WorldWideScience

Sample records for international vlbi service

  1. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2012 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baver, Karen D.; Behrend, Dirk; Armstrong, Kyla L.

    2013-01-01

    This volume of reports is the 2012 Annual Report of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). The individual reports were contributed by VLBI groups in the international geodetic and astrometric community who constitute the permanent components of IVS. The IVS 2012 Annual Report documents the work of the IVS components for the calendar year 2012, our fourteenth year of existence. The reports describe changes, activities, and progress ofthe IVS. Many thanks to all IVS components who contributed to this Annual Report. With the exception of the first section and parts of the last section (described below), the contents of this Annual Report also appear on the IVS Web site athttp:ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications/ar2012

  2. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry: General Meeting Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Nancy R. (Editor); Baver, Karen D. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the second General Meeting of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), held in Tsukuba, Japan, February 4-7, 2002. The contents of this volume also appear on the IVS Web site at http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications/gm2002. The key-note of the second GM was prospectives for the future, in keeping with the re-organization of the IAG around the motivation of geodesy as 'an old science with a dynamic future' and noting that providing reference frames for Earth system science that are consistent over decades on the highest accuracy level will provide a challenging role for IVS. The goal of the meeting was to provide an interesting and informative program for a wide cross section of IVS members, including station operators, program managers, and analysts. This volume contains 72 papers and five abstracts of papers presented at the GM. The volume also includes reports about three splinter meetings held in conjunction with the GM: a mini-TOW (Technical Operations Workshop), the third IVS Analysis Workshop and a meeting of the analysis working group on geophysical modeling.

  3. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2004 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, Dirk (Editor); Baver, Karen D. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Combination Studies using the Cont02 Campaign. Coordinating Center report. Analysis coordinator report. Network coordinator report. IVS Technology coordinator report. Algonquin Radio observatory. Fortaleza Station report for 2004. Gilmore Creek Geophysical Observatory. Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical observatory. Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO). Hbart, Mt Pleasant, station report for 2004. Kashima 34m Radio Telescope. Kashima and Koganei 11-m VLBI Stations. Kokee Park Geophysical Observatory. Matera GGS VLBI Station. The Medicina Station status report. Report of the Mizusawa 10m Telescope. Noto Station Activity. NYAL Ny-Alesund 20 metre Antenna. German Antarctic receiving Station (GARS) O'higgins. The IVS network station Onsala space Observatory. Sheshan VLBI Station report for 2004. 10 Years of Geodetic Experiments at the Simeiz VLBI Station. Svetloe RAdio Astronomical Observatory. JARE Syowa Station 11-m Antenna, Antarctica. Geodetic Observatory TIGO in Concepcion. Tsukuba 32-m VLBI Station. Nanshan VLBI Station Report. Westford Antenna. Fundamental-station Wettzell 20m Radiotelescope. Observatorio Astroonomico Nacional Yebes. Yellowknife Observatory. The Bonn Geodetic VLBI Operation Center. CORE Operation Center Report. U.S. Naval Observatory Operation Center. The Bonn Astro/Geo Mark IV Correlator.

  4. Proceedings of the Sixth General Meeting of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, Dirk (Editor); Baver, Karen D. (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    This volume is the proceedings of the sixth General Meeting of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), held in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, February 7-13, 2010. The contents of this volume also appear on the IVS Web site at http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications/gm2010. The keynote of the sixth GM was the new perspectives of the next generation VLBI system under the theme "VLBI2010: From Vision to Reality". The goal of the meeting was to provide an interesting and informative program for a wide cross-section of IVS members, including station operators, program managers, and analysts. This volume contains 88 papers. All papers were edited by the editors for usage of the English language, form, and minor content-related issues.

  5. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry - Delivering high-quality products and embarking on observations of the next generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothnagel, A.; Artz, T.; Behrend, D.; Malkin, Z.

    2016-09-01

    The International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) regularly produces high-quality Earth orientation parameters from observing sessions employing extensive networks or individual baselines. The master schedule is designed according to the telescope days committed by the stations and by the need for dense sampling of the Earth orientation parameters (EOP). In the pre-2011 era, the network constellations with their number of telescopes participating were limited by the playback and baseline capabilities of the hardware (Mark4) correlators. This limitation was overcome by the advent of software correlators, which can now accommodate many more playback units in a flexible configuration. In this paper, we describe the current operations of the IVS with special emphasis on the quality of the polar motion results since these are the only EOP components which can be validated against independent benchmarks. The polar motion results provided by the IVS have improved continuously over the years, now providing an agreement with IGS results at the level of 20-25 μ as in a WRMS sense. At the end of the paper, an outlook is given for the realization of the VLBI Global Observing System.

  6. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry. Delivering high-quality products and embarking on observations of the next generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothnagel, A.; Artz, T.; Behrend, D.; Malkin, Z.

    2017-07-01

    The International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) regularly produces high-quality Earth orientation parameters from observing sessions employing extensive networks or individual baselines. The master schedule is designed according to the telescope days committed by the stations and by the need for dense sampling of the Earth orientation parameters (EOP). In the pre-2011 era, the network constellations with their number of telescopes participating were limited by the playback and baseline capabilities of the hardware (Mark4) correlators. This limitation was overcome by the advent of software correlators, which can now accommodate many more playback units in a flexible configuration. In this paper, we describe the current operations of the IVS with special emphasis on the quality of the polar motion results since these are the only EOP components which can be validated against independent benchmarks. The polar motion results provided by the IVS have improved continuously over the years, now providing an agreement with IGS results at the level of 20-25 μas in a WRMS sense. At the end of the paper, an outlook is given for the realization of the VLBI Global Observing System.

  7. The Tropospheric Products of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinkelmann, Robert; Schwatke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The IVS runs two tropospheric products: The IVS tropospheric parameter rapid combination monitors the zenith wet delay (ZWD) and zenith total delay (ZTD) of the rapid turnaround sessions R1 and R4. Goal of the combination is the identification and the exclusion of outliers by comparison and the assessment of the precision of current VLBI solutions in terms of tropospheric parameters. The rapid combination is done on a weekly basis four weeks after the observation files are released on IVS Data Centers. Since tropospheric and geodetic parameters, such as vertical station components, can significantly correlate, the consistency of the ZTD can be a measure of the consistency of the corresponding TRF as well. The ZWD mainly rely on accurate atmospheric pressure data. Thus, besides estimation techniques, modeling and analyst s noise, ZWD reflects differences in the atmospheric pressure data applied to the VLBI analysis. The second product, called tropospheric parameter long-term combination, aims for an accurate determination of climatological signals, such as trends of the atmospheric water vapor observed by VLBI. Therefore, the long-term homogeneity of atmospheric pressure data plays a crucial role for this product. The paper reviews the methods applied and results achieved so far and describes the new maintenance through DGFI.

  8. VLBI in the service of geodesy 1968-2000: An Onsala perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgered, G.; Haas, R.

    Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) has been used at the Onsala Space Observatory since 1968. In this paper we summarize the geodetic application of VLBI in terms of the observations so far obtained and the main geodetic results. Estimated time series of intercontinental as well as European baseline lengths are presented. The present facilities include the 20 m radome enclosed radio telescope, several continuously operating GPS receivers, a 21/31 GHz microwave radiometer for studies of the atmospheric excess propagation path due to water vapour, and a gravimetry foundation anchored in the solid granite rock in a laboratory environment. Geodetic VLBI continues to play an important role for the maintenance of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The international CORE programme has the goal to continuously measure the earth rotation parameters. Over long time scales nutation and UT1 are not possible to estimate reliably from techniques using satellites in orbits around the earth.

  9. ERP Estimation using a Kalman Filter in VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbon, M.; Soja, B.; Nilsson, T.; Heinkelmann, R.; Liu, L.; Lu, C.; Mora-Diaz, J. A.; Raposo-Pulido, V.; Xu, M.; Schuh, H.

    2014-12-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is one of the primary space geodetic techniques, providing the full set of Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP), and it is unique for observing long term Universal Time (UT1). For applications such as satellite-based navigation and positioning, accurate and continuous ERP obtained in near real-time are essential. They also allow the precise tracking of interplanetary spacecraft. One of the goals of VGOS (VLBI Global Observing System) is to provide such near real-time ERP. With the launch of this next generation VLBI system, the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) increased its efforts not only to reach 1 mm accuracy on a global scale but also to reduce the time span between the collection of VLBI observations and the availability of the final results substantially. Project VLBI-ART contributes to these objectives by implementing an elaborate Kalman filter, which represents a perfect tool for analyzing VLBI data in quasi real-time. The goal is to implement it in the GFZ version of the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) as a completely automated tool, i.e., with no need for human interaction. Here we present the methodology and first results of Kalman filtered EOP from VLBI data.

  10. Submicrosecond comparison of international clock synchronization by VLBI and the NTS satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.; Wardrip, S. C.; Bussion, J.; Oaks, J.; Mccaskill, T.; Warren, H.; Whitworth, G.

    1979-01-01

    The intercontinental clock synchronization capabilities of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and the Navigation Technology Satellite (NTS) were compared using both methods to synchronize the Cesium clocks at the NASA Deep Space Net complexes at Madrid, Spain and Goldstone, California. Verification of the accuracy of both systems was examined. The VLBI experiments used the Wideband VLBI Data Acquisition System developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The NTS Satellites were designed and built by the Naval Research Laboratory used with NTS Timing Receivers developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center. The two methods agreed at about the one-half microsecond level.

  11. Future directions in VLBI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, A. R.

    Three technology areas are examined to measure their impact on VLBI and the capa bilities that may be offered to VLBI practioners in the near future: VLBI Standard Interface: An international committee has recently agr eed on a standard interface definition for all future VLBI data systems. This s hould, at long last, allow interoperability between various VLBI data systems. New Recording Technologies: Courtesy of large investments by the co mputer industry, moderately priced high-data rate digital recorders that may be suitable for VLBI are on the near horizon. Small arrays of these machines, appr opriately interfaced, promise to support 1-8 Gbps recording over the next few ye ars at an attractive price. e-VLBI: With the advent of optical fiber being laid at a prodigious rate, real-time (or near-real time) VLBI on an international scale is close to b eing a technical possibility. However, questions remain about costs to lease th e necessary bandwidth and to lay the 'last mile' of fiber to remote antennas.

  12. VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Alan; Kettenis, Mark; Phillips, Chris; Sekido, Mamoru

    2010-01-01

    One important outcome of the 7th International e-VLBI Workshop in Shanghai in June 2008 was the creation of a task force to study and recommend a universal VLBI data format that is suitable for both on-the-wire e-VLBI data transfer, as well as direct disk storage. This task force, called the VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF) Task Force, is the first part of a two-part effort, the second of which will address standardization of e-VLBI data-transmission-protocols. The formation of the VDIF Task Force was prompted particularly by increased e-VLBI activity and the difficulties encountered when data arrive at a correlator in different formats from various instruments in various parts of the world. The task force created a streaming packetized data format that may be used for real-time and non-realtime e-VLBI, as well as direct disk storage. The data may contain multiple channels of time-sampled data with an arbitrary number of channels, arbitrary #bits/sample up to 32, and real or complex data; data rates in excess of 100 Gbps are supported. Each data packet is completely self-identifying via a short header, and data may be decoded without reference to any external information. The VDIF task force has completed its work, and the VDIF standard was ratified at the 2009 e-VLBI workshop in Madrid.

  13. Supernova VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, N.

    2009-08-01

    We review VLBI observations of supernovae over the last quarter century and discuss the prospect of imaging future supernovae with space VLBI in the context of VSOP-2. From thousands of discovered supernovae, most of them at cosmological distances, ˜50 have been detected at radio wavelengths, most of them in relatively nearby galaxies. All of the radio supernovae are Type II or Ib/c, which originate from the explosion of massive progenitor stars. Of these, 12 were observed with VLBI and four of them, SN 1979C, SN 1986J, SN 1993J, and SN 1987A, could be imaged in detail, the former three with VLBI. In addition, supernovae or young supernova remnants were discovered at radio wavelengths in highly dust-obscured galaxies, such as M82, Arp 299, and Arp 220, and some of them could also be imaged in detail. Four of the supernovae so far observed were sufficiently bright to be detectable with VSOP-2. With VSOP-2 the expansion of supernovae can be monitored and investigated with unsurpassed angular resolution, starting as early as the time of the supernova's transition from its opaque to transparent stage. Such studies can reveal, in a movie, the aftermath of a supernova explosion shortly after shock break out.

  14. Probing the Solar Corona with VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Benedikt; Sun, Jing; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald; Böhm, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    Radio observations close to the Sun are sensitive to the dispersive effects of the Sun corona. This has been used to determine (among other parameters) the electron density in the corona during solar conjunctions with spacecrafts. Although geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations close to the Sun have already been performed before 2002 (but suspended afterwards) they have not yet been used for calculations of corona electron densities. Almost 10 years later the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) decided to schedule twelve 24 hours VLBI sessions in 2011 and 2012 including observations closer than 15 degrees to the heliocenter. Both the recent and the earlier sessions are analysed in order to determine electron densities of the Sun corona. Based on the ionospheric delay corrections derived from two-frequency VLBI measurements, other dispersive effects like instrumental biases and, most important of all, the Earth's ionosphere effects are estimated and then eliminated. The residual delays are used to successfully determine power-law parameters of the electron density of the Sun corona for several of these sessions. In some cases, scheduled observations close to the Sun had failed, making it impossible to derive meaningful results from them. Both, the successful and the lost observations were analysed including external information like Sunspot numbers and flare occurrences. The estimated electron densities were compared to previous models of the Sun corona derived by radio measurements to spacecrafts during solar conjunctions. Our investigations show that it is possible to use geodetic VLBI sessions with observations close to the Sun to determine electron densities of the corona. The success depends on the geometry, i.e. the source position with respect to the Sun, and on the schedule, which can be optimized for such investigations. Unpredictable disturbances at the Sun's surface, such as flares, play also a role. So far

  15. Systematic Effects in Earth Orientation Parameters Determined by VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, H.; Heinkelmann, R.

    2015-12-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is the only technique that directly connects on the observation level the realizations of ITRS and ICRS in terms of their orientation. Many applications in spacecraft navigation, fundamental astronomy, astrometry and geosciences depend on the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) determined by VLBI. Currently, under the IAG/IAU Joint Working Group on the Theory of Earth Rotation, activities are supported to advance the theory of Earth rotation. Some components of Earth Rotation, such as the free modes like the Free Core Nutation (FCN) are not predictable but rely entirely on the observation through VLBI. In our presentation we investigate the EOP when alternating various VLBI analysis options such as correction models, a priori parameters, and other choices with the aim to detect and quantify possible systematic effects. Our approach is purely empirical: we alternate certain analysis options and assess the differences with respect to the reference solution that adheres to the IERS Conventions (2010) and applies the standard parameterization. For demonstration we analyze the regular International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) sessions IVS-R1 and IVS-R4.The IAG flagship component GGOS (Global Geodetic Observing System) aims to provide the EOP with an accuracy of 1 mm on the Earth surface (about 30 microarcseconds). This accuracy target will be applied as a limit to interpret the significance of the differences obtained in our comparisons.

  16. New VLBI2010 scheduling strategies and implications on the terrestrial reference frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Böhm, Johannes; Nilsson, Tobias; Krásná, Hana; Böhm, Sigrid; Schuh, Harald

    In connection with the work for the next generation VLBI2010 Global Observing System (VGOS) of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry, a new scheduling package (Vie_Sched) has been developed at the Vienna University of Technology as a part of the Vienna VLBI Software. In addition to the classical station-based approach it is equipped with a new scheduling strategy based on the radio sources to be observed. We introduce different configurations of source-based scheduling options and investigate the implications on present and future VLBI2010 geodetic schedules. By comparison to existing VLBI schedules of the continuous campaign CONT11, we find that the source-based approach with two sources has a performance similar to the station-based approach in terms of number of observations, sky coverage, and geodetic parameters. For an artificial 16 station VLBI2010 network, the source-based approach with four sources provides an improved distribution of source observations on the celestial sphere. Monte Carlo simulations yield slightly better repeatabilities of station coordinates with the source-based approach with two sources or four sources than the classical strategy. The new VLBI scheduling software with its alternative scheduling strategy offers a promising option with respect to applications of the VGOS.

  17. Sinopec International Petroleum Service Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Established in December 2003, Sinopec international Petroleum Service Corporation (SIPSC) is a fullyowned subsidiary of China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec Group). The company is mainly engaged in contracting international petroleum service projects and providing technical services, and is responsible for uniform management, coordination and organization of contracted international projects and labor service cooperation performed by Sinopec's upstream subsidiaries.

  18. 1993 IERS (International Earth Rotation Service) annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Contents: I. General information. 1. Organization of the International Earth Rotation Service. 2. The rotation of the Earth and related space-time references. II. Central Bureau results. 1. Global analysis up to 1993. 2. Implementation of the IERS Celestial Reference Frame. 3. Implementation of the IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame. 4. Evaluation of the Earth Orientation Parameters. III. Sub-bureaux reports. 1. Sub-Bureau for Rapid Service and Predictions. 2. Sub-Bureau for Atmospheric Angular Momentum. IV. Coordinating centres reports. 1. Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). 2. Global Positioning System (GPS). 3. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). V. IERS Earth Rotation and Reference Frames Data Bank. 1. Central Bureau. 2. Sub-Bureau for Rapid Service and Predictions.

  19. 1992 IERS (International Earth Rotation Service) annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Contents: I. General information. 1. Organization of the International Earth Rotation Service. 2. The rotation of the Earth and related space-time references. II. Central Bureau results. 1. Global analysis up to 1992. 2. Implementation of the IERS Celestial Reference Frame. 3. Implementation of the IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame. 4. Evaluation of the Earth Orientation Parameters. III. Sub-bureaux reports. 1. Sub-Bureau for Rapid Service and Predictions. 2. Sub-Bureau for Atmospheric Angular Momentum. IV. Coordinating centres reports. 1. Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). 2. Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR). 3. Global Positioning System (GPS). 4. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). V. IERS Earth Rotation and Reference Frames Data Bank. 1. Central Bureau. 2. Sub-Bureau for Rapid Service and Predictions.

  20. International Earth Rotation Service (IERS). Annual report for 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Contents: I. General information. 1. Organization of the International Earth Rotation Service. 2. The rotation of the Earth and related space-time references. II. Central Bureau results. 1. Global analysis up to 1991. 2. Implementation of the IERS Celestial Reference Frame. 3. Implementation of the IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame. 4. Evaluation of the Earth Orientation Parameters. III. Sub-bureaux reports. 1. Sub-Bureau for Rapid Service and Predictions. 2. Sub-Bureau for Atmospheric Angular Momentum. IV. Coordinating centres reports. 1. Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). 2. Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR). 3. Global Positioning System (GPS). 4. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). V. IERS Earth Rotation and Reference Frames Data Bank. 1. Central Bureau. 2. Sub-Bureau for Rapid Service and Predictions.

  1. The future of VLBI

    CERN Document Server

    van Langevelde, Huib Jan

    2013-01-01

    Almost two decades after the establishment of the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE), the European VLBI Network is a thriving scientific infrastructure with a significant user community and a healthy proposal pressure. It offers opportunities to address a breadth of important scientific topics, which feature in national and European astronomy roadmaps. Most of these science themes call for further enhancements of the sensitivity and image quality delivered by VLBI networks. The exceptional progress of e-VLBI over the last five years demonstrates how sensitive VLBI should be done in the future. At the same time JIVE is pushing the technology for large capacity correlators that can connect VLBI networks with many elements in real-time. Indeed, many new initiatives to build or outfit telescopes for VLBI are emerging from around the world. The technological VLBI developments have a great synergy with the SKA preparations. This is recognized in the SKA pathfinder role that e-VLBI has in the European VLBI Ne...

  2. VLBI Observing System for VSOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, J. S.; Murphy, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    The very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) Space Observatory Program (VSOP) satellite is scheduled for launch in September 1996. This paper describes the VLBI observing system for VSOP and its differences from ground radio telescope VLBI systems.

  3. On the potential of lunar observations in regular geodetic VLBI sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotek, Grzegorz; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rüdiger

    2017-04-01

    Artificial radio sources on the surface of the Moon enable us to observe lunar based transmitters with geodetic VLBI. Although during the last years a few dedicated VLBI experiments have already been carried out, the question still remains how and to what extend new information can be derived from observing such targets. Therefore, we perform Monte Carlo simulations using the c5++ software in order to evaluate how the inclusion of lunar observations into regular VLBI schedules would impact classical Earth-related target parameters of geodetic VLBI such as station coordinates and Earth Orientation Parameters, as well as how it would extend the possibilities to determine selenoidic parameters. Our study is based on modified IVS-R1 observing schedules, originally created by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) to determine Earth Orientation Parameters, thus representing state-of-the-art VLBI observing programs. Based on our simulations, we demonstrate that an artificial radio source on the surface of the Moon can be located with both, accuracy and precision of better than 50 cm when observed along with quasars in the regular IVS-R1 session schedules. Moreover, we show that geodetic VLBI has the potential to improve our knowledge of lunar physical models and/or help to verify or update lunar ephemerides. We will discuss how the quality and quantity of lunar observations affect the uncertainty of the position of a non-moving artificial radio source located on the surface of the Moon and we highlight the factors limiting the determination of its position. Furthermore, we will reveal the impact of Moon VLBI observations on the determination of the Earth Orientation Parameters and VLBI station positions. We will also test the concept of VLBI lunar observations with simulations that reflect VGOS performance in terms of observation precision, number of scans and future network configurations. Thus, our simulations will provide valuable insights

  4. VLBI terrestrial reference frame contributions to ITRF2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckmann, Sarah; Artz, T.; Nothnagel, A.

    2010-03-01

    In late 2008, the Product Center for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) issued a call for contributions to the next realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System, ITRF2008. The official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) to ITRF2008 consists of session-wise datum-free normal equations of altogether 4,539 daily Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) sessions from 1979.7 to 2009.0 including data of 115 different VLBI sites. It is the result of a combination of individual series of session-wise datum-free normal equations provided by seven analysis centers (ACs) of the IVS. All series are completely reprocessed following homogeneous analysis options according to the IERS Conventions 2003 and IVS Analysis Conventions. Altogether, nine IVS ACs analyzed the full history of VLBI observations with four different software packages. Unfortunately, the contributions of two ACs, Institute of Applied Astronomy (IAA) and Geoscience Australia (AUS), had to be excluded from the combination process. This was mostly done because the IAA series exhibits a clear scale offset while the solution computed from normal equations contained in the AUS SINEX files yielded unreliable results. Based on the experience gathered since the combination efforts for ITRF2005, some discrepancies between the individual series were discovered and overcome. Thus, the consistency of the individual VLBI solutions has improved considerably. The agreement in terms of WRMS of the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) horizontal components is 1 mm, of the height component 2 mm. Comparisons between ITRF2005 and the combined TRF solution for ITRF2008 yielded systematic height differences of up to 5 mm with a zonal signature. These differences can be related to a pole tide correction referenced to a zero mean pole used by four of five IVS ACs in the ITRF2005

  5. The International Mass Loading Service

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    The International Mass Loading Service computes four loadings: a) atmospheric pressure loading; b) land water storage loading; c) oceanic tidal loading; and d) non-tidal oceanic loading. The service provides to users the mass loading time series in three forms: 1) pre-computed time series for a list of 849 space geodesy stations; 2) pre-computed time series on the global 1deg x 1deg grid; and 3) on-demand Internet service for a list of stations and a time range specified by the user. The loading displacements are provided for the time period from 1979.01.01 through present, updated on an hourly basis, and have latencies 8-20 hours.

  6. Complex demodulation in VLBI estimation of high frequency Earth rotation components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, S.; Brzeziński, A.; Schuh, H.

    2012-12-01

    The spectrum of high frequency Earth rotation variations contains strong harmonic signal components mainly excited by ocean tides along with much weaker non-harmonic fluctuations driven by irregular processes like the diurnal thermal tides in the atmosphere and oceans. In order to properly investigate non-harmonic phenomena a representation in time domain is inevitable. We present a method, operating in time domain, which is easily applicable within Earth rotation estimation from Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). It enables the determination of diurnal and subdiurnal variations, and is still effective with merely diurnal parameter sampling. The features of complex demodulation are used in an extended parameterization of polar motion and universal time which was implemented into a dedicated version of the Vienna VLBI Software VieVS. The functionality of the approach was evaluated by comparing amplitudes and phases of harmonic variations at tidal periods (diurnal/semidiurnal), derived from demodulated Earth rotation parameters (ERP), estimated from hourly resolved VLBI ERP time series and taken from a recently published VLBI ERP model to the terms of the conventional model for ocean tidal effects in Earth rotation recommended by the International Earth Rotation and Reference System Service (IERS). The three sets of tidal terms derived from VLBI observations extensively agree among each other within the three-sigma level of the demodulation approach, which is below 6 μas for polar motion and universal time. They also coincide in terms of differences to the IERS model, where significant deviations primarily for several major tidal terms are apparent. An additional spectral analysis of the as well estimated demodulated ERP series of the ter- and quarterdiurnal frequency bands did not reveal any significant signal structure. The complex demodulation applied in VLBI parameter estimation could be demonstrated a suitable procedure for the reliable reproduction of

  7. Space VLBI Mission: VSOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yasuhiro; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Edwards, P. G.

    2001-03-01

    We succeeded in performing space VLBI observations using the VLBI satellite HALCA (VSOP satellite), launched in February, 1997 aboard the first M-V rocket developed by ISAS. The mission is led by ISAS and NAO, with the collaborations from CRL, NASA, NRAO, and other institutes and observatories in Europe, Australia, Canada, South-Africa, and China, We succeeded to make a lot of observations and to get the new features from the active galaxies, the cosmic jets, and other astronomical objects.

  8. Theoretical Foundations for International Service-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Robbin D.

    2008-01-01

    International service-learning (ISL) combines academic instruction and community-based service in an international context. Objectives of linking international travel, education, and community service include increasing participants' global awareness, building intercultural understanding, and enhancing civic mindedness and skills. Research on…

  9. Customer Satisfaction in Internal Customer Service : Case: Abloy Oy Internal Customer Service

    OpenAIRE

    Turunen, Susanna

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Turunen, Susanna Marita 2011. Customer Satisfaction in Internal Customer Service. Case: Abloy Oy Internal Customer Service. Master’s thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 73. Appendix 1. This thesis discusses and studies service quality and customer satisfaction in internal customer service. The main objective is to find out what the service quality level in the internal customer service at Abloy Oy is and whether there exists a diffe...

  10. Customer Satisfaction in Internal Customer Service : Case: Abloy Oy Internal Customer Service

    OpenAIRE

    Turunen, Susanna

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Turunen, Susanna Marita 2011. Customer Satisfaction in Internal Customer Service. Case: Abloy Oy Internal Customer Service. Master’s thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 73. Appendix 1. This thesis discusses and studies service quality and customer satisfaction in internal customer service. The main objective is to find out what the service quality level in the internal customer service at Abloy Oy is and whether there exists a diffe...

  11. Japanese VLBI Network

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, A; Harada, K; Nagayama, T; Suematsu, K; Sugiyama, K; Habe, A; Honma, M; Kawaguchi, N; Kobayashi, H; Koyama, Y; Murata, Y; Omodaka, T; Sorai, K; Sudou, H; Takaba, H; Takashima, K; Wakamatsu, K; Doi, Akihiro; Fujisawa, Kenta; Harada, Keiichiro; Nagayama, Takumi; Suematsu, Kousuke; Sugiyama, Koichiro; Habe, Asao; Honma, Mareki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Murata, Yasuhiro; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Sorai, Kazuo; Sudou, Hiroshi; Takaba, Hiroshi; Takashima, Kazuhiro; Wakamatsu, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    We present the basic features and the activities of Japanese VLBI network (JVN), a newly-established VLBI network with baselines ranging from 50 to 2560 km spreading across the Japanese islands, and capable of observing at 6.7, 8.4, and 22 GHz. We show a number of results of JVN observations: 8.4-GHz continuum images of a Giga-hertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) source and radio-loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s), the spatial and velocity structures of water masers in NML Cygni as well as methanol masers in Cep A, and demonstrative observations with the bigradient phase referencing.

  12. The recent progress of Chinese VLBI Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weimin

    2015-08-01

    At present, Chinese VLBI Network (CVN) consists of 5 antennas (Seshan 25m, Urumqi 25m, Kunming 30m, Miyun 50m and Tianma 65m) and one data processing center in Shanghai Observatory, Chinese academy of sciences. It is a synthetic aperture radio telescope with the equivalent diameter up to 3000 Km. Through e-VLBI (electronic VLBI) technology, CVN is connected by the commuication network. It is a multi-purpose scientific research platform radio for geodesy, astronomy, as well as deep space exploration. In Geodesy, CVN is the component of the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China. Since the year of 2006, more than 20 geodetic domestic observations have been carried out. A set of phase-referencing observations of pulsars with CVN has carried out and got preliminary results. CVN also joined the Chinese lunar exploration Project from 2007 and supported 4 Chang’E series lunar probe missions. In Chang’E-3 mission, using the in-beam VLBI observations, the relative position accuracy of Rover and Lander is up to 1 meter.In recent years, we have updated the facilities of CVN from antenna, receivers, VLBI terminals to correlator. Participation of Tianma 65m antennas increases its performance. In 2012, Shanghai correlator was accepted as the IVS correlator. After upgrade, Shanghai correlator will try to provide the data process service for IVS community from 2015. To drive the construction of the planned VGOS (VLBI2010 Global Observing System) station, at least two VOGS 13m antenna will join CVN in the near future. Construction of the first VOGS antenna in Shanghai hopes to begin this year.The new VLBI correlator and digital terminal are under development. From participation in VGOS, we plan to study the earth rotation especially of high frequency and corresponding geophysical signals, to link China’s regional reference frame to ITRF, and etc. CVN is willing to join the research corporation with IVS, EVN, VLBA and AOV (Asia- Oceania VLBI Group for Geodesy and

  13. The international marketing of professional service projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki; Alajoutsijärvi, Kimmo

    2003-01-01

    Many types of commercial professional services are commonly sold as projects. Therefore this article draws on the project marketing literature to elucidate the international marketing of professional service projects. After an initial literature review, the project marketing milieu concept...

  14. Announcement by the Internal Transport Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Shipping Service requests all users of wooden pallets, freight containers and lids that are no longer in use to contact the Internal Transport Service of the GS department (George Truelove), which is responsible for collecting and returning them to the Goods Reception Service in Buildings 904 and 194. Please also contact Mr. Truelove if you receive an order that is not meant for you. Internal Transport Service

  15. Service-Learning: International Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, jean; Feinberg, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative case study, we explored the knowledge and perceptions of service-learning held by a diverse group of 22 international teachers. Through focus group interviews, we found that the majority of participants desired to implement service-learning in their countries, and they supported the idea of mandatory service-learning. The…

  16. Developments of VLBI synthesis mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongrong; Wan, Tongshan

    1992-12-01

    The authors review the developments of VLBI synthesis mapping. First they give a brief history of VLBI techniques and a summary of some technical parameters frequently used in VLBI synthesis mapping. They then mention problems, namely, (u,v) coverage, correction of errors in visibility data, image quality, GFF (Global Fringe Fitting), field of view, etc. The new developments which are presented include the improvements of (u,v) coverage and angular resolution, Mk III GFF, phase reference mapping, wide field mapping, difference mapping, the potential of space VLBI mapping, mosaicing and non-linear deconvolution.

  17. Future mmVLBI Research with ALMA: A European vision

    CERN Document Server

    Tilanus, R P J; Zensus, J A; Baudry, A; Bremer, M; Falcke, H; Giovannini, G; Laing, R; van Langevelde, H J; Vlemmings, W; Abraham, Z; Afonso, J; Agudo, I; Alberdi, A; Alcolea, J; Altamirano, D; Asadi, S; Assaf, K; Augusto, P; Baczko, A-K; Boeck, M; Boller, T; Bondi, M; Boone, F; Bourda, G; Brajsa, R; Brand, J; Britzen, S; Bujarrabal, V; Cales, S; Casadio, C; Casasola, V; Castangia, P; Cernicharo, J; Charlot, P; Chemin, L; Clenet, Y; Colomer, F; Combes, F; Cordes, J; Coriat, M; Cross, N; D'Ammando, F; Dallacasa, D; Desmurs, J-F; Eatough, R; Eckart, A; Eisenacher, D; Etoka, S; Felix, M; Fender, R; Ferreira, M; Freeland, E; Frey, S; Fromm, C; Fuhrmann, L; Gabanyi, K; Galvan-Madrid, R; Giroletti, M; Goddi, C; Gomez, J; Gourgoulhon, E; Gray, M; di Gregorio, I; Greimel, R; Grosso, N; Guirado, J; Hada, K; Hanslmeier, A; Henkel, C; Herpin, F; Hess, P; Hodgson, J; Horns, D; Humphreys, E; Kramer, B Hutawarakorn; Ilyushin, V; Impellizzeri, V; Ivanov, V; Julião, M; Kadler, M; Kerins, E; Klaassen, P; Klooster, K van 't; Kording, E; Kozlov, M; Kramer, M; Kreikenbohm, A; Kurtanidze, O; Lazio, J; Leite, A; Leitzinger, M; Lepine, J; Levshakov, S; Lico, R; Lindqvist, M; Liuzzo, E; Lobanov, A; Lucas, P; Mannheim, K; Marcaide, J; Markoff, S; Martí-Vidal, I; Martins, C; Masetti, N; Massardi, M; Menten, K; Messias, H; Migliari, S; Mignano, A; Miller-Jones, J; Minniti, D; Molaro, P; Molina, S; Monteiro, A; Moscadelli, L; Mueller, C; Müller, A; Muller, S; Niederhofer, F; Odert, P; Olofsson, H; Orienti, M; Paladino, R; Panessa, F; Paragi, Z; Paumard, T; Pedrosa, P; Pérez-Torres, M; Perrin, G; Perucho, M; Porquet, D; Prandoni, I; Ransom, S; Reimers, D; Rejkuba, M; Rezzolla, L; Richards, A; Ros, E; Roy, A; Rushton, A; Savolainen, T; Schulz, R; Silva, M; Sivakoff, G; Soria-Ruiz, R; Soria, R; Spaans, M; Spencer, R; Stappers, B; Surcis, G; Tarchi, A; Temmer, M; Thompson, M; Torrelles, J; Truestedt, J; Tudose, V; Venturi, T; Verbiest, J; Vieira, J; Vielzeuf, P; Vincent, F; Wex, N; Wiik, K; Wiklind, T; Wilms, J; Zackrisson, E; Zechlin, H

    2014-01-01

    Very long baseline interferometry at millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths (mmVLBI) offers the highest achievable spatial resolution at any wavelength in astronomy. The anticipated inclusion of ALMA as a phased array into a global VLBI network will bring unprecedented sensitivity and a transformational leap in capabilities for mmVLBI. Building on years of pioneering efforts in the US and Europe the ongoing ALMA Phasing Project (APP), a US-led international collaboration with MPIfR-led European contributions, is expected to deliver a beamformer and VLBI capability to ALMA by the end of 2014 (APP: Fish et al. 2013, arXiv:1309.3519). This report focuses on the future use of mmVLBI by the international users community from a European viewpoint. Firstly, it highlights the intense science interest in Europe in future mmVLBI observations as compiled from the responses to a general call to the European community for future research projects. A wide range of research is presented that includes, amongst others: - Imagin...

  18. Influence of ocean tides on the diurnal and semidiurnal earth rotation variations from VLBI observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubanov, V. S.; Kurdubov, S. L.

    2015-05-01

    The International astrogeodetic standard IERS Conventions (2010) contains a model of the diurnal and semidiurnal variations in Earth rotation parameters (ERPs), the pole coordinates and the Universal Time, arising from lunisolar tides in the world ocean. This model was constructed in the mid-1990s through a global analysis of Topex/Poseidon altimetry. The goal of this study is to try to estimate the parameters of this model by processing all the available VLBI observations on a global network of stations over the last 35 years performed within the framework of IVS (International VLBI Service) geodetic programs. The complexity of the problemlies in the fact that the sought-for corrections to the parameters of this model lie within 1 mm and, thus, are at the limit of their detectability by all currently available methods of ground-based positional measurements. This requires applying universal software packages with a high accuracy of reduction calculations and a well-developed system of controlling the simultaneous adjustment of observational data to analyze long series of VLBI observations. This study has been performed with the QUASAR software package developed at the Institute of Applied Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Although the results obtained, on the whole, confirm a high accuracy of the basic model in the IERS Conventions (2010), statistically significant corrections that allow this model to be refined have been detected for some harmonics of the ERP variations.

  19. VLBI in ASIAA Contribution to Sub-Millimeter VLBI Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, M.; Asada, K.; Chen, M. T.; Huang, Y. D.; Chen, C. P.; Matsushita, S.; Ho, P.

    2011-05-01

    A new effort has been launched to perform frontier VLBI studies in Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA) with the addition of new staff members. The main targets of the new VLBI group are sub-mm and space VLBI to open new physics on super massive black holes (SMBHs) and related issues. Recent observations shows an exciting possibility to see event horizon of SMBH. To get high quality images of it, additional VLBI stations are essential, and site survey has been planned for a new sub-mm VLBI station somewhere in the world. Collaboration has been also discussed to increase the observing efficiency by providing a tracking station for the VSOP-2 project. To pursue these exciting projects, the group is planning to promote a larger science group in ASIAA.

  20. Assessment of periodic sub-diurnal Earth rotation variations at tidal frequencies through transformation of VLBI normal equation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Thomas; Tesmer Née Böckmann, Sarah; Nothnagel, Axel

    2011-09-01

    We present an empirical model for periodic variations of diurnal and sub-diurnal Earth rotation parameters (ERPs) that was derived based on the transformation of normal equation (NEQ) systems of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observing sessions. NEQ systems that contain highly resolved polar motion and UT1-TAI with a temporal resolution of 15 min were generated and then transformed to the coefficients of the tidal ERP model to be solved for. To investigate the quality of this model, comparisons with empirical models from the Global Positioning System (GPS), another VLBI model and the model adopted by the conventions of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) were performed. The absolute coefficients of these models agree almost completely within 7.5 μ as in polar motion and 0.5 μ s in UT1-TAI. Several bigger differences exist, which are discussed in this paper. To be able to compare the model estimates with results of the continuous VLBI campaigns, where signals with periods of 8 and 6 h were detected, terms in the ter- and quarter-diurnal band were included in the tidal ERP model. Unfortunately, almost no common features with the results of continuous VLBI campaigns or ERP predictions in these tidal bands can be seen.

  1. The VSOP-2 Space VLBI Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Murata, Yasuhiro; Murphy, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Following the success of the VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP), a next generation space VLBI mission, VSOP-2, is currently being planned. Higher observing frequencies, cooled receivers, increased bandwidths and larger telescope diameters will result in gains in resolution and interferometer sensitivity by factors of 10 over the VSOP mission. The use of phase-referencing by fast switching between a calibrator source and the target source is now being studied as this technique allows sources 50-150 times weaker to be observed depending on the frequency band. Such a capability would greatly enhance the VSOP-2 mission. Several other enhancements to the VSOP-2 mission are also presently under investigation including the VSOP-2 spacecraft operating at the same time as a US spacecraft to form what has come to be known as the iARISE (international ARISE) mission.

  2. Information Services in the International Network Marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Mark E.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the internationalism of the network marketplace through case studies of the London Stock Exchange and I. P. Sharp Associates, a Canadian computer service bureau. Discussion focuses on the importance of transnational computer networks to the production of information services and marketplace expansion, and global information policy issues.…

  3. International Students' Utilization of Counseling Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bong Joo; Bennett, Robert; Beauchemin, James

    2014-01-01

    Utilization rates of counseling services by international students continue to be low despite the growing presence of this population in American colleges and universities. There are a number of adjustment factors and stressors that can have a detrimental impact on the mental health and well-being of international students, as well as a variety of…

  4. International Student Support Services at Ontario Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clayton; Whiteside, Brenda; Blanchard, Suzanne; Martin, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the Ontario Committee on Student Affairs and the Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance partnered to examine the availability and use of international student support services at Ontario universities. Results of the recently administered Ontario Committee on Student Affairs, Canadian Bureau of International Education, and…

  5. The international marketing of professional service projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki; Alajoutsijärvi, Kimmo

    2003-01-01

    Many types of commercial professional services are commonly sold as projects. Therefore this article draws on the project marketing literature to elucidate the international marketing of professional service projects. After an initial literature review, the project marketing milieu concept......, and representations to another national milieu with similarly well-developed norms, rules, and representations, yet that there also exist global milieux. Managerial implications concerning professional service firms' preparation for entering a foreign milieu as well as subsidiary or office establishment abroad...

  6. Technical developments in international satellite business services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P. P.

    At the conception of International Satellite Business Services (ISBS), it was a primary objective to provide flexibility for accommodating a variety of service requirements which might be established by mutual agreement between users. The design guidelines are to ensure that the space segment is efficiently utilized, while other satellite services are protected from interference. Other considerations are related to an acceptable earth segment cost, maximum connectivity in worldwide services, the capability of growth and a reasonably smooth transition into future systems, and the maintenance of high performance objectives. Attention is given to a system overview, the characteristics of satellites for ISBS, and technological developments with some application possibilities for ISBS.

  7. The East-Asian VLBI Network

    CERN Document Server

    Wajima, Kiyoaki; An, Tao; Baan, Willem A; Fujisawa, Kenta; Hao, Longfei; Jiang, Wu; Jung, Taehyun; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kim, Jongsoo; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Wang, Min; Wu, Yuanwei; Xia, Bo; Zhang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN) is the international VLBI facility in East Asia and is conducted in collaboration with China, Japan, and Korea. The EAVN consists of VLBI arrays operated in each East Asian country, containing 21 radio telescopes and three correlators. The EAVN will be mainly operated at 6.7 (C-band), 8 (X-band), 22 (K-band), and 43 GHz (Q-band), although the EAVN has an ability to conduct observations at 1.6 - 129 GHz. We have conducted fringe test observations eight times to date at 8 and 22 GHz and fringes have been successfully detected at both frequencies. We have also conducted science commissioning observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in massive star-forming regions. The EAVN will be operational from the second half of 2017, providing complementary results with the FAST on AGNs, massive star-forming regions, and evolved stars with high angular resolution at cm- to mm-wavelengths.

  8. Internalizing Externalities through Payments for Environmental Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems, including plantation forests, provide goods and services that are marketable and non-marketable. Positive externalities produced by forest ecosystems are rarely considered in pricing of marketable products that result in economic inefficiencies. Internalizing externalities is required to improve the economic efficiency. The traditional way to internalize an externality is by providing subsidies or imposing taxes. Recently, payments for environmental services  are receiving more attention as an instrument for internalizing externalities provided by forest ecosystems. This promising alternative to improve our environment needs to be studied more extensively. In this paper, it can be indicated theoretically that the Pigovian tax, as a traditional way of addressing environmental problems, is able to mimic the result derived from the employment of environmental services payment. The difference is that environmental services payment improves the welfare of environmental service producers, whereas the Pigovian tax reduces it. A positive Pigovian tax increases the optimal rotation, which is positively associated with environmental improvement, but certainly reduces forest owner's welfare. This difference should be taken into account in the public policymaking so that perverse incentive may be avoided. Payment for environmental services  as an additional income to forest growers, not as alternative source of income, is a potential tool to address simultaneously issues of environment and poverty that are frequently contested.Keywords: externalities, payments for environmental services, tax, perverse incentive, social welfare

  9. Professional International Service Learning as an International Service Learning Opportunity Appropriate for Graduate or Professional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Elizabeth; Lee, Hee Yun

    2015-01-01

    Graduate and professional schools are increasingly using short-term international study abroad courses as one way for internationalizing their curriculum. While international service learning can be a means for improving students' engagement in international learning experiences and providing a structure for learning, it is difficult to design…

  10. 77 FR 59455 - Internal Revenue Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ...; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2003-37 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION..., the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Revenue Procedure 2003-37, Documentation Provisions for Certain Taxpayers Using the Fair Market Value Method. DATES: Written comments should be received on...

  11. Radio Astronomy Data Transfer and eVLBI using KAREN

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, Stuart; Gulyaev, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    Kiwi Advanced Research and Education Network (KAREN) has been used to transfer large volumes of radio astronomical data between the Radio Astronomical Observatory at Warkworth, New Zealand and various international organizations involved in joint projects and VLBI observations. Here we report on the current status of connectivity and on the results of testing different data transfer protocols. We investigate new UDP protocols such as 'tsunami' and UDT and demonstrate that the UDT protocol is more efficient than 'tsunami' and 'ftp'. We also report on the tests on direct data streaming from the radio telescope receiving system to the correlation centre without intermediate buffering or recording (real-time eVLBI).

  12. VLBI Radar of the 2012 DA14 Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaeva, M. B.; Dugin, N. A.; Antipenko, A. A.; Bezrukov, D. A.; Bezrukov, V. V.; Voytyuk, V. V.; Dement'ev, A. F.; Jekabsons, N.; Klapers, M.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Kulishenko, V. F.; Nabatov, A. S.; Nesteruk, V. N.; Putillo, D.; Reznichenko, A. M.; Salerno, E.; Snegirev, S. D.; Tikhomirov, Yu. V.; Khutornoy, R. V.; Skirmante, K.; Shmeld, I.; Chagunin, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    An experiment on VLBI radar of the 2012 DA14 asteroid was carried out on February 15-16, 2011 at the time of its closest approach to the Earth. The research teams of Kharkov (Institute of Radio Astronomy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine), Evpatoria (National Space Facilities Control and Test Center), Nizhny Novgorod (Radiophysical Research Institute), Bologna (Istituto di Radioastronomia (INAF)), and Ventspils (Ventspils International Radioastronomy Center) took part in the experiment. The asteroid was irradiated by the RT-70 planetary radar (Evpatoria) at a frequency of 5 GHz. The reflected signal was received using two 32-m radio telescopes in Medicina (Italy) and Irbene (Latvia) in radiointerferometric mode. The Doppler frequency shifts in bi-static radar mode and interference frequency in VLBI mode were measured. Accuracy of the VLBI radar method for determining the radial and angular velocities of the asteroid were estimated.

  13. IVS Working Group 4: VLBI Data Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 the IVS Directing Board established IVS Working Group 4 on VLBI Data Structures. This note discusses the current VLBI data format, goals for a new format, the history and formation of the Working Group, and a timeline for the development of a new VLBI data format.

  14. Identifying optimal tag-along station locations for improving VLBI Intensive sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareinen, Niko; Klopotek, Grzegorz; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rüdiger

    2017-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is a unique space-geodetic technique capable of direct observation of the Earth's phase of rotation, namely Universal Time (UT1). The International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) conducts daily 1-h Intensive VLBI sessions to determine rapid variations in the difference between UT1 and Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The main objective of the Intensive sessions is to provide timely UT1-UTC estimates. These estimates are especially crucial for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The monitoring of rapid variations in Earth rotation also provides insight into various geophysical phenomena. There is an ongoing effort to improve the quality of the UT1-UTC estimates from single-baseline Intensive sessions to realise the expected accuracy and to bring them to a better agreement with the 24-h VLBI sessions. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to improve the Intensives by including a third station in tag-along mode to these regularly observed sessions. The impact of the additional station is studied via extensive simulations using the c5++ analysis software. The location of the station is varied within a predetermined grid. Based on actual Intensive session schedules, a set of simulated observations are generated for the two original stations and each grid point. These simulated data are used to estimate UT1-UTC for every Intensive session scheduled during the year 2014 on the Kokee-Wettzell and Tsukuba-Wettzell baselines, with the addition of a third station. We find that in tag-along mode when a third station is added to the schedule we can identify areas where the UT1-UTC estimates are improved up to 67% w.r.t. the original single-baseline network. There are multiple operational VLBI stations in these areas, which could with little effort be included in a tag-along mode to the currently scheduled Intensive sessions, thus providing the possibility to improve the UT1-UTC estimates by extending the

  15. Opportunities in the international health services arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R A

    1997-08-01

    Fundamental changes in domestic healthcare delivery in the '90s have prompted many U.S. healthcare organizations to consider entering international markets. Opportunities available to U.S. organizations include investing in foreign organizations, controlling foreign facilities, and obtaining referrals from extraterritorial or cooperating foreign providers. Before entering into these arrangements, however, organizations must consider the benefits, risks, and constraints they may face, specifically with regard to reimbursement and cash flow, currency risk, regulation, and political risk. To succeed in international service delivery ventures, organizations also may need to make adjustments in the training of healthcare financial managers who will face the international marketplace. Being sensitive to the culture of the countries with which they will be dealing is just as important as knowing the currency and financial regulations.

  16. Detection of space debris with VLBI radar technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molotov, I.; Konovalenko, A.; Agapov, V.; Sochilina, A.; Lipatov, B.; Molotov, E.; Gorshenkov, Y.

    The possibility of Evpatoria RT-70 planetary radar application for space debris research was tested in two trial experiments for targets at geostationary (GEO) and high-elliptic (HEO) orbits in 2001. The RT-70 has the 200 kW continuous power transmitter at 6-cm wavelength, which was used for radio location of planets. Therefore the bistatic radar system only may be realized for orbital object measurements. The receiving antennas (Bear Lakes RT-64, Svetloe RT-32, Noto RT- 32, Torun RT-32 and Urumqi RT-25) used the standard VLBI equipment for recording of echo-signals, because they have not specialized radar apparatus. Such multi-antennas configuration allows to add the classic radar data with VLBI measurements: radar has the resolution for range and radial velocity, VLBI provides the angle and angular rate. Moreover the VLBI radar may be a tool for 3D- measurements: combination of radar map and VLBI image can result the "radio holography" picture of investigated object. Seven GEO objects were detected in May session and four GEO + two HEO objects - in December session. The uncontrolled axial rotation with 5 - 20 s period was fixed for GEO targets. The first results of processing that carry out at Russia and Canada are presented. It is planned to finally adjust the VLBI radar method and t o start the regular observations under the international program of optical and radar monitoring of the near-Earth space environment that will be partially supported by INTAS-01-0669, RFBR-02-02- 17568 and RFBR-02-02-3108.

  17. Exploring the Unknown: International Service and Individual Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Wen; Chen, Cheng-Hui Lucy; Huang, Yu-Fu; Yuan, Yu-Hsi

    2012-01-01

    Empirical studies have found that participation in international service increases learners' intercultural competence, language skills, appreciation of cultural differences, and tolerance for ambiguity. While previous studies suggest that international service experience is potentially transformative in nature, the present study examined…

  18. DSN Beowulf Cluster-Based VLBI Correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogstad, Stephen P.; Jongeling, Andre P.; Finley, Susan G.; White, Leslie A.; Lanyi, Gabor E.; Clark, John E.; Goodhart, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) requires a broadband VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) correlator to process data routinely taken as part of the VLBI source Catalogue Maintenance and Enhancement task (CAT M&E) and the Time and Earth Motion Precision Observations task (TEMPO). The data provided by these measurements are a crucial ingredient in the formation of precision deep-space navigation models. In addition, a VLBI correlator is needed to provide support for other VLBI related activities for both internal and external customers. The JPL VLBI Correlator (JVC) was designed, developed, and delivered to the DSN as a successor to the legacy Block II Correlator. The JVC is a full-capability VLBI correlator that uses software processes running on multiple computers to cross-correlate two-antenna broadband noise data. Components of this new system (see Figure 1) consist of Linux PCs integrated into a Beowulf Cluster, an existing Mark5 data storage system, a RAID array, an existing software correlator package (SoftC) originally developed for Delta DOR Navigation processing, and various custom- developed software processes and scripts. Parallel processing on the JVC is achieved by assigning slave nodes of the Beowulf cluster to process separate scans in parallel until all scans have been processed. Due to the single stream sequential playback of the Mark5 data, some ramp-up time is required before all nodes can have access to required scan data. Core functions of each processing step are accomplished using optimized C programs. The coordination and execution of these programs across the cluster is accomplished using Pearl scripts, PostgreSQL commands, and a handful of miscellaneous system utilities. Mark5 data modules are loaded on Mark5 Data systems playback units, one per station. Data processing is started when the operator scans the Mark5 systems and runs a script that reads various configuration files and then creates an experiment-dependent status database

  19. 75 FR 1681 - Advisory Committee International Postal and Delivery Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Committee International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; FACA... International Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of... international postal and delivery services of interest to Advisory Committee members and the public....

  20. 76 FR 10628 - International Product Change-International Business Reply Service Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--International Business Reply Service Contract AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Notice... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 to the Competitive Products List pursuant to 39...

  1. Earth Orientation Parameters from VLBI and GNSS Combined at the Normal Equation Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jean-Yves; Lambert, Sébastien; Bizouard, Christian; Becker, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Current reference series (C04) of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) are produced by a weighted combination of Earth orientation parameters (EOP) time series built up by combination centers of each technique (VLBI, GNSS, Laser ranging, DORIS). In the future, we plan to produce EOP by a direct combination of the normal equation of the four techniques. We present an intermediate step of this project: a combination of VLBI and GNSS pre-reduced, constraint-free, normal equations with the DYNAMO geodetic analysis software package developed and maintained by the French GRGS (Groupe de Recherche en Géodésie Spatiale). The used normal equations are those produced separately by the IVS and IGS combination centers. Our series cover 2002-2016. The estimation strategy consists of fixing quasar coordinates to their optimal values given by the latest realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF), and most of station coordinates to the ITRF 2014 except for stations undergoing strong nonlinear displacements caused by, e.g., postseismic relaxation. These station coordinates are estimated as time series. The resulting EOP series are compared to intra-technique combinations and to the IERS-C04 reference series.

  2. Connecting VLBI and Gaia celestial reference frames

    CERN Document Server

    Malkin, Zinovy

    2016-01-01

    The current state of the link problem between radio and optical celestial reference frames is considered. The main objectives of the investigations in this direction during the next few years are the preparation of a comparison and the mutual orientation and rotation between the optical {\\it Gaia} Celestial Reference Frame (GCRF) and the 3rd generation radio International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF3), obtained from VLBI observations. Both systems, ideally, should be a realization of the ICRS (International Celestial Reference System) at micro-arcsecond level accuracy. Therefore, the link accuracy between the ICRF and GCRF should be obtained with similar error level, which is not a trivial task due to relatively large systematic and random errors in source positions at different frequency bands. In this paper, a brief overview of recent work on the GCRF--ICRF link is presented. Additional possibilities to improve the GCRF--ICRF link accuracy are discussed. The suggestion is made to use astrometric radio s...

  3. International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS): Terms of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Van; Noll, Carey

    2000-01-01

    The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) is an established Service within Section II , Advanced Space Technology, of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG). The primary objective of the ILRS is to provide a service to support, through Satellite and Lunar Laser Ranging data and related products, geodetic and geophysical research activities as well as International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) products important to the maintenance of an accurate International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The service also develops the necessary standards/specifications and encourages international adherence to its conventions.

  4. 77 FR 10033 - Advisory Committee International Postal and Delivery Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Committee International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; FACA... Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of the 2006... related to international postal and delivery services of interest to Advisory Committee members and...

  5. 78 FR 41128 - Market Test of International Merchandise Return Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Market Test of International Merchandise Return Service AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION... United States Postal Service of Market Test of Experimental Product--International Merchandise Return... returns as an important part of ] international shipping. Id. It concludes that the IMRS-NPR market test...

  6. 75 FR 75151 - International Service Changes-Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... 20 International Service Changes--Israel AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... Listings to incorporate a change in Israel's First-Class Mail International price group. DATES: Effective... 39475-39477) that included a change to Israel's First-Class Mail International price group from Price...

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLBI Ecliptic Plane Survey: VEPS-1 (Shu+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, F.; Petrov, L.; Jiang, W.; Xia, B.; Jiang, T.; Cui, Y.; Takefuji, K.; McCallum, J.; Lovell, J.; Yi, S.-O.; Hao, L.; Yang, W.; Zhang, H.; Chen, Z.; Li, J.

    2017-08-01

    We began observations in the search mode in 2015 February. The participating stations included the three core stations of the Chinese VLBI Network (CVN): seshan25, kunming, and urumqi. Depending on the participating stations, the longest baseline length in each session can be varied from 3200km to 9800km. Our observations were performed at a 2048Mbps data rate, with 16 Intermediate Frequency (IF) channels and 2-bit sampling. The first eight IFs of 32MHz bandwidth were distributed in the range of [8.188, 8.444]GHz, and the remaining eight IFs of 32MHz bandwidth were in the range of [8.700, 8.956]GHz. Table 1: Summary of the VLBI Ecliptic Plane Survey (VEPS) observations in search mode: --------------------------------------------------- Date Dur. Code Stations Number of (Y/M/D) (h) Targets --------------------------------------------------- 2015 Feb 13 24 VEPS01 ShKmUr 293 2015 Feb 14 24 VEPS02 ShKmUr 338 2015 Apr 23 24 VEPS03 UrKv 300 2015 Apr 24 24 VEPS04 ShKmUrKv 400 2015 Aug 10 25 VEPS05 ShKmKvHo 252 2015 Aug 19 25 VEPS06 ShKmKvHo 277 2016 Mar 02 24 VEPS07 ShKmUrKb 333 2016 Mar 11 24 VEPS08 ShKmUrKb 477 2016 May 13 24 VEPS09 ShUrHo 291 2016 May 14 22 VEPS10 ShUrKv 322 2016 Jul 06 24 VEPS11 ShUrKb 307 2016 Sep 02 23 VEPS12 ShUr 424 2016 Sep 03 23 VEPS13 ShKmUr 344 --------------------------------------------------- Sh=Seshan25; Km=Kunming; Ur=Urumqi; Kv=Sejong; Kb=Kashim34; Ho=Hobart26. --------------------------------------------------- We ran two absolute astrometry dual-band VLBA programs that targeted ecliptic plane compact radio sources: the dedicated survey of weak ecliptic plane calibrators with the VLBA BS250 program in 2016 March-May, and the VLBA Calibrator Survey 9 (VCS-9) in 2015 August-2016 September. The International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) runs a number of VLBI observing programs. We made an attempt to improve the coordinates of some VEPS sources detected in the search mode and provide additional measurements of telescope

  8. Comparison of VLBI TRF solutions based on Kalman filtering and recent ITRS realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Benedikt; Nilsson, Tobias; Glaser, Susanne; Balidakis, Kyriakos; Karbon, Maria; Heinkelmann, Robert; Gross, Richard; Schuh, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Compared to previous prominent global terrestrial reference frames (TRF) solutions, such as the ITRF2008 or DTRF2008, the current accuracy requirements demand among other things extended parameterization to account for various non-linear signals present in the time series of station coordinates. The next generation of TRFs, built upon geodetic data until the end of 2014, employs different approaches to tackle in particular seasonal variations and post-seismic deformations. The ITRF2014, developed at the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) Combination Center (CC) at Institut Géographique National, introduces harmonic, exponential and logarithmic functions to take into account aforementioned effects. In contrast, the ITRS realization of the IERS CC at Jet Propulsion Laboratory is based on Kalman filtering, which allows coordinate variations to be modeled in a stochastic sense besides the parameterized linear and seasonal signals. In our study, we compare these multi-technique TRFs with solutions solely based on VLBI data, including 104 radio telescopes and 4239 VLBI sessions, covering a time span of 34 years. We calculated a VLBI TRF based on the traditional least-squares adjustment of session-wise normal equations, and an ensemble of Kalman filter and smoother solutions with different parameterizations and stochastic models. In particular, we investigate the impact of different process noise levels for station coordinates, the choice of stochastic processes, e.g. random walks, and the application of time- and station-dependent noise models. For instance, we find that the estimation of seasonal signals, while important for predictions, does not affect the filtered coordinate time series when observational data is available. Furthermore, post-seismic deformations after major earthquakes require the process noise to be scaled accordingly. For instance, we detected coordinate differences of up to 5 cm immediately after the Chile 2010

  9. The African VLBI network project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The AVN is one of the most significant vehicles through which capacity development in Africa for SKA participation will be realized. It is a forerunner to the long baseline Phase 2 component of the mid-frequency SKA. Besides the 26m HartRAO telescope in South Africa, Ghana is expected to be the first to establish a VLBI-capable telescope through conversion of a redundant 32m telecommunications system near Accra. The most widely used receivers in the EVN are L-band and C-band (5 GHz). L-band is divided into a low band around the hydrogen (HI) line frequency of 1420 MHz, and a high band covering the hydroxyl line frequencies of 1612-1720 MHz. The high band is much more commonly used for VLBI as it provides more bandwidth. For the AVN, the methanol maser line at 6668 MHz is a key target for the initial receiver and the related 12178MHz methanol maser line also seen in star-forming regions a potential future Ku-band receiver. In the potential future band around 22GHz(K-band), water masers in star-forming regions and meg-maser galaxies at 22.235 GHz are targets, as are other radio continuum sources such as AGNs. The AVN system will include 5GHz and 6.668GHz receiver systems with recommendation to partner countries that the first upgrade should be L-band receivers. The original satellite telecommunications feed horns cover 3.8 - 6.4 GHz and should work at 5 GHz and operation at 6.668 GHz for the methanol maser is yet to be verified. The first light science will be conducted in the 6.7 GHz methanol maser band. Telescopes developed for the AVN will initially join other global networks for VLBI. When at least four VLBI-capable telescopes are operational on the continent, it will be possible to initiate stand-alone AVN VLBI. Each country where an AVN telescope becomes operational will have its own single-dish observing program. Capacity building to run an observatory includes the establishment of competent core essential observatory staff in partner countries who can train

  10. A strategy for building public service motivation research Internationally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, S.; Vandenabeele, W.V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323038816

    2010-01-01

    As public service motivation research grows qualitatively and quantitatively, some scholars question its appropriateness for international applications. This essay sets out a strategy of convergence for international research and measurement approaches. Studies that assess commonalities in public

  11. A strategy for building public service motivation research Internationally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, S.; Vandenabeele, W.V.

    2010-01-01

    As public service motivation research grows qualitatively and quantitatively, some scholars question its appropriateness for international applications. This essay sets out a strategy of convergence for international research and measurement approaches. Studies that assess commonalities in public se

  12. Using internal marketing to improve organizational commitment and service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yafang; Wu, Shih-Wang

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to explore the structural relationships among internal marketing, organizational commitment and service quality and to practically apply the findings. Internal marketing is a way to assist hospitals in improving the quality of the services that they provide while executing highly labour-intensive tasks. Through internal marketing, a hospital can enhance the organizational commitment of its employees to attain higher service quality. This research uses a cross-sectional study to survey nursing staff perceptions about internal marketing, organizational commitment and service quality. The results of the survey are evaluated using equation models. The sample includes three regional hospitals in Taiwan. Three hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed and 288 valid questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 82.3%. The survey process lasted from 1 February to 9 March 2007. The data were analysed with SPSS 12.0, including descriptive statistics based on demographics. In addition, the influence of demographics on internal marketing, organizational commitment and service quality is examined using one-way anova. The findings reveal that internal marketing plays a critical role in explaining employee perceptions of organizational commitment and service quality. Organizational commitment is the mediator between internal marketing and service quality. The results indicate that internal marketing has an impact on both organizational commitment and service quality. Internal marketing should be emphasized to influence frontline nursing staff, thereby helping to create better organizational commitment and service quality. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. New international services and the competitiveness of Tokyo International Airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, R.; Matsumoto, H.

    2012-01-01

    With the completion of Narita International Airport (Narita) in the Greater Tokyo Area, Tokyo International Airport (Haneda) was practically downgraded to a domestic airport. It lost its position as a key traffic hub for domestic to international air transport in Japan. Now the Japanese government i

  14. The future of VLBI has begun!

    CERN Document Server

    van Langevelde, Huib

    2010-01-01

    With the exceptional progress e-VLBI has achieved over the last three years, the VLBI of the future has already started. At least for the EVN, it is argued that at some point all VLBI operations should be done in e-VLBI mode. This ambition is based on the scientific case that is described in the EVN2015 science vision. At the same time, it should be taken into account that the long-term future of radio astronomy is connected to the development of the SKA. The consensus in the community is that there is a scientific case for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in the next decade, and synergy with the technology development for the SKA and its pathfinders should be explored to enhance the VLBI capabilities. It is noteworthy that e- VLBI has been recognised as a SKA pathfinder. Here, I review the progress with e-VLBI, and the options to enhance the sensitivity and operational efficiency of the EVN and global VLBI arrays, including the options for future correlators. In the coming years, through the new NEXPReS eff...

  15. Space VLBI and the Radio Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlot, P.

    2009-08-01

    The current radio reference frame is defined by the VLBI positions of several hundreds of extragalactic sources measured with sub-milliarcsecond accuracy. We discuss whether space VLBI can be used to improve the accuracy of the frame, either directly by conducting absolute astrometric observations using space VLBI baselines, or in an indirect way by making available VLBI images of the reference frame sources with increased angular resolution. The VSOP-2 project, in its present state, is found to have the necessary capabilities for accurate absolute astrometry although there may be limitations due to scheduling constraints. Space VLBI images are essential for pinpointing accurately a stable reference feature within the extended structure of each source. In this respect, the VSOP-2 project may have a significant impact on the definition of the radio reference frame if targeting such reference frame sources on a regular basis.

  16. Making refractive error services sustainable: the International Eye Foundation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M Sheffield

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The International Eye Foundation (IEF believes that the most effective strategy for making spectacles affordable and accessible is to integrate refractive error services into ophthalmic services and to run the refractive error service as a business – thereby making it sustainable. An optical service should be able to deal with high volumes of patients and generate enough revenue – not just to cover its own costs, but also to contribute to ophthalmic clinical services.

  17. Broadcast satellite service: The international dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Noah

    1991-09-01

    The dawn of the 1990's has witnessed the birth of a new satellite service - satellite sound broadcasting. This new service is characterized by digital transmission at data rates up to 256 kb/s from satellites in geostationary orbit to small, low-cost, mobile and portable receivers. The satellite sound broadcasting service is a logical step beyond navigation satellite service, such as that provided by the GPS Navstar system. The mass market appeal of satellite sound broadcasting in the area of lightsat technology and low-cost digital radios has greatly facilitated the financing of this type of space service.

  18. International Roaming of Mobile Services: The Need for Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This section discusses the need for regulation of international roaming charges. This is done through analysis of the EU experiences by a heavy handed price regulation of roaming services.......This section discusses the need for regulation of international roaming charges. This is done through analysis of the EU experiences by a heavy handed price regulation of roaming services....

  19. International Service Learning: Analytical Review of Published Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Brett

    2015-01-01

    International service learning (ISL) is an emerging area of international education. This paper summarizes academic journal articles on ISL programs and organizes the relevant publications by academic disciplines, service learning project areas, and other topics. The basis for this review is relevant literature from full-text scholarly peer…

  20. Distributive justice in the international regulation of global ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Incentive measures can internalize the external benefits of ecosystem services or, conversely, the external costs of service losses. In the last decade, preliminary steps have been taken in this direction in the form of voluntary payments for ecosystem services. Much larger financial flows may be re

  1. 76 FR 7114 - International Mail: Mailing Services Price Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 International Mail: Mailing Services Price Change AGENCY: Postal Service TM ACTION: Final rule... adjustments with the Postal Regulatory Commission to be effective on April 17, 2011. This final rule provides...

  2. Distributive justice in the international regulation of global ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Incentive measures can internalize the external benefits of ecosystem services or, conversely, the external costs of service losses. In the last decade, preliminary steps have been taken in this direction in the form of voluntary payments for ecosystem services. Much larger financial flows may be

  3. 77 FR 24758 - Advisory Committee International Postal and Delivery Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Committee International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; FACA... Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of the 2006... postal and delivery services of interest to Advisory Committee members and the public. For...

  4. The "Quasar" Network Observations in e-VLBI Mode Within the Russian Domestic VLBI Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Andrey; Ipatov, Alexander; Kaidanovsky, Michael; Bezrukov, Ilia; Mikhailov, Andrey; Salnikov, Alexander; Surkis, Igor; Skurikhina, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Russian VLBI "Quasar" Network is to carry out astrometrical and geodynamical investigations. Since 2006 purely domestic observational programs with data processing at the IAA correlator have been carried out. To maintain these geodynamical programs e-VLBI technology is being developed and tested. This paper describes the IAA activity of developing a real-time VLBI system using high-speed digital communication links.

  5. International Directory of Genetic Services. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Henry T., Comp.

    The directory lists medical genetic units in the United States and elsewhere in the world. The director and address of each unit are specified; types of genetic services available are indicated by code. (JD)

  6. For a strong international public service

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    The importance of international organizations in Europe The numerous international and European organizations based in Europe employ together many tens of thousands of international and European civil servants. The members of personnel of these organizations are subject to various legal regimes and have to appeal against administrative decisions before different administrative tribunals (e.g., ILOAT, UNAT, EUCST, OECDAT). CERN being one of the larger European organizations, it is important that we stay abreast of the latest developments in this area. Therefore, the Staff Association sent two representatives to a colloquium “New developments in the legal protection of international and European civil servants”, held in Luxembourg the 1st and 2nd of April 2011.  This is not the place to review in detail the different aspects of the recent evolution in the various legal systems, which were presented there (the proceedings can be consulted in the Secretariat of the Staff Associatio...

  7. Connecting VLBI and Gaia celestial reference frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinovy Malkin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the link problem between radio and optical celestial reference frames is considered.The main objectives of the investigations in this direction during the next few years are the preparation of a comparisonand the mutual orientation and rotation between the optical it Gaia Celestial Reference Frame (GCRFand the 3rd generation radio International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF3, obtained from VLBI observations.Both systems, ideally, should be a realization of the ICRS (International Celestial Reference System at micro-arcsecond level accuracy.Therefore, the link accuracy between the ICRF and GCRF should be obtained with similar error level, which is not a trivial taskdue to relatively large systematic and random errors in source positions at different frequency bands.In this paper, a brief overview of recent work on the GCRF--ICRF link is presented.Additional possibilities to improve the GCRF--ICRF link accuracy are discussed.The suggestion is made to use astrometric radio sources with optical magnitude to 20$^m$ rather than to 18$^m$ as currently plannedfor the GCRF--ICRF link.In addition, the use of radio stars is also a prospective method to obtain independent and accurate orientation between the Gaia frame and the ICRF.

  8. International Competitiveness of Korea Service Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Doo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study examines the competitiveness of Korean Service Industry through the empirical analysis based on the comparative advantage index and suggests the policy implications from the research results.. Approach: The model of empirical analysis was set using the equation of ratio of Export and Import (EXIM and net export (XM for service industry. Results: TResults: The present study showed the estimation results of the EXIM and XM. Conclusion: With regard to the competitiveness of service industry, the analysis results suggested the policy implications: First, it was necessary to introduce an incentive system for skilled workers and invest more in research and development in order to increase the labour productivity of human capital. Second, government should implement the open market policy to liberalize the labour movement and induce low-paid labour.

  9. VLBI Antenna Calibration via GPS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to investigate and develop an inexpensive system to determine: 1)VLBI antenna properties such as axis-offset, non-intersection of axis and antenna...

  10. MODERN TRENDS IN MULTILATERAL REGULATION OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETS SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Protsenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main world economy's trends is the priority development of the service sector. Services, capital, information and technology flows typically fall outside the scope of regulation of national governments. The particular relevance to the issues of international legal regulation of international services market, therefore. Multilateral regulation of trade in services defined key provisions of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS. The role of GATS (within the WTO is very important nowadays, because the agreement defines the legal framework for trade in services, including in areas such as transport, investment, education, communications, financial services, energy, water and movement of natural persons. Intensive growth of international trade in services has caused the need for the creation of supranational institutions and a new level. The heist level of services liberalization achieved under such integration organizations as the EU, NAFTA, OECD and UNCTAD for assistance. One of the main trends in multilateral trade regulation is increase the share of regional trade agreements in the total volume of international trade cooperation.

  11. US Helicopter Expands Service to Newark Liberty International Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ US Helicopter Corporation ("US Helicopter") (OTC Bulletin Board: USHP) and Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL)announced a partnership to provide eight-minute shuttle service between Manhattan and Newark Liberty International Airport beginning Dec.18, 2006.

  12. 78 FR 25358 - Internal Revenue Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of the Treasury, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the...

  13. Modernizing the JPL VLBI Correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogstad, S.; Goodhart, C. E.; Clark, J. E.; Finley, S.; Lanyi, G. E.; White, L. A.; Jacobs, Christopher S.>

    This poster will present the current capabilities of the JPL VLBI Correlator (JVC) and the general architecture of the equipment. In addition, the scientific and navigation uses of the JVC will be enumerated for background purposes. The JVC is a software correlator based on a Beowulf cluster of computers. It replaces a thirty year old correlator based on custom designed digital hardware. General comparisons between the old and new equipment will be made. The JVC makes use of a separate program, SoftC, to do the actual correlations. The JVC manages the sending of data to multiple machines in a Beowulf cluster each running SoftC in parallel on small chunks of the data. The basic architecture of SoftC will also be described.

  14. The RAEGE VLBI2010 radiotelescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sust, Eberhard; López Fernández, José Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The goal of the RAEGE (Red Atlantica Estaciones Geodinamicas Espaciales) project is the establishment of a Spanish-Portuguese network of geodynamical and spatial geodesy stations by the installation and operation of four fundamental geodetic / astronomical stations provided with radio telescopes located at - Yebes, close to Madrid / Spain - Tenerife, Canary Islands / Spain - Santa Maria, Azores Islands / Portugal. VLBI 2010 radiotelescopes are belonging to a new generation of radiotelescopes suitable for high precision geodetical earth observation and measurements, that shall allow to built up a high precision global reference system. The design of the radiotelescopes has been finished by MT Mechatronics in summer 2011 and currently three radiotelescopes are being manufactured. The first one is scheduled for installation in summer 2012 at Yebes Observatory close to Madrid.

  15. Construction of the Korean VLBI Network (KVN)

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H G; Sohn, B W; Oh, S J; Je, D H; Wi, S O; Song, M G

    2004-01-01

    Korea's new VLBI project to construct the Korean VLBI Network (KVN) started in 2001, as a 7-year project that is fully funded by our government. We plan to build 3 new high-precision radio telescopes of 21-m diameter in 3 places in Korea, which will be exclusively used for VLBI observations. We will install the 2/8, 22 and 43 GHz HEMT receivers within 2007 as a first target, and later we will expand the receiving frequency up to 86 and 129 GHz for astronomical, geodetic, and earth science VLBI research. The millimeter-wave VLBI will be the ultimate goal of KVN. For the front-ends, we are going to install a multi-channel receiver system that employs low-pass filters within a quasi-optical beam transportation system. This receiver system will give reliable phase calibrations for millimeter-wave VLBI as well as enable simultaneous multi-frequency band observations. The hard-disk type new Mark 5 will be used as the main recorder of KVN. We have completed the design of the KVN DAS system of 2 Gsps sampling rate, w...

  16. e-VLBI Development at Haystack Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Alan

    Haystack Observatory continues an aggressive program of e-VLBI development, particularly with respect to the use of public (shared) high-speed networds for data transfer. Much of 2002 was spent preparing for a Gbps e-VLBI demonstration experiment using antennas at Westford, MA and Greenbelt, MD; this experiment was succcesully conducted using both near-real-time and real-time data transfers to the Mark 4 correlator at Haystack Observatory, though correlation was not done in real time. In early 2003 a dedicated e-VLBI Gigabit-Ethernet wavelength was establisted between Haystack Observatory and MIT Lincoln Laboratory, giving Haystack easy access to the high-speed Abilene network in the U.S. Also in October 2002, preliminary e-VLBI experiments were conducted between Westford, MA and Kashima, Japan; this set of experiments is continuing with increasing data-rate transfers. These experiments use the Mark 5 system at Westford and the K5 system at Kashima; data is transferred in both directions and correlated at both sites. Preparations are now underway to begin e-VLBI transfers from Wettzell, Germany and Kokee Park, Kauaii for routine daily observation of UT1. Haystack Observatory has recently been awarded a 3-year grant the the National Science Foundation for the development of new IP protocols specifically tailored for e-VLBI and similar applications.

  17. Trade in International Transport Services: The Role of Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); I. Wooton

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe are concerned with trade in transport services (not cabotage but rather international shipping, transport, and related logistical services) and the importance of competition and market structure in the sector. We examine implications of liberalization for profits, trade, and national

  18. International Trade in Educational Services: Good or Bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kurt; Vincent-Lancrin, Stephan

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the challenges and opportunities that international trade in educational services represents for higher education systems in industrialized and developing countries and shows the importance of international quality assurance in education. Makes the case that the lifelong learning sector is most likely to be affected by developments…

  19. Research-based recommendations for implementing international service-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerson, Roxanne

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of schools of nursing are incorporating international service-learning and/or immersion experiences into their curriculum to promote cultural competence. The purpose of this paper is to identify research-based recommendations for implementing an international service-learning program. A review of literature was conducted in the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature database using the keywords international, immersion, cultural competence, nursing, and international service-learning. Additional references were located from the reference lists of related articles. Planning of international or immersion experiences requires consideration of the type of country, the length of time, and design of the program; the use of a service-learning framework; opportunities that require the student to live and work in the community, provide hands-on care, participate in unstructured activities, and make home visits; and a method of reflection. Increasing cultural competence does not require foreign travel, but it does necessitate that students are challenged to move outside their comfort zone and work directly with diverse populations. These research-based recommendations may be used either internationally or locally to promote the most effective service-learning opportunities for nursing students. © 2014.

  20. 75 FR 60141 - International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services Delivery Division, Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services... of International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services Delivery Division, Greenville... International Business Machines (IBM), Global Technology Services Delivery Division, including on-site...

  1. Nursing faculty roles in international service-learning projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlbry, Pamela; Daugherty, JoAnn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe faculty roles related to the design and implementation of an international nursing service-learning project. The impetus for this project was the 2008 American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) recommendations for using service-learning and immersion of students in diverse communities to improve nursing education in the area of cultural competency (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2008a). We define service-learning as a learning experience engaging students in meeting community needs in an international setting so as to offer a different perspective into community health practices and to promote cultural competency. Based on our experience with service-learning, we identified four faculty roles in developing these types of projects. We define these roles as initiator, collaborator, facilitator, and advocate. This article will discuss the application of these faculty roles in developing service-learning opportunities with students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. (abstract) A VLBI Test of Tropospheric Delay Calibration with WVRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linfield, R. P.; Teitelbaum, L. P.; Keihm, S. J.; Resch, G. M.; Mahoney, M. J.; Treuhaft, R. N.

    1994-01-01

    Dual frequency (S/X band) very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations were used to test troposphere calibration by water vapor radiometers (WVRs). Comparison of the VLBI and WVR measurements show a statistical agreement (specifically, their structure functions agree) on time scales less than 700 seconds. On longer time scales, VLBI instrumental errors become important. The improvement in VLBI residual delays from WVR calibration was consistent with the measured level of tropospheric fluctuations.

  3. GPS & CSS radio sources and space-VLBI

    OpenAIRE

    Snellen, I. A. G.

    2008-01-01

    A short overview is given of the status of research on young extragalactic radio sources. We concentrate on Very Long Baseline Interferometric (VLBI), and space-VLBI results obtained with the VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP). In 2012, VSOP-2 will be launched, which will allow VLBI observations at an unprecedented angular resolution. One particular question VSOP-2 could answer is whether some of the High Frequency Peakers (HFP) are indeed the youngest objects in the family of GPS and CS...

  4. Design of VLBI Array in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, E. A.; Abraham, Z.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Estudiamos la localizaci6n 6ptima de estaciones de \\ ras' en territorlo brasileno. Con una red VLBI de estaciones reales y ficti- cias simulamos observaciones. Se usan los datos generados de estps ex- perimentos para obtener Ia distribuci6n de brillo de radiofuentes fic- ticias por medlo de tecaicas de mapeo bIbrido. Se concluye que l mejor localizaci6n de estacionee'VLBI futuras, tomando en cuenta las estacio- nes de EUA y de Europa, se encuentra en el Norte-Noreste de razll. El analisis de los datos se hizo con los programas de CALTECH, los cuales estan instalados en una computadora VAX del Departamento de Astronomla del Instituto Astron6mico y Geoflsico de la Universidad de Sa"'o Paulo. ABSTRACT: In this work we study the optimum localization for future VLBI stations in the Brazilian territory. With a VLBI network of real and fictitious stations we make simulations of observations. The data generated in these experiments are used to obtain brightness distribution of a fictitious radio source by the hybrid mapping techniques. We conclude that the best localization of a future VLBI station taking into account the addition of US and European Stations, is roughly in North-Northeast sites in Brazil. The analysis of the data is made with the software of CALTECH, which is installed in the VAX computer of the Astronomy Department of Instituto e Geofisico - USP. Key `{` : INSTRUMENTS - INTERFEROMETRY

  5. Observation of the Earth's nutation by the VLBI: how accurate is the geophysical signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattano, César; Lambert, Sébastien B.; Bizouard, Christian

    2016-09-01

    We compare nutation time series determined by several International VLBI Service for geodesy and astrometry (IVS) analysis centers. These series were made available through the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). We adjust the amplitudes of the main nutations, including the free motion associated with the free core nutation (FCN). Then, we discuss the results in terms of physics of the Earth's interior. We find consistent FCN signals in all of the time series, and we provide corrections to IAU 2000A series for a number of nutation terms with realistic errors. It appears that the analysis configuration or the software packages used by each analysis center introduce an error comparable to the amplitude of the prominent corrections. We show that the inconsistencies between series have significant consequences on our understanding of the Earth's deep interior, especially for the free inner core resonance: they induce an uncertainty on the FCN period of about 0.5 day, and on the free inner core nutation (FICN) period of more than 1000 days, comparable to the estimated period itself. Though the FCN parameters are not so much affected, a 100 % error shows up for the FICN parameters and prevents from geophysical conclusions.

  6. Observation of the Earth's nutation by the VLBI: how accurate is the geophysical signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattano, César; Lambert, Sébastien B.; Bizouard, Christian

    2017-07-01

    We compare nutation time series determined by several International VLBI Service for geodesy and astrometry (IVS) analysis centers. These series were made available through the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). We adjust the amplitudes of the main nutations, including the free motion associated with the free core nutation (FCN). Then, we discuss the results in terms of physics of the Earth's interior. We find consistent FCN signals in all of the time series, and we provide corrections to IAU 2000A series for a number of nutation terms with realistic errors. It appears that the analysis configuration or the software packages used by each analysis center introduce an error comparable to the amplitude of the prominent corrections. We show that the inconsistencies between series have significant consequences on our understanding of the Earth's deep interior, especially for the free inner core resonance: they induce an uncertainty on the FCN period of about 0.5 day, and on the free inner core nutation (FICN) period of more than 1000 days, comparable to the estimated period itself. Though the FCN parameters are not so much affected, a 100 % error shows up for the FICN parameters and prevents from geophysical conclusions.

  7. 75 FR 35289 - International Services Surveys: BE-180, Benchmark Survey of Financial Services Transactions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ...; other financial investment activities (including miscellaneous intermediation, portfolio management, investment advice, and all other financial investment activities); insurance carriers; insurance agencies... 15 CFR Part 801 RIN 0691-AA73 International Services Surveys: BE-180, Benchmark Survey of Financial...

  8. Computational Imaging for VLBI Image Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Bouman, Katherine L; Zoran, Daniel; Fish, Vincent L; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Freeman, William T

    2015-01-01

    Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is a technique for imaging celestial radio emissions by simultaneously observing a source from telescopes distributed across Earth. The challenges in reconstructing images from fine angular resolution VLBI data are immense. The data is extremely sparse and noisy, thus requiring statistical image models such as those designed in the computer vision community. In this paper we present a novel Bayesian approach for VLBI image reconstruction. While other methods require careful tuning and parameter selection for different types of images, our method is robust and produces good results under different settings such as low SNR or extended emissions. The success of our method is demonstrated on realistic synthetic experiments as well as publicly available real data. We present this problem in a way that is accessible to members of the computer vision community, and provide a dataset website (vlbiimaging.csail.mit.edu) to allow for controlled comparisons across algorithms. Thi...

  9. Radio source stability and geodetic VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattano, César; Lambert, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    The observation of the Earth's rotation by VLBI is conditioned by the celestial reference frame that should be as stable as possible. The selection of the most stable sources therefore constitutes a major step in the construction of a celestial reference frame since their stability prevents time deformation of the axes with time. The assessment of astrometric stability, i.e., the time stability the radiocenter location as detected by the VLBI, is one of the methods that were used in previous ICRF realizations (works of M. Feissel-Vernier and ICRF2). We think the same method should be addressed for the construction of the ICRF3. We analyzed the radio source time series obtained from the analysis of the data from the permanent geodetic VLBI monitoring program of the IVS. We used several utils based on basic statistics and more advanced methods (Allan variance) in order to provide a preliminary classification of sources.

  10. Human Asset Internalization and Global Sourcing of Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    In this exploratory study we look at human asset aspects of offshore outsourcing of services that over time become more advanced and strategic potent to the outsourcing firms. As a consequence, the outsourcing firms might want to internalize the operations. We focus on the ways that outsourcing...... firms may transfer key personnel of local service providers to whollyownedsubsidiaries. We argue that a felt need for applying more powerful incentives on key personnel of the service provider ‐ to harness and empower the sourcing operation ‐ may in itself be a motive for, and key driver of...

  11. Multi-frequency imaging in VLBI

    CERN Document Server

    Likhachev, S

    2004-01-01

    The new technique, multi-frequency imaging (MFI) is developed. In VLBI, Multi-Frequency Imaging (MFI) consists of multi-frequency synthesis (MFS) and multi-frequency analysis (MFA) of the VLBI data obtained from observations on various frequencies. A set of linear deconvolution MFI algorithms is described. The algorithms make it possible to obtain high quality images interpolated on any given frequency inside any given bandwidth, and to derive reliable estimates of spectral indexes for radio sources with continuum spectrum. Thus MFI approach makes it is possible not only to improve the quality and fidelity of the images and also essentially to derive the morphology of the observed radio sources.

  12. 78 FR 63433 - International Mailing Services: Proposed Price Changes-CPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Receipt (2.9%) International Business Reply TM Cards and Envelopes (2.9%) Customs Clearance and Delivery... * * * * * International Business Reply Service (382) [For each country that offers International Business Reply service... 20 International Mailing Services: Proposed Price Changes--CPI AGENCY: Postal Service TM ....

  13. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(13)-1 - Services of student nurse or hospital intern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services of student nurse or hospital intern...) § 31.3306(c)(13)-1 Services of student nurse or hospital intern. (a) Services performed as a student...' training school is chartered or approved pursuant to State law. (b) Services performed as an intern (as...

  14. International Service-Learning: Rethinking the Role of Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Marianne A.

    2017-01-01

    Existing research on international service-learning (ISL) only implicitly alludes to emotions or considers emotions as a limited vehicle through which the more important work of learning occurs. This study set out to shift this focus on emotions to show how emotions are an integral part of the overall ISL experience. The aim was to understand how…

  15. Examining Developmental Readiness in an International Service-Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kari B.; Jones, Susan R.; Massey, Rachel; Mickey, Jasmine; Reynolds, Danyelle J.; Jackson, Torrie

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined students' developmental readiness for productively negotiating the disorienting dilemmas and dissonance they experienced during an international service-learning experience. Using a case study methodology, researchers collected data from a diverse group composed of 7 graduate students and 5 undergraduates who participated in a…

  16. The Intended and Unintended Consequences of International Service-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Robbin D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on service-learning in international contexts tends to focus on the benefits and outcomes for students and educational institutions. This essay is intended to provoke further examination of issues related to university-community engagement in global contexts, particularly in terms of the consequences for host communities. In…

  17. Regulation of international roaming data services within the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Tadayoni, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Europe has been the first region to intervene on the market for international roaming services. The first regulation was introduced in 2007 and has since then been revised several times. The latest revision took place in the summer 2012. This paper discusses the new legislation in view of recent...

  18. The International DORIS Service: Current Status and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudarin, Laurent; Ferrage, Pascale; Saunier, Jérôme

    2017-04-01

    The International DORIS Service (IDS) was created in 2003 under the umbrella of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) to foster scientific research related to the French DORIS tracking system and to deliver scientific products, mostly related to the International Earth rotation and Reference systems Service (IERS). Since its start, the organization has continuously evolved, leading to additional and improved operational products from an expanded set of DORIS Analysis Centers. IDS is now based on a reinforced structure with two Data Centers, six Analysis Centers, several associated groups and a Combination Center. Using the experience gained in the preparation of the ITRF2008 and ITRF2014, many improvements were made both in data analysis and on technical aspects. This presentation addresses the organizational aspects of the IDS and the recent achievements made by its components. We also discuss the future plans in terms of new products and activities.

  19. 75 FR 20388 - International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated Technology Services, Cost and Expense Team, Working From Various States..., applicable to workers of International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services...

  20. 76 FR 42613 - Reporting Requirements for U.S. Providers of International Telecommunications Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Telecommunications Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this... providers of international telecommunications services. The Commission proposes to amend its reporting requirements for providers of international telecommunications services and transmission facilities in order...

  1. 78 FR 79451 - Service Corporation International, and Stewart Enterprises, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... Service Corporation International, and Stewart Enterprises, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent... Corporation International and Stewart Enterprises, Inc.--Consent Agreement; File No. 131 0163'' on your... January 22, 2014. Write ``Service Corporation International and Stewart Enterprises,...

  2. VLBI Surveys of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Y. Y.

    2009-08-01

    A review is given on the current status and selected results from large VLBI surveys of compact extragalactic radio sources made between 13 cm and 3 mm wavelengths and covering the entire sky. More than 4200 objects are observed and imaged with dynamic ranges from a hundred to several thousand at (sub)parsec scales. Implications to the VSOP-2 project are discussed.

  3. International Workshop and Summer School on Medical and Service Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Bouri, Mohamed; Mondada, Francesco; Pisla, Doina; Rodic, Aleksandar; Helmer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Medical and Service Robotics integrate the most recent achievements in mechanics, mechatronics, computer science, haptic and teleoperation devices together with adaptive control algorithms. The book  includes topics such as surgery robotics, assist devices, rehabilitation technology, surgical instrumentation and Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) as examples for medical robotics. Autonomous cleaning, tending, logistics, surveying and rescue robots, and elderly and healthcare robots are typical examples of topics from service robotics. This is the Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Medical and Service Robots, held in Lausanne, Switzerland in 2014. It presents an overview of current research directions and fields of interest. It is divided into three sections, namely 1) assistive and rehabilitation devices; 2) surgical robotics; and 3) educational and service robotics. Most contributions are strongly anchored on collaborations between technical and medical actors, engineers, surgeons and clinicians....

  4. Main trends of the international market of educational services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Chinaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world education system everything will more be transformed to the multi-billion industry, one of the profitable directions of which is training of foreign students. Creation and development of successfully functioning system of the international education, attraction of a significant amount of foreign students are not only to increase the budget of higher education institution and to lift its prestige, but also and a method of promotion of policy, culture, economy, a conduct of life of the host country home. With respect there to research and practical interest has studying and the analysis of the main directions of development of the international market of educational services. This article in which changes of the main indicators reflecting the main vectors of export of education in the leading countries - exporters and in our country are considered is also devoted to these questions.The purpose of work is the analysis of development of the international market of educational services in recent years. The analysis of analytical and statistical information on the processes happening in this area, both at the international level, and in Russia is the basis.In the course of the research the methods of the analytical and logical analysis on the basis of statistical data promoting more detailed studying of dynamic and structural changes of the social and economic phenomena and processes were used.In general for the last 30 years the extent of the international student’s mobility increased more than by 6 times. The international educational market constantly develops, increasing the turnover. However flows of the international students periodically change the orientation, both on countries of source, and over the countries of training. At the same time it is possible to note that changes in structure of the largest countries recipients happen more slowly, than as a part of the countries delivering foreign students. The largest world sources of

  5. Internal migration and maternal health service utilisation in Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hai; You, Hua; Ning, Weiqing; Zhou, Hua; Wang, Jianming; Lu, Ying; Sun, Jun; Kou, Yun; Dong, Hengjin

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the use of maternal health care services by internal migrants in view of their migration status. Cross-sectional household survey in two cities of Jiangsu Province. Questions elicited data on socioeconomic information and MHC service use (pre-natal examination, post-natal visit, pre-natal health education). Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with MHC service use. A total of 946 married women were recruited, of whom 22.3% were internal migrants. Compared to local residents, migrants were five times less likely to attend pre-natal examinations (84.4% vs. 91.7%; OR = 0.49, P = 0.002), three times less likely to have post-natal visits (15.6% vs. 50.2%; OR = 0.18, P Internal migrants in Jiangsu Province underuse MHC services to a significant degree. More attention needs to be paid to pregnant migrant women, as they are vulnerable group in society. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. VLBI for Gravity Probe B: The Guide Star IM Pegasi

    CERN Document Server

    Bartel, N; Lebach, D E; Ransom, R R; Ratner, M I; Shapiro, I I

    2015-01-01

    We review the radio very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of the guide star, IM Peg, and three compact extragalactic reference sources, 3C 454.3, B2250+194, and B2252+172, made in support of the NASA/Stanford gyroscope relativity mission, GP-B. The main goal of the observations was the determination of the proper motion of IM Peg relative to the distant universe. VLBI observations made between 1997 and 2005 yield a proper motion of IM Peg of -20.83 $\\pm$ 0.09 mas yr$^{-1}$ in RA and -27.27 $\\pm$ 0.09 mas yr$^{-1}$ in dec, in a celestial reference frame of extragalactic radio galaxies and quasars virtually identical to the International Celestial Reference Frame 2 (ICRF2). They also yield a parallax for IM Peg of 10.37 $\\pm$ 0.07 mas, corresponding to a distance of 96.4 $\\pm$ 0.7 pc. The uncertainties are standard errors with statistical and estimated systematic contributions added in quadrature. These results met the pre-launch requirements of the GP-B mission to not discernibly degrade the es...

  7. Organizations And Services In The System Of International Aviation Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I. Travnikov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author reveals the order of creation, structure, aims and objectives of national and international intergovernmental aeronautical organizations, governing procedure for flight operations and providing direct air traffic control over sovereign territory and abroad. In this article, author notes that in the world there are three main organizational and legal forms of air traffic control systems to ensure coordination between civil and military air navigation services (agencies. In the Russian Federation, author notes that air navigation services on behalf of the State are made by the State Corporation for Air Traffic Management that has the legal status of the commercial organization - the Federal State Unitary Enterprise. Author analyzes the work of the Organization for the Civil Air Navigation Services (CANSO, the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers (IFATCA. During the study author also concludes that in the past decade, there is the steady trend of transferring functions of air navigation from the State to commercial organizations (joint stock companies and limited liability companies, which are financed from the funds received as payment for air traffic services. The responsibility for the improper maintenance of international air navigation, of course, is borne by the State. Author notes that regional and international intergovernmental aeronautical organizations operate in respect of all aircraft (public, civil, experimental, i.e., perform general air navigation, unlike ICAO, which takes standards and recommended practices, rules and procedures for safety and air traffic services only to civil aircraft, that does not ensure the creation of a regulatory framework for the global unification of aeronautical processes.

  8. International Service-Learning: Ethics in Cross-Cultural Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jones

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available All study abroad courses require the development of productive cross-cultural relationships. Working with local service providers from diverse cultural backgrounds, such as tour guides, hotel managers, and bus drivers, can be demanding work. However, these commercial relationships are reasonably well defined in terms of consumers and vendors of services. On the other hand, the collaboration and shared goals necessary for engaging in direct service abroad require the development of meaningful partnerships that extend beyond commercial interactions. Ethical partnerships are complicated by unequal power dynamics, different cultural expectations of reciprocity, and culturally specific understandings of relationship duration. The goal of this study is to identify divergent expectations amongst students providing the service, local service coordinators, and recipients of the service. An open-ended interview guide was developed for students and collaborators in three short-term international service-learning courses. Students wrote responses regarding their perceptions of the need for the project and the impact on all participants. Similar questions were asked of local service coordinators and members of the community in face-to-face interviews. This provided insight into the variety of perceptions of needs and outcomes. We argue that the process of aligning of mutual and individual goals and perceptions is integral to ascertaining informed consent for the participation of students, partner organizations, and community members in ISL programs. Furthermore, in striving for informed consent, the development of ethical, sensitive, and reciprocal ISL partnerships can be promoted. While it was not possible to obtain data from all groups in all three courses, this exploratory, qualitative investigation offered meaningful opportunities to maintain and further develop equitable relationships and to clarify expectations for future collaborations and coursework

  9. The International Service for the Geoid and its products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguzzoni, Mirko; Sona, Giovanna; Barzaghi, Riccardo; Sansò, Fernando; Albertella, Alberta; Carrion, Daniela; Iapige De Gaetani, Carlo; Rossi, Lorenzo

    2017-04-01

    The International Service for the Geoid (ISG) was established in 1992 and it is currently an official service of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG). Its activities are coordinated by the International Gravity Field Service (IGFS) and they are also related to those of the IAG Commission 2 on Gravity Field. ISG is hosted by Politecnico di Milano in Italy. The main task of ISG is to collect, analyze and redistribute local, regional and even continental geoid models, which are therefore the main products of the service. In this work the geoid repository is described, specifying the information provided for the models, the unified ASCII format used for their storing and the possible policy rules for their redistribution. Moreover, the current state-of-art of the repository is presented, in particular analyzing the geographical distribution of the available models and their years of computation. Note that not only the latest released geoid models are collected in the ISG repository, but also less recent ones, with the aim of keeping memory of the progress done in this research field during the years. Software for estimating and handling geoid models is provided too. Apart from distributing geoid models and software, the service has also educational and research purposes. From this perspective, additional products are the international schools on geoid computation that have been organized by ISG since 1994, basically every 2-3 years. A historical overview of the schools, with emphasis on the school program and its evolution in time, is here presented. As for the research activities, apart from participating to international projects and working groups, the main ISG product was the publication of the IGeS Bulletin in the past and the Newton's Bulletin nowadays, in cooperation with the International Gravimetric Bureau (BGI). The Newton's Bulletin has a technical and applied nature and it has been recently selected by the geodetic community for publications on

  10. Role of coordinators in national and international major trauma services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jessica; Ashby, Nichola

    2016-12-07

    Major trauma services in the UK underwent reform in April 2012, following reports that trauma care in England was 'unacceptable' and in need of desperate change, and urgent recommendations were made to improve coordination, costs, and information about trauma care to avoid unnecessary deaths. Following the reconfiguration of services, NHS England highlighted the need for nurse key-workers, or coordinators, to support patients through the major trauma pathway and into rehabilitation. This article examines the literature on the coordinator role to understand its function in UK and international major trauma networks.

  11. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in all wholesale electricity markets.

  12. 76 FR 76619 - International Mail: New Prices and Fee Changes-Mailing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... fraction thereof)......... 0.80 Duplicate copy of PS Form 3606 1.15 * * * * * International Business Reply Service (382) [For each country that offers International Business Reply Service, revise the fees to read... 20 International Mail: New Prices and Fee Changes--Mailing Services AGENCY: Postal Service...

  13. 42 CFR 409.15 - Services furnished by an intern or a resident-in-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services furnished by an intern or a resident-in... Inpatient Critical Access Hospital Services § 409.15 Services furnished by an intern or a resident-in-training. Medical or surgical services provided by an intern or a resident-in-training are included as...

  14. WDS Trusted Data Services in Support of International Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrane, M.; Minster, J. B. H.

    2014-12-01

    Today's research is international, transdisciplinary, and data-enabled, which requires scrupulous data stewardship, full and open access to data, and efficient collaboration and coordination. New expectations on researchers based on policies from governments and funders to share data fully, openly, and in a timely manner present significant challenges but are also opportunities to improve the quality and efficiency of research and its accountability to society. Researchers should be able to archive and disseminate data as required by many institutions or funders, and civil society to scrutinize datasets underlying public policies. Thus, the trustworthiness of data services must be verifiable. In addition, the need to integrate large and complex datasets across disciplines and domains with variable levels of maturity calls for greater coordination to achieve sufficient interoperability and sustainability. The World Data System (WDS) of the International Council for Science (ICSU) promotes long-term stewardship of, and universal and equitable access to, quality-assured scientific data and services across a range of disciplines in the natural and social sciences. WDS aims at coordinating and supporting trusted scientific data services for the provision, use, and preservation of relevant datasets to facilitate scientific research, in particular under the ICSU umbrella, while strengthening their links with the research community. WDS certifies it Members, holders and providers of data or data products, using internationally recognized standards. Thus, providing the building blocks of a searchable common infrastructure, from which a data system that is both interoperable and distributed can be formed. This presentation will describe the coordination role of WDS and more specifically activities developed by its Scientific Committee to: Improve and stimulate basic level Certification for Scientific Data Services, in particular through collaboration with the Data Seal of

  15. 77 FR 2340 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice of... the renewal of the charter of the Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services in... oversight of foreign policy related to international postal services and other international...

  16. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(13)-1 - Services of student nurse or hospital intern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services of student nurse or hospital intern... 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(b)(13)-1 Services of student nurse or hospital intern. (a) Services... before 1966 as an intern (as distinguished from a resident doctor), in the employ of a hospital are...

  17. International organizations to enable world-wide mobile satellite services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Richard L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of systems exist or have been proposed to provide world-wide mobile satellite services (MSS). Developers of these systems have formulated institutional structures they consider most appropriate for profitable delivery of these services. MSS systems provide niche services and complement traditional telecommunications networks; they are not integrated into world-wide networks. To be successful, MSS system operators must be able to provide an integrated suite of services to support the increasing globalization, interconnectivity, and mobility of business. The critical issue to enabling 'universal roaming' is securing authority to provide MSS in all of the nations of the world. Such authority must be secured in the context of evolving trends in international telecommunications, and must specifically address issues of standardization, regulation and organization. Today, only one existing organization has such world-wide authority. The question is how proponents of new MSS systems and services can gain similar authority. Securing the appropriate authorizations requires that these new organizations reflect the objectives of the nations in which services are to be delivered.

  18. Choosing a language in international office service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    Choosing a language in international office service encounters – from multilingual miscellany to medium-of-interaction in a matter of seconds Spencer Hazel Roskilde University, Denmark In higher education settings characterized by increasing transnational student and staff mobility, members...... Preisler (eds.) Language alternation, language choice and language encounter in international education. Dordrecht: Springer Preisler, Bent, Ida Klitgård, and Anne H. Fabricius. (2011). Language and learning in the international university: from English uniformity to diversity and hybridity. Bristol...... are required to navigate dynamically fluctuating participation frameworks and their contingent language scenarios. Although some interactional settings have institutionally implemented rules or norms relating to which language is the designated medium-of-interaction, this is not the case across all settings...

  19. Internal customer management and service gaps within the National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaston, I

    1994-08-01

    One implication of being required to respond to the Patients' Charter without access to more resources, is that managers in the U.K. health care sector will have to ensure integration of multiple functions across their units in order to achieve the objective of creating a quality conscious workforce. This situation will probably demand adoption of an internal marketing philosophy within the NHS; thereby ensuring implementation of TQM and/or Customer Care schemes in which departments work together to create effective internal customer chains. To determine the degree to which the NHS have effectively adopted an internal customer orientation, a survey was undertaken using a modified version of the Parasuraman SERVQUAL model. The majority of respondents indicated the existence of Type 1, 2, 3 and 4 Gaps in the internal customer management process within their unit. Major influencers of these service gaps include departments placing internal efficiency ahead of internal customer needs elsewhere in the organization, limited effort to gain further understanding of internal customer needs and an inadequate level formal quality standards for managing internal customer relations. Respondents consider their departments are able and willing to enhance the quality of provision if the issue was given higher priority by senior management. Identified obstacles to increased future emphasis behind an internal customer philosophy include insufficient resources to service internal customer needs, lack of trust between departments and limited confidence about abilities to manage the process. Unless senior managers in the NHS can be persuaded to allocate the resources needed to create effective internal customer chains, then concern must exist about the capability of operating units to fulfil the health care standards specified in the Patients Charter.

  20. Vienna VLBI Software - Current release and plans for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzak, M.; Böhm, J.; Böhm, S.; Krásná, H.; Nilsson, T.; Plank, L.; Tierno Ros, C.; Schuh, H.; Soja, B.; Sun, J.; Teke, K.

    2013-08-01

    The Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) is a geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data analysis software which has been developed at the Vienna University of Technology since 2008. This paper gives an overview about its capabilities, including scheduling and simulation of VLBI observations. The latest release, version 2.1 includes a a graphical user interface. A few results and planned future developments are presented as well.

  1. Progress on VLBI Ecliptic Plane Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Fengchun; Jiang, Wu; McCallum, Jamie; Yi, Sang-oh; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Li, Jinling; Lovell, Jim

    2016-01-01

    We launched the VLBI Ecliptic Plane Survey program in 2015. The goal of this program is to find all compact sources within 7.5 degrees of the ecliptic plane which are suitable as phase calibrators for anticipated phase referencing observations of spacecrafts. We planned to observe a complete sample of the sources brighter than 50 mJy at 5 GHz listed in the PMN and GB6 catalogues that have not yet been observed with VLBI. By April 2016, eight 24-hour sessions have been performed and processed. Among 2227 observed sources, 435 sources were detected in three or more observations. We have also run three 8-hour segments with VLBA for improving positions of 71 ecliptic sources.

  2. On significance of VLBI/Gaia offsets

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, L

    2016-01-01

    We have cross matched the Gaia Data Release 1 secondary dataset that contains positions of 1.14 billion objects against the most complete to date catalogue of VLBI positions of 11.4 thousand sources, almost exclusively active galactic nuclei. We found 6,064 matches, i.e. 53% radio objects. The median uncertainty of VLBI positions is a factor of 4 smaller than the median uncertainties of their optical counterparts. Our analysis shows that the distribution of normalized arc lengths significantly deviates from Rayleighian shape with an excess of objects with small normalized arc lengths and with a number of outliers. We found that 8% matches have radio optical offsets significant at 99% confidence level. Therefore, we conclude there exists a population of objects with genuine offsets between centroids of radio and optical emission.

  3. Radio VLBI and the quantum interference paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Singal, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    We address here the question of interference of radio signals from astronomical sources like distant quasars, in a very long baseline interferometer (VLBI), where two (or more) distantly located radio telescopes (apertures), receive simultaneous signal from the sky. In an equivalent optical two-slit experiment, it is generally argued that for the photons involved in the interference pattern on the screen, it is not possible, even in principle, to ascertain which of the two slits a particular photon went through. It is argued that any procedure to ascertain this destroys the interference pattern. But in the case of the modern radio VLBI, it is a routine matter to record the phase and amplitude of the voltage outputs from the two radio antennas on a recording media separately and then do the correlation between the two recorded signals later in an offline manner. Does this not violate the quantum interference principle? We provide a resolution of this problem here.

  4. SAND: Automated VLBI imaging and analyzing pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming

    2016-05-01

    The Search And Non-Destroy (SAND) is a VLBI data reduction pipeline composed of a set of Python programs based on the AIPS interface provided by ObitTalk. It is designed for the massive data reduction of multi-epoch VLBI monitoring research. It can automatically investigate calibrated visibility data, search all the radio emissions above a given noise floor and do the model fitting either on the CLEANed image or directly on the uv data. It then digests the model-fitting results, intelligently identifies the multi-epoch jet component correspondence, and recognizes the linear or non-linear proper motion patterns. The outputs including CLEANed image catalogue with polarization maps, animation cube, proper motion fitting and core light curves. For uncalibrated data, a user can easily add inline modules to do the calibration and self-calibration in a batch for a specific array.

  5. Studies of ultracompact jets with space VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, Andrei

    Imaging and polarimetry of radio emission on microarcsecond scales provided by VSOP-2 and RadioAstron will offer a range of possibilities for studying ultracompact regions of relativistic jets and extreme vicinity of the central supermassive bodies in AGN. Both missions will address a number of outstanding problems in AGN physics, including the site and the mechanism of jet formation, acceleration of relativistic flows, structure of magnetic field in the vicinity of the central engine of AGN, and the fundamental question of the physical nature of the central massive objects in galaxies. Combining space VLBI observations with variability studies made in the X-ray, and gamma-ray bands will enable locating accurately the sites of high-enenrgy continuum production in AGN. Prospects and potentials of these lines of study with space VLBI will be reviewed.

  6. Maser Astrometry with VLBI and the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James A; Brunthaler, Andreas; Ellingsen, Simon; Imai, Hiroshi; Vlemmings, Wouter; Reid, Mark; Richards, Anita

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the unique opportunities for maser astrometry with the inclusion of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) in Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) networks. The first phase of the SKA will enable observations of hydroxyl and methanol masers, positioning the latter to an accuracy of 5 microarcseconds, and the second phase may allow water maser observations. These observations will provide trigonometric distances with errors as small as 1%. The unrivalled sensitivity of the SKA will enable large-scale surveys and, through joint operations, will turn any VLBI network into a fast astrometry device. Both evolved stars and high mass star formation regions will be accessible throughout the (Southern) Milky Way, completing our understanding of the content, dynamics and history of our Galaxy. Maser velocities and proper motions will be measurable in the Local Group of galaxies and beyond, providing new insights into their kinematics and evolution.

  7. VLBI observations of young Type II supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Torres, M A; Marcaide, J M

    2005-01-01

    We give an overview of circumstellar interaction in young Type II supernovae, as seen through the eyes of very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. The resolution attained by such observations (best than 1 mas) is a powerful tool to probe the interaction that takes place after a supernova goes off. The direct imaging of a supernova permits, in principle, to estimate the deceleration of its expansion, and to obtain information on the eject and circumstellar density profiles, as well as estimates of the magnetic field intensity and relativistic particle energy density in the supernova. Unfortunately, only a handful of radio supernovae are close and bright enough as to permit their study with VLBI. We present results from our high-resolution observations of the nearby Type II radio supernovae SN1986J and SN2001gd.

  8. GPS and CSS Radio Sources and Space-VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellen, I.

    2009-08-01

    A short overview is given of the status of research on young extragalactic radio sources. We concentrate on Very Long Baseline Interferometric (VLBI), and space-VLBI results obtained with the VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP). In 2012, VSOP-2 will be launched, which will allow VLBI observations at an unprecedented angular resolution. One particular question VSOP-2 could answer is whether some of the High Frequency Peakers (HFP) are indeed the youngest objects in the family of GPS and CSS sources. VSOP-2 observations can reveal their angular morphology and determine whether any are Ultra-compact Symmetric Objects.

  9. Radio Astronomy and eVLBI using KAREN

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, Stuart; Gulyaev, Sergei

    2010-01-01

    Kiwi Advanced Research and Education Network (KAREN) has been used to transfer large volumes of radio astronomical data between the AUT Radio Astronomical Observatory at Warkworth, New Zealand and the international organisations with which we are collaborating and conducting observations. Here we report on the current status of connectivity and on the results of testing different data transfer protocols. We investigate new UDP protocols such as "tsunami" and UDT and demonstrate that the UDT protocol is more efficient than "tsunami" and ftp. We report on our initial steps towards real-time eVLBI and the attempt to directly stream data from the radio telescope receiving system to the correlation centre without intermediate buffering/recording.

  10. Quality of Service: a study in databases bibliometric international

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deosir Flávio Lobo de Castro Junior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to serve as a source of references on Quality of Service for future research. After surveying the international databases, EBSCO and ProQuest, the results on the state of the art in this issue are presented. The method used was the bibliometrics, and 132 items from a universe of 13,427 were investigated. The analyzed works cover the period from 1985 to 2011. Among the contributions, results and conclusions for future research are presented: i most cited authors ii most used methodology, dimensions and questionnaire; iii most referenced publications iv international journals with most publications on the subject, v distribution of the number of publications per year; vi authors networks vii educational institutions network; viii terms used in the search in international databases; ix the relationships studied in 132 articles; x criteria for choice of methodology in the research on quality of services; xi most often used paradigm, and xii 160 high impact references.

  11. VLBI2020: From Reality to Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    The individual apparent motions of distant radio sources are believed to be caused by the effect of intrinsic structure variations of the active galactic nuclei (AGN). However, some cosmological models of the expanded Universe predict that systematic astrometric proper motions of distant quasars do not vanish as the radial distance from the observer to the quasar grows. These systematic effects can even increase with the distance, making it possible to measure them with high-precision astrometric techniques like VLBI. The Galactocentric acceleration of the Solar System barycenter may cause a secular aberration drift with a magnitude of 4 uas/yr. The Solar System motion relative to the cosmic microwave background produces an additional dipole effect, proportional to red shift. We analyzed geodetic VLBI data spanning from 1979 until 2009 to estimate the vector spherical harmonics in the expansion of the vector field of the proper motion of 687 radio sources. The dipole and quadrupole vector spherical harmonics were estimated with an accuracy of 1-5 as/yr. We have shown that over the next decade the geodetic VLBI may approach the level of accuracy on which the cosmological models of the Universe could be tested. Hence, it is important to organize a dedicated observational program to increase the number of measured proper motions to 3000.

  12. Axis Offset Estimation of VLBI Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krásná, Hana; Nickola, Marisa; Böhm, Johannes

    2014-12-01

    Axis offset models have to be applied for VLBI telescopes with pointing axes which do not intersect. In this work, we estimated the axis offsets for VLBI antennas in a global adjustment of suitable IVS 24-hour sessions (1984.0-2014.0) with the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS). In particular, we focused on the two radio telescopes of the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) in South Africa. For the older 26-m telescope we compared the estimated axis offset values before (6699.2 ± 0.5 mm) and after (6707.3 ± 0.8 mm) the bearing repair in 2010. A comparison with axis offset estimates from other geodetic techniques, such as GNSS or conventional local survey, was made. The estimated axis offset for the newer 15-m telescope (1495.0 ± 3.4 mm) agrees with the estimated value from the GPS survey in 2007. Furthermore, we assessed the influence of differences in the axis offsets on the estimated geodetic parameters, such as station coordinates or Earth Orientation Parameters.

  13. VLBI observations of T Tauri S

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, K W; Gödel, M; Conway, J; Benz, Arnold O

    2003-01-01

    We report observations of the T Tauri system at 8.4 GHz with a VLBI array comprising the VLBA, VLA and Effelsberg 100m telescopes. We detected a compact source offset approximately 40 mas from the best infrared position of the T Tau Sb component. This source was unresolved, and constrained to be less than 0.5 mas in size, corresponding to 0.07 AU or 15 R$_{\\odot}$ at a distance of 140 pc. The other system components (T Tau Sa, T Tau N) were not detected in the VLBI data. The separate VLA map contains extended flux not accounted for by the compact VLBI source, indicating the presence of extended emission on arcsecond scales. The compact source shows rapid variability, which together with circular polarization and its compact nature indicate that the observed flux arises from a magnetically-dominated region. Brightness temperatures in the MK range point to gyrosynchrotron as the emission mechanism for the steady component. The rapid variations are accompanied by dramatic changes in polarization, and we record a...

  14. 76 FR 59768 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice... the meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services scheduled...

  15. 75 FR 17407 - Service Corporation International and Keystone North America Inc.; Analysis of Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... Service Corporation International and Keystone North America Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing... any sensitive personal information, such as an individual's Social Security Number; date of birth... Agreement'') from Service Corporation International (``SCI'') and Keystone North America Inc. (``KNA''). The...

  16. 76 FR 42567 - Reporting Requirements for U.S. Providers of International Telecommunications Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Telecommunications Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document... unnecessary reporting requirements related to international telecommunications traffic for which the burdens... international telecommunications services. In the First Report and Order portion of the document, the...

  17. International trade of health services: global trends and local impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautier, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant dimension of this is trade in health services. Traditionally, the flow of health services exports went from North to South, with patients travelling in the opposite direction. This situation is changing and a number of papers have discussed the growth of health services exports from Southern countries in its different dimensions. Less attention has been paid to assess the real scope of this trade at the global level and its potential impact at the local level. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore first built an estimate of the global size and of the growth trend of international trade in health services since 1997, which is compared with several country-based studies. The second purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the significant economic impact of this trade at the local level for the exporting country. We consider the case of health providers in the South-Mediterranean region for which the demand potential, the economic effects and the consequence for the health system are presented. These issues lead to the overall conclusion that different policy options would be appropriate, in relation to the nature of the demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 8th International Conference on Field and Service Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Tadokoro, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    FSR, the International Conference on Field and Service Robotics, is the leading single track conference of robotics for field and service applications. This book presents the results of FSR2012, the eighth conference of Field and Service Robotics, which was originally planned for 2011 with the venue of Matsushima in Tohoku region of Japan. However, on March 11, 2011, a magnitude M9.0 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, and a large-scale disaster was caused by the Tsunami which resulted, therefore the conference was postponed by one year to July, 2012. In fact, this earthquake raised issues concerning the contribution of field and service robotics technology to emergency scenarios. A number of precious lessons were learned from operation of robots in the resulting, very real and challenging, disaster environments. Up-to-date study on disaster response, relief and recovery was then featured in the conference. This book offers 43 papers on a broad range of topics including: Disaster Response, Se...

  19. 9th International Conference on Field and Service Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Corke, Peter; Roberts, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    FSR, the International Conference on Field and Service Robotics, is a robotics Symposium which has established over the past ten years the latest research and practical results towards the use of field and service robotics in the community with particular focus on proven technology. The first meeting was held in Canberra, Australia, in 1997. Since then the meeting has been held every two years in the pattern Asia, America, Europe.   Field robots are non-factory robots, typically mobile, that operate in complex, and dynamic environments; on the ground (of earth or planets), under the ground, underwater, in the air or in space. Service robots are those that work closely with humans to help them with their lives. This book present the results of the ninth edition of Field and Service Robotics, FSR13, held in Brisbane, Australia on 9th-11th December 2013. The conference provided a forum for researchers, professionals, and robot manufactures to exchange up-to-date technical knowledge and experience. This book off...

  20. 78 FR 41129 - Market Test of Experimental Product - International Merchandise Return Service-Non-Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... of Experimental Product -- International Merchandise Return Service--Non-Published Rates AGENCY: U.S... International Merchandise Return Service--Non-Published Rates in accordance with statutory requirements. DATES... will begin a market test of its International Merchandise Return Service (IMRS) Non-published Rate...

  1. 78 FR 57671 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services; Membership Renewals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services; Membership Renewals AGENCY: Department of State... international postal and private-sector delivery services. The Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services was created in accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463)....

  2. 77 FR 41877 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice, FACA... Postal and Delivery Services (the Advisory Committee). This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of... International Postal and Delivery Services, Bureau of International Organization Affairs, Department of...

  3. 76 FR 54829 - Advisory Committee On International Postal and Delivery Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Committee On International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice... International Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of... related to international postal and delivery services that are of interest to Advisory Committee...

  4. 75 FR 66796 - Pricewaterhousecoopers LLP (“PwC”), Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Pricewaterhousecoopers LLP (``PwC''), Internal Firm Services Client... subject firm should read PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC''), Internal Firm Services Client Account... subject firm to read PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC''), Internal Firm Services Client Account...

  5. A Feasibility Study of Space VLBI for Geodesy and Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Madhav Narayan

    1992-01-01

    Space Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is an extension of the ground based VLBI to the space. With the launching of two or more Space VLBI satellites in the future, Space VLBI observations will be available for astrometric, geodetic and geodynamic applications. This new technique holds potential for various important applications including monitoring Earth rotation and interconnection of the reference frames used in geodesy and geodynamics. The aim of this feasibility study has been to investigate the possibility of precise estimation of geodetic parameters, with emphasis on the Earth rotation parameters (ERP's), from Space VLBI observations. A brief description of the Space VLBI technique, it's possible applications, and the Space VLBI missions being planned has been given. Estimability analysis to investigate the estimability of geodetic parameters from Space VLBI observations has been carried out and a simplified mathematical model is derived in terms of estimable parameters. Results of sensitivity analysis carried out to study the sensitivity of the Space VLBI observables to the geodetic parameters of interest, including the number of these parameters and random errors in their a priori values, have been presented. Some of the dominant systematic effects including atmospheric refraction, solar radiation pressure and relativistic effects have also been investigated. Simulation studies have been carried out to study the influence of these systematic effects and a priori information on the estimation of the Earth rotation parameters. The results from the simulation studies indicate that it may be possible to use the Space VLBI technique for monitoring Earth rotation and polar motion, only if the orbital systematic effects can be modeled to a high degree of accuracy (or the satellites can be tracked, with high accuracy, independently), and precise a priori information on station coordinates from other sources is used. A brief description of the Space VLBI

  6. 76 FR 5834 - International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated Technology Services, Cost and Expense Team, Payroll, Travel and Mobility... Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated Technology...

  7. 39 CFR 3050.52 - Information on service performance for international products. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information on service performance for international products. 3050.52 Section 3050.52 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.52 Information on service performance for international products....

  8. Financial services liberalization and international integration in South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prica Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper analyses the regulatory framework for international trade in financial services within the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO, with special attention paid to the open issues including the scope of prudential measures and capital mobility limitations. The process of the international integration of the South Eastern Europe (SEE countries is mainly dictated by their goal of EU integration. With regard to the services' sectors, a major liberalization step on the way is WTO accession. Of the countries in the region only Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro are still not WTO members and in order to become members significant liberalization commitments will be demanded of them. For this reason the second part of the paper deals with concrete financial liberalization commitments undertaken by the original WTO members in SEE and the newly WTO acceded SEE member countries. The last part of the paper provides a quantitative analysis of these commitments by means of the measurement of liberalization indices in the banking sectors in SEE countries. This is to provide a general idea of the scope of liberalization that may be required from a SEE country in order to achieve WTO membership on the road to EU integration.

  9. [Implementation of an internal transfer pricing system for anaesthesia services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raetzell, M; Reissmann, H; Steinfath, M; Schuster, M; Schmidt, C; Scholz, J; Bauer, M

    2004-12-01

    Internal transfer pricing system (ITPS) of anaesthesia services is established to guarantee a close connection of delivered service and the budget of the department of anaesthesia. In most cases a time-based system is used with the pricing unit being calculated as the quotient from the enumerator "costs" divided by the denominator "anaesthesia time in minutes". The implementation of a transfer pricing system requires the identification of all relevant costs caused by the department of anaesthesia and a cost centre structure is needed which allocates all costs correctly according to their cause. The regulations regarding cost calculations as defined by the German DRG System should be considered. To generate valid data not only the necessary technical infrastructure is needed, but also detailed training of the staff and plausibility checks are needed to ensure correct and complete data. Subsequent agreements with the hospital administration are necessary in order to adjust the system if extrinsic cost increases occur. This paper gives a step-by-step guidance for the successful implementation of an internal transfer pricing system based on anaesthesia time.

  10. The Contribution of a Geophysical Data Service: The International Service of Geomagnetic Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Menvielle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetic indices are basic data in Solar-Terrestrial physics and in operational Space Weather activities. The International Service of Geomagnetic Indices (ISGI is in charge of the derivation and dissemination of the geomagnetic indices that are acknowledged by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA, an IUGG association. Institutes that are not part of ISGI started early in the Internet age to circulate on-line preliminary values of geomagnetic indices. In the absence of quality stamping, this resulted in a very confusing situation. The ISGI label was found to be the simplest and the safest way to insure quality stamping of circulated geomagnetic indices.

  11. e-VLBI observations of SS 433 in outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tudose, V.; Paragi, Z.; Trushkin, S.; Soleri, P.; Fender, R.; Garrett, M.; Spencer, R.; Rushton, A.; Burgess, P.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Pazderski, E.; Borkowski, K.; Hammargren, R.; Lindqvist, M.; Maccaferri, G.

    2008-01-01

    We have observed the X-ray binary SS 433 on November 6, 2008 between 13:48-18:35 UT at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN) using the e-VLBI technique. The radio telescopes participating in the experiment were: Medicina, Onsala 25m, Torun, Jodrell Bank MkII and Cambridge. The X-ray binary SS 4

  12. Combining VLBI and ring laser observations at normal equation level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartner, Matthias; Böhm, Johannes; Böhm, Sigrid; Schreiber, Karl Ulrich; Gebauer, André

    2017-04-01

    Observations from ring laser gyroscopes can be used to continuously monitor earth rotation with high resolution and without an external reference frame, which makes them unique in contrast to other techniques like VLBI or GNSS. A combination, however, of ring laser and VLBI data could potentially result in an improved accuracy of estimated earth rotation parameters. In this study, we use observations from the ring laser "G" (Grossring) located at Wettzell (Germany) and combine them with VLBI observations at the normal equation level. The Vienna VLBI and Satellite Software (VieVS) is used to set up the normal equations for each VLBI session as SINEX files. We present combined estimates for polar motion and length of day and assess the impact by the ring laser observations.

  13. The Innermost AGNs with Future mm-VLBI

    CERN Document Server

    Agudo, I; Bach, U; Pagels, A; Sohn, B W; Graham, D A; Witzel, A; Zensus, J A; Gómez, J L; Bremer, M; Grewing, M

    2005-01-01

    The capabilities of the Global mm-VLBI Array are summarized and demonstrated through actual images from our monitoring of extragalactic radio jets. This sensitive 3mm-VLBI interferometer is able to provide images of up to 50 microarcseconds resolution. For the near future, ALMA, the GBT, the LMT, CARMA, SRT, Yebes, Nobeyama and Noto are some of the most sensitive stations suitable to participate in mm-VLBI. This future array, together with the present Global mm-VLBI Array, would achieve 10 times better sensitivities than nowadays. Image fidelity would also largely increased. T he addition of ALMA would improve the (u,v)-coverage for sources with low declination (<20 deg.) and facilitate the VLBI imaging of the Galactic Centre source SgrA*.

  14. Mark 6 16-Gbps Next-Generation VLBI Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Alan R.; Cappallo, Roger J.; Ruszczyk, Chester A.; SooHoo, Jason; Crew, Geoffrey B.

    2014-12-01

    The Mark 6 VLBI data system has been developed as a next-generation disk-based VLBI data system capable of supporting the goals of VLBI2010 and other very-high-data-rate VLBI applications, with a maximum sustained recording rate of 16 Gbps. Based on COTS data hardware and open-source software, the Mark 6 is designed to transition easily from the widely used Mark 5 system. Its features include a `scatter/gather' gather algorithm to ensure that data recording is not slowed by one or more slow or bad disks. The first field demonstration of a 16 Gbps/station VLBI experiment using Mark 6 in 2012 is reported. Existing Mark 5 systems are upgradeable to Mark 6, and existing Mark 5 SATA modules are upgradeable for compatibility with Mark 6.

  15. VLBI TRF determination via Kalman filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Benedikt; Karbon, Maria; Nilsson, Tobias; Glaser, Susanne; Balidakis, Kyriakos; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald

    2015-04-01

    The determination of station positions is one of the primary tasks for space geodetic techniques. Station coordinate offsets are usually determined with respect to a linear coordinate model after removing elastic displacements caused by mass redistributions within the Earth's system. In operational VLBI analysis, the coordinate offsets are estimated in a least-squares adjustment as a constant over the duration of a 24-hour VLBI experiment. Terrestrial reference frames (TRF) are usually derived by adjusting the normal equations that contain the 24-hour constant offsets in order to estimate a linear model, possibly including breaks, for the station positions. We have created a VLBI TRF solution without the assumption of negligible subdaily motion and of linear behavior on longer time scales by applying a Kalman filter. As a preparation for the upcoming VLBI Global Observing System (VGOS), which aims for continuous observations that are available in real-time, a Kalman filter has been implemented into the VLBI software VieVS@GFZ. In addition to the real-time capability, the filter offers the possibility of stochastically modeling the parameters of interest. For station coordinates, changes in a subdaily time frame occur, for instance, from un- or mismodeled geophysical effects. The models for tidal and non-tidal ocean, atmosphere, and hydrology loading are known to have deficiencies and inconsistencies which propagate into the estimated station coordinates. The stochastic model of the Kalman filter can be adapted to take these subdaily effects into account. Comparing the resulting station coordinate time series with daily values from a least squares fit, we have investigated to what extent and in which regions the loading models currently have deficiencies. Due to the high correlation between station height and tropospheric delays, it is possible that errors in one group of parameters are partly absorbed by the other group. To detect problems with correlations and to

  16. Quality Control Review of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Internal Audit Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    No. DODIG-2015-043 D E C E M B E R 1 , 2 0 1 4 Quality Control Review of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Internal Audit Organization... FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE SUBJECT: Quality Control Review of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Internal Audit Organization (Report No...organization, Defense Finance and Accounting Service Office of Internal Review (DFAS IR), in effect for the period ended June 30, 2014. The generally

  17. The impact of international service on the development of volunteers' intercultural relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Benjamin J; Sherraden, Margaret Sherrard; McBride, Amanda Moore; Xiang, Xiaoling

    2014-07-01

    Approximately one million people from the United States perform international volunteer service each year, representing a significant flow of ideas, people, resources, and aid across international borders. This quasi-experimental study assesses the longitudinal impact of international volunteer service on volunteers' intercultural relations, international social capital, and concern about international affairs. Using linear mixed regression models that control for a counterfactual comparison group of individuals that did not travel abroad, international volunteers are more likely to report significant increases in international social capital and international concern two to three years after returning from service. Results indicate that intercultural relations may also continue to increase years after returning from service. International service may be a useful approach to helping people gain skills and networks that are needed in an increasingly global society.

  18. The quality of the international intercity train services within the Benelux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goeverden, C.D.; Van Nes, R.; Van Arem, B.

    2015-01-01

    International train services generally have lower qualities and are less stable in time then domestic train services. The paper shows that this is also valid for cross-border services within the Benelux compared to domestic services in the Netherlands. The cross-border services have significantly lo

  19. 47 CFR 63.25 - Special provisions relating to temporary or emergency service by international carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... emergency service by international carriers. 63.25 Section 63.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... apply: (1) Temporary service shall mean service for a period not exceeding 6 months; (2) Emergency... temporary service or emergency service must file their request with the Commission. Requests must set...

  20. European VLBI Network: Present and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Zensus, J A

    2015-01-01

    The European VLBI Network is a collaboration of the major radio astronomical institutes in Europe, Asia, South Africa and Puerto Rico. Established four decades ago, since then it has constantly improved its performance in terms made using resolution, data bit-rate and image fidelity with improvements in performance, and the addition of new stations and observing capabilities. The EVN provides open skies access and has over time become a common-user facility. In this contribution we discuss the present status and perspectives for the array in a continuously changing environment, especially in the era of ALMA and with the Square Kilometre Array ante portas.

  1. Enhanced International Space Station Ku-Band Telemetry Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Andrew J.; Pitts, R. Lee; Welch, Steven J.; Bryan, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is in an operational configuration. To fully utilize the ISS and take advantage of the modern protocols and updated Ku-band access, the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) has designed an approach to extend the Kuband forward link access for payload investigators to their on-orbit payloads. This dramatically increases the ground to ISS communications for those users. This access also enables the ISS flight controllers operating in the Payload Operations and Integration Center to have more direct control over the systems they are responsible for managing and operating. To extend the Ku-band forward link to the payload user community the development of a new command server is necessary. The HOSC subsystems were updated to process the Internet Protocol Encapsulated packets, enable users to use the service based on their approved services, and perform network address translation to insure that the packets are forwarded from the user to the correct payload repeating that process in reverse from ISS to the payload user. This paper presents the architecture, implementation, and lessons learned. This will include the integration of COTS hardware and software as well as how the device is incorporated into the operational mission of the ISS. Thus, this paper also discusses how this technology can be applicable to payload users of the ISS.

  2. The International DORIS Service contribution to the 2014 realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreaux, Guilhem; Lemoine, Frank G.; Capdeville, Hugues; Kuzin, Sergey; Otten, Michiel; Štěpánek, Petr; Willis, Pascal; Ferrage, Pascale

    2016-12-01

    In preparation of the 2014 realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2014), the International DORIS Service delivered to the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service a set of 1140 weekly solution files including station coordinates and Earth orientation parameters, covering the time period from 1993.0 to 2015.0. The data come from eleven DORIS satellites: TOPEX/Poseidon, SPOT2, SPOT3, SPOT4, SPOT5, Envisat, Jason-1, Jason-2, Cryosat-2, Saral and HY-2A. In their processing, the six analysis centers which contributed to the DORIS combined solution used the latest time variable gravity models and estimated DORIS ground beacon frequency variations. Furthermore, all the analysis centers but one excepted included in their processing phase center variations for ground antennas. The main objective of this study is to present the combination process and to analyze the impact of the new modeling on the performance of the new combined solution. Comparisons with the IDS contribution to ITRF2008 show that (i) the application of the DORIS ground phase center variations in the data processing shifts the combined scale upward by nearly 7-11 mm and (ii) thanks to estimation of DORIS ground beacon frequency variations, the new combined solution no longer shows any scale discontinuity in early 2002 and does not present unexplained vertical discontinuities in any station position time series. However, analysis of the new series with respect to ITRF2008 exhibits a scale increase late 2011 which is not yet explained. A new DORIS Terrestrial Reference Frame was computed to evaluate the intrinsic quality of the new combined solution. That evaluation shows that the addition of data from the new missions equipped with the latest generation of DORIS receiver (Jason-2, Cryosat-2, HY-2A, Saral), results in an internal position consistency of 10 mm or better after mid-2008.

  3. Medication discrepancies at discharge from an internal medicine service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Herrero, José-Ignacio; García-Aparicio, Judit

    2011-02-01

    Medication errors most commonly occur at the time of medication prescribing and particularly at the moment of the transitions of care. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize the discrepancies between the physicians' discharge medication orders and the medication lists at admission obtained by an internal medicine specialist physician in a general internal medicine service. This descriptive, retrospective, study was carried out at a tertiary care university teaching hospital in Spain. It was based on the review of non selected, consecutive, hospital discharge reports. Discrepancies were identified, categorized and characterized through the analysis of the information (medication lists, laboratory tests results, diagnosis, and clinical evolution) contained in them. We analyzed 954 discharge reports. In the medication reconciliation process, we find discrepancies in 832 (87.2%) of them. Justified discrepancies were found in 828 (86.8%) reports and unjustified discrepancies in 52 (5.4%). Omission of a medication was the most frequent medication error detected in 86.4% of cases, followed by incomplete prescription (9.6%). The number of diagnosis, the length of hospital stay and the number of permanent medications at admission were the characteristics of cases associated with medication discrepancies in multivariate linear regression (Premarkable the low number of medication errors detected in our study. Appropriate routines to ensure an accurate medication history collection and a methodical elaboration of the medication list at discharge, when performed by trained internists, are important for an adequate medication reconciliation process. Copyright © 2010 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Study on the Market Position for China Post to Launch International Financial Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Qiu-hong; ZHOU Zhi-cui; DU Yu-wei

    2005-01-01

    The article studies the international financial service, which might be opened by China Post. Based on defining postal financial service, it analyses the face-to-face circumstances and challenges by using the method of normal market position and the method of General Electric Company (GEC). Finally it defines the market position of Postal Financial International Service(PFIS).

  5. International trade in services developments in light of dynamic developments in competitive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Olefir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses theoretical grounds for determining «services», key peculiarities of international trade in services and its discrepancies from trade in goods, and determines the modern trends of development of this form of international trade according to the main types of services.

  6. 75 FR 57102 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; FACA... Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of the 2006... related to international postal and delivery services of interest to Advisory Committee members and...

  7. 76 FR 15028 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; FACA... Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of the 2006... related to international postal and delivery services of interest to Advisory Committee members and...

  8. 75 FR 8425 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; FACA... Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of the 2006... international postal and delivery services of interest to Advisory Committee members and the public....

  9. 78 FR 63434 - International Mailing Services: Proposed Price Changes-Exigent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ...%) International Business Reply TM Cards and Envelopes (2.8%) ] Customs Clearance and Delivery Fee (4.3%) Although... Duplicate copy of PS Form 3606 1.30 * * * * * International Business Reply Service (382) [For each country that offers International Business Reply service, revise the fees to read as follows:] Fee:...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(16)-1 - Services in employ of international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of 1954) § 31.3306(c)(16)-1 Services in employ of international organization. (a) Subject to the provisions of section 1 of the International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U.S.C. 228), services performed in the employ of an international organization as defined in section 7701(a)(18) are excepted...

  11. VLBI observations of 10 CSO candidates: expansion velocities of hot spots

    CERN Document Server

    An, Tao; Yang, Jun; Taylor, Gregory B; Hong, Xiaoyu; Baan, Willem A; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Min; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Weihua; Chen, Xi; Cui, Lang; Hao, Longfei; Zhu, Xinying

    2011-01-01

    Observations of ten Compact Symmetric Objects ({\\rm CSO}) candidates have been made with the Very Long Baseline Array at 8.4 GHz in 2005 and with a combined Chinese and European VLBI array at 8.4 GHz in 2009. The 2009 observations incorporate for the first time the two new Chinese telescopes at Miyun and Kunming for international astrophysical observations. The observational data, in combination with archival VLBA data from previous epochs, have been used to derive the proper motions of the VLBI components. Because of the long time baseline of $\\sim$16 years of the VLBI data sets, the expansion velocities of the hot spots can be measured at an accuracy as high as $\\sim$1.3 $\\mu$as yr$^{-1}$. Six of the ten sources are identified as CSOs with a typical double or triple morphology on the basis of both spectral index maps and their mirror-symmetry of proper motions of the terminal hot spots. The compact double source J1324+4048 is also identified as a CSO candidate. Among the three remaining sources, J1756+5748 ...

  12. New Zealand pathway towards Asia-Pacific and global e-VLBI research and development

    CERN Document Server

    Gulyaev, Sergei; Weston, Stuart; Thomasson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 3 years, Auckland University of Technology has established the first radio astronomical observatory in New Zealand, which, because of its remote geographic location, has quickly become a member of a number of international VLBI networks, in particular the IVS and the LBA. Not only has this added significantly to the observational power in the Pacific and Oceania, but by utilising new fibre connections within New Zealand, and across the Pacific and the Tasman Sea, the New Zealand radio telescopes have now been linked to many in Australia, Asia and the Pacific. Recent astronomical results are presented and plans for widening New Zealand participation in Australasian, Asia-Pacific and global VLBI research and development are outlined. Real-time e-VLBI is a vital part of New Zealand's capability development towards the SKA. The rapid and challenging establishment of New Zealand radio astronomy can serve as a model for the engagement in mega-Science and e-Science by resource-limited institutions and ...

  13. First geodetic VLBI sessions with the Chinese Deep Space Stations Jiamusi and Kashi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dezhen; Dong, Guangliang; Wang, Guangli; Li, Haitao; Jiang, Wu

    2016-11-01

    The first three 24-h S/X dual-band geodetic VLBI sessions using two new Chinese Deep Space Stations (CDSSs), Jiamusi and Kashi, and four Chinese VLBI Stations (CVSs), Beijing, Kunming, Seshan, and Urumqi were conducted with the goal of improving the two CDSSs' positions, which were previously known to a few decimeters. Due to the limited frequency ranges of Jiamusi and Kashi, different but compatible frequencies for bandwidth synthesis were set at the CDSS and CVS stations. This paper presents the scheduling, correlation and fringe fit, and geodetic analysis of the observations. Final estimates of the station positions are obtained from the global solution using 5365 international VLBI sessions from August 3, 1979 through September 29, 2015. Position estimates for Jiamusi are accurate to 23, 35, and 41 mm in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively, and for Kashi are accurate to 10, 20, and 16 mm. Precisions of the two CDSSs' positions are improved by a factor of 5-10 over previous values, which fully satisfies the requirements of the experiments and makes the first step towards the foundation and maintenance of the time-space reference frame based on the Chinese Deep Space Network (CDSN).

  14. Internal corrosion of carbon steel piping in hot aquifers service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simičić Miloš V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal corrosion of carbon steel pipelines is a major problem encountered in water service. In terms of prediction of the remaining lifetime for water pipelines based on the corrosion allowance, the three main approaches are corrosion modelling, corrosion inhibitor availability, and corrosion monitoring. In this study we used two theoretical corrosion models, CASSANDRA and NORSOK M-506 of quite different origin in order to predict uniform corrosivity of hot aquifers in eight different pipelines. Because of the varying calculation criteria for the different models, these can give very different corrosion rate predictions for the same data input. This is especially true under conditions where the formation of protective films may occur, such as at elevated temperatures. The evaluation of models was conducted by comparison using weight-loss coupons and three corrosion inhibitors were obtained from commercial suppliers. The tests were performed during the 60-day period. Even though inhibitors’ efficiencies of 98% had been achieved in laboratory testing, inhibitors’ availabilities of 85% have been used due to logistics problems and other issues. The results, given in mmpy, i.e. millimeter per year, are very consistent with NORSOK M-506 prediction. This is presumably because the model considers the effect of the formation of a passive iron carbonate film at temperatures above 80 °C and significant reduction in corrosion rate. Corrosion inhibitor A showed a better performance than inhibitors B and C in all cases but the target corrosion rates of less than 0.1 mmpy were achieved for all inhibitors. The chemical type of corrosion inhibitor A is based on quaternary amines mixed with methanol, isopropyl alcohol, xylene and ethylbenzene. Based on the obtained results the carbon steel lifetime of 30 years, provided proper inhibitors are present and 3mm corrosion allowance, can be achieved for hot aquifers service with presented water compositions.

  15. 78 FR 28625 - American Airlines, a Subsidiary of AMR Corporation, Tulsa International Airport, Fleet Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration American Airlines, a Subsidiary of AMR Corporation, Tulsa... workers of American Airlines, a subsidiary of AMR Corporation, Tulsa International Airport, Fleet Service Clerks, Tulsa, Oklahoma. American Airlines supplies air transportation services. The subject worker group...

  16. 78 FR 15615 - Reporting Requirements for U.S. Providers of International Telecommunications Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Telecommunications Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document... telecommunications services, the Commission consolidated the traffic and revenue and circuit status reports into one... the current state of the international telecommunications market. DATES: Effective April 11,...

  17. Prevalence of delirium in hospitalized patients from an internal medicine service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    González Pezoa, Ana Carolina; Carrillo Venezian, Bernardita Claudia; Castillo Rojas, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    .... To determine the rate of prevalence of delirium in Internal Medicine Service patients and evaluate missed diagnosis of the syndrome made by attending physicians, medical residents or interns in charge...

  18. 76 FR 50158 - International Services Surveys: Amendments to the BE-120, Benchmark Survey of Transactions in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ..., architectural, and surveying services; (17) financial services (purchases only); (18) industrial engineering... Bureau of Economic Analysis 15 CFR Part 801 RIN 0691-AA76 International Services Surveys: Amendments to the BE-120, Benchmark Survey of Transactions in Selected Services and Intangible Assets With...

  19. Audit of the consultation process on general internal medicine services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, J; Jordan, M; Ghali, W A

    2009-02-01

    To determine the proportion of consultations requested by general internal medicine services that communicate key components of the consultation process to medical subspecialists. Retrospective chart review by two researchers, using a standardised chart abstraction instrument (93.1% agreement, kappa 0.85). Calgary, Alberta, Canada. A random sample of medical consultations was selected from those generated on two medical teaching units (MTUs) from 2003 to 2004. The primary measure of interest was whether a "clear clinical question" was posed to the subspecialist, a binary variable. Two hundred consultations were sampled from the 2885 subspecialty consultations. Of the selected consultations, 94.0% (188/200) were available for review. A clear clinical question was posed in 69.7% (131/188) of consultations (CI 0.63 to 0.74). In a secondary analysis involving a larger sample permitting comparison across subspecialties, 95.1% (368/387) of the consultations, representative of the subspecialties, were available for review. An MTU member contacted the subspecialist for 74.2% of consultations. If a consultation was urgent, a member of the MTU contacted the subspecialist in 81.0% of consultations. Of these urgent consultations, 63.3% had a clear clinical question. More than one in four consultations does not contain a clear clinical question, illustrating suboptimal communication between physicians. Innovative strategies that provide a sustainable solution for overcoming barriers to communication could have a significant impact on quality of care.

  20. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(15)-1 - Services in employ of international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... organization. (a) Subject to the provisions of section 1 of the International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U.S.C. 288), services performed in the employ of an international organization as defined in section... with the intent thereof— (18) International organization. The term “international organization” means...

  1. The latest results from the Global mm-VLBI Array

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgson, Jeffrey A; Marscher, Alan P; Jorstad, Svetlana G; Marti-Vidal, Ivan; Bremer, Michael; Lindqvist, Michael; de Vicente, Pablo; Zensus, Anton

    2014-01-01

    The Global mm-VLBI Array (GMVA) is the highest angular resolution imaging interferometer currently available as a common user facility. It is capable of angular resolutions on the order of 40 microarcseconds. Currently 14 stations in the United States and Europe participate in global 3 mm VLBI observations. The GMVA is used for continuum and spectroscopic imaging, probing the central regions of active galaxies and the origin of jets as these regions are typically not observable at longer wavelengths due to synchrotron self-absorption. In early 2012, fringes were detected to the three stations of the Korean VLBI Network (KVN), opening the possibility of extending the baseline coverage of the VLBI array to the East. In these proceedings, we will present recent images from a monitoring program of gamma-ray blazars using the GMVA, including the sources 3C454.3 and 0235+164, and an update of its current status and abilities.

  2. Navigation of space VLBI missions: Radioastron and VSOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jordan

    1993-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, Russian and Japanese space agencies will each place into highly elliptic earth orbit a radio telescope consisting of a large antenna and radio astronomy receivers. Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) techniques will be used to obtain high resolution images of radio sources observed by the space and ground based antennas. Stringent navigation accuracy requirements are imposed on the space VLBI missions by the need to transfer an ultra-stable ground reference frequency standard to the spacecraft and by the demands of the VLBI correlation process. Orbit determination for the mission will be the joint responsibility of navigation centers in the U.S., Russia, and Japan with orbit estimates based on combining tracking data from NASA, Russian, and Japanese sites. This paper describes the operational plans, the inter-agency coordination, and data exchange between the navigation centers required for space VLBI navigation.

  3. A comparative study of internal customer management practices within service sector firms and the National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaston, I

    1994-02-01

    In responding to the UK government's market forces model, some National Health Service (NHS) managers have introduced private sector concepts such as 'customer care' and 'total quality management' (TQM). Private sector firms find that success of these techniques is dependent upon creating an internal marketing orientation across the entire organization. To determine how internal marketing is being applied, a comparative survey of UK service sector firms and NHS units was undertaken using a modified version of Parasuraman's SERVQUAL model. All respondents indicated existence of type 1, 2, 3 and 4 gaps in the internal customer management process within their organizations. Major influencers of service gaps include departments placing internal efficiency ahead of internal customers and insufficient understanding of internal customer requirements. The survey indicated that, in certain areas of managing service quality, the NHS is performing better than its private sector counterparts. Nevertheless, opportunity for enhancing service quality in the NHS is possible through improving the flow of information between departments, stronger orientation towards meeting customer needs, upgrading provision systems and changing intradepartmental culture. The constraint facing the NHS manager is the limited availability of resources. One solution is to allocate resources in relation to service priorities. A directional planning matrix is presented as a tool for developing an optimum internal customer management strategy within an NHS unit.

  4. Aftercare services for international sex trafficking survivors: informing U.S. service and program development in an emerging practice area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Rebecca J; Johns, Natalie

    2011-04-01

    International sex trafficking into the United States appears to be a serious and growing problem, although the evidence regarding prevalence, risk, and consequences is incomplete. Nonetheless, human service providers are increasingly being asked to offer services to sex trafficking survivors. Consequently, providers need information to guide services and program development in this emerging practice area. To address this knowledge need, we systematically reviewed and synthesized 20 documents addressing the needs of and services for international survivors of sex trafficking into the United States. The main finding from the review shows the importance of a continuum of aftercare services to address survivors' changing needs as they move from initial freedom to recovery and independence. Based on our synthesis of the reviewed literature, we present a service delivery framework to guide providers' development of services for survivors.

  5. VLBI2010 Receiver Back End Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a receiver back-end to convert analog RF signals from the receiver front end into channelized digital data streams to be recorded or transmitted electronically. The back end functions are typically performed in two steps: conversion of analog RF inputs into IF bands (see Table 2), and conversion of IF bands into channelized digital data streams (see Tables 1a, 1b and 1c). The latter IF systems are now completely digital and generically referred to as digital back ends (DBEs). In Table 2 two RF conversion systems are compared, and in Tables 1a, 1b, and 1c nine DBE systems are compared. Since DBE designs are advancing rapidly, the data in these tables are only guaranteed to be current near the update date of this document.

  6. e-VLBI detection of SN2007gr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragi, Z.; Kouveliotou, C.; Garrett, M. A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Szomoru, A.; Argo, M.

    2007-09-01

    We observed the Type Ibc SN2007gr on 6-7 September for 12 hours (21:00-09:00 UTC) at 4.97 GHz with the the European VLBI Network (EVN) using the e- VLBI technique. Participating telescopes were Darnhall, Jodrell Bank (MkII), Medicina, Onsala, Torun and Westerbork (phased array of 14 telescopes). The aggregate bitrate was 256 Mbps, except for Darnhall which contributed with an effective data rate of 128 Mbps due to analog bandwidth restrictions.

  7. Simulation of Local Tie Accuracy on VLBI Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Ulla; Poutanen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new mathematical model to compute the centering parameters of a VLBI antenna. These include the coordinates of the reference point, axis offset, orientation, and non-perpendicularity of the axes. Using the model we simulated how precisely parameters can be computed in different cases. Based on the simulation we can give some recommendations and practices to control the accuracy and reliability of the local ties at the VLBI sites.

  8. A VLBI survey at 2.29 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, R. A.; Morabito, D. D.; Williams, J. G.; Faulkner, J.; Jauncey, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    VLBI observations at 2.29 GHz with fringe spacings of about 3 milliarcsec have been performed on 1398 radio sources spread over the entire sky. 917 sources were detected, including 93 percent of the identified BL Lacertae objects, 86 percent of the quasars, and 36 percent of the galaxies. The resulting catalog of compact radio sources is useful for various astrophysical studies and in the formation of VLBI celestial reference frames.

  9. Act Local or Global?: Comparing Student Experiences in Domestic and International Service-Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Elizabeth; Crain, Léna Kavaliauskas

    2013-01-01

    International service-learning (ISL) is a popular way to facilitate student growth in the areas of cross-cultural learning and civic engagement. However, many have questioned whether international trips provide any added value compared to domestic service-learning. Using the context of Alternative Break programs, this study compares student…

  10. 78 FR 21980 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Service Level III and Other Coatings, Atmospheric Storage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Service Level III and Other Coatings, Atmospheric Storage...-2012-02, ``Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Service Level III and Other Coatings, Atmospheric... aging management programs (AMP) and aging management review (AMR) items in NUREG-1801, Revision 2...

  11. Why Volunteer? The Complexities of International Pre-Service Teachers' Intercultural Adjustment Experiences through Community Service Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that pre-service teachers who have volunteered in schools demonstrate greater awareness of the general operational aspects of a school and, thus, are better prepared for the teaching practicum. However, there is little documented evidence about the cross-cultural challenges of international pre-service teachers…

  12. Why Volunteer? The Complexities of International Pre-Service Teachers' Intercultural Adjustment Experiences through Community Service Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that pre-service teachers who have volunteered in schools demonstrate greater awareness of the general operational aspects of a school and, thus, are better prepared for the teaching practicum. However, there is little documented evidence about the cross-cultural challenges of international pre-service teachers…

  13. Receiving And Data Acquisition Systems Of Rt-32 For Vlbi Observations / Rt-32 Uztveršanas Un Datu Reģistrācijas Sistēmas Vlbi Novērojumiem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukovs, Vl.; Shmeld, I.; Nechaeva, M.; Trokss, J.; Bezrukovs, D.; Klapers, M.; Berzins, A.; Lesins, A.; Dugin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Radiotelescope RT-32 is a fully steerable 32-m parabolic antenna located at Irbene and belonging to Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Centre (VIRAC). Currently, the work on upgrading and repair of its receiving hardware and data acquisition systems is of high priority for the VIRAC. One of the main scientific objectives for the VIRAC Radioastronomical observatory is VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) observations in centimetre wavelengths in collaboration with world VLBI networks, such as European VLBI network (EVN), Low Frequency VLBI network (LFVN), and others. During the last years the room in the secondary focus of telescope was reconstructed, and several new receivers were installed. Currently, RT-32 observations are carried out in four different bands: 92 cm, 18 cm, 6 cm, and 2.5 cm. First three of them are already successfully employed in diversified VLBI experiments. The receiver on 2.5 cm band has only one linear polarized chain and is used mainly for the methanol maser single dish observations. The apparatus system of RT-32 is equipped with two independent VLBI data acquisition systems: TN-16, and DBBC in combination with MK5b. Both systems are employed in interferometric observations depending on the purpose of experiment and the enabled radiotelescopes. The current status of RT-32, the availability of its receiving and data acquisition units for VLBI observations and the previous VLBI sessions are discussed. Radioteleskops RT-32 ir Ventspils Starptautiskajam Radioastronomijas Centram (VSRC) piederoša pilnas piedziņas 32 m diametra paraboliskā antena. Pašreiz visaktuālākie VSRC veicamie darbi ir saistīti ar RT-32 uztverošās aparatūras un datu reģistrēšanas sistēmas labošanu un modernizāciju. Viens no radioastronomiskās observatorijas galvenajiem zinātniskajiem uzdevumiem ir sevišķi lielas bāzes interferometriskie (VLBI) novērojumi centimetru viļņu garumu diapazonā sadarbībā ar pasaules VLBI tīkla partneriem, t

  14. INTERNAL MARKETING IN PUBLIC SERVICE SECTOR AND ITS EFFECT ON JOB SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DÜLGEROĞLU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Internal marketing can be interpreted to applicate marketing practices to the organization’s employees. Internal marketing is very important and related to almost any organization. Satisfying employees result in motivation so that the service quality of service provider is going to be higher and service output is going to be increased. The aim of this paper is to analyze internal marketing in public service sector in Bursa and to propose internal marketing strategies for managers based on the findings. Therefore different public service organizations’ employees were reached. As a sampling method quota sampling was chosen because not many of the public service deliverers were eager to participate in such a survey. To collect data, questionnaire method was selected. Regression analysis was used to analyze the effects on job satisfaction. Results show that colleagues, job enrichment and compensation have significant effect on job satisfaction.

  15. The use of international television formats by public-service broadcasters in Australia, Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esser, Andrea; Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2015-01-01

    Today, the use of internationally licensed television formats, developed in one market and sold for local adaptation, is a widespread practice amongst commercial broadcasters around the world. But how has this trend impacted on public service broadcasting? Public service stipulations include...... broadcasters? Responding to criticisms of the international, commodified character of formats in general and their staple, reality TV and lifestyle entertainment more specifically, this article provides a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the use of international formats by Australian, Danish and German...

  16. Internal Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality Toward Trust and Word of Mouth

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This study generally aims to analyze the influence of internal customer satisfaction and perceptions of service quality in creating trust and word of mouth in higher education service industry. In the process, this study aims to achieve a special purpose, which is to build constructs/ variables to measure internal customer satisfaction, so in the future it can be applied to universally in other institutions of higher education. The results of this study indicate that the internal customer sat...

  17. On International Trade in Educational Services: An Interpretation of the Regulations and China's WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xi-bin

    2006-01-01

    The "General Agreement on Trade in Services" (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers educational trade services. Hence, all the regulations of the GATS have to be followed in the international trade of educational services. Having acceded to the WTO, China is starting to fulfill the rights and obligations as a member by…

  18. 78 FR 55773 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; FACA... Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of the 2006... delivery services of interest to Advisory Committee members and the public. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  19. 78 FR 8683 - Advisory Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Committee on International Postal and Delivery Services AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice; FACA... Postal and Delivery Services. This Committee has been formed in fulfillment of the provisions of the 2006... postal and delivery services of interest to Advisory Committee members and the public. For...

  20. On International Trade in Educational Services: An Interpretation of the Regulations and China's WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xi-bin

    2006-01-01

    The "General Agreement on Trade in Services" (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers educational trade services. Hence, all the regulations of the GATS have to be followed in the international trade of educational services. Having acceded to the WTO, China is starting to fulfill the rights and obligations as a member by completely…

  1. International Students' Perceptions of Service Quality in the UK Banking Sector: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Christopher; Hsu, Marc Ting-Chun

    2011-01-01

    This study reviews and evaluates international students' perceptions of UK banks. The specific research objectives were to identify international students' expectations and perceptions of service quality from UK banks and to assess the quality GAP or dissonance between these. A total of 297 international students studying in the UK responded to…

  2. The internal audit of clinical areas: a pilot of the internal audit methodology in a health service emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alison; Santilli, Mario; Scott, Belinda

    2015-12-01

    Governing bodies of health services need assurance that major risks to achieving the health service objectives are being controlled. Currently, the main assurance mechanisms generated within the organization are through the review of implementation of policies and procedures and review of clinical audits and quality data. The governing bodies of health services need more robust, objective data to inform their understanding of the control of clinical risks. Internal audit provides a methodological framework that provides independent and objective assurance to the governing body on the control of significant risks. The article describes the pilot of the internal audit methodology in an emergency unit in a health service. An internal auditor was partnered with a clinical expert to assess the application of clinical criteria based on best practice guidelines. The pilot of the internal audit of a clinical area was successful in identifying significant clinical risks that required further management. The application of an internal audit methodology to a clinical area is a promising mechanism to gain robust assurance at the governance level regarding the management of significant clinical risks. This approach needs further exploration and trial in a range of health care settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  3. Human Asset Internalization and Global Sourcing of Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    firms may transfer key personnel of local service providers to whollyownedsubsidiaries. We argue that a felt need for applying more powerful incentives on key personnel of the service provider ‐ to harness and empower the sourcing operation ‐ may in itself be a motive for, and key driver of...

  4. VLBI and GPS-based Time-Transfer Using CONT08 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieck, Carsten; Haas, Ruediger; Jaldehag, Kenneth; Jahansson, Jan

    2010-01-01

    One important prerequisite for geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is the use of frequency standards with excellent short term stability. This makes VLBI stations, which are often co-located with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiving stations, interesting for studies of time- and frequency-transfer techniques. We present an assessment of VLBI time-transfer based on the data of the two week long consecutive IVS CONT08 VLBI campaign by using GPS Carrier Phase (GPSCP). CONT08 was a 15 day long campaign in August 2008 that involved eleven VLBI stations on five continents. For CONT08 we estimated the worst case VLBI frequency link stability between the stations of Onsala and Wettzell to 1e-15 at one day. Comparisons with GPSCP confirm the VLBI results. We also identify time-transfer related challenges of the VLBI technique as used today.

  5. First Class Service, First Class Enjoyment-- Guangzhou Asia International Hotel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Situated in Guangzhou,Guangdong Asia International Hotel is the newest five star luxurious high intelligence exhibition business hotel. It is located the golden business center and the main road of Guangzhou-Huangshi East Road. It is only fifteen minutes' drive from Guangzhou train station, forty minutes'drive to Guangzhou New Baiyun International Airport.

  6. MAIN FACTORS DRIVING SOCIAL PUBLIC SERVICES IN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela, GHENTA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Literature and the latest reports point out that not only in Europe, but all over the world there is a growing demand for social services. As social needs have diversified, the number of potential users of social services has increased and this has generated increased complexity of social services. This paper highlights some of the results of a study conducted by the author in the doctoral studies program. One of the aims of this study was to identify the main factors that cause the current configuration of social services at global level. The research analysed the demographic changes and the impact of the crisis in social services for Europe, the United States of America (USA and Japan based on statistical data provided by the national statistics institutes for the regions considered. The results highlight the necessity of continuous development and reconfiguration of social services in order to meet the social and economic demands and to ensure a better organisation of these type of services.

  7. INTERNATIONAL EXPANSION OF SERVICE COMPANIES USING THE STRATEGY OF DELOCALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucretia Mariana CONSTANTINESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The elimination of the constraints related to distance, service demand increase and service accessibility, from the perspective of their commercial capacity, have encouraged service companies to invest abroad, with the desire to identify new clients and to use their specific competitive advantages, and, for this reason, in this work, we shall present new delocalization models that could be used by the companies of the dematerialized economy to transfer some activities outside of their country of origin through the realization of a commercial presence (foreign direct investment - FDI and their integration with the other entities of the network, in order to exploit the comparative advantages of the different locations.

  8. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(5)-1 - Remuneration for services for foreign government or international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... government or international organization. 31.3401(a)(5)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL....3401(a)(5)-1 Remuneration for services for foreign government or international organization. (a... are immaterial for purposes of the exception. (b) Services for international organization. (1)...

  9. Internal Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality Toward Trust and Word of Mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study generally aims to analyze the influence of internal customer satisfaction and perceptions of service quality in creating trust and word of mouth in higher education service industry. In the process, this study aims to achieve a special purpose, which is to build constructs/ variables to measure internal customer satisfaction, so in the future it can be applied to universally in other institutions of higher education. The results of this study indicate that the internal customer satisfaction can be measured with three constructs, namely: service product, service delivery, and service environment. All of those variables have significant relationship with trust, which is significantly related to word of mouth. On the other side, communication, productivity and responsiveness are found to be significant in measuring the perceptions of service quality.The results also proved that the perception of service quality is significantly related to trust and word of mouth. This study is expected to contribute measurement tools of internal customer satisfaction in higher education. This research is also expected to enrich discussion on how to measure the internal customer satisfaction and service quality toward trust and word of mouth in higher education. Thus the higher education can continue to strive to provide educational service in accordance with the expectations of the customers.

  10. Improved VLBI astrometry of OH maser stars

    CERN Document Server

    Vlemmings, W H T

    2007-01-01

    Aims: Accurate distances to evolved stars with high mass loss rates are needed for studies of many of their fundamental properties. However, as these stars are heavily obscured and variable, optical and infrared astrometry is unable to provide enough accuracy. Methods: Astrometry using masers in the circumstellar envelopes can be used to overcome this problem. We have observed the OH masers of a number of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars for approximately 1 year with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). We have used the technique of phase referencing with in-beam calibrators to test the improvements this technique can provide to Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) OH maser astrometric observations. Results: We have significantly improved the parallax and proper motion measurements of the Mira variable stars U Her, S CrB and RR Aql. Conclusions: It is shown that both in-beam phase-referencing and a decrease in solar activity during the observations significantly improves the accuracy of the astrometric...

  11. Mark 6 Next-Generation VLBI Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, A.; Lapsley, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Mark 6 VLBI data system is being developed by MIT Haystack Observatory as a next-generation disk-based VLBI data system capable of supporting the goals of VLBI2010, with a maximum sustained recording rate of 16 Gbps writing to an array of 32 magnetic disks. The Mark 6 is based on COTS hardware and open-source code and is being designed to transition easily from the widely used Mark 5 system. A successful 16 Gbps per station VLBI demonstration experiment was conducted with Mark 6 in late 2011 as a proof-of-concept. Haystack Observatory is collaborating with the NASA/GSFC High-End Network Computing Group in the selection of high-performance COTS hardware platforms and with Conduant Corporation in the development of a high-performance disk module for Mark 6. Existing Mark 5 systems will be upgradable to Mark 6, and existing Mark 5 SATA modules will be upgradeable for compatibility with Mark 6. The Mark 6 system is projected to be available to the VLBI community in late 2012.

  12. Search for Binary Black Hole Candidates from the VLBI Images of AGNs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiang Liu

    2014-09-01

    We have searched the core-jet pairs in the VLBI scales (< 1 kpc), from several VLBI catalogues, and found out 5 possible Binary Black Hole (BBH) candidates. We present here the search results and analyse the candidates preliminarily. We plan to study with multi-band VLBI observation. We also plan to carry out optical line investigation in future.

  13. International service-learning: an opportunity to engage in cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlbry, Pamela; Daugherty, JoAnn

    2015-01-01

    One-day international service-learning projects are an opportunity for nursing students to engage in learning cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills. At XXX University, faculty developed these international service-learning projects in Mexico where students participated in health promotion teaching for children and families and providing health care for older adults. The purpose of this article is to describe 3 types of student experiences gained during 1-day international service-learning projects. We named these experiences cultural communication, cultural confidence, and cultural surprise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The preparedness of hospital Health Information Services for system failures due to internal disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheens; Robinson, Kerin M; Wendt, Kate; Williamson, Dianne

    2009-01-01

    The unimpeded functioning of hospital Health Information Services (HIS) is essential for patient care, clinical governance, organisational performance measurement, funding and research. In an investigation of hospital Health Information Services' preparedness for internal disasters, all hospitals in the state of Victoria with the following characteristics were surveyed: they have a Health Information Service/ Department; there is a Manager of the Health Information Service/Department; and their inpatient capacity is greater than 80 beds. Fifty percent of the respondents have experienced an internal disaster within the past decade, the majority affecting the Health Information Service. The most commonly occurring internal disasters were computer system failure and floods. Two-thirds of the hospitals have internal disaster plans; the most frequently occurring scenarios provided for are computer system failure, power failure and fire. More large hospitals have established back-up systems than medium- and small-size hospitals. Fifty-three percent of hospitals have a recovery plan for internal disasters. Hospitals typically self-rate as having a 'medium' level of internal disaster preparedness. Overall, large hospitals are better prepared for internal disasters than medium and small hospitals, and preparation for disruption of computer systems and medical record services is relatively high on their agendas.

  15. Development of a New VLBI Data Analysis Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotin, Sergei; Gipson, John M.; MacMillan, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of a new VLBI analysis software under development at NASA GSFC. The new software will replace CALC/SOLVE and many related utility programs. It will have the capabilities of the current system as well as incorporate new models and data analysis techniques. In this paper we give a conceptual overview of the new software. We formulate the main goals of the software. The software should be flexible and modular to implement models and estimation techniques that currently exist or will appear in future. On the other hand it should be reliable and possess production quality for processing standard VLBI sessions. Also, it needs to be capable of processing observations from a fully deployed network of VLBI2010 stations in a reasonable time. We describe the software development process and outline the software architecture.

  16. Australian geodetic VLBI network (AuScope): present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    The Australian geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) array (AuScope) consisting of three new 12-meter radio telescopes in Australia (Hobart, Katherine and Yarragadee), and a correlation facility in Perth that started operations in 2011. The daily positions of the AuScope array are estimated with a precision of a few mm, whereas their daily estimates vary within a range of 20-30 mm on the annual scale. This VLBI network also provides a substantial contribution to the improvement of the Celestial Reference Frame in the southern hemisphere. The plans for extension of the network in collaboration with the New Zealand and South Africa VLBI stations during 2015-2020 are discussed in this presentation.

  17. Parallel algorithm of VLBI software correlator under multiprocessor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weimin; Zhang, Dong

    2007-11-01

    The correlator is the key signal processing equipment of a Very Lone Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) synthetic aperture telescope. It receives the mass data collected by the VLBI observatories and produces the visibility function of the target, which can be used to spacecraft position, baseline length measurement, synthesis imaging, and other scientific applications. VLBI data correlation is a task of data intensive and computation intensive. This paper presents the algorithms of two parallel software correlators under multiprocessor environments. A near real-time correlator for spacecraft tracking adopts the pipelining and thread-parallel technology, and runs on the SMP (Symmetric Multiple Processor) servers. Another high speed prototype correlator using the mixed Pthreads and MPI (Massage Passing Interface) parallel algorithm is realized on a small Beowulf cluster platform. Both correlators have the characteristic of flexible structure, scalability, and with 10-station data correlating abilities.

  18. The automatic calibration of Korean VLBI Network data

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgson, Jeffrey A; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Algaba, Juan-Carlos; Yun, Youngjoo; Jung, Taehyun; Byun, Do-Young

    2016-01-01

    The calibration of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data has long been a time consuming process. The Korean VLBI Network (KVN) is a simple array consisting of three identical antennas. Because four frequencies are observed simultaneously, phase solutions can be transferred from lower frequencies to higher frequencies in order to improve phase coherence and hence sensitivity at higher frequencies. Due to the homogeneous nature of the array, the KVN is also well suited for automatic calibration. In this paper we describe the automatic calibration of single-polarisation KVN data using the KVN Pipeline and comparing the results against VLBI data that has been manually reduced. We find that the pipelined data using phase transfer produces better results than a manually reduced dataset not using the phase transfer. Additionally we compared the pipeline results with a manually reduced phase-transferred dataset and found the results to be identical.

  19. The Automatic Calibration of Korean VLBI Network Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jeffrey A.; Lee, Sang-Sung; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Algaba, Juan-Carlos; Yun, Youngjoo; Jung, Taehyun; Byun, Do-Young

    2016-08-01

    The calibration of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data has long been a time consuming process. The Korean VLBI Network (KVN) is a simple array consisting of three identical antennas. Because four frequencies are observed simultaneously, phase solutions can be transferred from lower frequencies to higher frequencies in order to improve phase coherence and hence sensitivity at higher frequencies. Due to the homogeneous nature of the array, the KVN is also well suited for automatic calibration. In this paper we describe the automatic calibration of single-polarisation KVN data using the KVN Pipeline and comparing the results against VLBI data that has been manually reduced. We find that the pipelined data using phase transfer produces better results than a manually reduced dataset not using the phase transfer. Additionally we compared the pipeline results with a manually reduced phase-transferred dataset and found the results to be identical.

  20. Centimeter repeatability of the VLBI estimates of European baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Antonio; Zarraoa, Nestor; Sardon, Esther; Ma, Chopo

    1992-01-01

    In the last three years, the European Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network has grown to a total of six fixed antennas placed in Germany, Italy, Spain and Sweden, all equipped with the standard geodetic VLBI instrumentation and data recording systems. During this period of time, several experiments have been carried out using this interferometer providing data of very high quality due to the excellent sensitivity and performance of the European stations. The purpose of this paper is to study the consistency of the VLBI geodetic results on the European baselines with respect to the different degrees of freedom in the analysis procedure. Used to complete this study were both real and simulated data sets, two different software packages (OCCAM 3.0 and CALC 7.4/SOLVE), and a variety of data analysis strategies.

  1. Analysis and comparison of precise long-term nutation series, strictly determined with OCCAM 6.1 VLBI software

    CERN Document Server

    Bourda, G; Heinkelmann, R; Schuh, H

    2008-01-01

    The IAU/IUGG Working Group on "Nutation for a non-rigid Earth", led by V\\'eronique Dehant, won the European Descartes Prize in 2003, for its work developing a new model for the precession and the nutations of the Earth. This model (MHB2000, Mathews et al. 2002) was adopted by the IAU (International Astronomical Union) during the General Assembly in Manchester, in 2000. It is based (i) on some improvements for the precession model (with respect to the previous one of Lieske et al. 1977) owing to the VLBI technique, and (ii) on a very accurate nutation model, close to the observations. With this prize, the Descartes nutation project could offer for international scientists some grants, to be used for further improvements of the precession-nutation Earth model. At the IGG (Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics), with the OCCAM 6.1 VLBI analysis software and the best data and models available, we re-analyzed the whole VLBI sessions available (from 1985 till 2005) solving for the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP). ...

  2. A strategy for building public service motivation research internationally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Sangmook; Vandenabeele, W.V.

    2009-01-01

    As the scholarly research on public service motivation (PSM) has grown and the geographic scope of the research has expanded, there is growing concern about whether the conceptual composition and dimensionalities of PSM are appropriate for explaining and predicting public service–related behavior in

  3. Rethinking ESL Service Courses for International Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Young-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from a writing program in English as a second language (ESL) at a large university in the midwestern United States, this article addresses the significant gap in programmatic and pedagogical responses for graduate writing support by probing the notion of ESL service courses that approach graduate writing courses as being…

  4. Engaging FCS Partners in an International Service Learning Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keino, Leah C.; Torrie, Margaret C.; Hausafus, Cheryl O.; Trost, Betty C.

    2010-01-01

    Several definitions of service learning exist. For this initiative, the authors used Torres and Sinton's (2000) definition that students are learning about social issues and applying new knowledge to real problems in their communities. This project entailed a partnership of committed citizens of different groups (middle, secondary, and university…

  5. A strategy for building public service motivation research internationally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Sangmook; Vandenabeele, W.V.

    2009-01-01

    As the scholarly research on public service motivation (PSM) has grown and the geographic scope of the research has expanded, there is growing concern about whether the conceptual composition and dimensionalities of PSM are appropriate for explaining and predicting public service–related behavior in

  6. Campus Support Services, Programs, and Policies for International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna, Ed.; Foster, Charlotte, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Study abroad programs have proven beneficial for both the international student as well as the domestic community and school population interacting with the student. In an effort to promote cultural awareness, intercultural communications as well as opportunities for future study abroad program success, universities must take care to provide…

  7. Campus Support Services, Programs, and Policies for International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna, Ed.; Foster, Charlotte, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Study abroad programs have proven beneficial for both the international student as well as the domestic community and school population interacting with the student. In an effort to promote cultural awareness, intercultural communications as well as opportunities for future study abroad program success, universities must take care to provide…

  8. 5th CIRP international conference on industrial product-service systems

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    “An Industrial Product-Service System is characterized by the integrated and mutually  determined planning, development, provision and use of product and service shares including its immanent software components in Business-to-Business applications and represents a knowledge-intensive socio-technical system.” – Meier, Roy, Seliger (2010) Since the first conference in 2009, the CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems has become a well-established international forum for the review and discussion of advances, research results and industrial improvements. Researchers from all over the world have met at previous IPS² conferences in Cranfield (2009), Linköping (2010), Braunschweig (2011) and Tokyo (2012). In 2013, the 5th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems is held in Bochum. Important topics of IPS² research presented at the conference are: planning and development, sustainability, business models, operation, service engineering, knowledge mana...

  9. What Developing International Markets for Ecosystem Services Reveal for China's Forestry Sector?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENKINS; Michael; BENNETT; Michael

    2009-01-01

    The market mechanism for forest ecosystem service has already become common knowledge among countries in the international movement to address global climate change.In this paper,international experiences of forest ecosystem market such as better understanding of concept,public participation, sound trading rules and measurement standards are analyzed,and its implication for China is also summarized.Finally,the prospects of forest ecosystem service market in China are discussed.The purpose of this paper i...

  10. e-VLBI observations of Cyg X-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudose, V.; Paragi, Z.; Fender, R.; Spencer, R.; Garrett, M.; Rushton, A.

    2008-04-01

    We observed the X-ray binary Cyg X-3 on April 9th, 2008 for 9.5 hours, between 03:30-13:00 UT, at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN) in e-VLBI mode (the data from the radio telescopes are sent over optical fibers in real-time to the correlator for processing). The radio telescopes participating in the experiment were: Cambridge, Medicina, Jodrell Bank MkII, Onsala (25 m), Torun and Westerbork (phased array).

  11. e-VLBI observations of SS 433 in outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudose, V.; Paragi, Z.; Trushkin, S.; Soleri, P.; Fender, R.; Garrett, M.; Spencer, R.; Rushton, A.; Burgess, P.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Pazderski, E.; Borkowski, K.; Hammargren, R.; Lindqvist, M.; Maccaferri, G.

    2008-11-01

    We have observed the X-ray binary SS 433 on November 6, 2008 between 13:48-18:35 UT at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN) using the e-VLBI technique. The radio telescopes participating in the experiment were: Medicina, Onsala 25m, Torun, Jodrell Bank MkII and Cambridge. The X-ray binary SS 433 is in outburst. Trushkin & Nizhelskij (ATel #1819) reported a major flare already active during the RATAN-600 observations in the 1-22 GHz band on 2008 October 28.

  12. 75 FR 66797 - PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (“PwC”) Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC'') Internal Firm Services Client... read PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC''), Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group... PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC''), Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group. The amended...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6223(c)-1 - Additional information regarding partners furnished to the Internal Revenue Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shown on the partnership return, the Internal Revenue Service will use additional information as... additional information at any time by filing a written statement with the Internal Revenue Service. However...) of this section. (f) Internal Revenue Service may use other information. In addition to...

  14. Beyond ethical and curricular guidelines in global health: attitudinal development on international service-learning trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventres, William B; Wilson, Calvin L

    2015-04-03

    Health professionals from high-income countries are increasingly becoming involved in international service-learning trips in low and low/middle-income countries. While much has been written about the ethics and curricular guidelines related to such endeavors, scant attention has been paid to the attitudes with which trainees and clinicians enter into or return from them. In this essay the authors explore how attitudes contribute to the success or failure of international service-learning trips. The authors submit that the attitudes with which visiting health professionals approach international service-learning trips are much more critical to the success of these experiences than their demonstrated knowledge base or specialized skill sets. They list five attitudes that can aid those participating in international service-learning trips. They list five troubling attitudes that, while common, those participating in international service-learning trips can learn to recognize and avoid. They suggest five strategies key to learning respectful attitudes that can foster success in such cross-cultural activities. Lastly, the authors review several concepts related to attitude development in short or long-term global health work. The attitudes with which visiting health professionals approach international service-learning activities can be important components of the success or failure of the experiences. Through thoughtful consideration of attitudes and approaches, participants on such trips can build a framework for rich and rewarding experiences in global medicine and global health.

  15. ETICS the international software engineering service for the grid

    CERN Document Server

    Di Meglio, A; Couvares, P; Ronchieri, E; Takács, E

    2008-01-01

    The ETICS system is a distributed software configuration, build and test system designed to fulfil the needs of improving the quality, reliability and interoperability of distributed software in general and grid software in particular. The ETICS project is a consortium of five partners (CERN, INFN, Engineering Ingegneria Informatica, 4D Soft and the University of Wisconsin-Madison). The ETICS service consists of a build and test job execution system based on the Metronome software and an integrated set of web services and software engineering tools to design, maintain and control build and test scenarios. The ETICS system allows taking into account complex dependencies among applications and middleware components and provides a rich environment to perform static and dynamic analysis of the software and execute deployment, system and interoperability tests. This paper gives an overview of the system architecture and functionality set and then describes how the EC-funded EGEE, DILIGENT and OMII-Europe projects ...

  16. ETICS: the international software engineering service for the grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meglio, A. D.; Bégin, M.-E.; Couvares, P.; Ronchieri, E.; Takacs, E.

    2008-07-01

    The ETICS system is a distributed software configuration, build and test system designed to fulfil the needs of improving the quality, reliability and interoperability of distributed software in general and grid software in particular. The ETICS project is a consortium of five partners (CERN, INFN, Engineering Ingegneria Informatica, 4D Soft and the University of Wisconsin-Madison). The ETICS service consists of a build and test job execution system based on the Metronome software and an integrated set of web services and software engineering tools to design, maintain and control build and test scenarios. The ETICS system allows taking into account complex dependencies among applications and middleware components and provides a rich environment to perform static and dynamic analysis of the software and execute deployment, system and interoperability tests. This paper gives an overview of the system architecture and functionality set and then describes how the EC-funded EGEE, DILIGENT and OMII-Europe projects are using the software engineering services to build, validate and distribute their software. Finally a number of significant use and test cases will be described to show how ETICS can be used in particular to perform interoperability tests of grid middleware using the grid itself.

  17. ETICS: the international software engineering service for the grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meglio, A D; Begin, M-E [CERN (Switzerland); Couvares, P [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Ronchieri, E [INFN CNAF (Italy); Takacs, E [4D SOFT Ltd (Hungary)], E-mail: alberto.di.meglio@cern.ch

    2008-07-15

    The ETICS system is a distributed software configuration, build and test system designed to fulfil the needs of improving the quality, reliability and interoperability of distributed software in general and grid software in particular. The ETICS project is a consortium of five partners (CERN, INFN, Engineering Ingegneria Informatica, 4D Soft and the University of Wisconsin-Madison). The ETICS service consists of a build and test job execution system based on the Metronome software and an integrated set of web services and software engineering tools to design, maintain and control build and test scenarios. The ETICS system allows taking into account complex dependencies among applications and middleware components and provides a rich environment to perform static and dynamic analysis of the software and execute deployment, system and interoperability tests. This paper gives an overview of the system architecture and functionality set and then describes how the EC-funded EGEE, DILIGENT and OMII-Europe projects are using the software engineering services to build, validate and distribute their software. Finally a number of significant use and test cases will be described to show how ETICS can be used in particular to perform interoperability tests of grid middleware using the grid itself.

  18. Perceptions of International Students on Service Quality Delivery in a Malaysian Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njie, Baboucarr; Asimiran, Soaib; Baki, Roselan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions of international students of service quality delivery (SQD) in a Malaysian public university. Design/methodology/approach: The study was limited to the University's immediate physical environment and its associated human and systems-based services. The physical environment in this…

  19. An Assessment of Experiential Learning of Global Poverty Issues through International Service Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quan V.; Raven, Peter V.

    2015-01-01

    Service learning has been used to supplement a standard business curriculum, but not typically in an international business context. We report the results of two short-term study abroad programs in which we incorporated service learning projects, one in Cambodia and the other in Vietnam. Our objective is to assess how we organized and delivered…

  20. 5 CFR 315.712 - Conversion based on service as a Federal Career Intern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Career Intern. 315.712 Section 315.712 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Conversion to Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.712 Conversion based on service as a Federal Career...

  1. Creating International Community Service Learning Experiences in a Capstone Marketing-Projects Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Lynn E.

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the development of a project-based capstone marketing course, specifically designed to provide marketing students with an international community service learning experience. It differs significantly from previous studies, which focus on integrating service learning into existing marketing courses and on helping local…

  2. International Students in American Pathway Programs: Learning English and Culture through Service-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Julie; Berkey, Becca; Griffin, Francis

    2015-01-01

    As the number of international students studying in the United States continues to grow, the body of literature about service-learning in English Language Learning (ELL) curricula is growing in tandem. The primary goal of this paper is to explore how service-learning impacts the development and transition of pathway program students in the United…

  3. Student Identities and the Tourist Gaze in International Service-Learning: A University Project in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Webster, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how 11 university students in a U.S. service-learning course in Belize understood and represented their identities during the project, particularly their use of "the tourist" as a construct to interpret their experiences. Drawing on literature in international service-learning (ISL) and tourism studies,…

  4. Perceptions of International Students on Service Quality Delivery in a Malaysian Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njie, Baboucarr; Asimiran, Soaib; Baki, Roselan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions of international students of service quality delivery (SQD) in a Malaysian public university. Design/methodology/approach: The study was limited to the University's immediate physical environment and its associated human and systems-based services. The physical environment in this…

  5. Creating International Community Service Learning Experiences in a Capstone Marketing-Projects Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Lynn E.

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the development of a project-based capstone marketing course, specifically designed to provide marketing students with an international community service learning experience. It differs significantly from previous studies, which focus on integrating service learning into existing marketing courses and on helping local…

  6. Funding International Student Support Services: Tension and Power in the University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Nyland, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This case study aims to contribute some understanding as to why a research oriented university with many thousands of full-fee paying international students was believed not to provide adequate funds for international student support services. Drawing on Bourdieu's notions of fields of power and disciplinary hierarchy, we suggest that the…

  7. Libraries across Land and Sea: Academic Library Services on International Branch Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Harriett

    2013-01-01

    This preliminary study explores how library services are offered at the international branch campuses of U.S. institutions of higher education, including librarians' experiences, challenges faced, and collaborations with the home U.S. institutions. The data from a Web survey distributed to international branch campus librarians, a conducted…

  8. The QAP weighted network analysis method and its application in international services trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Helian; Cheng, Long

    2016-04-01

    Based on QAP (Quadratic Assignment Procedure) correlation and complex network theory, this paper puts forward a new method named QAP Weighted Network Analysis Method. The core idea of the method is to analyze influences among relations in a social or economic group by building a QAP weighted network of networks of relations. In the QAP weighted network, a node depicts a relation and an undirect edge exists between any pair of nodes if there is significant correlation between relations. As an application of the QAP weighted network, we study international services trade by using the QAP weighted network, in which nodes depict 10 kinds of services trade relations. After the analysis of international services trade by QAP weighted network, and by using distance indicators, hierarchy tree and minimum spanning tree, the conclusion shows that: Firstly, significant correlation exists in all services trade, and the development of any one service trade will stimulate the other nine. Secondly, as the economic globalization goes deeper, correlations in all services trade have been strengthened continually, and clustering effects exist in those services trade. Thirdly, transportation services trade, computer and information services trade and communication services trade have the most influence and are at the core in all services trade.

  9. Modelling healthcare internal service supply chains for the analysis of medication delivery errors and amplification effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banafsheh Behzad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Healthcare is a universally used service that hugely affects economies and the quality of life. The research of service supply chains has found a significant role in the past decade. The main research goal of this paper is to model and simulate the internal service supply chains of a healthcare system to study the effects of different parameters on the outputs and capability measures of the processes. The specific objectives are to analyse medication delivery errors in a community hospital based on the results of the models and to explore the presence of bullwhip effect in the internal service supply chains of the hospital.Design/methodology/approach: System dynamics which is an approach for understanding the behaviour of complex systems, used as a methodology to model two internal service supply chains of the hospital with a sub-model created to simulate medication delivery errors in the hospital. The models are validated using the actual data of the hospital and the results are analyzed based on experimental design techniques.Findings: It is observed that the bullwhip effect may not occur in a hospital’s internal service supply chains. Furthermore the paper points out the conditions for reducing the medication delivery error in a hospital.Research limitations/implications: Because of the community hospital’s data availability the type of service supply chains modelled in this paper, are small service supply chains, representing only the tasks which are done inside the hospital. To better observe the bullwhip effect in healthcare service supply chains, the chains should be modelled more generally.Originality/value: The original system dynamics modelling of the internal service supply chains of a community hospital, with a sub-model simulating the medication delivery error.

  10. Passengers’ Perspective Toward Airport Service Quality (ASQ (Case Study at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Kurniawan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger satisfaction towards airport service quality is influenced by the level of service at the previous service quality. It causes the new facility is expected to exceed the previous service quality. Service quality improvement of people mover system in Grand Design of Soekarno Hatta International Airport (SHIA expected to support increasing airport service quality management. People mover existing conditions that occur on a free shuttle bus has caused some customer complaint. The purpose of this thesis is providing strategic support as complaint handling on people mover system to enhancing SHIA service quality. The discussion involves a passenger's perspectives, passengers’ satisfaction, and airport service quality to get a purpose of research. This thesis utilizes Fodness and Murray (2007 theory regarding the accurate scale to measure SHIA service quality by using Servqual method and Kano Model approach. Airport Service Quality (ASQ aims to give an airport more competitive in the relationship between business and operations. In this thesis offers support strategy in service quality attributes and considerations to assist airport management in improving airport service quality. This thesis finds the value gap between airport management and passengers’ perspectives that serve as accurate scale in each service attributes on people mover facility at SHIA that must be met to achieve satisfaction based on passengers’ perspectives. Also, this thesis finds several services attributes that must be met on people mover facility at SHIA as a basic service needs by passengers need. Airport management at SHIA should focus on the improved operating system of people mover system related to attributes punctuality, free of charge, information about the schedule, headway, and safety. This thesis presents the relationship between the value gap with service attributes that must be met by passengers’ perspectives, passengers’ satisfaction, and

  11. VLBI observations of bright AGN jets with KVN and VERA Array (KaVA): Evaluation of Imaging Capability

    CERN Document Server

    Niinuma, Kotaro; Kino, Motoki; Sohn, Bong Won; Akiyama, Kazunori; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Trippe, Sascha; Hada, Kazuhiro; Jung, Taehyun; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Dodson, Richard; Koyama, Shoko; Honma, Mareki; Nagai, Hiroshi; Chung, Aeree; Doi, Akihiro; Fujisawa, Kenta; Han, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Joeng-Sook; Lee, Jeewon; Lee, Jeong Ae; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Oyama, Tomoaki; Sorai, Kazuo; Wajima, Kiyoaki; Bae, Jaehan; Byun, Do-Young; Cho, Se-Hyung; Choi, Yoon Kyung; Chung, Hyunsoo; Chung, Moon-Hee; Han, Seog-Tae; Hirota, Tomoya; Hwang, Jung-Wook; Je, Do-Heung; Jike, Takaaki; Jung, Dong-Kyu; Jung, Jin-Seung; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Kang, Jiman; Kang, Yong-Woo; Kan-ya, Yukitoshi; Kanaguchi, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kim, Bong Gyu; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Kim, Hyun-Goo; Kim, Jaeheon; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Kee-Tae; Kim, Mikyoung; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kono, Yusuke; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Lee, Changhoon; Lee, Jung-Won; Lee, Sang Hyun; Minh, Young Chol; Matsumoto, Naoko; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Oh, Chung Sik; Oh, Se-Jin; Park, Sun-Youp; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Sasao, Tetsuo; Shibata, Katsunori M; Song, Min-Gyu; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Wi, Seog-Oh; Yeom, Jae-Hwan; Yun, Young Joo

    2014-01-01

    The Korean very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) network (KVN) and VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) Array (KaVA) is the first international VLBI array dedicated to high-frequency (23 and 43 GHz bands) observations in East Asia. Here, we report the first imaging observations of three bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) known for their complex morphologies: 4C 39.25, 3C 273, and M 87. This is one of the initial result of KaVA early science. Our KaVA images reveal extended outflows with complex substructure such as knots and limb brightening, in agreement with previous Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations. Angular resolutions are better than 1.4 and 0.8 milliarcsecond at 23 GHz and 43 GHz, respectively. KaVA achieves a high dynamic range of ~1000, more than three times the value achieved by VERA. We conclude that KaVA is a powerful array with a great potential for the study of AGN outflows, at least comparable to the best existing radio interferometric arrays.

  12. About the Compatibility of DORIS and VLBI Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, Gennady; Smolentsev, Sergey; Sergeev, Roman

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the compatibility of the DORIS and VLBI observations at Badary Observatory. The DORIS beacon stands at 100-m distance from the main radio telescope dish and transmits signals on two frequencies: 2036.25 MHz and 401.25 MHz. The latter frequency is modulated to send messages containing an ID number, timing information, data from the meteorological sensors, and engineering data (e.g., power). Both frequencies affect the S/X band radio telescope receivers. The parameters of the DORIS signals were measured at the outputs of the S/X band intermediate frequency amplifier. It was found that: (1) The level of RFI, produced by the DORIS beacon, practically corresponds to the level of the system (antenna plus receiver) noise signal and does not overload the S/X band receivers. (2) The DORIS 401.25 MHz signal is out of the frequency bands recorded during standard VLBI sessions. As a result, RFI from DORIS does not affect VLBI observations. This conclusion was confirmed after data correlations of actual VLBI observations that were conducted with the DORIS beacon turned on/off.

  13. U.S. Naval Observatory VLBI Analysis Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boboltz, David A.; Fey, Alan L.; Geiger, Nicole; Dieck, Chris; Hall, David M.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the VLBI Analysis Center at the United States Naval Observatory for the 2012 calendar year. Over the course of the year, Analysis Center personnel continued analysis and timely submission of IVS-R4 databases for distribution to the IVS. During the 2012 calendar year, the USNO VLBI Analysis Center produced two VLBI global solutions designated as usn2012a and usn2012b. Earth orientation parameters (EOP) based on this solution and updated by the latest diurnal (IVS-R1 and IVS-R4) experiments were routinely submitted to the IVS. Sinex files based upon the bi-weekly 24-hour experiments were also submitted to the IVS. During the 2012 calendar year, Analysis Center personnel continued a program to use the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) operated by the NRAO for the purpose of measuring UT1-UTC. Routine daily 1-hour duration Intensive observations were initiated using the VLBA antennas at Pie Town, NM and Mauna Kea, HI. High-speed network connections to these two antennas are now routinely used for electronic transfer of VLBI data over the Internet to a USNO point of presence. A total of 270 VLBA Intensive experiments were observed and electronically transferred to and processed at USNO in 2012.

  14. VLBI data transmission system using multiple IP streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uose, Hisao

    We have developed an IP-based data transmission system which can directly replace K4 (ID1) VLBI data recorder. It employs multiple TCP data steams and individual buffers to cope with variable usable bandwidth we encouter when we use shared academic networks. This paper describes the outline of the system and preliminary testing results.

  15. Developing the Music Pre-Service Teacher through International Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Service learning in tertiary education is about partnerships between higher education institutions and communities, as co-generators of knowledge. Arts programs in service learning engage what Rendon (2009) calls "sentipensante" (sensing/thinking) pedagogy, in which critical examinations of ways of thinking and doing sit alongside…

  16. Applying Kalman filtering to investigate tropospheric effects in VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Benedikt; Nilsson, Tobias; Karbon, Maria; Heinkelmann, Robert; Liu, Li; Lu, Cuixian; Andres Mora-Diaz, Julian; Raposo-Pulido, Virginia; Xu, Minghui; Schuh, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) currently provides results, e.g., estimates of the tropospheric delays, with a delay of more than two weeks. In the future, with the coming VLBI2010 Global Observing System (VGOS) and increased usage of electronic data transfer, it is planned that the time between observations and results is decreased. This may, for instance, allow the integration of VLBI-derived tropospheric delays into numerical weather prediction models. Therefore, future VLBI analysis software packages need to be able to process the observational data autonomously in near real-time. For this purpose, we have extended the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) by a Kalman filter module. This presentation describes the filter and discusses its application for tropospheric studies. Instead of estimating zenith wet delays as piece-wise linear functions in a least-squares adjustment, the Kalman filter allows for more sophisticated stochastic modeling. We start with a random walk process to model the time-dependent behavior of the zenith wet delays. Other possible approaches include the stochastic model described by turbulence theory, e.g. the model by Treuhaft and Lanyi (1987). Different variance-covariance matrices of the prediction error, depending on the time of the year and the geographic latitude, have been tested. In winter and closer to the poles, lower variances and covariances are appropriate. The horizontal variations in tropospheric delays have been investigated by comparing three different strategies: assumption of a horizontally stratified troposphere, using north and south gradients modeled, e.g., as Gauss-Markov processes, and applying a turbulence model assuming correlations between observations in different azimuths. By conducting Monte-Carlo simulations of current standard VLBI networks and of future VGOS networks, the different tropospheric modeling strategies are investigated. For this purpose, we use the simulator module of VieVS which takes into

  17. SIMULATION OF CONTROL STRATEGY FOR INTERNATIONAL MARKETING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Korzh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to develop a general model of integrated management of marketing activities from an international perspective, given the relationship of its parts to each other and the external environment and the cyclical nature of the process, and the construction of a general model for evaluating the performance of international marketing system. Results: In modern conditions high-quality products are necessity-term, but not sufficient to achieve the successful operation of the market. To optimize the above goal should be to work out issues such as the definition of the requirements of potential customers, the timing, location and conditions of the transaction, that is, the seller must offer the buyer at a particular moment only the product that the best way to satisfy existing need for the latter. This may explain the reason for the proposed buyers of high-quality goods are distributed in the market of one country and cannot find it in another. Discussion: The information presented in this article marketing management model allows you to organize all marketing activities and events, and do them not by chance, but in the complex, taking into account their relationship and interaction. As well as the opportunity to working with mesh product and market development to identify new attraction activities and evaluate them in terms of compliance with the overall objectives and company resources. In addition, the proposed method of assessing the effectiveness of a marketing system is universal, and it allows you to analyze the effectiveness of the functioning of the marketing of individual enterprises, regardless of scope, given the impact of all factors.

  18. Post - Crisis Resilience and Trends in the International Service Exchanges by Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucretia Mariana Constantinescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available International transactions that occur with non-tangible goods (also-called �invisible� trade represent more than a third of the world trade, recording a higher dynamics than that of the trade with tangible goods, whose rhythm goes over the dynamics of the global industrial production. The production globalization and the tendency of liberalization of the trade with merchandises, in the spirit of the European Union, have extended to the trade with non-tangible goods as well, and the demand for services has increased, massively contributing to the extension of the array of tradable services and the internationalization, at a fast pace, of the invisible trade. The international transactions with services represent, today, a major component of the international flow of values. In our work, we would like to briefly analyze the evolution of Romania�s services flows in terms of volume (as value and dynamics in the crisis and post-crisis years, to highlight a series of particularities suggesting �a decoupling of Romania�s trade with services from the evolutions that took place on the global and European level� and the fact that the year 2013 is equivalent to the vigorous relaunch of the Romanian trade with services, being a sure sign that these flows have regained their vigor after the crisis and we will also delineate some essential aspects such as the dynamic expansion of the business trade services, proving Romania�s increased attractiveness as a destination country for relocated services.

  19. First Results of the VLBI Experiment on Radar Location of the Asteroid 2012 DA14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaeva, M.; Antipenko, A.; Bezrukov, D.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Dementjev, A.; Dugin, N.; Jekabsons, N.; Khutornoy, R.; Klapers, M.; Konovalenko, A.; Kulishenko, V.; Nabatov, A.; Nesteruk, V.; Pupillo, G.; Reznichenko, A.; Salerno, E.; Shmeld, I.; Skirmante, K.; Tikhomirov, Yu.; Voytyuk, V.

    An international VLBI experiment on radio location of the asteroid 2012 DA14 was organized on 2013 February 15--16, during its flyby close to Earth. The purpose of observations was to investigate and specify orbital parameters of the asteroid, as well as to evaluate its rotation period and other characteristics. The irradiation of the asteroid was performed by the RT-70 transmitter at Evpatoria (Crimea, Ukraine), while the reflected signals were successfully accepted by the two 32 m radio telescopes at Medicina (Bologna, Italy) and Irbene (Ventspils, Latvia). Processing and interpretation of the data were performed both in the Radiophysical Research Institute and in the Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Center. The first results of this experiment are presented and discussed.

  20. VLBI real-time analysis by Kalman Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbon, Maria; Soja, Benedikt; Nilson, Tobias; Heinkelmann, Robert; Liu, Li; Lu, Ciuxian; Xu, Minghui; Raposo-Pulido, Virginia; Mora-Diaz, Julian; Schuh, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is one of the primary space geodetic techniques. It provides the full set of Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) and is unique for observing long term Universal Time (UT1) and precession/nutation. Currently the VLBI products are delivered with a delay of about two weeks from the moment of the observation. However, the need for near-real time estimates of the parameters is increasing, e.g. for satellite based navigation and positioning or for enabling precise tracking of interplanetary spacecraft. The goal is thus to reduce the time span between observation and the final result to less than one day. This can be archived by replacing the classical least squares method with an adaptive Kalman filter. We have developed a Kalman filter for VLBI data analysis. This method has the advantage that it is simultaneously possible to estimate stationary parameters, e.g. station positions, and to model the highly variable stochastic behavior of non-stationary parameters like clocks or atmospheric parameters. The filter is able to perform without any human interaction, making it a completely autonomous tool. In this work we describe the filter and discuss its application for EOP determination and prediction. We discuss the implementation of the stochastic models to statistically account for unpredictable changes in EOP. Furthermore, additional data like results from other techniques can be included to improve the performance. For example, atmospheric angular momentum calculated from numerical weather models can be introduced to supplement the short-term prediction of UT1 and polar motion. This Kalman filter will be extended and embedded in the newly developed Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) as a completely autonomous tool enabling the VLBI analysis in near real-time and providing all the parameters of interest with the highest possible accuracy.

  1. 77 FR 2573 - International Product Change-Global Plus 1C and 2C Negotiated Service Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... International Product Change--Global Plus 1C and 2C Negotiated Service Agreements AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Regulatory Commission to add Global Plus 1C and 2C Negotiated Service Agreements to the Competitive Products... of United States Postal Service to Add Global Plus 1C and 2C Negotiated Service Agreements to the...

  2. EXPRESS Service to the International Space Station: EXPRESS Pallet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primm, Lowell; Bergmann, Alan

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will be the ultimate scientific accomplishment in the history of NASA, with its primary objective of providing unique scientific investigation opportunities. This objective is the basis for the creation of the EXPRESS Pallet System (ExPs). The EXPRESS Pallet will provide extremal/unpressurized accommodations for a wide variety of external users. The payload developers represent many science disciplines, including earth observation, communications, solar and deep space viewing, long-term exposure, and many others. The EXPRESS Pallet will provide a mechanism to maximum utilization of the limited ISS unpressurized payload volume, standard physical payload interfaces for users, a standard integration template for users and the capability to changeout payloads on-orbit. The EXPRESS Pallet provides access to Ram, Wake, Starboard, Port, Nadir, Zenith and Earth Limb for exposure and viewing. 'Me ExPs consists of the Pallet structure, payload Adapters, and a subsystem assembly which includes data controller, power distribution and conversion, and Extra Vehicular Robotics/Extra-Vehicular Activity systems.

  3. Good hygiene practices in hospital nutrition services: the view of internal and external auditors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lize STANGARLIN-FIORI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of hospital nutrition services according to internal and external auditors, before and after intervention, based on the requirements of Good Hygiene Practices. Fifteen hospital nutrition services were evaluated based on a checklist applied by internal auditors and by an external auditor. The intervention program was prepared and implemented in all the locations over one year, and was composed of four points: 1 training; 2 preparation of the action plan; 3 preparation of the documentation; 4 monthly visits to motivate the food handlers and responsible technicians, accompaniment and assistance in the implementation of Good Hygiene Practices. An improvment in the application of Good Hygiene Practices was observed in the hospital nutrition services after the systematic intervention, in the view of both the internal and external auditors, except the requirement related to operational aspects, which had a low percentage of adequacy, both before and after the intervention Before the intervention, there was a significant difference between the evaluation of the internal auditors and the external auditor, which was not found later. These results suggest that the systematic intervention assisted in the adoption of Good Hygiene Practices by hospital nutrition services, according to both the internal and external auditors, and contributed to increasing the knowledge of the internal auditors.

  4. Web Services and Handle Infrastructure - WDCC's Contributions to International Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föll, G.; Weigelt, T.; Kindermann, S.; Lautenschlager, M.; Toussaint, F.

    2012-04-01

    Climate science demands on data management are growing rapidly as climate models grow in the precision with which they depict spatial structures and in the completeness with which they describe a vast range of physical processes. The ExArch project is exploring the challenges of developing a software management infrastructure which will scale to the multi-exabyte archives of climate data which are likely to be crucial to major policy decisions in by the end of the decade. The ExArch approach to future integration of exascale climate archives is based on one hand on a distributed web service architecture providing data analysis and quality control functionality across archvies. On the other hand a consistent persistent identifier infrastructure is deployed to support distributed data management and data replication. Distributed data analysis functionality is based on the CDO climate data operators' package. The CDO-Tool is used for processing of the archived data and metadata. CDO is a collection of command line Operators to manipulate and analyse Climate and forecast model Data. A range of formats is supported and over 500 operators are provided. CDO presently is designed to work in a scripting environment with local files. ExArch will extend the tool to support efficient usage in an exascale archive with distributed data and computational resources by providing flexible scheduling capabilities. Quality control will become increasingly important in an exascale computing context. Researchers will be dealing with millions of data files from multiple sources and will need to know whether the files satisfy a range of basic quality criterea. Hence ExArch will provide a flexible and extensible quality control system. The data will be held at more than 30 computing centres and data archives around the world, but for users it will appear as a single archive due to a standardized ExArch Web Processing Service. Data infrastructures such as the one built by ExArch can greatly

  5. A Study on Internal Service Recovery Strategy Using CIT from the First Line Staff’s Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqing HUANG; Pengfei XIE; Hong SHU

    2014-01-01

    Service is a special product. It is intangible and unstored, so service er-rors are not avoided. Once service errors appear, the first line staffs who keep di-rect touch with customers wil play an important role in service recovery. The staffs' negative emotions during the recovery service should be recovered by internal ser-vice recovery. In this paper, critical incident technique is applied to analyse the re-covery strategies expected by the first line staff and the internal service recovery strategies such as inspiring, authorization, training and psychology service are put forward. the strategy most expected by the staff is reward.

  6. ROMANIA ALIGNMENT TO EU REQUIREMENTS CONCERNING THE SERVICES INTEGRATION IN THE INTERNAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Bogdan Zamfir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the quality of Romania as a member with full rights and obligations of the EU, our country in accordance with the commitments undertaken by Treaty of Adheration, has implemented the free movement of services principle. At the same time the adoption of the directive on services in the internal market of European Commission and the implementation of the additional measures from the action plan to strengthen and enhance the competitiveness of European enterprises, is equal with the full liberalisation of the EU services market and therefore with the obligation to eliminate of all trade barriers which can be in front of free movement of services. In accordance with the requirements of services flows liberalization in the internal market, for Romania is becoming increasingly necessary the enhancing of the services production competitiveness which should develop the interest of decision makers at micro-and macro-economic level. The impact on Romania of the services integration in the internal market requires both a series of benefits and costs, which we present below.

  7. 25 CFR 542.17 - What are the minimum internal control standards for complimentary services or items?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.17 What are the minimum internal control standards for complimentary services or items? (a) Each Tribal gaming regulatory authority...

  8. Clinical preventive services in Guatemala: a cross-sectional survey of internal medicine physicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E Corral

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guatemala is currently undergoing an epidemiologic transition. Preventive services are key to reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases, and smoking counseling and cessation are among the most cost-effective and wide-reaching strategies. Internal medicine physicians are fundamental to providing such services, and their knowledge is a cornerstone of non-communicable disease control. METHODS: A national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 to evaluate knowledge of clinical preventive services for non-communicable diseases. Interns, residents, and attending physicians of the internal medicine departments of all teaching hospitals in Guatemala completed a self-administered questionnaire. Participants' responses were contrasted with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health (MoH prevention guidelines and the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF recommendations. Analysis compared knowledge of recommendations within and between hospitals. RESULTS: In response to simulated patient scenarios, all services were recommended by more than half of physicians regardless of MoH or USPSTF recommendations. Prioritization was adequate according to the MoH guidelines but not including other potentially effective services (e.g. colorectal cancer and lipid disorder screenings. With the exception of colorectal and prostate cancer screening, less frequently recommended by interns, there was no difference in recommendation rates by level. CONCLUSION: Guatemalan internal medicine physicians' knowledge on preventive services recommendations for non-communicable diseases is limited, and prioritization did not reflect cost-effectiveness. Based on these data we recommend that preventive medicine training be strengthened and development of evidence-based guidelines for low-middle income countries be a priority.

  9. International service trade and its implications for human resources for health: a case study of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibulpolprasert, Suwit; Pachanee, Cha-Aim; Pitayarangsarit, Siriwan; Hempisut, Pintusorn

    2004-06-29

    This study aims at analysing the impact of international service trade on the health care system, particularly in terms of human resources for health (HRH), using Thailand as a case study. Information was gathered through a literature review and interviews of relevant experts, as well as a brainstorming session.It was found that international service trade has greatly affected the Thai health care system and its HRH. From 1965 to 1975 there was massive emigration of physicians from Thailand in response to increasing demand in the United States of America. The country lost about 1,500 physicians, 20% of its total number, during that period.External migration of health professionals occurred without relation to agreements on trade in services. It was also found that free trade in service sectors other than health could seriously affect the health care system and HRH. Free trade in financial services with free flow of low-interest foreign loans, which started in 1993 in Thailand, resulted in the mushrooming of urban private hospitals between 1994 and 1997. This was followed by intensive internal migration of health professionals from rural public to urban private hospitals.After the economic crisis in 1997, with the resulting downturn of the private health sector, reverse brain drain was evident. At the same time, foreign investors started to invest in the bankrupt private hospitals. Since 2001, the return of economic growth and the influx of foreign patients have started another round of internal brain drain.

  10. International service trade and its implications for human resources for health: a case study of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitayarangsarit Siriwan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims at analysing the impact of international service trade on the health care system, particularly in terms of human resources for health (HRH, using Thailand as a case study. Information was gathered through a literature review and interviews of relevant experts, as well as a brainstorming session. It was found that international service trade has greatly affected the Thai health care system and its HRH. From 1965 to 1975 there was massive emigration of physicians from Thailand in response to increasing demand in the United States of America. The country lost about 1,500 physicians, 20% of its total number, during that period. External migration of health professionals occurred without relation to agreements on trade in services. It was also found that free trade in service sectors other than health could seriously affect the health care system and HRH. Free trade in financial services with free flow of low-interest foreign loans, which started in 1993 in Thailand, resulted in the mushrooming of urban private hospitals between 1994 and 1997. This was followed by intensive internal migration of health professionals from rural public to urban private hospitals. After the economic crisis in 1997, with the resulting downturn of the private health sector, reverse brain drain was evident. At the same time, foreign investors started to invest in the bankrupt private hospitals. Since 2001, the return of economic growth and the influx of foreign patients have started another round of internal brain drain.

  11. The use of international television formats by public-service broadcasters in Australia, Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esser, Andrea; Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2015-01-01

    the provision of content that informs and educates, helps imagine the nation, enriches the lives and culture of its citizens and provides an inclusive public sphere to support democracy. Can internationally franchised programmes fulfil these remits? And to what extent are they employed by public service...... public service broadcasters. The article hopes to contribute to media policy debate and concludes by arguing that, even in the relatively few instances where formats have been employed, the benefits outweigh the concerns raised....

  12. The Impact of International Service-Learning on Nursing Students' Cultural Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlbry, Pamela Wolfe

    2016-05-01

    This article reports research findings on the effect of an international immersion service-learning project on the level and components of cultural competence of baccalaureate (BSN) nursing students. A triangulated methodology was used to determine changes in components and level of cultural competence pre- and postexperience. The theoretical model The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services was used. It identifies five central constructs in the process of becoming culturally competent: cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, cultural skill, cultural encounter, and cultural desire. The sample of 121 BSN nursing students was gathered from three southern California universities. Data were collected from 2009 to 2013. Using the Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence Among Healthcare Professionals-Student Version© and Cultural Self-Efficacy Scale, constructs of cultural competency were measured in pre- and posttest participants who participated in international service-learning immersion experiences. A demographic survey and open-ended qualitative questions were completed at the posttrip meeting. Mean, frequencies, and correlations with demographic data and survey data were calculated. Pre- and posttrip means were analyzed. Qualitative analysis from six open-ended questions completed at the posttest were coded and themes emerged. The research findings demonstrated the impact of the international service-learning project on building cultural competency in nursing students. Quantitative findings revealed statistically significant differences between pre- and posttest surveys for two of the five constructs of cultural competence. Qualitative analysis supported the quantitative findings in cultural competency constructs found in the model. The research findings support nursing education program use of international service-learning immersion experiences to foster cultural competence in nursing students. Findings from

  13. 中国出境旅游与国际服务贸易关系分析%Relationship Between Chinese International Outbound Tourism and International Service Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章锦河; 刘珍珍; 陈静; 周晶; 李曼

    2012-01-01

    出境旅游是国际服务贸易的重要组成部分,是世界经济全球化的响应。出境旅游与国际服务贸易关系分析是制定出境旅游政策的基础之一。根据1985~2011年中国出境旅游和国际服务贸易时间序列的相关数据,采用计量经济学分析方法,系统探讨了出境旅游与国际服务贸易的关系。得出结论:①出境旅游与国际服务贸易之间存在正相关关系;②出境旅游与国际服务贸易存在长期稳定的动态均衡关系;③出境旅游与国际服务贸易存在短期波动回归长期均衡关系;④出境旅游是国际服务贸易出口的Granger原因,但不是国际服务贸易进口的Granger原因,国际服务贸易进出口均是出境旅游的Granger原因。%Along with the rapid development of global tourism,international tourism becomes an important part of international service trade,which is regarded as a significant parameter of internationalization level of a country or a region.In the context of rapid development in national economy,outbound tourism grows rapidly,which proves that international outbound tourism is the inevitable result of continuous global economic growth and international tourism’s rapid globalization.By the propulsion the development of global economy and international trade liberalization,international service trade has become one of the most important ways for the international economic intercourse activities and also has become the developing assistor of the global economy.However,at present,the relationship between the international outbound tourism development and international service trade is still controversial.According to the relevant data of international outbound tourism and international service trade in 1985 – 2011 in China,the relationship between international outbound tourism and international services trade is analyzed systematically in this ariticle.The results show that: 1) There is a positive correlation between the

  14. Establishing and Scaling-Up Clinical Social Franchise Networks: Lessons Learned From Marie Stopes International and Population Services International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Sarah; Chakraborty, Nirali M; Hayes, Brendan; Mackay, Anna; Moon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In many low- and middle-income countries, a majority of people seek health care from the private sector. However, fragmentation, poor economies of scale, inadequate financing, political opposition, a bias toward curative services, and weak regulatory and quality control systems pose serious challenges for the private sector. Social franchising addresses a number of these challenges by organizing small, independent health care businesses into quality-assured networks. Global franchisors Marie Stopes International (MSI) and Population Services International (PSI) have rapidly scaled their family planning social franchising programs in recent years, jointly delivering over 10.8 million couple-years of protection (CYPs) in 2014—up 26% from 8.6 million CYPs just 1 year prior. Drawing on experience across MSI’s 17 and PSI’s 25 social franchise networks across Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, this article documents the organizations’ operational approaches, challenges faced, and solutions implemented. The organizations provide intensive capacity building and support for private-sector providers, including clinical training, branding, monitoring quality of franchised services, and commodity support. In addition, franchising programs engage providers and clients through behavior change communication (BCC) and demand generation activities to raise awareness and to attract clients, and they implement initiatives to ensure services are affordable for the lowest-income clients. Social franchise programs offer the private sector a collective platform to better engage government in health policy advocacy and for integrating into new public health care financing and procurement mechanisms. The future of social franchising will require developing approaches to scale-up and sustain the model cost-effectively, selectively integrating other health services into the franchise package, and being responsive to evolving health care financing approaches with the

  15. Establishing and Scaling-Up Clinical Social Franchise Networks: Lessons Learned From Marie Stopes International and Population Services International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Sarah; Chakraborty, Nirali M; Hayes, Brendan; Mackay, Anna; Moon, Pierre

    2015-06-17

    In many low- and middle-income countries, a majority of people seek health care from the private sector. However, fragmentation, poor economies of scale, inadequate financing, political opposition, a bias toward curative services, and weak regulatory and quality control systems pose serious challenges for the private sector. Social franchising addresses a number of these challenges by organizing small, independent health care businesses into quality-assured networks. Global franchisors Marie Stopes International (MSI) and Population Services International (PSI) have rapidly scaled their family planning social franchising programs in recent years, jointly delivering over 10.8 million couple-years of protection (CYPs) in 2014-up 26% from 8.6 million CYPs just 1 year prior. Drawing on experience across MSI's 17 and PSI's 25 social franchise networks across Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, this article documents the organizations' operational approaches, challenges faced, and solutions implemented. The organizations provide intensive capacity building and support for private-sector providers, including clinical training, branding, monitoring quality of franchised services, and commodity support. In addition, franchising programs engage providers and clients through behavior change communication (BCC) and demand generation activities to raise awareness and to attract clients, and they implement initiatives to ensure services are affordable for the lowest-income clients. Social franchise programs offer the private sector a collective platform to better engage government in health policy advocacy and for integrating into new public health care financing and procurement mechanisms. The future of social franchising will require developing approaches to scale-up and sustain the model cost-effectively, selectively integrating other health services into the franchise package, and being responsive to evolving health care financing approaches with the potential

  16. International Study of Health Care Organization and Financing of renal services in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Tricia; Roderick, Paul

    2007-12-01

    In England and Wales, the quantity and quality of renal services have improved significantly in the last decade. While acceptance rates for renal replacement therapy appear low by international standards, they are now commensurate with many other northern European countries. The major growth in renal services has been in hemodialysis, especially at satellite units. Health care is predominantly publicly funded through a tax-based National Health Service, and such funding has increased in the last 10 years. Improvements in health outcomes in England and Wales are expected to continue due to the recent implementation of standards, initiatives, and monitoring mechanisms for renal transplantation, vascular access, and patient transport.

  17. The IAASB - the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board - the Influence of Institutional Aspects on International Harmonization Concept of Auditing Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Kareš; Petra Krišková

    2008-01-01

    The article dealt with institutional aspects of auditing profession, mostly their impact on international harmonization concept of auditing services. The authors of the article mention on importance and tasks of the institution - the IAASB - The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, by compiling of strategy of auditing services behavior and development, mostly in context of providing the auditing services. The authors mention on the IAASB priorities in this area set for period...

  18. The IAASB - the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board - the Influence of Institutional Aspects on International Harmonization Concept of Auditing Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Kareš; Petra Krišková

    2008-01-01

    The article dealt with institutional aspects of auditing profession, mostly their impact on international harmonization concept of auditing services. The authors of the article mention on importance and tasks of the institution - the IAASB - The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, by compiling of strategy of auditing services behavior and development, mostly in context of providing the auditing services. The authors mention on the IAASB priorities in this area set for period...

  19. Teaching outside of the Box: A Short-Term International Internship for Pre-Service and In-Service Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel B.; Barrett, Joe; Robinson, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on results from a qualitative study of a two-week international internship for pre-service and in-service physical education (PE) teachers in a developing nation (Belize). Relying upon data from questionnaires that were administered before and after the short-term international internship, participants' perspectives related to…

  20. On the monitoring model of reference point of VLBI antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Li, J.

    2013-08-01

    By parameterizing the rotation of VLBI antenna and modeling in local control network the coordinates of targets fixed on the antenna, it is expected to perform fully automatic monitoring of antenna parameters without any interference to normal operations of the telescope. Some insights and analysis are presented concerning the mathematical monitoring model, the setting of parameters and selection of constraints to the observation equation, which are verified via data simulation analysis to be rational and effective. Some factors which may affect the estimation precision of antenna parameters are analyzed in order to design and develop monitoring procedure, data analysis software and to make necessary preparation to practical application of the new monitoring concept of VLBI antenna.

  1. The Italian VLBI Network: First Results and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, Matteo; Negusini, Monia; Bianco, Giuseppe; Sarti, Pierguido

    2016-12-01

    A first 24-hour Italian VLBI geodetic experiment, involving the Medicina, Noto, and Matera antennas, shaped as an IVS standard EUROPE, was successfully performed. In 2014, starting from the correlator output, a geodetic database was created and a typical solution of a small network was achieved, here presented. From this promising result we have planned new observations in 2016, involving the three Italian geodetic antennas. This could be the beginning of a possible routine activity, creating a data set that can be combined with GNSS observations to contribute to the National Geodetic Reference Datum. Particular care should be taken in the scheduling of the new experiments in order to optimize the number of usable observations. These observations can be used to study and plan future experiments in which the time and frequency standards can be given by an optical fiber link, thus having a common clock at different VLBI stations.

  2. Warkworth 12-m VLBI Station: WARK12M

    CERN Document Server

    Gulyaev, Sergei; Weston, Stuart; Palmer, Neville; Collett, David

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the geodetic VLBI activities in New Zealand in 2010. It provides geographical and technical details of WARK12M - the new IVS network station operated by the Institute for Radio Astronomy and Space Research (IRASR) of Auckland University of Technology (AUT). The details of the VLBI system installed in the station are outlined along with those of the collocated GNSS station. We report on the status of broadband connectivity and on the results of testing data transfer protocols; we investigate UDP protocols such as 'tsunami' and UDT and demonstrate that the UDT protocol is more efficient than 'tsunami' and 'ftp'. In general, the WARK12M IVS network station is fully equipped, connected and tested to start participating in regular IVS observational sessions from the beginning of 2011.

  3. Optimizing the African VLBI Network for Astronomy and Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witt, A.; Mayer, D.; MacLeod, G.; Combrinck, L.; Petrov, L.; Nickola, M.

    2016-12-01

    The African VLBI Network will be a pan-African network of radio telescopes comprised of converted redundant satellite Earth-station antennas and new purpose-built radio telescopes. The first of these antennas, in Ghana, is currently being converted to a radio telescope and current funding is estimated to permit the conversion of two more antennas in Africa. These antennas will initially be equipped with a 5-GHz and 6.7-GHz receiver and the next receiver likely to be fitted is a 1.4-1.7-GHz receiver. While it would be advantageous for the AVN antennas to be able to participate also in geodetic and astrometric VLBI observations, there is no funding currently for this. In this paper we re-visit the scientific justifications for the AVN in an attempt to optimize the AVN for each science case, both astronomical and geodetic.

  4. Using geodetic VLBI to test Standard-Model Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hees, Aurélien; Lambert, Sébastien; Le Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The modeling of the relativistic delay in geodetic techniques is primordial to get accurate geodetic products. And geodetic techniques can also be used to measure the relativistic delay and get constraints on parameters describing the relativity theory. The effective field theory framework called the Standard-Model Extension (SME) has been developed in order to systematically parametrize hypothetical violations of Lorentz symmetry (in the Standard Model and in the gravitational sector). In terms of light deflexion by a massive body like the Sun, one can expect a dependence in the elongation angle different from GR. In this communication, we use geodetic VLBI observations of quasars made in the frame of the permanent geodetic VLBI monitoring program to constrain the first SME coefficient. Our results do not show any deviation from GR and they improve current constraints on both GR and SME parameters.

  5. Distribution system choice in a service industry: An analysis of international insurance firms operating in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parente, R.; Choi, B.P.; Slangen, A.H.L.; Ketkar, S.

    2010-01-01

    Service firms play an increasingly important role in the global economy. However, the internationalization strategies of such firms, and especially their distribution system choices, have been underexplored in the international management literature. One specific service industry that has internatio

  6. Distribution system choice in a service industry: An analysis of international insurance firms operating in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parente, R.; Choi, B.P.; Slangen, A.H.L.; Ketkar, S.

    2010-01-01

    Service firms play an increasingly important role in the global economy. However, the internationalization strategies of such firms, and especially their distribution system choices, have been underexplored in the international management literature. One specific service industry that has internatio

  7. Space-VLBI with RadioAstron: new correlator capabilities at MPIfR

    CERN Document Server

    Bruni, G; Alef, W; Lobanov, A; Zensus, J A

    2015-01-01

    DiFX is a correlator for VLBI data based on the FX architecture (first Fourier transform and then cross-multiply). DiFX is a free licensed software written in C++, developed and maintened by an international group of programmers. A new DiFX version (dra) has been developed at Max-Planck-Institut f\\"ur Radioastronomie (MPIfR), in order to manage the correlation of a space-based antenna with ground stations. The dra version is running on the High Performance Computer cluster (HPC) in Bonn, and it is used for the data processing of the three AGN imaging RadioAstron Key Science Projects ongoing, based at the MPIfR.

  8. Comments on "Measuring the Gravity Speed by VLBI"

    OpenAIRE

    Asada, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    Einstein gravity with extra dimensions or alternative gravity theories might suggest that the gravity propagation speed can be different from the light speed. Such a difference may play a vital role in the primordial universe. In recent, Kopeikin and Fomalont claimed the first measurement of the gravity speed by VLBI. However, the measurement has no relevance with the speed of gravity as I had shown before the observation was done. It seems that our conclusion has been established well by re-...

  9. Sustaining and improving an international service-learning partnership: Evaluation of an evidence-based service delivery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Lorna M; Li, Li

    2017-06-01

    International service learning (ISL) is an instructional method used by physical therapist educators in the United States (US) to prepare students for rendering culturally competent care. ISL is a faculty led student learning opportunity that includes academic instruction and community service in an international context. Research exists that explores student experiences with ISL, but studies that evaluate ISL partnerships and include global stakeholder feedback are lacking. The purposes of this study were to: 1) integrate a partnership evaluation component into an existing curriculum-based ISL model and 2) through evaluation identify benefits, drawbacks, and suggestions for improving and sustaining the academic-community partnership. Community-based participatory research design using a mixed methods approach was used to evaluate a ISL partnership between a US-based physical therapy program and a service site in Ecuador. Participants were 31 staff working at the global service site. Over three years, 11 interviews were conducted and 26 surveys were administered to global partner staff. Data were analyzed using qualitative thematic content analysis and descriptive statistics. Partnership benefits included the following: continuity of ISL team leadership, targeted rehabilitative efforts, sensitivity to cultural norms, respectful communication, and interaction with local community. Drawbacks were as follows: deficits in cultural awareness, language barriers, and poor treatment carryover. Suggestions for sustaining the relationship incorporated: additional pre-trip communication, education of staff, and improved language skills. As more US teams deliver clinical services abroad, intentional evaluation approaches must include the global stakeholder in the planning, implementation, and evaluation phases to maximize partnerships benefits.

  10. Ensuring Rights: Improving Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health Services for Female International Students in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljski, Carolyn; Quiazon, Regina; Tran, Chau

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the research and advocacy work being conducted by the Multicultural Centre for Women's Health (MCWH), a national community-based organization in Victoria, Australia, the paper analyzes female international students' experiences with accessing sexual and reproductive health information and services. Accessibility of sexual and…

  11. Theoretical Frames and Teaching Styles of Physical Therapy Faculty Who Lead International Service-Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audette, Jennifer Gail

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: International service-learning (ISL) is popular in higher education, and many physical therapy educational programs are adding ISL opportunities to their curricula because doing so aligns with student interest and the increasingly global nature of the profession. The faculty leading these experiences have not been studied. Nearly all…

  12. INFLUENCE OF INTERNATIONAL SERVICE LEARNING ON NURSING STUDENTS' SELF EFFICACY TOWARDS CULTURAL COMPETENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tracey

    2016-01-01

    One method of gaining knowledge, skills and experience with different cultures for nurses and nursing students is through an international immersion experience with training in language, culture and community nursing. This study is a qualitative and quantitative measurement of the influence of a two-week service learning medical experience on a student-nursing group who traveled abroad to Belize, Central America.

  13. The Views of International Students Regarding University Support Services in Australia: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Pam; Boldy, Duncan; Dunworth, Katie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study aimed at developing an improved understanding of the support needs of international students. Using a case study approach at one Australian university, a three stage data collection process was adopted: interviews with key support service providers in the university, student focus groups, and a large-scale survey.…

  14. Support Services at Spanish and U.S. Institutions: A Driver for International Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Encinas, Adriana; Ammigan, Ravichandran

    2016-01-01

    Many institutions of higher education are promoting campus internationalization as a core principle through international student mobility and, as a result, have expanded rapidly in enrollment. To effectively serve this growing population, many campuses have had to strengthen their student support services. However, while many have well-developed…

  15. Quality Service in the International Hotel Sector: A Catalyst for Strategic Human Resource Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gill; Watson, Sandra; Quail, Samantha

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the nature of, and relationship between, a quality service initiative and the concept of strategic human resource development. Hilton International is the case study used for this analysis. The principal finding is that the quality initiative is acting as a catalyst for a strategic approach to human resource development to…

  16. 77 FR 49721 - International Services Surveys and Direct Investment Surveys Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... comment rulemaking procedures. See, e.g., Direct Investment Surveys: BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign... in services and direct investment surveys. The surveys are provided for by the International.... Galler, Chief, Direct Investment Division (BE-50), Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department...

  17. Assessing the Merits of International Service-Learning in Developing Professionalism in Mass Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, Phillip; Sturgill, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This project assessed how an international service-learning course affected mass communication students' knowledge of professionalism. Using written reflections and focus group transcripts from four courses that took place in Central America, we observed that placing students in immersive environments, where they are able to work on authentic…

  18. 75 FR 59049 - International Education Programs Service; Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad (GPA) Program administered by the International Education... Education Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program; Notices #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 185... Service; Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary...

  19. 77 FR 57055 - Regulations Governing Practice Before the Internal Revenue Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... practice requires the knowledge, skill, thoroughness, and preparation necessary for the matter for which... Administration). List of Subjects in 31 CFR Part 10 Accountants, Administrative practice and procedure, Lawyers... Internal Revenue Service. (b) Certified public accountants. Any certified public accountant who is...

  20. Quality Service in the International Hotel Sector: A Catalyst for Strategic Human Resource Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gill; Watson, Sandra; Quail, Samantha

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the nature of, and relationship between, a quality service initiative and the concept of strategic human resource development. Hilton International is the case study used for this analysis. The principal finding is that the quality initiative is acting as a catalyst for a strategic approach to human resource development to…

  1. Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Counseling Services among Chinese International Students: Acculturation, Ethnic Identity, and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqi; Marbley, Aretha Faye; Bradley, Loretta J.; Lan, William

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the help-seeking attitudes of 109 Chinese international students studying in the United States. Results revealed that significant relationships exist among acculturation, ethnic identity, English proficiency, and attitudes toward seeking professional counseling services. Limitations and recommendations for future research are…

  2. Service Quality and Satisfaction Perspectives at the 2011 International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) World Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kil; Kim, Suk-Kyu; Lee, Donghun; Judge, Lawrence W.; Huang, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify and analyze the factors that contribute to perceived service quality, user satisfaction, and behavioral intention in covering megasporting events at the Main Media Center for the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) Track and Field World Championships. The data were collected…

  3. 23 GHz VLBI Observations of SN 2008ax

    CERN Document Server

    Marti-Vidal, I; Alberdi, A; Guirado, J C; Pérez-Torres, M A; Ros, E; Shapiro, I I; Beswick, R J; Muxlow, T W B; Pedlar, A; Argo, M K; Immler, S; Panagia, N; Stockdale, C J; Sramek, R A; Van Dyk, S; Weiler, K W

    2009-01-01

    We report on phase-referenced 23 GHz Very-Long-Baseline-Interferometry (VLBI) observations of the type IIb supernova SN 2008ax, made with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) on 2 April 2008 (33 days after explosion). These observations resulted in a marginal detection of the supernova. The total flux density recovered from our VLBI image is 0.8$\\pm$0.3 mJy (one standard deviation). As it appears, the structure may be interpreted as either a core-jet or a double source. However, the supernova structure could be somewhat confused with a possible close by noise peak. In such a case, the recovered flux density would decrease to 0.48$\\pm$0.12 mJy, compatible with the flux densities measured with the VLA at epochs close in time to our VLBI observations. The lowest average expansion velocities derived from our observations are $(1.90 \\pm 0.30) \\times 10^5$ km s$^{-1}$ (case of a double source) and $(5.2 \\pm 1.3) \\times 10^4$ km s$^{-1}$ (taking the weaker source component as a spurious, close by, noise peak, which i...

  4. MultiView High Precision VLBI Astrometry at Low Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, María J.; Dodson, Richard; Orosz, Gabor; Imai, Hiroshi; Frey, Sandor

    2017-03-01

    The arrival of the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will revitalize all aspects of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) astronomy at lower frequencies. In the last decade, there have been huge strides toward routinely achieving high precision VLBI astrometry at frequencies dominated by tropospheric contributions, most notably at 22 GHz, using advanced phase-referencing techniques. Nevertheless, to increase the capability for high precision astrometric measurements at low radio frequencies (phase-referencing calibrator. The MultiView technique holds the key to compensating for atmospheric spatial-structure errors, by using observations of multiple calibrators and two-dimensional interpolation in the visibility domain. In this paper we present the first demonstration of the power of MultiView using three calibrators, several degrees from the target, along with a comparative study of the astrometric accuracy between MultiView and phase-referencing techniques. MultiView calibration provides an order of magnitude improvement in astrometry with respect to conventional phase referencing, achieving ∼100 μas astrometry errors in a single epoch of observations, effectively reaching the thermal noise limit. MultiView will achieve its full potential with the enhanced sensitivity and multibeam capabilities of SKA and the pathfinders, which will enable simultaneous observations of the target and calibrators. Our demonstration indicates that the 10 μas goal of astrometry at ∼1.6 GHz using VLBI with SKA is feasible using the MultiView technique.

  5. Search for exoplanets and brown dwarfs with VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarzyński, K.; Gawroński, M.; Goździewski, K.

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of this work is to estimate possible radio GHz emission of extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs and to check if such radiation can be detected by Very Large Baseline Interferometers (VLBI). In the estimation we assume that the emission may originate in processes similar to those observed in the Jupiter system. The frequency of the radio emission that is produced in this system depends mostly on the magnetic field strength. Jupiter's magnetic field (˜9 G on average) allows for radiation from kHz frequencies up to 40 MHz. This is well below the frequency range of VLBI. However, it was demonstrated that the magnetic field strength in massive and young object may be up to two orders of magnitude higher than for Jupiter, which is especially relevant for planets around short-lived A type stars. This should extend the range of the emission up to GHz frequencies. We calculated expected flux densities of radio emission for a variety of hypothetical young planetary systems. We analysed two different emission scenarios, and found that the radiation induced by moons (process similar to Jupiter-Io interactions) appears to be less efficient than the emission generated by a stellar wind on a planetary magnetosphere. We also estimated hypothetical emission of planets and brown dwarfs located around relatively young and massive main-sequence A-type stars. Our results show that the emission produced by stellar winds could be detected by currently operating VLBI networks.

  6. Subdaily Earth Rotation Models Estimated From GPS and VLBI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigenberger, P.; Tesmer, V.; MacMillan, D.; Thaller, D.; Rothacher, M.; Fritsche, M.; Rülke, A.; Dietrich, R.

    2007-12-01

    Subdaily changes in Earth rotation at diurnal and semi-diurnal periods are mainly caused by ocean tides. Smaller effects are attributed to the interaction of the atmosphere with the solid Earth. As the tidal periods are well known, models for the ocean tidal contribution to high-frequency Earth rotation variations can be estimated from space- geodetic observations. The subdaily ERP model recommended by the latest IERS conventions was derived from an ocean tide model based on satellite altimetry. Another possibility is the determination of subdaily ERP models from GPS- and/or VLBI-derived Earth rotation parameter series with subdaily resolution. Homogeneously reprocessed long-time series of subdaily ERPs computed by GFZ/TU Dresden (12 years of GPS data), DGFI and GSFC (both with 24 years of VLBI data) provide the basis for the estimation of single-technique and combined subdaily ERP models. The impact of different processing options (e.g., weighting) and different temporal resolutions (1 hour vs. 2 hours) will be evaluated by comparisons of the different models amongst each other and with the IERS model. The analysis of the GPS and VLBI residual signals after subtracting the estimated ocean tidal contribution may help to answer the question whether the remaining signals are technique-specific artifacts and systematic errors or true geophysical signals detected by both techniques.

  7. 26 CFR 31.6051-2 - Information returns on Form W-3 and Internal Revenue Service copies of Forms W-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information returns on Form W-3 and Internal Revenue Service copies of Forms W-2. 31.6051-2 Section 31.6051-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... returns on Form W-3 and Internal Revenue Service copies of Forms W-2. (a) In general. Every employer...

  8. Student Perceptions of Academic Service Learning: Using Mixed Content Analysis to Examine the Effectiveness of the International Baccalaureate Creativity, Action, Service Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatziconstantis, Christos; Kolympari, Tania

    2016-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme for secondary education students requires the successful completion of the Creativity, Action, Service (CAS) component (more recently renamed Creativity, Activity, Service) which is based on the philosophy of experiential learning and Academic Service Learning. In this article, the technique of…

  9. Recommendations for Planning and Managing International Short-term Pharmacy Service Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharif, Naser Z.; Rovers, John; Connor, Sharon; White, Nicole D.; Hogue, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    International pharmacy service trips by schools and colleges of pharmacy allow students to provide health care to medically underserved areas. A literature review (2000-2016) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms was performed to assess current practices to establish and maintain successful pharmacy service trips. Educational documents such as syllabi were obtained from pharmacy programs and examined. A preliminary draft was developed and authors worked on sections of interest and expertise. Considerations and current recommendations are provided for the key aspects of the home institution and the host country requirements for pharmacy service trips based on findings from a literature search and the authors’ collective, extensive experience. Evaluation of the trip and ethical considerations are also discussed. This article serves as a resource for schools and colleges of pharmacy that are interested in the development of new pharmacy service trips and provides key considerations for continuous quality improvement of current or future activities.

  10. Recommendations for Planning and Managing International Short-term Pharmacy Service Trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kalin L; Alsharif, Naser Z; Rovers, John; Connor, Sharon; White, Nicole D; Hogue, Michael D

    2017-03-25

    International pharmacy service trips by schools and colleges of pharmacy allow students to provide health care to medically underserved areas. A literature review (2000-2016) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms was performed to assess current practices to establish and maintain successful pharmacy service trips. Educational documents such as syllabi were obtained from pharmacy programs and examined. A preliminary draft was developed and authors worked on sections of interest and expertise. Considerations and current recommendations are provided for the key aspects of the home institution and the host country requirements for pharmacy service trips based on findings from a literature search and the authors' collective, extensive experience. Evaluation of the trip and ethical considerations are also discussed. This article serves as a resource for schools and colleges of pharmacy that are interested in the development of new pharmacy service trips and provides key considerations for continuous quality improvement of current or future activities.

  11. A focus group study of chiropractic students following international service learning experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, James C; Salsbury, Stacie A; Derby, Dustin; Lawrence, Dana J

    2016-10-01

    One objective of chiropractic education is to cultivate clinical confidence in novice practitioners. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe how participation in a short-term international service learning experience changed perceptions of clinical confidence in senior chiropractic students. Seventeen senior chiropractic students participated in 4 moderated focus group sessions within 4 months after a clinical educational opportunity held in international settings. Participants answered standard questions on how this educational experience may have changed their clinical confidence. Two investigators performed qualitative thematic analysis of the verbatim transcripts to identify core concepts and supporting themes. The core concept was transformation from an unsure student to a confident doctor. The service learning experience allowed students to deliver chiropractic treatment to patients in a real-world setting, engage in frequent repetitions of technical skills, perform clinical decision-making and care coordination, and communicate with patients and other health professionals. Students described increased clinical confidence in 9 competency areas organized within 3 domains: (1) chiropractic competencies including observation, palpation, and manipulation; (2) clinical competencies including problem solving, clinic flow, and decision-making; and (3) communication competencies, including patient communication, interprofessional communication, and doctor-patient relationship. Students recommended that future service learning programs include debriefing sessions similar to the experience offered by these focus groups to enhance student learning. Senior chiropractic students who participated in an international service learning program gained confidence and valuable practical experience in integrating their chiropractic, clinical, and communication skills for their future practices.

  12. A focus group study of chiropractic students following international service learning experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, James C.; Salsbury, Stacie A.; Derby, Dustin; Lawrence, Dana J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: One objective of chiropractic education is to cultivate clinical confidence in novice practitioners. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe how participation in a short-term international service learning experience changed perceptions of clinical confidence in senior chiropractic students. Methods: Seventeen senior chiropractic students participated in 4 moderated focus group sessions within 4 months after a clinical educational opportunity held in international settings. Participants answered standard questions on how this educational experience may have changed their clinical confidence. Two investigators performed qualitative thematic analysis of the verbatim transcripts to identify core concepts and supporting themes. Results: The core concept was transformation from an unsure student to a confident doctor. The service learning experience allowed students to deliver chiropractic treatment to patients in a real-world setting, engage in frequent repetitions of technical skills, perform clinical decision-making and care coordination, and communicate with patients and other health professionals. Students described increased clinical confidence in 9 competency areas organized within 3 domains: (1) chiropractic competencies including observation, palpation, and manipulation; (2) clinical competencies including problem solving, clinic flow, and decision-making; and (3) communication competencies, including patient communication, interprofessional communication, and doctor–patient relationship. Students recommended that future service learning programs include debriefing sessions similar to the experience offered by these focus groups to enhance student learning. Conclusion: Senior chiropractic students who participated in an international service learning program gained confidence and valuable practical experience in integrating their chiropractic, clinical, and communication skills for their future practices. PMID:27258817

  13. Internal Market Orientation Framework as a Source of Improving Service Quality within the Malaysian Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahap J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is developed as a means to discover the importance of improving service quality within the Malaysian Hotel Industry. To support that contention it was found that there are a number of methodologies or approaches that can be used to improve service delivery. Recent publications show that there is an emerging methodology sought to improve employee performance and one of the approaches are known as Internal Market Orientation. The Internal Market Orientation model consists of three dimensions and they are: i Internal Market Intelligence Generation (IMIG, ii Internal Communication (IC, and iii Response to Intelligence (RTI. Despite of that this study will only highlight the third dimensions of the framework that is Response to Intelligence. A number of conclusive findings were found and it can be used to enhance employee performance and it is as well has the ability to improving the quality of service towards hotel guests. Notwithstanding, the findings of this study can be used to improve the competitive advantage of Malaysian Hotels and therefore, assisting the country to achieve competitiveness and leads to the creation of premier tourist destination in the world.

  14. Going global in physical therapist education: International Service-Learning in US-based programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechak, Celia; Thompson, Mary

    2011-12-01

     Internationalization is expanding its presence in higher education in the United States. Reflecting this trend that includes incorporating global perspectives in the curricula, physical therapist education programmes increasingly offer international opportunities such as International Service-Learning (ISL) to their students. Service-learning, a teaching strategy that integrates community service with structured learning activities, has gained broad acceptance in health professions education including physical therapy, and is therefore the focus of this paper. The specific purposes of this paper were to identify and analyse the commonalities that existed among established ISL programmes within physical therapist education programmes in terms of structures and processes, and to consider its broader implications for physical therapist education.   A descriptive, exploratory study was performed using grounded theory. Snowball and purposive, theoretical sampling yielded 14 faculty members with experience in international service, international learning or ISL in physical therapist education programmes. Faculty were interviewed by phone. Interview transcriptions and course documents were analysed applying grounded theory methodology. Data from eight programmes which met the operational definition of established ISL were used to address the purposes of this paper.   Five phases of establishing an ISL programme were identified: development, design, implementation, evaluation, and enhancement. Although no single model exists for ISL in physical therapist education; commonalities in structures and processes were identified in each phase. However, attention to service objectives and outcomes is lacking.   While analysis revealed that each programme shared commonalities and demonstrated differences in structures and processes compared with the other programmes, the study demonstrated a general lack of focus on formal community outcomes which raises ethical

  15. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues. Copyright © 2011

  16. Services in the Field of Law within the Internal Market: Promoting e-Justice through Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherardo Carullo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of intra-European services provided to professionals in the legal sector. Through a brief overview of the main services that are or may be offered in the internal market in this field, the author identifies the lack of interoperability as one of the most critical barriers currently preventing effective intra-community competition. The author wonders to what degree and under which rules of the treaties a European intervention could be justified and, therefore, what purposes could be pursued through European legislation. The author analyses the rail transport sector to assess if, and to what degree, existing barriers to entry could be reduced and innovation could be fostered by defining certain standards at a European level for the interoperability of IT systems in the field of law. In particular, the example of the rail sector is analyzed to determine the degree to which the solutions already in place for the “telematics applications for the passenger services subsystem” could be replicated in the context of the services addressed by the paper. In conclusion, the author suggests that addressing the issues of interoperability in the legal services sector could be a useful first step towards the digitalization of the internal market, as advocated by the Commission in its recent Communication on the digital single market.

  17. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of InternationalExperience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for andexperiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in fiveelectricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordicmarket, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objectivein undertaking this review of international experience was to identifyspecific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads toeffectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hopethat this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S.and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments areneeded to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in allwholesale electricity markets.

  18. An international, multidisciplinary, service-learning program: an option in the dental school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Mier, Esperanza A; Soto-Rojas, Armando E; Stelzner, Sarah M; Lorant, Diane E; Riner, Mary E; Yoder, Karen M

    2011-04-01

    Many health professions students who treat Spanish-speaking patients in the United States have little concept of their culture and health related traditions. The lack of understanding of these concepts may constitute major barriers to healthcare for these patients. International service-learning experiences allow students to work directly in communities from which patients immigrate and, as a result, students gain a better understanding of these barriers. This article describes the implementation of an international, multidisciplinary, service-learning program in a dental school in the United States. The Indiana University International Service-Learning program in Hidalgo, Mexico began in 1999 as an alternative spring break travel and clinical experience for medical students, focusing on the treatment of acute health problems. Travel-related preparatory sessions were offered, and no learning or service objectives had been developed. The program has evolved to include a multidisciplinary team of dental, medical, nursing, public health and social work students and faculty. The experience is now integrated into a curriculum based on the service-learning model that allows students to use their clinical skills in real-life situations and provides structured time for reflection. The program aims to enhance teaching and foster civic responsibility in explicit partnership with the community. Preparatory sessions have evolved into a multidisciplinary graduate level course with defined learning and service objectives. PROGRAM EVALUATION METHODS: In order to assess the program's operation as perceived by students and faculty and to evaluate student's perceptions of learning outcomes, evaluation tools were developed. These tools included student and faculty evaluation questionnaires, experiential learning journals, and a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis. Evaluation data show that after program participation, students perceived an increase in their

  19. An African VLBI network of radio telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaylard, M J; Combrinck, L; Booth, R S; Buchner, S J; Fanaroff, B L; MacLeod, G C; Nicolson, G D; Quick, J F H; Stronkhorst, P; Venkatasubramani, T L

    2014-01-01

    The advent of international wideband communication by optical fibre has produced a revolution in communications and the use of the internet. Many African countries are now connected to undersea fibre linking them to other African countries and to other continents. Previously international communication was by microwave links through geostationary satellites. These are becoming redundant in some countries as optical fibre takes over, as this provides 1000 times the bandwidth of the satellite links. In the 1970's and 1980's some two dozen large (30 m diameter class) antennas were built in various African countries to provide the satellite links. Twenty six are currently known in 19 countries. As these antennas become redundant, the possibility exists to convert them for radio astronomy at a cost of roughly one tenth that of a new antenna of similar size. HartRAO, SKA Africa and the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) have started exploring this possibility with some of the African countries...

  20. The AuScope Geodetic VLBI Array

    CERN Document Server

    Lovell, J E J; Reid, P B; McCulloch, P M; Baynes, B E; Dickey, J M; Shabala, S S; Watson, C S; Titov, O; Ruddick, R; Twilley, R; Reynolds, C; Tingay, S J; Shield, P; Adada, R; Ellingsen, S P; Morgan, J S; Bignall, H E; 10.1007/s00190-013-0626-3

    2013-01-01

    The AuScope geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry array consists of three new 12 m radio telescopes and a correlation facility in Australia. The telescopes at Hobart (Tasmania), Katherine (Northern Territory) and Yarragadee (Western Australia) are co-located with other space geodetic techniques including Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and gravity infrastructure, and in the case of Yarragadee, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) facilities. The correlation facility is based in Perth (Western Australia). This new facility will make significant contributions to improving the densification of the International Celestial Reference Frame in the Southern Hemisphere, and subsequently enhance the International Terrestrial Reference Frame through the ability to detect and mitigate systematic error. This, combined with the simultaneous densification of the GNSS network across Australia will enable the improved measurement of intrapl...

  1. The IAASB - the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board - the Influence of Institutional Aspects on International Harmonization Concept of Auditing Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ladislav Kareš; Petra Krišková

    2008-01-01

    .... The authors of the article mention on importance and tasks of the institution - the IAASB - The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, by compiling of strategy of auditing services...

  2. [International trade in health services and the medical industrial complex: implications for national health systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Angelica Borges dos; Passos, Sonia Regina Lambert

    2010-08-01

    Health services have increasingly proven to be an innovative sector, gaining prominence in the medical industrial complex through expansion to public and international markets. International trade can foster economic development and redirect the resources and infrastructure available for healthcare in different countries in favorable or unfavorable directions. Wherever private providers play a significant role in government-funded healthcare, GATS commitments may restrict health policy options in subscribing countries. Systematic information on the impacts of electronic health services, medical tourism, health workers' migration, and foreign direct investment is needed on a case-by-case basis to build evidence for informed decision-making, so as to maximize opportunities and minimize risks of GATS commitments.

  3. STUDENT SERVICES EFFICIENCY PROBLEMS IN UKRAINE: EXPERIENCE OF INTERNATIONAL TEMPUS IMPRESS PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chernyak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the implementation of the international project Tempus “IMPRESS” – “improving the efficiency of student services. The main aim of the project is to create modern Centers of student support services at the leading classical universities of Ukraine. One of the outcomes was the creation of the latest training course “Soft Skills” developed up to the modern international academic standards. In its framework, students will gain knowledge and skills that will facilitate their full adaptation to study at the University, and to the future professional activity. The course is designed to provide students with additional preference in employment, promote in their self-presentation skills, effective team work and decision making, enhance reflection ability and develop critical thinking.

  4. e-VLBI... a Wide-field Imaging Instrument with milliarcsecond Resolution & microJy Sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, M A

    2004-01-01

    The European VLBI Network (EVN) is in the process of establishing an e-VLBI array in which the radio telescopes and the EVN correlator at JIVE are connected in real-time, via high-speed national fibre optic networks and the pan-European research network, GEANT. This paper reports on recent test results, including the production of the first real-time e-VLBI astronomical image. In a parallel and related development, the field-of-view of VLBI is also expanding by many orders of magnitude, and the first results of deep, wide-field surveys capable of detecting many sources simultaneously are summarised. The detection of sources as faint as 10 microJy should soon be possible in the era of ``Mk5'' and e-VLBI.

  5. The role of CSR engagement in the Internal Brand Building process : An exploratory study of Service firms

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel, Chidiebere; Eriksson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how service firms incorporate CSR activities within the internal brand building process. It was found that CSR does influence and is implemented in every stage of our theoretical framework of the internal brand building process. The study was based on interviews conducted on managers and employees of service firms in the Netherlands and in Sweden.  CSR is an evolving concept, increasingly becoming important in affecting the consumption decisions of service firm’s customers...

  6. Influence of international service-learning on nursing student self-efficacy toward cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tracey

    2014-08-01

    One method of gaining knowledge, skills, and experience with different cultures for nurses and nursing students is through an international immersion program of training in language, culture, and community nursing. This article presents a qualitative and quantitative research study of the influence of a 2-week service-learning medical experience of a nursing student group who traveled abroad to Belize, Central America. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Exploring the Cross-Cultural Experiences of College Students with Diverse Backgrounds Performing International Service-Learning in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruo-lan; Lee, Hsin-hua

    2011-01-01

    Background: In view of the growing globalization, volunteer service organizations, local universities, colleges, and student groups have begun extending their service programs from Taiwan to other countries. This study employs a self-organized, self-funded group of university students participating in international service-learning as its subject,…

  8. [Prevalence of delirium in hospitalized patients from an internal medicine service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Pezoa, Ana Carolina; Carrillo Venezian, Bernardita Claudia; Castillo Rojas, Sandra

    2015-11-11

    Delirium is a common neurocognitive syndrome that takes place during hospitalizations, associated with worse global outcomes in patients who present it. Despite this, it is usually under-recognized as a disease that needs specific treatment. To determine the rate of prevalence of delirium in Internal Medicine Service patients and evaluate missed diagnosis of the syndrome made by attending physicians, medical residents or interns in charge. This is a descriptive observational study carried out in the Internal Medicine Service of Dr. Eduardo Pereira Hospital (April 12 - May 12, 2014) evaluating 125 patients who were admitted to this service. Through the Confusion Assessment Method Instrument, the prevalence of delirium disease and the number of missed diagnosis was established. One hundred and two (102) patients met the inclusion criteria. Nineteen (19) (18.6%) of them were diagnosed with delirium. In the diagnosed patient group, 13 (68.4%) were women. Delirium diagnosis was missed in eight patients (42.1%). The prevalence of delirium in this specific Hospital is as expected, according to the literature. Considering the diagnostic tools available, it is crucial to train health workers to improve recognition and management of this syndrome.

  9. Outplacement Services for Displaced Employees: Attitudes of Human Resource Managers Based on Differences in Internal and External Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcrease, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    The results from a survey of 238 human resources executives from organizations that offer outplacement counseling (OPC) internally and 168 that offer it externally suggest that internal OPC delivery is inferior to external OPC delivery. The author found that most internal OPC organizations did not offer the 13 traditional OPC services, even when…

  10. Outplacement Services for Displaced Employees: Attitudes of Human Resource Managers Based on Differences in Internal and External Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcrease, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    The results from a survey of 238 human resources executives from organizations that offer outplacement counseling (OPC) internally and 168 that offer it externally suggest that internal OPC delivery is inferior to external OPC delivery. The author found that most internal OPC organizations did not offer the 13 traditional OPC services, even when…

  11. The Use of International Television Formats by Public-Service Broadcasters in Australia, Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esser, Andrea; Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    importantly, commercial broadcasters favour internationally tried formats over original content because formats satisfy the key management objective of ‘de-risking’ (Esser 2013). The impact the format trade’s acceleration over the last decade has had on both, production and broadcast schedules around...... the world is such, that it would be no exaggeration to speak of ‘creative destruction’ (Schumpeter 1942). How has this impacted on the production and provision of public-service broadcasting? Public-service broadcasters historically have different objectives to private commercial broadcasters and format...... adaptations, as Jérôme Bourdon has noted, had no history here because they “contradicted almost everything public service broadcasting stood for” (2012: 114). Even though in many countries PSBs are also expected to provide entertainment, next to quality information and educational material, the overall idea...

  12. 8th International KES Conference on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia : Systems and Services

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi; Gallo, Luigi; Pietro, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent interactive multimedia systems and services will be ever more important in computer systems. Nowadays, computers are widespread and computer users range from highly qualified scientists to non-computer expert professionals. Therefore, designing dynamic personalization and adaptivity methods to store, process, transmit and retrieve information is critical for matching the technological progress with the consumer needs. This book contains the contributions presented at the eighth international KES conference on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia: Systems and Services, which took place in Sorrento, Italy, June 17-19, 2015. It contains 33 peer-reviewed scientific contributions that focus on issues ranging from intelligent image or video storage, retrieval, transmission and analysis to knowledge-based technologies, from advanced information technology architectures for video processing and transmission to advanced functionalities of information and knowledge-based services. We believe that this book w...

  13. A Strategic Independent Geodetic VLBI Network for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Denise; Combrinck, Ludwig; de Witt, Alet

    2014-12-01

    Irregularities of the rotation of the Earth in space are described by the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOPs). An independent EOP network, applying the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique and using the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS), are strategically essential for Europe to minimize its reliance on foreign global support in terms of required infrastructure for the realization of such a network. The generation of independent EOPs is already achievable by countries such as the USA, the People's Republic of China, and the Russian Federation due to their large extent of land mass that allows for long baselines in both the North-South and East-West directions and thus allows for accurate determination of all EOPs. These three countries need not rely on foreign partnerships to generate EOPs, as they all have independent geodetic VLBI networks capable of determining EOPs for precise positioning, navigation, and satellite launch/orbital purposes. They also have or are developing independent Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) constellations; so does the European Union (EU). Accurate EOPs are essential for long-term orbital maintenance of GNSS constellations, leaving the EU GALILEO GNSS vulnerable and reliant on the three superpowers. Generation of accurate EOPs by Europe is not possible due to its much smaller land mass and thus smaller achievable baselines. Even though there are many radio telescopes spread across Europe, these are separated by relatively short distances. The proposed stations that will be used to investigate this independent EOP network for Europe are the WETTZELL radio telescope in Germany, two German owned radio telescopes, TIGOCONC in Concepción, Chile, and OHIGGINS in Antarctica, as well as the HartRAO radio telescope in South Africa.

  14. Improving Access to Pediatric Cardiology in Cape Verde via a Collaborative International Telemedicine Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapão, Luís Velez; Correia, Artur

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of international telemedicine services in supporting the evacuation procedures from Cape Verde to Portugal, enabling better quality and cost reductions in the management of the global health system. The Cape Verde, as other African countries, health system lacks many medical specialists, like pediatric cardiologists, neurosurgery, etc. In this study, tele-cardiology shows good results as diagnostic support to the evacuation decision. Telemedicine services show benefits while monitoring patients in post-evacuation, helping to address the lack of responsive care in some specialties whose actual use will help save resources both in provision and in management of the evacuation procedures. Additionally, with tele-cardiology collaborative service many evacuations can be avoided whereas many cases will be treated and followed locally in Cape Verde with remote technical support from Portugal. This international telemedicine service enabled more efficient evacuations, by reducing expenses in travel and housing, and therefore contributed to the health system's improvement. This study provides some evidence of how important telemedicine really is to cope with both the geography and the shortage of physicians.

  15. Internal and External Perspectives on Quality of Healthcare Services at Sanglah General Hospital Denpasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Nopy Diah Sundari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Customer satisfaction is a primary indicator of the quality of public healthcare services. This study investigated internal (hospital staff and external (hospital clients perspectives in order to gain insight into the quality of care at Sanglah General Hospital.Methods: The study used both qualitative and quantitative methodologies with 11 informants and 106 respondents. Qualitative data obtained through in-depth interviews with hospital staff were analyzed thematically. Quantitative data obtained through self-administered questionnaire were analyzed using univariate analysis.Results: Informants from the qualitative data collection stated that Sanglah General Hospital has a relatively high level of service and that existing structures to mitigate issues are in place, which act as reinforcing factors. Data from the quantitative survey indicated that clients were satisfied with the quality of service (ServQual, with an overall percentage of 83.82%.Conclusion: Further efforts could be made in order to improve healthcare provision at Sanglah Hospital, particularly from the perspective of hospital facilities, staff support and increased implementation of clinical governance.Keywords: quality of service, internal perspectives, external perspectives, Sanglah Hospital

  16. Application of neural networks to classification of internal damages in steels working in creep service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of the paper is the presentation of computer assisted method for analysis of the metallographicimages obtained in the scanning electron microscope (SEM from the low alloyed steel 13CrMo4-5 elements indifferent states of internal damages after long time creep service.Design/methodology/approach: Investigations of the structure and morphology of internal damages resultingfrom creep were made by the use of light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Their topography wereobserved by the use of confocal laser scanning microscope. There was proposed a method based on analysisof images, shape coefficients and neural networks as a tool to evaluate the internal damage classes of materialsused for the high-pressure installations elements working in creep conditions.Findings: The better efficiency of class recognition of damages developed in the material can be achieved as acombining of several methods making use of the image analysis, shape coefficients, and neural networks.Practical implications: The presented method can be use in industrial practice for evaluation and qualificationof creep-damage of power station boiler components operating in creep regime (e.g., steam boilers, chambers,pipelines, and others.Originality/value: Applying of the artificial intelligence method for the classification of internal damage in thesteel during creep service.

  17. First results of European VLBI radar observations of space objects

    CERN Document Server

    Molotov, I; Nechaeva, M; Dugin, N; Konovalenko, A A; Falkovich, I; Gorshenkov, Yu N; Liu, X; Volvach, A; Agapov, V; Pushkarev, A B; Titenko, V; Buttacio, S; Rumyantsev, V; Shmeld, I

    2004-01-01

    Since 1999 we carried out seven trial VLBI radar experiments under LFVN project. The aim of this work is to adjust new research technique for investigating the Solar system bodies (planets, asteroids, space debris). It is planned to obtain the information on their movement parameters, proper rotation and structure of surface. The transmitter of Evpatoria RT-70 sounded the space objects. Array of Bear Lakes RT-64, Noto RT-32, Urumqi RT-25, Simeiz RT-22 received the echo-signals. The data were processed with NIRFI-3 Mk-2 correlator in N. Novgorod, Russia and NRTV processor in Noto, Italy. The first results of these experiments are presented.

  18. First results of European VLBI radar observations of space objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molotov, I.; Tuccari, G.; Nechaeva, M.; Dugin, N.; Konovalenko, A.; Falkovich, I.; Gorshenkov, Y.; Liu, X.; Volvach, A.; Agapov, V.; Pushkarev, A.; Titenko, V.; Buttacio, S.; Rumyantsev, V.; Shmeld, I.

    Since 1999 we carried out seven trial VLBI radar experiments under LFVN project. The aim of this work is to adjust new research technique for investigating the Solar system bodies (planets, asteroids, space debris). It is planned to obtain the information on their movement parameters, proper rotation and structure of surface. The transmitter of Evpatoria RT-70 sounded the space objects. Array of Bear Lakes RT-64, Noto RT-32, Urumqi RT-25, Simeiz RT-22 received the echo-signals. The data were processed with NIRFI-3 Mk-2 correlator in N. Novgorod, Russia and NRTV processor in Noto, Italy. The first results of these experiments are presented. (astro-ph/0412694)

  19. AuScope VLBI Project and Hobart 26-m Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Jim; Dickey, John; Reid, Brett; McCallum, Jamie; Shabala, Stas; Watson, Christopher; Ellingsen, Simon; Memin, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the activities carried out at the three AuScope VLBI observatories and the Hobart 26-m antenna. In 2012 the three AuScope 12-m antennas at Hobart (Hb), Katherine (Ke), and Yarragadee (Yg) completed their first full year of operations as an array. The Hobart 26-m antenna (Ho) continued to make a contribution to IVS, providing overlap with the Hb time series. In total the AuScope antennas and the Hobart 26 m observed for 146 antenna days in 2012. In this report we also briefly highlight our research activities during 2012 and our plans for 2013.

  20. Precise Doppler tracking from the Medicina VLBI station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, R.; Comoretto, G.; Iess, L.; Messeri, A.

    1992-06-01

    The first opposition test of Doppler tracking the Ulysses spacecraft from the Medicina VLBI (Very Long Base Interferometry) station (Italy) proved its capability to perform a systematic search for gravitational waves. In house and JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) data analysis showed that the target Allan variance of 3 x 10(exp -14) at 1000 s, planned for the DSN antennas was also achieved from the station. The main observation campaign during the second opposition phase will last for thirty continuous nights--from mid Feb. to mid Mar. 1992. The main hardware and software features developed for this application, together with some results of the first opposition test, are described.

  1. Impacts of international trade, services and investment treaties on alcohol regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshaber-Otto, J; Sinclair, S; Schacter, N

    2000-12-01

    There is an underlying incompatibility between government efforts to minimize the harm associated with alcohol, particularly by regulating its supply, and international commercial treaties that promote the freer flow of goods, services and investment. These treaties have already forced changes to many government measures affecting alcohol availability and control, primarily by constraining the activities of government alcohol monopolies and by altering taxation regimes. The North American Free Trade Agreement and the World Trade Organization agreements open new avenues for challenges against alcohol control measures. Some of these agreements extend beyond trade, border measures and differential taxation and allow challenges that intrude into areas of non-discriminatory domestic regulation affecting market access, intellectual property, investment and services. Effective protection from these agreements for vital public health measures has rarely been obtained, although it is increasingly essential. The WTO "services" agreement, basically unknown to the public, is currently being re-negotiated and poses the gravest new challenge to policies designed to influence patterns of alcohol use and minimize alcohol-related harm. In future, these international agreements will probably affect adversely those alcohol approaches considered to be the most effective or promising. These include: maintaining effective state monopolies, restricting the number and locations of retail outlets, taxing and regulating beverages according to alcohol strength, restricting commercial advertising, and maintaining and enhancing public alcohol education and treatment programs. These effects can, in turn, be expected to increase the availability and access to alcohol, to lower alcohol taxes, and to increase advertising and promotion, resulting in increased alcohol consumption and associated health problems. Until more balanced international rules are developed, the challenge facing alcohol

  2. [Comparative analysis of occupational health services practice of international companies of oil and gas industry and ILO Convention "Occupational Health Services"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkian, É V; Spiridonov, V L; Shatokhin, A S; Ékgardt, E V; Avdokhin, A V; Iakovlev, A P

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of current work practices of occupational health services of international companies of Russian oil & gas industry and provisions of ILO Convention 161 and Recommendation 171 "Occupational Health Services" has been carried out. Proposals for improvement and harmonization of labor legislation related to this problem have been formulated.

  3. Combination of Vlbi, GPS and Slr Observations At The Observation Level For The Realization of Terrestrial and Celestial Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, P. H.

    Forsvarets forskningsinstitutt (FFI, the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment) has during the last 17 years developed a software system called GEOSAT, for the analysis of any type of high precision space geodetic observations. A unique feature of GEOSAT is the possibility of combining any combination of different space geode- tic data at the observation level with one consistent model and one consistent strategy. This is a much better strategy than the strategy in use today where different types of observations are processed separately using analysis software developed specifically for each technique. The results from each technique are finally combined a posteriori. In practice the models implemented in the software packages differ at the 1-cm level which is almost one order of magnitude larger than the internal precision of the most precise techniques. Another advantage of the new proposed combination method is that for example VLBI and GPS can use the same tropospheric model with common parameterization. The same is the case for the Earth orientation parameters, the geo- center coordinates and other geodetic or geophysical parameters where VLBI, GPS and SLR can have a common estimate for each of the parameters. The analysis with GEOSAT is automated for the combination of VLBI, SLR and GPS observations. The data are analyzed in batches of one day where the result from each daily arc is a SRIF array (Square Root Information Filter). A large number of SRIF arrays can be combined into a multi-year solution using the CSRIFS program (Com- bination Square Root Information Filter and Smoother). Four parameter levels are available and any parameter can, at each level, either be represented as a constant or a stochastic parameter (white noise, colored noise, or random walk). The batch length (i.e. the time interval between the addition of noise to the SRIF array) can be made time- and parameter dependent. GEOSAT and CSRIFS have been applied in the analysis of selected

  4. Architectures, Concepts and Technologies for Service Oriented Computing : Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Architectures, Concepts and Technologies for Service Oriented Computing - ACT4SOC 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinderen, van Marten

    2008-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Architectures, Concepts and Technologies for Service Oriented Computing (ACT4SOC 2008), held on July 5 in Porto, Portugal, in conjunction with the Third International Conference on Software and Data Technologies (ICSOFT 200

  5. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M. [Geoscience Australia, P.O. Box 378, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Pursimo, T. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope Apartado 474E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Jauncey, David L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF and Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Maslennikov, K. [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, Pulkovskoye Shosse, 65/1, 196140, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Boldycheva, A., E-mail: oleg.titov@ga.gov.au [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry candidate International Celestial Reference Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame. We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.

  6. High resolution mm-VLBI imaging of Cygnus A

    CERN Document Server

    Boccardi, Bia; Bach, Uwe; Ros, Eduardo; Zensus, J Anton

    2015-01-01

    At a distance of 249 Mpc ($z$=0.056), Cygnus A is the only powerful FR II radio galaxy for which a detailed sub-parsec scale imaging of the base of both jet and counter-jet can be obtained. Observing with VLBI at millimeter wavelengths is fundamental for this object, as it uncovers those regions which appear self-absorbed or free-free absorbed by a circumnuclear torus at longer wavelengths. We performed 7 mm Global VLBI observations, achieving ultra-high resolution imaging on scales down to 90 $\\mu$as. This resolution corresponds to a linear scale of only $\\sim$400 Schwarzschild radii. We studied the transverse structure of the jets through a pixel-based analysis, and kinematic properties of the main emission features by modeling the interferometric visibilities with two-dimensional Gaussian components. Both jets appear limb-brightened, and their opening angles are relatively large ($\\phi_\\mathrm {j}\\sim 10^{\\circ}$). The flow is observed to accelerate within the inner-jet up to scales of $\\sim$1 pc, while lo...

  7. Plate tectonics from VLBI and SLR global data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher G. A.; Robaudo, Stefano

    1992-01-01

    This study is based on data derived from fifteen years of observations of the SLR (side-looking radar) network and six years of the VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) network. In order to use all available information VLBI and SLR global data sets were combined in a least squares fashion to calculate station horizontal velocities. All significant data pertaining to a single site contribute to the station horizontal motion. The only constraint on the solution is that no vertical motion is allowed. This restriction does not greatly affect the precision of the overall solution given the fact that the expected vertical motion for most stations, even those experiencing post glacial uplift, is well under 1 cm/yr. Since the average baseline is under 4,000 km, only a small fraction of the station vertical velocity is translated into baseline rates so that the error introduced in the solution by restricting up-down station movement is minimal. As a reference, station velocities were then compared to the ones predicted by the NUVEL-1 geological model of DeMets et al. (1990). The focus of the study is on analyzing these discrepancies for global plate tectonics as well as regional tectonic settings. The method used also allows us not only to derive horizontal motion for individual stations but also to calculate Euler vectors for those plates that have enough stations located on the stable interior like North America, Pacific, Eurasia, and Australia.

  8. VLBI observations of Infrared-Faint Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelberg, Enno; Phillips, Chris; Norris, Ray; Tingay, Steven

    2006-10-01

    We propose to observe a small sample of radio sources from the ATLAS project (ATLAS = Australia Telescope Large Area Survey) with the LBA, to determine their compactness and map their structures. The sample consists of three radio sources with no counterpart in the co-located SWIRE survey (3.6 um to 160 um), carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. This rare class of sources, dubbed Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS, is inconsistent with current galaxy evolution models. VLBI observations are an essential way to obtain further clues on what these objects are and why they are hidden from infrared observations: we will map their structure to test whether they resemble core-jet or double-lobed morphologies, and we will measure the flux densities on long baselines, to determine their compactness. Previous snapshot-style LBA observations of two other IFRS yielded no detections, hence we propose to use disk-based recording with 512 Mbps where possible, for highest sensitivity. With the observations proposed here, we will increase the number of VLBI-observed IFRS from two to five, soon allowing us to draw general conclusions about this intriguing new class of objects.

  9. Structure Corrections in Modeling VLBI Delays for RDV Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovers, Ojars J.; Charlot, Patrick; Fey, Alan L.; Gordon, David

    2002-01-01

    Since 1997, bimonthly S- and X-band observing sessions have been carried out employing the VLBA (Very Long Baseline Array) and as many as ten additional antennas. Maps of the extended structures have been generated for the 160 sources observed in ten of these experiments (approximately 200,000 observations) taking place during 1997 and 1998. This paper reports the results of the first massive application of such structure maps to correct the modeled VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) delay in astrometric data analysis. For high-accuracy celestial reference frame work, proper choice of a reference point within each extended source is crucial. Here the reference point is taken at the point of maximum emitted flux. Overall, the weighted delay residuals (approximately equal to 30 ps) are reduced by 8 ps in quadrature upon introducing source maps to model the structure delays of the sources. Residuals of some sources with extended or fast-varying structures improve by as much as 40 ps. Scatter of 'arc positions' about a time-linear model decreases substantially for most sources. Based on our results, it is also concluded that source structure is presently not the dominant error source in astrometric/geodetic VLBI.

  10. Search for exoplanets and brown dwarfs with VLBI

    CERN Document Server

    Katarzynski, K; Gozdziewski, K

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this work is to estimate possible radio GHz emission of extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs and to check if such radiation can be detected by Very Large Baseline Interferometers (VLBI). In the estimation we assume that the emission may originate in processes similar to those observed in the Jupiter system. The frequency of the radio emission that is produced in this system depends mostly on the magnetic field strength. Jupiter's magnetic field ($\\sim 9$ G on average) allows for radiation from kHz frequencies up to 40 MHz. This is well below the frequency range of VLBI. However, it was demonstrated that the magnetic field strength in massive and young object may be up to two orders of magnitude higher than for Jupiter, which is especially relevant for planets around short-lived A type stars. This should extend the range of the emission up to GHz frequencies. We calculated expected flux densities of radio emission for a variety of hypothetical young planetary systems. We analysed two different e...

  11. VLBI observations of single stars, spatial resolution and astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozzi, M.; Benz, A. O.; Conway, J. E.; Gudel, M.; Smith, K.

    VLBI studies can both spatially resolve single dMe stars and measure their positions at submilliarcsecond accuracy. The spatial resolution gives the brightness temperature and allows us to draw co nclusions about the nature of the emitting processes. In particular it is possib le to distinguish between thermal or non-thermal emission. The position accuracy gives better knowledge about the astrometric properties (like proper motion and parallax) especially for nearby stars. In this contribution recent results of c ontinuum VLBI observations towards two dMe stars (YZ CMi and AD Leo) at 8.4 GHz are presented. For YZ CMi an estimate of the size of the coronal emission is giv en (0.98 mas in diameter or 0.7 ±0.3 Rstar above the photosphere where Rstar refers to the photospheric radius). For AD Leo an upper limit is gi ven, i.e. the emitting region is shown to be Pestalozzi et al. 2000 ).

  12. VLBI observations of seven BL Lac objects from RGB sample

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhongzu; Gu, Minfeng; Liu, Yi

    2007-01-01

    We present EVN observations of seven BL Lac objects selected from the RGB sample. To investigate the intrinsic radiation property of BL Lac objects, we estimated the Doppler factor with the VLA or MERLIN core and the total 408 MHz luminosity for a sample of 170 BL Lac objects. The intrinsic (comoving) synchrotron peak frequency was then calculated by using the estimated Doppler factor. Assuming a Lorentz factor of 5, the viewing angle of jets was constrained. The high-resolution VLBI images of seven sources all show a core-jet structure. We estimated the proper motions of three sources with the VLBI archive data, and find that the apparent speed increases with the distance of components to the core for all of them. In our BL Lacs sample, the Doppler factor of LBLs is systematically larger than that of IBLs and HBLs. We find a significant anti-correlation between the total 408 MHz luminosity and the intrinsic synchrotron peak frequency. However, the scatter is much larger than for the blazar sequence. Moreover...

  13. Internal Stress Monitoring of In-Service Structural Steel Members with Ultrasonic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuohua Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Internal stress in structural steel members is an important parameter for steel structures in their design, construction, and service stages. However, it is hard to measure via traditional approaches. Among the existing non-destructive testing (NDT methods, the ultrasonic method has received the most research attention. Longitudinal critically refracted (Lcr waves, which propagate parallel to the surface of the material within an effective depth, have shown great potential as an effective stress measurement approach. This paper presents a systematic non-destructive evaluation method to determine the internal stress in in-service structural steel members using Lcr waves. Based on theory of acoustoelasticity, a stress evaluation formula is derived. Factor of stress to acoustic time difference is used to describe the relationship between stress and measurable acoustic results. A testing facility is developed and used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. Two steel members are measured by using the proposed method and the traditional strain gauge method for verification. Parametric studies are performed on three steel members and the aluminum plate to investigate the factors that influence the testing results. The results show that the proposed method is effective and accurate for determining stress in in-service structural steel members.

  14. Complete internal audit of a mammography service in a reference institution for breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badan, Gustavo Machado; Roveda Júnior, Décio; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Pecci; de Noronha Junior, Ozeas Alves

    2014-01-01

    Undertaking of a complete audit of the service of mammography, as recommended by BI-RADS(®), in a private reference institution for breast cancer diagnosis in the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and comparison of results with those recommended by the literature. Retrospective, analytical and cross-sectional study including 8,000 patients submitted to mammography in the period between April 2010 and March 2011, whose results were subjected to an internal audit. The patients were followed-up until December 2012. The radiological classification of 7,249 screening mammograms, according to BI-RADS, was the following: category 0 (1.43%), 1 (7.82%), 2 (80.76%), 3 (8.35%), 4 (1.46%), 5 (0.15%) and 6 (0.03%). The breast cancer detection ratio was 4.8 cases per 1,000 mammograms. Ductal carcinoma in situ was found in 22.8% of cases. Positive predictive values for categories 3, 4 and 5 were 1.3%, 41.3% and 100%, respectively. In the present study, the sensitivity of the method was 97.1% and specificity, 97.4%. The complete internal audit of a service of mammography is essential to evaluate the quality of such service, which reflects on an early breast cancer detection and reduction of mortality rates.

  15. Addressing Cultural Competency in Pharmacy Education through International Service Learning and Community Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemin Kassam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a course in international service learning and community engagement for pharmacy undergraduate students. The course offered students opportunities to cultivate cultural competency in an international setting foreign to their own—Sub-Saharan Africa. The experience consisted of pre-departure preparation seminars followed by subsequent community immersion to experience, explore and confront personal attitudes and perceptions. A key feature of this course was its emphasis on a continuing cycle of learning, community engagement and reflection. Three students participated, a near-maximum cohort. Their daily self-reflections were qualitatively analyzed to document the impact of their cultural learning and experiences and revealed meaningful learning in the domains of self-assessment and awareness of their personal and professional culture, exposure to a participatory health delivery model involving the patient, the community and a multidisciplinary team and opportunities to engage in patient care in a different cultural setting. This proof-of-concept course provided students with experiences that were life-changing on both personal and professional levels and confirmed the viability and relevance of international service learning for the pharmacy field within its university-wide mandate.

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTERNAL TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK WITHIN THE SERVICES SECTOR UTILISING TQM PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pieterse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Technology is generally accepted as one of the key factors that influences society and business in an unmistakable manner. Current literature is not singular in its views and methods of technology strategy development, the interface between technology strategy and business strategy and how technology strategy is executed and assessed internally. This article proposes an internal technology strategy assessment framework for the services sector. The framework is developed by merging the disciplines and current models of technology management, business architecture, strategic performance measurement and total quality management. The model is presented in the text in flowchart form. The required data was gathered by means of case study protocol. Three case studies were conducted in the services sector and the tabulated results are presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tegnologie word algemeen aanvaar as een van die mees deurslaggewende drywers wat besigheid en die samelewing onomkeerbaar verander. Verskillende opinies bestaan in die literatuur oor die metodes van tegnologiestrategie-ontwikkelling, die raakvlak tussen tegnologiestrategie en besigheidstrategie en hoe tegnologiestrategie uitgevoer en geassesseer moet word. Die artikel fokus op 'n interne tegnologiestrategie assesseringsmodel, spesifiek vir die dienstesektor. Die assesseringsmodel word ontwikkel deur die dissiplines en beskikbare modelle van tegnologiebestuur, besigheidsargitektuur, strategiese prestasiemeting en totale kwaliteitsbestuur te integreer. Die model word in die teks in die formaat van ‘n vloeidiagram aangebied. Die nodige data vir die model is ingesamel deur gebruik te maak van gevallestudieprotokol. Drie gevallestudies is uitgevoer en die getabuleerde resultate gelys in die teks.

  17. Harmonization of the Ukrainian civil service with international and EU standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Prudyus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article the issue on harmonization of the civil service with the international and EU standards as one of the key direction of implementation of the Reform Strategy of civil service and service in local self­government bodies for the period up to 2017 was researched. It was established that examples of the most effective management practice can be considered as a standard on which could be oriented states that seek to move to a more efficient and effective public administration. It was approached the issue «European standards of the public administration» as the complex of principles and standards of the establishing and implementation of politics, requirements to the management system. These concepts create will­free and subsequent application to harmonize with the model on building and realization of the modern people oriented public power; «European standards of the civil service» as the requirements to the organization, functionality, structure and management of the civil service system of the EU countries, which established by the legislation and informal cooperation for the ensuring the mission, aim and tasks of the EU and were established by founding treaties. It was summarized that good governance became in the EU as the paradigm for ensuring of the real effect to the democracy values and standards, human rights protection, rule of law, obligatory public administration in all levels. It was implemented according to 12 principles: 1 fair elections, representation and participation; 2 sensitivity to the citizens needs and expectations; 3 efficiency and effectiveness; 4 openness and transparency; 5 the rule of law; 6 ethical behavior; 7 the ability and competence; 8 innovation and openness to change; 9 sustainability and focus on long­term results; 10 sound financial management; 11 human rights, cultural diversity and social cohesion; 12 accountability. It was proven that civil service harmonization with the international and

  18. Harmonization of the Ukrainian civil service with international and EU standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Prudyus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article the issue on harmonization of the civil service with the international and EU standards as one of the key direction of implementation of the Reform Strategy of civil service and service in local self­government bodies for the period up to 2017 was researched. It was established that examples of the most effective management practice can be considered as a standard on which could be oriented states that seek to move to a more efficient and effective public administration. It was approached the issue «European standards of the public administration» as the complex of principles and standards of the establishing and implementation of politics, requirements to the management system. These concepts create will­free and subsequent application to harmonize with the model on building and realization of the modern people oriented public power; «European standards of the civil service» as the requirements to the organization, functionality, structure and management of the civil service system of the EU countries, which established by the legislation and informal cooperation for the ensuring the mission, aim and tasks of the EU and were established by founding treaties. It was summarized that good governance became in the EU as the paradigm for ensuring of the real effect to the democracy values and standards, human rights protection, rule of law, obligatory public administration in all levels. It was implemented according to 12 principles: 1 fair elections, representation and participation; 2 sensitivity to the citizens needs and expectations; 3 efficiency and effectiveness; 4 openness and transparency; 5 the rule of law; 6 ethical behavior; 7 the ability and competence; 8 innovation and openness to change; 9 sustainability and focus on long­term results; 10 sound financial management; 11 human rights, cultural diversity and social cohesion; 12 accountability. It was proven that civil service harmonization with the international and

  19. Length Variations of European Baselines Derived from VLBI and GPS Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Malkin, Zinovy; Skurikhina, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Results of VLBI and GPS observations were analyzed with goal to investigate differences in observed baseline length derived from both techniques. VLBI coordinates for European stations were obtained from processing of all available observations collected on European and global VLBI network. Advanced model for antenna thermal deformation was applied to account for change of horizontal component of baseline length. GPS data were obtained from re-processing of the weekly EPN (European Permanent GPS Network) solutions. Systematic differences between results obtained with two techniques including linear drift and seasonal effects are determined.

  20. VLBI observations of SN2011dh: imaging of the youngest radio supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Marti-Vidal, I; Paragi, Z; Yang, J; Marcaide, J M; Guirado, J C; Ros, E; Alberdi, A; Perez-Torres, M A; Argo, M K; van der Horst, A J; Garrett, M A; Stockdale, C J; Weiler, K W

    2011-01-01

    We report on the VLBI detection of supernova SN2011dh at 22GHz using a subset of the EVN array. The observations took place 14 days after the discovery of the supernova, thus resulting in a VLBI image of the youngest radio-loud supernova ever. We provide revised coordinates for the supernova with milli-arcsecond precision, linked to the ICRF. The recovered flux density is a factor 2 below the EVLA flux density reported by other authors at the same frequency and epoch of our observations. This discrepancy could be due to extended emission detected with the EVLA or to calibration problems in the VLBI and/or EVLA observations.

  1. Integration of International Service Learning in Developing Countries within Occupational Therapy Education: Process and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    International service learning (ISL) is included in an increasing number of courses at post-secondary levels of education, including programs which educate future occupational therapy practitioners. There is a limited amount of literature and research concerning best practices for course-based occupational therapy education featuring ISL experiences, in particular within developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to (a) to review key literature on ISL, (b) explicate key elements which can help design course-based ISL experiences; and (c) suggest areas for further research and development of course-based ISL. The seven elements of focus that provide a base to guide occupational therapy educators who create ISL courses with an immersion component in a country with a developing economy are discussed, as well as future challenges and possibilities when providing occupational therapy services to a global society.

  2. Interprofessional education: a pilot study of rehabilitation sciences students participating in interdisciplinary international service-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechak, Celia; Gonzalez, Eugenia; Summers, Connie; Capshaw, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Various models of interprofessional education, including service-learning, are used to teach students how to be effective members of healthcare teams. The purpose of this study was to examine pilot data related to the impact of an elective one-credit global health course with an international service-learning experience (ISL) on the student participants. An interdisciplinary team of 3 faculty accompanied 4 students representing occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech-language pathology programs for an 8-day ISL experience. Students responded to faculty-developed reflection questions pre-travel, during travel, and 2-weeks and 4-months post travel. Content analysis was used to analyze themes that emerged from the students' written reflections. Three major themes emerged: collaboration, satisfaction, and self-discovery. The most prominent theme was related to interprofessional collaboration.

  3. 9th KES International Conference on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia Systems and Services

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Luigi; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi; IIMSS-16; Intelligent Interactive Multimedia Systems and Services 2016

    2016-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented at the ninth international KES conference on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia: Systems and Services, which took place in Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, June 15-17, 2016. It contains 65 peer-reviewed book chapters that focus on issues ranging from intelligent image or video storage, retrieval, transmission and analysis to knowledge-based technologies, from advanced information technology architectures for video processing and transmission to advanced functionalities of information and knowledge-based services. We believe that this book will serve as a useful source of knowledge for both academia and industry, for all those faculty members, research scientists, scholars, Ph.D. students and practitioners, who are interested in fundamental and applied facets of intelligent interactive multimedia.

  4. Procurement of goods and services by international organisations in donor countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Carbonnier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the procurement of goods and services by multilateral organisations from suppliers, based on a panel data including industrialised countries and emerging economies over 11 years. It presents the results of an empirical study – the first of its kind – on the explanatory factors of variations between countries, which are mainly attributable to such factors as the strength of the manufacturing sector and business ties established in the past. The results seem to indicate that the contributions paid by donor countries may have a positive influence on the procurement of goods and services, despite the fact that multilateral organisations purchase goods and services through international tendering procedures. Geographical proximity, cultural and linguistic affinities and the presence of the headquarters of a multilateral organisation in the country also play a positive role. The purchase of goods and services by multilateral agencies may be considered as an indirect effect of official development assistance (ODA. With many donor countries facing serious economic and budgetary constraints, documentation of the “return on investment” may serve as a means of encouraging policymakers to increase – or at least to not reduce – ODA budgets, including for multilateral agencies. Such arguments must nevertheless remain marginal with respect to the key debates on aid effectiveness and on on the performance of multilateral organisations.

  5. 4th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kimita, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS2), which is defined as “an integrated industrial product and service offering that delivers value in use,” has expanded rapidly over the last decade. IPS2 has allowed us to achieve both high added value and high productivity and has enriched our QOL by improving the performance of products and services. We are now struggling with many awkward issues related to sustainability, but IPS2 is expected to be the “philosopher’s stone” for solving these issues. Following the pattern of conferences held in Cranfield in 2009, Linköping in 2010, and Braunschweig in 2011, the fourth International CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, held on November 8-9, 2012, in Tokyo, will cover various aspects of IPS2. Topics planned for this year’s conference reflect the latest IPS2 information in both the natural sciences and humanities and include case studies from various industries. IPS2 is still a relatively new field, so it is important to keep track of the ...

  6. Relationships between Personal Traits, Emotional Intelligence, Internal Marketing, Service Management, and Customer Orientation in Korean Outpatient Department Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogyun Kim, MSN, RN

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Hospital administrators should support OPD nurses to cultivate sincere and sociable personal traits and emotional intelligence, and to consider employees as internal customers to improve patient-oriented services and satisfaction.

  7. International Conference on Grey Systems and intelligent Services (IEEE GSIS 2009)

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Sifeng; Advances in Grey Systems Research

    2010-01-01

    This book contains contributions by some of the leading researchers in the area of grey systems theory and applications. All the papers included in this volume are selected from the contributions physically presented at the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Grey Systems and Intelligent Services, November 11 – 12, 2009, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China. This event was jointly sponsored by IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society, Natural Science Foundation of China, and Grey Systems Society of China. Additionally, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics also invested heavily in this event with its direct and indirect financial and administrative supports.

  8. Multi-level partnerships to promote health services among internally displaced in eastern Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, M; Maung, C; Oo, E K Shwe; Smith, L; Lee, C I; Whichard, E; Neumann, C; Richards, A K; Mullany, L C; Kuiper, H; Lee, T J

    2008-01-01

    Ethnic populations in eastern Burma are the target of military policies that result in forced labour, destruction of food supplies, and massive forced displacement. Despite international assistance to Burmese refugees along the Thai-Burma border, traditional humanitarian models have failed to reach these internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Burma. Nevertheless, through the cultivation of a model (cross border local-global partnerships) 300,000 IDPs in eastern Burma now receive critical health services where, otherwise, there would be none. We describe key elements of the partnership model's genesis in eastern Burma. The role of the local partner, Backpack Health Worker Team (BPHWT), is highlighted for its indigenous access to the IDP populations and its maintenance of programmatic autonomy. These local elements are potentiated by international support for technical assistance, training, resources, and advocacy. International policy and investment should prioritize support of locally-driven health initiatives that utilize local-global partnerships to reach not only IDPs but also other war-torn or traditionally inaccessible populations worldwide.

  9. Impact of international humanitarian service-learning on emerging adult social competence: A mixed-methods evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Schvaneveldt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results from a study into international humanitarian service-learning experiences on young adult volunteers. Specifically, the service-learning experiences of emerging adults who had served in orphanages in Latin America were assessed, in a pre- and post-test design, for their development in areas of social competency such as identity, self-efficacy, self-esteem and ethnocentric attitudes. A mixed-methods design using both qualitative and quantitative measures was used. Both qualitative and quantitative results identified significant and important impacts on the development of the social competencies of these emerging adults. In addition, several qualitative themes illustrated that longer term international service-learning experiences have a profound impact on the social competence of emerging adults. Keywords: International humanitarian service, service-learning, emerging adult competency

  10. Internal Marketing : a literature review and research propositions for service excellence/Marketing Interno : uma revisao da literatura e proposicoes de pesquisa para a excelencia nos servicos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Farias, Salomao Alencar

    2010-01-01

    The role of service employees is indeed relevant for the success of any service organization, especially those that process people and internal marketing can help firms to deliver service excellence...

  11. Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Understanding of Quadrilaterals and the Internal Relationships between Quadrilaterals: The Case of Parallelograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakli Ulger, Tugce; Tapan Broutin, Menekse Seden

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to reveal pre-service teachers' conceptions, definitions, and understanding of quadrilaterals and their internal relationships in terms of personal and formal figural concepts via case of the parallelograms. To collect data, an open-ended question was addressed to 27 pre-service mathematics teachers, and clinical interviews…

  12. [Agreements Between Syracuse University and Syracuse University Employees' Union, Local 200 of the General Service Employees' International Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syracuse Univ., NY.

    Contained in this document are three labor contracts made by and between Syracuse University and Local 200 General Services Employees' Union, Service Employees' International Union, AFL-CIO. The purpose of the agreements is to promote and maintain good relations between the university, the union, and the employees represented by the union and to…

  13. Development and evaluation of an international service learning program for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Alicia J; Martins, Diane C; Schwartz-Barcott, Donna; DiMaria, Lisa; Soler Ogando, Béliga Milagros

    2013-01-01

    (1) Using Riner's framework, the development of an international service learning program in the Dominican Republic (DR) for Baccalaureate nursing students will be described, and (2) an initial impact of the students' experiences will be examined. A qualitative descriptive research design was used to examine its impact. The international service learning program included (1) didactic (five, 2 hr and one full day educational sessions) prior to (2) immersion (2 weeks in country), and (3) posttrip debriefing session. Ten females, senior nursing students participated in the program. Students' daily journals were examined using thematic analysis. Five major themes that emerged were as follows adapting physically, encountering frustration in their inability to fully meet patients' needs, increasing confidence in speaking Spanish and assessing health problems, and increasing cultural awareness. Students were descriptive regarding their daily activities, and did some, but limited, critical reflection. Models of reflection need to be explored to select the most appropriate technique to facilitate students' critical reflection in meeting the goals and objectives of the experience. Curriculum integration of global learning, social consciousness, and global cultural competence development is needed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. International trade causes large net economic losses in tropical countries via the destruction of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Junning; Symes, William S; Lim, Felix; Carrasco, L Roman

    2016-05-01

    Despite the large implications of the use of tropical land for exports ("land absorption") on ecosystem services (ES) and global biodiversity conservation, the magnitude of these externalities is not known. We quantify the net value of ES lost in tropical countries as a result of cropland, forestland and pastureland absorption for exports after deducting ES gains through imports ("land displacement"). We find that net ES gains occur only in 7 out of the 41 countries and regions considered. We estimate global annual net losses of over 1.7 x 10(12) international dollars (I$) (I$1.1 x 10(12) if carbon-related services are not considered). After deducting the benefits from agricultural, forest and livestock rents in land replacing tropical forests, the net annual losses are I$1.3 and I$0.7 x 10(12), respectively. The results highlight the large magnitude of tropical ES losses through international trade that are not compensated by the rents of land uses in absorbed land.

  15. Functioning principles of the internal quality assurance system of educational services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Oborsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With ever increasing demands of a labor market for specialists the important role played revision of approaches to quality of education. In accordance with the European standards and guidelines on quality of higher education (ESG a new paradigm of higher education is student centered approach to learning, teaching and assessment of results. Aim: The aim of research is to determine the principles of the internal system of quality assurance of educational services in higher education institutions. Materials and Methods: Each educational institution according to the context of its activity has to independently manage the principles of operation, their justification and degrees of importance. The authors proposed and described the cycle model of strategic management of universities in order to achieve sustainable development. Results: In this paper the authors presented the proposals on policy, mission and objectives of the higher education institution in the field of quality in order to implement student centered teaching. It is shown that the definition of the principles of the internal system of quality assurance operation of educational services in higher education institutions is a strategically important decision that will improve their work and allow them to initiate and manage sustainable development.

  16. Does Higher Education Service Quality Effect Student Satisfaction, Image and Loyalty? A Study of International Students in Malaysian Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Faizan; Zhou, Yuan; Hussain, Kashif; Nair, Pradeep Kumar; Ragavan, Neethiahnanthan Ari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Malaysian public universities' service quality on international student satisfaction, institutional image and loyalty. Design/methodology/approach: A total number of 400 questionnaires were distributed to international students, selected using convenience sampling technique, at…

  17. Does Higher Education Service Quality Effect Student Satisfaction, Image and Loyalty? A Study of International Students in Malaysian Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Faizan; Zhou, Yuan; Hussain, Kashif; Nair, Pradeep Kumar; Ragavan, Neethiahnanthan Ari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Malaysian public universities' service quality on international student satisfaction, institutional image and loyalty. Design/methodology/approach: A total number of 400 questionnaires were distributed to international students, selected using convenience sampling technique, at…

  18. Height biases and scale variations in VLBI networks due to antenna gravitational deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanza, Claudio; Sarti, Pierguido; Petrov, Leonid; Negusini, Monia

    2010-05-01

    The impact of signal path variations (SPVs) caused by antenna gravity deformations on geodetic VLBI results is evaluated for the first time. Elevation-dependent models of SPV for Medicina and Noto (Italy) telescopes were derived from a combination of terrestrial surveying methods to account for gravitational deformations. After applying these models, estimates of the antenna reference point (ARP) positions are shifted upward by 8.9 mm and 6.7 mm, respectively. The impact on other parameters is negligible. To infer the impact of antenna gravity deformations on the entire VLBI network, lacking measurements for other telescopes, we rescaled the SPV models of Medicina and Noto for other antennas according to their size. The effects are changes in VLBI heights in the range [-3,73] mm and a significant net scale increase of 0.3 - 0.8 ppb. This demonstrates the need to include SPV models in routine VLBI data analysis.

  19. VLBI at the highest frequencies - AGN studied with micro-arcsecond resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Krichbaum, T P; Bach, U; Witzel, A; Zensus, J A

    2006-01-01

    Compact galactic and extragalactic radio sources can be imaged with an unsurpassed angular resolution of a few ten micro-arcseconds, adopting the observing technique of global millimeter VLBI. Here we present the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA) and discuss its present performance. For individual and partially archetypical radio sources with prominent VLBI jets (e.g. 3C120, Cygnus A, M87, 3C454.3, NRAO150),we show and discuss new results obtained with the GMVA. The variety of observed effects range from jet propagation and bending, partial fore-ground absorption in the nucleus, and jet component ejection after major flares to new and very small (15-20 Schwarzschild radii) upper limits to the jet base of M87. We also discuss the future development of mm-VLBI at 3mm and towards shorter wavelengths, and make suggestions for possible improvements.

  20. Present and Future Millimeter VLBI Imaging of Jets in AGN: The Case of NRAO 150

    CERN Document Server

    Agudo, I; Bach, U; Pagels, A; Graham, D; Alef, W; Witzel, A; Zensus, J A; Bremer, M; Grewing, M; Ter"asranta, H

    2005-01-01

    The Global mm-VLBI Array is at present the most sensitive 3 mm-VLBI interferometer and provides images of up to 40 micro-arcsecond resolution. Using this array, we have monitored the rotation of the innermost jet in the quasar NRAO 150, which shows an angular speed of ~ 7 deg./yr. Future 3 mm arrays could include additional stations like ALMA, GBT, LMT, CARMA, SRT, Yebes, Nobeyama and Noto, which would allow to push VLBI at this wavelength to sensitivity and image quality levels comparable to those of present VLBI at centimeter wavelengths. This would improve our knowledge of the accretion systems and the magneto-hydrodynamics of the innermost jets in AGN and microquasars.

  1. Wide-Band Data Transmission System Expected in the Next Generation Space VLBI Mission: VSOP-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yasuhiro; Hirabayashi, Hisashi

    2002-01-01

    Following the success of the VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP), a next generation space VLBI mission (VSOP-2) is currently being planned. We expect the data rate of more than 1 Gbps to get more sensitivity. Here we will present: (1) How to sample the data (on board), including the radiation test results which show we can have the 10 Gbps sampler LSI which can use in space; (2) Possibility of the bit rate more than 1 Gbps to downlink the VLBI data. We studied the link budget for the wide band data transmission, and discussed the various ideas which can get more than 1 Gbps; and (3) What kind of VLBI tracking station and recording system will be expected for the VSOP-2 mission? We will present the idea of using normal radio telescopes as a tracking station, and also review the possibility of recording and processing at the tracking stations and correlators.

  2. Pulsar VLBI to Measure Cosmological Rotation and Study Pulsar Emission Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, C. R.

    2009-08-01

    Pulsars are useful for measuring the rotation of the universe. Also, their emission regions provide interesting laboratories for plasma physics. I describe here how VLBI of pulsars, and the VSOP-2 spacecraft, can contribute to such studies.

  3. Submicrosecond comparison of intercontinental clock synchronization by VLBI and the NTS satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.; Wardrip, S. C.; Bussion, J.; Oaks, J.; Mccaskill, T.; Warren, H.; Whitworth, G.

    1979-01-01

    The intercontinental clock synchronization capabilities of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and the Navigation Technology Satellite (NTS) were compared in May 1978 by using both methods to synchronize the cesium clocks at the NASA Deep Space Net complexes at Madrid, Spain, and Goldstone, California. The VLBI experiments used the Wideband VLBI Data Acquisition System. The Navigation Technology Satellites were used with NTS Timing Receivers developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center. The two methods agreed at about the one-half microsecond level. The VLBI system also obtained long-term stability information on the HP5061A004 cesium standards by measuring delta T/T over four 3- to 4-day intervals, obtaining stability estimates of (1 + or - 1)x10 to the -13th power for the combined timing systems.

  4. Vienna SAC-SOS: Analysis of the European VLBI Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, C. T.; Pavetich, P.; Nilsson, T.; Böhm, J.; Schuh, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics (IGG) of the Vienna University of Technology as an IVS Special Analysis Center for Specific Observing Sessions (SAC-SOS) has analyzed the European VLBI sessions using the software VieVS. Between 1990 and 2011, 115 sessions have been carried out. The analyzed baselines have lengths ranging from approximately 445 to 4580 km, and they show good repeatabilities, apart from the ones containing station Simeiz. The station velocities have also been investigated. The stations situated in the stable part of Europe have not shown significant relative movements w.r.t. Wettzell, whereas the stations located in the northern areas have the largest vertical motions as a result of the post glacial isostatic rebound of the zone. The stations placed in Italy, around the Black Sea, in Siberia, and near the Arctic Circle show the largest relative horizontal motions because they belong to different geodynamical units.

  5. Remote Control and Monitoring of VLBI Experiments by Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruztort, C. H.; Hase, H.; Zapata, O.; Pedreros, F.

    2012-12-01

    For the remote control and monitoring of VLBI operations, we developed a software optimized for smartphones. This is a new tool based on a client-server architecture with a Web interface optimized for smartphone screens and cellphone networks. The server uses variables of the Field System and its station specific parameters stored in the shared memory. The client running on the smartphone by a Web interface analyzes and visualizes the current status of the radio telescope, receiver, schedule, and recorder. In addition, it allows commands to be sent remotely to the Field System computer and displays the log entries. The user has full access to the entire operation process, which is important in emergency cases. The software also integrates a webcam interface.

  6. GPU Based Software Correlators - Perspectives for VLBI2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Kimura, Moritaka; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Oyama, Tomoaki; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Tetsuro; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Amagai, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Caused by historical separation and driven by the requirements of the PC gaming industry, Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) have evolved to massive parallel processing systems which entered the area of non-graphic related applications. Although a single processing core on the GPU is much slower and provides less functionality than its counterpart on the CPU, the huge number of these small processing entities outperforms the classical processors when the application can be parallelized. Thus, in recent years various radio astronomical projects have started to make use of this technology either to realize the correlator on this platform or to establish the post-processing pipeline with GPUs. Therefore, the feasibility of GPUs as a choice for a VLBI correlator is being investigated, including pros and cons of this technology. Additionally, a GPU based software correlator will be reviewed with respect to energy consumption/GFlop/sec and cost/GFlop/sec.

  7. Development of data infrastructure to support scientific analysis for the International GNSS Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, C.; Bock, Y.; Habrich, H.; Moore, A.

    2009-03-01

    The International GNSS Service provides data and products to support a wide range of global, multidisciplinary scientific research. The service has established a hierarchy of components to facilitate its mission: a globally distributed network of Tracking Stations, Data Centers, Analysis Centers, a Central Bureau, and a Governing Board. The Data Centers, in conjunction with the Central Bureau, serve as the primary means of distributing GNSS data, products, and general information to the user community through ftp and Web servers and email services. The requirements of analysis centers and the scientific community have evolved over the lifetime of the IGS, requiring enhancement and extension of the supporting data center infrastructure. The diversity of IGS data and products extends today from the realm of the real-time and near real-time to the long-term archive and thus forms a basis for multidisciplinary research spanning decades. Reliability of all components is a key requirement within the IGS and is accomplished through the geographic distribution of data centers and the creation of independent, redundant, parallel channels for the transmission of data and products. We discuss the development of the IGS data infrastructure, current status, and plans for future enhancements. Descriptions of IGS data and products and associated metadata are also included.

  8. A mixed methods evaluation of an international service learning program in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Alicia J; Martins, Diane C; Schwartz-Barcott, Donna

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of an international service learning experience (ISL) using a quantitative and qualitative approach. A descriptive study was used to explore the impact of an ISL experience on global awareness, professional and personal growth with 11 baccalaureate nursing students in the Dominican Republic. Students participated in a three credit ISL program in the Dominican Republic which included pre- and postexperience seminars and a 2-week, on-site immersion experience. The International Education Survey (IES) was used as the quantitative measure. Content analysis of Critical Reflective Inquiry (CRI) narratives was used as the qualitative method. Students reported a high overall impact (M = 5.9) using the IES with high means for the Professional Student Nurse Role (M = 6.10, SD: 0.74), Personal Development (M = 6.08, SD: 0.76), International Perspectives (M = 6.03, SD: 0.71), and a lower mean for Intellectual Development (M = 5.40, SD: 0.69). CRI narratives revealed specific areas of impact, for example, increased empathy and ability to communicate effectively with patients from life situations very different from their own. Further exploration of the usefulness of various evaluation tools and methodological designs is warranted to understand this type of pedagogy and its' impact on student learning outcomes short- and long-term. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Mark 6: A Next-Generation VLBI Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, A. R.; Lapsley, D. E.; Taveniku, M.

    2011-07-01

    A new real-time high-data-rate disk-array system based on entirely commercial-off-the-shelf hardware components is being evaluated for possible use as a next-generation VLBI data system. The system, developed by XCube Communications of Nashua, NH, USA was originally developed for the automotive industry for testing/evaluation of autonomous driving systems that require continuous capture of an array of video cameras and automotive sensors at ~8Gbps from multiple 10GigE data links and other data sources. In order to sustain the required recording data rate, the system is designed to account for slow and/or failed disks by shifting the load to other disks as necessary in order to maintain the target data rate. The system is based on a Linux OS with some modifications to memory management and drivers in order to guarantee the timely movement of data, and the hardware/software combination is highly tuned to achieve the target data rate; data are stored in standard Linux files. A kit is also being designed that will allow existing Mark 5 disk modules to be modified to be used with the XCube system (though PATA disks will need to be replaced by SATA disks). Demonstrations of the system at Haystack Observatory and NRAO Socorro have proved very encouraging; some modest software upgrades/revisions are being made by XCube in order to meet VLBI-specific requirements. The system is easily expandable, with sustained 16 Gbps likely to be supported before end CY2011.

  10. Space VLBI Polarimetry of IDV Sources: Lessons from VSOP and Prospects for VSOP-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, U.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Bernhart, S.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Kraus, A.; Fuhrmann, L.; Witzel, A.; Zensus, J. A.

    2009-08-01

    To locate and image the compact emission regions in quasars, which are closely connected to the phenomenon of IntraDay Variability (IDV), space VLBI observations are of prime importance. Here we report on VSOP observations of a prominent IDV source, the BL Lac objects S5 0716+714. To monitor their short term variability, these sources were observed with VSOP at 5 GHz in several polarisation sensitive experiments, separated in time by one day to six days, in autumn 2000. Contemporaneous flux density measurements with the Effelsberg 100 m radio telescope were used to directly compare the single dish IDV with changes of the VLBI images. A clear IDV behaviour in total intensity and linear polarization was observed in 0716+714. Analysis of the VLBI data shows that the variations are located inside the VLBI core component of 0716+714. In good agreement with the single-dish measurements, the VLBI ground array images and the VSOP images, both show a decrease in the total flux density of ˜20 mJy and a drop of ˜5 mJy in the linear polarization of the VLBI core. No variability was found in the jet. These findings are supported by VLBA observations of five IDV sources, including 0716+714, in December 2000, that show a similar behaviour. From the variability timescales we estimate a source size of a few micro-arcseconds and brightness temperatures exceeding 1015 K. Independent of whether the interpretation of the IDV seen in the VLBI core is source intrinsic or extrinsic a lower limit of TB > 2×1012 K is obtained by model fitting of the VLBI-core. Our results show that future VSOP2 observations should be accompanied by a single dish monitoring not only to discriminate between source-extrinsic (interstellar scintillation) and source-intrinsic effects but to allow also a proper calibration and interpretation of ultra-high resolution VSOP2 images.

  11. New trends for the realization of the international terrestrial reference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Zuheir; Boucher, Claude; Sillard, Patrick

    2002-07-01

    With the advent of Space geodesy techniques in early eighties, global terrestrial reference frames became available whose precision is still improving parallel to measuring and modeling advances. As a global reference, the realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS), known as the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), maintained by the International Earth Rotation Service, has sustained substantial improvement and enhancement. One of the major new trends is the 2000 ITRS realization, to be considered as a standard solution for a wide user community (geodesy, geophysics, astronomy, etc.). The ITRF2000 comprises on one hand primary core stations observed by VLBI, LLR, GPS, SLR and DORIS techniques and, on the other hand, significant extension provided by regional GPS networks for densifications as well as other useful geodetic markers tied to space geodetic ones. The ITRF2000 combination and implementation strategy are described in this paper. Important results in terms of datum definition as well as quality assessment of the ITRF2000 are presented.

  12. Height bias and scale effect induced by antenna gravitational deformations in geodetic VLBI data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, Pierguido; Abbondanza, Claudio; Petrov, Leonid; Negusini, Monia

    2011-01-01

    The impact of signal path variations (SPVs) caused by antenna gravitational deformations on geodetic very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) results is evaluated for the first time. Elevation-dependent models of SPV for Medicina and Noto (Italy) telescopes were derived from a combination of terrestrial surveying methods to account for gravitational deformations. After applying these models in geodetic VLBI data analysis, estimates of the antenna reference point positions are shifted upward by 8.9 and 6.7 mm, respectively. The impact on other parameters is negligible. To simulate the impact of antenna gravitational deformations on the entire VLBI network, lacking measurements for other telescopes, we rescaled the SPV models of Medicina and Noto for other antennas according to their size. The effects of the simulations are changes in VLBI heights in the range [-3, 73] mm and a net scale increase of 0.3-0.8 ppb. The height bias is larger than random errors of VLBI position estimates, implying the possibility of significant scale distortions related to antenna gravitational deformations. This demonstrates the need to precisely measure gravitational deformations of other VLBI telescopes, to derive their precise SPV models and to apply them in routine geodetic data analysis.

  13. Zooming towards the Event Horizon - mm-VLBI today and tomorrow

    CERN Document Server

    Krichbaum, T P; Wagner, J; Rottmann, H; Hodgson, J A; Bertarini, A; Alef, W; Zensus, J A; Marscher, A P; Jorstad, S G; Freund, R; Marrone, D; Strittmatter, P; Ziurys, L; Blundell, R; Weintroub, J; Young, K; Fish, V; Doeleman, S; Bremer, M; Sanchez, S; Fuhrmann, L; Angelakis, E; Karamanavis, V

    2013-01-01

    Global VLBI imaging at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength overcomes the opacity barrier of synchrotron self-absorption in AGN and opens the direct view into sub-pc scale regions not accessible before. Since AGN variability is more pronounced at short millimeter wavelength, mm-VLBI can reveal structural changes in very early stages after outbursts. When combined with observations at longer wavelength, global 3mm and 1mm VLBI adds very detailed information. This helps to determine fundamental physical properties at the jet base, and in the vicinity of super-massive black holes at the center of AGN. Here we present new results from multi-frequency mm-VLBI imaging of OJ287 during a major outburst. We also report on a successful 1.3mm VLBI experiment with the APEX telescope in Chile. This observation sets a new record in angular resolution. It also opens the path towards future mm-VLBI with ALMA, which aims at the mapping of the black hole event horizon in nearby galaxies, and the study of the roots of jets ...

  14. Development of an e-VLBI Data Transport Software Suite with VDIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekido, Mamoru; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Moritaka; Hobiger, Thomas; Kokado, Kensuke; Nozawa, Kentarou; Kurihara, Shinobu; Shinno, Takuya; Takahashi, Fujinobu

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a software library (KVTP-lib) for VLBI data transmission over the network with the VDIF (VLBI Data Interchange Format), which is the newly proposed standard VLBI data format designed for electronic data transfer over the network. The software package keeps the application layer (VDIF frame) and the transmission layer separate, so that each layer can be developed efficiently. The real-time VLBI data transmission tool sudp-send is an application tool based on the KVTP-lib library. sudp-send captures the VLBI data stream from the VSI-H interface with the K5/VSI PC-board and writes the data to file in standard Linux file format or transmits it to the network using the simple- UDP (SUDP) protocol. Another tool, sudp-recv , receives the data stream from the network and writes the data to file in a specific VLBI format (K5/VSSP, VDIF, or Mark 5B). This software system has been implemented on the Wettzell Tsukuba baseline; evaluation before operational employment is under way.

  15. When you wish upon a star Future developments in astronomical VLBI

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, M A

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, I present the likely technological development of VLBI, and its impact on the astronomical community over the next 1-5 years. VLBI is currently poised to take advantage of the rapid development in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) PC-based products. The imminent deployment of disk-based recording systems will enable Gbps data rates to be achieved routinely by both cm and mm-VLBI networks. This, together with anticipated improvements in collecting area, receiver systems and coherence time is set to transform the performance of VLBI in terms of both baseline and image noise sensitivity. At the same time the feasibility of using fibre based communication networks as the basis for production, real-time VLBI networks will begin. Fantastic new correlator output data rates, and the ability to deal with these via powerful PC clusters promises to expand the typical VLBI field-of-view to scales previously reserved for connected, short baseline interferometers. By simultaneously sampling the summed response...

  16. Development of Broadband VLBI System and its Application to T&F Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekido, Mamoru; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Ujihara, Hideki; Kondo, Tetsuro; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Miyauchi, Yuka; Kawai, Eiji; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Shingo; Ichikawa, Ryuichi; Hanado, Yuko; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Watabe, Ken-ichi; Suzuyama, Tomonari; Amemiya, Masaki; Fukuzaki, Yoshihiro; Komuro, Jun-ichi; Terada, Kenjiro; Namba, Kunitaka; Takahashi, Rumi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Takatoshi; Aoki, Tetsuo

    2015-08-01

    We are developing a new broadband VLBI system, named GALA-V, for frequency comparison. Atomic time standards connected to transportable small antennas are compared via broadband VLBI observation with large diameter antenna. Disadvantages of small antenna in sensitivity is compensated (1) by ten times wider frequency range of observation and (2) by joint observation with large diameter antenna. NICT has originally developed broadband feed system (6.5-15GHz) for Kashima 34m radio telescope. The system development and performance evaluation of the Gala-V system are being conducted at NICT (Koganei)- NMIJ (Tsukuba) baseline, where both NICT and NMIJ are institutes of maintaining their UTC.The broadband GALA-V system is designed to be compatible with the VGOS (VLBI2010 Global Observing System), which is the next generation geodetic VLBI system promoted by the IVS. We have successfully made the first VLBI observation between the new Ishioka 13m VGOS antenna of GSI and Kashima 34m antenna. Additionally super broadband VLBI observation over 8GHz bandwidth, and coherent signal synthesis for quite high delay resolution were achieved for the first time in the world. This paper will report recent progress of the broadband system development and results of frequency comparison experiments with the GALA-V system.

  17. The Acceleration of the Barycenter of Solar System Obtained from VLBI Observations and Its Impact on the ICRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M. H.

    2016-03-01

    Since 1998 January 1, instead of the traditional stellar reference system, the International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) has been realized by an ensemble of extragalactic radio sources that are located at hundreds of millions of light years away (if we accept their cosmological distances), so that the reference frame realized by extragalactic radio sources is assumed to be space-fixed. The acceleration of the barycenter of solar system (SSB), which is the origin of the ICRS, gives rise to a systematical variation in the directions of the observed radio sources. This phenomenon is called the secular aberration drift. As a result, the extragalactic reference frame fixed to the space provides a reference standard for detecting the secular aberration drift, and the acceleration of the barycenter with respect to the space can be determined from the observations of extragalactic radio sources. In this thesis, we aim to determine the acceleration of the SSB from astrometric and geodetic observations obtained by Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), which is a technique using the telescopes globally distributed on the Earth to observe a radio source simultaneously, and with the capacity of angular positioning for compact radio sources at 10-milliarcsecond level. The method of the global solution, which allows the acceleration vector to be estimated as a global parameter in the data analysis, is developed. Through the formal error given by the solution, this method shows directly the VLBI observations' capability to constrain the acceleration of the SSB, and demonstrates the significance level of the result. In the next step, the impact of the acceleration on the ICRS is studied in order to obtain the correction of the celestial reference frame (CRF) orientation. This thesis begins with the basic background and the general frame of this work. A brief review of the realization of the CRF based on the kinematical and the dynamical methods is presented in Chapter 2

  18. Working with International Students in the U.S. and Beyond: A Summary of Survey Research by NCDA International Student Services Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balin, Elif; Anderson, Nicole M.; Chudasama, Satomi Y.; Kanagasingam, Sutha K.; Zhang, Lily

    2016-01-01

    The career development process is one of the most important aspects of the international student experience. Providing comprehensive and culturally competent services requires institutional efforts that utilize best practices developmentally throughout the college experience and beyond. This article is based on the work of the International…

  19. Internationally recruited neonatal nurses' experiences in the National Health Service in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis, Obrey; Shillingford, Adeline

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore internationally recruited neonatal nurses' (IRNNs) perceptions of their experiences of working in the National Health Service (NHS) in London. This was an exploratory study. A purposive sample of 13 nurses (all females) from two teaching hospitals in London participated in this study. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were used to capture IRNNs views of working in the NHS in London. Five themes emerged, namely: motivation to migrate, lack of preparation for neonatal nurses, environmental conditions impacting on care delivery, neonatal nurses deskilling, and role restrictions as well as professional development. The findings of this study provide first-hand insights from the subjective perspectives of IRNN experiences. IRNNs experienced some challenges to their working lives; however, good preparation is important when recruiting them to work in the NHS. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Is the ecosystem service concept improving impact assessment? Evidence from recent international practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Josianne Claudia Sales, E-mail: jcsrosa@usp.br; Sánchez, Luis E., E-mail: lsanchez@usp.br

    2015-01-15

    Considering ecosystem services (ES) could foster innovation and improve environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA) practice, but is the potential being fulfilled? In order to investigate how ES have been treated in recent international practice, three questions are asked: (i) were the tasks of an ES analysis carried out? (ii) how is such analysis integrated with other analysis presented in the ESIA? (iii) does ES analysis result in additional or improved mitigation or enhancement measures? These research questions were unfolded into 15 auxiliary questions for reviewing five ESIA reports prepared for mining, hydroelectric and transportation infrastructure projects in Africa, Asia and South America. All cases incorporated ES into ESIA to meet a requirement of the International Finance Corporation's Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability. It was found that: (i) in only three cases most tasks recommended by current guidance were adopted (ii) all reports feature a dedicated ES chapter or section, but in three of them no evidence was found that the ES analysis was integrated within impact assessment (iii) in the two ESIAs that followed guidance, ES analysis resulted in specific mitigation measures. Few evidence was found that the ES concept is improving current ESIA practice. Key challenges are: (i) integrating ES analysis in such a way that it does not duplicate other analysis; (ii) adequately characterizing the beneficiaries of ES; and (iii) quantifying ES supply for impact prediction. - Highlights: • Incorporating ecosystem services analysis in impact assessment can improve results. • Additional impacts and mitigation were identified. • Challenges include developing appropriate indicators for impact prediction. • A key challenge is integrating the concept in such a way that it does not duplicate other analysis.

  1. Modeling health impact of global health programs implemented by Population Services International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongmei; Duvall, Susan; Ratcliffe, Amy; Jeffries, David; Stevens, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Global health implementing organizations benefit most from health impact estimation models that isolate the individual effects of distributed products and services - a feature not typically found in intervention impact models, but which allow comparisons across interventions and intervention settings. Population Services International (PSI), a social marketing organization, has developed a set of impact models covering seven health program areas, which translate product/service distribution data into impact estimates. Each model's primary output is the number of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted by an intervention within a specific country and population context. This paper aims to describe the structure and inputs for two types of DALYs averted models, considering the benefits and limitations of this methodology. PSI employs two modeling approaches for estimating health impact: a macro approach for most interventions and a micro approach for HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and behavior change communication (BCC) interventions. Within each intervention country context, the macro approach determines the coverage that one product/service unit provides a population in person-years, whereas the micro approach estimates an individual's risk of infection with and without the product/service unit. The models use these estimations to generate per unit DALYs averted coefficients for each intervention. When multiplied by program output data, these coefficients predict the total number of DALYs averted by an intervention in a country. Model outputs are presented by country for two examples: Water Chlorination DALYs Averted Model, a macro model, and the HIV Condom DALYs Averted Model for heterosexual transmission, a micro model. Health impact estimates measured in DALYs averted for PSI interventions on a global level are also presented. The DALYs averted models offer implementing organizations practical measurement solutions for understanding an intervention

  2. International experience of the civil service performance and possible ways of its application in Ukraine in terms of administration reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Kizilov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the most countries the deep modernization and reforming of civil service were launched in 70­80 years of the past century and now these processes have given good results. Therefore, it will be useful to adopt a foreign experience on reforming and civil service performance with the aim to determine effective components of civil service performance in Ukraine. The analysis shows that the process of the civil service reforming and development, improving of the performing process are characterized in the world practice as the continental and Anglo­Saxon models, but despite of this most countries have a mixed model of civil service. For modernization of the civil service and approximation to the most preferable type of management in Europe were developed different models, which named «new public administration». In the article the international experience of France, Germany, Great Britain, USA, Japan and other countries on civil service performance in terms of administrative reform was analyzed. It was founded that experience of these countries is very valuable for the development of civil service institute in Ukraine, in particular civil service performance, because these countries made an economic progress and ensured sustainable development. The generalization of the international experience on civil service performance allowed to systemize the development of civil service performance institute in the democratic countries, namely: development of the reform programme and civil service modernization and adoption of new legislation on civil service; optimization and creation new organizational entities in the civil service system; existing of the special institutes of the civil service management; gradual staff reduction of state apparatus; creation of the institute of senior leadership; application of the management methods by the example of private sector; staff rotation; existing of ethic code; ensuring of lifelong education for civil

  3. RECALMIN: The association between management of Spanish National Health Service Internal Medical Units and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatero-Gaviria, Antonio; Javier Elola-Somoza, Francisco; Casariego-Vales, Emilio; Fernandez-Perez, Cristina; Gomez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Bernal, José Luis; Barba-Martín, Raquel

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the association between management of Internal Medical Units (IMUs) with outcomes (mortality and length of stay) within the Spanish National Health Service. Data on management were obtained from a descriptive transversal study performed among IMUs of the acute hospitals. Outcome indicators were taken from an administrative database of all hospital discharges from the IMUs. Spanish National Health Service. One hundred and twenty-four acute general hospitals with available data of management and outcomes (401 424 discharges). IMU risk standardized mortality rates were calculated using a multilevel model adjusted by Charlson Index. Risk standardized myocardial infarction and heart failure mortality rates were calculated using specific multilevel models. Length of stay was adjusted by complexity. Greater hospital complexity was associated with longer average length of stays (r: 0.42; P hospital mortality rates were higher at larger hospitals, but no significant differences were found when mortality was risk adjusted. There was an association between nurse workload with mortality rate for selected conditions (r: 0.25; P = 0.009). Safety committee and multidisciplinary ward rounds were also associated with outcomes. We have not found any association between complexity and intra-hospital mortality. There is an association between some management indicators with intra-hospital mortality and the length of stay. Better disease-specific outcomes adjustments and a larger number of IMUs in the sample may provide more insights about the association between management of IMUs with healthcare outcomes.

  4. [European integration and health policies: repercussions of the internal European Market on access to health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Luisa; Giovanella, Lígia

    2006-09-01

    This article explores the health policy repercussions of countries' regional integration into the European Union. The aim is to review the regulation of access in other countries, with the conclusion of the single European market and the free circulation of persons, services, goods, and capital. The article begins by reviewing the various forms of integration and describes the expansion and institutionalization of Community agencies. The repercussions of European integration on health policies and regulation of access are analyzed. Market impacts on health result from Treaty directives and internal policy adjustments to free circulation. Health services access is gradually regulated and granted by rulings. Projects along borders illustrate the dynamics where differences are used to achieve comprehensive care. In the oldest integration experience, the market regulation has generated intentional and non-intentional impacts on the health policies of member states, regardless of the organizational model. Knowledge and analysis of this experience signals challenges for the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) and adds to future debates and decisions.

  5. The Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS) - Achievements, prospects and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenbruck, Oliver; Steigenberger, Peter; Prange, Lars; Deng, Zhiguo; Zhao, Qile; Perosanz, Felix; Romero, Ignacio; Noll, Carey; Stürze, Andrea; Weber, Georg; Schmid, Ralf; MacLeod, Ken; Schaer, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Over the past five years, the International GNSS Service (IGS) has made continuous efforts to extend its service from GPS and GLONASS to the variety of newly established global and regional navigation satellite systems. This report summarizes the achievements and progress made in this period by the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX). The status and tracking capabilities of the IGS monitoring station network are presented and the multi-GNSS products derived from this resource are discussed. The achieved performance is assessed and related to the current level of space segment and user equipment characterization. While the performance of orbit and clock products for BeiDou, Galileo, and QZSS still lags behind the legacy GPS and GLONASS products, continued progress has been made since launch of the MGEX project and already enables use of the new constellations for precise point positioning, atmospheric research and other applications. Directions for further research are identified to fully integrate the new constellations into routine GNSS processing. Furthermore, the active support of GNSS providers is encouraged to assist the scientific community in the generation of fully competitive products for the new constellations.

  6. Precise Clock Solutions Using Carrier Phase from GPS Receivers in the International GPS Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberge, J. F.; Jefferson, D. C.; Stowers, D. A.; Tjoelker, R. L.; Young, L. E.

    1999-01-01

    As one of its activities as an Analysis Center in the International GPS Service (IGS), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) uses data from a globally distributed network of geodetic-quality GPS receivers to estimate precise clock solutions, relative to a chosen reference, for both the GPS satellites and GPS receiver internal clocks, every day. The GPS constellation and ground network provide geometrical strength resulting in formal errors of about 100 p sec for these estimates. Some of the receivers in the global IGS network contain high quality frequency references, such as hydrogen masers. The clock solutions for such receivers are smooth at the 20-p sec level on time scales of a few minutes. There are occasional (daily to weekly) shifts at the microsec level, symptomatic of receiver resets, and 200-p sec-level discontinuities at midnight due to 1-day processing boundaries. Relative clock solutions among 22 IGS sites proposed as "fiducial" in the IGS/BIPM pilot project have been examined over a recent 4-week period. This allows a quantitative measure of receiver reset frequency as a function of site. For days and-sites without resets, the Allan deviation of the relative clock solutions is also computed for subdaily values of tau..

  7. A Small-Radio-Telescope Network for VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, D. B.; Cobb, M. L.

    2004-12-01

    In the last several years, high schools, colleges, universities, and even some private amateur radio astronomers have put some 120 copies of the commercially-available Haystack Small Radio Telescope (SRT) into operation. Haystack Observatory is now working on a new version of the SRT, designed to be used in an interferometer (see paper by Vats and Rogers, this conference). We show how the new SRT, or other similar small radio telescopes, could be adapted for educational and scientific VLBI observations of continuum and OH line sources, with a relatively small additional investment. We propose that one or more large radio telescopes join a network of the small antennas, so that fringes would be readily detected between the large antenna(s) and the small antennas. An 85-foot antenna such as those at PARI or the 40-meter antenna of the Owens Valley Radio Observatory would serve nicely as a base station. Eventually, as data storage and transmission capacity continue to improve, the small antennas should be able to operate on their own. Our emphasis is on a simple, inexpensive VLBI system. The most critical item is good frequency standard. For observations at 21 or 18 cm, a rubidium standard is good enough. (Inexpensive Rb standards can be found on E-bay!) Local time at each station would come from GPS receivers which readily provide sub-microsecond timing accuracy. One-bit data sampling at rates on the order of 10 megasamples per second could be performed with a simple box interfaced to a PC via USB. Sampled data would first be recorded to the PC hard drive, and then sent on CD-ROM or DVD through the mail or by internet to a central correlation facility. Correlation and data analysis for the network would be performed on PCs as well. We suggest an observing scenario comprised of scans that are several minutes long and taken several times per hour during the apparition of a compact source. The total data for the 10-12 hours that a source is "up" for a USA network would

  8. 76 FR 2930 - International Product Change-Global Expedited Package Services-Non- Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Product Change--Global Expedited Package Services-- Non- Published Rates AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM... Commission to add Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published Rates 2 to the Competitive Products List... Service to add Global Expedited Package Services--Non-Published Rates, to the Competitive Products List...

  9. "Learning Service" in International Contexts: Partnership-Based Service-Learning and Research in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Janice; Stanton, Timothy K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore an approach to developing and implementing service-learning and community-based research in a study-abroad program in Cape Town, South Africa. Drawing on a notion of partnerships reflecting the values of accompaniment and transparency, and influenced by the importance of learning service, we outline an intentional, engaged…

  10. The Software Correlator of the Chinese VLBI Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weimin; Quan, Ying; Shu, Fengchun; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Shanshan; Wang, Weihua; Wang, Guangli

    2010-01-01

    The software correlator of the Chinese VLBI Network (CVN) has played an irreplaceable role in the CVN routine data processing, e.g., in the Chinese lunar exploration project. This correlator will be upgraded to process geodetic and astronomical observation data. In the future, with several new stations joining the network, CVN will carry out crustal movement observations, quick UT1 measurements, astrophysical observations, and deep space exploration activities. For the geodetic or astronomical observations, we need a wide-band 10-station correlator. For spacecraft tracking, a realtime and highly reliable correlator is essential. To meet the scientific and navigation requirements of CVN, two parallel software correlators in the multiprocessor environments are under development. A high speed, 10-station prototype correlator using the mixed Pthreads and MPI (Massage Passing Interface) parallel algorithm on a computer cluster platform is being developed. Another real-time software correlator for spacecraft tracking adopts the thread-parallel technology, and it runs on the SMP (Symmetric Multiple Processor) servers. Both correlators have the characteristic of flexible structure and scalability.

  11. Probing spacetime around Sagittarius A* using modeled VLBI closure phases

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga-Encinas, R; Brinkerink, C; Falcke, H

    2016-01-01

    The emission region and black hole shadow of Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center, can be probed with millimeter Very Long Baseline Interferometry. Our goal is to probe the geometry of the emitting plasma around Sgr A* by using modeled mm-VLBI closure phase calculations at 1.3 mm and to constrain the observer's inclination angle and position angle of the black hole spin axis. We have simulated images for three different models of the emission of Sgr A*: an orbiting spot, a disk model, and a jet model. The orbiting spot model was used as a test case scenario, while the disk and jet models are physically driven scenarios based on standard three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of hot accretion flows. Our results are compared to currently available closure phase observational limits. Our results indicate that more models with closer to edge-on viewing angles are consistent with observational limits. In general, jet and disk geometries can reproduce si...

  12. Digital Front End for Wide-Band VLBI Science Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongeling, Andre; Sigman, Elliott; Navarro, Robert; Goodhart, Charles; Rogstad, Steve; Chandra, Kumar; Finley, Sue; Trinh, Joseph; Soriano, Melissa; White, Les; hide

    2006-01-01

    An upgrade to the very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) science receiver (VSR) a radio receiver used in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is currently being implemented. The current VSR samples standard DSN intermediate- frequency (IF) signals at 256 MHz and after digital down-conversion records data from up to four 16-MHz baseband channels. Currently, IF signals are limited to the 265-to-375-MHz range, and recording rates are limited to less than 80 Mbps. The new digital front end, denoted the Wideband VSR, provides improvements to enable the receiver to process wider bandwidth signals and accommodate more data channels for recording. The Wideband VSR utilizes state-of-the-art commercial analog-to-digital converter and field-programmable gate array (FPGA) integrated circuits, and fiber-optic connections in a custom architecture. It accepts IF signals from 100 to 600 MHz, sampling the signal at 1.28 GHz. The sample data are sent to a digital processing module, using a fiber-optic link for isolation. The digital processing module includes boards designed around an Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) industry-standard backplane. Digital signal processing implemented in FPGAs down-convert the data signals in up to 16 baseband channels with programmable bandwidths from 1 kHz to 16 MHz. Baseband samples are transmitted to a computer via multiple Ethernet connections allowing recording to disk at rates of up to 1 Gbps.

  13. VLBI Images of 49 Radio Supernovae in Arp 220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Colin J.; Diamond, Philip J.; Thrall, Hannah; Smith, Harding E.; Lonsdale, Carol J.

    2006-08-01

    We have used a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array at 18 cm wavelength to image the nucleus of the luminous IR galaxy Arp 220 at ~1 pc linear resolution, with very high sensitivity. The resulting map has an rms of 5.5 μJy beam-1, and careful image analysis results in 49 confirmed point sources ranging in flux density from 1.2 mJy down to ~60 μJy. Comparison with high-sensitivity data from 12 months earlier reveals at least four new sources. The favored interpretation of these sources is that they are radio supernovae, and if all new supernovae are detectable at this sensitivity, a resulting estimate of the supernova rate in the Arp 220 system is 4+/-2 per year. The implied star formation rate is sufficient to power the entire observed far-infrared luminosity of the galaxy. The two nuclei of Arp 220 exhibit striking similarities in their radio properties, although the western nucleus is more compact, and appears to be ~3 times more luminous than the eastern nucleus. There are also some puzzling differences, and differential free-free absorption, synchrotron aging, and expansion losses may all be playing a role. Comparison with the nearby starburst galaxy M82 supports the hypothesis that the activity in Arp 220 is essentially a scaled-up version of that in M82.

  14. VLBI Images of 49 Radio Supernovae in Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Lonsdale, C J; Lonsdale, C J; Smith, H E; Thrall, H; Diamond, Philip J.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Smith, Harding E.; Thrall, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    We have used a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) array at 18cm wavelength to image the nucleus of the luminous IR galaxy Arp 220 at ~1 pc linear resolution, and with very high sensitivity. The resulting map has an rms of 5.5 microJy/beam, and careful image analysis results in 49 confirmed point sources ranging in flux density from 1.2 mJy down to ~60 microJy. Comparison with high sensitivity data from 12 months earlier reveals at least four new sources. The favored interpretation of these sources is that they are radio supernovae, and if all new supernovae are detectable at this sensitivity, a resulting estimate of the supernova rate in the Arp 220 system is 4 +/- 2 per year. The implied star formation rate is sufficient to power the entire observed far-infrared luminosity of the galaxy. The two nuclei of Arp 220 exhibit striking similarities in their radio properties, though the western nucleus is more compact, and appears to be ~3 times more luminous than the eastern nucleus. There are also some puzz...

  15. Prospects for UT1 Measurements from VLBI Intensive Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Johannes; Nilsson, Tobias; Schuh, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Intensives are one-hour single baseline sessions to provide Universal Time (UT1) in near real-time up to a delay of three days if a site is not e-transferring the observational data. Due to the importance of UT1 estimates for the prediction of Earth orientation parameters, as well as any kind of navigation on Earth or in space, there is not only the need to improve the timeliness of the results but also their accuracy. We identify the asymmetry of the tropospheric delays as the major error source, and we provide two strategies to improve the results, in particular of those Intensives which include the station Tsukuba in Japan with its large tropospheric variation. We find an improvement when (1) using ray-traced delays from a numerical weather model, and (2) when estimating tropospheric gradients within the analysis of Intensive sessions. The improvement is shown in terms of reduction of rms of length-of-day estimates w.r.t. those derived from Global Positioning System observations

  16. The diversity of methanol maser morphologies from VLBI observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bartkiewicz, A; Van Langevelde, H J; Richards, A M S; Pihlström, Y M

    2009-01-01

    We investigate which structures the 6.7 GHz methanol masers trace in the environment of high-mass protostar candidates by observing a homogenous sample of methanol masers selected from Torun surveys. We also probed their origins by looking for associated H II regions and IR emission. We selected 30 methanol sources with improved position accuracies achieved using MERLIN and another 3 from the literature. We imaged 31 of these using the European VLBI Network's expanded array of telescopes with 5-cm (6-GHz) receivers. We used the VLA to search for 8.4 GHz radio continuum counterparts and inspected Spitzer GLIMPSE data at 3.6-8 um from the archive. High angular resolution images allowed us to analyze the morphology and kinematics of the methanol masers in great detail and verify their association with radio continuum and mid-infrared emission. A new class of "ring-like" methanol masers in star--forming regions appeared to be suprisingly common, 29 % of the sample. The new morphology strongly suggests that methan...

  17. VLBI Detections of Parsec-Scale Nonthermal Jets in Radio-Loud Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Akihiro; Kono, Yusuke; Oyama, Tomoaki; Fujisawa, Kenta; Takaba, Hiroshi; Sudou, Hiroshi; Wakamatsu, Ken-ichi; Yamauchi, Aya; Murata, Yasuhiro; Mochizuki, Nanako; Wajima, Kiyoaki; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Nagayama, Takumi; Nakai, Naomasa; Sorai, Kazuo; Kawai, Eiji; Sekido, Mamoru; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Asano, Shoichiro; Uose, Hisao

    2009-01-01

    We conducted radio detection observations at 8.4 GHz for 22 radio-loud broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Third Data Release, by a very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) technique. The VLBI instrument we used was developed by the Optically ConnecTed Array for VLBI Exploration project (OCTAVE), which is operated as a subarray of the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN). We aimed at selecting BAL quasars with nonthermal jets suitable for measuring their orientation angles and ages by subsequent detailed VLBI imaging studies to evaluate two controversial issues of whether BAL quasars are viewed nearly edge-on, and of whether BAL quasars are in a short-lived evolutionary phase of quasar population. We detected 20 out of 22 sources using the OCTAVE baselines, implying brightness temperatures greater than 10^5 K, which presumably come from nonthermal jets. Hence, BAL outflows and nonthermal jets can be generated simultaneously in these central engines. We also found four...

  18. Vienna VLBI Software VieVS - status quo and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Sigrid; Böhm, Johannes; Krásná, Hana; Madzak, Matthias; Nilsson, Tobias; Plank, Lucia; Tierno Ros, Claudia; Sun, Jing; Teke, Kamil

    2013-04-01

    The Vienna VLBI Software VieVS has been developed by the VLBI group at the Vienna University of Technology since 2008. VieVS is designed for the analysis of geodetic VLBI observation data as well as for scheduling and simulation of different VLBI sessions. The software incorporates the latest IERS Conventions and uses the concept of continuous piecewise linear offsets at integer hours for the parameter setup, consistent with the terms of reference of the GGOS. The current version, 2.0, which was released in 2012, aggregates all modules (i.e. data setup, least squares adjustment, global solution, scheduling, simulation, etc.) within one common graphical user interface. The new interface also offers additional tools to plot estimated parameters and residuals. We present the current status of the software focusing on the capabilities of release 2.0. Furthermore we give an overview of future plans and latest developments, such as the restructuring of the least squares adjustment into a scan wise update of the normal equation system which enables the analysis of sessions with a very large data volume, e.g. VLBI2010 sessions.

  19. VLBI-Gaia offsets favour parsec-scale jet direction in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalev, Y Y; Plavin, A V

    2016-01-01

    The data release 1 (DR1) of milliarcsecond-scale accurate optical positions of stars and galaxies was recently published by the space mission Gaia. We analyze the offsets of highly accurate absolute radio (very long baseline interferometry, VLBI) and optical positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) to check whether a signature of wavelength-dependent parsec-scale structure can be seen. We use in the analysis astrometric positions of thousands of AGNs from the VLBI and Gaia observations as well as reconstructed VLBI images. We have found that there is a statistically significant excess of sources with VLBI-to-Gaia positional offset directions along the jet for a full range of offset values as well as an excess for the direction opposite to the jet if offset values are less than 3 mas. An existence of strong extended parsec-scale optical jet structure in many AGNs is required to explain the observed VLBI-Gaia offsets along the jet direction. The 1-mas offsets in the opposite direction are explained by a non-po...

  20. Application of Geodetic VLBI Data to Obtaining Long-Term Light Curves for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Masachika

    2010-01-01

    The long-term light curve is important to research on binary black holes and disk instability in AGNs. The light curves have been drawn mainly using single dish data provided by the University of Michigan Radio Observatory and the Metsahovi Radio Observatory. Hence, thus far, we have to research on limited sources. I attempt to draw light curves using VLBI data for those sources that have not been monitored by any observatories with single dish. I developed software, analyzed all geodetic VLBI data available at the IVS Data Centers, and drew the light curves at 8 GHz. In this report, I show the tentative results for two AGNs. I compared two light curves of 4C39.25, which were drawn based on single dish data and on VLBI data. I confirmed that the two light curves were consistent. Furthermore, I succeeded in drawing the light curve of 0454-234 with VLBI data, which has not been monitored by any observatory with single dish. In this report, I suggest that the geodetic VLBI archive data is useful to obtain the long-term light curves at radio bands for astrophysics.

  1. A Global Terrestrial Reference Frame from simulated VLBI and SLR data in view of GGOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Susanne; König, Rolf; Ampatzidis, Dimitrios; Nilsson, Tobias; Heinkelmann, Robert; Flechtner, Frank; Schuh, Harald

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we assess the impact of two combination strategies, namely local ties (LT) and global ties (GT), on the datum realization of Global Terrestrial Reference Frames in view of the Global Geodetic Observing System requiring 1 mm-accuracy. Simulated Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data over a 7 year time span was used. The LT results show that the geodetic datum can be best transferred if the precision of the LT is at least 1 mm. Investigating different numbers of LT, the lack of co-located sites on the southern hemisphere is evidenced by differences of 9 mm in translation and rotation compared to the solution using all available LT. For the GT, the combination applying all Earth rotation parameters (ERP), such as pole coordinates and UT1-UTC, indicates that the rotation around the Z axis cannot be adequately transferred from VLBI to SLR within the combination. Applying exclusively the pole coordinates as GT, we show that the datum can be transferred with mm-accuracy within the combination. Furthermore, adding artificial stations in Tahiti and Nigeria to the current VLBI network results in an improvement in station positions by 13 and 12%, respectively, and in ERP by 17 and 11%, respectively. Extending to every day VLBI observations leads to 65% better ERP estimates compared to usual twice-weekly VLBI observations.

  2. Space VLBI polarimetry of IDV sources: Lessons from VSOP and prospects for VSOP2

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, U; Bernhart, S; Impellizzeri, C M V; Kraus, A; Fuhrmann, L; Witzel, A; Zensus, J A

    2008-01-01

    To locate and image the compact emission regions in quasars, which are closely connected to the phenomenon of IntraDay Variability (IDV), space VLBI observations are of prime importance. Here we report on VSOP observations of two prominent IDV sources, the BL Lac objects S5 0716+714. To monitor their short term variability, these sources were observed with VSOP at 5 GHz in several polarisation sensitive experiments, separated in time by one day to six days, in autumn 2000. Contemporaneous flux density measurements with the Effelsberg 100m radio telescope were used to directly compare the single dish IDV with changes of the VLBI images. A clear IDV behaviour in total intensity and linear polarization was observed in 0716+714. Analysis of the VLBI data shows that the variations are located inside the VLBI core component of 0716+714. In good agreement with the single-dish measurements, the VLBI ground array images and the VSOP images, both show a decrease in the total flux density of ~20 mJy and a drop of ~5 mJy...

  3. Status and plans for the future of the Vienna VLBI Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzak, Matthias; Böhm, Johannes; Böhm, Sigrid; Girdiuk, Anastasiia; Hellerschmied, Andreas; Hofmeister, Armin; Krasna, Hana; Kwak, Younghee; Landskron, Daniel; Mayer, David; McCallum, Jamie; Plank, Lucia; Schönberger, Caroline; Shabala, Stanislav; Sun, Jing; Teke, Kamil

    2016-04-01

    The Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) is a VLBI analysis software developed and maintained at Technische Universität Wien (TU Wien) since 2008 with contributions from groups all over the world. It is used for both academic purposes in university courses as well as for providing VLBI analysis results to the geodetic community. Written in a modular structure in Matlab, VieVS offers easy access to the source code and the possibility to adapt the programs for particular purposes. The new version 2.3, released in December 2015, includes several new parameters to be estimated in the global solution, such as tidal ERP variation coefficients. The graphical user interface was slightly modified for an improved user functionality and, e.g., the possibility of deriving baseline length repeatabilities. The scheduling of satellite observations was refined, the simulator newly includes the effect of source structure which can also be corrected for in the analysis. This poster gives an overview of all VLBI-related activities in Vienna and provides an outlook to future plans concerning the Vienna VLBI Software.

  4. The Role of Information Technology as Moderating Variable and Internal Control Effectiveness as intervening in the Relationship between Human Resource Competency and Internal Auditor Service Quality on of Report

    OpenAIRE

    Haliah, Hamid,Irdam

    2015-01-01

    in general, this research is intended to investigate factors that effect quality of report of local government in west Sulawesi province, Indonesia. Human resource competence and quality of services of internal auditor have indirect effect through the effectiveness of internal control to the quality of the report. These results indicate that the effectiveness of internal control serves as an intervening variable on the relationship of competence of human resources and internal auditor service...

  5. Decision support system in an international-voice-services business company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadianti, R.; Uttunggadewa, S.; Syamsuddin, M.; Soewono, E.

    2017-01-01

    We consider a problem facing by an international telecommunication services company in maximizing its profit. From voice services by controlling cost and business partnership. The competitiveness in this industry is very high, so that any efficiency from controlling cost and business partnership can help the company to survive in the very high competitiveness situation. The company trades voice traffic with a large number of business partners. There are four trading schemes that can be chosen by this company, namely, flat rate, class tiering, volume commitment, and revenue capped. Each scheme has a specific characteristic on the rate and volume deal, where the last three schemes are regarded as strategic schemes to be offered to business partner to ensure incoming traffic volume for both parties. This company and each business partner need to choose an optimal agreement in a certain period of time that can maximize the company’s profit. In this agreement, both parties agree to use a certain trading scheme, rate and rate/volume/revenue deal. A decision support system is then needed in order to give a comprehensive information to the sales officers to deal with the business partners. This paper discusses the mathematical model of the optimal decision for incoming traffic volume control, which is a part of the analysis needed to build the decision support system. The mathematical model is built by first performing data analysis to see how elastic the incoming traffic volume is. As the level of elasticity is obtained, we then derive a mathematical modelling that can simulate the impact of any decision on trading to the revenue of the company. The optimal decision can be obtained from these simulations results. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method we implement our decision model to the historical data. A software tool incorporating our methodology is currently in construction.

  6. Redundancy of Supply in the International Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Market: Are Fabrication Services Assured?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seward, Amy M.; Toomey, Christopher; Ford, Benjamin E.; Wood, Thomas W.; Perkins, Casey J.

    2011-11-14

    For several years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been assessing the reliability of nuclear fuel supply in support of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration. Three international low enriched uranium reserves, which are intended back up the existing and well-functioning nuclear fuel market, are currently moving toward implementation. These backup reserves are intended to provide countries credible assurance that of the uninterrupted supply of nuclear fuel to operate their nuclear power reactors in the event that their primary fuel supply is disrupted, whether for political or other reasons. The efficacy of these backup reserves, however, may be constrained without redundant fabrication services. This report presents the findings of a recent PNNL study that simulated outages of varying durations at specific nuclear fuel fabrication plants. The modeling specifically enabled prediction and visualization of the reactors affected and the degree of fuel delivery delay. The results thus provide insight on the extent of vulnerability to nuclear fuel supply disruption at the level of individual fabrication plants, reactors, and countries. The simulation studies demonstrate that, when a reasonable set of qualification criteria are applied, existing fabrication plants are technically qualified to provide backup fabrication services to the majority of the world's power reactors. The report concludes with an assessment of the redundancy of fuel supply in the nuclear fuel market, and a description of potential extra-market mechanisms to enhance the security of fuel supply in cases where it may be warranted. This report is an assessment of the ability of the existing market to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical reasons. A forthcoming report will address political disruption scenarios.

  7. The NEA data bank - an international service centre for computer programs and nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordborg, C. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2000-02-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is a specialized agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) based in Paris. The most important purpose of NEA is the promotion of international cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear power. Within the Agency a special unit, the so-called Database, allows the 21 member countries to have direct access to nuclear data, chemical data, and computer codes. These countries are Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. Special agreements cover exchanges of data and codes with Canada, the United States of America, and IAEA. The NEA Database - maintains those databases which contain basic experimental and evaluated nuclear data, integral nuclear data, computer codes, and chemical thermodynamic data, - uses procedures of assured quality to store and maintain data and codes, - supplies as products internationally validated and licensed data and codes, - offers direct access to these products to scientists and engineers in national laboratories, universities, and in the nuclear industry. The services are available free of charge, and the databases can be accessed via the NEA web site (http://www.nea.fr). (orig.) [German] Die Kernenergieagentur 'Nuclear Energy Agency' (NEA) ist eine spezielle Agentur der Organisation fuer Oekonomische Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (OECD) in Paris. Das wichtigste Ziel der NEA ist die Foerderung der internationalen Zusammenarbeit auf dem Gebiet der friedlichen Nutzung der Kernenergie. Innerhalb der NEA bietet eine spezielle Organisationseinheit, genannt die Datenbank, ihren einundzwanzig Teilnehmerlaendern einen direkten Zugriff auf Kerndaten, chemische Daten und Computerprogramme. Diese Laender sind: Oesterreich, Belgien, Tschechische Republik, Daenemark, Finnland, Frankreich, Deutschland

  8. 75 FR 63215 - International Product Change-Inbound Expedited Services 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Product Change--Inbound Expedited Services 4 AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Expedited Services 4 to the Competitive Product List pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642. DATES: October 14, 2010... September 30, 2010, a request to add Inbound Expedited Services 4 to the Competitive Product List. The...

  9. Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Foundations of Service-Oriented Architecture (FSOA 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    compliant, agile, and measurable. Aspects of this domain therefore include business processes vis-à-vis service orches- tration and choreography ...support for service choreography and orchestration collaboration tools in distributed development environments service appliances—e.g., XML...such as interoperability, integration, choreography , context awareness, and design of ultra-large-scale distributed, service-based applications―where

  10. 75 FR 47650 - International Product Change-Global Expedited Package Services-Non-Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Product Change--Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published Rates AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\ ACTION... Service to add Global Expedited Package Contracts--Non-Published Rates to the Competitive Products List... Commission to add Global Expedited Package Services Contracts--Non-Published Rates to the Competitive...

  11. Cross-Cultural "Distance", "Friction" and "Flow": Exploring the Experiences of Pre-Service Teachers on International Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusimaki, Liisa; Swirski, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to illustrate Australian regional pre-service teachers' perceptions of an international practicum: their cross-cultural understanding, notions of privilege and teacher/professional identity development. Findings indicate that there were three overlapping dimensions of cross-cultural understanding for pre-service…

  12. International Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Confidence in Critical Reflective Thinking and Writing through an Intercultural Patches Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Donna; Mercer, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes part of an action research study that was designed to explore the outcomes of an ongoing program in which the participants, a group of domestic and international pre-service teachers and lecturers, worked together in reflective writing workshops. While the primary long-term goal of the program was to develop the intercultural…

  13. Singapore Pre-Service Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Content Knowledge: Findings from an International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Tin Lam; Kaur, Berinderjeet; Koay, Phong Lee

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we explore the mathematical content knowledge of one entire cohort of pre-service teachers (N = 107) through analysing their performance in a Secondary Mathematics Audit that was developed for the International Comparative Studies in Mathematics Teacher Training that was initiated by the University of Plymouth. We study how their…

  14. Learning, Teaching, and Constructing Identities: ESL Pre-Service Teacher Experiences during a Short-Term International Experience Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, John

    2011-01-01

    Short-term international experience programmes are a common element of English second language (ESL) teacher education in many countries. This study problematizes the belief that such programmes necessarily result in beneficial changes in pre-service teachers thinking about themselves as teachers--their beliefs, habits, and values--by exploring…

  15. Uncertainty Management and Sensemaking as Precursors to Transformative Learning in an International Immersion Service-Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jan M.; Fay, Martha

    2016-01-01

    This study is based on an international immersion service-learning/research experience in a remote village in Moldova that provided faculty and students an opportunity to teach journalism and help local students and community representatives create their own online news outlet. Students' existing conceptions were challenged, they experienced…

  16. International Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Confidence in Critical Reflective Thinking and Writing through an Intercultural Patches Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Donna; Mercer, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes part of an action research study that was designed to explore the outcomes of an ongoing program in which the participants, a group of domestic and international pre-service teachers and lecturers, worked together in reflective writing workshops. While the primary long-term goal of the program was to develop the intercultural…

  17. Continental Airlines Tops U.S. Network Carriers for International Business Class Service,Say Conde Nast Traveler Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ For the ninth year in a row, Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL) outranked all of its U.S. competition in international Business Class service, according to results of a survey of Condé Nast Traveler readers published in the magazine's October 2006 edition.

  18. Continental Airlines Tops U.S. Network Carriers for International Business Class Service,Say Conde Nast Traveler Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      For the ninth year in a row, Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL) outranked all of its U.S. competition in international Business Class service, according to results of a survey of Condé Nast Traveler readers published in the magazine's October 2006 edition.……

  19. Preparing for IRS Audits of Colleges and Universities. Internal Revenue Service. NACUBO Special Report 75-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John Holt

    More college and universities are being subject to audit by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). When an institution is selected for audit, it will be notified, probably in writing, and contacted by a representative of the IRS, who will make arrangements for a preliminary visit to discuss the procedures to be followed. Prior to the first meeting…

  20. Preparing for IRS Audits of Colleges and Universities. Internal Revenue Service. NACUBO Special Report 75-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John Holt

    More college and universities are being subject to audit by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). When an institution is selected for audit, it will be notified, probably in writing, and contacted by a representative of the IRS, who will make arrangements for a preliminary visit to discuss the procedures to be followed. Prior to the first meeting…

  1. Acknowledgement of reviewer services to the International Journal Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Freek

    2017-06-01

    Peer review is the backbone of the scientific process. In 2016 a total of 866 scientist provided reviewer services for the International Journal Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. Frequent reviewers receive a recognition from the publisher in form of a Certificate of Outstanding Contribution in Reviewing and receive a 30 days free access to Scopus and ScienceDirect. More importantly they gain first hand insight into the latest developments in science as they are the first to read exciting new scientific papers. Nevertheless it is hard to find reviewers as the number of papers submitted to our journal has increased substantially over the last years and more remote sensing journals are put in the market each year. We are grateful to all those individuals that have devoted their precious time to reviewing papers for JAG. This has improved the quality of our communications which is well reflected in the number of citations our papers receive and the impact factor of the journal. JAG ranks third of all 28 remote sensing journals not the least because of the quality of the reviews we provide. As a token of our appreciation it is my pleasure to thank all reviewers that were active in 2016 on behalf of the editorial board, the associate editors, the Publisher and myself as Editor-in-Chief of JAG. To honor them we list all reviewers that provide four or more reviews in 2016:

  2. Assessment of crew operations during internal servicing of the Columbus Free-Flyer by Hermes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winisdoerffer, F.; Lamothe, A.; Bourdeau'hui, J. C.

    The Hermes system has been adopted as a European programme at the Hague ministerial level meeting. The primary mission of the Hermes spaceplane will be the servicing of the Columbus Free-Flyer (CFF) in order to bring new experiments in orbit, recover the results of old ones, and refurbish/maintain the various subsystems. This mission will be based on the extensive use of the 3 crewmembers on-board Hermes in order to perform either the Intra-Vehicular (IVA) and/or the Extra-Vehicular (EVA) activities. This paper focuses on the internal operations and the dimensions of the various payload of the basic reference cargo set are presented. The main constraints associated with their manipulation are also assessed independently of the configuration. During the spaceplane definition process, various configurations were developed. The operations were simulated using the CAD CATIA software with representative anthropometric models of the potential Hermes users population. These simulations helped to assess the various configurations and to refine the general concept of the spaceplane. The geometrical feasibility is demonstrated through those simulations. However full-scale tests are required to confirm data and assess the duration of the operations.

  3. International Workshop on Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-Agent Manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Trentesaux, Damien; Thomas, André; McFarlane, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    This volume gathers the peer reviewed papers which were presented at the 5th edition of the International Workshop “Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-agent Man-ufacturing – SOHOMA’15” organized in November 5-6, 2015 by the Institute for Manufacturing (IfM) of the University of Cambridge, UK in collaboration with the CIMR Research Centre in Computer Integrated Manufacturing and Robotics of the University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania, the LAMIH Laboratory of Industrial and Human Automation Control, Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science of the University of Valenciennes and Hainaut-Cambrésis, France and the CRAN Re-search Centre for Automatic Control, Nancy of the University of Lorraine, France. The book is structured in seven parts, each one grouping a number of chapters de-scribing research in actual domains of the digital transformation in manufacturing and trends in future manufacturing control: (1) Applications of Intelligent Products; (2) Advances in Control of Physical Internet ...

  4. International Service Learning: Occupational Therapists' Perceptions of Their Experiences in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C. Lawson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. is fast becoming more culturally diverse, creating a greater need for entry-level occupational therapists to be culturally competent. In order to increase students’ cultural competence, there is a growing support for international service learning (ISL. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the perspectives of occupational therapy practitioners who engaged in ISL as occupational therapy students. Interviews were conducted with nine practicing occupational therapists, all of whom graduated from the same occupational therapy program in the U.S. and participated in an ISL experience in Guatemala. Phenomenological methods were used to analyze the transcribed interviews for codes, categories, and themes. The three themes that emerged were: Participants reported encountering many new experiences that led to experiencing a variety of emotions, their experiences in the Guatemalan culture further contributed to a deeper level of understanding about culture, and all of the participants reported that their ISL experiences allowed them to practice occupational therapy skills and interventions with limited resources, which facilitated creativity and resourcefulness. The findings of this study support that completing ISL as students contributes to occupational therapists’ personal and professional lives and offers a glimpse of potential long-term effects of completing an ISL experience.

  5. 76 FR 32285 - Regulations Governing Practice Before the Internal Revenue Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... the IRS exempt student interns from the requirement to obtain a PTIN. These commentators suggested... substantially all of a tax return for compensation. If an intern does not receive compensation, the intern is not required to obtain a PTIN under the Sec. 1.6109-2 regulations. If, however, an intern engages in...

  6. Evaluation of hygienic-sanitary conditions of hospital nutrition and dietary services from the perspectives of internal and external auditors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lize Stangarlin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of hospital nutrition and dietary services using external and internal auditors. Eleven hospitals were evaluated for their nutrition and dietary services using an evaluation checklist based on food safety requirements in the current legislation. The checklist was applied by an internal auditor (a technical supervisor and an external auditor (a professional with experience in food services between August and October 2011. According to the number of items on the evaluation checklist that were considered adequate, the hospital facilities were ranked as excellent, good, regular, bad, or very bad. The results obtained by the auditors were compared. According to these results, it can be said that most of the hospital nutrition and dietary services were rated as good for overall quality by the internal auditor, while the external auditor classified them as Regular. There was a clear difference between the evaluations of the auditors, both in terms of the number of items considered adequate and the overall requirements' average score. It can be concluded that hospital nutrition and dietary services should meet safety requirements in order to provide food. These facilities should have external audits conducted as a way to prevent routine problems from being perpetuated.

  7. Analysis of the Monitoring Model of VLBI Antenna Reference Point%VLBI 天线参考点监测模型与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张津维; 李金岭

    2013-01-01

    The monitoring of the reference point and axis offset of VLBI antenna with high pre-cision is of importance to modeling the spatial variation of delay observations as the changing of antenna orientation, the improvement of determination precision of astrometric and geodetic param-eters such as station and source coordinates and so on. The nowadays ordinary monitoring method of VLBI antenna is mainly based on some special restrictions to the rotation mode of antenna, which would occupy the effective time of operation of the telescope, the efficiency of the monitoring and the precision of determined parameters are limited. By parameterizing the rotation of VLBI antenna and modeling the coordinates of targets fixed on VLBI antenna in the local control network, it is expected to perform automatic monitoring of antenna parameters without any interruption of nor-mal observation operations of the telescope. Some insights and analysis are presented concerning the establishment of monitoring model, the settings of parameters and the selection of constraints to observation equations, which are verified via simulation analysis to be rational and effective. The ef-fects of the number of targets, the number of antenna orientations, the precision of target positioning observations and the selection of target positioning observations on the determination precision of antenna parameters are also analyzed, and some preliminary conclusions are given for reference for readers.%  在不同定向时模型化天线对测量时延的影响、提高台站坐标与源坐标等天测与测地参数的解析精度等方面,高精度监测 VLBI 天线参考点和轴线偏差等参数,具有重要意义。基于对天线旋转模式的特殊限定 VLBI 天线参数的常规监测方式,占用望远镜工作时间,且监测效率低、所得参数精度差。通过参数化 VLBI 天线的旋转运动,及建立天线固连合作目标在局域网中坐标的数学模型,有望

  8. Chiropractic intern attitudes, beliefs, and future practice intentions with regard to health promotion, wellness, and preventive services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Stephen; Morehouse-Grand, Kenice; Carter, Shane

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and intentions of a group of chiropractic interns concerning health promotion, wellness, and preventive services before and after a series of brief educational interventions. Interns completed a survey before (n = 37) and after (n = 22) the interventions. The survey included 12 Likert scale questions about attitudes and intentions toward wellness and health promotion models. The interventions consisted of classroom lectures, clinical training, and online information pertaining to health promotion and wellness. The interns initially favored wellness models, perceived a need for them, and felt partially prepared to administer them, with mean Likert scores 4 or greater on a 1 to 5 scale. Afterward, the average scores were higher and the interns reported some benefit from this short course of training. The initial survey demonstrated that interns had some understanding of wellness, health promotion, and preventive services, and favored utilization of these services. The follow-up survey suggested that a short educational intervention could have a positive impact on these attitudes and future utilization of wellness procedures in their practices.

  9. The impact of celestial pole offset modelling on VLBI UT1 Intensive results

    CERN Document Server

    Malkin, Zinovy

    2011-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Intensive sessions are scheduled to provide operational Universal Time (UT1) determinations with low latency. UT1 estimates obtained from these observations heavily depend on the model of the celestial pole motion used during data processing. However, even the most accurate precession-nutation model, IAU 2000/2006, is not accurate enough to realize the full potential of VLBI observations. To achieve the highest possible accuracy in UT1 estimates, a celestial pole offset (CPO), which is the difference between the actual and modelled precession-nutation angles, should be applied. Three CPO models are currently available for users. In this paper, these models have been tested and the differences between UT1 estimates obtained with those models are investigated. It has been shown that neglecting CPO modelling during VLBI UT1 Intensive processing causes systematic errors in UT1 series of up to 20 microarcseconds. It has been also found that using different CPO models causes...

  10. SWARM: A 32 GHz Correlator and VLBI Beamformer for the Submillimeter Array

    CERN Document Server

    Primiani, Rurik A; Young, André; Patel, Nimesh; Wilson, Robert W; Vertatschitsch, Laura; Chitwood, Billie B; Srinivasan, Ranjani; MacMahon, David; Weintroub, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 32 GHz bandwidth VLBI capable correlator and phased array has been designed and deployed at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA Wideband Astronomical ROACH2 Machine (SWARM) integrates two instruments: a correlator with 140 kHz spectral resolution across its full 32 GHz band, used for connected interferometric observations, and a phased array summer used when the SMA participates as a station in the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) array. For each SWARM quadrant, Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware (ROACH2) units shared under open source from the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) are equipped with a pair of ultra-fast Analog-to- Digital Converters (ADCs), a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) processor, and eight 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports. A VLBI data recorder interface designated the SWARM Digital Back End, or SDBE, is implemented with a ninth ROACH2 per quadrant, f...

  11. The deflection of light induced by the Sun's gravitational field and measured with geodetic VLBI

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, O

    2015-01-01

    The Sun's gravitational field deflects the apparent positions of close objects in accordance with the formulae of general relativity. Optical astrometry is used to test the prediction, but only with the stars close to the Sun and only during total Solar eclipses. Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is capable of measuring the deflection of the light from distant radio sources anytime and across the whole sky. We show that the effect of light deflection is equivalent to the gravitational delay calculated during the reduction of VLBI data. All reference radio sources display an annual circular motion with the magnitude proportional to their ecliptic latitude. In particular, radio sources near the ecliptic pole draw an annual circle with magnitude of 4 mas. This effect could be easily measured with the current precision of the geodetic VLBI data.

  12. mm-VLBI Observations of the Active Galaxy 3C 111 in Outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, Robert; Ros, Eduardo; Krichbaum, Thomas P; Großberger, Christoph; Müller, Cornelia; Mannheim, Karl; Agudo, Iván; Aller, Hugh D; Aller, Margo F

    2013-01-01

    The broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 exhibited a major flux density outburst in 2007. Here, we present imaging and preliminary kinematic results of the jet, based on three millimetre-VLBI observations at 86 GHz using the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA) covering one year just after the radio flare. The GMVA data allow us to study this outburst with unprecedented image fidelity at highest (sub-parsec) resolution. On these scales, the outburst is resolved into a complex series of plasma components forming an intriguing bent structure. Within 1 mas from the jet base, ejections vary in position angle and components move with an apparent velocity of ~3.7 c, significantly slower than the maximum velocity observed with cm-VLBI on scales beyond 1 mas.

  13. Acceleration Term at ASL FRING as a Tool to Improve Space VLBI Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, L.; Likhachev, S.; Girin, I.; Ladygin, V.

    2009-08-01

    Astro Space Locator (ASL) a new postcorrelation software has been created recently in Astro Space Center (ASC), Russia. This software is created specifically for space VLBI project such as Radioastron and VSOP. The delay for the ground based VLBI traditionally comprised of two terms: initial delay and its rate of change in time. For space VLBI, taking into account the third term (acceleration) can be required because the satellite orbit may not be known with such a high accuracy as rotation of the Earth. The ASL software solves for all three parameters: delay, fringe rate, and acceleration. In this paper we test this algorithm and demonstrate the advantage of taking into account the acceleration term.

  14. VLBI Observations of the Blazar 1611+343 at 5 GHz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The gamma-ray blazar 1611+343 was observed with polarization VLBI mode at 5 GHz in February 1999. The total intensity (I) VLBI image of the source shows a core-jet structure. The jet bends eastward at ~ 3 mas south of the core.Four components have been detected from results of fitting, with apparent speeds estimated at 6.7 ±- 0.7, 2.5 ±- 0.3, 4.5 ± 0.5 h-1c for three jet components (taking Ho = 100 h km s- 1 Mpc-1, q0 = 0.5). The polarization (P) VLBI image of 1611±343 displays the polarized configuration in the jet. The mechanism of the curved jet is discussed.

  15. The Fresnel-Fizeau effect and the atmospheric time delay in geodetic VLBI

    CERN Document Server

    M., Kopeikin S

    2015-01-01

    The Fresnel-Fizeau effect is a special relativistic effect that makes the speed of light dependent on the velocity of a transparent, moving medium. We present a theoretical formalism for discussing propagation of electromagnetic signals through the moving Earth atmosphere with taking into account the Fresnel-Fizeau effect. It provides the rigorous relativistic derivation of the atmospheric time delay equation in the consensus model of geodetic VLBI observations which was never published before. The paper confirms the atmospheric time delay of the consensus VLBI model used in IERS Standards, and provides a firm theoretical basis for calculation of even more subtle relativistic corrections.

  16. EVN e-VLBI detections of MAXI J1659-152

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragi, Z.; van der Horst, A. J.; Granot, J.; Taylor, G. B.; Kouveliotou, C.; Garrett, M. A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Kuulkers, E.; Gehrels, N.; Woods, P. M.

    2010-10-01

    We observed MAXI J1659-152 (Negoro et al. 2010, ATel #2873; Mangano et al. 2010, GCN #11296) following its sub-millimeter and centimeter radio detections (de Ugarte Postigo et al. 2010, GCN #11304; van der Horst et al. 2010, ATel #2874) with the European VLBI Network (EVN) in real-time e-VLBI mode on 30 September 2010, from 13:30 to 18:30 UT at 4.9 GHz. The participating telescopes were Cambridge, Effelsberg, Jodrell Bank (MkII), Hartebeesthoek, Medicina, Onsala, Torun and Westerbork sending data at a rate of ~1024 Mbps to the EVN Data Processor at JIVE.

  17. Millimeter-VLBI with a Large Millimeter-Array: Future Possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Krichbaum, T P

    2003-01-01

    We discuss possibilities and improvements which could be obtained, if a phased array with a large number (N=50-100) of sub-millimeter antennas - like the planned large southern array (the former LSA, now ALMA) is used for radio-interferometry with very long baselines (VLBI) at millimeter wavelengths. We find that the inclusion of such an instrument in global VLBI network will push the sensitivity and the imaging capabilities of high resolution millimeter interferometry by up to 2 orders of magnitude. This will cause many but todate unforseeable new discoveries.

  18. 1.6 GHz VLBI Observations of SN 1979C: almost-free expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Marcaide, J M; Pérez-Torres, M A; Alberdi, A; Guirado, J C; Ros, E; Weiler, K W

    2009-01-01

    We report on 1.6 GHz Very-Long-Baseline-Interferometry (VLBI) observations of supernova SN 1979C made on 18 November 2002. We derive a model-dependent supernova size. We also present a reanalysis of VLBI observations made by us on June 1999 and by other authors on February 2005. We conclude that, contrary to our earlier claim of strong deceleration in the expansion, SN 1979C has been undergoing almost-free expansion ($m = 0.91\\pm0.09$; $R \\propto t^m$) for over 25 years.

  19. Intercomparison Study of Time and Frequency Transfer between VLBI and Other Techniques (GPS, ETS8(TCE), TW(DPN) and DMTD)

    CERN Document Server

    Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Kondo, Tetsuro; Ishii, Atsutoshi; Thomas, Hobiger; Ichikawa, Ryuichi; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Nakagawa, Fumimaru; Nakamura, Maho; Tabuchi, Ryo; Tsutshiya, Shigeru; Hama, Shinichi; Gotoh, Tadahiro; Fujieda, Miho; Aida, Masanori; Li, Tingyu; Amagai, Jun

    2011-01-01

    We carried out the intercomparison experiments between VLBI and other techniques to show the capability of VLBI time and frequency transfer by using the current geodetic VLBI technique and facilities as the summary of the experiments that we carried out since 2007. The results from the two different types of experiments show that the VLBI is more stable than GPS but is slightly noisier than two new two-way techniques (TW(DPN), ETS8(TCE)), and VLBI can measure the correct time difference as same as ETS8(TCE).

  20. Renewable Energy Technologies for Decentralised Rural Electricity Services. Report from an International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, Bjoern; Arvidson, Anders; Forslund, Helena; Martinac, Ivo (eds.)

    2005-02-01

    demands with low load factor. Mini-hydro and wind systems can serve a wide load range, but require specific favourable on-site conditions. Use of biomass fuels in a steam power plant is the obvious solution for power demands above 1 MW and a high load factor, when the necessary amounts of biomass fuels can be supplied in a sustainable way. For smaller power demands (down to 15 kW), biomass gasification and use of the gas as fuel in an internal combustion engine is often the most realistic option. Both technologies are commercially available. Better fuel flexibility and reduced needs for service and maintenance are possible improvements of the biomass gasification process that would make this option more attractive in comparison with the diesel generator. For wind generators and PV, energy storage is necessary in most applications. The development of storage systems with lower life-cycle costs would make these systems more competitive. Hybrid systems with diesel generators are an option that deserves more attention. Hybrid generation can also be cost-effective when biomass is used as fuel. Diesel generators can then be used for peak load supply and as reserve capacity. Recommendations to donor agencies: Donors should support development of national energy policies which include support to rural electrification using renewable energy technologies where this is economically justified. The economic evaluations should include consideration of local environmental costs and additional benefits that utilisation of renewable energy may result in, such as improved supply reliability, reduced vulnerability to international price fluctuations and the creation of local employment opportunities. The expected impacts on rural development and poverty alleviation should be the main basis for selection of rural electrification projects for financing. This means that the possibility of finding productive uses of the electricity should be very important for project selection. Donors should

  1. Primary medication non-adherence after discharge from a general internal medicine service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks A Fallis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medication non-adherence frequently leads to suboptimal patient outcomes. Primary non-adherence, which occurs when a patient does not fill an initial prescription, is particularly important at the time of hospital discharge because new medications are often being prescribed to treat an illness rather than for prevention. METHODS: We studied older adults consecutively discharged from a general internal medicine service at a large urban teaching hospital to determine the prevalence of primary non-adherence and identify characteristics associated with primary non-adherence. We reviewed electronic prescriptions, electronic discharge summaries and pharmacy dispensing data from April to August 2010 for drugs listed on the public formulary. Primary non-adherence was defined as failure to fill one or more new prescriptions after hospital discharge. In addition to descriptive analyses, we developed a logistical regression model to identify patient characteristics associated with primary non-adherence. RESULTS: There were 493 patients eligible for inclusion in our study, 232 of whom were prescribed new medications. In total, 66 (28% exhibited primary non-adherence at 7 days after discharge and 55 (24% at 30 days after discharge. Examples of medications to which patients were non-adherent included antibiotics, drugs for the management of coronary artery disease (e.g. beta-blockers, statins, heart failure (e.g. beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, furosemide, stroke (e.g. statins, clopidogrel, diabetes (e.g. insulin, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (e.g. long-acting bronchodilators, prednisone. Discharge to a nursing home was associated with an increased risk of primary non-adherence (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.01-4.95. CONCLUSIONS: Primary non-adherence after medications are newly prescribed during a hospitalization is common, and was more likely to occur in patients discharged to a nursing home.

  2. 76 FR 80987 - International Product Change-Global Expedited Package Services-Non-Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Product Change--Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published Rates AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... Commission to add Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published Rates 3 (GEPS--NPR 3) to the Competitive Products List. DATES: December 27, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Margaret M. Falwell, (202) 268...

  3. 78 FR 1277 - International Product Change-Global Expedited Package Services-Non-Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Product Change--Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published Rates AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... Commission to add Global Expedited Package Services-- Non-Published Rates 4 (GEPS-NPR 4) to the Competitive Products List. DATES: Effective date: January 8, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Patricia A. Fortin...

  4. Internal service quality by integrated approach Performance Control Matrix (PCM & Importance-Satisfaction Model (Studied in Yazd Regional Power Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Peirow

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, the internal service quality as one of the most important factors affecting the recruitment and retention of staff is considered. The present study sought to examine the internal service quality of Yazd Regional Electric, finally, select appropriate strategies to improve the quality of local services in the organization. The application of this study is base on survey method.Data were collected from questionnaires to evaluate the 26 components of internal service quality of Yazd Regional Electric, has been used. Research community is the staff of the organisation.Also, the sample size, the initial questionnaire was distributed according to Cochran's formula is calculated.In order to analyze research data, the model is important - satisfaction and performance control matrix to identify those components that are used need to be improved.Also, in order to prioritize measures to improve employee satisfaction index is used. Data analysis using above tools show, 8 criteria are in improvment area. So, these criteria are prioritized with ESI.

  5. Conscientious objection to sexual and reproductive health services: international human rights standards and European law and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampas, Christina; Andión-Ibañez, Ximena

    2012-06-01

    The practice of conscientious objection often arises in the area of individuals refusing to fulfil compulsory military service requirements and is based on the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion as protected by national, international and regional human rights law. The practice of conscientious objection also arises in the field of health care, when individual health care providers or institutions refuse to provide certain health services based on religious, moral or philosophical objections. The use of conscientious objection by health care providers to reproductive health care services, including abortion, contraceptive prescriptions, and prenatal tests, among other services is a growing phenomena throughout Europe. However, despite recent progress from the European Court of Human Rights on this issue (RR v. Poland, 2011), countries and international and regional bodies generally have failed to comprehensively and effectively regulate this practice, denying many women reproductive health care services they are legally entitled to receive. The Italian Ministry of Health reported that in 2008 nearly 70% of gynaecologists in Italy refuse to perform abortions on moral grounds. It found that between 2003 and 2007 the number of gynaecologists invoking conscientious objection in their refusal to perform an abortion rose from 58.7 percent to 69.2 percent. Italy is not alone in Europe, for example, the practice is prevalent in Poland, Slovakia, and is growing in the United Kingdom. This article outlines the international and regional human rights obligations and medical standards on this issue, and highlights some of the main gaps in these standards. It illustrates how European countries regulate or fail to regulate conscientious objection and how these regulations are working in practice, including examples of jurisprudence from national level courts and cases before the European Court of Human Rights. Finally, the article will provide recommendations

  6. International Student Mobility in Hong Kong: Private Good, Public Good, or Trade in Services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksiyenko, Anatoly; Cheng, Kai-Ming; Yip, Hak-Kwong

    2013-01-01

    International student mobility has emerged as a key source of societal and educational transformations in the booming economies of East Asia. International competencies are increasingly valued by employees and employers alike. Given the uneven distribution of international student flows, and the inequitable levels of benefit that they bring to…

  7. The Complexities of Supporting Asian International Pre-Service Teachers as They Undertake Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner-Lane, Rebecca; Tangen, Donna; Campbell, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Increasing numbers of Asian international students are choosing to undertake their tertiary studies in English-speaking countries. For universities, international students are an important source of revenue. However, Asian international students face multiple challenges in adapting to a foreign culture, understanding the expectations of their…

  8. The Complexities of Supporting Asian International Pre-Service Teachers as They Undertake Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner-Lane, Rebecca; Tangen, Donna; Campbell, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Increasing numbers of Asian international students are choosing to undertake their tertiary studies in English-speaking countries. For universities, international students are an important source of revenue. However, Asian international students face multiple challenges in adapting to a foreign culture, understanding the expectations of their…

  9. International Student Mobility in Hong Kong: Private Good, Public Good, or Trade in Services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksiyenko, Anatoly; Cheng, Kai-Ming; Yip, Hak-Kwong

    2013-01-01

    International student mobility has emerged as a key source of societal and educational transformations in the booming economies of East Asia. International competencies are increasingly valued by employees and employers alike. Given the uneven distribution of international student flows, and the inequitable levels of benefit that they bring to…

  10. Technical and economic aspects of ancillary services markets in the electric power industry: an international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raineri, R. [Ingenieria Industrial y de Sistema e Ingenieria Electrica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: rraineri@ing.puc.cl; Rios, S. [Ingenieria Industrial y de Sistema e Ingenieria Electrica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago (Chile); Schiele, D. [Ingenieria Industrial y de Sistema e Ingenieria Electrica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago (Chile)

    2006-09-15

    We present a comparative analysis of technical and economic aspects of ancillary services on the markets of England and Wales, Nordic Countries, California, Argentina, Australia and Spain, comparing the services of voltage control, frequency regulation and system restoration. All the analyzed markets rely on the existence of an administrator of ancillary services, function that leads to the figure of the system operator. Among the services analyzed, the mandatory nature of voltage control and primary frequency regulation stands out, being both the ancillary services with the higher market price and the shortest period of time requirements. In general, the recognized costs of the services correspond to investments operation, maintenance, and opportunity costs. In the provision of these ancillary services, there are no clear preferences for a particular resource allocation mechanism, where mandatory provision, auctions, competitive offers and different time length bilateral contracts are combined.

  11. Internalized HIV and Drug Stigmas: Interacting Forces Threatening Health Status and Health Service Utilization Among People with HIV Who Inject Drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Burke, Sara E; Dovidio, John F; Levina, Olga S; Uusküla, Anneli; Niccolai, Linda M; Heimer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Marked overlap between the HIV and injection drug use epidemics in St. Petersburg, Russia, puts many people in need of health services at risk for stigmatization based on both characteristics simultaneously. The current study examined the independent and interactive effects of internalized HIV and drug stigmas on health status and health service utilization among 383 people with HIV who inject drugs in St. Petersburg. Participants self-reported internalized HIV stigma, internalized drug stigma, health status (subjective rating and symptom count), health service utilization (HIV care and drug treatment), sociodemographic characteristics, and health/behavioral history. For both forms of internalized stigma, greater stigma was correlated with poorer health and lower likelihood of service utilization. HIV and drug stigmas interacted to predict symptom count, HIV care, and drug treatment such that individuals internalizing high levels of both stigmas were at elevated risk for experiencing poor health and less likely to access health services.

  12. The Moderating Effects of Internal Orientation and Market Orientation on the Relationships between Commitment and Transportation Service: An Approach to International Freight Forwarders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-sung Bae

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to develop the variables which moderate the relationship between commitment and transportation services and to analyze the moderating effects of the variables. The conceptual and operational definitions of the variables were ascertained from prior research. The reliability and validity of collected data were tested by various methods and hypotheses are tested by a moderated regression analysis. The results are as follows. First, the moderating variables on the relationship between commitment and transportation services are identified as internal orientation and market orientation. The former has three sub-dimensions such as collaboration between departments, work standardization and process improving and the latter has three sub-dimensions such as intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination, and responsiveness. Second, work standardization is ascertained to enhance the relationship between commitment and trust. Third, process improving is verified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and trust. Fourth, work standardization is ascertained to enhance the relationship between commitment and flexibility. Fifth, intelligence generation is identified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and trust. Sixth, intelligence generation is verified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and flexibility. Therefore, forwarders can supply superior transportation services for customers when they achieve commitment and orientation such as work standardization, improvement of their service processes, and activities concerned with intelligence generation.

  13. International difference in public service motivation: Comparing regions across the world

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenabeele, W.; Van de Walle, Steven

    2008-01-01

    textabstractMotivation in Public Management: The Call of Public Service joins a long-standing debate about what drives the behavior of government employees and others who are engaged in the public's business. For many centuries, public service was considered a noble calling and, more recently, a profession. During the latter part of the 20th century, however, many scholars called into question both the reality and desirability of a public service ethic. This book draws upon a substantial and ...

  14. VLBI Observations of GNSS Signals on the Baseline Hobart-Ceduna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerschmied, Andreas; Böhm, Johannes; Kwak, Younghee; McCallum, Jamie; Plank, Lucia

    2016-12-01

    Observing GNSS satellites with geodetic VLBI opens a variety of new possibilities, which include promising applications in the field of inter-technique frame ties. Considering GNSS satellites as co-location platforms in space, such observations provide possibilities to directly connect the dynamic GNSS and the kinematic VLBI reference frames, which may result in improved future ITRF realizations. In our research we are trying to apply observation strategies that are commonly used in geodetic VLBI, i.e., the main observables are group delays derived from direct observations of GNSS satellite signals. However, clear strategies for the data acquisition and the geodetic analysis are still missing. To pave the way towards an operational application we established a workflow to plan, correlate, observe, and analyze VLBI observations to GNSS satellites. Based on these processes we carried out several successful experiments on the Australian baseline Hobart-Ceduna in 2015 in which we observed GLONASS and GPS satellites in the L1 and L2 bands. For the first time a connected processing chain from scheduling, to correlation, to data analysis has been realized. In this contribution we introduce our workflow and present first results.

  15. Crustal motion results derived from observations in the European geodetic VLBI network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Rüdiger; Gueguen, Erwan; Scherneck, Hans-Georg; Nothnagel, Axel; Campbell, James

    2000-10-01

    Geodetic VLBI observations have been performed with the European geodetic VLBI network since early 1990 on a regular basis. The purpose of these observations is to determine crustal motion in Europe and to establish a stable reference frame for other space geodetic techniques. Over the years the size of the network and the number of participating stations has steadily increased. Today, the network extends from the island of Sicily in the south to the island of Spitsbergen/Svalbard in the north and from the Iberian peninsula in the west to the Crimean peninsula in the east. The area covered by the network is affected by two main geodynamic processes which are post-glacial rebound effects in the northern part, and the evolution of the Alps-Apennines orogenic systems in the southern part. With nearly 10 years of VLBI observations the determination of crustal motion in Europe is carried out with high accuracy. Baseline measurements are achieved with an accuracy of a few parts per billion. We compare the evolution of baseline lengths and topocentric station displacements with geophysical models. Strain rates in Europe on a large scale are determined from the results of the VLBI analysis.

  16. Parallax of a Mira variable R Ursae Majoris studied with astrometric VLBI

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Akiharu; Matsui, Makoto; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Honma, Mareki; Shibata, Katsunori M; Sato, Katsuhisa; Jike, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    We have measured an annual parallax of the Mira variable R~Ursae~Majoris (R~UMa) with the VLBI exploration for Radio Astronomy (VERA). From the monitoring VLBI observations spanning about two years, we detected H$_2$O maser spots in the LSR velocities ranges from 37 to 42 km\\,s$^{-1}$. We derived an annual parallax of 1.97$\\pm$0.05\\,mas, and it gives a corresponding distance of 508$\\pm$13\\,pc. The VLBI maps revealed 72 maser spots distributed in $\\sim$110 au area around an expected stellar position. Circumstellar kinematics of the maser spots were also revealed by subtracting a systemic motion in the Hipparcos catalog from proper motions of each maser spots derived from our VLBI observations. Infrared photometry is also conducted to measure a $K$ band apparent magnitude, and we obtained a mean magnitude of $m_K$ = 1.19$\\pm$0.02\\,mag. Using the trigonometric distance, the $m_K$ is converted to a $K$ band absolute magnitude of $M_K = -$7.34$\\pm$0.06\\,mag. This result gives a much more accurate absolute magnitud...

  17. VLBI observations of a flared optical quasar CGRaBS J0809+5341

    CERN Document Server

    An, Tao; Paragi, Zsolt; Frey, Sandor; Gurvits, Leonid I; Gabanyi, Krisztina E

    2016-01-01

    A bright optical flare was detected in the high-redshift ($z=2.133$) quasar CGRaBS J0809+5341 on 2014 April 13. The absolute magnitude of the object reached $-30.0$ during the flare, making it the brightest one (in flaring stage) among all known quasars so far. The 15 GHz flux density of CGRaBS J0809+5341 monitored in the period from 2008 to 2016 also reached its peak at the same time. To reveal any structural change possibly associated with the flare in the innermost radio structure of the quasar, we conducted a pilot very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observation of CGRaBS J0809+5341 using the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 5 GHz on 2014 November 18, about seven months after the prominent optical flare. Three epochs of follow-up KaVA (Korean VLBI Network and VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry Array) observations were carried out at 22 and 43 GHz frequencies from 2015 February 25 to June 4, with the intention of exploring a possibly emerging new radio jet component associated with the optical flare. ...

  18. Status quo and future plans for the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, David; Böhm, Johannes; Böhm, Sigrid; Choliy, Vasyl; Hellerschmied, Andreas; Hofmeister, Armin; Karbon, Maria; Krasna, Hana; McCallum, Jamie; Madzak, Matthias; Nilsson, Tobias; Plank, Lucia; Shabala, Stas; Soja, Benedikt; Sun, Jing; Teke, Kamil

    2014-05-01

    The Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) has been developed by the VLBI group at the Vienna University of Technology since 2008, and in recent years important contributions have been made by other groups all over the world. The software is written in Matlab which makes it easy for students to get an insight in VLBI processing and which allows short and concise source code. The current version 2.1 of VieVS has improved capabilities in terms of the global solution and the graphical user interface compared to earlier releases. Furthermore, more sophisticated approaches are now available in terms of scheduling VLBI sessions. Presently, we are working on the new version 2.2 which will be released this summer and which will be presented at the 5th VieVS User-Workshop in September 2014. For example, it will be equipped with a source structure simulator, as well as more refined possibilities for scheduling and the global solution. In a test version, we will also provide a graphical user interface built with Qt instead of Matlab.

  19. High-accuracy same-beam VLBI observations using Shanghai and Urumqi telescopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIKUCHI; Fuyuhiko; KAMATA; Shun’ichi; MATSUMOTO; Koji; HANADA; Hideo

    2009-01-01

    The same-beam VLBI observations of Rstar and Vstar,which were two small satellites of Japanese lunar mission,SELENE,were successfully performed by using Shanghai and Urumqi 25-m telescopes. When the separation angle between Rstar and Vstar was less than 0.1 deg,the differential phase delay of the X-band signals between Rstar and Vstar on Shanghai-Urumqi baseline was obtained with a very small error of 0.15 mm rms,which was reduced by 1-2 order compared with the former VLBI results. When the separation angle was less than 0.56 deg,the differential phase delay of the S-band signals was also obtained with a very small error of several mm rms. The orbit determination for Rstar and Vstar was performed,and the accuracy was improved to a level of several meters by using VLBI and Doppler data. The high-accuracy same-beam differential VLBI technique is very useful in orbit determination for a spacecraft,and will be used in orbit determination for Mars missions of China Yinghuo-1 and Russia Phobos-grunt.

  20. High-accuracy same-beam VLBI observations using Shanghai and Urumqi telescopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU QingHui; PING JingSong; FAN QingYuan; XIA Bo; AN Tao; QIAN ZhiHan; YANG WenJun; ZHANG Hua; WANG Zhen; WANG Na; SHI Xian; KIKUCHI Fuyuhiko; HUANG Qian; KAMATA Shun'ichi; MATSUMOTO Koji; HANADA Hideo; HONG XiaoYu; YU AiLi

    2009-01-01

    The same-beam VLBI observations of Rstar and Vstar, which were two small satellites of Japanese lunar mission, SELENE, were successfully performed by using Shanghai and Urumqi 25-m telescopes.When the separation angle between Rstar and Vstar was less than 0.1 deg, the differential phase delay of the X-band signals between Rstar and Vstar on Shanghai-Urumqi baseline was obtained with a very small error of 0.15 mm rms, which was reduced by 1-2 order compared with the former VLBI results.When the separation angle was less than 0.56 deg, the differential phase delay of the S-band signals was also obtained with a very small error of several mm rms. The orbit determination for Rstar and Vstar was performed, and the accuracy was improved to a level of several meters by using VLBI and Doppler data. The high-accuracy same-beam differential VLBI technique is very useful in orbit determination for a spacecraft, and will be used in orbit determination for Mars missions of China Yinghuo-1 and Russia Phobos-grunt.