fluorescence analysis. The exemplary application and calibration curves for several analytes confirmed that the prepared tablets could be useful for the pelletizing of such materials to compensate for matrix effects.

  12. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  13. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  14. X-Ray Lasers 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings comprise a selection of invited and contributed papers presented at the 15th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2016), held at the Nara Kasugano International Forum, Japan, from May 22 to 27, 2016. This conference was part of an ongoing series dedicated to recent developments in the science and technology of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with additional focus on supporting technologies, instrumentation and applications.   The book showcases recent advances in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays, the development of practical devices and their applications across a wide variety of fields. It also discusses emerging topics such as plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generations, as well as other x-ray generation schemes.

  15. Future axion searches with the International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    CERN Document Server

    Irastorza, I G; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Caspi, S; Cetin, S A; Christensen, F E; Dael, A; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Derbin, A V; Desch, K; Diago, A; Döbrich, B; Dudarev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; García, J A; Garza, J.G; Geralis, T; Gimeno, B; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; Guendelman, E; Hailey, C J; Hiramatsu, T; Hoffmann, D H H; Horns, D; Iguaz, F J; Isern, J; Jakobsen, A C; Jaeckel, J; Jakovčić, K; Kaminski, J; Kawasaki, M; Krčmar, M; Krieger, C; Lakić, B; Lindner, A; Liolios, A; Luzón, G; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Redondo, J; Ringwald, A; Russenschuck, S; Ruz, J; Saikawa, K; Savvidis, I; Sekiguchi, T; Shilon, I; Sikivie, P; Silva, H; Kate, H ten; Tomas, A; Troitsky, S; Vafeiadis, T; Bibber, K van; Vedrine, P; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Walckiers, L; Wester, W; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2013-01-01

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a new generation axion helioscope aiming at a sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling of gaγ few × 10−12 GeV−1, i.e. 1–1.5 orders of magnitude beyond the one achieved by CAST, currently the most sensitive axion helioscope. The main elements of IAXO are an increased magnetic field volume together with extensive use of x-ray focusing optics and low background detectors, innovations already successfully tested in CAST. Additional physics cases of IAXO could include the detection of electron-coupled axions invoked to explain the white dwarf cooling, relic axions, and a large variety of more generic axion-like particles (ALPs) and other novel excitations at the low-energy frontier of elementary particle physics.

  16. Imaging X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory, more appealingly called the Einstein Observatory, marked one of the most revolutionary steps taken in astrophysics this century. Its greater sensitivity compared with earlier satellites and its ability to make high spacial and spectral resolution observations transformed X-ray astronomy. This book is based on a Symposium held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to celebrate a decade of Einstein Observatory's achievements. It discusses the contributions that this satellite has made to each area of modern astrophysics and the diversity of the ongoing work based on Einstein data. There is a guide to each of the main data bases now coming on-line to increase the availability and to preserve this valuable archive for the future. A review of NASA's next big X-ray mission, AXAF, and a visionary program for novel X-ray astronomy satellites by Riccardo Giacconi conclude this wide-ranging volume. (author)

  17. PREFACE: The 15th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z. Y.

    2013-04-01

    The 15th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS15) was held on 22-28 July 2012 in Beijing, P. R. China. About 340 scientists from 34 countries attended this important international event. Main hall Figure 1. Main hall of XAFS15. The rapidly increasing application of XAFS to the study of a large variety of materials and the operation of the new SR source led to the first meeting of XAFS users in 1981 in England. Following that a further 14 International Conferences have been held. Comparing a breakdown of attendees according to their national origin, it is clear that participation is spreading to include attendees from more and more countries every year. The strategy of development in China of science and education is increasing quickly thanks to the large investment in scientific and technological research and infrastructure. There are three Synchrotron Radiation facilities in mainland China, Hefei Light Source (HLS) in the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSRL), Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) in the Institute of High Energy Physics, and Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) in the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics. More than 10000 users and over 5000 proposals run at these facilities. Among them, many teams from the USA, Japan, German, Italy, Russia, and other countries. More than 3000 manuscript were published in SCI journals, including (incomplete) Science (7), Nature (10), Nature Series (7), PNAS (3), JACS (12), Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (15), Nano Lett. (2), etc. In XAFS15, the participants contributed 18 plenary invited talks, 16 parallel invited talks, 136 oral presentations, 12 special talks, and 219 poster presentations. Wide communication was promoted in the conference halls, the classical banquet restaurant, and the Great Wall. Parallel hallCommunicationPoster room Figure 2. Parallel hallFigure 3. CommunicationFigure 4. Poster room This volume contains 136 invited and contributed papers

  18. Probing the emission physics and weak/soft population of Gamma-Ray Bursts with LOFT. White Paper in Support of the Mission Concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amati, L.; Stratta, G.; Atteia, J.L.

    science case, but also for many other open questions in astrophysics. LOFT ’s primary instrument is the Large Area Detector (LAD), a 8 . 5 m 2 instrument operating in the 2–30 keV energy range, which will revolutionise studies of Galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources down to their fundamental time...... with an on-board alert system for the detection and rapid broadcasting to the ground of celestial bright and fast outbursts of X-rays (particularly, Gamma-ray Bursts). This paper is one of twelve White Papers that illustrate the unique potential of LOFT as an X-ray observatory in a variety of astrophysical...

  19. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoennicke, M.G.; Cusatis, C.; Rigon, L.; Menk, R.-H.; Arfelli, F.; Foerster, L.A.; Rosado-Neto, G.H.

    2010-01-01

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures (Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  20. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Cusatis, C.; Rigon, L.; Menk, R.-H.; Arfelli, F.; Foerster, L. A.; Rosado-Neto, G. H.

    2010-08-01

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures ( Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  1. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoennicke, M.G., E-mail: mhonnicke@bnl.go [NSLS II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Cusatis, C. [LORXI, Departamento de Fisica-UFPR, Curitiba (Brazil); Rigon, L. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy); Menk, R.-H. [Sincrotrone Trieste SCPa, Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Arfelli, F. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy); Dipartamento di Fisica-Universita di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Foerster, L.A.; Rosado-Neto, G.H. [Departamento de Zoologia-UFPR, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2010-08-21

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures (Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  2. X-ray imaging for non-destructive testing of internal disorders in fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul

    1998-01-01

    A physiological disorder known as spongy tissue involving damage of the mesocarp (flesh) affects 20 to 30 percent of mango fruits, particularly Alphonso, the leading commercial variety of India. Large sized fruits and those more advanced in maturity or harvested when ripe show increased incidence of spongy tissue. The mango processing industry is also facing quality control problems and economic loss as weevil-infested fruits can contaminate the processed pulp as well as the processing machinery with insect, fecal and feed remnants. Studies undertaken in the Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai with assistance from Radiation Standards Section, Radiological Unit, BARC Hospital and ECIL, Hyderabad, have shown that both spongy tissue affected and seed weevil infested mango fruits can be detected by x-ray transmittance. The resulting image can be used to detect affected fruits. An automated system for detecting and rejecting mangoes with spongy tissue or seed weevil infestation is under development in collaboration with the Electronic Systems Division, BARC. (author)

  3. Cosmic x ray physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics for the period 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1990 is presented. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  4. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enema. What you can expect During the X-ray X-rays are performed at doctors' offices, dentists' offices, ... as those using a contrast medium. Your child's X-ray Restraints or other techniques may be used to ...

  5. Chest x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest radiography; Serial chest x-ray; X-ray - chest ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  6. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  7. Dendrochemical patterns of calcium, zinc, and potassium related to internal factors detected by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin T.; Balouet, Jean Christophe; Shortle, Walter C.; Chalot, Michel; Beaujard, François; Grudd, Håkan; Vroblesky, Don A.; Burkem, Joel G.

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provides highly sensitive and precise spatial resolution of cation content in individual annual growth rings in trees. The sensitivity and precision have prompted successful applications to forensic dendrochemistry and the timing of environmental releases of contaminants. These applications have highlighted the need to distinguish dendrochemical effects of internal processes from environmental contamination. Calcium, potassium, and zinc are three marker cations that illustrate the influence of these processes. We found changes in cation chemistry in tree rings potentially due to biomineralization, development of cracks or checks, heartwood/sapwood differentiation, intra-annual processes, and compartmentalization of infection. Distinguishing internal from external processes that affect dendrochemistry will enhance the value of EDXRF for both physiological and forensic investigations.

  8. Internal electric-field-lines distribution in CdZnTe detectors measured using X-ray mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Yao, H.W.; James, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The ideal operation of CdZnTe devices entails having a uniformly distributed internal electric field. Such uniformity especially is critical for thick long-drift-length detectors, such as large-volume CPG and 3-D multi-pixel devices. Using a high-spatial resolution X-ray mapping technique, we investigated the distribution of the electric field in real devices. Our measurements demonstrate that in thin detectors, 1 cm, with a large aspect ratio (thickness-to-width ratio), we observed two effects: the electric field lines bending away from or towards the side surfaces, which we called, respectively, the focusing field-line distribution and the defocusing field-line distribution. In addition to these large-scale variations, the field-line distributions were locally perturbed by the presence of extended defects and residual strains existing inside the crystals. We present our data clearly demonstrating the non-uniformity of the internal electric field

  9. X-ray cross-sections and crossroads (The International Radiation Physics Society) - Richard Pratt's contributions to both

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbell, J H

    2000-01-01

    Some examples of the impact of the theoretical contributions by Richard Pratt and his collaborators on photon cross section compilations at NBS/NIST and elsewhere over the past several decades are presented. Both the theoretical and measurement works which combine to provide this data base, and the contact with the varied user groups in medical applications, nuclear engineering, crystallography and X-ray astronomy, have formed a global crossroads of researchers now embodied in the International Radiation Physics Society (IRPS). Since the founding of the IRPS at the 3 rd International Symposium on Radiation Physics (ISRP-3) in Ferrara, Italy, in 1985, the Secretariat for this 'global radiation physics family' (the IRPS) has resided at the University of Pittsburgh under the direction of Richard Pratt. A brief account of the origins and history of the IRPS, beginning with ISRP-1 in Calcutta in 1974, is presented.

  10. X-ray cross-sections and crossroads (The International Radiation Physics Society) - Richard Pratt's contributions to both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, J. H.

    2000-08-01

    Some examples of the impact of the theoretical contributions by Richard Pratt and his collaborators on photon cross section compilations at NBS/NIST and elsewhere over the past several decades are presented. Both the theoretical and measurement works which combine to provide this data base, and the contact with the varied user groups in medical applications, nuclear engineering, crystallography and X-ray astronomy, have formed a global crossroads of researchers now embodied in the International Radiation Physics Society (IRPS). Since the founding of the IRPS at the 3rd International Symposium on Radiation Physics (ISRP-3) in Ferrara, Italy, in 1985, the Secretariat for this ``global radiation physics family'' (the IRPS) has resided at the University of Pittsburgh under the direction of Richard Pratt. A brief account of the origins and history of the IRPS, beginning with ISRP-1 in Calcutta in 1974, is presented.

  11. X ray imaging microscope for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Baker, Phillip C.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA technology employed during the Stanford MSFC LLNL Rocket X Ray Spectroheliograph flight established that doubly reflecting, normal incidence multilayer optics can be designed, fabricated, and used for high resolution x ray imaging of the Sun. Technology developed as part of the MSFC X Ray Microscope program, showed that high quality, high resolution multilayer x ray imaging microscopes are feasible. Using technology developed at Stanford University and at the DOE Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Troy W. Barbee, Jr. has fabricated multilayer coatings with near theoretical reflectivities and perfect bandpass matching for a new rocket borne solar observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). Advanced Flow Polishing has provided multilayer mirror substrates with sub-angstrom (rms) smoothnesss for the astronomical x ray telescopes and x ray microscopes. The combination of these important technological advancements has paved the way for the development of a Water Window Imaging X Ray Microscope for cancer research.

  12. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Gursky, H.

    1974-01-01

    This text contains ten chapters and three appendices. Following an introduction, chapters two through five deal with observational techniques, mechanisms for the production of x rays in a cosmic setting, the x-ray sky and solar x-ray emission. Chapters six through ten include compact x-ray sources, supernova remnants, the interstellar medium, extragalactic x-ray sources and the cosmic x-ray background. Interactions of x rays with matter, units and conversion factors and a catalog of x-ray sources comprise the three appendices. (U.S.)

  13. X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A novel, high-speed apparatus for use in X-ray computerised tomography is described in detail. It consists of a semi-circular array of X-ray sources, collimators and an ion chamber array for detection of the X-rays. The X-ray sources may be pulsed in salvos such that the corresponding detectors in the array are only illuminated by one source. The use of computer controlled salvos speeds up the image processing by at least a factor of two. The ion chamber array is designed to have a constant detection efficiency for varying angles of X-ray incidence. A detailed description of the detector construction and suggested gaseous fillings are given. It is claimed that the present tomographic system allows fast and accurate imaging of internal body organs and is insensitive to the blurring effects which motion of these organs tends to produce. (UK)

  14. X-Ray Tomographic Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnie Schmittberger

    2010-08-25

    Tomographic scans have revolutionized imaging techniques used in medical and biological research by resolving individual sample slices instead of several superimposed images that are obtained from regular x-ray scans. X-Ray fluorescence computed tomography, a more specific tomography technique, bombards the sample with synchrotron x-rays and detects the fluorescent photons emitted from the sample. However, since x-rays are attenuated as they pass through the sample, tomographic scans often produce images with erroneous low densities in areas where the x-rays have already passed through most of the sample. To correct for this and correctly reconstruct the data in order to obtain the most accurate images, a program employing iterative methods based on the inverse Radon transform was written. Applying this reconstruction method to a tomographic image recovered some of the lost densities, providing a more accurate image from which element concentrations and internal structure can be determined.

  15. Use of X - Rays for the evaluation of internal damages provoked by corn seed drying and the effect of those damages upon the seeds quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando Flor, Ebert Pepe; Moreira de Carvalho, Maria Laene

    2002-01-01

    The work was conducted in the seed analysis laboratory of the department of agriculture and forest sciences of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (Federal University of Lavras. MG), over the period 1999 - 2000. Aiming to evaluate the efficiency of utilization of X - rays in the identification of the several types of internal damages provoked by corn seed drying to high temperatures as well as the effect of those damages upon the physiological quality of stored seeds, lots of the cultivars AG1143 and BR 106 were submitted to drying at the temperature of 50 degrades Celsius. The lots were divided into two categories according to the presence or not of internal damages visible with the naked eye submitted to the X - ray test (for 45 at 25 Kvp of radiation intensity) afterwards. They were separated into three sub lots. CDVCDRX (with visual damages and detected by X - ray) SDVSDRX (without visual damages and with damages detected by X ray). The sub lots were evaluated in their physiological quality by viability and vigor tests. The results showed the efficiency of X ray in detecting internal damages of drying not observed by visual analysis. The vigor of corn seeds with internal drying damages is affected in several manners, depending on the cultivars, evaluation time and sort of damage internal damages of drying detected by the radiographical analysis in spite of not affecting early viability, when they occurs in the two directions horizontal and vertical (Double damage) decrease the vigor of seeds after storage

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray ...

  18. PREFACE: International Conference on the Use of X-ray (and related) Techniques in Arts and Cultural Heritage (XTACH 11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nasser; El-Khatib, Sami

    2012-07-01

    The International Conference on the Use of X-Ray (and related) Techniques in Arts and Cultural Heritage (XTACH11) was held on 7 and 8 December 2011 at the American University of Sharjah (AUS) in the United Arab Emirates. The conference was organized in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the National X-ray Fluorescence Laboratory (NXFL). The conference was inaugurated by Dr Peter Heath, Chancellor of the American University of Shrjah and attended by Mr Kwaku Aning, deputy Director General of the International Atomic Energy and Ambassador Hamad Al-Kaabi, Ambassador of the UAE to the International Atomic Energy university officials, faculty and students. The conference covered a variety of topics including the use of x-ray and micro beam x-ray analysis, synchrotron based techniques, ion beam and neutron based techniques, optical imaging and mass spectroscopy and chromatography techniques as well as best conservation practices. XTACH11 provided an excellent forum for scientists in the region to interact, exchange ideas and to initiate collaborations with each other as well as with the international community. It showcased some of the latest technical developments in the field of non-destructive testing for the diagnosis and conservation of cultural heritage materials. In addition to the presentations by the invited speakers (Rene van Grieken and K Janssens, University of Antwerp, Belgium; Thomas Calligaro, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France; Stefano Ridolfi, Ars Mensurae, Rome, Italy, and Andrzej Markowicz, IAEA, Austria), a total of 25 other research papers were also presented and discussed. Scientists from many countries participated in the conference: Austria, Belgium, Egypt, Italy, India, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen. The conference concluded with a Discussion Panel. Thomas Calligaro (Centre de Recherché et de

  19. Active x-ray optics for high resolution space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Peter; Atkins, Carolyn; Brooks, D.; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Meggs, Carl; James, Ady; Willis, Graham; Smith, Andy

    2017-11-01

    The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project started in April 2006 and will end in October 2010. The aim is to develop new technologies in the field of X-ray focusing, in particular the application of active and adaptive optics. While very major advances have been made in active/adaptive astronomical optics for visible light, little was previously achieved for X-ray optics where the technological challenges differ because of the much shorter wavelengths involved. The field of X-ray astronomy has been characterized by the development and launch of ever larger observatories with the culmination in the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra missions which are currently operational. XMM-Newton uses a multi-nested structure to provide modest angular resolution ( 10 arcsec) but large effective area, while Chandra sacrifices effective area to achieve the optical stability necessary to provide sub-arc second resolution. Currently the European Space Agency (ESA) is engaged in studies of the next generation of X-ray space observatories, with the aim of producing telescopes with increased sensitivity and resolution. To achieve these aims several telescopes have been proposed, for example ESA and NASA's combined International X-ray Observatory (IXO), aimed at spectroscopy, and NASA's Generation-X. In the field of X-ray astronomy sub 0.2 arcsecond resolution with high efficiency would be very exciting. Such resolution is unlikely to be achieved by anything other than an active system. The benefits of a such a high resolution would be important for a range of astrophysics subjects, for example the potential angular resolution offered by active X-ray optics could provide unprecedented structural imaging detail of the Solar Wind bowshock interaction of comets, planets and similar objects and auroral phenomena throughout the Solar system using an observing platform in low Earth orbit. A major aim of the SXO project was to investigate the production of thin

  20. The external and internal structures of Amphizoa davidi Lucas (Coleoptera, Amphizoidae), using X-ray phase contrast microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dee; Zhang, Kai; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Peiping; Xu, Caifeng; Wu, Ziyu; Zhou, Hongzhang

    2015-05-27

    The Chinese endemic water beetle Amphizoa davidi Lucas, is a rare and endangered species belonging to the monotypic family Amphizoidae (Coleoptera: Adephaga). A study of the external and internal structures of A. davidi is here presented, by using X-ray phase contrast tomography and light microscopy. Morphological details and three dimensional (3D) structures of this species are provided: skeletons, muscles, reproductive organs of male and female, nervous system, alimentary canal and pygidial gland. The reproductive organs of females are compared in two different developmental phases (ages): before copulation without mature ovaries and after copulation with mature ovaries. Such detailed 3D tomographic study based on micro-CT technology may promote our understanding of the detailed morphology in Amphizoidae and Coleoptera in general.

  1. X-ray shout echoing through space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    observatories around the world were pointing their instruments at this mysterious source in the sky, named GRB 031203, in the attempt to decipher its nature. Also ESA's X-ray observatory, XMM-Newton, joined the hunt and observed the source in detail, using its on-board European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC). The fading X-ray emission from GRB 031203 - called the `afterglow' - is clearly seen in XMM-Newton's images. But much more stunning are the two rings, centred on the afterglow, which appear to expand thousand times faster than the speed of light. Dr. Simon Vaughan, of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, leads an international team of scientists studying GRB 031203. He explains that these rings are what astronomers call an `echo'. They form when the X-rays from the distant gamma-ray burst shine on a layer of dust in our own Galaxy. "The dust scatters some of the X-rays, causing XMM-Newton to observe these rings, much in the same way as fog scatters the light from a car's headlights," said Vaughan. Although the afterglow is the brightest feature seen in XMM-Newton's images, the expanding echo is much more spectacular. "It is like a shout in a cathedral," Vaughan said. "The shout of the gamma-ray burst is louder, but the Galactic reverberation, seen as the rings, is much more beautiful." The rings seem to expand because the X-rays scattered by dust farther from the direction of GRB 031203 take longer to reach us than those hitting the dust closer to the line of sight. However, nothing can move faster than light. "This is precisely what we expect because of the finite speed of light," said Vaughan. "The rate of expansion that we see is just a visual effect." He and his colleagues explain that we see two rings because there are two thin sheets of dust between the source of the gamma-ray burst and Earth, one closer to us creating the wider ring and one further away where the smaller ring is formed. Since they know precisely at what speed the X-ray light travels in space

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ... of the inside of the chest. A chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and ...

  3. X-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, M.; Koubsky, P.

    1977-01-01

    The history is described of the discoveries of X-ray sources in the sky. The individual X-ray detectors are described in more detail, i.e., gas counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and the principles of X-ray spectrometry and of radiation collimation aimed at increased resolution are discussed. Currently, over 200 celestial X-ray sources are known. Some were identified as nebulae, in some pulsations were found or the source was identified as a binary star. X-ray bursts of novae were also observed. The X-ray radiation is briefly mentioned of spherical star clusters and of extragalactic X-ray sources. (Oy)

  4. Research of the X-ray spectrum in the digital image acquisition and processing for internal disturbs detection in mangoes (Mangifera indica l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rubemar S.; Freire Junior, Murillo; Botrel, Neide; Jesus, Edgar de

    2002-01-01

    In this work, digital image processing was associated to X-ray beam relevant to watching internal injuries, such as breakdown, soft nose and other physiological disturbs in mangoes CV Tommy Atkins. The X-ray source was a high frequency generator operating to a high tension between 14 to 35 kV on a molybdenum target tube, which generate X-ray characteristic near from 18,5 keV and 20 keV (k an l shell) plus a continuous spectrum, thought to be proper to get radiological images from mangoes in different maturation stages. Different filtrations and pseudo-colors technique were used to process the digital images produced. Results, from a group of comparative images, show the feasibility to detect several classes of internal disorders as well as others produced in packing houses and transport of mangoes. (author)

  5. Data standards for the international virtual observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J Hanisch

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance, which brings together Virtual Observatory Projects from 16 national and international development projects, is to develop, evaluate, test, and agree upon standards for astronomical data formatting, data discovery, and data delivery. In the three years that the IVOA has been in existence, substantial progress has been made on standards for tabular data, imaging data, spectroscopic data, and large-scale databases and on managing the metadata that describe data collections and data access services. In this paper, I describe how the IVOA operates and give my views as to why such a broadly based international collaboration has been able to make such rapid progress.

  6. Astronomical Virtual Observatories Through International Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Ohishi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical Virtual Observatories (VOs are emerging research environment for astronomy, and 16 countries and a region have funded to develop their VOs based on international standard protocols for interoperability. The 16 funded VO projects have established the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (http://www.ivoa.net/ to develop the standard interoperable interfaces such as registry (meta data, data access, query languages, output format (VOTable, data model, application interface, and so on. The IVOA members have constructed each VO environment through the IVOA interfaces. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ started its VO project (Japanese Virtual Observatory - JVO in 2002, and developed its VO system. We have succeeded to interoperate the latest JVO system with other VOs in the USA and Europe since December 2004. Observed data by the Subaru telescope, satellite data taken by the JAXA/ISAS, etc. are connected to the JVO system. Successful interoperation of the JVO system with other VOs means that astronomers in the world will be able to utilize top-level data obtained by these telescopes from anywhere in the world at anytime. System design of the JVO system, experiences during our development including problems of current standard protocols defined in the IVOA, and proposals to resolve these problems in the near future are described.

  7. Visualization of the internal structure of Didymosphenia geminata frustules using nano X-ray tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Zglobicka, Izabela; Li, Qiong; Gluch, Jürgen; Płocińska, Magdalena; Noga, Teresa; Dobosz, Romuald; Szoszkiewicz, Robert; Witkowski, Andrzej; Zschech, Ehrenfried; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J.

    2017-01-01

    For the first time, the three-dimensional (3D) internal structure of naturally produced Didymosphenia geminata frustules were nondestructively visualized at sub-100 nm resolution. The well-optimized hierarchical structures of these natural organisms provide insight that is needed to design novel, environmentally friendly functional materials. Diatoms, which are widely distributed in freshwater, seawater and wet soils, are well known for their intricate, siliceous cell walls called ?frustules?...

  8. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguvarun, K.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic; Kapoor, Ajay

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  9. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raguvarun, K.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Kapoor, Ajay; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength

  10. Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Cheryl; Deininger, William D.; Baggett, Randy; Primo, Attina; Bowen, Mike; Cowart, Chris; Del Monte, Ettore; Ingram, Lindsey; Kalinowski, William; Kelley, Anthony; hide

    2018-01-01

    The Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) project is an international collaboration to build and fly a polarization sensitive X-ray observatory. The IXPE Observatory consists of the spacecraft and payload. The payload is composed of three X-ray telescopes, each consisting of a mirror module optical assembly and a polarization-sensitive X-ray detector assembly; a deployable boom maintains the focal length between the optical assemblies and the detectors. The goal of the IXPE Mission is to provide new information about the origins of cosmic X-rays and their interactions with matter and gravity as they travel through space. IXPE will do this by exploiting its unique capability to measure the polarization of X-rays emitted by cosmic sources. The collaboration for IXPE involves national and international partners during design, fabrication, assembly, integration, test, and operations. The full collaboration includes NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Ball Aerospace, the Italian Space Agency (ASI), the Italian Institute of Astrophysics and Space Planetology (IAPS)/Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF), the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), the University of Colorado (CU) Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), Stanford University, McGill University, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The goal of this paper is to discuss risk management as it applies to the IXPE project. The full IXPE Team participates in risk management providing both unique challenges and advantages for project risk management. Risk management is being employed in all phases of the IXPE Project, but is particularly important during planning and initial execution-the current phase of the IXPE Project. The discussion will address IXPE risk strategies and responsibilities, along with the IXPE management process which includes risk identification, risk assessment, risk response, and risk monitoring, control, and reporting.

  11. Internal structure of a vermicular ironstone as determined by X-ray computed tomography scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinn, Yuri Lopes, E-mail: ylzinn@dcs.ufla.br [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia do Solo; Carducci, Carla Eloize [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Curitibanos, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Agronomia; Araujo, Marla Alessandra [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia do Solo

    2015-03-15

    Ironstones or petroplinthites are common materials in soils under humid tropical climate, generally defined as the result of Fe oxide accumulation in areas where the water table oscillates, and may exhibit considerable morphological variability. The aim of this study was to examine the internal structure and porosity of an ironstone fragment from a Petroferric Acrudox in Minas Gerais, Brazil, by computed tomography (CT) and conventional techniques. The sample analyzed had total porosity of 59.5 %, with large macropores in the form of tubular channels and irregular vughs, the latter with variable degrees of infilling by material released from the ironstone walls or the soil matrix. The CT scan also showed that the ironstone has wide variation in the density of the solid phase, most likely due to higher concentrations or thick intergrowths of hematite and magnetite/maghemite, especially in its outer rims. The implications of these results for water retention and soil formation in ironstone environments are briefly discussed. (author)

  12. Phase contrast X-ray synchrotron imaging for assessing external and internal morphology of Rhodnius prolixus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Andre P. de, E-mail: apalmeid@gmail.com [Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nuclear Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Soares, Jose [Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Meneses, Anderson A.M. [Radiological Sciences Laboratory, State University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Federal University of Western Para (Brazil); Cardoso, Simone C. [Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Braz, Delson [Nuclear Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Garcia, Eloi S. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Physiology of Insects, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ (Brazil); Gonzalez, Marcelo S. [Department of General Biology, Federal University Fluminense (Brazil); Azambuja, Patricia [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Physiology of Insects, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ (Brazil); Barroso, Regina C. [Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    PhC-SR-{mu}CT is a nondestructive technique that allows the microanatomical investigations and 3D images reconstructions. This technique is performed in blood sucker, Rhodnius prolixus-one of the most important insect vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, ethiologic agent of Chagas' disease in Latin America-was able to provide excellent information about the microanatomy of the thorax and head allowing a new tool for further studies of development and physiology of triatomine by a non-invasive method of observation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this work we used SR-PhC-{mu}CT to study the microanatomy of R. prolixus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate SR-PhC-{mu}CT to the 3D reconstruction of internal structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We get information about the tissues responsible for the development of the insect.

  13. Proton irradiation experiment for x-ray charge-coupled devices of the monitor of all-sky x-ray image mission onboard the international space station. 2. Degradation of dark current and identification of electron trap level

    CERN Document Server

    Miyata, E; Kamiyama, D

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the radiation damage effects on a charge-coupled device (CCD) to be used for the Japanese X-ray mission, the monitor of all-sky X-ray image (MAXI), onboard the international space station (ISS). A temperature dependence of the dark current as a function of incremental dose is studied. We found that the protons having energy of >292 keV seriously increased the dark current of the devices. In order to improve the radiation tolerance of the devices, we have developed various device architectures to minimize the radiation damage in orbit. Among them, nitride oxide enables us to reduce the dark current significantly and therefore we adopted nitride oxide for the flight devices. We also compared the dark current of a device in operation and that out of operation during the proton irradiation. The dark current of the device in operation became twofold that out of operation, and we thus determined that devices would be turned off during the passage of the radiation belt. The temperature dependenc...

  14. The Superconducting Toroid for the New International AXion Observatory (IAXO)

    CERN Document Server

    Shilon, I.; Silva, H.; Wagner, U.; ten Kate, H.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    IAXO, the new International AXion Observatory, will feature the most ambitious detector for solar axions to date. Axions are hypothetical particles which were postulated to solve one of the puzzles arising in the standard model of particle physics, namely the strong CP (Charge conjugation and Parity) problem. This detector aims at achieving a sensitivity to the coupling between axions and photons of one order of magnitude beyond the limits of the current detector, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). The IAXO detector relies on a high-magnetic field distributed over a very large volume to convert solar axions to detectable X-ray photons. Inspired by the ATLAS barrel and end-cap toroids, a large superconducting toroid is being designed. The toroid comprises eight, one meter wide and twenty one meters long racetrack coils. The assembled toroid is sized 5.2 m in diameter and 25 m in length and its mass is about 250 tons. The useful field in the bores is 2.5 T while the peak magnetic field in the windings is 5....

  15. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF A VERMICULAR IRONSTONE AS DETERMINED BY X-RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY SCANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Lopes Zinn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ironstones or petroplinthites are common materials in soils under humid tropical climate, generally defined as the result of Fe oxide accumulation in areas where the water table oscillates, and may exhibit considerable morphological variability. The aim of this study was to examine the internal structure and porosity of an ironstone fragment from a Petroferric Acrudox in Minas Gerais, Brazil, by computed tomography (CT and conventional techniques. The sample analyzed had total porosity of 59.5 %, with large macropores in the form of tubular channels and irregular vughs, the latter with variable degrees of infilling by material released from the ironstone walls or the soil matrix. The CT scan also showed that the ironstone has wide variation in the density of the solid phase, most likely due to higher concentrations or thick intergrowths of hematite and magnetite/maghemite, especially in its outer rims. The implications of these results for water retention and soil formation in ironstone environments are briefly discussed.

  16. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  17. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003381.htm X-ray - skeleton To use the sharing features on this ... Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis Risks There is low radiation exposure. X-rays machines are set to provide the smallest ...

  18. Dental x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film; Digital image ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some of them are: Bitewing. Shows the crown ...

  19. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a ... posted: How to Obtain and Share ...

  20. X-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation that can penetrate the body to form an image on ... will be shades of gray depending on density. X-rays can provide information about obstructions, tumors, and other ...

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  2. PIXE in 1980: Summary of the second international conference on particle induced x-ray emission and its analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akselsson, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Second International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and its analytical applications was held in Lund, Sweden, June 9-12, 1980. About a hundred papers were presented, including seven invited talks (PIXE and particle scattering, microbeam analysis, applications to aerosols and biological samples). The main impression left by the conference was that both the PIXE method and its applications are in a phase of fast development. Considerable effort has successfully been devoted to optimizing the basic PIXE technique. Also the great advantage of simultaneously getting information about lighter elements and sample mass was reported to have been successfully employed in routine analyses. PIXE, which was initially considered to be a method mainly for thin samples, has also been shown to be competitive for a variety of thick samples. Data from aerosol studies was presented. With the PIXE-method, it is feasible to perform series of measurements over a long period of time, many samples in parallel and/or samples from sites of poor accessibility. However, the advantages of PIXE may be further exploited in aerosol investigations and some promising lines of sampler development were reported. Sample preparation techniques are crucial for applications to biological samples and several laboratories are engaged in such developmental work. However, it was also evident that PIXE is already giving significant contributions to research in biology and medicine

  3. Morphological evolution and internal strain mapping of pomelo peel using X-ray computed tomography and digital volume correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, B.

    2017-10-15

    Cellular microstructures within natural materials enlighten and promote the development of novel materials and structures in the industrial and engineering fields. Characterization of the microstructures and mechanical properties of these natural materials can help to understand the morphology-related mechanical properties and guide the structural optimization in industrial design. Among these natural cellular materials, pomelo peels, having a foam-like hierarchical microstructure, represent an ideal model for developing materials with high energy absorption efficiency. In this work, by combining X-ray tomographic imaging technique and digital volume correlation (DVC), in-situ stepwise uniaxial compression tests were performed to quantify the internal morphological evolution and kinematic responses of pomelo peel samples during compression. Via these experiments, the varying microstructure features and thus diverse resistance to compression from endocarp to exocarp are examined, and the evolution of both bundles bending and large strain domain from endocarp to mesocarp are explored. Based on the experimental results, the microstructure-related mechanical properties of pomelo peels in response to compressive loading that demonstrates nearly linear morphology-mechanics relationship were revealed.

  4. A feasibility study of dynamic stress analysis inside a running internal combustion engine using synchrotron X-ray beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baimpas, Nikolaos; Drakopoulos, Michael; Connolley, Thomas; Song, Xu; Pandazaras, Costas; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2013-03-01

    The present investigation establishes the feasibility of using synchrotron-generated X-ray beams for time-resolved in situ imaging and diffraction of the interior components of an internal combustion engine during its operation. The demonstration experiment was carried out on beamline I12 (JEEP) at Diamond Light Source, UK. The external hutch of the JEEP instrument is a large-scale engineering test bed for complex in situ processing and simulation experiments. The hutch incorporates a large capacity translation and rotation table and a selection of detectors for monochromatic and white-beam diffraction and imaging. These capabilities were used to record X-ray movies of a motorcycle internal combustion engine running at 1850 r.p.m. and to measure strain inside the connecting rod via stroboscopic X-ray diffraction measurement. The high penetrating ability and high flux of the X-ray beam at JEEP allowed the observation of inlet and outlet valve motion, as well as that of the piston, connecting rod and the timing chain within the engine. Finally, the dynamic internal strain within the moving connecting rod was evaluated with an accuracy of ~50 × 10(-6).

  5. A soft X-ray image of the Moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J.H.M.M.; Aschenbach, B.; Hasinger, G.; Pfeffermann, E.; Predehl, P.; Truemper, J.; Snowden, S.L.; Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI

    1991-01-01

    A soft X-ray image of the Moon obtained by the Roentgen Observatory Satellite ROSAT clearly shows a sunlit crescent, demonstrating that the Moon's X-ray luminosity arises from backscattering of solar X-rays. The Moon's optically dark side is also X-ray dark, and casts a distinct shadow on the diffuse cosmic X-ray background. Unexpectedly, the dark side seems to emit X-rays at a level about one per cent that of the bright side; this emission very probably results from energetic solar-wind electrons striking the Moon's surface. (author)

  6. Optics Developments for X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    X-ray optics has revolutionized x-ray astronomy. The degree of background suppression that these afford, have led to a tremendous increase in sensitivity. The current Chandra observatory has the same collecting area (approx. 10(exp 3)sq cm) as the non-imaging UHURU observatory, the first x-ray observatory which launched in 1970, but has 5 orders of magnitude more sensitivity due to its focusing optics. In addition, its 0.5 arcsec angular resolution has revealed a wealth of structure in many cosmic x-ray sources. The Chandra observatory achieved its resolution by using relatively thick pieces of Zerodur glass, which were meticulously figured and polished to form the four-shell nested array. The resulting optical assembly weighed around 1600 kg, and cost approximately $0.5B. The challenge for future x-ray astronomy missions is to greatly increase the collecting area (by one or more orders of magnitude) while maintaining high angular resolution, and all within realistic mass and budget constraints. A review of the current status of US optics for x-ray astronomy will be provided along with the challenges for future developments.

  7. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  8. Some observational aspects of compact galactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, J.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis contains the following observations of compact galactic X-ray sources: i) the X-ray experiments onboard the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite ANS, ii) a rocket-borne ultra soft X-ray experiment and iii) the Objective Grating Spectrometer onboard the EINSTEIN observatory. In Chapter I the various types of compact galactic X-ray sources are reviewed and put into the perspective of earlier and following observations. In Chapter II the author presents some of the observations of high luminosity X-ray sources, made with ANS, including the detection of soft X-rays from the compact X-ray binary Hercules X-1 and the ''return to the high state'' of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1. Chapter III deals with transient X-ray phenomena. Results on low luminosity galactic X-ray sources are collected in Chapter IV. (Auth.)

  9. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.

    Astronomy's great advantages from the Moon are well known - stable surface, diffuse atmosphere, long cool nights (14 days), low gravity, far side radio frequency silence. A large variety of astronomical instruments and observations are possible - radio, optical and infrared telescopes and interferometers; interferometry for ultra- violet to sub -millimeter wavelengths and for very long baselines, including Earth- Moon VLBI; X-ray, gamma-ray, cosmic ray and neutrino detection; very low frequency radio observation; and more. Unparalleled advantages of lunar observatories for SETI, as well as for local surveillance, Earth observation, and detection of Earth approaching objects add significant utility to lunar astronomy's superlatives. At least nine major conferences in the USA since 1984 and many elsewhere, as well as ILEWG, IAF, IAA, LEDA and other organizations' astronomy-from-the-Moon research indicate a lunar observatory / power station, robotic at first, will be one of the first mission elements for a permanent lunar base. An international lunar observatory will be a transcending enterprise, highly principled, indispensable, soundly and broadly based, and far- seeing. Via Astra - From Hawaii to the Moon: The astronomy and scie nce communities, national space agencies and aerospace consortia, commercial travel and tourist enterprises and those aspiring to advance humanity's best qualities, such as Aloha, will recognize Hawaii in the 21st century as a new major support area and pan- Pacific port of embarkation to space, the Moon and beyond. Astronomical conditions and facilities on Hawaii's Mauna Kea provide experience for construction and operation of observatories on the Moon. Remote and centrally isolated, with diffuse atmosphere, sub-zero temperature and limited working mobility, the Mauna Kea complex atop the 4,206 meter summit of the largest mountain on the planet hosts the greatest collection of large astronomical telescopes on Earth. Lunar, extraterrestrial

  10. X-ray Optics Development at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dharma P.

    2017-01-01

    Development of high resolution focusing telescopes has led to a tremendous leap in sensitivity, revolutionizing observational X-ray astronomy. High sensitivity and high spatial resolution X-ray observations have been possible due to use of grazing incidence optics (paraboloid/hyperboloid) coupled with high spatial resolution and high efficiency detectors/imagers. The best X-ray telescope flown so far is mounted onboard Chandra observatory launched on July 23,1999. The telescope has a spatial resolution of 0.5 arc seconds with compatible imaging instruments in the energy range of 0.1 to 10 keV. The Chandra observatory has been responsible for a large number of discoveries and has provided X-ray insights on a large number of celestial objects including stars, supernova remnants, pulsars, magnetars, black holes, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, clusters and our own solar system.

  11. Investigation of the internal electric field distribution under in situ x-ray irradiation and under low temperature conditions by the means of the Pockels effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prekas, G; Sellin, P J; Veeramani, P; Davies, A W; Lohstroh, A; Oezsan, M E; Veale, M C

    2010-01-01

    The internal electric field distribution in cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) x-ray and γ-ray detectors strongly affects their performance in terms of charge transport and charge collection properties. In CdZnTe detectors the electric field distribution is sensitively dependent on not only the nature of the metal contacts but also on the working conditions of the devices such as the temperature and the rate of external irradiation. Here we present direct measurements of the electric field profiles in CdZnTe detectors obtained using the Pockels electo-optic effect whilst under in situ x-ray irradiation. These data are also compared with alpha particle induced current pulses obtained by the transient current technique, and we discuss the influence of both low temperature and x-ray irradiation on the electric field evolution. Results from these studies reveal strong distortion of the electric field consistent with the build-up of space charge at temperatures below 250 K, even in the absence of external irradiation. Also, in the presence of x-ray irradiation levels a significant distortion in the electric field is observed even at room temperature which matches well the predicted theoretical model.

  12. Phase identification and internal stress analysis of steamside oxides on superheater tubes by means of X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Montgomery, Melanie

    Steamside oxides formed on plant exposed superheated tubes were investigated using X-ray diffraction. Phase identification and stress analysis revealed that on ferritic X20CrMoV12-1 pure Hematite and pure Magnetite formed and both phases are under tensile stress. IN contrast, on austenitic TP347H...

  13. Dendrochemical patterns of calcium, zinc, and potassium related to internal factors detected by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jean Christophe Balouet; Walter C. Shortle; Michel Chalot; François Beaujard; Hakan Grudd; Don A. Vroblesky; Joel G. Burken

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provides highly sensitive and precise spatial resolution of cation content in individual annual growth rings in trees. The sensitivity and precision have prompted successful applications to forensic dendrochemistry and the timing of environmental releases of contaminants. These applications have highlighted the need to...

  14. X-ray holography

    CERN Document Server

    Faigel, G; Belakhovsky, M; Marchesini, S; Bortel, G

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples.

  15. X-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigel, G.; Tegze, M.; Belakhovsky, M.; Marchesini, S.; Bortel, G.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples

  16. Trace elements in airborne particles in internal industrial environments: spectrometric analysis of x-ray fluorescence (XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar Matarrita, Alfonso

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy x-ray, is a technique of non-destructive analysis, that allows quantitative determination of the absolute concentration of chemical elements that make up a given matrix. The detected elements depend on atomic number and energy of the secondary target used for irradiation of samples. X-rays are detected and counted in a spectroscopy system based on a multichannel analyzer, that discriminates by energy and form a spectrum of independent photopeaks, whose energy identifies the element and its intensity is proportional to its concentration. The quantification requires the irradiation and counting of a set of pattern comparators, of the same elements identified in the samples. The x-ray emission shows only during the time that the selected sample is subjected to irradiation by x-ray tube. This irradiation does not change the structure nor the chemical composition of the matrix, so the sample remains unchanged, after irradiation. This condition non-destructive characterizes the fluorescence x-ray. The trace elements present in airborne particles, are determined and collected on a Nuclepore filter. The collection sites selected are: Taller de Mecanica de Precision de la Escuela de Fisica, Universidad de Costa Rica; Taller J. V. G. Precision, San Antonio de Coronado; Taller de Muflas, MUFLASA, Alto de Guadalupe; Industria Silvania S. A., Pavas. In addition, it is attached the service rendered to the enterprise Sellos Generales S. A. The working conditions and physical conditions of facilities were considered. An aerosol sampler with a temporal variation was used. Irradiation of samples and an evaluation of the concentrations have been made. (author) [es

  17. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  18. Internal structures of thermosensitive hybrid microgels investigated by means of small-angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Nagase, Yasuhisa; Kureha, Takuma; Sato, Takaaki

    2014-02-27

    Internal structures of thermosensitive microgels and their hybrid counterparts that contain Au nanoparticles are investigated by means of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Thermosensitive cationic microgels were synthesized by aqueous free radical precipitation polymerization from N-isopropylacrylamide and 3-(methacrylamino) propyltrimethylammonium chloride used as monomers. Using the microgels as templates, Au nanoparticles were synthesized in situ, using the cationic sites in the microgel to nucleate particle growth. To obtain different types of the hybrid microgels, Au nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of the microgels by changing the reduction conditions of the precursor ions, such as temperature and species of reducing reagent. The hybrid microgels were characterized mainly by TEM and SAXS. For SAXS investigation, the hybrid microgels were analyzed in the wide q-range of 0.07 nm(-1) < q < 20 nm(-1), where q is the magnitude of the scattering vector. A quantitative description of the scattering intensities, I(q), for the nonhybrid microgels requires a sum of five components having different physical origins. An upturn increase of the forward intensity originates from the interface of microgels, obeying the Porod law, I(q) ∝ q(-4). An additional Guinier term found in q < 0.2 nm(-1) seems to arise from solidlike density fluctuation due to the inhomogeneities of chemical cross-links. The power-law behavior manifested in the low- to intermediate-q range is directly linked with the fractal nature of the swollen (coil) polymer networks and well described by the Ornstein-Zernike equation. Two interference peaks centered at q ≈ 5 nm (-1) and q ≈ 15 nm(-1) are likely to reflect inter- and intrachain correlations of pNIPAm, respectively, which are formally fitted by pseudo-Voigt equations. As for the hybrid microgels, a pronounced new contribution from the Au nanoparticles emerges, which calls for an additional scattering component describing

  19. Proceedings of the eighth international colloquium on ultraviolet and x-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas (IAU colloquium 86)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This volume represents the Proceedings of the Eighth International Colloquium on Ultraviolet and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas. The aim of this series of colloquia has been to bring together workers in the fields of astrophysical spectroscopy, laboratory spectroscopy and atomic physics in order to exchange ideas and results on problems which are common to these different disciplines. In addition to the presented papers there was a poster paper session

  20. Proceedings of the eighth international colloquium on ultraviolet and x-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas (IAU colloquium 86)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This volume represents the Proceedings of the Eighth International Colloquium on Ultraviolet and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas. The aim of this series of colloquia has been to bring together workers in the fields of astrophysical spectroscopy, laboratory spectroscopy and atomic physics in order to exchange ideas and results on problems which are common to these different disciplines. In addition to the presented papers there was a poster paper session. (WRF)

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used ...

  2. X-ray binaries, part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerschlag-Hensberge, G.C.M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Optical observations of X-ray binaries and their interpretation are described. A number of early-type stars which are identified as companions of X-ray sources are photometrically and spectroscopically observed. The spectra were obtained with the coude spectrograph attached to the 1.5 m telescope of the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Registrations of the spectra were made with the Faul-Coradi microphotometer of the Observatory at Utrecht. To study radial velocity variations, the positions of the spectral lines were measured with the Grant comparator of the University of Groningen

  3. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to change into a gown. You may have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny ...

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x- ...

  6. The X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, M.; Kelley, R.

    2017-10-01

    On 25 March 2016, the Japanese 6th X-ray astronomical satellite ASTRO-H (Hitomi), launched on February 17, lost communication after a series of mishap in its attitude control system. In response to the mishap the X-ray astronomy community and JAXA analyzed the direct and root cause of the mishap and investigated possibility of a recovery mission with the international collaborator NASA and ESA. Thanks to great effort of scientists, agencies, and governments, the X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (XARM) are proposed. The recovery mission is planned to resume high resolution X-ray spectroscopy with imaging realized by Hitomi under the international collaboration in the shortest time possible, simply by focusing one of the main science goals of Hitomi Resolving astrophysical problems by precise high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy'. XARM will carry a 6 x 6 pixelized X-ray micro-calorimeter on the focal plane of an X-ray mirror assembly, and an aligned X-ray CCD camera covering the same energy band and wider field of view, but no hard X-ray or soft gamma-ray instruments are onboard. In this paper, we introduce the science objectives, mission concept, and schedule of XARM.

  7. Characterization of the external and internal flow structure of an aerated-liquid injector using X-ray radiography and fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, Scott J. [Aerospace Systems Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Arnold AFB, TN (United States); Lin, Kuo-Cheng [Taitech, Inc., Beavercreek, OH (United States); Carter, Campbell D. [Aerospace Systems Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Kastengren, Alan L. [Argonne National Laboratory, X-Ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-09-15

    In the present study, the internal flowfield of aerated-liquid fuel injectors is examined through X-ray radiography and X-ray fluorescence. An inside-out injector, consisting of a perforated aerating tube within an annular liquid stream, sprays into a quiescent environment at a fixed mass flow rate of water and nitrogen gas. The liquid is doped with bromine (in the form of NaBr) to create an X-ray fluorescence signal. This allows for reasonable absorption and fluorescence signals, and one or both diagnostics can be used to track the liquid distribution. The injector housing is fabricated from beryllium (Be), which allows the internal flowfield to be examined (as Be has relatively low X-ray attenuation coefficient). Two injector geometries are compared, illustrating the effects of aerating orifice size and location on the flow evolution. Time-averaged equivalent pathlength and line-of-sight averaged density ρ(y) reveal the formation of the two-phase mixture, showing that the liquid film thickness along the injector walls is a function of the aerating tube geometry, though only upstream of the nozzle. These differences in gas and liquid distribution (between injectors with different aerating tube designs) are suppressed as the mixture traverses the nozzle contraction. The averaged liquid velocity (computed from the density and liquid mass flow rate) reveals a similar trend. This suggests that at least for the current configurations, the plume width, liquid mass distribution, and averaged liquid velocity for the time-averaged external spray are insensitive to the aerating tube geometry. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of the external and internal flow structure of an aerated-liquid injector using X-ray radiography and fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, Scott J.; Lin, Kuo-Cheng; Carter, Campbell D.; Kastengren, Alan L.

    2017-08-02

    In the present study, the internal flowfield of aerated-liquid fuel injectors is examined through x-ray radiography and x-ray fluorescence. An inside-out injector, consisting of a perforated aerating tube within an annular liquid stream, sprays into a quiescent environment at a fixed mass flow rate of water and nitrogen gas. The liquid is doped with bromine (in the form of NaBr) to create an x-ray fluorescence signal. This allows for reasonable absorption and fluorescence signals, and one or both diagnostics can be used to track the liquid distribution. The injector housing is fabricated from beryllium (Be), which allows the internal flowfield to be examined (as Be has relatively low x-ray attenuation coefficient). Two injector geometries are compared, illustrating the effects of aerating orifice size and location on the flow evolution. Time-averaged equivalent pathlength (EPL) and line-of-sight averaged density ρ(y) reveal the formation of the two-phase mixture, showing that the liquid film thickness along the injector walls is a function of the aerating tube geometry, though only upstream of the nozzle. These differences in gas and liquid distribution (between injectors with different aerating tube designs) are suppressed as the mixture traverses the nozzle contraction. The averaged liquid velocity (computed from the density and liquid mass flow rate) reveal a similar trend. This suggests that at least for the current configurations, the plume width, liquid mass distribution, and averaged liquid velocity for the time-averaged external spray are insensitive to the aerating tube geometry.

  9. Soft x-ray streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the development and of the current state of the art in picosecond soft x-ray streak camera technology. Accomplishments from a number of institutions are discussed. X-ray streak cameras vary from standard visible streak camera designs in the use of an x-ray transmitting window and an x-ray sensitive photocathode. The spectral sensitivity range of these instruments includes portions of the near UV and extends from the subkilovolt x- ray region to several tens of kilovolts. Attendant challenges encountered in the design and use of x-ray streak cameras include the accommodation of high-voltage and vacuum requirements, as well as manipulation of a photocathode structure which is often fragile. The x-ray transmitting window is generally too fragile to withstand atmospheric pressure, necessitating active vacuum pumping and a vacuum line of sight to the x-ray signal source. Because of the difficulty of manipulating x-ray beams with conventional optics, as is done with visible light, the size of the photocathode sensing area, access to the front of the tube, the ability to insert the streak tube into a vacuum chamber and the capability to trigger the sweep with very short internal delay times are issues uniquely relevant to x-ray streak camera use. The physics of electron imaging may place more stringent limitations on the temporal and spatial resolution obtainable with x-ray photocathodes than with the visible counterpart. Other issues which are common to the entire streak camera community also concern the x-ray streak camera users and manufacturers

  10. Toward Adaptive X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Tim W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peer; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (less than 1 inch) optics with very-large-aperture (greater than 25 square meter) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the surface areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kilogram per square meter or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve adaptive (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, adaptive optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States, and the Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom. This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward adaptive x-ray telescopes.

  11. X-ray generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are described for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly stripped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays

  12. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  13. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Stagg, L.; Lambert, T.W.; Griswa, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A patient support system for X-ray equipment in arteriographic studies of the heart is described in detail. The support system has been designed to overcome many of the practical problems encountered in using previous types of arteriographic X-ray equipment. The support system is capable of horizontal movement and, by a series of shafts attached to the main support system, the X-ray source and image intensifier or detector may be rotated through the same angle. The system is highly flexible and details are given of several possible operational modes. (U.K.)

  14. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of x-ray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes. 8 figures

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  16. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small ... limitations of Panoramic X-ray? What is Panoramic X-ray? Panoramic radiography , also called panoramic x-ray , is ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  19. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  20. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... darker. An X-ray technician takes the X-rays. An X-ray technician in the radiology department of a ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  2. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... The test is done in a hospital x-ray department or your health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie on the x-ray table ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  4. X-ray optics developments at ESA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, M.; Wille, E.; Wallace, K.

    2013-01-01

    Future high energy astrophysics missions will require high performance novel X-ray optics to explore the Universe beyond the limits of the currently operating Chandra and Newton observatories. Innovative optics technologies are therefore being developed and matured by the European Space Agency (ESA......) in collaboration with research institutions and industry, enabling leading-edge future science missions. Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) [1 to 21] and Slumped Glass Optics (SGO) [22 to 29] are lightweight high performance X-ray optics technologies being developed in Europe, driven by applications in observatory class...... reflective coatings [30 to 35]. In addition, the progress with the X-ray test facilities and associated beam-lines is discussed [36]. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray ... posted: How to Obtain and Share Your Medical Images Movement Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI ...

  6. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  7. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight February is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  8. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Medical Imaging Costs Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/ ... Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  10. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  13. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used ... diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A ...

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  15. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  16. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: How to Obtain and ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  17. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Video: The Basketball Game: ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  18. X-Ray Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, David C.

    1998-05-01

    We provide an overview of the status of x-ray laser development worldwide with particular attention given to activities at LLNL. Since the demonstration of x-ray lasing 14 years ago there has been major progress in achieving shorter wavelengths, higher energies per pulse, higher efficiency, shorter pulse durations, etc. Original x-ray lasers used large kJ class lasers to achieve lasing in mid-Z materials with electron collisional pumping in the highly stripped ion being the most successful process for populating the upper-laser state. The two most common electron configurations for these collisional x-ray lasers are Ne-like and Ni-like ions. Through the use of prepulses and short picosecond driving pulses, transient collisional x-ray lasing schemes have been demonstrated using lasers with only a few Joules per pulse. An interesting aspect of these lasers is the time lag in reaching ionization equilibrium helps in obtaining high gain coefficients. A different approach to x-ray lasing is also being studied where lasing occurs in a singly ionized ion following innershell photoionization. The major requirement of the driving laser in this case is an ultrashort pulse duration (rise time to achieve lasing prior to collisional ionization of outershell electrons. In the area of applications, most of the work has been for single pulse experiments such as plasma and biological imaging. However, many of the new x-ray lasers achieve high average power by having a reasonable repetition rate of order 10 Hz and we briefly discuss relevant applications for these x-ray lasers. This work performed under the auspices of US DOE by LLNL under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  19. X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    samples. Another exciting application of microbeam of x-rays is in that of high pressure x-ray diffraction from small samples. Along this line, Yan...will be presented by Jonathan in February at the Physics and Chemistry of Semiconductor Interfaces conference and in March at the American Physical...VUV9 conference this summer. Jeff has also worked on developing software that makes use of the scattering factor tables for both microvax and IBM PC

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken ... of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray is taken with the ... an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  6. Trace element analysis of water using radioisotope induced X-ray fluorescence (Cd-109) and a preconcentration-internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Cano, W.

    1986-10-01

    Radioisotope induced X-ray fluorescence using Cd-109 was used for the determination of iron, nickel, copper, zinc, lead and mercury in water. These metals were concentrated by precipitation with the chelating agent APDC. The precipitated formed was filtered using a membrane filter. Cobalt was added as an internal standard. Minimum detection limit, sensitivities and calibration curves linearities have been obtained to find the limits of the method. The usefulness of the method is illustrated analysing synthetic standard solutions. As an application analytical results are given for water of a highly polluted river area. (Author)

  7. X-ray metrology for ULSI structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, D. K.; Matney, K. M.; Wormington, M.

    1998-01-01

    Non-destructive X-ray metrological methods are discussed for application to both process development and process control of ULSI structures. X-ray methods can (a) detect the unacceptable levels of internal defects generated by RTA processes in large wafers, (b) accurately measure the thickness and roughness of layers between 1 and 1000 nm thick and (c) can monitor parameters such as crystallographic texture and the roughness of buried interfaces. In this paper we review transmission X-ray topography, thin film texture measurement, grazing-incidence X-ray reflectivity and high-resolution X-ray diffraction. We discuss in particular their suitability as on-line sensors for process control

  8. Internal structure and stability of an interstellar cloud heated by an external flux of soft X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabano, Yutaka; Tosa, Makoto

    1975-01-01

    We study the properties of an interstellar gas cloud which is heated by an external flux of soft X-rays and has a uniform pressure distribution. The heating flux is significantly attenuated inside the cloud even for a rather small cloud, and the central region of the cloud is much cooler and denser than that heated uniformly, hence the cloud can be compressed easier. The stability of such a gas cloud and its implications for the process of star formation are discussed on the basis of the two-phase model of the interstellar medium. The large scale galactic shock seems important as a triggering mechanism for the formation of a dense cloud and for the gravitational collapse leading to star formation. (author)

  9. Effects of Contamination Upon the Performance of X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Oosterbroek, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Particulate and molecular contamination can each impact the performance of x-ray telescope systems. Furthermore, any changes in the level of contamination between on-ground calibration and in-space operation can compromise the validity of the calibration. Thus, it is important to understand the sensitivity of telescope performance, especially the net effective area and the wings of the point spread function to contamination. Here, we quantify this sensitivity and discuss the flow-down of science requirements to contamination-control requirements. As an example, we apply this methodology to the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), currently under joint study by ESA, JAXA, and NASA.

  10. X-ray optics in new instruments for astro- and astroparticle physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    through the Primakoff effect, into a detector area 400 times smaller than before. Measurements using an X-ray source shows the telescope behaving as calculated through ray tracing. A successor to the CAST helioscope named the International AXion Observatory (IAXO) is in the definition phase and X......Discovering new phenomena in physics require ever larger and more advanced instruments in order to detect either fundamental particles or energetic events in the universe. This thesis describes the work done on three separate X-ray telescopes, one for astrophysics and two for astroparticle physics...

  11. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  12. STROBE-X: X-ray timing and spectroscopy on dynamical timescales from microseconds to years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen A. Wilson-Hodge

    Full Text Available The Spectroscopic Time-Resolving Observatory for Broadband Energy X-rays (STROBE-X probes strong gravity for stellar mass to supermassive black holes and ultradense matter with unprecedented effective area, high time-resolution, and good spectral resolution, while providing a powerful time-domain X-ray observatory. Keywords: Missions, X-ray timing, X-ray spectroscopy, Compact objects

  13. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  14. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Ray Exam: Hip Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  15. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  16. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  17. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  18. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  19. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  20. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.; Whetten, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of xray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes

  1. X-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.C.; Satchell, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacture, where X-ray irradiation is used, a thin silicon membrane can be used as an X-ray mask. This membrane has areas on which are patterns to define the regions to be irradiated. These regions are of antireflection material. With the thin, in the order of 3 microns, membranes used, fragility is a problem. Hence a number of ribs of silicon are formed integral with the membrane, and which are relatively thick, 5 to 10 microns. The ribs may be formed by localised deeper boron deposition followed by a selective etch. (author)

  2. Flash x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Q.; Pellinen, D.

    1976-01-01

    The complementary techniques of flash x-ray radiography (FXR) and flash x-ray diffraction (FXD) provide access to a unique domain in nondestructive materials testing. FXR is useful in studies of macroscopic properties during extremely short time intervals, and FXD, the newer technique, is used in studies of microscopic properties. Although these techniques are similar in many respects, there are some substantial differences. FXD generally requires low-voltage, line-radiation sources and extremely accurate timing; FXR is usually less demanding. Phenomena which can be profitably studied by FXR often can also be studied by FXD to permit a complete materials characterization

  3. XMM-Newton X-Ray Observation of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, J. Hunter

    2005-01-01

    Soft X-ray emission has been observed from the disk of both Jupiter and Saturn as well as from the auroral regions of these planets. The low-latitude disk emission as observed by ROSAT, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and XMM-Newton appears to be uniformly distributed across the disk and to be correlated with solar activity. These characteristics suggest that the disk x-rays are produced by: (1) the elastic scattering of solar X-rays by atmospheric neutrals and (2) the absorption of solar X-rays in the carbon K-shell followed by fluorescent emission. The carbon atoms are found in methane molecules located below the homopause. In this paper we present the results of calculations of the scattering albedo for soft x-rays. We also show the calculated x-ray intensity for a range of atmospheric abundances for Jupiter and Saturn and for a number of solar irradiance spectra. The model calculations are compared with recent x-ray observations of Jupiter and Saturn. We conclude that the emission of soft x-rays from the disks of Jupiter and Saturn can be largely explained by the scattering and fluorescence of soft x-rays. We suggest that measured x-ray intensities from the disk regions of Jupiter

  4. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  5. CRL X-RAY TUBE

    OpenAIRE

    Kolchevsky, N. N.; Petrov, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed.

  6. X rays and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, J.

    1997-01-01

    After a historical review of the discovery and study of X rays, the various interaction processes between X rays and matter are described: Thomson scattering, Compton scattering, X-photon absorption through photoelectric effect, and magnetic scattering. X ray sources such as the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. The various X-ray applications are presented: imagery such as X tomography, X microscopy, phase contrast; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques

  7. Astronomy from the Moon and International Lunar Observatory Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.; Takahashi, Y. D.

    2018-04-01

    Astronomy from the Moon provides a promising new frontier for 21st century astrophysics and related science activity. International Lunar Observatory Association is an enterprise advancing missions to the Moon for observation and communication.

  8. X-ray beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, T.J.; Randmer, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of minimizing the preferential angular absorption of the divergent beam from an X-ray generator is described. The generator consists of an X-ray shielded housing with an X-ray transmissive window symmetrically placed in radial alignment with a focal spot area on a sloped target surface of an X-ray tube in the housing. The X-ray tube may be of the stationary anode type or of the rotating anode type. (U.K.)

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny ...

  10. SLAC/DESY International Workshop on Interactions of Intense Sub-Picosecond X-Rays with Matter, Stanford, CA, January 23-24, 1997

    CERN Document Server

    Tatchyn, R

    1998-01-01

    This is the proceedings volume of the 1997 SLAC/DESY International Workshop on Interactions of Intense Sub-picosecond X-Ray Pulses with Matter. The workshop theme evolved out of design and R and D studies, undertaken at SLAC, DESY, and elsewhere [1,2], of the new class of linac-driven X-Ray Free Electron Lasers (XRFELs) operating with photocathode-based, low-emittance electron beams in the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime [3]. It can be noted that, following the conclusion of the workshop, funded design study reports on R and D facilities based on these novel sources have been completed and published by both laboratories [4,5]. Topical significance was imparted to the workshop agenda by a series of prior workshops organized to explore scientific and technological applications of linac driven XRFELs [6,7,8,9]. These served to highlight underlying concerns regarding the potential loading effects of the highly intense radiation pulses from this new class of light source on the instrumentation, s...

  11. The UHURU X-ray instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoda, N.; Austin, G.; Mickiewicz, S.; Goddard, R.

    1972-01-01

    On Dec. 12, 1970, the UHURU X-ray observatory was launched into equatorial orbit with the prime mission of conducting an all-sky survey of astronomical X-ray sources with intensities of 0.00005 Sco-X1 or greater. The X-ray detection system contains 12 gas-filled proportional counters, 6 behind each collimator. The aspect system is discussed together with the structure, the pulse height analyzer, the command system, the calibration system, and the power distribution system. Pulse shape discrimination circuits used on UHURU use the same technique that was used on the system originally developed for large area proportional counters described by Gorenstein and Mickiewicz (1968).

  12. X-Ray Variability in M87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel E.; Biretta, J. A.; Junor, W.

    2000-01-01

    We present the evidence for X-ray variability from the core and from knot A in the M87 jet based on data from two observations with the Einstein Observatory High Resolution Imager (HRI) and three observations with the ROSAT HRI. The core intensity showed a 16% increase in 17 months ('79-'80); a 12% increase in the 3 years '92 to '95; and a 17% drop in the last half of 1995. The intensity of knot A appears to have decreased by 16% between 92Jun and 95Dec. Although the core variability is consistent with general expectations for AGB nuclei, the changes in knot A provide constraints on the x-ray emission process and geometry. Thus we predict that the x-ray morphology of knot A will differ significantly from the radio and optical structure.

  13. Scintillating ribbon x-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinchen, B.E.; Rogers, A.

    1995-01-01

    A patent in the early 1970's by Aerojet Corporation in Sacramento, CA put forth the idea of using an array of scintillating fibers for x-ray detection and imaging. In about 1975, Pratt and Whitney Aircraft in East Hartford, CT designed and manufactured an imaging system based on the patent. The device was 1.75 in thick in the direction of the x-ray beam and about 4 in. by 4 in. square. The device was used with a 8 MeV x-ray source to image and measure internal clearances within operating aircraft, gas turbines engines. There are significant advantages of fiber optic detectors in x-ray detection. However, the advantages are often outweighed by the disadvantages. Two of the advantages of scintillating fiber optic x-ray detectors are: (1) high limiting spatial frequency -- between 20 and 25 lp/mm; and (2) excellent x-ray stopping power -- they can be made thick and retain spatial resolution. In traditional fiber optic detectors the x-rays are oriented parallel to the long axis of the fiber. For the scintillating ribbon x-ray sensor, the x-rays are oriented normal to the fiber long axis. This ribbon sensor technique has a number of advantages over the two current radiographic techniques digital x-radiography and x-ray film: The main advantage the ribbon has is size and shape. It can be as thin as 0.05 in., virtually any width or length, and flexible. Once positioned in a given location, 20 to 100 square inches of the object being inspected can be imaged with a single x-ray beam sweep. It is clear that conventional digital cameras do not lend themselves to placement between walls of aircraft structures or similar items requiring x-ray inspections. A prototype scintillating ribbon x-ray sensor has been fabricated and tested by Synergistic Detector Designs. Images were acquired on corrosion test panels of aluminum fabricated by Iowa State University

  14. Phase identification and internal stress analysis of steamside oxides on superheater tubes by means of X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantleon, Karen; Montgomery, Melanie [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Inst. of Manufacturing Engineering and Management

    2005-05-01

    For superheater tubes, the adherence of the inner steamside oxide is especially important as spallation of this oxide results in a) blockage of loops which cause insufficient steam flow through the superheaters and subsequently overheating and tube failure and b) spalled oxide can cause erosion of turbine blades. Oxide spallation is a serious problem for austenitic steels where the significant differences of the thermal expansion coefficients of steel and oxide cause relatively high thermal stresses. Usually, various oxides layered within the scale are suggested from microscopical observations of the morphology and/or topography of the oxide scale accompanied by the analysis of chemical elements present. Reports about the application of X-ray diffraction on the study of steamside oxide formation are very scarce in literature. If applied at all, XRD-studies are restricted to ideally flat samples oxidized under laboratory conditions, but relation to real operating conditions and the effect of the real sample geometry is missing. Within the frame of the project, steamside oxides on plant exposed components of ferritic/ martensitic X20CrMoV12-1 as well as fine- and coarse-grained austenitic TP347H were studied by means of X-ray diffraction. Depth dependent phase analysis on sample segments cut from the tubes was carried out by means of grazing incidence diffraction and, in order to obtain information from a larger depth, conventional XRD was combination with stepwise mechanical removal of the steamside oxides. After each removal step phase analysis was performed both on the segments and on the removed powders. Phase specific stress analysis was carried out on rings cut from the tube. Results show that steamside oxides on X20CrMoV12-1 consist of pure Hematite at the surface followed by a relatively thick layer of pure Magnetite. Both phases are under relatively high tensile stresses. While the phase composition of the Hematite layer appears to be the same for all

  15. Capacitor discharges, magnetohydrodynamics, X-rays, ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume 1: Capacitor Discharges - Magnetohydrodynamics - X-Rays - Ultrasonics deals with the theoretical and engineering problems that arise in the capacitor discharge technique.This book discusses the characteristics of dielectric material, symmetrical switch tubes with mercury filling, and compensation conductor forms. The transformed discharge for highest current peaks, ignition transformer for internal combustion engines, and X-ray irradiation of subjects in mechanical motion are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the transformed capacitor discharge in w

  16. Normal and Starburst Galaxies in Deep X-ray Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This talk will cover progress of the last several years in unraveling the nature of normal and starburst galaxies in deep X-ray surveys. This includes discussion of the normal galaxy X-ray Luminosity Function in deep field and cluster surveys and what it tells us about the binary populations in galaxies. The utility of broad band X-ray emission, especially as compared to other multiwavelength measurements of current/recent star formation, will be reviewed. These broad band X-ray measurements of star formation are based upon X-ray/Star Formation Rate correlations that span the currently available redshift range (0 starburst galaxies in the more local Universe. Understanding the outflows in such starburst galaxies is of critical importance to constraining the "stellar" portion of cosmic feedback. The talk will close with a brief discussion of distant normal galaxy science with future X-ray observatories such as the upcoming Con-X/XEUS mission(s).

  17. Adjustable Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Reid, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    With its unique subarcsecond imaging performance, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory illustrates the importance of fine angular resolution for x-ray astronomy. Indeed, the future of x-ray astronomy relies upon x-ray telescopes with comparable angular resolution but larger aperture areas. Combined with the special requirements of nested grazing-incidence optics, mass, and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically and programmatically challenging. The goal of this technology research is to enable the cost-effective fabrication of large-area, lightweight grazing-incidence x-ray optics with subarcsecond resolution. Toward this end, the project is developing active x-ray optics using slumped-glass mirrors with thin-film piezoelectric arrays for correction of intrinsic or mount-induced distortions.

  18. Comparative feasibility of gamma, electron beam and x-rays facilities at the Kuala Lumpur International airport (KLIA), Sepang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamad Lebai Juri; Sidek Othman; Wan Mashol Wan Zain; Ridzuan Ismail

    1997-01-01

    Malaysia is one of the world's leading producers of rubber, palm oil and cocoa beans. There is a great concern within the commodity industries of the possible outbreak of plant diseases yet to be detected in the country but endemic in the South American tropics and Africa. The risk of transferring the diseases to Malaysia are high because of increasing contacts between Malaysia and the South American countries and Africa through trades, tourism and the South-South cooperation. Diseases of particular importance are the South American leaf blight (SALB) of rubber, vascular wilts of oil palm and witches'broom of cocoa caused by Microcyclus ulei, Fusarium oxysporum f sp. elaeidies and Crinipellis pemiciosa (Stahel) Singer respectively. Recent estimates by the Agriculture Department of Malaysia indicated in the event of large scale attack by SALB on rubber would result in revenue loss of a staggering RM 3-3.5 billion per annum, an equivalent of 70% loss in rubber acreage. This excludes massive unemployment in the rubber industry and cost of cleaning up activities to eradicate and free plantations of SALB. Recurring attacks of the diseases cannot be discounted given the fact that spores of fungi can remain dormant for years but still viable. Stringent control and quarantine steps are presently being exercised by the authorities to intercept at airports and hence prevent entry of infectious plant diseases in Malaysia. Many of the measures using chemicals, ultra violet light (UV), steam sterilization, air blowers etc. are not sufficiently effective in killing fungi especially when spores are carried in the personal belongings of air-passengers. There was suggestion that ionizing radiation offers alternative to the present methods for intercepting pathogens at the port of entry. This paper will firstly, discuss results on the investigations carried out to compare the effectiveness of various ionizing radiation sources, i.e., gamma, electron beam and x-rays; chemicals and UV

  19. X-ray filter for x-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, John Jay; Conley, Raymond P.; Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Dooryhee, Eric; Ghose, Sanjit

    2018-01-23

    Technologies are described for apparatus, methods and systems effective for filtering. The filters may comprise a first plate. The first plate may include an x-ray absorbing material and walls defining first slits. The first slits may include arc shaped openings through the first plate. The walls of the first plate may be configured to absorb at least some of first x-rays when the first x-rays are incident on the x-ray absorbing material, and to output second x-rays. The filters may comprise a second plate spaced from the first plate. The second plate may include the x-ray absorbing material and walls defining second slits. The second slits may include arc shaped openings through the second plate. The walls of the second plate may be configured to absorb at least some of second x-rays and to output third x-rays.

  20. X-ray refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tur'yanskij, A.G.; Pirshin, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Paper introduces a new circuit of X-ray refractometer to study angular and spectral features of refracted radiation within hard X-ray range. Refractometer incorporates two goniometers, two crystal-analyzers and three radiation detectors. The maximum distance between radiation source focal point and a receiving slit of the second goniometer is equal to 1.4 m. For the first time one obtained refraction patterns of fine-film specimens including C/Si stressed structure. Paper describes a new technique of refractometry via specimen oscillation at fixed position of a detecting device. Paper presents the measurement results of oscillation refraction patterns for specimens of melted quartz and ZnSe single crystal [ru

  1. X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsmuir, J.H.; Ferguson, S.R.; D'Amico, K.L.; Stokes, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the application of a new high-resolution X-ray tomographic microscope to the study of porous media. The microscope was designed to exploit the properties of a synchrotron X-ray source to perform three dimensional tomography on millimeter sized objects with micron resolution and has been used in materials science studies with both synchrotron and conventional and synchrotron sources will be compared. In this work the authors have applied the microscope to measure the three dimensional structure of fused bead packs and berea sandstones with micron resolution and have performed preliminary studies of flow in these media with the microscope operated in a digital subtraction radiography mode. Computer graphics techniques have been applied to the data to visually display the structure of the pore body system. Tomographic imaging after flow experiments should detect the structure of the oil-water interface in the pore network and this work is ongoing

  2. X-ray Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Zerlett, G.

    1983-01-01

    This commentary, presented as volume 2 of the Deutsches Strahlenschutzrecht (German legislation on radiation protection) deals with the legal provisions of the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of X-radiation (X-ray Ordinance - RoeV), of March 1, 1973 (announced in BGBl.I, page 173), as amended by the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of ionizing radiation, of October 13, 1976 (announced in BGBl. I, page 2905). Thus volume 2 completes the task started with volume 1, namely to present a comprehensive view and account of the body of laws governing radiation protection, a task which was thought useful as developments in the FRG led to regulations being split up into the X-ray Ordinance, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In order to present a well-balanced commentary on the X-ray Ordinance, it was necessary to discuss the provisions both from the legal and the medical point of view. This edition takes into account the Fourth Public Notice of the BMA (Fed. Min. of Labour and Social Affairs) concerning the implementation of the X-ray Ordinance of January 4, 1982, as well as court decisions and literature published in this field, until September 1982. In addition, the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court, dated October 19, 1982, concerning the voidness of the law on government liability, and two decisions by the Federal High Court, dated November 23, 1982, concerning the right to have insight into medical reports - of great significance in practice - have been considered. This commentary therefore is up to date with current developments. (orig.) [de

  3. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, J.R.; Wei, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  4. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Chuji.

    1980-01-01

    A principal object of the present invention is to provide an X-ray apparatus which is such that the distance between the surface of the patient's table and the floor on which the apparatus is installed is sufficiently small in the horizontal position of the patient's table of the roentgenographical pedestal and that the rotation of the pedestal from the horizontal position to a tilted position and further to the vertical position of the table can be carried out smoothly. (auth)

  5. X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrizzi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    X-ray imaging is a standard tool for the non-destructive inspection of the internal structure of samples. It finds application in a vast diversity of fields: medicine, biology, many engineering disciplines, palaeontology and earth sciences are just few examples. The fundamental principle underpinning the image formation have remained the same for over a century: the X-rays traversing the sample are subjected to different amount of absorption in different parts of the sample. By means of phase-sensitive techniques it is possible to generate contrast also in relation to the phase shifts imparted by the sample and to extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging to those details that lack enough absorption contrast to be visualised in conventional radiography. A general overview of X-ray phase contrast imaging techniques is presented in this review, along with more recent advances in this fast evolving field and some examples of applications.

  6. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  7. X-ray output and percentage ripple in x-ray tube voltage. X-ray generators for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Shigeru; Katoh, Yoh; Negishi, Toru; Abe, Shinji; Ogura, Izumi

    1998-01-01

    Various characteristics of x-ray generators used for mammography (tube voltage, tube current, percentage average error of irradiation time, percentage ripple of the tube voltage waveform, linearity, and reproducibility of the photographic effect) have already been clarified by the authors. In our more recent investigations, x-ray output and radiation quality as percentage ripple of the tube voltage waveform were evaluated using the dynamic study method with the aluminum filter specified in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard. In addition, we also assessed the effects of fluctuation in percentage ripple of the tube voltage waveform on the x-ray spectrum. Based on the results obtained, the characteristics of an ideal x-ray generator for mammography are discussed. The results of this study showed that x-ray output differences in terms of percentage ripple ranged from 45% to 82% compared with that of a constant-potential high-voltage generator. With regard to radiation quality, differences of 0.01 to 0.02 mm were found in the half value layer using an aluminum filter. The thicker the x-ray absorber, the more marked the effects of percentage ripple. In terms of the x-ray spectrum, moreover, characteristic x-rays (at 17.4 and 19.5 keV) cannot be effectively used, although a molybdenum target or molybdenum filter is used. Based on these results, a constant potential high-voltage generator with percentage ripple of 4% or less in the tube voltage waveform should be employed for mammography. (author)

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x- ... x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in a hospital ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on large film ... assist you in finding the most comfortable position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be taken to the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page ... the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is ...

  16. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays ... process is repeated. Two or three images (from different angles) will typically be taken. An x-ray ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require ... is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and ...

  3. Soft X-ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, John

    1999-05-20

    The contents of this report cover the following: (1) design of the soft x-ray telescope; (2) fabrication and characterization of the soft x-ray telescope; and (3) experimental implementation at the OMEGA laser facility.

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is used to: ... and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used for bone x-rays consists of an x-ray tube suspended over a table on which the patient ... a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is ...

  7. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Edward Snell, a National Research Council research fellow at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), prepares a protein crystal for analysis by x-ray crystallography as part of NASA's structural biology program. The small, individual crystals are bombarded with x-rays to produce diffraction patterns, a map of the intensity of the x-rays as they reflect through the crystal.

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-rays are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ...

  10. Tunable X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, James R [Williamsburg, VA

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  11. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Ankle What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  12. SLAC/DESY International Workshop on Interactions of Intense Sub-Picosecond X-Rays with Matter, Stanford, CA, January 23-24, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, Roman

    1998-01-01

    This is the proceedings volume of the 1997 SLAC/DESY International Workshop on Interactions of Intense Sub-picosecond X-Ray Pulses with Matter. The workshop theme evolved out of design and R and D studies, undertaken at SLAC, DESY, and elsewhere [1,2], of the new class of linac-driven X-Ray Free Electron Lasers (XRFELs) operating with photocathode-based, low-emittance electron beams in the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime [3]. It can be noted that, following the conclusion of the workshop, funded design study reports on R and D facilities based on these novel sources have been completed and published by both laboratories [4,5]. Topical significance was imparted to the workshop agenda by a series of prior workshops organized to explore scientific and technological applications of linac driven XRFELs [6,7,8,9]. These served to highlight underlying concerns regarding the potential loading effects of the highly intense radiation pulses from this new class of light source on the instrumentation, samples, and experimental phenomena being considered. The primary objectives of the workshop were: (a) to provide tutorial overviews of existing theoretical, numerical, and experimental techniques in the study of interactions of intense, ultra-short radiation pulses with matter, and of their applicability to the parameter regimes of the SLAC and DESY XRFELs; (b) to discuss practical optics and instrumentation issues related to peak and average power density loading; (c) to identify and explore novel concepts and design approaches, with an emphasis on optical instrumentation and experimental physics; (d) to formulate independent or collaborative R and D programs and activities in the areas of theory, numerical simulation, and experimental physics relevant to the linac-driven XRFEL parameter regime

  13. Identification of m = 2 competent mode of complex magneto-hydro-dynamics activities during internal soft disruption based on singular value decomposition and tomography of soft-X-ray emission on the HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Li-Qing; Hu Li-Qun; Li Er-Zhong; Chen Kai-Yun; Liu Zhi-Yuan; Chen Ye-Bin; Zhang Ji-Zong; Zhou Rui-Jie; Yang Mao; Mao Song-Tao; Duan Yan-Min

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the singular value decomposition (SVD) method as a filter is applied before the tomographic inversion of soft-X-ray emission. Series of ‘filtered’ signals including specific chronos and topos are obtained. (Here, chronos and topos are the decomposed spatial vectors and the decomposed temporal vectors, respectively). Given specific magnetic flux function with coupling m = 1 and m = 2 modes, the line-integrated soft-X-ray signals at all chords have been obtained. Then m = 1 and m = 2 modes have been identified by tomography of simulated ‘filtered’ signals extracted by the SVD method. Finaly, using the experimental line-integrated soft-X-ray signals, m = 2 competent mode of complex magnetohydrodynamics(MHD) activities during internal soft disruption is observed. This result demonstrates that m = 2 mode plays an important role in internal disruption (Here, m is the poloidal mode number). (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  14. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of literature on X-ray diffraction begins with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips' organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. This is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is divided according to the equipment (cameras, diffractometers, monochromators) and its applications. The applications are subdivided into sections for high/low temperature and pressure, effects due to the equipment, small angle scattering and a part for stress, texture and phase analyses of metals and quantitative analysis of minerals

  15. Obstetric X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwachi, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Radiography of the pelvis should never be taken to diagnose early pregnancy, because of potential hazards of radiation damage to the growing foetus. the only indication occurs in the last week of pregnancy (37 weeks). Obstetric X-ray will help you answer like confirmation of malposition,multiple pregnancies; fetal abnormalities e.g. hydrocephalus, foetal disposition. The choice of radiographic projection will help give foetal presentation, disposition as well as foetal maturity. The search pattern helps you determine maternal and spine deformity, foetal spine and head , foetal presentation and any other anomalies

  16. Miniature X-Ray Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Gregory H.

    1995-01-01

    Miniature x-ray tubes proposed for use in portable instruments used to analyze minerals. Electrons from field emitter (instead of thermionic emitter) accelerated to target to generate x-rays. Fabricated from silicon wafers, micromachined field emitters (MFEs) not subject to breakage or restrictions on lifetimes, and tolerate vacuums that filaments cannot. Miniature x-ray tubes very robust, immune to shock and vibration, and permanently sealed with getter for continued pumping. Combined with solid-state x-ray detectors for analysis of x-ray fluorescence.

  17. Soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs

  18. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    An x-ray tube in which the x-ray origin is scanned on a circle around the patient, comprises a ring-shaped anode, an electron beam travelling along a circular path being deflected onto the anode at the desired positions. The electron beam path may be in a plane parallel to the anode and perhaps at the same radius. It may be in the same plane as a transmission target/anode and at a greater radius. The anode should extend over at least 180 0 although it may extend to 360 0 . Electrostatic means may be provided to constrain the beam to the circular path and further electrostatic means deflect it to the anode of the beam and ensure it is focused at the point of incidence. Collimators provide a planar fan-shaped beam and the anode may be shaped to attenuate side lobes of the radiation. Electrode collects electrons not deflected. The focal regions may be adjacent or otherwise. Coils may provide periodic focusing to overcome space charge dispersion and dynamic adjustment of the focusing before deflection ensures focusing at target incidence. Focusing may be absent near the deflection region, and current in the coil section near the focal region should be zero. (author)

  19. Application of phase-contrast X-ray microtomography to study the internal structures of Rhodium prolixus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Andre P. de; Soares, Jose; Barroso, Regina C. [State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Physics Institute; Braz, Delson, E-mail: delson@lin.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Program; Cardoso, Simone C., E-mail: simone@if.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Physics Institute; Garcia, Eloi S.; Azambuja, Patricia [Oswaldo Cruz Institute (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Insects; Gonzalez, Marcelo S. [Federal University Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of General Biology

    2011-07-01

    The PhC-SR-{mu}CT is a nondestructive technique that allows the microanatomical investigations and 3D images reconstructions within a short time. This technique performed in blood sucker, Rhodnius prolixus - one of the most important primary vectors of of Trypanosoma cruzi, ethiologic agent of Chagas' disease in Latin America and also the most well-know studied insect in terms of both physiology and vector-parasite interactions. However, little is known about the development and structure of its internal organs. The aim of this work is to provide a non-invasive option for studying the internal structures of the main vector of Chagas' disease, which should help to answer important questions concerning anatomy, development, structure and plasticity of insect in general. Three-dimensional rendering images can provide a detailed knowledge of the interior of the insect, which is crucial for a better understanding of its function and evolution. (author)

  20. Conceptual design of the International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armengaud, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Betz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) will be a forth generation axion helioscope. As its primary physics goal, IAXO will look for axions or axion-like particles (ALPs) originating in the Sun via the Primakoff conversion of the solar plasma photons. In terms of signal-to-noise ratio, IAXO wi...

  1. Future axion searches with the International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irastorza, I G; Avignone, F T; Cantatore, G

    2013-01-01

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a new generation axion helioscope aiming at a sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling of gaγ (≳) few × 10−12 GeV−1, i.e. 1–1.5 orders of magnitude beyond the one achieved by CAST, currently the most sensitive axion helioscope. The main elements of IA...

  2. High-resolution neutron and X-ray diffraction room-temperature studies of an H-FABP–oleic acid complex: Study of the internal water cluster and ligand binding by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, E.I.; Guillot, B.; Blakeley, M.P.; Haertlein, M.; Moulin, M.; Mitschler, A.; Cousido-Siah, A.; Fadel, F.; Valsecchi, W.M.; Tomizaki, T.; Petrova, T.; Claudot, J.; Podjarny, A.

    2016-01-01

    Crystal diffraction data of heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in complex with oleic acid were measured at room temperature with high-resolution X-ray and neutron protein crystallography (0.98 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively). These data provided very detailed information about the cluster of water molecules and the bound oleic acid in the H-FABP large internal cavity. The jointly refined X-ray/neutron structure of H-FABP was complemented by a transferred multipolar electron-densit...

  3. STROBE-X: X-ray timing and spectroscopy on dynamical timescales from microseconds to years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Ray, Paul S.; Gendreau, Keith; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Feroci, Marco; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Brandt, Soren; Hernanz, Margarita; Hui, C. Michelle; Jenke, Peter A.; Maccarone, Thomas; Remillard, Ron; Wood, Kent; Zane, Silvia; Strobe-X Collaboration

    The Spectroscopic Time-Resolving Observatory for Broadband Energy X-rays (STROBE-X) probes strong gravity for stellar mass to supermassive black holes and ultradense matter with unprecedented effective area, high time-resolution, and good spectral resolution, while providing a powerful time-domain X-ray observatory.

  4. International observatory on mental health systems: structure and operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Harry

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sustained cooperative action is required to improve the mental health of populations, particularly in low and middle-income countries where meagre mental health investment and insufficient human and other resources result in poorly performing mental health systems. The Observatory The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is a mental health systems research, education and development network that will contribute to the development of high quality mental health systems in low and middle-income countries. The work of the Observatory will be done by mental health systems research, education and development groups that are located in and managed by collaborating organisations. These groups will be supported by the IOMHS Secretariat, the International IOMHS Steering Group and a Technical Reference Group. Summary The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is: 1 the mental health systems research, education and development groups; 2 the IOMHS Steering Group; 3 the IOMHS Technical Reference Group; and 4 the IOMHS Secretariat. The work of the Observatory will depend on free and open collaboration, sharing of knowledge and skills, and governance arrangements that are inclusive and that put the needs and interests of people with mental illness and their families at the centre of decision-making. We welcome contact from individuals and institutions that wish to contribute to achieving the goals of the Observatory. Now is the time to make it happen where it matters, by turning scientific knowledge into effective action for people's health. (J.W. Lee, in his acceptance speech on his appointment as the Director-General of the World Health Organization 1.

  5. X-ray Ne/O Ratio in Cataclysmic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Eric M.; Rana, V.; Singh, K.; Girish, V.; Barrett, P.

    2006-12-01

    The Ne/O ratio has recently become a topic of considerable debate given the difficulties and discrepancies in recent measures of the Ne abundance in the Sun. We describe the results of an analysis of the permitted branches of the X-ray triplet transitions of Ne and O using the available spectra from the Chandra X-ray Observatory's High Energy Transmission Grating observations of cataclysmic variables. We compare our results with those obtained from the Sun and nearby stars.

  6. X-ray table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.R.; Otto, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray radiographic or fluoroscopic table is described which includes a film holder with a frame attached to a cable running over end pulleys for positioning the holder longitudinally as desired under the table top. The holder has a front opening to receive a cassette-supporting tray which can be slid out on tracks to change the cassette. A reed switch on the frame is opened by a permanent magnet on the tray only when the tray is half-way out. When the switch is closed, an electromagnet locks the pulley and the holder in place. The holder is thus automatically locked in place not only during exposure (tray in) but when the tray is out for changing the cassette. To re-position the holder, the operator pulls the tray half-out and, using the tray itself, pushes the holder along the table, the holder being counterbalanced by a weight. (author)

  7. X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.)

  8. X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-06

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.).

  9. Timing analysis of AE Aquarii X-ray observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryspaeva, E. B.

    2017-01-01

    We reanalysed the archival X-ray observations of double system AE Aquarii, obtained using orbital observatories «XMM-Newton» and «Chandra» in 2001 and 2005 respectively. We made an independent timing analysis with two numerical methods. Our result confirmed the presence of 33 s rotational period of white dwarf in the system. In addition, we confirmed that X-ray pulsations with a period of 16.5 s, which were detected in optical and UV ranges, absent in AE Aquarii spectrum. This may mean that the X-ray emission comes from one of the poles of white dwarf surface.

  10. X-ray and optical flickering in EF Eri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, M.G.; King, A.R.; Williams, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    A study is presented of the short-time-scale variability of the polar system EF Eri based on simultaneous hard and soft X-ray monitoring with the EXOSAT observatory and optical photometry from CTIO. The observations are used to investigate the nature of the flickering in this system, and the correlations between the variability in the three bands. The hard X-ray flickering is characterized by a quasi-periodic 10 per cent modulation at approx. 230s. The soft X-ray and optical flickering have higher amplitudes but, in contrast, lack any dominant time-scales. (author)

  11. Solar Dynamics Observatory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A searchable database of all Solar Dynamics Observatory data including EUV, magnetograms, visible light and X-ray. SDO: The Solar Dynamics Observatory is the first...

  12. X-ray instrumentation in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuhlane, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a conference devoted to x-ray instrumentation in astronomy. Special sections are: AXAF X-Ray Optical Systems; Specialized X-Ray Systems; X-Ray Optical Systems I; X-Ray Optical Systems II; Gas Filled X-Ray Detectors II; The NASA Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility; X-Ray and EUV Spectrometers; Microchannel Plates; and Solid State Detectors

  13. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Study on Internal Microscopic Structures of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-tris(2,2'-bipyridyl))ruthenium(II) Complex Microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Shusuke; Kureha, Takuma; Nagase, Yasuhisa; Okeyoshi, Kosuke; Yoshida, Ryo; Sato, Takaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke

    2015-07-07

    Internal microscopic structures of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-tris(2,2'-bipyridyl))ruthenium(II) complex microgels were investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in the extended q-range of 0.07 ≤ q/nm(-1) ≤ 20. The microgels were prepared by aqueous free-radical precipitation polymerization, resulting in formation of monodispersed, submicrometer-sized microgels, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. To reveal the changes in the microscopic structures of the microgels during swelling/deswelling or dispersing/flocculating oscillation, the redox state of Ru(bpy)3 complexes was fixed in the microgels using Ce(IV) or Ce(III) ions under high ionic strength (1.5 M) during the SAXS measurements. The scattering intensity of the microgels manifested five different structural features. In particular, the correlation length (ξ), which was obtained from the fitting analysis using the Ornstein-Zernike equation, of the microgels both in the reduced and oxidized Ru(bpy)3 states exhibited divergent-like behavior. In addition, a low-q peak centered at q ≈ 5 nm(-1) did not appear clearly in both the reduced [Ru(bpy)3](2+) and oxidized [Ru(bpy)3](3+) states, indicating that the formation of a polymer-rich domain was suppressed; thus, Ru(bpy)3 complexes can be active even though the microgels are deswollen or flocculated during the oscillation reaction.

  14. X-MIME: An imaging x-ray spectrometer for detailed study of Jupiter's icy moons and the planet's x-ray aurora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, R. F.; Ramsey, B. D.; Waite, J. H.; Rehak, P.; Johnson, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Swartz, D. A.

    2004-11-01

    Remote observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown that the Jovian system is a source of x-rays with a rich and complicated structure. The planet's polar auroral zones and its disk are powerful sources of x-ray emission. Chandra observations revealed x-ray emission from the Io Plasma Torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from the moons is due to bombardment of their surfaces by highly energetic magnetospheric protons, oxygen and sulfur ions. These ions excite atoms in their surfaces leading to fluorescent x-ray emission lines. Although the x-ray emission from the Galilean moons is faint when observed from Earth orbit, an imaging x-ray spectrometer in orbit around these moons, operating at 200 eV and above with 150 eV energy resolution, would provide a detailed mapping of the elemental composition in their surfaces. Here we describe the physical processes leading to x-ray emission from the surfaces of Jupiter's moons and the instrumental properties required to map the elemental composition of their surfaces. We describe the characteristics of X-MIME, an imaging x-ray spectrometer undergoing a feasibility study for the JIMO mission, with the ultimate goal of providing unprecedented x-ray studies of the elemental composition of the surfaces of Jupiter's icy moons and Io, as well as of Jupiter's auroral x-ray emission.

  15. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  16. Design and development of grazing incidence x-ray mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Fuchang; Mei, Zhiwu; Ma, Tao; Deng, Loulou; Shi, Yongqiang; Li, Liansheng

    2016-01-01

    X-ray pulsar navigation has attracted extensive attentions from academy and engineering domains. The navigation accuracy is can be enhanced through design of X-ray mirrors to focus X-rays to a small detector. The Wolter-I optics, originally proposed based on a paraboloid mirror and a hyperboloid mirror for X-ray imaging, has long been widely developed and employed in X-ray observatory. Some differences, however, remain in the requirements on optics between astronomical X-ray observation and pulsar navigation. The simplified Wolter-I optics, providing single reflection by a paraboloid mirror, is more suitable for pulsar navigation. In this paper, therefore, the grazing incidence X-ray mirror was designed further based on our previous work, with focus on the reflectivity, effective area, angular resolution and baffles. To evaluate the performance of the manufactured mirror, the surface roughness and reflectivity were tested. The test results show that the grazing incidence mirror meets the design specifications. On the basis of this, the reflectivity of the mirror in the working bandwidth was extrapolated to evaluate the focusing ability of the mirror when it works together with the detector. The purpose of our current work to design and develop a prototype mirror was realized. It can lay a foundation and provide guidance for the development of multilayer nested X-ray mirror with larger effective area.

  17. X-ray filtration apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to an X-ray shielding support device. In spite of considerable development in X-ray taking techniques, a need still exists for effective shielding, inter alia, to compensate for variations in the thickness, density and the absorption properties of the object being studied. By appropriate shielding, the X-ray image produced is of sufficient detail, contrast and intensity over its entire area to constitute a useful diagnostic aid. It is also desirable to subject the patient to the smallest possible X-ray dosage. 4 figs

  18. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  19. Towards brilliant, compact x-ray sources: a new x-ray photonic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Brian; Mandal, Sudeep; Salisbury, Joshua; Edic, Peter; Hopkins, Forrest; Lee, Susanne M.

    2017-05-01

    General Electric has designed an innovative x-ray photonic device that concentrates a polychromatic beam of diverging x-rays into a less divergent, parallel, or focused x-ray beam. The device consists of multiple, thin film multilayer stacks. X-rays incident on a given multilayer stack propagate within a high refractive index transmission layer while undergoing multiple total internal reflections from a novel, engineered multilayer containing materials of lower refractive index. Development of this device could lead to order-of-magnitude flux density increases, over a large broadband energy range from below 20 keV to above 300 keV. In this paper, we give an overview of the device and present GE's progress towards fabricating prototype devices.

  20. Material evaluation by X-ray tomodensitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisseau, P.; Casagrande, J.M.; Huet, J.; Pauton, M.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray tomodensitometry, which is a new non-contact evaluation method, uses the penetration power of X-rays for volume control of parts and joint parts. Through a rapid internal cartography, it presents two levels of information: spatial (shape, dimension) and density (local values, gradients). This technique is adapted to material characterization (metal alloys, composites, ceramics), to defect detection and to conformity control. Examples of application are given for testing impregnation of graphite for graphite moderated reactors and carbon-carbon composite for aerospace industries [fr

  1. Soft x-ray imaging on Alcator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    The development of an advanced uv/x-ray plasma imaging system for the study and control of plasma in the Alcator A tokamak at MIT is discussed. The importance of tomographic imaging systems for reconstructing two-dimensional plasma images is considered. The feasibility of using tomographic techniques for mapping the internal structures of plasmas is considered for Alcator C and TMX. The design, execution and analysis of an x-ray experiment on the MIT magnetic mirror machine are discussed. A series of plasma studies on Alcator A are presented.

  2. X-Ray Transition Energies Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 128 X-Ray Transition Energies Database (Web, free access)   This X-ray transition table provides the energies and wavelengths for the K and L transitions connecting energy levels having principal quantum numbers n = 1, 2, 3, and 4. The elements covered include Z = 10, neon to Z = 100, fermium. There are two unique features of this data base: (1) a serious attempt to have all experimental values on a scale consistent with the International System of measurement (the SI) and (2) inclusion of accurate theoretical estimates for all transitions.

  3. X-ray emission spectroscopy. X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despujols, J.

    1992-01-01

    Principles of X-ray emission spectrometry are first recalled, then wave-length dispersive and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer are described. They are essentially designed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements (Z>10). Sample preparation, calibration, corrections, interferences, accuracy are reviewed. Examples of use in different industries are given. (71 refs.)

  4. Bone diagnosis by X-ray techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, Zip Code: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, M.J. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, Zip Code: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Physics Institute, UERJ (Brazil); Farias, M.L.F. [University Hospital, UFRJ (Brazil); Parcegoni, N.; Rosenthal, D. [Biophysics Institute, UFRJ (Brazil); Duarte, M.E.L. [Histologic and Embriology Department, UFRJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, Zip Code: 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    In this work, two X-ray techniques used were 3D microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and X-ray microfluorescence (micro-XRF) in order to investigate the internal structure of the bone samples. Those two techniques work together, e.g. as a complement to each other, to characterize bones structure and composition. Initially, the specimens were used to do the scan procedure in the microcomputer tomography system and the second step consists of doing the X-ray microfluorescence analysis. The results show that both techniques are powerful methods for analyzing, inspecting and characterizing bone samples: they are alternative procedures for examining bone structures and compositions and they are complementary.

  5. X-rays, radiometers and skin unit dose. The development of measuring methods and measuring units for X radiation in medical physics from the beginning until the international standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glessmer-Junike, Simone

    2015-01-01

    X-rays, a special form of ionizing radiation, have been utilized in medicine and technology ever since their discovery at the end of 1895. However, the usage of X-rays made the development of measuring techniques necessary. Newly-developed measuring devices were at first called radiometers', but later the term dosimeter' has gained universal acceptance. The development of numerous dosimeters used in radiotherapy was accompanied by new units of measurement, each corresponding to its individual newly constructed dosimeter or method of measurement. While at first conversions between old and new units were performed, it later became clear that both within Germany and Europe units with similar names were used with different meanings, which was both incompatible and confusing. The first serious attempts of a standardization of units in Germany were made after the First World War, when the when the ionizing properties of X-rays was focused on for both measurements and unit definitions. Efforts towards an international standardization of units became successful in the mid-1920s when the Roentgen was defined as the universal unit. From the development described above, four stages of the evolution of radiation measurement and units in radiotherapy could be identified by means of comprehensive systematic research in printed publications. The first stage was the period of diagnostic application of X-rays, when tools for the determination of X-ray quality were designed. This stage progressed into that of therapeutic administration of X-rays shortly after, when instruments and units for the measurement of X-ray quantities (dose') were implemented. Due to the variety and diversity of measurement apparatus and units a third stage emerged, closely interconnected with the second. During the third stage, a nation-wide standardization was attempted in Germany. With the conclusion of this stage - the resolution of a unit for dose measurement in Germany - the stage of

  6. X-raying with low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malevich, E.E.; Kisel, E.M.; Shpita, I.D.; Lazovsky, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    with higher frequency of a pulsation the share of unproductive radiation is higher. At x-raying controlled by the grid pulses are generated by the x-ray tube with the grid control. The grid, located between the cathode and the anode, passes the electron cloud without the expenses of time for dispersal and attenuation. It gives sharply outlined, rectangular x-ray pulses with homogeneous quality of radiation. Function GC F -x-raying controlled by the grid - enables to receive precisely outlined contours of moving objects: a heart, a gullet, - and also to carry out examination of the children without information loss during simultaneous dose decrease. Besides the image remains precise even during the movement of the electron-optical converter. Owing to radiation parameters adjustment during the examination the effect of the lighted image is eliminated. X-raying devices Easy Diagnose and Diagnose-76 'Philips' are equipped with the system of digital x-ray image processing besides they are completed with the x-ray tube with Grid Controlled Fluoroscopy that allows to carry out pulse x-raying with number of pulses 2, 3, 6 and 12 per a second. So, with 12 pulses per second the irradiation dose in comparison with continuous radiation decreases on 40%. The examinations of a chest, gullet, stomach and thick gut were carried out at the frequency of 12 and 6 pulses per second. In the hospital of the Ministry of Internal Affairs where device Easy Diagnose is established, at examinations of a gastro enteric path (stomach x-raying, irrigoscopy) usually pulse x-raying is used with frequency 12 pulses per second. It allows significantly reduce the beam load on a patient. The calculation of beam loads on a patient was carried out on the basis of exposition dose level at the beam input in the body of a patient (entrance dose). The way is applied for especially exact calculations, as definitions of effective doses on separate organs and all body are difficult. The irradiation dose is in

  7. VPD residue search by monitoring scattered x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Yamagami, M.; Yamada, T.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, VPD-TXRF has come into wide use for semiconductor analysis. In VPD-TXRF technique, adjusting the mechanical measuring point to the center of dried residue is of importance for accurate determination. Until now, the following searching methods have been used: monitoring light scattering under bright illumination, using laser scattering particle mapper, applying internal standard as a marker. However, each method has individual disadvantage. For example, interference of Kβ line (ex. Sc-Kβ to Ti-Kα) occurs in the internal standard method. We propose a new searching method 'scattered x-ray search' which utilizes x-ray scattering form the dried residue as a marker. Since the line profile of x-ray scattering agrees with that of fluorescent x-rays, scattered x-ray can be used as an alternative marker instead of internal standard. According to our experimental results, this search method shows the same accuracy as internal standard method. The merits are as follows: 1) no need to add internal standard, 2) rapid search because of high intensity of scattered x-rays, 3) searching software for internal standard can be applied without any modification. In this method, diffraction of incident x-rays by substrate causes irregular change over the detected scattering x-rays. Therefore, this method works better under x-y controlled stage than r-Θ one. (author)

  8. Kharkov X-ray Generator Based On Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.; Mytsykov, A.; Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Lapshin, V.; Telegin, Y.; Androsov, V.; Bulyak, E.; Botman, J.I.M.; Tatchyn, R.; Lebedev, A.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays X-ray sources based on storage rings with low beam energy and Compton scattering of intense laser beams are under development in several laboratories. An international cooperative project of an advanced X-ray source of this type at the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) is described. The status of the project is reviewed. The design lattice of the storage ring and calculated X-ray beam parameters are presented. The results of numerical simulation carried out for proposed facility show a peak spectral X-ray intensity of about 1014 can be produced

  9. Characterization of Beryllium Windows for Coherent X-ray Optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Shunji; Yabashi, Makina; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    Beryllium foils fabricated by several processes were characterized using spatially coherent x rays at 1-km beamline of SPring-8. By thickness dependence of bright x-ray spot density due to Fresnel diffraction from several-micron deficiencies, we found that speckles (bright x-ray spots) were due to voids with densities 103-104 mm-3 in powder foils and ingot foils. Compared with powder and ingot foils, a polished physical-vapor-deposited (PVD) beryllium foil gave highly uniform beams with no speckles. The PVD process eliminates the internal voids in principle and the PVD foil is the best for coherent x-ray applications

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images are easily accessible and are frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and ... the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  11. Traditional x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of imaging x-rays, with particular reference to medicine, are reviewed. The history and nature of x-rays, their production and spectra, contrast, shapes and fine structure, image transducers, including fluorescent screens, radiography, fluoroscopy, and image intensifiers, image detection, perception and enhancement and clinical applications are considered. (U.K.)

  12. X-ray based extensometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, E. H.; Pease, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    A totally new method of extensometry using an X-ray beam was proposed. The intent of the method is to provide a non-contacting technique that is immune to problems associated with density variations in gaseous environments that plague optical methods. X-rays are virtually unrefractable even by solids. The new method utilizes X-ray induced X-ray fluorescence or X-ray induced optical fluorescence of targets that have melting temperatures of over 3000 F. Many different variations of the basic approaches are possible. In the year completed, preliminary experiments were completed which strongly suggest that the method is feasible. The X-ray induced optical fluorescence method appears to be limited to temperatures below roughly 1600 F because of the overwhelming thermal optical radiation. The X-ray induced X-ray fluorescence scheme appears feasible up to very high temperatures. In this system there will be an unknown tradeoff between frequency response, cost, and accuracy. The exact tradeoff can only be estimated. It appears that for thermomechanical tests with cycle times on the order of minutes a very reasonable system may be feasible. The intended applications involve very high temperatures in both materials testing and monitoring component testing. Gas turbine engines, rocket engines, and hypersonic vehicles (NASP) all involve measurement needs that could partially be met by the proposed technology.

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. ...

  15. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attekum, P.M.T.M. van.

    1979-01-01

    The methods and results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the study of plasmons, alloys and gold compounds are discussed. After a comprehensive introduction, seven papers by the author, previously published elsewhere, are reprinted and these cover a wide range of the uses of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (W.D.L.)

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very ... they provide little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may ...

  17. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic radiography is described in detail. It comprises a tubular target carrier supporting at its distal end a target with an inclined forward face. Image definition is improved by positioning in the path of the X-rays a window of X-ray transmitting ceramic material, e.g. 90% oxide of Be, or Al, 7% Si0 2 . The target carrier forms a probe which can be positioned in the patient's mouth. X-rays are directed forwardly and laterally of the target to an X-ray film positioned externally. The probe is provided with a detachable sleeve having V-form arms of X-ray opaque material which serve to depress the tongue out of the radiation path and also shield the roof of the mouth and other regions of the head from the X-ray pattern. A cylindrical lead shield defines the X-ray beam angle. (author)

  18. X-ray pencil beam facility for optics characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrey, Michael; Cibik, Levent; Müller, Peter; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Ackermann, Marcelo; Collon, Maximilien J.

    2010-07-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has used synchrotron radiation for the characterization of optics and detectors for astrophysical X-ray telescopes for more than 20 years. At a dedicated beamline at BESSY II, a monochromatic pencil beam is used by ESA and cosine Research since the end of 2005 for the characterization of novel silicon pore optics, currently under development for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). At this beamline, a photon energy of 2.8 keV is selected by a Si channel-cut monochromator. Two apertures at distances of 12.2 m and 30.5 m from the dipole source form a pencil beam with a typical diameter of 100 μm and a divergence below 1". The optics to be investigated is placed in a vacuum chamber on a hexapod, the angular positioning is controlled by means of autocollimators to below 1". The reflected beam is registered at 5 m distance from the optics with a CCD-based camera system. This contribution presents design and performance of the upgrade of this beamline to cope with the updated design for IXO. The distance between optics and detector can now be 20 m. For double reflection from an X-ray Optical Unit (XOU) and incidence angles up to 1.4°, this corresponds to a vertical translation of the camera by 2 m. To achieve high reflectance at this angle even with uncoated silicon, a lower photon energy of 1 keV is available from a pair of W/B4C multilayers. For coated optics, a high energy option can provide a pencil beam of 7.6 keV radiation.

  19. Conceptual Design of a New Large Superconducting Toroid for IAXO, the New International AXion Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Shilon, I.; Silva, H.; ten Kate, H.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The International AXion Observatory (IAXO) will incorporate a new generation detector for axions, a hypothetical particle, which was postulated to solve one of the puzzles arising in the standard model of particle physics, namely the strong CP problem. The new IAXO experiment is aiming at achieving a sensitivity to the coupling between axions and photons of one order of magnitude beyond the limits of the current state-of-the-art detector, represented by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). The IAXO detector relies on a high-magnetic field distributed over a very large volume to convert solar axions into x-ray photons. Utilizing the designs of the ATLAS barrel and end-cap toroids, a large superconducting toroidal magnet is currently being designed at CERN to provide the required magnetic field. The new toroid will be built up from eight, one meter wide and 20 m long, racetrack coils. The toroid is sized about 4 m in diameter and 22 m in length. It is designed to realize a peak magnetic field of 5.4 T with a ...

  20. The Next Generation of Axion Helioscopes: The International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, J.K.; Armengaud, E.; Avignone, F.T.

    2015-01-01

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a proposed 4th-generation axion helioscope with the primary physics research goal to search for solar axions via their Primakoff conversion into photons of 1 – 10 keV energies in a strong magnetic field. IAXO will achieve a sensitivity to the axion......-photon coupling gaγ down to a few ×10−12 GeV−1 for a wide range of axion masses up to ∼ 0.25eV. This is an improvement over the currently best (3rd generation) axion helioscope, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), of about 5 orders of magnitude in signal strength, corresponding to a factor ∼ 20 in the axion...... photon coupling. IAXO's sensitivity relies on the construction of a large superconducting 8-coil toroidal magnet of 20 m length optimized for axion research. Each of the eight 60cm diameter magnet bores is equipped with x-ray optics focusing the signal photons into ∼ 0.2cm2 spots that are imaged by very...

  1. New Superconducting Toroidal Magnet System for IAXO, the International AXion Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Shilon, I; Silva, H; Wagner, U; Kate, H H J ten

    2013-01-01

    Axions are hypothetical particles that were postulated to solve one of the puzzles arising in the standard model of particle physics, namely the strong CP (Charge conjugation and Parity) problem. The new International AXion Observatory (IAXO) will incorporate the most promising solar axions detector to date, which is designed to enhance the sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling by one order of magnitude beyond the limits of the current state-of-the-art detector, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). The IAXO detector relies on a high-magnetic field distributed over a very large volume to convert solar axions into X-ray photons. Inspired by the successful realization of the ATLAS barrel and end-cap toroids, a very large superconducting toroid is currently designed at CERN to provide the required magnetic field. This toroid will comprise eight, one meter wide and twenty one meter long, racetrack coils. The system is sized 5.2 m in diameter and 25 m in length. Its peak magnetic field is 5.4 T with a stored e...

  2. Multiple image scanning x-ray method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    In a non-tomographic X-ray scanning system for examining internal characteristics of an object which system includes x-ray source means for scanning a charged particle beam in a raster pattern on a target plate to produce x-rays successively at different areas of said plate, at least one x-ray detector for disposition at the opposite side of said object from said x-ray source, said x-ray detector is described having an x-ray sensitive area and means for producing an electrical output signal that is inactive of x-rays impinging on said sensitive area, said sensitive area being sufficiently small in relation to said raster pattern to cause said output signal to vary in accordance with variations of radiation transmissivity at different regions of said object as said charged particle beam is swept in said raster pattern, the improvement comprising: traveling means for effecting lateral travel of at least one of said x-ray source and said x-ray detector relative to the other thereof in at least one direction during examination of said object which means enables obtaining of a series of different views of said object during said examination thereof by movement of said one of said x-ray detector and said source, and means for generating a sequence of different x-ray views of said object at successive stages of said lateral travel by correlating variations of said output signals with the position of said charged particle beam in said raster pattern at the time that the variations occur

  3. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  4. The X-ray Variability of Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Joey

    2014-10-01

    Sgr A* is the poster child for profoundly quiescent accretion flows. Forty years after its discovery in the radio and fifteen years after its discovery in X-rays with Chandra, the extreme X-ray faintness of the closest supermassive black hole remains an important puzzle in black hole accretion. To study this remarkable source, Chandra (in concert with numerous ground- and space-based observatories) undertook a 3 Ms campaign on Sgr A* in 2012, providing an excellent opportunity to probe the physics of accretion in the Galactic Center. I will present an update to our work on the X-ray variability of Sgr A*, expanding a statistical analysis of its daily flares into a more comprehensive picture of its variable processes. Finally, I will discuss the exciting physical implications of this variability for the connection between X-ray and infrared emission and our understanding of the radiation physics of Sgr A*.

  5. X-ray properties of accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    The X-ray signatures of Cyg X-1 and IMC X-3 have been taken as templates of binary systems which include a black hole component. Cyg X-1 exhibits rapid flickering on a time scale varying from 0.001-1 sec and bimodal spectral behavior in its X-ray emissions. Similar emissions from IMC X-3 have been detected, along with an absence of X-ray eclipses. Taking three characteristics, i.e., flickering, bimodal spectra and the estimated masses of the X ray components, of assumed black hole companions for Cyg X-1 and IMC X-3, an estimate is made of the number of black holes a whole sky survey would reveal, based on data from the HEAO-1 and Einstein Observatory satellites. Cin X-1, BX 339-4 and LMC X-1 are concluded to probably be accreting black holes. Eleven other objects are identified as possible candidates, as are active galactic nuclei

  6. Factors influencing real time internal structural visualization and dynamic process monitoring in plants using synchrotron-based phase contrast X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Lahlali, Rachid; Zhu, Ning; Webb, Adam M; Schmidt, Marina; Fransishyn, Kyle; Belev, George; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Olson, Jeremy; Cooper, David M L; Hallin, Emil

    2015-07-17

    Minimally invasive investigation of plant parts (root, stem, leaves, and flower) has good potential to elucidate the dynamics of plant growth, morphology, physiology, and root-rhizosphere interactions. Laboratory based absorption X-ray imaging and computed tomography (CT) systems are extensively used for in situ feasibility studies of plants grown in natural and artificial soil. These techniques have challenges such as low contrast between soil pore space and roots, long X-ray imaging time, and low spatial resolution. In this study, the use of synchrotron (SR) based phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCI) has been demonstrated as a minimally invasive technique for imaging plants. Above ground plant parts and roots of 10 day old canola and wheat seedlings grown in sandy clay loam soil were successfully scanned and reconstructed. Results confirmed that SR-PCI can deliver good quality images to study dynamic and real time processes such as cavitation and water-refilling in plants. The advantages of SR-PCI, effect of X-ray energy, and effective pixel size to study plant samples have been demonstrated. The use of contrast agents to monitor physiological processes in plants was also investigated and discussed.

  7. Hard x-ray photoemission and density functional theory study of the internal electric field in SrTiO3/LaAlO3 oxide heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooten, E.; Zhong, Zhicheng; Molegraaf, Hajo; Eerkes, P.D.; de Jong, S.; Massee, F.; van Heumen, E.; Kruize, Michelle; Wenderich, Sander; Kleibeuker, J.E.; Gorgoi, M.; Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.; Brinkman, Alexander; Huijben, Mark; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Blank, David H.A.; Koster, Gertjan; Kelly, Paul J.; Golden, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the electronic structure of the archetypal oxide heterointerface system LaAlO3 on SrTiO3 is presented. High-resolution, hard x-ray photoemission is used to uncover the occupation of Ti 3d states and the relative energetic alignment—and hence

  8. X-ray diffraction apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padini, F.R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention provides an x-ray diffraction apparatus permitting the rotation of the divergence sit in conjunction with the rotation of the x-ray irradiated specimen, whereby the dimensions of the x-ray irradiated portion of the specimen remain substantially constant during the rotation of the specimen. In a preferred embodiment, the divergence slit is connected to a structural element linked with a second structural element connected to the specimen such that the divergence slit rotates at a lower angular speed than the specimen

  9. X-ray film calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, G.F.; Dittmore, C.H.; Henke, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of silver halide x-ray films for imaging and spectroscopy which is limited by the range of intensities that can be recorded and densitometered. Using the manufacturers processing techniques can result in 10 2-3 range in intensity recorded over 0-5 density range. By modifying the chemistry and processing times, ranges of 10 5-6 can be recorded in the same density range. The authors report on x-ray film calibration work and dynamic range improvements. Changes to the processing chemistry and the resulting changes in dynamic range and x-ray sensitivity are discussed

  10. Upsurge of X-ray astronomy 230-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Instruments are described used for X-ray astronomy, namely X-ray detectors and X-ray telescopes. Unlike telescopes, the detectors do not comprise X-ray optics. A survey is given of the results obtained in solar and stellar X-ray astronomy and hypotheses are submitted on the origin of X radiation in the interstellar space. (J.B.)

  11. X-Ray and optical study of low core density globular clusters NGC6144 and E3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, S.-H.; Kong, A.K.H.; Verbunt, F.W.M.; Lewin, W.H.G.; Bassa, C.G.; Anderson, S.F.; Pooley, D.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of two low coredensity globular clusters, NGC6144 and E3. By comparing the number of X-ray sources inside the half-mass radius to those outside, we found six X-ray sources within the half-mass radius of NGC6144,

  12. Astronomers Go Behind The Milky Way To Solve X-Ray Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Through layers of gas and dust that stretch for more than 30,000 light years, astronomers using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have taken a long, hard look at the plane of the Milky Way galaxy and found that its X-ray glow comes from hot and diffuse gas. The findings, published in the August 10 issue of Science, help to settle a long-standing mystery about the source of the X-ray emission from the galactic plane. Scientists have debated whether the Milky Way plane's X-ray emission was diffuse light or from individual stars. Armed with Chandra, an international team led Dr. Ken Ebisawa of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD zoomed in on a tiny region of the galactic plane in the constellation Scutum. "The point sources we saw in the galactic plane were actually active galaxies with bright cores millions of light years behind our galaxy," said Ebisawa. "The number of these sources is consistent with the expected number of extragalactic sources in the background sky. We saw few additional point sources within our Galaxy." The observation marks the deepest X-ray look at the so-called "zone of avoidance" -- a region of space behind which no optical observation has ever been taken because thick dust and gas in the spiral arms of the Milky Way galaxy block out visible radiation. Infrared, radio, and X-rays, however, can penetrate this dust and gas. Detection of diffuse X rays emanating from the Galactic plane, what we call the "Milky Way" in visible light, indicates the presence of plasma gas with temperatures of tens of millions of degrees Celsius. Smoothed X-ray Image of the Galactic Plane Smoothed X-ray Image of the Galactic Plane Gas this hot would escape the gravitational confines of the Milky Way galaxy under normal circumstances. The fact that it still lingers within the Galactic plane is the next mystery to solve. One possibility, suggested by Ebisawa is that hot plasma may be confined to the Milky Way by magnetic fields. The Chandra observation

  13. Lightweight and High-Resolution Single Crystal Silicon Optics for X-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William W.; Biskach, Michael P.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Mazzarella, James R.; McClelland, Ryan S.; Riveros, Raul E.; Saha, Timo T.; Solly, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe an approach to building mirror assemblies for next generation X-ray telescopes. It incorporates knowledge and lessons learned from building existing telescopes, including Chandra, XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and NuSTAR, as well as from our direct experience of the last 15 years developing mirror technology for the Constellation-X and International X-ray Observatory mission concepts. This approach combines single crystal silicon and precision polishing, thus has the potential of achieving the highest possible angular resolution with the least possible mass. Moreover, it is simple, consisting of several technical elements that can be developed independently in parallel. Lastly, it is highly amenable to mass production, therefore enabling the making of telescopes of very large photon collecting areas.

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ... radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg ( ... x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  20. Flash x-ray cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments intended to provide an overview of the potential capabilities and limitations of flash x-ray cinematography as a diagnostic technique for a Fast Reactor Safety Test Facility are described. The results provide estimates of the x-ray pulse intensity required to obtain adequate radiographs of an array of fuel pins in a typical reactor configuration. An estimate of the upper limit on the pulse duration imposed by the reactor background radiation was also determined. X-ray cinematography has been demonstrated at a repetition rate limited only by the recording equipment on hand at the time of these measurements. These preliminary results indicate that flash x-ray cinematography of the motion of fuel in a Fast Reactor Test Facility is technically feasible

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ... information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician , who ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  4. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  5. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic dental radiography is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun having an elongated tubular target carrier extending into the patient's mouth. The carrier supports an inclined target for direction of an X-ray pattern towards a film positioned externally of the patient's mouth. Image definition is improved by a focusing anode which focuses the electron beam into a sharp spot (0.05 to 0.10 mm diameter) on the target. The potential on the focusing anode is adjustable to vary the size of the spot. An X-ray transmitting ceramic (oxides of Be, Al and Si) window is positioned adjacent to the front face of the target. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ... or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ...

  8. X-Rays - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand Section Barium Swallow - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chest X-Ray - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the ... of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there ... prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You will be asked to remove some of ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x-ray examination itself ... available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. ... who will discuss the results with you. Follow-up examinations may be necessary. Your doctor will explain ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray tube is connected to ... equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... procedure. You may experience discomfort from the cool temperature in the examination room. You may also find ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and ... facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the ... Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report ...

  2. X-ray screening materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to x-ray screening materials and especially to materials in sheet form for use in the production of, for example, protective clothing such as aprons and lower back shields, curtains, mobile screens and suspended shields. The invention is based on the observation that x-ray screening materials in sheet form having greater flexiblity than the hitherto known x-ray screening materials of the same x-ray absorber content can be produced if, instead of using a single sheet of filled sheet material of increased thickness, one uses a plurality of sheets of lesser thickness together forming a laminar material of the desired thickness and one bonds the individual sheets together at their edges and, optionally, at other spaced apart points away from the edges thereby allowing one sheet to move relative to another. (U.K.)

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and how do I get ... report to your primary care or referring physician , who will discuss the results with you. Follow-up ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there is any possibility you are pregnant. ... should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special ...

  6. Miniature x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is ... taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... while the x-ray picture is taken to reduce the possibility of a blurred image. The technologist ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  10. Duodenal X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheppach, W.

    1982-01-01

    The publication provides an overview of duodenal X-ray diagnostics with the aid of barium meals in 1362 patients. The introducing paragraphs deal with the topographic anatomy of the region and the methodics of X-ray investigation. The chapter entitled ''processes at the duodenum itself'' describes mainly ulcers, diverticula, congenital anomalies, tumors and inflammations. The neighbourhood processes comprise in the first place diseases having their origin at the pancreas and bile ducts. As a conclusion, endoscopic rectograde cholangio-pancreaticography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography are pointed out as advanced X-ray investigation methods. In the annex of X-ray images some of the described phenomena are shown in exemplary manner. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... radiation dose for this procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... instead of ionizing radiation to create diagnostic images, has also been useful for injuries around joints, and ...

  15. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  16. X-ray tube target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A target with an improved heat emissive surface for use in a rotating anode type x-ray tube is described. The target consists of a body having a first surface portion made of x-ray emissive material and a second surface portion made of a heat emissive material comprising at least one of hafnium boride, hafnium oxide, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicide, and hafnium aluminide. (U.K.)

  17. X-ray data processing

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Harold R.

    2017-01-01

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most c...

  18. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors

  19. Observation of m/n=2/1 magnetic island on the foot point of electron internal transport barrier using soft x-ray CCD camera in the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobuchi, T [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8679 (Japan); Liang, Y [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 (Germany); Ida, K; Yoshinuma, M; Watanabe, K Y [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan)], E-mail: takashi.kobuchi@qse.tohoku.ac.jp

    2008-07-15

    The existence of m/n=2/1 magnetic islands in the plasma with an electron internal transport barrier (ITB) is identified in tangential soft x-ray emission images measured with a soft x-ray CCD camera using the Fourier-Bessel expansion reconstruction technique in the Large Helical Device. A clear m/n=2/1 magnetic island is observed in the discharge with ECRH and NBI in the direction antiparallel to the equivalent plasma current (counter-NBI), where the magnetic shear is expected to become small enough to cause the formation of a magnetic island. On the other hand, no magnetic island is observed in the ECRH and NBI in the direction parallel to the equivalent plasma current (co-NBI), where the magnetic shear is expected to be sufficiently high.

  20. Implications of X-ray tube parameter deviations in X-ray reference fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, B; Hupe, O; Ambrosi, P

    2016-02-01

    For the purpose of radiation protection, ICRU Report 57/ICRP Publication 74 provides a list of monoenergetic conversion coefficients to be used with, among others, photon reference fields generated with X-ray tubes. A comprehensive definition of these photon reference fields can be found in international standard ISO 4037; however, it lacks thorough indication of the allowed deviations of essential parameters that influence these X-ray reference fields. These parameters are the high-voltage tube potential, the thickness of the beryllium window and the purity and thickness of the filter materials used to create different radiation qualities. Small variations of these parameters can lead to significant changes in the created X-ray spectra and, hence, the spectra-dependent conversion coefficients for phantom-related radiation-protection quantities. This can lead to situations in which the conversion coefficients listed in ISO 4037 cannot be used, resulting in time-consuming spectrometry measurements. In this work, the impact on the resulting conversion coefficients is investigated using a simplified mathematical approximation model. The findings are validated with an independent X-ray spectra calculation programme. As a result, well-founded upper limit values on the allowed deviations of the essential X-ray tube parameters are proposed to be used in a future revision of ISO 4037. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A survey on coordinate metrology using dimensional X-ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Kazuya

    2016-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) has been occupying indispensable position in geometrical and dimensional measurements in industry, which is capable of measuring both external and internal dimensions of industrial products. Since dimensional X-ray CT has problems about ensuring traceability and estimating uncertainty, requirement of developing measurement standard for dimensional X-ray CT is increasing. Some of national metrology institutes (NMIs) including NMIJ have been working on developing measurement standard. In this report, the background of coordinate metrology using dimensional X-ray CT is reviewed. Then, measurement error sources are discussed. Finally, the plan to develop high accuracy dimensional X-ray CT is presented. (author)

  2. The X-Ray Variability of Sagittarius A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Joseph; Nowak, Michael; Gammie, Charles F.; Dexter, Jason; Markoff, Sera; Haggard, Daryl; Nayakshin, Sergei; Wang, Q. Daniel; Grosso, Nicolas; Porquet, Delphine; Tomsick, John; Degenaar, Nathalie; Fragile, P. Christopher; Wijnands, Rudy; Miller, Jon M.; Baganoff, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, X-ray observations of Sgr A* have revealed a black hole in a deep sleep, punctuated roughly once per day by brief ares. The extreme X-ray faintness of this supermassive black hole has been a long-standing puzzle in black hole accretion. To study the accretion processes in the Galactic Center, Chandra (in concert with numerous ground- and space-based observatories) undertook a 3 Ms campaign on Sgr A* in 2012. With its excellent observing cadence, sensitivity, and spectral resolution, this Chandra X-ray Visionary Project (XVP) provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the behavior of our closest supermassive black hole. We present a progress report from our ongoing study of X-ray flares, including one of the brightest flares ever seen from Sgr A*. Focusing on the statistics of the flares, the quiescent emission, and the relationship between the X-ray and the infrared, we discuss the physical implications of X-ray variability in the Galactic Center.

  3. X Persei - correlation between H-alpha and X-ray variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanov, R.; Stoyanov, K. A.; Petrov, N.; Nikolov, Y.; Marchev, D.; Wolter, U.

    2018-03-01

    We performed H-alpha spectroscopic observations of the Be/X-ray binary X Per, optical counterpart of the slow X-ray pulsar 4U 0352+30, using the 2.0m telescope of the Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory, Bulgaria and the 1.2m TIGRE telescope located in Mexico.

  4. Ultrafast X-ray Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil, George

    2010-01-01

    Since before the scattering of X-rays off of DNA led to the first understanding of the double helix structure, sources of X-rays have been an essential tool for scientists examining the structure and interactions of matter. The resolution of a microscope is proportional to the wavelength of light so x-rays can see much finer structures than visible light, down to single atoms. In addition, the energy of X-rays is resonant with the core atomic levels of atoms so with appropriate wavelengths the placement of specific atoms in a large molecule can be determined. Over 10,000 scientists use synchrotron sources, storage rings of high energy electrons, each year worldwide. As an example of such use, virtually every picture of a protein or drug molecule that one sees in the scientific press is a reconstruction based on X-ray scattering of synchrotron light from the crystallized form of that molecule. Unfortunately those pictures are static and proteins work through configuration (shape) changes in response to energy transfer. To understand how biological systems work requires following the energy flow to these molecules and tracking how shape changes drive their interaction with other molecules. We'd like to be able to freeze the action of these molecules at various steps along the way with an X-ray strobe light. How fast does it have to be? To actually get a picture of a molecule in a fixed configuration requires X-ray pulses as short as 30 femtoseconds (1/30 of a millionth of a millionth of a second). To capture the energy flow through changes in electronic levels requires a faster strobe, less than 1 femtosecond And to acquire such information in smaller samples with higher accuracy demands brighter and brighter X-rays. Unfortunately modern synchrotrons (dubbed 3rd Generation Light Sources) cannot deliver such short bright pulses of X-rays. An entirely new approach is required, linear-accelerator (linac-)-based light sources termed 4th or Next Generation Light Sources

  5. Results of the first simultaneous X-ray, optical, and radio campaign on the blazar PKS 1622-297

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Angela Osterman; Miller, H. Richard; Marshall, Kevin; Ryle, Wesley T.; Aller, Hugh; Aller, Margo; McFarland, John P.; Pollock, Joseph T.; Reichart, Daniel E.; Crain, J. Adam; Ivarsen, Kevin M.; LaCluyze, Aaron P.; Nysewander, Melissa C.

    Coordinated X-ray, optical, and radio observations of the blazar PKS 1622-297 were obtained during a three-week campaign in 2006 using the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory, and optical telescopes at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory.

  6. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >108 ) with broadband ≃5 - 13 meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 103 signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains.

  7. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral X-ray apparatus which reduces the number of exposures necessary to obtain panoramic dental radiographs is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun, a tubular target carrier projecting from the gun along the beam axis and carrying at its distal end a target surrounded by a shield of X-ray opaque material. This shield extends forward and laterally of the target and has surfaces which define a wedge or cone-shaped radiation pattern delimited vertically by the root tips of the patient's teeth. A film holder is located externally of the patient's mouth. A disposable member can fit on the target carrier to depress the patient's tongue out of the radiation pattern and to further shield the roof of the mouth. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  8. X-ray fluorescence holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu, Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-03-07

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy.

  9. X-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy. (topical review)

  10. Biometric identification using knee X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Lior; Ling, Shari; Rahimi, Salim; Ferrucci, Luigi; Goldberg, Ilya G

    2009-01-01

    Identification of people often makes use of unique features of the face, fingerprints and retina. Beyond this, a similar identifying process can be applied to internal parts of the body that are not visible to the unaided eye. Here we show that knee X-rays can be used for the identification of individual persons. The image analysis method is based on the wnd-charm algorithm, which has been found effective for the diagnosis of clinical conditions of knee joints. Experimental results show that the rank-10 identification accuracy using a dataset of 425 individuals is ~56%, and the rank-1 accuracy is ~34%. The dataset contained knee X-rays taken several years apart from each other, showing that the identifiable features correspond to specific persons, rather than the present clinical condition of the joint.

  11. Einstein x-ray observations of cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, K.O.; Cordova, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    Observations with the imaging x-ray detectors on the Einstein Observatory have led to a large increase in the number of low luminosity x-ray sources known to be associated with cataclysmic variable stars (CVs). The high sensitivity of the Einstein instrumentation has permitted study of their short timescale variability and spectra. The data are adding significantly to our knowledge of the accretion process in cataclysmic variables and forcing some revision in our ideas concerning the origin of the optical variability in these stars

  12. Observational studies of X-ray binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klis, M. van der.

    1983-01-01

    The subject of Chapter 1 is theoretical. The other chapters, Ch. 2 to 6, contain original observational data and efforts towards their interpretation. Of these, Ch. 3, 4 and 5 deal with massive X-ray binaries, Ch. 6 with low-mass systems and Ch. 2 with Cygnus X-3, which we have not yet been able to assign to any of these two classes. The X-ray observations described were made with the COS-B satellite. Work based on UV and optical observations is described in Ch. 5. The UV observations were made with the IUE satellite, the optical observations at several ground-based observatories. (Auth.)

  13. Efficiency of the scattered primary radiation as an internal standard in the determination of uranium and thorium in geological materials by X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Guerra, J.P.; Bayon, A.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiency of the scattered primary coherent and incoherent X-radiation of various wavelengths has been studied as a matrix correction in the determination of uranium and thorium in geological materials by X-ray spectrometry. The excitation has been performed with molybdenum and tungsten targets. Results illustrate that the incoherently-scattered Mok βsub(1,3) and Mok βsub(1,2) radiation are, respectively, the optimum reference lines. The particle size influence and the critical thickness of the sample are also considered.(auth.)

  14. AXIS - Advanced X-ray Imaging Sarellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Michael; AXIS Team

    2018-01-01

    We present an overview of the Advanced X-ray Imaging Satellite (AXIS), a probe mission concept under study to the 2020 Decadal survey. AXIS follows in the footsteps of the spectacularly successful Chandra X-ray Observatory with similar or higher angular resolution and an order of magnitude more collecting area in the 0.3-10 keV band over a 15' field of view. These capabilities are designed to attain a wide range of science goals such as (i) measuring the event horizon scale structure in AGN accretion disks and the spin of supermassive black holes through monitoring of gravitationally microlensed quasars; (ii) understanding AGN and starburst feedback in galaxies and galaxy clusters through direct imaging of winds and interaction of jets and via spatially resolved imaging of galaxies at high-z; (iii) probing the fueling of AGN by resolving the SMBH sphere of influence in nearby galaxies; (iv) investigating hierarchical structure formation and the SMBH merger rate through measurement of the occurrence rate of dual AGN and occupation fraction of SMBHs; (v) advancing SNR physics and galaxy ecology through large detailed samples of SNR in nearby galaxies; (vi) measuring the Cosmic Web through its connection to cluster outskirts. With a nominal 2028 launch, AXIS benefits from natural synergies with LSST, ELTs, ALMA, WFIRST and ATHENA, and will be a valuable precursor to Lynx. AXIS utilizes breakthroughs in the construction of light-weight X-ray optics from mono-crystalline silicon blocks, and developments in the fabrication of large format, small pixel, high readout detectors.

  15. X-ray projection microscopy in the SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The projection method for X-ray microscopy is very simple in principle, X-rays from the point-like source pass through the sample to form a projected image at the detector. Magnification is varied by moving the sample position between the source and the detector with magnification given by (R1+R2)/R1 where Rl is the distance from the source to the sample and R1+R2 is the distance from the source to the detector. The projection X-ray microscope is capable of providing high magnification over a wide range of X-ray energies. Point projection X-ray microscopy was first used in the early 1930s. Resolution of the point projection X-ray microscope is limited in part by the size of the X-ray source. Performance was improved in the late 1950s when magnetic lenses were used to focus an electron beam to form a sub-micron X-ray source (see Cosslett and Nixon 1960). In 1978 Horn and Waltinger developed an X-ray microscope using a scanning electron microscope to produce a fine X-ray source. However, the low current density of electron sources at that time resulted in low X-ray intensities and this combined with poor detection efficiency meant that very long exposure times were needed. The subsequent development of high-brightness field-emission gun-based SEMs, CCD X-ray detectors with much better detection efficiency, new phase retrieval algorithms, automation of SEM operation and the ready availability of powerful desktop computers has allowed the development of a very much more capable laboratory-based X-ray microscope. XRT Limited has produced the X-ray ultraMicroscope (XuM) based on original research and development undertaken by the X-ray Science and Instrumentation Group led by Dr Steve Wilkins at CSIRO Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology. Figure 2 compares SEM and XuM images of a multi-layer fuel pellet. The SEM image shows only the surface while the XuM image reveals the internal structure of the pellet. The XuM allows X-ray images to be recorded with

  16. X-ray Emission from Solar Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Solar flares; X-ray detectors; X-ray line emission and continuum; break energy; microflares. Abstract. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS), the first space-borne solar astronomy experiment of India was designed to improve our current understanding of X-ray emission from the Sun in general and solar flares in ...

  17. History of x-ray astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. History of x-ray astronomy. Major X-ray Missions. 1970 :UHURU: detected 339 new sources (1st sky coverage). 1978: Einstein First x-ray imaging mission (>1000 sources). 1990: ROSAT; Soft X-ray imaging mission; detected 100,000 sources (deeper sky coverage) ...

  18. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray ... MRI): Lumbar Spine Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  19. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Chest Chest x-ray uses a very ... limitations of Chest Radiography? What is a Chest X-ray (Chest Radiography)? The chest x-ray is the ...

  20. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Neck KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Neck Enlarged Adenoids Croup Sinusitis Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  1. Semiconductor X-ray spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggleton, A.H.F.

    1978-02-01

    An outline is given of recent developments in particle and photon induced x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Following a brief description of the basic mechanism of semiconductor detector operation a comparison is made between semiconductor detectors, scintillators and gas filled proportional devices. Detector fabrication and cryostat design are described in more detail and the effects of various device parameters on system performance, such as energy resolution, count rate capability, efficiency, microphony, etc. are discussed. The main applications of these detectors in x-ray fluorescence analysis, electron microprobe analysis, medical and pollution studies are reviewed

  2. Portable X-Ray Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  3. Overutilization of x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    In this article on the overutilization of x-rays the author defines the term overutilization as excessive irradiation per unit of diagnostic information, therapeutic impact, or health outcome. Three main factors are described which lead to overutilization of x-rays: excessive radiation per film; excessive films per examination; and excessive examinations per patient. Topics discussed which influence the excessive examinations per patient are: the physician's lack of knowledge; undue dependence; lack of screening by radiologists; the physician's need for action and certainty; patient demand; reimbursement policies; institutional requirements; preventive medicine; defensive medicine; and the practice of radiology by nonradiologists

  4. X-ray data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Harold R

    2017-10-31

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most commonly used software in the field. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. X-ray microscopes at BESSY II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttmann, P.; Niemann, B.; Thieme, J.; Wiesemann, U.; Rudolph, D.; Schmahl, G.

    2000-01-01

    The undulator U41 at BESSY II will be used as source for X-ray microscopes. An overview of the X-ray microscopy area is presented. After finishing the construction phase a transmission X-ray microscope, a scanning transmission X-ray microscope and an X-ray test chamber will be available. The transmission X-ray microscope will allow investigations with high lateral resolution at moderate energy resolution while the scanning transmission X-ray microscope will allow high energy resolution at moderate lateral resolution of the same specimen

  6. Illumination system for X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    An X-ray lithography system is described, comprising: a point source of X-Ray radiation; a wafer plane disposed in spaced relation to the point source of X-Ray radiation; a mask disposed between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane whereby X-Ray radiation from the point source of X-ray radiation passes through the mask to the water plane; and X-Ray absorbent means mounted between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane, the X-Ray absorbent means being of quadratically absorption from maximum absorption at the center to minimum absorption at the edge so as to have a radial absorption gradient profile to compensate for radial flux variation of the X-Ray radiation

  7. X-ray study of the molecular structure and of the internal ordering degree in 1,3,5-tri-tert-butylbenzene at 363 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowski, Henryk; Hałas, Tomasz; Śliwińska-Bartkowiak, Małgorzata

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the structure and molecular correlations in liquid 1,3,5-tri-tert-butylbenzene C6H3[ C(CH3)3 ] 3 determined for the first time by the X-ray diffraction method. Experimental function i  (S) was determined by X-ray scattering from a liquid sample and compared with the theoretical function im(S) calculated for the most probable assumed model of the 1,3,5-tri-tert-butylbenzene structure. The most probable parameters of molecule 1,3,5-tri-tert-butylbenzene were determined from the detailed analysis of the differential radial distribution function of electron density. Theoretically calculated parameters were compared with experimentally measured data. Good agreement between the theoretical and experimental curves is obtained on assuming the statistically most probable model of this molecule. The mean bond length between a C atom in an aromatic ring and the central C atom of a tert-butyl group, the bond C(1) - C(7) is 1.54 Å. Local, most probable manners of packing and mutual orientation of molecules within the space of the first coordination sphere are discussed. The local structure of the liquid 1,3,5-tri-tert-butylbenzene is similar to the crystalline structure of the compound.

  8. Long X-ray burst monitoring with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    X-ray bursts are thermonuclear explosions on the surface of accreting neutron stars in low mass X-ray binary systems. In the frame of the INTEGRAL observational Key Programme over the Galactic Center a good number of the known X-ray bursters are frequently being monitored. An international...... and from our previous proposal for the observation period 2006-2007. Comparing these observations with the current burst theories confirms the relation between bursting regimes and the accretion states of the system....

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the table in the area of the body being imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning devices will be used to help you ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) ... imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  11. X-ray tube transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray generator is described which comprises a transmission line transformer including an electrical conductor with a cavity and a second electrical conductor including helical windings disposed along a longitudinal axis within the cavity of the first conductor. The windings have a pitch which varies per unit length along the axis. There is dielectric material in the cavity for insulation and to couple electromagnetically the two conductors in response to an electric current flowing through the conductors, which have an impedance between them; this varies with distance along the axis of the helix of the second conductor. An X-ray tube is disposed along the longitudinal axis within the cavity, for radiating X-rays. The invention increases the voltage of applied voltage pulses at the remote tube-head with a transformer formed by using a spiral delay line geometry to give a tapered-impedance coaxial high voltage multiplier for pulse voltage operation. This transformer is smaller and lighter than previous designs for the same high peak voltage and power ratings. This is important because the penetration capabilities of Flash X-ray equipment increase with voltage, particularly in heavy materials such as steel. (U.K.)

  12. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of Literature on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry starts with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. It is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is subdivided according to spectra, equipment, applications and absorption analysis

  13. X-Ray Diffractive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian; Li, Mary; Skinner, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    X-ray optics were fabricated with the capability of imaging solar x-ray sources with better than 0.1 arcsecond angular resolution, over an order of magnitude finer than is currently possible. Such images would provide a new window into the little-understood energy release and particle acceleration regions in solar flares. They constitute one of the most promising ways to probe these regions in the solar atmosphere with the sensitivity and angular resolution needed to better understand the physical processes involved. A circular slit structure with widths as fine as 0.85 micron etched in a silicon wafer 8 microns thick forms a phase zone plate version of a Fresnel lens capable of focusing approx. =.6 keV x-rays. The focal length of the 3-cm diameter lenses is 100 microns, and the angular resolution capability is better than 0.1 arcsecond. Such phase zone plates were fabricated in Goddard fs Detector Development Lab. (DDL) and tested at the Goddard 600-microns x-ray test facility. The test data verified that the desired angular resolution and throughput efficiency were achieved.

  14. X-rays from stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdel, Manuel

    2004-07-01

    Spectroscopic studies available from Chandra and XMM-Newton play a pivotal part in the understanding of the physical processes in stellar (magnetic and non-magnetic) atmospheres. It is now routinely possible to derive densities and to study the influence of ultraviolet radiation fields, both of which can be used to infer the geometry of the radiating sources. Line profiles provide important information on bulk mass motions and attenuation by neutral matter, e.g. in stellar winds. The increased sensitivity has revealed new types of X-ray sources in systems that were thought to be unlikely places for X-rays: flaring brown dwarfs, including rather old, non-accreting objects, and terminal shocks in jets of young stars are important examples. New clues concerning the role of stellar high-energy processes in the modification of the stellar environment (ionization, spallation, etc.) contribute significantly to our understanding of the "astro-ecology" in forming planetary systems. Technological limitations are evident. The spectral resolution has not reached the level where bulk mass motions in cool stars become easily measurable. Higher resolution would also be important to perform X-ray "Doppler imaging" in order to reconstruct the 3-D distribution of the X-ray sources around a rotating star. Higher sensitivity will be required to perform high-resolution spectroscopy of weak sources such as brown dwarfs or embedded pre-main-sequence sources. A new generation of satellites such as Constellation-X or XEUS should pursue these goals.

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ... This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation ... x-ray images are among the clearest, most detailed views of ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ... about radiology? Share your patient story here Images ... content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ...

  17. High resolution X ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartiromo, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a detailed discussion of the physical processes which are responsible for the emission spectra of H-like and He-like ion of high Z impurities in low density plasmas. The application of high resolution X-ray spectroscopy to the diagnostic of tokamak plasmas is also discussed and examples of the results obtained are presented

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of Bone X-ray ( ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  1. X-ray image coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention aims at decreasing the effect of stray radiation in X-ray images. This is achieved by putting a plate between source and object with parallel zones of alternating high and low absorption coefficients for X-radiation. The image is scanned with the help of electronic circuits which decode the signal space coded by the plate, thus removing the stray radiation

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... any possibility that they are pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing ... imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy ...

  3. X-rays and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques. (report on progress)

  4. Stellar X-Ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, J.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the stellar end-state black holes, pulsars, and white dwarfs that are X-ray sources should have polarized X-ray fluxes. The degree will depend on the relative contributions of the unresolved structures. Fluxes from accretion disks and accretion disk corona may be polarized by scattering. Beams and jets may have contributions of polarized emission in strong magnetic fields. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) will study the effects on polarization of strong gravity of black holes and strong magnetism of neutron stars. Some part of the flux from compact stars accreting from companion stars has been reflected from the companion, its wind, or accretion streams. Polarization of this component is a potential tool for studying the structure of the gas in these binary systems. Polarization due to scattering can also be present in X-ray emission from white dwarf binaries and binary normal stars such as RS CVn stars and colliding wind sources like Eta Car. Normal late type stars may have polarized flux from coronal flares. But X-ray polarization sensitivity is not at the level needed for single early type stars.

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or changed over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest way for a ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  7. X-ray absorption holography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Lausi, A.; Bussetto, E.; Kub, Jiří; Savoia, A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 18 (2002), s. 185503-1 - 185503-3 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : x-ray holography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.323, year: 2002

  8. Compact x-ray source and panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampayon, Stephen E [Manteca, CA

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  9. Towards an International Network of Critical Zone Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; Banwart, S. A.; Filley, T. R.; Guo, D.; Richter, D., Jr.; Trumbore, S.; Vereecken, H.; Voelkel, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) concept provides a holistic and unifying framework to understand diverse Earth surficial processes, encompassing the hydrologic cycle, the geochemical cycle, the carbon cycle, the nutrient cycle, gas exchange (major and trace gases), erosion and deposition, weathering, lithification (diagenesis), soil formation and evolution (pedogenesis), life processes (macro- and microbial communities), and human impacts (land use and management). Among the complexity of the CZ are the integration of abiotic and biotic processes, the linkage between belowground and aboveground systems, and the unification of time and space dimensions. Three aspects unique to CZ can be used to differentiate Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs) from other terrestrial environmental observing systems : 1) Deep time, including geologic timescale to understand the formation and evolution of the Earth's surficial environment and the reconciliation of long- and short-time scale processes; 2) Deep depth into weathered bedrock, which is much deeper than the classical perception of soils perceived as 1-2 m root zone; and 3) Deep coupling of diverse processes, including interactions and feedbacks among geologic, pedologic, hydrologic, biologic, geochemical, atmospheric, and anthropogenic processes. These "three deeps" can be used to guide the development of the international network of CZOs. The US, EU, Germany, UK, China, and Australia are leading the way to establish such an international network, which can serve the international scientific community through interdisciplinary research, common infrastructure, shared databases, integrated models, and the education of new generations of earth and environmental scientists.

  10. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    2000-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption

  11. Forming mandrels for making lightweight x-ray mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Peter N.; Saha, Timo; Zhang, William W.; O'Dell, Stephen; Kester, Thomas; Jones, William

    2011-09-01

    Future x-ray astronomical missions, similar to the proposed International X-ray Observatory (IXO), will utilize replicated mirrors to reduce both mass and production costs. Accurately figured and measured molds (called mandrels) - on which the mirror substrates are thermally formed, replicating the surface of the mandrels - are essential to enable these missions. The Optics Branches of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have developed fabrication processes along with metrologies that yield high-precision mandrels; and through the SBIR program, they encourage small businesses to attack parts of the remaining problems. The Goddard full-aperture mandrel polisher (the MPM-500) has been developed to a level where mandrel surfaces match the 1.5 arcsec HPD level allocation in a 5 arcsec telescope program. This paper reviews this current technology and describes a pilot program to design a suite of machine tools and process parameters capable of producing many hundreds of these precision objects. A major challenge is to keep mid-spatial frequency errors below 2 nm rms - a severe specification; but we must also note the factors which work to our advantage: e.g., how the figure departs from a pure cone by only one micron, and how the demanding figure specifications which apply in the axial direction are relaxed by an order of magnitude in the azimuthal. Careful study of other large optical fabrication programs in the light of these challenges and advantages has yielded a realistic plan for the economical production of mandrels that meet program requirements in both surface and quantity.

  12. Condensed matter astrophysics: A prescription for determining the species-specific composition and quantity of interstellar dust using x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Julia C.; Xiang, Jingen; Ravel, Bruce; Kortright, Jeffrey B; Flanagan, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    We present a new technique for determining the quantity and composition of dust in astrophysical environments using < 6 keV X-rays. We argue that high-resolution X-ray spectra as enabled by the Chandra and XMM-Newton gratings should be considered a powerful and viable new resource for delving into a relatively unexplored regime for directly determining dust properties: composition, quantity, and distribution. We present initial cross section measurements of astrophysically likely iron-based dust candidates taken at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source synchrotron beamline, as an illustrative tool for the formulation of our technique for determining the quantity and composition of interstellar dust with X-rays. (Cross sections for the materials presented here will be made available for astrophysical modeling in the near future.) Focused at the 700 eV Fe LIII and LII photoelectric edges, we discuss a technique for modeling dust properties in the soft X-rays using L-edge data to complement K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure analysis techniques discussed by Lee and amp; Ravel. The paper is intended to be a techniques paper of interest and useful to both condensed matter experimentalists and astrophysicists. For the experimentalists, we offer a new prescription for normalizing relatively low signal-to-noise ratio L-edge cross section measurements. For astrophysics interests, we discuss the use of X-ray absorption spectra for determining dust composition in cold and ionized astrophysical environments and a new method for determining species-specific gas and dust ratios. Possible astrophysical applications of interest, including relevance to Sagittarius A*, are offered. Prospects for improving on this work in future X-ray missions with higher throughput and spectral resolution are also presented in the context of spectral resolution goals for gratings and calorimeters, for proposed and planned missions such as Astro-H and the International X-ray

  13. X-Ray-Scattering Measurements Of Strain In PEEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Peggy; Lowry, Lynn E.; Chung, Shirley Y.; Yavrouian, Andre H.; Gupta, Amitava

    1988-01-01

    Internal stress relieved by heating above glass-transition temperature. Report describes wide-angle x-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry of specimens of poly(etheretherketone) having undergone various thermal treatments. Wide-angle x-ray scattering particularly useful in determining distances between atoms, crystallinity, and related microstructurally generated phenomena, as thermal expansion and strain. Calorimetric measurements aid interpretation of scattering measurements by enabling correlation with thermal effects.

  14. X-Ray semiotics of cranial involvement in endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuzyak, M.I.; Kramnoj, I.E.; Belaya, L.M.; Tyazhelova, O.V.; Litvinenko, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    The incidence and type of X-ray semeiotics of the skull involvement were studied in 703 patients with endocrine diseases. Craniorgam analysis involved study of the thickness and structure of the vault bones, shape and size of the skull, status of the sutures, internal plate relief, changes of the base of the skull, of the sella turcica first of all, and facial bone. The characteristic X-ray symprom complexes of the involvement of the skull in some endocrine diseases were distinguished

  15. X-ray Observations of Cosmic Ray Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of cosmic rays, detection of their sources has remained elusive. A major breakthrough has come through the identification of synchrotron X-rays from the shocks of supernova remnants through imaging and spectroscopic observations by the most recent generation of X-ray observatories. This radiation is most likely produced by electrons accelerated to relativistic energy, and thus has offered the first, albeit indirect, observational evidence that diffusive shock acceleration in supernova remnants produces cosmic rays to TeV energies, possibly as high as the "knee" in the cosmic ray spectrum. X-ray observations have provided information about the maximum energy to which these shOCks accelerate electrons, as well as indirect evidence of proton acceleration. Shock morphologies measured in X-rays have indicated that a substantial fraction of the shock energy can be diverted into particle acceleration. This presentation will summarize what we have learned about cosmic ray acceleration from X-ray observations of supernova remnants over the past two decades.

  16. pyXSIM: Synthetic X-ray observations generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZuHone, John A.; Hallman, Eric. J.

    2016-08-01

    pyXSIM simulates X-ray observations from astrophysical sources. X-rays probe the high-energy universe, from hot galaxy clusters to compact objects such as neutron stars and black holes and many interesting sources in between. pyXSIM generates synthetic X-ray observations of these sources from a wide variety of models, whether from grid-based simulation codes such as FLASH (ascl:1010.082), Enzo (ascl:1010.072), and Athena (ascl:1010.014), to particle-based codes such as Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and AREPO, and even from datasets that have been created “by hand”, such as from NumPy arrays. pyXSIM can also manipulate the synthetic observations it produces in various ways and export the simulated X-ray events to other software packages to simulate the end products of specific X-ray observatories. pyXSIM is an implementation of the PHOX (ascl:1112.004) algorithm and was initially the photon_simulator analysis module in yt (ascl:1011.022); it is dependent on yt.

  17. X-ray cardiovascular examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An X-ray source is mounted in an enclosure for angulating longitudinally about a horizontal axis. An X-ray-permeable, patient-supporting table is mounted on the top of the enclosure for executing lateral and longitudinal movements. An X-ray image-receiving device such as an X-ray image intensifier is mounted above the table on a vertically movable arm which is on a longitudinally movable carriage. Electric control means are provided for angulating the X-ray source and image intensifier synchronously as the image intensifier system is shifted longitudinally or vertically such that the central ray from the X-ray source is kept intensifier

  18. Effective X-ray beam size measurements of an X-ray tube and polycapillary X-ray lens system using a scanning X-ray fluorescence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gherase, Mihai R., E-mail: mgherase@csufresno.edu; Vargas, Andres Felipe

    2017-03-15

    Size measurements of an X-ray beam produced by an integrated polycapillary X-ray lens (PXL) and X-ray tube system were performed by means of a scanning X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) method using three different metallic wires. The beam size was obtained by fitting the SXRF data with the analytical convolution between a Gaussian and a constant functions. For each chemical element in the wire an effective energy was calculated based on the incident X-ray spectrum and its photoelectric cross section. The proposed method can be used to measure the effective X-ray beam size in XRF microscopy studies.

  19. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The Center for X-Ray Optics has made substantial progress during the past year on the development of very high resolution x-ray technologies, the generation of coherent radiation at x-ray wavelengths, and, based on these new developments, had embarked on several scientific investigations that would not otherwise have been possible. The investigations covered in this report are topics on x-ray sources, x-ray imaging and applications, soft x-ray spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation, advanced light source and magnet structures for undulators and wigglers

  20. X-ray diagnostic in gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Suhe; Wang Dalun; Cui Gaoxian; Wang Mei; Fu Yibei; Zhang Xinwei; Zhang Wushou

    1995-01-01

    X rays were observed when the anomalous phenomenon in the metal loaded with deuterium studied by the gas-discharge method. Therefore the X-ray energy spectra were measured by the absorption method, the specific X-ray approach and the NaI scintillation counter, while X-ray intensity was estimated by using 7 Li thermoluminescent foils. The X-ray average energy measured by the absorption method is 27.6 +- 2.1 keV, which is fitted within the error extent to 26.0 +-2.4 keV monoenergetic X rays measured by the NaI scintillation counter

  1. X-ray tube arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

  2. X-ray Sensitive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Reference 3), inorganic semiconductors (silicon [Si], cadmium zinc telluride [CdZnTe]) (Reference 4) and selenium (References 5 and 6), Ne-Xe...data showing photocurrent generation. Reports on other X-ray photoconductors, such as amorphous selenium , typically show such data (Reference 34). We...that BiI3 content does contribute to surface discharge; however, further work is warranted to measure the photocurrent. Selenium films used for

  3. Diffractive X-ray Telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, Gerald K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution several orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted space- time in the immediate vicinity of the super...

  4. Smart X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michette, A G; Pfauntsch, S J; Sahraei, S; Shand, M; Morrison, G R; Hart, D; Vojnovic, B; Stevenson, T; Parkes, W; Dunare, C; Willingale, R; Feldman, C; Button, T; Zhang, D; Rodriguez-Sanmartin, D; Wang, H

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes reflective adaptive/active optics for applications including studies of biological radiation damage. The optics work on the polycapillary principle, but use arrays of channels in thin silicon. For optimum performance the x-rays should reflect once off a channel wall in each of two successive arrays. This reduces aberrations since then the Abbe sine condition is approximately satisfied. Adaptivity is achieved by flexing the arrays via piezo actuation, providing further aberration reduction and controllable focal length.

  5. X-ray Emission Lines in Cataclysmic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, E. M.; Singh, K. P.; Rana, V.; Girish, V.; Barrett, P. E.

    2005-12-01

    We describe a complete spectroscopic archival study of the emission lines from cataclysmic variables as observed by the Chandra X-ray Observatory using the High Energy Transmission Grating. G-, R-, and the H/He-like ratios are used to infer temperatures and densities for the emitting plasmas. The G-ratio for Si XIII indicates a minimum electron temperature of 106 K for the observed CVs. The Fe XVII 17.10/17.05 {Å} and 17.10/16.77 {Å} line ratios for all of the CVs imply densities greater than 1014 cm-3 or photoexcitation. The R ratios imply values from 1011 to 1014-15 cm-3. We do not convincingly detect any radiation recombination features. Implications for the physics of CV accretion processes are briefly discussed. The research of EMS was partially supported by contract NAS-39073 from NASA to SAO for the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  6. Biological applications of cryo-soft X-ray tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, E; Dent, K; Razi, M; Collinson, L M

    2014-08-01

    X-rays are used for imaging many different types of biological specimen, ranging from live organisms to the individual cells and proteins from which they are made. The level of detail achieved as a result of the imaging varies depending on both the sample and the technique used. One of the most recent technical developments in X-ray imaging is that of the soft X-ray microscope, designed to allow the internal structure of individual biological cells to be explored. With a field of view of ∼10-20 × ∼10-20 μm, a penetration depth of ∼10 μm and a resolution of ∼40 nm(3), the soft X-ray microscope neatly fits between the imaging capabilities of light and electron microscopes. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. High-resolution neutron and X-ray diffraction room-temperature studies of an H-FABP–oleic acid complex: study of the internal water cluster and ligand binding by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Howard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystal diffraction data of heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP in complex with oleic acid were measured at room temperature with high-resolution X-ray and neutron protein crystallography (0.98 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively. These data provided very detailed information about the cluster of water molecules and the bound oleic acid in the H-FABP large internal cavity. The jointly refined X-ray/neutron structure of H-FABP was complemented by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution using the parameters of the ELMAMII library. The resulting electron density allowed a precise determination of the electrostatic potential in the fatty acid (FA binding pocket. Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules was then used to study interactions involving the internal water molecules, the FA and the protein. This approach showed H...H contacts of the FA with highly conserved hydrophobic residues known to play a role in the stabilization of long-chain FAs in the binding cavity. The determination of water hydrogen (deuterium positions allowed the analysis of the orientation and electrostatic properties of the water molecules in the very ordered cluster. As a result, a significant alignment of the permanent dipoles of the water molecules with the protein electrostatic field was observed. This can be related to the dielectric properties of hydration layers around proteins, where the shielding of electrostatic interactions depends directly on the rotational degrees of freedom of the water molecules in the interface.

  8. High-resolution neutron and X-ray diffraction room-temperature studies of an H-FABP-oleic acid complex: study of the internal water cluster and ligand binding by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, E I; Guillot, B; Blakeley, M P; Haertlein, M; Moulin, M; Mitschler, A; Cousido-Siah, A; Fadel, F; Valsecchi, W M; Tomizaki, Takashi; Petrova, T; Claudot, J; Podjarny, A

    2016-03-01

    Crystal diffraction data of heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in complex with oleic acid were measured at room temperature with high-resolution X-ray and neutron protein crystallography (0.98 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively). These data provided very detailed information about the cluster of water molecules and the bound oleic acid in the H-FABP large internal cavity. The jointly refined X-ray/neutron structure of H-FABP was complemented by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution using the parameters of the ELMAMII library. The resulting electron density allowed a precise determination of the electrostatic potential in the fatty acid (FA) binding pocket. Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules was then used to study interactions involving the internal water molecules, the FA and the protein. This approach showed H⋯H contacts of the FA with highly conserved hydrophobic residues known to play a role in the stabilization of long-chain FAs in the binding cavity. The determination of water hydrogen (deuterium) positions allowed the analysis of the orientation and electrostatic properties of the water molecules in the very ordered cluster. As a result, a significant alignment of the permanent dipoles of the water molecules with the protein electrostatic field was observed. This can be related to the dielectric properties of hydration layers around proteins, where the shielding of electrostatic interactions depends directly on the rotational degrees of freedom of the water molecules in the interface.

  9. X-Ray Crystallography Reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Microcapsules prepared by encapsulating an aqueous solution of a protein, drug or other bioactive substance inside a semi-permeable membrane by are disclosed. The microcapsules are formed by interfacial coacervation under conditions where the shear forces are limited to 0-100 dynes per square centimeter at the interface. By placing the microcapsules in a high osmotic dewatering solution. the protein solution is gradually made saturated and then supersaturated. and the controlled nucleation and crystallization of the protein is achieved. The crystal-filled microcapsules prepared by this method can be conveniently harvested and stored while keeping the encapsulated crystals in essentially pristine condition due to the rugged. protective membrane. Because the membrane components themselves are x-ray transparent, large crystal-containing microcapsules can be individually selected, mounted in x-ray capillary tubes and subjected to high energy x-ray diffraction studies to determine the 3-D smucture of the protein molecules. Certain embodiments of the microcapsules of the invention have composite polymeric outer membranes which are somewhat elastic, water insoluble, permeable only to water, salts, and low molecular weight molecules and are structurally stable in fluid shear forces typically encountered in the human vascular system.

  10. Elements of modern X-ray physics

    CERN Document Server

    Als-Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Eagerly awaited, this second edition of a best-selling text comprehensively describes from a modern perspective the basics of x-ray physics as well as the completely new opportunities offered by synchrotron radiation. Written by internationally acclaimed authors, the style of the book is to develop the basic physical principles without obscuring them with excessive mathematics. The second edition differs substantially from the first edition, with over 30% new material, including: A new chapter on non-crystalline diffraction - designed to appeal to the large community wh

  11. Linear polarization observations of some X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhovskoy, N.M.; Efimov, Yu.S.

    1975-01-01

    Multicolour linear polarization of optical radiation of the X-ray sources Sco X-1, Cyg X-2, Cyg X-1 and Her X-1 was measured at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory in 1970-1973. These observations indicate that polarization of Sco X-1 in the ultraviolet, blue and red spectral regions appears to be variable. No statistically significant variations of polarization were found for the other three sources observed. (Auth.)

  12. Conceptual Design of the International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    CERN Document Server

    Armengaud, E; Betz, M; Brax, P; Brun, P; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Carosi, G P; Caspers, F; Caspi, S; Cetin, S A; Chelouche, D; Christensen, F E; Dael, A; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Derbin, A V; Desch, K; Diago, A; Döbrich, B; Dratchnev, I; Dudarev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; García, J A; Garza, J G; Geralis, T; Gimeno, B; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; González-Díaz, D; Guendelman, E; Hailey, C J; Hiramatsu, T; Hoffmann, D H H; Horns, D; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Isern, J; Imai, K; Jakobsen, A C; Jaeckel, J; Jakovčić, K; Kaminski, J; Kawasaki, M; Karuza, M; Krčmar, M; Kousouris, K; Krieger, C; Lakić, B; Limousin, O; Lindner, A; Liolios, A; Luzón, G; Matsuki, S; Muratova, V N; Nones, C; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Redondo, J; Ringwald, A; Russenschuck, S; Ruz, J; Saikawa, K; Savvidis, I; Sekiguchi, T; Semertzidis, Y K; Shilon, I; Sikivie, P; Silva, H; Kate, H ten; Tomas, A; Troitsky, S; Vafeiadis, T; Bibber, K van; Vedrine, P; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Walckiers, L; Weltman, A; Wester, W; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2014-01-01

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) will be a forth generation axion helioscope. As its primary physics goal, IAXO will look for axions or axion-like particles (ALPs) originating in the Sun via the Primakoff conversion of the solar plasma photons. In terms of signal-to-noise ratio, IAXO will be about 4-5 orders of magnitude more sensitive than CAST, currently the most powerful axion helioscope, reaching sensitivity to axion-photon couplings down to a few $\\times 10^{-12}$ GeV$^{-1}$ and thus probing a large fraction of the currently unexplored axion and ALP parameter space. IAXO will also be sensitive to solar axions produced by mechanisms mediated by the axion-electron coupling $g_{ae}$ with sensitivity $-$for the first time$-$ to values of $g_{ae}$ not previously excluded by astrophysics. With several other possible physics cases, IAXO has the potential to serve as a multi-purpose facility for generic axion and ALP research in the next decade. In this paper we present the conceptual design of IAXO, w...

  13. An update on X-ray reflection gratings developed for future missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Drew

    2018-01-01

    X-ray reflection gratings are a key technology being studied for future X-ray spectroscopy missions, including the Lynx X-ray mission under consideration for the 2020 Decadal Survey. We present an update on the status of X-ray reflection gratings being developed at Penn State University, including current fabrication techniques and mass-replication processes and the latest diffraction efficiency results and resolving power measurements. Individual off-plane X-ray reflection gratings have exceeded the current Lynx requirements for both effective area and resolving power. Finally, we discuss internal projects that will advance the technology readiness level of these gratings.

  14. Two-energy twin image removal in atomic-resolution x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Hayashi, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Matsubara, E.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a two-energy twin image removal algorithm for atomic-resolution x-ray holography. The validity of the algorithm is shown in a theoretical simulation and in an experiment of internal detector x-ray holography using a ZnSe single crystal. The algorithm, compared to the widely used multiple-energy algorithm, allows efficient measurement of holograms, and is especially important when the available x-ray energies are fixed. It enables twin image free holography using characteristic x rays from laboratory generators and x-ray pulses of free-electron lasers

  15. Aspergillosis - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. Here, a chest x-ray shows that the fungus has invaded the lung ... are usually seen as black areas on an x-ray. The cloudiness on the left side of this ...

  16. Soft x-ray Planetary Imager

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project is to prototype a soft X-ray Imager for planetary applications that has the sensitivity to observe solar system sources of soft  X-ray emission. A strong...

  17. Stabilized x-ray generator power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Subimal; Purushotham, K.V.; Bose, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analysis are very much adopted in laboratories to determine the type and structure of the constituent compounds in solid materials, chemical composition of materials, stress developed on metals etc. These experiments need X-ray beam of fixed intensity and wave length. This can only be achieved by X-ray generator having highly stabilized tube voltage and tube current. This paper describes how X-ray tube high voltage and electron beam current are stabilized. This paper also highlights generation of X-rays, diffractometry and X-ray fluorescence analysis and their wide applications. Principle of operation for stabilizing the X-ray tube voltage and current, different protection circuits adopted, special features of the mains H.V. transformer and H.T. tank are described in this report. (author)

  18. X-ray electromagnetic application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, particularly for X-ray electromagnetic application technology from January 2006 to December 2008. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and free-electron laser, Saga Synchrotron Project, X-ray waveguides and waveguide-based lens-less hard-X-ray imaging, X-ray nanofocusing for capillaries and zone plates, dispersion characteristics in photonics crystal consisting of periodic atoms for nanometer waveguides, electromagnetic characteristics of grid structures for scattering fields of nano-meter electromagnetic waves and X-rays, FDTD parallel computing of fundamental scattering and attenuation characteristics of X-ray for medical imaging diagnosis, orthogonal relations of electromagnetic fields including evanescent field in dispersive medium. (author)

  19. Insights into post-annealing and silver doping effects on the internal microstructure of ZnO nanoparticles through X-ray diffraction probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeydavi, Ali; Dastafkan, Kamran; Rahimi, Mohammad; Ghadam Dezfouli, Mohammad Amin

    2017-07-01

    ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized via Pechini method at various post-annealing temperatures (400°, 500°, and 600 °C) and silver doping concentrations (Zn:Ag molar ratios of 30, 20, and 10). Multifarious microstructural features including crystallite size, size-strain based broadening, residual stress, preferential orientation, crystallinity degree, lattice parameters, unit cell variation, and stacking fault probability were surveyed through phase analysis, Williamson-Hall plot, texture coefficient and unit cell calculations. X-ray probing verified good crystallinity with a hexagonal close pack Wurtzite morphology. Williamson-Hall analysis exhibited distributions of crystallite size and microstrain as well as their contributions on the line broadening of the host ZnO and guest Ag phases upon annealing-doping treatments. Textural analysis revealed the alteration in anisotropic crystallinity of the host phase and transformation of the preferred directions, (100) and (101), as function of annealing-doping processes. Besides, while guest Ag phase was shown to be polycrystalline with randomly orientated crystals at moderate concentration with respect to thermal treatment, preferential orientation went through a major change, (220) to (111), with increment in Ag loadings. Under identical synthetic conditions, the distinction in the lattice constants and unit cell variation between pure and doped ZnO nanoparticles was enforced and results verified major impressionability via annealing and doping factors.

  20. Full-field mapping of internal strain distribution in red sandstone specimen under compression using digital volumetric speckle photography and X-ray computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingtao Mao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is always desirable to know the interior deformation pattern when a rock is subjected to mechanical load. Few experimental techniques exist that can represent full-field three-dimensional (3D strain distribution inside a rock specimen. And yet it is crucial that this information is available for fully understanding the failure mechanism of rocks or other geomaterials. In this study, by using the newly developed digital volumetric speckle photography (DVSP technique in conjunction with X-ray computed tomography (CT and taking advantage of natural 3D speckles formed inside the rock due to material impurities and voids, we can probe the interior of a rock to map its deformation pattern under load and shed light on its failure mechanism. We apply this technique to the analysis of a red sandstone specimen under increasing uniaxial compressive load applied incrementally. The full-field 3D displacement fields are obtained in the specimen as a function of the load, from which both the volumetric and the deviatoric strain fields are calculated. Strain localization zones which lead to the eventual failure of the rock are identified. The results indicate that both shear and tension are contributing factors to the failure mechanism.

  1. Development of quantitative x-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckman, H.W.; Dunsmuir, J.A.; D'Amico, K.L.; Ferguson, S.R.; Flannery, B.P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have developed several x-ray microtomography systems which function as quantitative three dimensional x-ray microscopes. In this paper the authors describe the evolutionary path followed from making the first high resolution experimental microscopes to later generations which can be routinely used for investigating materials. Developing the instrumentation for reliable quantitative x-ray microscopy using synchrotron and laboratory based x-ray sources has led to other imaging modalities for obtaining temporal and spatial two dimensional information

  2. X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Sparks, C.J. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental set-up for x-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation was built and installed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Project. X-ray spectra were taken from numerous and varied samples in order to assess the potential of synchrotron radiation as an excitation source for multielement x-ray fluorescence analysis. For many applications, the synchrotron radiation technique is shown to be superior to other x-ray fluorescence methods, especially those employing electrons and protons as excitation sources

  3. Phase-sensitive X-ray imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kevin Louis

    2013-01-08

    X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

  4. Element specific X-ray fluorescene microtomography

    OpenAIRE

    Günzler, Til Florian

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence is widely known as an element-specific scanning analytic tool. It is used in many fields of science and technology and has given major new insights into different problems. The relatively large penetration depth of x rays into matter makes them ideally suited for tomography. The combination of x-ray fluorescence analysis and scanning microtomography, hereafter called x-ray fluorescence microtomography, has been further developed and improved in this work. Employing the newl...

  5. X-ray diagnostics - benefits and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomaeus, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The brochure on benefits and risks of X-ray diagnostics discusses the following issues: X radiation - a pioneering discovery and medical sensation, fundamentals of X radiation, frequency of X-ray examinations in Germany in relation to CT imaging, radiation doses resulting from X-ray diagnostics, benefits of X-ray diagnostics - indication and examples, risks - measures for radiation exposure reductions, avoidance of unnecessary examinations.

  6. The Beginnings of X-ray Crystallography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The Beginnings of X-ray Crystallography. A Profile on the Two Braggs. Those were the days when Science was hovering around the wave–particle duality. William. Henry Bragg was toying with the idea that X-rays are particles and the observation made by Max von Laue that X-rays are diffracted by crystals could indeed ...

  7. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source.

  8. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth / For Parents / X- ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  9. X-Rays, Pregnancy and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emitting Products and Procedures Medical Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging X-Rays, Pregnancy and You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... the decision with your doctor. What Kind of X-Rays Can Affect the Unborn Child? During most x- ...

  10. X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is A scoliosis X-ray is a relatively safe and painless ...

  11. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  12. Student X-Ray Fluorescence Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Homer D.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes the experimental arrangement for x-ray analysis of samples which involves the following: the radioisotopic x-ray disk source; a student-built fluorescence chamber; the energy dispersive x-ray detector, linear amplifier and bias supply; and a multichannel pulse height analyzer. (GS)

  13. Electron beam parallel X-ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, P.

    1967-01-01

    Broad X ray source produces a highly collimated beam of low energy X rays - a beam with 2 to 5 arc minutes of divergence at energies between 1 and 6 keV in less than 5 feet. The X ray beam is generated by electron bombardment of a target from a large area electron gun.

  14. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockett, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a glancing x-ray analytical technique which is used primarily to measure surface metal contamination on semiconductor substrates. This is a review of Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) applications for silicon semiconductor processing. In addition, some comments are made about the future of TXRF, and in particular, synchrotron radiation TXRF (SR-TXRF)

  15. Automatic weld joint X-ray inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.U.; Linke, D.; Siems, K.D.; Kruse, H.; Schuetze, E.

    1990-01-01

    A gantry mounted robotic x-ray inspection unit has been developed for the series testing of small and medium sized welded components (pipe bends and nozzles). The unit features computer controlled positioning of the x-ray tube and x-ray image amplifier. Image quality classes 2 and even 1 could be achieved without difficulty. (author)

  16. X-ray photochemistry of carbon hydride molecular ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Alessandra; Miteva, Tsveta; Kennedy, Eugene T; Mosnier, Jean-Paul; Bizau, Jean-Marc; Cubaynes, Denis; Sisourat, Nicolas; Carniato, Stéphane

    2018-02-07

    Hydride molecular ions are key ingredients of the interstellar chemistry since they are precursors of more complex molecules. In regions located near a soft X-ray source these ions may resonantly absorb an X-ray photon which triggers a complex chain of reactions. In this work, we simulate ab initio the X-ray absorption spectrum, Auger decay processes and the subsequent fragmentation dynamics of two hydride molecular ions, namely CH 2 + and CH 3 + . We show that these ions feature strong X-ray absorption resonances which relax through Auger decay within 7 fs. The doubly-charged ions thus formed mostly dissociate into smaller ionic carbon fragments: in the case of CH 2 + , the dominant products are either C + /H + /H or CH + /H + . For CH 3 + , the system breaks primary into CH 2 + and H + , which provides a new route to form CH 2 + near a X-ray source. Furthermore, our simulations provide the branching ratios of the final products formed after the X-ray absorption as well as their kinetic and internal energy distributions. Such data can be used in the chemistry models of the interstellar medium.

  17. Pulsating X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumper, J.

    1986-01-01

    The discovery of pulsating X-ray sources in close binary systems was one of the major achievements of the Uhuru satellite. Today one knows about two dozens of these sources with pulsational periods between 69 ms and 835 s. In most cases the X-ray source orbits an early-type star of high mass having a rather large optical luminosity. There are a few exceptions: GX1+4 is associated with a late-type (M6) giant, 4U1616-67 has a comparison of very low mass (≤ 0.1 M/sub sub solar/), and Her X-1 is a borderline case, since its counterpart HZ Her is an A-F star of -- 2/sub sub solar/. It is clear that the X-ray sources in these systems are rotating magnetized neutron stars accreting from their normal companion, probably in most cases via Roche lobe overflow which leads to the formation of an accretion disk. In some cases (e.g. Vela X-1) the accretion proceeds via a stellar wind. Pulsations occur because in the immediate vicinity of the neutron star the matter is funneled by the strong magnetic field onto the polar caps where a hot and very luminous plasma is formed. Typical luminosities are huge, namely of the order of 10/sup 37/ erg/s which are radiated at effective temperatures of -- 10/sup 8/ K. Much has been learned about these systems and about neutron stars from studies of pulse arrival times and source spectra. The author briefly summarizes some of the major results and discusses some very recent results obtained with EXOSAT

  18. X-ray study of bow shocks in runaway stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Becker, M.; del Valle, M. V.; Romero, G. E.; Peri, C. S.; Benaglia, P.

    2017-11-01

    Massive runaway stars produce bow shocks through the interaction of their winds with the interstellar medium, with the prospect for particle acceleration by the shocks. These objects are consequently candidates for non-thermal emission. Our aim is to investigate the X-ray emission from these sources. We observed with XMM-Newton a sample of five bow shock runaways, which constitutes a significant improvement of the sample of bow shock runaways studied in X-rays so far. A careful analysis of the data did not reveal any X-ray emission related to the bow shocks. However, X-ray emission from the stars is detected, in agreement with the expected thermal emission from stellar winds. On the basis of background measurements we derive conservative upper limits between 0.3 and 10 keV on the bow shocks emission. Using a simple radiation model, these limits together with radio upper limits allow us to constrain some of the main physical quantities involved in the non-thermal emission processes, such as the magnetic field strength and the amount of incident infrared photons. The reasons likely responsible for the non-detection of non-thermal radiation are discussed. Finally, using energy budget arguments, we investigate the detectability of inverse Compton X-rays in a more extended sample of catalogued runaway star bow shocks. From our analysis we conclude that a clear identification of non-thermal X-rays from massive runaway bow shocks requires one order of magnitude (or higher) sensitivity improvement with respect to present observatories.

  19. SLAC pulsed x-ray facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipe, N.E.; McCall, R.C.; Baker, E.D.

    1986-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) operates a high energy (up to 33 GeV) linear accelerator delivering pulses up to a few microseconds wide. The pulsed nature of the electron beam creates problems in the detection and measurement of radiation both from the accelerator beam and the klystrons that provide the rf power for the accelerator. Hence, a pulsed x-ray facility has been built at SLAC mainly for the purpose of testing the response of different radiation detection instruments to pulsed radiation fields. The x-ray tube consists of an electron gun with a control grid. This provides a stream of pulsed electrons that can be accelerated towards a confined target-window. The window is made up of aluminium 0.051 cm (20 mils) thick, plated on the vacuum side with a layer of gold 0.0006 cm (1/4 mil) thick. The frequency of electron pulses can be varied by an internal pulser from 60 to 360 pulses per second with pulse widths of 360 ns to 5 μs. The pulse amplitude can be varied over a wide range of currents. An external pulser can be used to obtain other frequencies or special pulse shapes. The voltage across the gun can be varied from 0 to 100 kV. The major part of the x-ray tube is enclosed in a large walk-in-cabinet made of 1.9 cm (3/4 in) plywood and lined with 0.32 cm (1/8 in) lead to make a very versatile facility. 3 refs., 5 figs

  20. Protonium X-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gotta, D

    1999-01-01

    The Lyman and Balmer transitions from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium were studied extensively at the low-energy-antiproton ring LEAR at CERN in order to determine the strong interaction effects. A first series of experiments $9 was performed with semiconductor and gaseous X-ray detectors. In the last years of LEAR operation using a Bragg crystal spectrometer, strong interaction parameters in the 2p states of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium were measured $9 directly. The results of the measurements support the meson-exchange models describing the medium and long range part of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction. (39 refs).

  1. X-ray intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossomaier, T.R.J.; Sangway, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    It is claimed that stabilization of X-ray intensifying screens against discolouration and hydrolysis of lanthanum or gadolinium oxyhalide phosphors can be achieved by incorporating into the phosphor/binder formulation a compound containing free epoxy groups. Suitable epoxy compounds include gamma glycidoxy trimethoxy silane and dimethyl di(m-glycidoxy methylphenyl) methane. The oxyhalide may be activated by Tb, Tm or Yb and may be mixed with other phosphors. Plasticisers and organo-tin stabilisers for the formulation are given. Many binders are specified, preferably these should not react with the free epoxy groups. (UK)

  2. Chandra and the VLT Jointly Investigate the Cosmic X-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    in three different wavebands. PR Photo 09b/01 : A VLT/FORS1 spectrum of a 'Type II Quasar' discovered during this programme. The 'Chandra Deep Field South' and the X-Ray Background ESO PR Photo 09a/01 ESO PR Photo 09a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 183 pix - 76k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 366 pix - 208k] [Hires - JPEG: 3000 x 1453 pix - 1.4M] Caption : PR Photo 09a/01 shows optical/infrared images in three wavebands ('Blue', 'Red', 'Infrared') from ESO telescopes of the Type II Quasar CXOCDFS J033229.9 -275106 (at the centre), one of the distant X-ray sources identified in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) area during the present study. Technical information about these photos is available below. The 'Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS)' is a small sky area in the southern constellation Fornax (The Oven). It measures about 16 arcmin across, or roughly half the diameter of the full moon. There is unusually little gas and dust within the Milky Way in this direction and observations towards the distant Universe within this field thus profit from an particularly clear view. That is exactly why this sky area was selected by an international team of astronomers [1] to carry out an ultra-deep survey of X-ray sources with the orbiting Chandra X-Ray Observatory . In order to detect the faintest possible sources, NASA's satellite telescope looked in this direction during an unprecedented total of almost 1 million seconds of exposure time (11.5 days). The main scientific goal of this survey is to understand the nature and evolution of the elusive sources that make up the 'X-ray background' . This diffuse glare in the X-ray sky was discovered by Riccardo Giacconi and his collaborators during a pioneering rocket experiment in 1962. The excellent imaging quality of Chandra (the angular resolution is about 1 arcsec) makes it possible to do extremely deep exposures without encountering problems introduced by the "confusion effect". This refers to the overlapping of images of sources that are

  3. Method for spatially modulating X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2015-03-10

    A method and apparatus are provided for spatially modulating X-rays or X-ray pulses using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based X-ray optics. A torsionally-oscillating MEMS micromirror and a method of leveraging the grazing-angle reflection property are provided to modulate X-ray pulses with a high-degree of controllability.

  4. Picosecond x-ray streak camera studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasyanov, Yu.S.; Malyutin, A.A.; Richardson, M.C.; Chevokin, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    Some initial results of direct measurement of picosecond x-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas are presented. A PIM-UMI 93 image converter tube, incorporating an x-ray sensitive photocathode, linear deflection, and three stages of image amplification was used to analyse the x-ray radiation emanating from plasmas produced from solid Ti targets by single high-intensity picosecond laser pulses. From such plasmas, the x-ray emission typically persisted for times of 60psec. However, it is shown that this detection system should be capable of resolving x-ray phenomena of much shorter duration. (author)

  5. Si(Li) X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xianglin; Li Zhiyong; Hong Xiuse

    1990-08-01

    The fabrication technology of the 10∼80 mm 2 Si(Li) X-ray detectors are described and some problems concerning technology and measurement are discussed. The specifications of the detectors are shown as well. The Si(Li) X-ray detector is a kind of low energy X-ray detectors. Owing to very high energy resolution, fine linearity and high detection efficiency in the range of low energy X-rays, it is widely used in the fields of nuclear physics, medicine, geology and environmental protection, etc,. It is also a kernel component for the scanning electron microscope and X-ray fluorescence analysis systems

  6. NIKOLA TESLA AND THE X-RAY

    OpenAIRE

    Rade R. Babic

    2005-01-01

    After professor Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen published his study of an x-ray discovery (Academy Bulletin, Berlin, 08. 11. 1895.), Nikola Tesla published his first study of an x-ray on the 11th of March in 1896. (X-ray, Electrical Review). Until the 11th of August in 1897 he had published ten studies on this subject. All Tesla,s x-ray studies were experimental, which is specific to his work. Studying the nature of the x-ray, he established a new medical branch-radiology. He wrote:” There’s no doubt...

  7. CONDENSED MATTER ASTROPHYSICS: A PRESCRIPTION FOR DETERMINING THE SPECIES-SPECIFIC COMPOSITION AND QUANTITY OF INTERSTELLAR DUST USING X-RAYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Julia C.; Xiang Jingen; Ravel, Bruce; Kortright, Jeffrey; Flanagan, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    We present a new technique for determining the quantity and composition of dust in astrophysical environments using III and L II photoelectric edges, we discuss a technique for modeling dust properties in the soft X-rays using L-edge data to complement K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure analysis techniques discussed by Lee and Ravel. The paper is intended to be a techniques paper of interest and useful to both condensed matter experimentalists and astrophysicists. For the experimentalists, we offer a new prescription for normalizing relatively low signal-to-noise ratio L-edge cross section measurements. For astrophysics interests, we discuss the use of X-ray absorption spectra for determining dust composition in cold and ionized astrophysical environments and a new method for determining species-specific gas and dust ratios. Possible astrophysical applications of interest, including relevance to Sagittarius A*, are offered. Prospects for improving on this work in future X-ray missions with higher throughput and spectral resolution are also presented in the context of spectral resolution goals for gratings and calorimeters, for proposed and planned missions such as Astro-H and the International X-ray Observatory.

  8. Miniature x-ray point source for alignment and calibration of x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Boyle, M.J.; Glaros, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    A miniature x-ray point source of high brightness similar to that of Rovinsky, et al. is described. One version of the x-ray source is used to align the x-ray optics on the Argus and Shiva laser systems. A second version is used to determine the spatial and spectral transmission functions of the x-ray optics. The spatial and spectral characteristics of the x-ray emission from the x-ray point source are described. The physical constraints including size, intensity and thermal limitations, and useful lifetime are discussed. The alignment and calibration techniques for various x-ray optics and detector combinations are described

  9. X-ray continuum and iron K emission line from the radio galaxy 3C 390.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, M.; Makishima, K.; Kohmura, Y.; Tashiro, M.; Ohashi, T.; Barr, P.; Hayashida, K.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Trinchieri, G.; Elvis, M.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray properties of the radio galaxy 3C 390.3 were investigated using the European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT) and Ginga satellites. Long-term, large-amplitude X-ray intensity changes were detected over a period extending from 1984 through 1991, and high-quality X-ray spectra were obtained especially with Ginga. The X-ray continuum spectra were described with power-law model with photon slope in the range 1.5-1.8, and the slope flattened as the 2-20 keV luminosity decreased by 40%. There was a first detection of the iron emission line from this source at the 90% confidence level. An upper limit was derived on the thermal X-ray component. X-ray emission mechanisms and possible origins of the long-term variation are discussed.

  10. The X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study: Forging the Path to NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey Prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Ozel, Feryal; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept is unique among those being studied for prioritization in the NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey. The X-Ray Surveyor mission will explore the high-energy Universe; providing essential and complimentary observations to the Astronomy Community. The NASA Astrophysics Roadmap (Enduring Quests, Daring Visions) describes the need for an X-Ray Observatory that is capable of addressing topics such as the origin and growth of the first supermassive black holes, galaxy evolution and growth of the cosmic structure, and the origin and evolution of the stars that make up our Universe. To address these scientifically compelling topics and more, an Observatory that exhibits leaps in capability over that of previous X-Ray Observatories in needed. This paper describes the current status of the X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study and the path forward, which includes scientific investigations, technology development, and community participation.

  11. X-ray and gamma radiography devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    When we are using this technique, we also must familiar with the device and instrument that used such as gamma projector, crawler, x-ray tubes and others. So this chapter discussed detailed on device used for radiography work. For the x-ray and gamma, their characteristics are same but the source to produce is a big different. X-ray produced from the machine meanwhile, gamma produce from the source such as Co-60 and IR-192. Both are electromagnetic waves. So, the reader can have some knowledge on what is x-ray tube, discrete x-ray and characteristic x-ray, how the machine works and how to control a machine, what is source for gamma emitter, how to handle the projector and lastly difference between x-ray and gamma. Of course this cannot be with the theory only, so detailed must be learned practically.

  12. Submicron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, Alastair; Celestre, Richard; Tamura, Nobumichi; Spolenak, Ralph; Valek, Bryan; Brown, Walter; Bravman, John; Padmore, Howard; Batterman, Boris; Patel, Jamshed

    2000-01-01

    At the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley the authors have instrumented a beam line that is devoted exclusively to x-ray micro diffraction problems. By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the sub-micron range. The instrument is for instance, capable of probing a sub-micron size volume inside micron sized aluminum metal grains buried under a silicon dioxide insulating layer. The resulting Laue pattern is collected on a large area CCD detector and automatically indexed to yield the grain orientation and deviatoric (distortional) strain tensor of this sub-micron volume. A four-crystal monochromator is then inserted into the beam, which allows monochromatic light to illuminate the same part of the sample. Measurement of diffracted photon energy allows for the determination of d spacings. The combination of white and monochromatic beam measurements allow for the determination of the total strain/stress tensor (6 components) inside each sub-micron sized illuminated volume of the sample

  13. The Soft X-Ray Spectrometer (SXS) for the ISAS/JAXA New Exploration X-Ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; McCammon, D.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Okajima, T.; Petre, R.; Porter, F. S.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Smith, R. K.; Soong, Y.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Mitsuda, K.; Ohashi, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ezoe, Y.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Shinozaki, K.; Fujimoto, R.; Kawaharada, M.

    2008-03-01

    The ISAS/JAXA New Exploration X-Ray Telescope (NEXT) is now under development for launch in 2013. The observatory is designed to provide extremely high spectral resolution with large collecting area below 10 keV using an x-ray calorimeter, and a very large band pass (up to 300 keV) with extraordinary sensitivity over the range 10-80 keV using focusing x-ray optics. In this talk we will discuss plans for the Soft X-Ray Spectrometer (SXS), which uses an x-ray calorimeter array to provide the high spectral resolution. The SXS is a joint effort between ISAS and NASA and recently proposed to NASA as a Mission of Opportunity for the US participation. The SXS incorporates a 6x6 calorimeter array that has strong heritage in the Suzaku program and better than 7 eV energy resolution, with 4-5 eV expected based on recent laboratory tests. The cryogenic system will be a hybrid design with both liquid helium and mechanical coolers to provide a robust, redundant system with long life (> 3 years). The x-ray optical system (6 m focal length) uses thin-foil conical optics to provide at least 220 square cm at 6 keV. The SXS will enable a wide variety of interesting science topics to be pursued, including testing theories of structure formation using velocity measurements of clusters of galaxies and inferring the energy output from the jets and winds of active galaxies. The SXS will accurately measure metal abundances in the oldest galaxies, providing unique information on the origin of the elements, and observe matter in extreme gravitational fields, enabling time-resolved spectra from material approaching the event horizon of a black hole. Along with providing the instrument, we have proposed a well supported guest investigator program that will enable full US participation.

  14. Lost and Found: X-ray Telescope Locates Missing Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered two huge intergalactic clouds of diffuse hot gas. These clouds are the best evidence yet that a vast cosmic web of hot gas contains the long-sought missing matter - about half of the atoms and ions in the Universe. Various measurements give a good estimate of the mass-density of the baryons - the neutrons and protons that make up the nuclei of atoms and ions - in the Universe 10 billion years ago. However, sometime during the last 10 billion years a large fraction of the baryons, commonly referred to as "ordinary matter" to distinguish them from dark matter and dark energy, have gone missing. Chandra X-ray Spectrum of Mkn 421 Chandra X-ray Spectrum of Mkn 421 "An inventory of all the baryons in stars and gas inside and outside of galaxies accounts for just over half the baryons that existed shortly after the Big Bang," explained Fabrizio Nicastro of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, and lead author of a paper in the 3 February 2005 issue of Nature describing the recent research. "Now we have found the likely hiding place of the missing baryons." Nicastro and colleagues did not just stumble upon the missing baryons - they went looking for them. Computer simulations of the formation of galaxies and galaxy clusters indicated that the missing baryons might be contained in an extremely diffuse web-like system of gas clouds from which galaxies and clusters of galaxies formed. These clouds have defied detection because of their predicted temperature range of a few hundred thousand to a million degrees Celsius, and their extremely low density. Evidence for this warm-hot intergalactic matter (WHIM) had been detected around our Galaxy, or in the Local Group of galaxies, but the lack of definitive evidence for WHIM outside our immediate cosmic neighborhood made any estimates of the universal mass-density of baryons unreliable. Chandra X-ray Image of Mkn 421 Chandra X-ray Image of Mkn 421 The discovery of much more

  15. Cosmic X-ray Flashes Reveal Their Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Astronomers using X-ray, radio, and optical telescopes have announced a big leap in solving the origin of mysterious objects known as X-ray flashes (XRFs) by finding that they originate from blue star forming galaxies. This discovery of the cosmic distance scale effectively ends the widely-held speculation that XRFs are the death-cries from stars exploding in the infant universe. X-ray flashes resemble a lower energy and longer-duration version of a gamma-ray burst, an energetic explosion thought to signal the death of a massive star. The properties of XRFs led to speculation that they were gamma-ray bursts that occurred less than a few billion years after the Big Bang, and whose light had been subsequently weakened and time-stretched by the expansion of the universe. "Now that the very distant origin has been ruled out, X-ray flashes could be due to exploding massive stars, just like gamma-ray bursts" explained Dr. Joshua Bloom at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., lead author on the paper announcing the results to be published in The Astrophysical Journal. Bloom continued: "But the explosion from an X-ray flash would need to contain less matter or less energy than a typical gamma-ray burst. Alternatively, X-ray flashes could be gamma-ray bursts viewed off-axis." These results are being discussed at the "30th Anniversary of the Discovery of Gamma-ray Bursts" conference currently being held in Sante Fe, New Mexico. The location of the sources studied by Bloom's group required a careful coordination of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope, along with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array (VLA) in Socorro, New Mexico. Chandra and the VLA provided a precise location of the fading X-ray and radio "afterglow" of two X-ray flashes known as XRF 011030 and XRF 020427. The Hubble Space Telescope was used to identify and study galaxies at these locations and estimate their distances to between

  16. Portable X-ray reflectometer using a low power polychromatic X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Tsunemasa; Imashuku, Susumu; Yuge, Koretaka; Kawai, Jun; Shimura, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    We developed a portable X-ray reflectometer which measures energy dispersive X-ray reflectivity using a polychromatic X-rays from a low power (a few watts) X-ray tube and a silicon drift detector. A thin Cu film on silicon substrate using the portable reflectometer was measured. A fringe pattern was shifted due to the change of the X-ray incident angle. The measured peak position of the fringe pattern was satisfactorily agreed with the calculation. (author)

  17. Full-field transmission x-ray imaging with confocal polycapillary x-ray optics

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tianxi; MacDonald, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    A transmission x-ray imaging setup based on a confocal combination of a polycapillary focusing x-ray optic followed by a polycapillary collimating x-ray optic was designed and demonstrated to have good resolution, better than the unmagnified pixel size and unlimited by the x-ray tube spot size. This imaging setup has potential application in x-ray imaging for small samples, for example, for histology specimens.

  18. Pushing the Boundaries of Suborbital Soft X-ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntaffer, Randall

    There are two primary objectives for this investigation. First, we propose to launch a preexisting payload to perform scientific investigations. Second, we propose to build a new payload which will integrate and demonstrate key technologies vital to future X-ray observatories. These efforts will train graduate students and prepare junior researchers to be major contributors to the next suite of NASA missions. We propose to increase the ability of gratings to obtain high resolution at energies below 1 keV. The concept that will be developed in this proposed investigation will be capable of meeting the requirements of future X-ray observatories. In addition, the design could be utilized effectively on smaller, Explorer class missions as pathfinders to the larger observatories while providing important scientific insights along the way. For this investigation, we propose to fly two separate, but related, rocket payloads. The first payload, christened OGRESS, has already been constructed and successfully flown three times. OGRESS is optimized to observe diffuse X-ray sources with a wire-grid collimating optic, parallel groove sinusoidal gratings, and Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors and is capable of attaining high resolution of E/dE ~ 25-80 in the 1/4 keV band. OGRESS will take high resolution spectra of the Vela Supernova Remnant (SNR) in the 1/4 keV band. This flight will provide the highest resolution spectra yet taken of Vela in this band and will produce a PhD thesis. The second payload, OGRE, will demonstrate key technologies necessary for the next X-ray observatory and provide even higher resolution of E/dE ~ 1000-2000 between 0.2 1.0 keV. To improve upon the resolution of OGRESS, OGRE will integrate several key technologies which have already been developed in a laboratory setting, but have not been flight proven. OGRE will use a modified Wolter telescope made from slumped glass to provide a smaller focus and increase throughput. Slumped glass

  19. The central X-ray source in SS 433

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, D.; Seward, F.; Leahy, D.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Marshall, F. E.; Grindlay, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Numerous observations of SS 433 were obtained with the Einstein X-ray Observatory over an 18 month period from 1979 March through 1980 October. MPC (as well as imaging) data from these observations show that the central object in SS 433 is variable in intensity and spectrum on a wide range of time scales. Flares appear to be correlated with the 13 day binary period, and may be more numerous at particular phases of the 164 day period. No evidence for variability on time scales less than 5 minutes is seen, suggesting the central X-ray source is extended and that the compact object itself is not directly visible. A model for SS 433 is suggested wherein the companion star has a spin misaligned with the orbital angular momentum. The volume of the Roche lobe reaches a minimum twice per binary orbit, giving rise to enhanced accretion which results in X-ray and radio flares. Additional constraints imposed by the X-ray and optical data suggest the compact object in SS 433 is an approximately 10-solar-mass black hole.

  20. Observational Trends of Cometary X-ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C. M.

    2001-05-01

    The unexpected discovery of x-ray emission from Comet Hyakutake in March 1996 (Lisse et al. 1996) has produced a number of questions about the physical mechanism producing the radiation. The original detection and subsequent observations (Dennerl et al. 1997, Mumma et al. 1997, Krasnopolsky et al. 1998, Owens et al. 1998, Lisse et al. 1999, Lisse et a. 2001, Dennerl et al. 2001) have shown that the very soft (best fit thermal bremsstrahlung model kT = 0.23 keV) emission is due to an interaction between the solar wind and the comet's atmosphere. Using the results from the more than 15 comets detected to date in x-rays, we report on the latest results on cometary x-ray emission. Our emphasis will be on understanding the physical mechanism producing the emission, and using this to determine the nature of the cometary coma and solar wind flux. As-observed morphologies, spectra, and light curves will be discussed. We also report on the status of current cometary observations using the new powerful x-ray observatories Chandra and XMM. This work has been graciously supported by grants from the NASA Planetary Astronomy and Astrophysical Data Programs.