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Sample records for international verapamil sr-trandolapril

  1. Impact of aspirin according to type of stable coronary artery disease: insights from a large international cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavry, Anthony A; Gong, Yan; Handberg, Eileen M; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Pepine, Carl J

    2015-02-01

    Aspirin is recommended in stable coronary artery disease based on myocardial infarction and stroke studies. However, benefit among stable coronary artery disease patients who have not suffered an acute ischemic event is uncertain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of aspirin in stable coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that aspirin's benefit would be attenuated among individuals with stable coronary artery disease but no prior ischemic event. An observational study was conducted from the INternational VErapamil-SR/Trandolapril STudy cohort. Ambulatory patients ≥ 50 years of age with clinically stable coronary artery disease requiring antihypertensive drug therapy (n = 22,576) were classified "ischemic" if they had a history of unstable angina, myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack, or stroke at the baseline visit. All others were classified "non-ischemic." Aspirin use was updated at each clinic visit and considered as a time-varying covariate in a Cox regression model. The primary outcome was first occurrence of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke. At baseline, 56.7% of all participants used aspirin, which increased to 69.3% at study close out. Among the "non-ischemic" group (n = 13,091), aspirin was not associated with a reduction in risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-1.28; P = .13); however, among the "ischemic" group (n = 9485), aspirin was associated with a reduction in risk (HR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.77-0.99; P = .033). In patients with stable coronary artery disease and hypertension, aspirin use was associated with reduced risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes among those with prior ischemic events. Among patients with no prior ischemic events, aspirin use was not associated with a reduction in risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Verapamil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It also increases the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart and slows electrical activity in ... Swallow the applesauce immediately without chewing, and then drink a glass of cool water to make sure ...

  3. Topical verapamil as a scar modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggio, Ricardo Frota; Boggio, Leonardo Frota; Galvão, Bruno Luiz; Machado-Santelli, Glaucia Maria

    2014-10-01

    Skin injuries and the consequent loss of tissue integrity triggers a sequence of cellular and biochemical events that lead to a healed wound. Any failure during this rather sophisticated process may result in pathological scarring. To evaluate the efficacy of topical verapamil as a modulator of the healing process, a group of five observers (plastic surgeon, dermatologist, physiotherapist, biologist, and layman) analyzed pictures of 120 patients 3 months after abdominoplasty (60 patients) and mammoplasty (60 patients). Half of each group of patients used the topical verapamil scar modulator. Pictures were rated using the Stony Brook Scale. According to the classification established by us, the scars in patients who used topical verapamil scar modulator showed better results than those who did not (p modulators showed 48 and 51.2 % satisfaction for mammoplasty and abdominoplasty scars, respectively. No adverse reactions were observed or reported after the use of topical verapamil. This is the first clinical trial that reports the use of topical verapamil as a modulator in the healing process in the postoperative period. Based on clinical results and on the high level of reliability and statistical significance, we concluded that verapamil at a concentration of 50 µM is an excellent choice as a scar modulator; its use avoids the development of keloids and hypertrophic scars after plastic surgery.

  4. INTRALESIONAL VERAPAMIL INJECTION IN TREATMENT OF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients and Methods Twenty-six patients with Peyronie's disease were divided into two groups: the verapamil treatment group. (study group) including 13 patients and the saline group (control group) including an- other 13 patients. The patients' age ranged from 35 to 58 years with a mean age of. 43.75 years. The patients ...

  5. Synergy between verapamil and other multidrug -resistance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Synergy between verapamil and other multidrug-resistance modulators in model membranes. 737. J. Biosci. 32(4), June 2007. 1. Introduction. A major problem in the treatment of cancer is that of multidrug resistance, which remains imperfectly understood, though in some instances it certainly involves altered membrane ...

  6. A prospective, randomized, single - blind study comparing intraplaque injection of thiocolchicine and verapamil in Peyronie's Disease: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Toscano Jr.

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To compare the response to tiocolchicine and verapamil injection in the plaque of patients with Peyronie's disease. Materials and Methods: Prospective, single-blind, randomized study, selecting patients who have presented Peyronie's disease for less than 18 months. Thiocolchicine 4mg or verapamil 5mg were given in 7 injections (once a week. Patients who had received any treatment for Peyronie's disease in the past three months were excluded. The parameters used were the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5 score, analysis of the curvature on pharmaco-induced erections and size of the plaque by ultrasonography. Results: Twenty-five patients were randomized, 13 received thiocolchicine and 12 were treated with verapamil. Both groups were statistically similar. The mean curvature was 46.7° and 36.2° before and after thiocolchicine, respectively (p=0.019 and 50.4° and 42.08° before and after verapamil, respectively (p=0.012. The curvature improved in 69% of patients treated with thiocolchicine and in 66% of those who received verapamil. Regarding sexual function, there was an increase in the IIEF-5 from 16.69 to 20.85 (p=0.23 in the thiocolchicine group. In the verapamil group the IIEF-5 score dropped from 17.50 to 16.25 (p=0.58. In the thiocolchicine group, the plaque was reduced in 61% of patients. In the verapamil group, 8% presented decreased plaque size. No adverse event was associated to thiocolchicine. Conclusion: The use of thiocolchicine in Peyronie's disease demonstrated improvement on penile curvature and reduction in plaque size. Thiocolchicine presented similar results to verapamil in curvature assessment. No significant side effects were observed with the use of tiocolchicine.

  7. Reversal of Adriamycin Resistance by Verapamil in Human Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Alfred M.; Hamilton, Thomas C.; Young, Robert C.; Klecker, Raymond W.; Ozols, Robert F.

    1984-06-01

    The effectiveness of adriamycin in the treatment of ovarian cancer and other human tumors has been limited by the development of drug resistance. Verapamil, a calcium channel blocking agent, completely reversed adriamycin resistance in human ovarian cancer cells with moderate (three- to sixfold) degrees of resistance and partially reversed resistance in highly (150-fold) resistant cells. The potentiating effect of verapamil was due to inhibition of adriamycin efflux in the resistant cells. These results have led to a clinical trial of adriamycin and verapamil in refractory ovarian cancer patients.

  8. EFFECTS OF VERAPAMIL ON CHICKEN BIVENTER - CERVICIS MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Farokhy

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available - Verapamil produces a sustained contraction in isolated biventer-cervicis muscle of chickens between 2-8 days old. From cumulative dose-response curves, ED50 of was calculated for this effect of verapamil. when isolated chicken biventer-cervicis muscle was electrically stimulated, verapamil had no effect on twitch contractures but increased the base line tone of the muscle. Glycerol treatment of the muscle reduced the responses to acetylcholine and KCl but had little effect on contracture produced by verapamil, and no effect on contracture produced by caffeine. Incubation of the muscles with calcium-free Krcbs solution omitted the responses of the muscle to acetylcholine and reduced the response to caffeine. Again, the responses to caffeine and verapamil were less affected compared to KCL. Addition of ethylene glycol tetra-acetic acid (EGTA (2.5 mM abolished the responses of muscle to all compounds. It was concluded that verapamil produces contracture of the muscle by release of calcium from intracellular stores.

  9. Cytotoxic Effect Of Verapamil On Human Embryonic Kidney Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil L Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The link between long term use of verapamil and cancer development has been suggested in literature many years back. However there are numerous controversies surrounding this association with several epidemiological studies in the positive negative and non-association between verapamil and cancer development. Aim To investigate in mechanistic terms the link between chronic use of a calcium channel blocker verapamil and cancer development using human embryonic kidney HEK293 cell line. Method Trypan blue dye exclusion cell counting and 3-amp615314 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-ylamp61533-2 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide MTT assays were used to determine the proliferative as well as cytotoxic effects of verapamil. Results Verapamil had a growth inhibitory rather than proliferative effect on HEK293 cells and the growth inhibition was found to be significant p0.05. Conclusion The long term use of verapamil is associated with cellular growth inhibition and this possibly explained the rationale behind its use as part of combination chemotherapy for some human cancers.

  10. Effect of verapamil on heart rate variability after an acute myocardial infarction. Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner

    1998-01-01

    Because decreased heart rate variability measured after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been demonstrated to predict subsequent mortality and sudden death, and an efficacy analysis of the Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial II (DAVIT II) demonstrated that long-term postinfarction treatment...... with verapamil significantly reduced sudden death, the aim of the present substudy was to evaluate the effect of verapamil on heart-rate variability in the time and frequency domain, measured in two 5-minute segments during the day and night. Thirty-eight patients were examined by Holter monitoring, at 1 week......, that is, before randomization, and at 1 month after infarction; 22 of the patients were examined 12-16 months after infarction as well. In both treatment groups (verapamil and placebo) no significant alteration of heart rate variability during the day-time was demonstrated from before to after 1 and 12...

  11. Verapamil for cluster headache. Clinical pharmacology and possible mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    considerably among subjects. The dose of verapamil used for cluster headache is approximately double the dose used in cardiovascular disease, most likely because verapamil is a substrate for the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein in the blood-brain barrier. The access of verapamil to the central nervous system...

  12. Sustained release of verapamil hydrochloride from sodium alginate microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana, S Ayesha; Shantakumar, S M; Shyale, Somashekar; Shalam, Md; Narasu, Laxmi

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop sustained release microcapsules of verapamil hydrochloride (VH) using biodegradable polymers. For this purpose microcapsules embedded verapamil hydrochloride were prepared using sodium alginate alone and also by incorporating some co polymers like methyl cellulose (MC), sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC) , poly vinyl pyrollidone (PVP) and xanthan gum by employing complex emulsion method of microencapsulation. Microcapsules were prepared in various core: coat ratios to know the effect of polymer and co polymers on drug release. Overall ten formulations were prepared and evaluated for flow behaviour, sieve analysis, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro dissolution studies, stability studies, including scanning electron microscopy and DSC. The resulting microcapsules were discrete, large, spherical and also free flowing. The drug content in all the batches of microcapsules was found to be uniform. The release was depended on core: coat ratio and nature of the polymers. FTIR analysis revealed chemical integrity between Verapamil hydrochloride (VH), sodium alginate and between the copolymers. Among the four copolymers used methyl cellulose retarded the drug release more than the other three, hence the same formulation was subjected for in vivo studies. The drug release from the microcapsules was found to be following non fickian diffusion. Mechanism of drug release was diffusion controlled first order kinetics. Drug diffusion co efficient and correlation co efficient were also assessed by using various mathematical models. In vivo result analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters revealed that t max of reference and test formulations were almost same. From the study it was concluded that, sustained release Verapamil hydro chloride microcapsules could be achieved with success using sodium alginate alone and also in combination with other biodegradable polymers.

  13. INTERACTION OF VERAPAMIL AND LITHIUM AT THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION ON RAT ISOLATED MUSCLE-HEMIDIAPHRAGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Sadeghipour

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that cither lithium or verapamil can potentiate the neuromuscular blocking activity of certain neuromuscular blockers. In the present investigation, possible interaction of verapamil with lithium has been described. The dose ■ response effects of verapamil and lithium on diaphragmatic contractility were assessed in vitro. Mechanical responses of the muscle to indirect (nerve and direct (muscle electrical stimulation were recorded. Verapamil depressed rat diaphragm twitch tensions induced by nerve stimulation in a dose - dependent manner with the 50 percent depression of the original twitch tensions (ICSQ by 5.6 xlO^mmol/l."nThe IC50 of verapamil for direct stimulation of the muscle was LI x W'5 mmol II. Partial replacement of sodium chloride by lithium chloride (0.5, 1.5 and 5 mmol /1 in the medium did not change the depressant effect of verapamil on muscle twitches induced by direct (muscle or indirect (nerve electrical stimulation.

  14. Microneedle-assisted delivery of verapamil hydrochloride and amlodipine besylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Monika; Ita, Kevin B; Popova, Inna E; Parikh, Sanjai J; Bair, Daniel A

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this project was to study the effect of stainless steel solid microneedles and microneedle rollers on percutaneous penetration of verapamil hydrochloride and amlodipine besylate. Verapamil, 2-(3,4-dimethooxyphenyl)-5-[2-(3,4 dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl-methyl-amino]-2-propan-2-yl-pentanenitrile is a calcium channel blocker agent that regulates high blood pressure by decreasing myocardial contractilty, heart rate and impulse conduction. Amlodipine, (R, S)-2-[(2-aminoethoxy) methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-ethoxycarbonyl-5-methoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-1, 4-dihydropyridine, is a calcium channel blocker that is used for the management of hypertension and ischemic heart disease. Passive penetration of verapamil and amlodipine across the skin is low. In vitro studies were performed with microneedle-treated porcine ear skin using vertical static Franz diffusion cells (PermeGear, Hellertown, PA, USA). The receiver chamber contained 5ml of PBS (pH7.4) and was constantly maintained at 37°C temperature with a water circulation jacket. The diffusion area of the skin was 1.77cm(2). The donor compartment was loaded with 1ml of the solution containing 2.5mg/ml of amlodipine besylate. The donor chamber was covered with parafilm to avoid evaporation. Passive diffusion across untreated porcine skin served as control. Aliquots were taken every 2h for 12h and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Transcutaneous flux of verapamil increased significantly from 8.75μg/cm(2)/h to 49.96μg/cm(2)/h across microneedle-roller treated porcine skin. Percutaneous flux of amlodipine besylate following the use of stainless steel microneedles was 22.39μg/cm(2)/h. Passive flux for the drug was 1.57μg/cm(2)/h. This enhancement of amlodipine flux was statistically significant. Transdermal flux of amlodipine with microneedle roller was 1.05μg/cm(2)/h in comparison with passive diffusion flux of 0.19μg/cm(2)/h. The difference in flux values was also statistically significant. Stainless

  15. Successful usage of intravenous lipid emulsion in treatment of acute verapamil poisoning: A case report

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    Vuković-Ercegović Gordana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. During the last few years, intravenous lipid emulsions have been effectively used in treatment of acute poisonings with lipophilic substances, including verapamil. Case report. A 37-year-old women presented 1 hour after ingestion of 2.8 g verapamil with hypotension and complete heart block. Because of the applied standard therapy failure and further patients impairment, Intralipid® 20% was used. Sinus rhythm was restored, arterial blood pressure increased and verapamile concentrations, both total and free decreased. Conclusion. Intravenous lipid emulsion can be important in treatment of severe acute intoxication and cardiotoxicity caused by verapamil.

  16. Differential antiepileptic effects of the organic calcium antagonists verapamil and flunarizine in neurons of organotypic neocortical explants from newborn rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bingmann, D; Speckmann, E J; Baker, R E; Ruijter, J; de Jong, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of the organic calcium antagonists verapamil and flunarizine on pentylenetetrazol induced paroxysmal depolarizations were tested in organotypic neocortical explants taken from neonatal rats. In these in vitro experiments the papaverin derivative verapamil depressed, and finally abolished,

  17. Requirements for drug monitoring of verapamil: experience from an unselected group of patients with cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husum, D; Johnsen, A; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    1990-01-01

    620 and D 617 indicated saturation of the first-pass metabolism. In conclusion, therapeutic drug monitoring is not indicated during routine verapamil treatment, whereas single measurements of verapamil may be warranted in patients not responding to treatment in order to identify fast metabolizers...

  18. In Vitro Chemosensitization of Plasmodium falciparum to Antimalarials by Verapamil and Probenecid▿

    OpenAIRE

    Masseno, Victor; Muriithi, Steven; Nzila, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    We tested the effect of probenecid and verapamil in chemosensitizing Plasmodium falciparum to 14 antimalarials using the multidrug-resistant strain V1S and the drug-sensitive 3D7. Verapamil chemosensitizes V1S to quinine and chloroquine. Interestingly, probenecid profoundly chemosensitizes V1S to piperaquine. Thus, probenecid could be used to increase piperaquine efficacy in vivo.

  19. In vitro chemosensitization of Plasmodium falciparum to antimalarials by verapamil and probenecid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseno, Victor; Muriithi, Steven; Nzila, Alexis

    2009-07-01

    We tested the effect of probenecid and verapamil in chemosensitizing Plasmodium falciparum to 14 antimalarials using the multidrug-resistant strain V1S and the drug-sensitive 3D7. Verapamil chemosensitizes V1S to quinine and chloroquine. Interestingly, probenecid profoundly chemosensitizes V1S to piperaquine. Thus, probenecid could be used to increase piperaquine efficacy in vivo.

  20. Verapamil protects against cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

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    Akira Takamatsu

    Full Text Available In past years, the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has emerged as a critical regulator of cartilage development and homeostasis. FRZB, a soluble antagonist of Wnt signaling, has been studied in osteoarthritis (OA animal models and OA patients as a modulator of Wnt signaling. We screened for FDA-approved drugs that induce FRZB expression and suppress Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We found that verapamil, a widely prescribed L-type calcium channel blocker, elevated FRZB expression and suppressed Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human OA chondrocytes. Expression and nuclear translocation of β-catenin was attenuated by verapamil in OA chondrocytes. Lack of the verapamil effects in LiCl-treated and FRZB-downregulated OA chondrocytes also suggested that verpamil suppressed Wnt signaling by inducing FRZB. Verapamil enhanced gene expressions of chondrogenic markers of ACAN encoding aggrecan, COL2A1 encoding collagen type II α1, and SOX9, and suppressed Wnt-responsive AXIN2 and MMP3 in human OA chondrocytes. Verapamil ameliorated Wnt3A-induced proteoglycan loss in chondrogenically differentiated ATDC5 cells. Verapamil inhibited hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes in the explant culture of mouse tibiae. Intraarticular injection of verapamil inhibited OA progression as well as nuclear localizations of β-catenin in a rat OA model. We propose that verapamil holds promise as a potent therapeutic agent for OA by upregulating FRZB and subsequently downregulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  1. Less adrenergic response to mental task during verapamil compared to amlodipine treatment in hypertensive subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevre, K; Lefrandt, JD; Eide, [No Value; Smit, AJ; Rostrup, M

    2001-01-01

    We compared the effects of amlodipine and verapamil slow release on autonomic responses to a 5-min mental arithmetic test (MST) in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Twenty subjects received 8 weeks of verapamil slow release 240 mg or amlodipine 10 mg in a double-blind crossover design,

  2. Efficacy of verapamil as an adjunctive treatment in children with drug-resistant epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicita, Francesco; Spalice, Alberto; Papetti, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Verapamil, a voltage-gated calcium channel blocker, has been occasionally reported to have some effect on reducing seizure frequency in drug-resistant epilepsy or status epilepticus. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of verapamil as add-on treatment in children with drug-resistant epilepsy....

  3. Cardiac event rates after acute myocardial infarction in patients treated with verapamil and trandolapril versus trandolapril alone. Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial (DAVIT) Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J F; Hagerup, L; Sigurd, B

    1997-01-01

    /trandolapril-verapamil groups were death 1/1, reinfarction 7/1, unstable angina 9/3, and readmission for CHF 6/2. The 3-month first cardiac event rate was 35% in trandolapril-treated patients and 14% in trandolapril-verapamil-treated patients (hazard ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 0.85, p = 0.015). These data...

  4. Peripheral metabolism of (R)-[11C]verapamil in epilepsy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahim, Aiman; Langer, Oliver; Luurtsema, Gert; Lubberink, Mark; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Bauer, Martin; Joukhadar, Christian; Mueller, Markus; Karch, Rudolf; Pataraia, Ekaterina; Baumgartner, Christoph; Kletter, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    (R)-[ 11 C]verapamil is a new PET tracer for P-glycoprotein-mediated transport at the blood-brain barrier. For kinetic analysis of (R)-[ 11 C]verapamil PET data the measurement of a metabolite-corrected arterial input function is required. The aim of this study was to assess peripheral (R)-[ 11 C]verapamil metabolism in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and compare these data with previously reported data from healthy volunteers. Arterial blood samples were collected from eight patients undergoing (R)-[ 11 C]verapamil PET and selected samples were analysed for radiolabelled metabolites of (R)-[ 11 C]verapamil by using an assay that measures polar N-demethylation metabolites by solid-phase extraction and lipophilic N-dealkylation metabolites by HPLC. Peripheral metabolism of (R)-[ 11 C]verapamil was significantly faster in patients compared to healthy volunteers (AUC of (R)-[ 11 C]verapamil fraction in plasma: 29.4 ± 3.9 min for patients versus 40.8 ± 5.0 min for healthy volunteers; p 11 C]verapamil plasma concentrations (AUC of (R)-[ 11 C]verapamil concentration, normalised to injected dose per body weight: 25.5 ± 2.1 min for patients and 30.5 ± 5.9 min for healthy volunteers; p = 0.038). Faster metabolism appeared to be mainly due to increased N-demethylation as the polar [ 11 C]metabolite fraction was up to two-fold greater in patients. Faster metabolism of (R)-[ 11 C]verapamil in epilepsy patients may be caused by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme induction by antiepileptic drugs. Based on these data caution is warranted when using an averaged arterial input function derived from healthy volunteers for the analysis of patient data. Moreover, our data illustrate how antiepileptic drugs may decrease serum levels of concomitant medication, which may eventually lead to a loss of therapeutic efficacy. (orig.)

  5. Tadalafil once daily and intralesional verapamil injection: A new therapeutic direction in Peyronie′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Dell′Atti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of intralesional verapamil injection (IVI therapy with and tadalafil in men affected by Peyronie′s disease (PD. Materials and Methods: In this study, 59 patients diagnosed with PD, were divided into three groups. Group A (GA counted 23 patients treated with IVI; Group B (GB treated 19 patients with tadalafil 5 mg once a day, and Group C (GC treated 17 patients with IVI and tadalafil for 3 months. There were assessed at baseline and follow-up: Erectile function, presence and severity of painful erections, penile plaque size and penile curvature degree. Results: After 3 months pain resolved completely in 57% cases of GA, 61% of GB and 76% of GC; the final mean curvature degree further decreased in all groups without statistically significant differences; mean plaque size remained stable in GA: 1.57 versus 1.59 at baseline (P = 0.364 and GB: 1.51 versus 1.52 at baseline (P = 0,265, while a further decrease was evident in GC: 1.46 versus 1.58 at baseline (P = 0.03. Mean International Index of Erectile Function-5 score further improved significantly in the group treated with verapamil plus tadalafil: 23.1 versus 14.4 of GA and 18.2 of GB ( P ≤ 0.01. Conclusions: The association of IVI and tadalafil showed better pain control while reducing penile curvature and erectile function, improving the quality of life.

  6. Comparison of intralesional verapamil with intralesional triamcinolone in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids

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    Margaret Shanthi F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The calcium channel blocker, verapamil stimulates procollagenase synthesis in keloids and hypertrophic scars. Aim : To study the effect of verapamil in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids and to evaluate the effect of verapamil on the rate of reduction of hypertrophic scars and keloids in comparison with triamcinolone. Methods : The study was a randomized, single blind, parallel group study in which 54 patients were allocated to to receive either verapamil or triamcinolone. Drugs were administered intralesionally in both groups. Improvement of the scar was measured using modified Vancouver scale and by using a centimeter scale serially till the scar flattened. Results : There was a reduction in vascularity, pliability, height and width of the scar with both the drugs after 3 weeks of treatment. These changes were present at one year of follow-up after stopping treatment. Scar pigmentation was not changed desirably by either drug. Length of the scars was also not altered significantly by either drug. The rate of reduction in vascularity, pliability, height and width of the scar with triamcinolone was faster than with verapamil. Adverse drug reactions were more with triamcinolone than with verapamil. Conclusion : Intralesional verapamil may be a suitable alternative to triamcinolone in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids.

  7. Calcium Channel Blocker Verapamil Enhances Reticulum Stress and Death Induced by Proteasome Inhibition in Myeloma Cells

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    Silke Meister

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is clinically approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma. However, long-term remissions are difficult to achieve, and myeloma cells often develop secondary resistance to proteasome inhibitors. We recently demonstrated that the extraordinary sensitivity of myeloma cells toward bortezomib is dependent on their extensive immunoglobulin synthesis, thereby triggering the terminal unfolded protein response (UPR. Here, we investigated whether verapamil, an inhibitor of the multidrug resistance (MDR gene product, can enhance the cytotoxicity of bortezomib. The combination of bortezomib and verapamil synergistically decreased the viability of myeloma cells by inducing cell death. Importantly, bortezomib-mediated activation of major UPR components was enhanced byverapamil. The combination of bortezomib and verapamil resulted in caspase activation followed by poly(ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, whereas nuclear factor κB (NF-κB activity declined in myeloma cells. Also, we found reduced immunoglobulin G secretion along with increased amounts of ubiquitinylated proteins within insoluble fractions of myeloma cells when using the combination treatment. Verapamil markedly induced reactive oxygen species production and autophagiclike processes. Furthermore, verapamil decreased MDR1 expression. We conclude that verapamil increased the antimyeloma effect of bortezomib by enhancing ER stress signals along with NF-κB inhibition, leading to cell death. Thus, the combination of bortezomib with verapamil may improve the efficacy of proteasome inhibitory therapy.

  8. The effect of verapamil on cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C K; Yim, D S; Kim, W H

    1987-12-01

    To determine the effect of verapamil on experimental duodenal ulcer, pathologic assessment and secretory study were performed in the rats with ulcerogenic dose of cysteamine. The cysteamine increased gastric acid secretion and produced double duodenal ulcers at the proximal protion of the duodenum. Intramuscular injection of verapamil, 3 hours later, produced a significant decreased in gastric acid secretion which lasted at least 4 hours (cysteamine vs. cysteamine+ verapamil; 63.5 +/- 18.4 muEq vs. 25.5 +/- 9.0 muEq during the 1st hour after verapamil administration, 83.1 +/- 24.2 muEq vs. 27.8 +/- 12.3 muEq during the 2nd hour, 110.9 +/- 14.4 muEq vs. 38.5 +/- 25.9 muEq during the 3rd hour, 116.4 +/- 12.1 muEq vs. 40.7 +/- 29.6 muEq during the 4th hour, p less than 0.001). However, cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers were not alleviated by two doses of intramuscular verapamil administration (4 mg/kg x 2). It is presumed that suppression of gastric acid secretion may not be sufficient to reduce cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer formation or that verapamil itself may have aggresive effects against duodenum. To illucidate the exact role of verapamil in cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer, further studies would be needed.

  9. Intramacrophage Mycobacterium tuberculosis efflux pump gene regulation after rifampicin and verapamil exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canezin, Pedro Henrique; Caleffi-Ferracioli, Katiany Rizzieri; Scodro, Regiane Bertin de Lima; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Barros, Isabella Letícia Esteves; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2018-03-22

    Since resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) partially derives from efflux pumps (EPs) in the plasma membrane, the current study evaluates EPs in Mtb exposed to rifampicin in the presence of the EP inhibitor verapamil, within a macrophage environment. Human acute monocytic leukaemia cell line THP-1 was infected with Mtb H37Rv and exposed to rifampicin and verapamil alone and in combination for 24 and 72 h. After RNA extraction, quantitative PCR was carried out for 11 EP genes using SYBR green PCR master mix in the StepOne™ Real-Time PCR System. After 24 h of exposure to rifampicin, Mtb H37Rv showed that 10 EP genes were up-regulated when compared with the control. The rifampicin/verapamil combination induced down-regulation of 54.5% (6/11) of the EP genes. At 72 h, rifampicin exposure induced up-regulation of 10 EP genes and rifampicin/verapamil induced down-regulation of 8 EP genes, which suggests effective EP-inhibitory activity of verapamil against Mtb H37Rv in an intramacrophage environment. The current study demonstrated that rifampicin/verapamil caused down-regulation of several EP genes in Mtb inside the macrophage environment. In vivo trials may show that rifampicin/verapamil therapy could be of value in enhancing anti-TB treatment.

  10. A randomised controlled trial evaluating renal protective effects of selenium with vitamins A, C, E, verapamil, and losartan against extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy-induced renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahas, Ahmed R; Elsaadany, Mohamed M; Taha, Diaa-Eldin; Elshal, Ahmed M; El-Ghar, Mohamed Abo; Ismail, Amani M; Elsawy, Essam A; Saleh, Hazem H; Wafa, Ehab W; Awadalla, Amira; Barakat, Tamer S; Sheir, Khaled Z

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the protective effects of selenium with vitamins A, C and E (selenium ACE, i.e. antioxidants), verapamil (calcium channel blocker), and losartan (angiotensin receptor blocker) against extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)-induced renal injury. A randomised controlled trial was conducted between August 2012 and February 2015. Inclusion criteria were adult patients with a single renal stone (300 mg/L) were excluded. ESWL was performed using the electromagnetic DoLiS lithotripter. Eligible patients were randomised into one of four groups using sealed closed envelopes: Group1, control; Group 2, selenium ACE; Group 3, losartan; and Group 4, verapamil. Albuminuria and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) were estimated after 2-4 h and 1 week after ESWL. The primary outcome was differences between albuminuria and uNGAL. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was performed before ESWL, and at 2-4 h and 1 week after ESWL to compare changes in renal perfusion. Of 329 patients assessed for eligibility, the final analysis comprised 160 patients (40 in each group). Losartan was the only medication that showed significantly lower levels of albuminuria after 1 week (P < 0.001). For perfusion changes, there was a statistically significant decrease in the renal perfusion in patients with obstructed kidneys in comparison to before ESWL (P = 0.003). These significant changes were present in the control or antioxidant group, whilst in the losartan and verapamil groups renal perfusion was not significantly decreased. Losartan was found to protect the kidney against ESWL-induced renal injury by significantly decreasing post-ESWL albuminuria. Verapamil and losartan maintained renal perfusion in patients with post-ESWL renal obstruction. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Compatibility of verapamil hydrochloride injection in commonly used large-volume parenterals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutie, M R; Lordi, N G

    1980-05-01

    The visual and chemical compatibilities of verapamil hydrochloride injection in 10 commonly used large-volume solutions packaged in glass, polyolefin, or polyvinyl chloride containers were studied. The mixtures, each containing 40 mg/liter of verapamil hydrochloride, were stored away from light for up to 48 hours at 25 degrees C. The solutions were examined visually for haze, precipitate formation, color change, and evolution of gas immediately after mixing and at 0.25, 1, 3, 8, 24, and 48 hours. Spectrophotometry and thin-layer chromatography were used to test for drug decomposition or chemical incompatibilities. All test methods used showed that no significant degradation of verapamil hydrochloride had taken place in the solutions or through contact with the containers. Slightly higher spectrophotometric readings for dextrose-containing solutions, though within experimental error, could have indicated the presence of dextrose degradation products. Evidence from this study suggests that verapamil hydrocholoride is compatible with the large-volume parenterals studied.

  12. Verapamil stereoisomers induce antiproliferative effects in vascular smooth muscle cells via autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salabei, Joshua K. [Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Balakumaran, Arun [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555‐0438 (United States); Frey, Justin C. [Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI 54702 (United States); Boor, Paul J. [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555‐0438 (United States); Treinen-Moslen, Mary [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555‐0609 (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555‐0438 (United States); Conklin, Daniel J., E-mail: dj.conklin@louisville.edu [Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI 54702 (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555‐0438 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are important in the management of hypertension and limit restenosis. Although CCB efficacy could derive from decreased blood pressure, other mechanisms independent of CCB activity also can contribute to antiproliferative action. To understand mechanisms of CCB-mediated antiproliferation, we studied two structurally dissimilar CCBs, diltiazem and verapamil, in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). To elucidate CCB-independent effects, pure stereoisomers of verapamil (R-verapamil, inactive VR; S-verapamil, active, VS) were used. The effects of CCB exposure on cell viability (MTT reduction), cell proliferation ({sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation), VSMC morphology by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and autophagy (LC3I/II, ATG5) were measured. In general, verapamil, VR or VS treatment alone (80 μM) appreciably enhanced MTT absorbance although higher concentrations (VR or VS) slightly decreased MTT absorbance. Diltiazem (140 μM) markedly decreased MTT absorbance (40%) at 120 h. VR or VS treatment inhibited {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation (24 h) and induced cytological alterations (i.e., karyokinesis, enhanced perinuclear MTT deposition, accumulated perinuclear “vacuoles”). TEM revealed perinuclear “vacuoles” to be aggregates of highly laminated and electron-dense vesicles resembling autophagosomes and lysosomes, respectively. Increased autophagosome activity was confirmed by a concentration-dependent increase in LC3-II formation by Western blotting and by increased perinuclear LC3-GFP{sup +} puncta in verapamil-treated VSMC. Verapamil stereoisomers appeared to decrease perinuclear mitochondrial density. These observations indicate that antiproliferative effects of verapamil stereoisomers are produced by enhanced mitochondrial damage and upregulated autophagy in VSMC. These effects are independent of CCB activity indicating a distinct mechanism of action that could be targeted for more efficacious anti

  13. Treatment with verapamil and trandolapril in patients with congestive heart failure and angina pectoris or myocardial infarction. The DAVIT Study Group. Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J F; Hagerup, L; Sigurd, B

    1997-01-01

    In a double-blind, randomized trial in a consecutive group of postinfarct patients in treatment with diuretic agents for congestive heart failure, the 3 month rate of cardiac events (i.e., death, repeat infarction, unstable angina pectoris, or repeat admission because of heart failure) was 14......% in patients treated with verapamil and trandolapril and 35% in patients treated with trandolapril (p = 0.01). In another study of patients with angina pectoris and left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40%, trandolapril plus verapamil improved exercise duration and left ventricular ejection fraction...

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ORAL AND INTRALESIONAL VERAPAMIL IN PEYRONIE’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saju P. R

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Treatment of Peyronie's disease is a dilemma for the treating urologist. Part of this problem is due to an incomplete understanding of the aetiopathophysiology of the disease. Multiple nonsurgical treatment are available for Peyronie’s Disease (PD including calcium channel blocker verapamil, both oral and intraplaque injectable. The use of verapamil is based on its capacity to alter fibroblast function and promote collagen degradation. As a result, calcium channel antagonists may have the capacity to slow, prevent or even reverse plaque formation. There are many studies suggesting benefits of intraplaque verapamil injection. In our study, we aim to compare the outcomes of oral versus intraplaque verapamil injection in terms of pain reduction, decrease in curvature and improved sexual function. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this randomised study, 20 patients were randomly divided into 2 groups of 10 patients each (Group I patients were treated with oral verapamil and group II patients were treated with intraplaque verapamil injection. Results from both the groups were compared and interpreted in terms of change in plaque size, curvature, erectile function and pain. Size of plaque was assessed with the help of color Doppler in pre and post-treatment period. All the 20 patients were followed for 3 years after completion of treatment. None of the 20 patients lost to follow up. RESULTS 30% of group I patients (oral verapamil showed decreased plaque volume. Softening of plaque was noted in only 60% of the patients. Subjective erectile dysfunction improved in only 40% of the patients. In group, II patients who received intraplaque verapamil injection, 70% showed decreased plaque volume with improvement in penile curvature. There was softening of the plaque in all the patients in group II. Subjective erectile dysfunction improved in 60% of the patients. No local or systemic toxicity was noted except mild ecchymosis in 2 patients of group II

  15. Anti-ischemic intervention as prognosis improvement in patients with coronary artery disease, with special focus on verapamil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, C M

    1996-01-01

    thrombus formation. Verapamil significantly inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation, which may be one of several reasons for the protective effect of verapamil on reinfarction in patients recovering from myocardial infarction. Ischemia may lead to left ventricular dilation and diastolic...... dysfunction, and thereby heart failure. In postinfarction patients intervention with verapamil significantly reduced the use of diuretics compared with placebo, indicating that anti-ischemic intervention may prevent heart failure. Ventricular arrhythmias are significantly associated with arrhythmic as well...

  16. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Christoph, E-mail: steinbach@frov.jcu.cz [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Fedorova, Ganna [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Prokes, Miroslav [Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Kvetna 8, 603 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Grabicova, Katerina; Machova, Jana; Grabic, Roman; Valentova, Olga; Kroupova, Hana Kocour [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-01

    Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L{sup −1} to μg L{sup −1}. In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC{sub 50} values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4 ± 9.2, 7.3 ± 1.5 and 4.8 ± 0.2 mg L{sup −1} for embryos (E5–E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 μg L{sup −1}. Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 μg L{sup −1} of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF > 500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2 ± 1.6 days and 44.2 ± 8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Study of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of verapamil on early-life stages of common carp. • Acute exposure to verapamil reduced the heart rate in early-life stages of

  17. Circumvention of drug resistance in human non-small cell lung cancer in vitro by verapamil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, S; Courtney, E R; Fetherston, C A; Kaye, S B; Freshney, R I

    1987-10-01

    The sensitivity of 7 human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines to each of 7 cytotoxic drugs was determined. None of the cell lines used in these experiments had been previously exposed to cytotoxic drugs in vitro. A pattern of cross-resistance (P less than 0.05) between the drugs adriamycin (ADR), vincristine (VC) and etoposide (VP16) was noted similar to that seen in other models. The calcium antagonist verapamil (6.6 microM) was shown to increase sensitivity (up to 29-fold) to ADR, VC or VP16 in 5 cell lines. For 2 of the cell lines (A549 and WIL) 2.2 microM verapamil increased VP16 cytotoxicity (up to 4-fold). Drug accumulation studies in 2 cell lines (A549 and SK-MES-1) showed that 6.6 microM verapamil increased intracellular levels of VC up to 4-fold with the greatest increase seen in the cell line (SK-MES-1) for which verapamil produced the greatest increase in cytotoxicity (10-fold). For ADR and VP16 increases in drug accumulation were smaller (up to 1.6-fold). Our data support a potential clinical role for verapamil in overcoming cytotoxic drug resistance in human lung cancer.

  18. Influence of nimodipine, verapamil and lanthanum on histamine release from human basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C B; Thastrup, Ole; Norn, S

    1987-01-01

    and the calcium channels, using the calcium antagonists nimodipine, verapamil and lanthanum. Anti-IgE-induced histamine release was inhibited by verapamil, nimodipine and lanthanum. When cells were pretreated with sialidase in order to remove sialic acid from the cell membrane, the inhibitory action of nimodipine...... was abolished, whereas the inhibition by verapamil or lanthanum was unaffected. This difference may be explained by the different mode of action of the calcium channel antagonists, and the results suggest an association between membrane sialic acid and the calcium channel.......Our previous studies suggest that the membrane content of sialic acid influences histamine release from human basophils by interfering with the transmembraneous calcium fluxes preceding histamine release. In this study we investigated a possible interaction between membrane sialic acid...

  19. Verapamil inhibits tumor progression of chemotherapy-resistant pancreatic cancer side population cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHAO, LU; ZHAO, YUE; SCHWARZ, BETTINA; MYSLIWIETZ, JOSEF; HARTIG, ROLAND; CAMAJ, PETER; BAO, QI; JAUCH, KARL-WALTER; GUBA, MAKUS; ELLWART, JOACHIM WALTER; NELSON, PETER JON; BRUNS, CHRISTIANE JOSEPHINE

    2016-01-01

    Tumor side population (SP) cells display stem-like properties that can be modulated by treatment with the calcium channel blocker verapamil. Verapamil can enhance the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic drugs and multi-drug resistance by targeting the transport function of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This study focused on the therapeutic potential of verapamil on stem-like SP tumor cells, and further investigated its chemosensitizing effects using L3.6pl and AsPC-1 pancreatic carcinoma models. As compared to parental L3.6pl cells (0.9±0.22%), L3.6pl gemcitabine-resistant cells (L3.6plGres) showed a significantly higher percentage of SP cells (5.38±0.99%) as detected by Hoechst 33342/FACS assays. The L3.6plGres SP cells showed stable gemcitabine resistance, enhanced colony formation ability and increased tumorigenicity. Verapamil effectively inhibited L3.6plGres and AsPC-1 SP cell proliferation in vitro. A pro-apoptotic effect of verapamil was observed in L3.6pl cells, but not in L3.6plGres cells, which was linked to their differential expression of P-gp and equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (ENT-1). In an orthotopic pancreatic cancer mouse model, both low and high dose verapamil was shown to substantially reduce L3.6plGres-SP cell tumor growth and metastasis, enhance tumor apoptosis, and reduce microvascular density. PMID:27177126

  20. Evaluation of tracer kinetic models for quantification of P-glycoprotein function using (R)-[C-11]verapamil and PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubberink, Mark; Luurtsema, Gert; van Berckel, Bart N. M.; Boellaard, Ronald; Toornvliet, Rolf; Windhorst, Albert D.; Franssen, Eric J. F.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.

    Diminished P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated transport across the blood-brain barrier may play an important role in several neurodegenerative disorders. In previous studies, a racemic mixture of (R)-[C-11] verapamil and (S)-[C-11] verapamil has been used as tracer for assessing P-gp function using

  1. Semi-rigid analogues of the calcium antagonist verapamil: A molecular modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Maria Novella; Dei, Silvia; Scapecchi, Serena; Teodori, Elisabetta; Gualtieri, Fulvio; Budriesi, Roberta; Mannhold, Raimund

    1994-04-01

    In this work the rigid-analogue approach has been used to obtain information on the active conformation(s) of the calcium antagonist verapamil. A series of semi-rigid analogues of verapamil were synthesized and their biological activities evaluated on guinea-pig heart and aorta. These molecules were analysed by means of molecular modelling techniques. On the basis of the pharmacological profile and conformational analysis of these compounds, two different models for negative inotropic and negative chronotropic activity are proposed. The two actions seem to be due to conformations of the molecules which differ in the orientation of their phenylethylamino groups.

  2. Influence of nimodipine, verapamil and lanthanum on histamine release from human basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C B; Thastrup, Ole; Norn, S

    1987-01-01

    Our previous studies suggest that the membrane content of sialic acid influences histamine release from human basophils by interfering with the transmembraneous calcium fluxes preceding histamine release. In this study we investigated a possible interaction between membrane sialic acid...... and the calcium channels, using the calcium antagonists nimodipine, verapamil and lanthanum. Anti-IgE-induced histamine release was inhibited by verapamil, nimodipine and lanthanum. When cells were pretreated with sialidase in order to remove sialic acid from the cell membrane, the inhibitory action of nimodipine...

  3. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms based on biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) literature data: verapamil hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, and atenolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelpoel, H; Welink, J; Amidon, G L; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Möller, H; Olling, M; Shah, V P; Barends, D M

    2004-08-01

    Literature data related to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) are presented on verapamil hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, and atenolol in the form of BCS-monographs. Data on the qualitative composition of immediate release (IR) tablets containing these active substances with a Marketing Authorization (MA) in the Netherlands (NL) are also provided; in view of these MA's the assumption was made that these tablets were bioequivalent to the innovator product. The development of a database with BCS-related data is announced by the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP). Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 93:1945-1956, 2004

  4. Direct interaction between verapamil and doxorubicin causes the lack of reversal effect of verapamil on P-glycoprotein mediated resistance to doxorubicin in vitro using L1210/VCR cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breier, A.; Drobna, Z.; Barancik, M.

    1998-01-01

    Mouse leukemic cell sub-line L 1210/VCR exerts expressive multidrug resistance (MDR) that is mediated by P-glycoprotein. Cells originally adapted to vincristine are also extremely resistant to doxorubicin. Resistance to both vincristine and doxorubicin is connected with depression of drug uptake. While resistance of L 121 O cells to vincristine could be reversed by verapamil as chemo-sensitizer, resistance of cells to doxorubicin was insensitive to verapamil. Action of verapamil (well-known inhibitor of PGP activity) on multidrug resistance was often used as evidence that MDR is mediated by PGP. From this point it may be possible that the resistance of L1210/VCR cells to vincristine is mediated by PGP and the resistance to doxorubicin is mediated by other PGP-independent system. Another and more probable explanation of different effect of verapamil on resistance of L1210/VCR cells to vincristine and doxorubicin may be deduced from the following fact: Using UV spectroscopy we found that doxorubicin dissolved in water buffered medium interacts effectively with verapamil. This interaction may be responsible for the decrease of concentration of both drugs in free effective form and consequently for higher survival of cells. In contrast to doxorubicin vincristine does not give any interaction with verapamil that is measurable by UV spectroscopy and resistance of L1210/VCR cells to vincristine may be fully reversed by verapamil. (authors)

  5. Ivabradin and Verapamil Sr efficacy in treatment of coronary heart disease accompanied by bronchial obstructive diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrov V.I.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is a comparative investigation of Ivabradin vs Verapamil SR of antianginal/antiischemic activity, physical exertion tolerance and life quality of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD accompanied by bronchial obstructive diseases. Parallel groups of patients have been examined for a 16-week period. Ivabradin (average dose — 14mg/day or Verapamil SR (average dose — 443mg/day were administered to ischemic patients (n=84 with postinfarction cardiosclerosis, stable angina (class l-ll and painless myocardial ischemia. Concomitant bronchial obstructive deseases included controlled/partly controlled bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (stage II-III. Both medications have demonstrated the same antianginal/antiischemic activity and have improved physical exertion tolerance. Ivabradin was more effective for heart rate (HR aim level and 24-hour HR control. Ivabradin advantages were more expressed by changing of NYHA class (from class II to class I and increase of 6MWD. In conclusion Ivabradin has demonstrated its effectiveness in life quality improvement. Ivabradin and Verapamil SR did not cause complications in concomitant asthma/COPD and were good tolerated. It was determined that Ivabradin is a good Verapamil SR alternative for CHD treatment in case of bronchial obstructive concomitant diseases

  6. Pre- and postsynaptic effects of the calcium channel blocker verapamil at neuromuscular junctions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sharifullina, R.; Afzalov, R. A.; Talantova, M. V.; Vyskočil, František; Giniatullin, R. A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2002), s. 309-315 ISSN 0097-0549 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011902; GA ČR GA202/02/1213; GA ČR GA305/02/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : verapamil * cholinoreceptors * calcium channels Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  7. Verapamil reverses PTH- or CRF-induced abnormal fatty acid oxidation in muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perna, A.F.; Smogorzewski, M.; Massry, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with impaired long chain fatty acids (LCFA) oxidation by skeletal muscle mitochondria. This is due to reduced activity of carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT). These derangements were attributed to the secondary hyperparathyroidism of CRF, since prior parathyroidectomy in CRF rats reversed these abnormalities and PTH administration to normal rats reproduced them. It was proposed that these effects of PTH are mediated by its ionophoric property leading to increased entry of calcium into skeletal muscle. A calcium channel blocker may, therefore, correct these derangements. The present study examined the effects of verapamil on LCFA oxidation, CPT activity by skeletal muscle mitochondria, and 45 Ca uptake by skeletal muscle obtained from CRF rats and normal animals treated with PTH with and without verapamil. Both four days of PTH administration and 21 days of CRF produced significant (P less than 0.01) reduction in LCFA oxidation and CPT activity of skeletal muscle mitochondria, and significant (P less than 0.01) increment in 45 Ca uptake by skeletal muscle. Simultaneous treatment with verapamil corrected all these derangements. Administration of verapamil alone to normal rats did not cause a significant change in any of these parameters. The data are consistent with the proposition that the alterations in LCFA in CRF or after PTH treatment are related to the ionophoric action of the hormone and could be reversed by a calcium channel blocker

  8. Verapamil reverses PTH- or CRF-induced abnormal fatty acid oxidation in muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perna, A.F.; Smogorzewski, M.; Massry, S.G.

    1988-12-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with impaired long chain fatty acids (LCFA) oxidation by skeletal muscle mitochondria. This is due to reduced activity of carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT). These derangements were attributed to the secondary hyperparathyroidism of CRF, since prior parathyroidectomy in CRF rats reversed these abnormalities and PTH administration to normal rats reproduced them. It was proposed that these effects of PTH are mediated by its ionophoric property leading to increased entry of calcium into skeletal muscle. A calcium channel blocker may, therefore, correct these derangements. The present study examined the effects of verapamil on LCFA oxidation, CPT activity by skeletal muscle mitochondria, and /sup 45/Ca uptake by skeletal muscle obtained from CRF rats and normal animals treated with PTH with and without verapamil. Both four days of PTH administration and 21 days of CRF produced significant (P less than 0.01) reduction in LCFA oxidation and CPT activity of skeletal muscle mitochondria, and significant (P less than 0.01) increment in /sup 45/Ca uptake by skeletal muscle. Simultaneous treatment with verapamil corrected all these derangements. Administration of verapamil alone to normal rats did not cause a significant change in any of these parameters. The data are consistent with the proposition that the alterations in LCFA in CRF or after PTH treatment are related to the ionophoric action of the hormone and could be reversed by a calcium channel blocker.

  9. Regression of outflow tract obstruction subsequent to treatment with verapamil in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, F; Mickley, H

    1990-01-01

    A 29-year-old man suffering from hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy was treated with verapamil 240 mg daily for 4.5 years. During this period the symptoms were reduced, and an intraventricular gradient diminished from 80 to 20 mm Hg, possibly due to a decrease in left ventricular ejection...

  10. Synergism of ochratoxin B and calcium-channel antagonist verapamil caused mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatopadhyay, Pronobesh; Tariang, Banlumlang; Agnihotri, Amit; Veer, Vijay

    2014-09-01

    We examined the mechanism by which the ochratoxin B induced interaction with calcium-channel antagonist verapamil and mitochondrial dysfunction of the rat trachea in vitro experiment. The tracheas were cut into 2-3 mm wide rings and suspended in a tissue bath. Isometric tension was continuously measured with an isometric force transducer connected to a computer-based data acquisition system. Verapamil (1 × 10(-6) M) produced a concentration-dependent contraction response in rat's tracheal rings pre-contracted by acetylcholine. Incubation of rat's tracheal rings with the ochratoxin B significantly potentiated the contraction responses of verapamil. Verapamil and OTB accelerate the overloading of Ca(2+) in tracheal smooth muscle contributes the tissue toxicity as shown in electron microscopy and mitochondrial enzymes, through a mechanism that could involve perturbations of Ca(2+) homeostasis. These results proved that ochratoxin B is a potential vasoconstrictor mycotoxin with the presence of calcium-channel antagonist. In conclusion, disturbance of Ca(2+) homeostasis caused by OTA and plays a significant role in produces toxicity through mitochondrial enzyme inhibition.

  11. Erythromycin potentiates PR interval prolonging effect of verapamil in the rat: A pharmacodynamic drug interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakhel, Yaman; Jamali, Fakhreddin

    2006-01-01

    Calcium channel blockers and macrolide antibiotics account for many drug interactions. Anecdotal reports suggest interactions between the two resulting in severe side effects. We studied the interaction between verapamil and erythromycin in the rat to see whether it occurs at the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamic level. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received doses of 1 mg/kg verapamil or 100 mg/kg erythromycin alone or in combination (n = 6/group). Serial blood samples (0-6 h) were taken for determination of the drug concentrations using HPLC. Electrocardiograms were recorded (0-6 h) through subcutaneously inserted lead II. Binding of the drugs to plasma proteins was studied using spiked plasma. Verapamil prolonged PR but not QT interval. Erythromycin prolonged QT but not PR interval. The combination resulted in a significant increase in PR interval prolongation and AV node blocks but did not further prolong QT interval. Pharmacokinetics and protein binding of neither drug were altered by the other. Our rat data confirm the anecdotal human case reports that combination of erythromycin and verapamil can result in potentiation of the cardiovascular response. The interaction appears to be at the pharmacodynamic rather than pharmacokinetic level hence may be extrapolated to other calcium channel antagonists

  12. K+ channel openers restore verapamil-inhibited lung fluid resolution and transepithelial ion transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Xue-Feng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC are regulated by cell Ca2+ signal, which may contribute to calcium antagonist-induced noncardiogenic lung edema. Although K+ channel modulators regulate ENaC activity in normal lungs, the therapeutical relevance and the underlying mechanisms have not been completely explored. We hypothesized that K+ channel openers may restore calcium channel blocker-inhibited alveolar fluid clearance (AFC by up-regulating both apical and basolateral ion transport. Methods Verapamil-induced depression of heterologously expressed human αβγ ENaC in Xenopus oocytes, apical and basolateral ion transport in monolayers of human lung epithelial cells (H441, and in vivo alveolar fluid clearance were measured, respectively, using the two-electrode voltage clamp, Ussing chamber, and BSA protein assays. Ca2+ signal in H441 cells was analyzed using Fluo 4AM. Results The rate of in vivo AFC was reduced significantly (40.6 ± 6.3% of control, P Ca3.1 (1-EBIO and KATP (minoxidil channel openers significantly recovered AFC. In addition to short-circuit current (Isc in intact H441 monolayers, both apical and basolateral Isc levels were reduced by verapamil in permeabilized monolayers. Moreover, verapamil significantly altered Ca2+ signal evoked by ionomycin in H441 cells. Depletion of cytosolic Ca2+ in αβγ ENaC-expressing oocytes completely abolished verapamil-induced inhibition. Intriguingly, KV (pyrithione-Na, K Ca3.1 (1-EBIO, and KATP (minoxidil channel openers almost completely restored the verapamil-induced decrease in Isc levels by diversely up-regulating apical and basolateral Na+ and K+ transport pathways. Conclusions Our observations demonstrate that K+ channel openers are capable of rescuing reduced vectorial Na+ transport across lung epithelial cells with impaired Ca2+ signal.

  13. L-carnitine increases survival in a murine model of severe verapamil toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Eric; Chu, Jason; Bania, Theodore; Medlej, Kamal

    2011-11-01

    L-carnitine is an essential compound involved in cellular energy production through free fatty acid metabolism. It has been theorized that severe verapamil toxicity "shifts" heart energy production away from free fatty acids and toward other sources, contributing to profound cardiogenic shock. The primary study objective was to determine whether intravenous (IV) L-carnitine affects survival in severe verapamil toxicity. Secondary objectives were to determine the effects on hemodynamic parameters. The authors hypothesized that IV L-carnitine would increase both survival and hemodynamic parameters in severe verapamil toxicity. This was a controlled, blinded animal investigation. Sixteen male rats were anesthetized, ventilated, and instrumented to record mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate. Verapamil toxicity was achieved by a constant infusion of 5 mg/kg/hr. After 5 minutes a bolus of 50 mg/kg of either L-carnitine or normal saline was given. The experiment concluded when either 10% of baseline MAP was achieved or 150 minutes had elapsed. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis, log rank test, and analysis of variance. The median survival for the animals in the L-carnitine group was 140.75 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] = 98.6 to 150 minutes), and for those in the normal saline group it was 49.19 minutes (IQR = 39.02 to 70.97 minutes; p = 0.0001). At 15 minutes the MAP was 20.45 mm Hg greater in the animals in the L-carnitine group than in the animals in the normal saline group (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.25 to 40.65; p = 0.047). When compared with saline, IV L-carnitine increases survival and MAP in a murine model of severe verapamil toxicity. © 2011 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  14. K+ channel openers restore verapamil-inhibited lung fluid resolution and transepithelial ion transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Lung epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) are regulated by cell Ca2+ signal, which may contribute to calcium antagonist-induced noncardiogenic lung edema. Although K+ channel modulators regulate ENaC activity in normal lungs, the therapeutical relevance and the underlying mechanisms have not been completely explored. We hypothesized that K+ channel openers may restore calcium channel blocker-inhibited alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) by up-regulating both apical and basolateral ion transport. Methods Verapamil-induced depression of heterologously expressed human αβγ ENaC in Xenopus oocytes, apical and basolateral ion transport in monolayers of human lung epithelial cells (H441), and in vivo alveolar fluid clearance were measured, respectively, using the two-electrode voltage clamp, Ussing chamber, and BSA protein assays. Ca2+ signal in H441 cells was analyzed using Fluo 4AM. Results The rate of in vivo AFC was reduced significantly (40.6 ± 6.3% of control, P minoxidil) channel openers significantly recovered AFC. In addition to short-circuit current (Isc) in intact H441 monolayers, both apical and basolateral Isc levels were reduced by verapamil in permeabilized monolayers. Moreover, verapamil significantly altered Ca2+ signal evoked by ionomycin in H441 cells. Depletion of cytosolic Ca2+ in αβγ ENaC-expressing oocytes completely abolished verapamil-induced inhibition. Intriguingly, KV (pyrithione-Na), K Ca3.1 (1-EBIO), and KATP (minoxidil) channel openers almost completely restored the verapamil-induced decrease in Isc levels by diversely up-regulating apical and basolateral Na+ and K+ transport pathways. Conclusions Our observations demonstrate that K+ channel openers are capable of rescuing reduced vectorial Na+ transport across lung epithelial cells with impaired Ca2+ signal. PMID:20507598

  15. Case-Control Study of Intra-arterial Verapamil for Intraprostatic Anastomoses to Extraprostatic Arteries in Prostatic Artery Embolization for Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Simon Chun Ho; Cho, Carmen; Hung, Esther; Wang, Defeng; Chiu, Peter; Yee, Chi Hang; Ng, Anthony

    2017-08-01

    It is hypothesized that intra-arterial administration of verapamil is a safe and effective way to reverse the flow in intraprostatic anastomoses to extraprostatic arteries without compromising treatment outcomes in prostatic artery embolization (PAE) for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). A prospective study of 62 prostate sides in 31 consecutive patients (median age, 66 y; range, 60-71 y) with symptomatic BPH was undertaken. Median prostate volume was 72.4 mL (range, 48.8-85.8 mL), median International Prostate Symptom Score was 21 (range, 15-23), and median urine peak flow rate was 4 mL/s (range, 2-6 mL/s). The arterial anastomoses were classified as types I-III according to vascular morphology. Treatment safety was assessed in terms of adverse events and complications, and treatment effectiveness was assessed in terms of success rate of angiographic flow reversal. The PAE procedure was successfully completed in all 31 patients (100%). Adverse events in both groups were transient and mild and did not necessitate prolonged hospitalization. There was no clinical evidence of any significant nontarget ischemic complication in either group. Intraprostatic anastomosis was diagnosed in 19 of 31 patients (61.3%) and 22 of 62 prostate sides (35.5%). Success rates of verapamil treatment were 88.9% overall (20 of 22) and 100% (19 of 19) in type II and III anastomoses. There was no difference between the treatment group and the control group in clinical, urologic, and imaging outcomes of PAE. Intra-arterial verapamil treatment was probably safe and effective in causing flow reversal in type II and III intraprostatic anastomoses and in preventing ischemic complications in PAE for BPH without compromising PAE outcomes. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of tracer kinetic models for quantification of P-glycoprotein function using (R)-[11C]verapamil and PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubberink, Mark; Luurtsema, Gert; van Berckel, Bart N M; Boellaard, Ronald; Toornvliet, Rolf; Windhorst, Albert D; Franssen, Eric J F; Lammertsma, Adriaan A

    2007-02-01

    Diminished P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated transport across the blood-brain barrier may play an important role in several neurodegenerative disorders. In previous studies, a racemic mixture of (R)-[(11)C]verapamil and (S)-[(11)C]verapamil has been used as tracer for assessing P-gp function using positron emission tomography (PET). Quantification, however, is compromised by potential differences in kinetics between these two isomers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the kinetics of pure (R)-[(11)C]verapamil in humans and to develop a tracer kinetic model for the analysis of P-gp-mediated transport of (R)-[(11)C]verapamil, including the putative contribution of its radioactive metabolites. Dynamic (R)-[(11)C]verapamil PET scans of 10 male volunteers were analysed with various single- or two-tissue compartment models, with separate compartments for N-dealkylated and N-demethylated metabolites, assuming that either (R)-[(11)C]verapamil alone or (R)-[(11)C]verapamil and any combination of metabolites cross the BBB. In addition, six of the subjects underwent two (R)-[(11)C]verapamil scans to evaluate test-retest reliability. One hour after injection, 50% of total plasma radioactivity consisted of labelled metabolites. Most models fitted the data well and the analysis did not point to a definite 'best' model, with differences in optimal model between subjects. The lowest mean test-retest variability (2.9%) was found for a single-tissue model without any metabolite correction. Models with separate metabolite compartments lead to high test-retest variability. Assuming that differences in kinetics of (R)-[(11)C]verapamil and N-dealkylated metabolites are small, a one input, one-tissue model with correction for N-demethylated metabolites only leads to a good compromise between fit quality and test-retest variability.

  17. Verapamil is Less Effective than Triamcinolone for Prevention of Keloid Scar Recurrence After Excision in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Patricia L; Rea, Suzanne M; Wood, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    A double-blind randomized controlled trial with a paired split-scar design compared verapamil, an L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist, and triamcinolone for prevention of keloid recurrence after excision. Ca2+ channel blocking activity of verapamil in keloid cells was explored. One keloid was excised...... per subject and each wound half randomized to receive intralesional injections of triamcinolone (10 mg/ml) or verapamil (2.5 mg/ml) at monthly intervals (4 doses). Interim analysis was performed after 14 subjects were completed. Survival analysis demonstrated significantly higher keloid recurrence...

  18. Enhancement of absorption and bioavailability of echinacoside by verapamil or clove oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen JY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jin-Yang Shen,1,* Xiao-Lin Yang,2,* Zhong-Lin Yang,1 Jun-Ping Kou,1 Fei Li11State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, 2Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical and Biological Marine Resources Research and Development of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: This present study investigated the absorption kinetics of echinacoside (ECH in situ and in vitro and its oral bioavailability in rats. Additional aim was to find an agent(s to promote ECH absorption and oral bioavailability among two efflux proteins and three absorption promoters.Methods: ECH absorption behaviors were investigated by everted gut sac model in vitro and single-pass intestinal perfusion model in situ. Pharmacokinetics study was performed to investigate the influences of verapamil and clove oil on ECH bioavailability in vivo. All samples were measured at different time intervals by high performance liquid chromatography.Results: The results showed that the effective permeability coefficient (Peff and apparent permeability coefficient of ECH were 0.83×10-6–3.23×10-6 cm/s and 2.99×10-6–9.86×10-6 cm/s, respectively. The Peff among duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were not statistically different, but they were higher than colon (P<0.01, which demonstrated that intestinal ECH absorption was poor and site dependent. Additionally, verapamil and clove oil significantly increased the jejunal Peff of ECH both in situ and in vitro. Moreover, the bioavailability of ECH in combination with verapamil and clove oil were increased by 1.37-fold (P<0.05 and 2.36-fold (P<0.001, respectively, when compared to ECH group. Overall, verapamil and clove oil facilitated ECH absorption and oral bioavailability.Conclusion: The absorption and bioavailability of ECH were enhanced by verapamil and clove oil, respectively, both in vitro and in vivo. Consequently

  19. Development and evaluation of floating microspheres of verapamil hydrochloride Desenvolvimento e avaliação de microesferas flutuantes de cloridrato de verapamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuveraj Singh Tanwar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study involves preparation and evaluation of floating microspheres of verapamil hydrochloride for improving the drug bioavailability by prolongation of gastric residence time. Cellulose acetate, acrycoat S100 and eudragit S100 microspheres loaded with verapamil hydrochloride were prepared by solvent diffusion-evaporation method. The microspheres had smooth surfaces, with free-flowing and good-packing properties. The yield of the microspheres was up to 70.51% and cellulose acetate microspheres entrapped the maximum amount of the drug. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed their hollow structures with sizes in the range 251.80 to 350.75 mm. The prepared microspheres exhibited prolonged drug release and remained buoyant for more than 12 h. Radiographic images of dog stomach revealed that cellulose acetate microspheres loaded with barium sulphate floated on the gastric fluid for about 3.2 h. In vitro release studies demonstrated non-Fickian diffusion of drug from the microspheres.O presente estudo envolve a preparação e a avaliação de microesferas flutuantes de cloridrato de verapamil para o melhoramento da biodisponibilidade do fármaco por meio do prolongamento do tempo de residência gástrica. Prepararam-se, por meio do método de difusão-evaporação de solvente, microesferas de acetato de celulose, acrycoat S100 e eudragit S100 carregadas com cloridrato de verapamil. As microesferas apresentaram superfícies regulares, com propriedades de fluxo livre e de bom empacotamento. O rendimento das microesferas foi superior a 70,51% e as microesferas de acetato de celulose captaram a quantidade máxima do fármaco. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura confirmou as cavidades em suas estruturas, com tamanhos na faixa de 251,80 a 350,75 mm. As microesferas preparadas apresentaram liberação prolongada do fármaco e permaneceram flutuantes por mais que 12 h. Imagens radiográficas do estômago de cão revelaram que as esferas de acetato

  20. Efecto de la ciclosporina A y el verapamil en el pancreas endocrino de ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuris Ledón Naranjo

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Se demostró el efecto tóxico de la ciclosporina A (10 mg/kg sobre las células ß- pancreáticas, al ser suministrada diariamente durante una semana a ratas Wistar, así como la reducción de su toxicidad por tratamiento conjunto de verapamil (1 mg/kg. El tratamiento con ciclosporina A produjo hiperglicemia, disminuyó la tolerancia a la glucosa y los niveles de insulina, lo que ocasionó una reducción del incremento de peso en las ratas. Desde el punto de vista ultraestructural, se observó desorden y destrucción celular. Se concluyó que el tratamiento con ciclosporina A y verapamil simultáneamente evitó los efectos tóxicos de la ciclosporina A.

  1. Interaction of rivaroxaban with amiodarone, verapamil and diltiazem in patients with atrial fibrillation: terra incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Bel'diev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are no generally accepted guidelines for the use of rivaroxaban together with amiodarone, verapamil or diltiazem in patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl<80 ml/min. Some researchers suggest that in renal failure amiodarone, verapamil and diltiazem contribute to a significant increase in plasma concentrations of rivaroxaban that is accompanied by increased risk of bleeding. According to preliminary calculations, it seems rational to reduce the dose of rivaroxaban when co-administered with these drugs: to 15 mg/day in patients with ClCr 50-79 ml/min and to 10 mg/day in patients with ClCr<50 ml/min.

  2. Addition of verapamil in the treatment of severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetti, Paola; Parisi, Pasquale; Spalice, Alberto; Ruggieri, Martino; Zara, Federico

    2009-07-01

    We report on the use of the voltage-gated calcium channel blocker (Vg-CCB), verapamil, as an add-on anticonvulsant medication in two girls, 4 and 14 years of age, who were affected by severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SMEI) or Dravet syndrome, a channelopathy caused by abnormalities in the voltage-gated sodium channel neuronal type alpha1 subunit (SCN1A) gene at 2q24. Both girls had pharmacoresistant epilepsy and developmental delay. Mutation analysis for the SCN1A gene revealed a missense mutation in exon 2 in the 4-year-old girl. Verapamil was co-administered in both children with a prompt response in controlling status epilepticus, myoclonic jerks, and partial and generalized seizures. The therapeutic effect lasted 13 months in the 14-year-old girl, while it is still present after a 20-month follow-up period in the 4-year-old girl who, in addition, has experienced improvement in motor and language development. The verapamil vVg-CCB, which crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB): (a) inhibits the P-glycoprotein, an active efflux transporter protein expressed in normal tissue, including the brain, which is believed to contribute to the in situ phenomenon of multidrug resistance; and (b) may regulate membrane depolarization induced by abnormal sodium channels functions by modulating the abnormal Ca++ influxes into neurons with subsequent cell resting. This is the first report on long-lasting verapamil therapy in SMEI. The functional consequences of such in vivo modulating effects on Ca++ channels could contribute to rational targeting for future molecular therapeutic approaches in pharmacoresistant epileptic channelopathies.

  3. ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFICACY OF VERAPAMIL PLUS INDAPAMIDE IN PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Idrisova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study effect of combination of verapamil retard (Isoptinum SR with indapamide retard (Arifon retard on blood pressure (BP level as well as lipid profile, glucose and electrolytes serum level in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS.Material and methods. 20 women of 35-65 y.o. with MS were examined. The combination of verapamil retard and indapamide retard were prescribed to patients during 24 weeks. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, lipide profile tests, electrolytes and glucose serum level tests were performed in all patients initially and after treatment.Results. Target systolic BP (SBP was achieved in 90% of patients. Target diastolic BP (DBP was achieved in 75% of patients. Drug combination effectively reduced SBP, DBP and pulse BP levels and improved other BP indices. This drug combination did not affect BP profile as well as glucose and electrolytes serum level, lipid profile.Conclusion. High antihypertensive efficacy and metabolic neutrality of verapamil retard and indapamide retard allows to use this combination in patients with MS.

  4. Fast dissolving strips: A novel approach for the delivery of verapamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kunte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fast dissolving drug delivery system offers a solution for those patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules etc. Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker used as an antianginal, antiarrhythmic, and antihypertensive agent with extensive first pass metabolism which results in less bioavailability. This work investigated the possibility of developing verapamil fast dissolving strips allowing fast, reproducible drug dissolution in the oral cavity; thus bypassing first pass metabolism. Materials and methods: The fast dissolving strips were prepared by solvent casting technique with the help of HPMC E6 and maltodextrin. The strips were evaluated for drug content uniformity, film thickness, folding endurance, in vitro disintegration time, in vitro dissolution studies, surface pH study, and palatability study. Results: Official criteria for evaluation parameters were fulfilled by all formulations. Disintegration time showed by formulations was found to be in range of 20.4-28.6 sec. Based on the evaluation parameters, the formulation containing 2% HPMC E6 and 3.5% maltodextrin showed optimum performance against other formulations. Conclusion: It was concluded that the fast dissolving strips of verapamil can be made by solvent casting technique with enhanced dissolution rate, taste masking, and hence better patient compliance and effective therapy

  5. Inhibition of experimental diabetic cataract by topical administration of RS-verapamil hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, A; Daxer, A; Göttinger, W; Schmid, E

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the efficacy of verapamil eye drops for inhibition of diabetic cataract in rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced in 69 male Sprague-Dawley rats by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg body weight). One group (DV) of animals was treated by instillation of one drop of 0.2% RS-verapamil hydrochloride in both eyes three times daily for 8 weeks. The placebo treated group (D) received the vehicle solution only. After 8 weeks the lenses were removed, inspected, and photographed using bright and dark field illumination. The transmission of He-Ne laser light was measured in the optical axis of each lens in order to determine the turbidity coefficient (t) as a measure of central lens opacity. Following digital image analysis, the integrated density as a measure of central and mid-peripheral opacities was determined. Results: Lenses of both groups developed peripheral cortical opacities not affecting the optical axis. Advanced and paracentral cortical opacities were present in 10 (16.7%) of the placebo treated lenses (D) and two (3.8%) of the verapamil treated lenses (DV). Complete corticonuclear cataract developed in four (6.7%) of the lenses from group D but none of the lenses from group DV. The mean lens turbidity t was determined to be 0.019 (SEM 0.002) mm−1 (n  =  52) in the verapamil treated diabetic rats (DV) and 0.042 (0.008) mm−1 (n  =  60) in the placebo treated group (D). This difference was statistically significant (p  =  0.0054). The mean integrated density was 274.91 (22.5) in group D (n  =  60) and 196.28 (20.7) in group DV (n  =  37). This difference was also significant (p  =  0.0037). Conclusion: Verapamil eye drops 0.2% administered three times daily are effective in inhibiting the progression of lens opacities in streptozotocin diabetic rats. PMID:14693771

  6. Resistance of human glioma to adriamycin in vitro: the role of membrane transport and its circumvention with verapamil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, S; Fetherston, C A; Kaye, S B; Freshney, R I; Plumb, J A

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of resistance to adriamycin (ADR) of 3 human glioma cell lines in culture. The cell lines had different inherent sensitivities to ADR. Verapamil increased the ADR sensitivities of the 2 most resistant cell lines (G-UVW and G-CCM) by up to 5-fold. This effect was not seen in a sensitive cell line (G-MCF). Although the accumulation of ADR in the 3 cell lines was not related to inherent sensitivity, energy deprivation or the addition of verapamil produced an increase (up to 46%) in net uptake for both G-UVW and G-CCM, but not for G-MCF. For G-UVW the ADR efflux data were consistent with an energy-dependent ADR efflux mechanism which could be inhibited by verapamil. A similar mechanism was not found for G-CCM. In this cell line verapamil may act by increasing intracellular ADR binding. These data indicate that, while inherent resistance to ADR may be multifactorial, one possible mechanism of resistance in human glioma may involve changes in drug accumulation and/or binding as has been seen in animals models. A potential clinical role for verapamil in overcoming drug resistance in human solid tumours is also indicated.

  7. Effect of verapamil on myocardial ischemia in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Evaluation by exercise thallium-201 SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Yoko; Sugihara, Hiroki; Ohtsuki, Katsuichi (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)) (and others)

    The effect of verapamil myocardial ischemia in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was evaluated exercise myocardial [sup 201]TlSPECT (EX-Tl). EX-Tl was performed before and after 8.1[+-]6.1 weeks of oral administration of verapamil (240 mg/day) on 20 patients with HCM who showed transient [sup 201]Tl perfusion defects under control conditions. SPECT images were divided into nine segments. The [sup 201]Tl perfusion defect was visually scored and evaluated for four grades in each segment and the sum total grade was calculated as the defect score. Transient dilation index was calculated as a reflection of subendocardial ischemia. Improvements in defect score were demonstrated in 18 of 20 patients after administration of verapamil. The mean defect score decreased significantly from 5.1[+-]2.3 to 2.5[+-]2.4 (p<0.001). Although 18 of 20 patients showed abnormal transient dilation index under control conditions, 16 showed improvement and 12 were normalized after verapamil therapy. Mean transient dilation index decreased from 1.24[+-]0.19 to 1.08[+-]0.10 (p<0.01). Verapamil improves myocardial ischemia on patients with HCM. (author).

  8. Effect of verapamil on myocardial ischemia in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Evaluation by exercise [sup 201]Tl SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Yoko; Sugihara, Hiroki; Ootsuki, Katsuichi (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)) (and others)

    1993-01-01

    Effect of verapamil on myocardial ischemia in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was evaluated by exercise stress myocardial [sup 201]Tl SPECT (EX-Tl). EX-Tl was performed before and after 8.8 weeks of oral verapamil (240 mg/day) in 12 patients with HCM who showed transient [sup 201]Tl perfusion defects under control conditions. [sup 201]Tl perfusion defect was visually scored and judged for 4 grades as normal (0), mild defect (1), moderate defect (2), and severe defect (3). Transient dilation index (TDI) was calculated as an index of subendocardial ischemia. Improvements of defect score were demonstrated in 10 patients after administration of verapamil. Two patients showed no change of defect score. Mean defect score decreased significantly from 5.50 to 3.03 (p<0.001). Although 11 of 12 patients showed abnormal TDI under control conditions, 10 of these revealed improvements of TDI and 7 of the 10 disclosed normal TDI after verapamil. Mean TDI decreased from 1.263 to 1.090 significantly (p<0.01). In conclusion, verapamil may improve myocardial ischemia in patients with HCM. (author).

  9. Bodipy-FL-Verapamil: A Fluorescent Probe for the Study of Multidrug Resistance Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosati

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the substances used as fluorescent probes to study drug transport and the effect of efflux blockers in multidrug resistant cells have many drawbacks, such as toxicity, unspecific background, accumulation in mitochondria. New fluorescent compounds, among which Bodipy‐FL‐verapamil (BV, have been therefore proposed as more useful tools. The uptake of BV has been evaluated by cytofluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy using cell lines that overexpress P‐glycoprotein (P388/ADR and LLC‐PK1/ADR or MRP (multidrug resistance‐related protein (PANC‐1 and clinical specimens from patients. The effect of specific inhibitors for P‐glycoprotein (verapamil and vinblastine or MRP (MK571 and probenecid has been also studied. BV intracellular concentrations were significantly lower in the two P‐glycoprotein overexpressing cell lines in comparison with the parental lines. In addition, verapamil and vinblastine increased the intracellular concentrations of the dye; MK571 and probenecid, two MRP inhibitors, increased BV levels in PANC‐1 cells, that express this protein. These findings were confirmed in clinical specimens from patients. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a faint fluorescence emission in P‐glycoprotein or MRP expressing cell lines; however, treatment with specific inhibitors significantly increased the fluorescence. BV is a useful tool for studying multidrug resistance proteins with different techniques such as cytofluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy, but does not discriminate between P‐glycoprotein and MRP. In comparison with other classic fluorescent probes, the assay with this dye is extremely rapid, simple, not toxic for cells, devoid of fluorescent background, and can be useful in the clinical settings.

  10. Mensuration of cardioangiopulmonary indices by radiocardiogram before and after the verapamil oral administration in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, P.F.; Hueb, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were studied. The diagnosis was obtained from the history, clinical evaluation, pulmonary radiography, pulmonary and hepatic scintigraphies and spirometry. About 360 mg of verapamil was administered daily, every eight hours for ten days. Before and after drug administration, the arterial pressures, the spirometric measurements and nine cardiac roentgenographic indexes were measured. Vital capacity increased in all cases, but did not reach the normal levels. These data suggest that the effect of verapamil on the pulmonary circulation brought benefits to the subjects. This occurred either by direct pulmonary vasodilation, or by bronchodilation, reducing hypoxia. In all cases, the pulmonary resistance was diminished. Finally, verapamil seems to be a drug with real benefits in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and we advise a continuation of the studies. (author)

  11. DIGOXINA E VERAPAMIL INDUZEM HIPERTROFIA EM CARDIOMIÓCITOS DE RATOS SEDENTÁRIOS E/OU TREINADOS

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Claodete Hasselstrom; Aguiar, Andreo Fernando; Aguiar, Danilo Henrique; Leopoldo, André Soares; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo; Lourenço, Fabio José; Sugizaki, Mario Mateus

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO Introdução: Cardiotônicos e bloqueadores de canais de cálcio são fármacos que alteram o Ca2+ intracelular e afetam o coração. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da administração de verapamil e digoxina sobre a morfologia cardíaca de ratos submetidos ao treinamento intervalado (TAI). Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos divididos em seis grupos (N = 8): Controle, Digoxina (30,0 µg.kg-1/dia), Verapamil (5,0 mg.kg-1/dia), Treinado, Treinado+digoxina e Treinado+verapamil. O TAI foi realizado em estei...

  12. Evaluation of intralesional injection of hyaluronic acid compared with verapamil in Peyronie's disease: preliminary results from a prospective, double-blinded, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favilla, V; Russo, G I; Zucchi, A; Siracusa, G; Privitera, S; Cimino, S; Madonia, M; Cai, T; Cavallini, G; Liguori, G; D'Achille, G; Silvani, M; Franco, G; Verze, P; Palmieri, A; Torrisi, B; Mirone, V; Morgia, G

    2017-07-01

    Several intralesional therapeutic protocols have been proposed for the treatment of Peyronie's disease. Among all, hyaluronic acid (HA) and verapamil have been differently tested. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intralesional verapamil (ILVI) compared with intralesional HA in patients with early onset of Peyronie's disease (PD). This is a multi-centre prospective double-arm, randomized, double-blinded study comparing ILVI vs. intralesional HA after 12-weeks. Sexually active men, older than 18 years and affected by the acute phase of PD were eligible for this study. Patients have been double-blinded randomly divided into two groups (1 : 1 ratio): Group A received intralesional treatment with Verapamil (10 mg in 5 mL of normal saline water) weekly for 12 weeks, while group B received intralesional treatment with HA (0.8% highly purified sodium salt HA 16 mg/2 mL) weekly for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was the change from the baseline to the endpoint (12 weeks after therapy) for the penile curvature (degree). The secondary outcome was the change in the plaque size and in the International Index of erectile Function (IIEF-5) score. The difference between post- and pre-treatment plaque size was -1.36 mm (SD ± 1.27) for Group A and -1.80 mm (SD ± 2.47) for Group B (p-value = NS). IIEF-5 increased of 1.46 points (SD ± 2.18) in Group A and 1.78 (SD ± 2.48) in Group B (p-value ± NS). No difference in penile curvature was observed in Group A, while in Group B the penile curvature decreased of 4.60° (SD ± 5.63) from the baseline (p < 0.001) and vs. Group A. According to PGI-I results, we found significant difference as concerning patient global impression of improvement (PGI-I) (4.0 vs. 2.0; p < 0.05). This prospective, double-arm, randomized, double-blinded study comparing ILVI vs. HA as intralesional therapy showed greater efficacy of HA in terms of penile curvature and PGI-I. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and

  13. Circumvention of pleiotropic drug resistance in subcutaneous tumours in vivo with verapamil and clomipramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, S; Hamilton, T G; Flanigan, P; Freshney, R I; Kaye, S B

    1991-01-01

    The development of pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) in vivo in solid tumour models suggests that a similar process may occur in the clinic. A subline of the Ridgway osteogenic sarcoma (ROS)--a murine subcutaneously-growing solid tumour--with moderate resistance (1.5 fold) to actinomycin D was selected by repeated suboptimal treatment with this drug in vivo. This subline (ROS/ADX/G2) showed cross-resistance to vincristine (3.5 fold) and etoposide (over 5.1 fold) but not to doxorubicin. The resistance could in all cases be partly or completely overcome by treatment with non-cytotoxic doses of verapamil or clomipramine. Resistance to actinomycin in this model was associated with lower (up to 3.2 fold) drug accumulation into tumours which could be increased (up to 2.8 fold) by treatment with 25 micrograms/g verapamil. These data support clinical trials of the use of membrane-active agents to overcome PDR.

  14. Analgesia Synergism of Essential Oil from Pericarp of Zanthoxylum schinifolium and Verapamil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gao; Wu, Hanbin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the synergistic analgesic effect of essential oil of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb. et Zucc. (EOZ) and verapamil (Ver). Method. The qualitative and quantitative composition of EOZ were determined with gas chromatography/Mass spectrometer. The interaction between EOZ and Ver in antinociceptive activity was evaluated by using acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate, and tail flick tests in mice and in isolated toad sciatic nerve test. Results. Linalool, limonene, and sabinene are the major components of EOZ. EOZ (middle-dose: 40 mg·kg−1, high-dose: 80 mg·kg−1) and EOZ + Ver (Each dose group) have remarkable analgesic effects on pain in mice induced by acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate, and tail flick tests. Low-dose EOZ (20 mg·kg−1) had no analgesic action, but when it is combined with Ver it has shown significant antinociception. Verapamil has a faint analgesic effect but was not able to inhibit action potential transmission in toad sciatic nerve. EOZ (0.2%) and EOZ + Ver (0.2% + 0.05%) also inhibited action potential transmission in toad sciatic nerve. Combination of EOZ with Ver had a greater analgesic effect and inhibition of nerve action potential transmission compared to its components EOZ and Ver. Conclusion. The combination of EOZ with Ver produces a synergistic analgesic effect. PMID:25114705

  15. Structured Self-Rated Response to Iontophoresis with Verapamil and Dexamethasone in Peyronie’s Disease

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    Abas Kokab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. New therapies evolve for the treatment of Peyronie's disease (PD including the application of dexamethasone and verapamil using Electro Motive Drug Administration (EMDA. Patients and Methods. Patients with PD were routinely offered Potaba, Vitamin E, tamoxifen or colchicine for 6 to 18 months and for those with no improvement, 18 applications of dexamethasone and verapamil using EMDA occurred over a 6 week period. All 30 patients receiving EMDA therapy completed a questionnaire before and after treatment. The data was collected from December 2004 to November 2009 and analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. Results. Median age of patients was 59 (range 39–71. Curvature was the most common presenting complaint (73.3% followed by pain (23.3%, erectile dysfunction (13.3%, and lump (13.3%. 24/30 (80% reported an improvement in symptoms after EMDA. 16 of the responders (66.7% had a stable plaque for at least 6 months. The patients who complained of shortening of the penis (P=0.003 or lowered sexual desire (P=0.024 expressed subsequently significant response to treatment. There was statistically significant (P=0.019 improvement of penile deviation reported by responding men. Conclusion. A significant proportion of patients who received EMDA reported decreased curvature following iontophoresis. No serious adverse reactions developed.

  16. Analgesia Synergism of Essential Oil from Pericarp of Zanthoxylum schinifolium and Verapamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the synergistic analgesic effect of essential oil of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb. et Zucc. (EOZ and verapamil (Ver. Method. The qualitative and quantitative composition of EOZ were determined with gas chromatography/Mass spectrometer. The interaction between EOZ and Ver in antinociceptive activity was evaluated by using acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate, and tail flick tests in mice and in isolated toad sciatic nerve test. Results. Linalool, limonene, and sabinene are the major components of EOZ. EOZ (middle-dose: 40 mg·kg−1, high-dose: 80 mg·kg−1 and EOZ + Ver (Each dose group have remarkable analgesic effects on pain in mice induced by acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate, and tail flick tests. Low-dose EOZ (20 mg·kg−1 had no analgesic action, but when it is combined with Ver it has shown significant antinociception. Verapamil has a faint analgesic effect but was not able to inhibit action potential transmission in toad sciatic nerve. EOZ (0.2% and EOZ + Ver (0.2% + 0.05% also inhibited action potential transmission in toad sciatic nerve. Combination of EOZ with Ver had a greater analgesic effect and inhibition of nerve action potential transmission compared to its components EOZ and Ver. Conclusion. The combination of EOZ with Ver produces a synergistic analgesic effect.

  17. Verapamil inhibits L-type calcium channel mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Antoni; Liu, Qing; Wang, Yusheng; Melander, Arne; Jeppsson, Bengt; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2008-11-01

    Treatment with calcium channel blockers have been associated with increased colon cancer mortality in epidemiologic studies. We examined the potential expression and function of calcium channels in two human colon cancer cell lines. Both primary (collected at operation) and commercially-available human colon cancer cell lines were used. The colon cancer cells were incubated with a calcium channel blocker (verapamil) and a calcium channel agonist (BayK 8644) at clinically relevant concentrations. L-type calcium channel mRNA was determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Intracellular calcium ion levels were measured with fluorometry and apoptosis with flow cytometry. Both types of cells expressed L-type calcium channel mRNA, comprising an alpha-1D and a beta-3 subunit, whereas the cells were negative for N-type and P-type channels. The selective calcium channel agonist (BayK 8644), dose-dependently increased intracellular calcium ion levels and the level of apoptosis in primary human colon cancer cells. Pretreatment with verapamil completely abolished both calcium channel agonist-induced influx of calcium and apoptosis in these cells. These data demonstrate that human colon cancer cells express L-type calcium channels that mediate calcium influx and apoptosis, which warrants further studies to determine whether calcium channel blockers may promote colon cancer growth.

  18. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steinbach, C.; Fedorova, G.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Grabicová, K.; Máchová, J.; Grabic, R.; Valentová, O.; Kocour Kroupová, H.

    461-462, 461-462 (2013), s. 198-206 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bioconcentration * Embryo-larval test * Half-life time * Heart rate * Verapamil Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 3.163, year: 2013

  19. A Report of Brugada Syndrome Presenting with Cardiac Arrest Triggered by Verapamil Intoxication

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    Kahraman Yakut

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brugada syndrome is a disease characterized by a specific electrocardiographic pattern and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. We present this case with the updated literature to emphasise the need to consider the diagnosis of Brugada syndrome in patients admitted to the emergency ward with sudden cardiac arrest. Case Report: A 16-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency ward with complaints of weakness and abdominal pain, and she had four cardiac arrests during her evaluation period. She was referred to our clinic for permanent pacemaker implantation. She was on a temporary pace maker after having had C-reactive protein. Her physical exam was normal except for bilaterally decreased lung sounds. Lung x-ray and computed tomography, which were performed by another institution, revealed minimal pleural effusion and nothing else of significance. Blood and peritoneal fluid samples were sterile. Echocardiographic exam and cardiac enzymes were also in the normal ranges. Electrocardiographic showed incomplete right branch block in leads V1 and V2. An ajmaline test revealed specific electrocardiographic findings of the type I Brugada pattern. We proposed implanting an implantable cardioverter defibrillator to the patient as there were positive findings on the ajmaline test as well as a history of sudden cardiac arrest. After this treatment proposal, the patient’s family admitted that she had taken a high dose of verapamil and thus, the encountered bradycardia was associated with verapamil overuse. The ajmaline test was repeated as it was contemplated that the previous positive ajmaline test had been associated with verapamil overuse. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation was proposed again as there was a history of sudden cardiac arrest; however, the family did not consent to implantable cardioverter defibrillator, and the patient was discharged and followed up. Conclusion: Brugada syndrome should be

  20. Verapamil eliminates the hierarchical nature of activation frequencies from the pulmonary veins to the atria during paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushiyama, Yasunori; Osaka, Toshiyuki; Yokoyama, Eriko; Hasebe, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Yusuke; Kamiya, Kaichiro; Kodama, Itsuo

    2010-05-01

    There is evidence that verapamil promotes the persistence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). Little is known about the underlying mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of verapamil on dominant frequencies (DFs) in the pulmonary veins (PVs) and atria during paroxysmal AF with reference to its potential arrhythmogenicity. Forty-three patients with paroxysmal AF were studied. Bipolar electrograms were recorded simultaneously during AF from the right atrial free wall (RAFW), coronary sinus (CS) and three PVs, or two PVs and the left atrial appendage (LAA). The DFs were obtained by fast Fourier transform analysis before and after infusion of verapamil (0.1 mg/kg, intravenously). At baseline, the maximum DF among the PVs (6.9 +/- 0.9 Hz) was significantly higher than the DF in the RAFW (6.2 +/- 0.7 Hz), CS (5.7 +/- 0.5 Hz), or LAA (5.9 +/- 0.7 Hz) (Patrial DF gradient (RAFW 0.7 +/- 0.9, CS 1.1 +/- 0.7, LAA 0.7 +/- 0.9 Hz). Verapamil increased the atrial DF to 6.9 +/- 0.8, 6.6 +/- 0.7, and 7.2 +/- 1.0 Hz in the RAFW, CS, and LAA, respectively (Patrial DF gradient was eliminated after verapamil (RAFW 0.2 +/- 0.8, CS 0.5 +/- 0.6, LAA -0.4 +/- 0.8 Hz; Patrial DF gradient during paroxysmal AF. Copyright 2010 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Verapamil enhances acute stress or glucocorticoid-induced deficits in retrieval of long-term memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Taherian, Abbas Ali; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Sadeghi, Hassan; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza

    2009-10-12

    This study was designed to investigate an interaction between acute restraint stress and corticosterone with verapamil, a blocker of L-type voltage-dependent calcium (VDC) channels on retrieval of long-term memory. Young adult male rats were trained in one trial inhibitory avoidance task (0.5 mA, 3 s footshock). On retention test given 48 h after training, the latency to re-enter dark compartment of the apparatus was recorded. In Experiment 1, verapamil pretreatment (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) enhanced the impairing effects of acute stress (which was applied for 10 min in a Plexiglass tube 30 min before the retention test) on memory retrieval. The applied stress increased circulating corticosterone levels as assessed immediately after the retention test, indicating that stress-induced impairment of memory retrieval is mediated, in part, by increased plasma levels of glucocorticoids. Verapamil did not change this response. In Experiment 2, pretreatment of an intermediate dose of verapamil also enhanced corticosterone-induced impairment of memory retrieval. In Experiments 3 and 4, acute stress or corticosterone did not change motor activity with or without prior treatment of verapamil, suggesting that stress or glucocorticoid-induced impairment of memory retrieval is not due to any gross disturbances in motor performance of animals. These findings indicate that blockade of L-type VDC channels enhances stress or glucocorticoid-induced impairment of memory retrieval, and provide evidence for the existence of an interaction between glucocorticoids and L-type VDC channels on memory retrieval.

  2. DIGOXINA E VERAPAMIL INDUZEM HIPERTROFIA EM CARDIOMIÓCITOS DE RATOS SEDENTÁRIOS E/OU TREINADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claodete Hasselstrom Neves

    Full Text Available RESUMO Introdução: Cardiotônicos e bloqueadores de canais de cálcio são fármacos que alteram o Ca2+ intracelular e afetam o coração. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da administração de verapamil e digoxina sobre a morfologia cardíaca de ratos submetidos ao treinamento intervalado (TAI. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos divididos em seis grupos (N = 8: Controle, Digoxina (30,0 µg.kg-1/dia, Verapamil (5,0 mg.kg-1/dia, Treinado, Treinado+digoxina e Treinado+verapamil. O TAI foi realizado em esteira rolante (60 min/dia/60 dias concomitantemente com a administração dos fármacos. Fragmentos do ventrículo esquerdo (VE foram coletados para análise histológica. Resultados: A digoxina e o verapamil aumentaram a área total do VE (p < 0,002, capilares/área VE (p < 0,01 e área de cardiomiócitos (p < 2,8e-10, sendo que, nesta última variável, o verapamil promoveu efeito ainda maior que a digoxina. O TAI aumentou VE/PC (p < 4e-05, o diâmetro interno do VE (p < 2,7e-6, a área de cardiomiócitos (p < 1,8e-6 e reduziu o [Lac] (p < 2,6e-5. Houve interação entre TAI e fármacos na área total (p < 9,8e-5, capilares (p < 0,04, células/área (p < 0,004 e área de cardiomiócitos (p < 2e-16. Conclusão: A digoxina promoveu hipertrofia de cardiomiócitos e, quando associada ao TAI, potencializou a hipertrofia. O verapamil foi mais eficiente em aumentar a área de cardiomiócitos em comparação com a digoxina, porém somente de forma isolada.

  3. Determination of doxazosin and verapamil in human serum by fast LC-MS/MS: Application to document non-compliance of patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chytil, L.; Štrauch, B.; Cvačka, Josef; Marešová, V.; Widimský jr., J.; Holaj, R.; Slanař, O.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 878, č. 30 (2010), s. 3167-3173 ISSN 1570-0232 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : doxazosin * verapamil * hypertension Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.971, year: 2010

  4. Statistical parametric mapping for effects of verapamil on olfactory connections of rat brain in vivo using manganese-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, Tsutomu; Kurakawa, Masami; Koto, Daichi

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of verapamil on the transport of manganese in the olfactory connections of rat brains in vivo using statistical parametric mapping and manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We divided 12 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats into 2 groups of six and injected 10 μL of saline into the right nasal cavities of the first group and 10 μL of verapamil (2.5 mg/mL) into the other group. Twenty minutes after the initial injection, we injected 10 μL of MnCl 2 (1 mol/L) into the right nasal cavities of both groups. We obtained serial T 1 -weighted MR images before administering the verapamil or saline and at 0.5, one, 24, 48, and 72 hours and 7 days after administering the MnCl 2 , spatially normalized the MR images on the rat brain atlas, and analyzed the data using voxel-based statistical comparison. Statistical parametric maps demonstrated the transport of manganese. Manganese ions created significant enhancement (t-score=36.6) 24 hours after MnCl 2 administration in the group administered saline but not at the same time point in the group receiving verapamil. The extent of significantly enhanced regions peaked at 72 hours in both groups and both sides of the brain. The peak of extent in the right side brain in the group injected with saline was 70.2 mm 3 and in the group with verapamil, 92.4 mm 3 . The extents in the left side were 64.0 mm 3 for the group with saline and 53.2 mm 3 for the group with verapamil. We applied statistical parametric mapping using manganese-enhanced MR imaging to demonstrate in vivo the transport of manganese in the olfactory connections of rat brains with and without verapamil and found that verapamil did affect this transport. (author)

  5. Treatment of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy symptoms and gradient resistant to first-line therapy with β-blockade or verapamil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrid, Mark V; Shetty, Aneesha; Winson, Glenda; Kim, Bette; Musat, Dan; Alviar, Carlos L; Homel, Peter; Balaram, Sandhya K; Swistel, Daniel G

    2013-07-01

    There is controversy about preferred methods to relieve obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients still symptomatic after β-blockade or verapamil. Of 737 patients prospectively registered at our institution, 299 (41%) required further therapy for obstruction for limiting symptoms, rest gradient 61 ± 45, provoked gradient 115 ± 49 mm Hg, and followed up for 4.8 years. Disopyramide was added in 221 (74%) patients and pharmacological control of symptoms was achieved in 141 (64%) patients. Overall, 138 (46%) patients had surgical relief of obstruction (91% myectomy) and 6 (2%) alcohol septal ablation. At follow-up, resting gradients in the 299 patients had decreased from 61 ± 44 to 10 ± 25 mm Hg (Psymptoms resistant to initial pharmacological therapy with β-blockade or verapamil may realize meaningful symptom relief and low mortality through stepped management, adding disopyramide in appropriately selected patients, and when needed, by surgical myectomy.

  6. Attenuation of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptotic process by verapamil and diltiazem against quinolinic acid induced Huntington like alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonia, Harikesh; Kumar, Puneet; Kumar, Anil

    2011-02-04

    Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative disease with complex pathophysiology. Recently, role of neuroinflammation and interplay between various other cellular cascades have been suggested to be involved in pathophysiology of Huntington disease. Involvement of calcium overload mediated oxidative damage and excitotoxicity have been suggested to play a central role in quinolinic acid induced Huntington like symptoms. The present study has been carried out to investigate the neuroprotective effect of calcium channel blockers (verapamil and diltiazem) against quinolinic acid induced dysfunction in motor, biochemical and neuroinflammatory signaling in rats. Intrastriatal quinolinic acid administration leads to significant motor [locomotor (72% reduction), rotarod (55% reduction), balance beam walk performance] dysfunction coupled with the marked oxidative damage and increased neuroinflammatory markers [TNF-α (140%), IL-6 (115%), caspase-3(75%)] levels in striatum as compared to the sham treatment. Verapamil (10 and 20mg/kg), diltiazem (10 and 20mg/kg) drug treatment for 21days resulted in a significant improvement in the motor function (improvement in locomotor activity, rotarod and balance beam walk performance). Further, verapamil (10 and 20mg/kg), diltiazem (10 and 20mg/kg) treatment significantly attenuated oxidative damage, level of proinflammatory mediators (TNF-α IL-6 and caspase-3) in quinolinic acid treated animals. Results of the present study demonstrate that protective effect of these calcium channel blockers (verapamil, diltiazem) might be due to their inhibitory action on different neuroinflammatory pathways against quinolinic acid induced Huntington disease like symptoms in rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurotoxic effects, molecular responses and oxidative stress biomarkers in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to verapamil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajima, Malachy N O; Pandey, Pramod K; Kumar, Kundan; Poojary, Nalini

    2017-06-01

    Pharmaceutical drugs and their metabolites are detected in aquatic ecosystems and have been reported to cause ecotoxicological consequences to resident aquatic organisms. The study investigated the effects of acute and long-term exposure to verapamil on activities of acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant enzymes as well as mRNA expression of stress-related genes in brain and muscle tissues of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The 96h LC 50 of verapamil to O. niloticus was 2.29mgL -1 . Exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of verapamil (0.14, 0.29 and 0.57mgL -1 ) for period of 15, 30, 45 and 60days, led to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activities in the brain and muscle of the fish. The activities of the oxidative enzymes such as the catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were also inhibited in both the tissues while there was an increase in the activities of glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione in the muscle after 15 days at 0.29mgL -1 . Lipid peroxidation and carbonyl protein showed elevated level, indicating a positive correlation with both time and concentration. The activities of energy-related biomarker (Na + -K + -ATPase) in both the tissues were significantly inhibited (pproteins 70 (hsp70) were up-regulated in both the tissues after the study period. Prolonged exposure to sub-lethal verapamil can result in oxidative stress, up-regulation of stress-related genes and neurotoxicity in O. niloticus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and evaluation of controlled-release buccoadhesive verapamil hydrochloride tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emami J.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Verapamil hydrochloride is a calcium channel blocker which is used in the control of supraventricular arrhythmia, hypertension and myocardial infraction. There are considerable inter-individual variations in serum concencentration of verpamil due to variation in the extent of hepatic metabolism. In this study controlled-release buccoadhesive tablets of verapamil hydrochloride (VPH were prepared in order to achieve constant plasma concentrations, to improve the bioavailability by the avoidance of hepatic first-pass metabolism, and to prevent frequent administration. Materials and methods: Tablets containing fixed amount of VPH were prepared by direct compression method using polymers like carbomer (CP, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC in various combination and ratios and evaluated for thickness, weight variation, hardness, drug content uniformity, swelling, mucoadhesive strength, drug release and possible interaction between ingredients. Results: All tablets were acceptable with regard to thickness, weight variation, hardness, and drug content. The maximum bioadhesive strength was observed in tablets formulated with a combination of CP-NaCMC followed by CP-HPMC and NaCMC-HPMC.  Decreasing the content of CP in CP-HPMC tablets or NaCMC in CP-NaCMC or NaCMC-HPMC systems resulted in decrease in detachment forces. Lower release rates were observed by lowering the content of CP in CP-HPMC containing formulations or NaCMC in tablets which contained CP-NaCMC or NaCMC-HPMC. The release behavior was non-Fickian controlled by a combination of diffusion and chain relaxation mechanisms and best fitted zero-order kinetics. Conclusion: The buccoadhesive VPH tablets containing 53% CP and 13.3% HPMC showed suitable release kinetics (n = 0.78, K0 zero order release = 4.11 mg/h, MDT = 5.66 h and adhesive properties and did not show any interaction between polymers and drug based on

  9. Effects of oral enalapril and verapamil on dialysis adequacy and solute clearance in chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Atabak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal dialysis offers several advantages such as better clearance of intermediate/large molecules and better preservation of renal residual function when compared with hemodialysis. However, dialysis adequacy is one of the subjects of concern of this modality. There are some drugs that are capable of influencing solute transport in the peritoneum, such as acetyle co-enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I medications and calcium channel blockers. Captopril and Verapamil are often mentioned, but their use has shown varying conclusions and initial studies were performed with the intra-peritoneal administration of these drugs and there are only a few studies on the effect of the oral administration of these drugs. This study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the effects of oral administration of Verapamil and Enalapril among continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients. The results of this study showed that Verapamil and Enalapril do not have any effects on glucose, creatinine, sodium, potassium and urea clearance (during the 4-h peritoneal equilibration test (PET test. However, it was shown that Enalapril significantly increased the peritoneal urea Kt/V and caused a meaningful decrease in the diastolic and mean blood pressures. Therefore, we feel that Enalapril may be administered as an anti-hypertensive medication of choice in CAPD patients, which can also result in better dialysis adequacy. However, further studies with larger sample sizes are needed in the future.

  10. Uso do Verapamil em Gestantes Hipertensas Crônicas: análise do Fluxo das Artérias Uterinas e Umbilical Use of Verapamil in Chronic Hypertensive Pregnant Women: flow Analysis of Uterine Arteries and Umbilical Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Jose do Amaral Vasconcellos

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: este trabalho, utilizando verapamil, um bloqueador dos canais lentos de cálcio, constituiu ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego e placebo controlado, e objetivou procurar variação do fluxo uteroplacentário e fetoplacentário durante uso oral crônico do fármaco em gestantes com hipertensão crônica leve para moderada. Métodos: 123 pacientes divididas em dois grupos: grupo estudo (n = 61, submetidas a 240 mg/dia de verapamil, e grupo controle (n = 62, submetidas ao placebo. As pacientes randomizadas em grupos de quatro utilizaram a medicação ou placebo durante trinta dias. Um exame do fluxo das artérias uterinas e da artéria umbilical pela dopplervelocimetria foi registrado. Pelo cálculo da média e desvio padrão, foram comparados os valores dos índices de resistência (IR e pulsatilidade (IP e da relação sístole/diástole (A/B das artérias em estudo após administração dos comprimidos. Resultados: o grupo verapamil apresentou os seguintes valores médios para as artérias uterinas: IR = 0,82 (0,28, IP de 1,06 (0,12 e A/B de 2,42 (0,51. O grupo placebo mostrou: IR de 0,75 (0,35, IP de 1,00 (0,18 e A/B de 2,30 (0,38. Quando analisada a artéria umbilical, os valores foram para o grupo verapamil: IR = 0,73 (0,12, IP = 1,04 (0,13 e A/B = 2,94 (0,32. No grupo placebo, IR = 0,70 (0,14, IP = 1,03 (0,07 e A/B = 3,02 (0,78. A análise estatística das diferenças das médias por meio da razão F mostrou não haver diferença entre os dois grupos avaliados. Conclusão: este trabalho referenda o uso do verapamil entre gestantes com hipertensão crônica (leve para moderada, pois não oferece prejuízos no fluxo uteroplacentário e fetoplacentário.Purpose: this study, using verapamil, a slow calcium channel blocker, was a randomized, clinical, double blind and placebo controlled trial, whose objective was to observe if there was a uteroplacental and fetoplacental flow variation during its chronic oral use. Methods: 123

  11. Concomitant protective and therapeutic role of verapamil in chronic mercury induced nephrotoxicity in the adult rat: histological, morphometric and ultrastructural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Nabila Yousef Abdel; El-Aasar, Hoda Mahmoud; Sabry, Sherif Mohamed; El-Zainy, Ahmed Wafiq

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mercury intoxication is a widespread problem as mercury is used in the manufacture of thermometers, batteries and electrical switches. It forms one of the most diffusible environmental pollutants. Mercury has a nephrotoxic effect which could occur at low exposure levels. Verapamil could help in the treatment of mercuric toxicity. The aim of the study was to examine the protective and therapeutic effect of concomitant verapamil on chronic mercuric chloride nephrotoxicity. This was done through histological, morphometric and transmission electron microscopic studies. Material and methods Sixty adult male albino rats were used. The rats were divided into a control group and 4 experimental groups: group I (HgCl2), group II (concomitant HgCl2 and verapamil), group III (HgCl2 withdrawal) and group IV (HgCl2 withdrawal then verapamil treatment). Results Chronic administration of HgCl2 resulted in cortical nephrotoxic effects in the form of glomerular sclerosis, acute tubular necrosis and interstitial inflammatory cellular infiltration which eventually ended in interstitial fibrosis. Concomitant use of verapamil with HgCl2 improved the previous pathological changes partially. The findings in group III were less severe compared to group IV. The persistence of the pathological findings in these groups reflects the irreversible nephrotoxic changes caused by chronic HgCl2 exposure. Conclusions We concluded that the concomitant administration of verapamil has a much better effect in minimizing the nephrotoxic effect caused by chronic HgCl2 than its therapeutic administration. So, we recommended the prophylactic use of verapamil in suspected cases of chronic mercuric chloride nephrotoxicity to preserve renal function. PMID:25861308

  12. [Quality of conventional release verapamil prescription in patients with arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Alba, J E; Giraldo-Giraldo, C; Machado-Duque, M E

    2015-01-01

    To identify patients who were being treated for hypertension with conventional release verapamil (CRV), and to notify the professional responsible for their health care on cardiovascular risk to which they are exposed and achieve a reduction in the number of patients who are treated with this drug. A quasi-experimental prospective before and after study without a control group was conducted on 7289 patients diagnosed with hypertension who were on treatment with CRV, between October 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012 in 8 Colombian cities, collected from a database for dispensing medicines. Socio-demographic and pharmacological variables were evaluated. A total of 108 educational interventions were performed on those responsible for their health care, and evaluated within three months with the proportion of suspension of the prescriptions of CRV being evaluated. Multivariate analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0. The mean age of patients was 67.9±11.8 years (range: 26-96 years), of which 70.6% were men. Withdrawal of treatment with CRV was achieved in a total of 1922 patients (26.3% of users), distributed as follows: 1160 (60.4%) were the presentation of 120mg, while 762 (39.6%) the 80mg. The variable being treated in the city of Medellin (OR: 17.6; 95% CI: 11.949 to 25.924; P<.01) was statistically significantly associated with the replacement of CRV for another antihypertensive. A relatively moderate adherence to recommendations about the proper use of CRV in hypertensive patients, was found. Intervention programs that reduce inappropriate prescribing of potential risks to patients of insurance companies and cities where the change was not achieved, must be enforced. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatic Proteome Sensitivity in Rainbow Trout after Chronically Exposed to a Human Pharmaceutical Verapamil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Sulc, Miroslav; Hulak, Martin; Randak, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Verapamil (VRP), a cardiovascular pharmaceutical widely distributed and persistent in the aquatic environment, has potential toxicity to fish and other aquatic organisms. However, the molecular mechanisms that lead to these toxic effects are not well known. In the present study, proteomic analysis has been performed to investigate the protein patterns that are differentially expressed in liver of rainbow trout exposed to sublethal concentrations of VRP (0.5, 27.0, and 270 μg/liter) for 42 days. Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry was employed to detect and identify the protein profiles. The analysis revealed that the expression of six hepatic acidic proteins were markedly altered in the treatment groups compared with the control group; three proteins especially were significantly down-regulated in fish exposed to VRP at environmental related concentration (0.5 μg/liter). These results suggested that the VRP induce mechanisms against oxidative stress (glucose-regulated protein 78 and 94 and protein disulfide-isomerase A3) and adaptive changes in ion transference regulation (calreticulin, hyperosmotic glycine-rich protein). Furthermore, for the first time, protein Canopy-1 was found to be significantly down-regulated in fish by chronic exposure to VRP at environmental related levels. Overall, our work supports that fish hepatic proteomics analysis serves as an in vivo model for monitoring the residual pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment and can provide valuable insight into the molecular events in VRP-induced toxicity in fish and other organisms. PMID:21997734

  14. Determination of Verapamil HCl in Pharmaceutical Preparations by a Fluorescent Nano Probe Based on CdTe/CdS/ZnS Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sohail; Xu, Guanhong; Wei, Fangdi; Ma, Yujie; Ma, Yunsu; Song, Yueyue; Shi, Menglan; Xu, Xiaoman; Cen, Yao; Hu, Qin

    2017-10-30

    An analytical technique based on fluorescence quenching of CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) was developed to quantify verapamil in commercially available preparations. Various reaction parameters were optimized and the method developed was validated. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc tests at a 5% significance level were performed to justify the significance of the variation in observations. The linear range of the verapamil concentration was 0.25-5 µg/mL while the limit of detection was 20 µg/mL. Recovery and relative standard deviations were not more than ±10% of the actual amount and metal ions and pharmaceutical excipients of dosage forms caused little interference. To verify the application of the analytical method, the quantity of verapamil in commercially available dosage forms was measured. Verapamil content in the tablets and injections was not more than ±10% of the stated amount and it conformed to the specifications of both the British and the United States pharmacopoeias. In the case of statistical analysis, p -value was measurement of the verapamil HCl in dosage forms for quality control purposes.

  15. Evaluation Effects of Verapamil as a Calcium Channel Blocker on Acquisition, Consolidation and Retrieval of Memory in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Masoudian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many factors are involved in learning and memory processes including brain nuclei, neurotransmitter systems, and the activity of ion channels. Studies showed inconsistent effects of calcium channel blockers on learning process, especially memory consolidation; however, little is known about their effect on memory acquisition and retrieval. Accordingly, the present study aimed to determine the effects of verapamil calcium channel antagonist as a representative of the phenylalkylamine group on different stages of memory and learning processes including acquisition, consolidation and retrieval in mice. In this experimental study, 150 male albino mice with a mean weight of 30 g were used. The mice were trained in a passive avoidance-learning task (1 mA shock for 2 seconds for evaluation of memory acquisition and consolidation and 3 seconds for evaluation of memory retrieval. The effect of verapamil (1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg on memory consolidation and the most effective dose of consolidation phase on memory acquisition and retrieval was assessed. For the evaluation of memory consolidation, the animals received the drug intraperitoneally immediately after training, while for evaluation of memory acquisition and retrieval, the drug was injected one hour before training. Memory retrieval test was performed 48 hours after training (the length of time it took the animal to enter the dark part of the device. The results showed that verapamil injection exerted no effect on memory acquisition and consolidation; nevertheless, it was capable to disrupt memory retrieval in 10 and 20 mg doses. These results indicate that as a phenylalkylamine calcium channel antagonist, high doses of verapamil can impair memory. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso

  16. Programmed delivery of verapamil hydrochloride from tablet in a capsule device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Lal Sah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to develop a programmed drug delivery system which would be able to release the drug after 6 h of lag time by use of hydrophilic polymers. The capsule body was made impermeable by use of formaldehyde vapor treatment, while the cap was untreated. The capsule was filled with two layered tablets (tablet-in-capsule, followed by a sodium bicarbonate:citric acid mixture (SBCM and lactose as bulking agent. Sodium alginate, chitosan, HPMC K15 and chitosan:sodium alginate complex (CSAC were used as the rate modulating layer. Through combined use of HPMC K15 and adjusting the ratio of CSAC, the desired lag time of 6 h was obtained. The effect of the bulking agents on the lag time were also studied and it was found that the lag time was decreased with higher amounts of lactose, and delayed dissolution and decreased lag time was observed at higher amount of effervescent mixture.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi desenvolver sistema de liberação programada de cloridrato de verapamil capaz de liberação imediata do fármaco após 6 h de intervalo de tempo usando polímeros hidrofílicos. O corpo da cápsula foi impermeabilizado por tratamento de vapor de formaldeído, enquanto a tampa não foi submetida ao tratamento. Dois comprimidos foram inseridos na cápsula (comprimidos em cápsula seguido de mistura de bicarbonato de sódio: ácido cítrico e lactose, utilizados como excipientes. O alginato de sódio, a quitosana, o HPMC K15 e o complexo quitosana:alginato de sódio foram utilizados para modular a razão de liberação do fármaco. A combinação entre o HPMC K15 e o ajuste da proporção do complexo quitosana:alginato de sódio permitiu a liberação do fármaco após 6 h. O efeito dos excipientes na liberação do fármaco foi também avaliado. Verificou-se que o tempo de latência foi reduzido na presença de maior quantidade de lactose, enquanto o menor tempo foi observado empregando maior concentração da

  17. 15-PGDH inhibitors: the antiulcer effects of carbenoxolone, pioglitazone and verapamil in indomethacin induced peptic ulcer rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Y M; El-Azab, M F; Fouda, A

    2013-01-01

    15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) is the enzyme responsible for prostaglandins (PGs) metabolism. PGs have an important role in the protection of stomach mucosa against destructive stimuli. The aim of the present study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of carbenoxolone, pioglitazone and verapamil on 15-PGDH enzyme. The experiments were carried out in the Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt from May 2011 to August 2011. Adult male albino rats were fasted for 18 hours before administration of high dose of indomethacin (30 mg/kg, p.o.), except for the negative control group which received saline only, followed by pyloric ligation to induce acute gastric ulcers. The rats were pretreated orally with saline, pioglitazone (20 mg/kg), verapamil (25 mg/kg), carbenoxolone (30 mg/kg) or their combinations 30 minutes before indomethacin. The rats were sacrificed after four hours of pyloric ligation. The effects of the previous treatments on the ulcer index (Ui), the microscopic appearance of gastric mucosa, the gastric acid output, the gastric barrier mucus content, and 15-PGDH enzyme activity were determined. Indomethacin resulted in severe ulceration and increased gastric acid output (p ulcer index, gastric acid output and 15-PGDH activity (p ulcer index, gastric acid output and 15-PGDH activity (p stomach mucosa.

  18. Comprehensive cytotoxic evaluation of morin, a bioflavonoid against verapamil on rat gastrointestinal epithelium for novel pharmaceutical application involving P-glycoprotein inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampalli, Gurunath; Nanjwade, Basavaraj K; Patil, Paragouda A

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a comprehensive and comparative cytotoxic evaluation of morin against verapamil on rat intestinal epithelium as P-gp inhibitors through in-vitro gastrointestinal short-term toxicity assays involving permeability studies for safety evaluation was investigated. In this study, the effect of morin (1 mM or 10 mM) or verapamil (1 mM or 10 mM) or sodium deoxycholate (10 mM) was investigated on intestinal epithelium and isolated brush border membrane using biomarker assays. Cytotoxicity was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The nutrients transport was assessed using everted sacs studies. Paracellular permeability was measured using Lucifer yellow, followed by morphometric analysis of intestinal sacs. Our results indicated that morin was effective in maintaining cell viability with no significant changes (P > 0.05) in the activity of intestinal brush border markers, membrane integrity and morphometric analysis as compared with control. On the contrary, dramatic (P < 0.01) changes were noticed in the release of membrane markers, cell viability and surface characteristics of intestinal segments when treated with verapamil or sodium deoxycholate as compared with control or morin. Our findings confirm that morin is non-toxic to rat intestinal epithelium against verapamil demonstrating the potential use of bioflavonoid as safe and novel pharmaceutical adjuvant as P-gp inhibitor. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. ACUTE INTRAVENOUS VERSUS CHRONIC ORAL-DRUG EFFECTS OF VERAPAMIL ON LEFT-VENTRICULAR DIASTOLIC FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POSMA, JL; BLANKSMA, PK; VANDERWALL, E; LIE, KI

    1994-01-01

    The effects of acute intravenous (i.v.) versus long-term oral(p.o.) verapamil administration on diastolic function were studied in 20 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We used a tip manometer catheter to record left ventricular pressure (LVP) tracings and a nuclear probe to measure LV

  20. In vitro evaluation of verapamil and other modulating agents in Brazilian chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum isolates Avaliação in vitro do verapamil e de outros agentes moduladores em isolados de Plasmodium falciparum resistentes à cloroquina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M.S. Menezes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Verapamil, was assayed to record its modulating effect upon Brazilian Plasmodium falciparum isolates resistant to chloroquine. Other cardiovascular drugs known to be modulating agents in resistant malaria and/or multidrug-resistant neoplasias, including nifedipine, nitrendipine, diltiazem and propranolol, were also evaluated. Concentrations similar to those for cardiovascular therapy were used in the in vitro microtechnique for antimalarial drug susceptibility. Intrinsic antiplasmodial activity was observed from the lowest concentrations without a significant modulating action. Other reported modulating agents, such as the antipsychotic drug trifluoperazine and the antidepressants desipramine and imipramine, demonstrated similar responses under the same experimental conditions. Results suggest a much higher susceptibility of Brazilian strains, as well as an indifferent behaviour in relation to modulating agents.Verapamil foi ensaiado quanto ao efeito modulador em isolados brasileiros de Plasmodium falciparum resistentes à cloroquina. Outros agentes cardiovasculares, considerados como moduladores da resistência em malária e/ou em neoplasias multiresistentes a fármacos, como nifedipino, nitrendipino, diltiazem e propranolol foram ensaiados quanto ao mesmo efeito. Concentrações semelhantes às da terapia cardiovascular foram empregadas no ensaio de microtécnica de sensibilidade para fármacos antimaláricos. Atividade antiplasmódica intrínsica foi observada desde as menores concentrações, sem, entretanto, ocorrência de modulação significativa da resistência. Sob as mesmas condições experimentais, respostas semelhantes foram observadas para outros agentes moduladores conhecidos como o antipsicótico trifluoperazina e os antidepressivos desipramina e imipramina. Em conjunto, estes resultados sugerem alta sensibilidade e comportamento indiferente de cepas brasileiras ao efeito de agentes moduladores da resistência.

  1. The putative P-gp inhibitor telmisartan does not affect the transcellular permeability and cellular uptake of the calcium channel antagonist verapamil in the P-glycoprotein expressing cell line MDCK II MDR1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lasse; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Brodin, Birger

    2015-01-01

    of verapamil. Fluxes of radiolabelled verapamil across MDCK II MDR1 monolayers were measured in the absence and presence of the putative P-gp inhibitor telmisartan (a clinically approved drug compound). Verapamil displayed a vectorial basolateral-to-apical transepithelial efflux across the MDCK II MDR1...... monolayers with a permeability of 5.7 × 10−5 cm sec−1 compared to an apical to basolateral permeability of 1.3 × 10−5 cm sec-1. The efflux could be inhibited with the P-gp inhibitor zosuquidar. Zosuquidar (0.4 μmol/L) reduced the efflux ratio (PB-A/PA-B) for verapamil 4.6–1.6. The presence of telmisartan......, however, only caused a slight reduction in P-gp-mediated verapamil transport to an efflux ratio of 3.4. Overall, the results of the present in vitro approach indicate, that clinical use of telmisartan as a P-gp inhibitor may not be an effective strategy for increasing brain uptake of verapamil by co...

  2. Study of rat hepatocytes in primary culture submitted to hypoxia and reoxygenation: action of the cytoprotectors prostaglandin E1, superoxide dismutase, allopurinol and verapamil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Dahir Ramos de; Andrade, Dahir Ramos de; Santos, Sânia Alves Dos

    2009-01-01

    Exposure of hepatocytes to pathological conditions in a microenvironment of hypoxia and reoxygenation is very frequent in hepatic diseases. Several substances present perspectives for cytoprotective action on hepatocyte submitted to reoxygenation after hypoxia and simple hypoxia. We research therapeutic options for hepatocytes submitted to hypoxia and hypoxia + reoxygenation injury. Primary culture of rat hepatocytes was submitted to hypoxia (2 hours) plus reoxygenation (2 hours) and simple hypoxia (4 hours) in the presence or the absence of cytoprotectors. The hepatocyte lesion was evaluated by functional criteria through percentage of lactate dehydrogenase released and cell viability. The effects of the cytoprotectors prostaglandin E1 3 etag/mL, superoxide dismutase 80 microg/mL, allopurinol 20 microM and verapamil 10-4 M were studied in this model of injury. Reoxygenation after hypoxia induced more significant lesion in cultured hepatocytes compared to simple hypoxia, detected by analysis of functional criteria. There was a significant reduction of percentage of lactate dehydrogenase released and a significant increase of percentage of cell viability in the hypoxia + reoxygenation + cytoprotectors groups compared to hypoxia + reoxygenation groups. Prostaglandin E1, superoxide dismutase and verapamil also protected the group submitted to simple hypoxia, when evaluated by functional criteria. We conclude that reoxygenation after hypoxia significantly increased the lesion of cultured rat hepatocytes when compared to simple hypoxia. Prostaglandin E1, superoxide dismutase, allopurinol and verapamil acted as cytoprotectors to the rat cultured hepatocytes submitted to hypoxia + reoxygenation in vitro. The substances prostaglandin E1, superoxide dismutase and verapamil protected hepatocytes submitted to simple hypoxia on the basis of all the criteria studied in this experimental model.

  3. The effects of dual and triple combinations of trandolapril, telmisartan, and verapamil on overt proteinuria in the patients with diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Albayrak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is one of the most important causes of the end-stage renal failure and its prevalence is found to be increasing. The presence of hypertension and progressive proteinuria is among the important findings. In this study, the effects of double and triple combinations of trandolapril, telmisartan, and verapamil on proteinuria were investigated in diabetic patients with nephropathy. Seventy-eight patients (mean age: 56.11 ± 11.26 years; 47 females and 31 males with overt proteinuria and DN were included in this study. The patients were divided into four groups: Group I (n: 18, trandolapril + telmisartan, Group II (n: 20, trando- lapril + verapamil, Group III (n: 20, trandolapril +telmisartan + verapamil, and Group IV (n: 20, telmisartan + verapamil. At the end of a three-month therapy, within and between group compa- risons were done about the effects of the use of double or triple drug combinations on proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, electrolytes, serum albumin, low-density lipoprotein (LDL- cholesterol, and HbA1C. There was no significant difference among groups in terms of age, gender, diabetes duration, body mass index, and retinopathy frequency. The decreases in protei- nuria and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP were significant in all groups. The decrease in proteinuria was independent of the decrease in MABP [the reduction rate in proteinuria was 39% (P <0.001 in Group I, 37% (P <0.001 in Group II, 42% (P <0.001 in Group III, and 43% (P <0.001 in Group IV; the reduction rate in MABP was 10.6% (P <0.001 in Group I, 13.7% (P <0.001 in Group II, 17.5% (P <0.001 in Group III, and 15.4% (P <0.001 in Group IV]. Decrease in HbA1C (before and after treatment was significant in Groups III and IV when com- pared to Groups I and II. Any adverse event, like hyperkalemia, was not observed. There was no significant difference among the groups in terms of GFR, LDL-cholesterol, albumin, and potassium. All the patients

  4. Lack of association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC variant with type 2 diabetes in an ethnically diverse hypertensive case control cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnes Jason H

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, the high-mobility group A1 gene (HMGA1 variant IVS5-13insC has been associated with type 2 diabetes, but reported associations are inconsistent and data are lacking in Hispanic and African American populations. We sought to investigate the HMGA1-diabetes association and to characterize IVS5-13insC allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium (LD in 3,070 Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American patients from the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST. Methods INVEST was a randomized, multicenter trial comparing two antihypertensive treatment strategies in an ethnically diverse cohort of hypertensive, coronary artery disease patients. Controls, who were diabetes-free throughout the study, and type 2 diabetes cases, either prevalent or incident, were genotyped for IVS5-13insC using Taqman®, confirmed with Pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing. For LD analysis, genotyping for eight additional HMGA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was performed using the Illumina® HumanCVD BeadChip. We used logistic regression to test association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC and diabetes, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and percentage European, African, and Native American ancestry. Results We observed IVS5-13insC minor allele frequencies consistent with previous literature in Caucasians and African Americans (0.03 in cases and 0.04 in controls for both race/ethnic groups, and higher frequencies in Hispanics (0.07 in cases and 0.07 in controls. The IVS5-13insC was not associated with type 2 diabetes overall (odds ratio 0.98 [0.76-1.26], p=0.88 or in any race/ethnic group. Pairwise LD (r2 of IVS5-13insC and rs9394200, a SNP previously used as a tag SNP for IVS5-13insC, was low (r2=0.47 in Caucasians, r2=0.25 in Hispanics, and r2=0.06 in African Americans. Furthermore, in silico analysis suggested a lack of functional consequences for the IVS5-13insC variant. Conclusions Our results suggest that IVS5-13ins

  5. Treatment of mechanically-induced vasospasm of the carotid artery in a primate using intra-arterial verapamil: a technical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyers Philip

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite improvements in the safety and efficacy of endovascular procedures, considerable morbidity may still be attributed to vasospasm. Vasospasm has proven amenable to pharmacological intervention such as nitrates, intravenous calcium channel blockers (CCBs, and intra-arterial papaverine, particularly in small vessels. However, few studies have focused on medium to large vessel spasm. Here we report the use of an intra-arterial CCB, verapamil, to treat flow-limiting mechanically-induced spasm of the common carotid artery (CCA in a primate. We believe this to be the first such report of its kind. Case presentation As part of a study assessing the placement feasibility and safety of a catheter capable of delivering intra-arterial cerebroprotective therapy, a female 16 kg baboon prophylaxed with intravenous nitroglycerin underwent transfemoral CCA catheterization with a metallic 6-Fr catheter without signs of acute spasm. The protocol dictated that the catheter remain in the CCA for 12 hours. Upon completion of the protocol, arteriography revealed a marked decrease in CCA size (mean cross-sectional area reduction = 31.6 ± 1.9% localized along the catheter length. Intra-arterial verapamil (2 mg/2cc was injected and arteriography was performed 10 minutes later. Image analysis at 6 points along the CCA revealed a 21.0 ± 1.7% mean increase in vessel diameter along the length of the catheter corresponding to a 46.7 ± 4.0% mean increase in cross-sectional area. Mean systemic blood pressure did not deviate more than 10 mm Hg during the procedure. Conclusions Intraluminal CCBs like verapamil may constitute an effective endovascular treatment for mechanically-induced vasospasm in medium to large-sized vessels such as the CCA.

  6. Minimal Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Drug-Drug-Disease Interaction Model of Rivaroxaban and Verapamil in Healthy and Renally Impaired Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mohamed; Lee, Vincent H; Chow, Christina R; Rubino, Christopher M

    2017-12-14

    Current dosing recommendations for rivaroxaban advocate dosage reduction in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment and avoidance of concomitant strong inhibitors of CYP3A or P-glycoprotein. However, rivaroxaban dosing in patients with mild renal impairment taking concomitant moderate inhibitors of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein is not addressed. To quantify the impacts of concomitant verapamil administration and renal impairment on rivaroxaban pharmacokinetics, a minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic model system was developed and used to evaluate potential increases in rivaroxaban exposure and the consequent increase in risk of major bleeding. Data from a phase 1, drug-drug interaction study were used to qualify the minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic model system. Model-based simulations indicate that coadministration of rivaroxaban with verapamil substantially increases rivaroxaban exposure across all renal function categories, resulting in an exponential increase in bleeding risk. Reduction of the daily rivaroxaban dose to 10 to 15 mg reduces the major bleeding risk below the designated 4.5% threshold in the majority of patients with normal or mildly impaired renal function. A reduction to 10 mg daily in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment provides additional risk reduction so that 90% of those patients fall below the 4.5% threshold. A risk threshold of 4.5% was selected because it is the median predicted risk in patients treated concomitantly with ketoconazole, which is contraindicated for use with rivaroxaban. Patients taking both rivaroxaban and verapamil should take a reduced daily dose of rivaroxaban to minimize bleeding risk. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  7. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  8. Assessment of P-Glycoprotein Transport Activity at the Human Blood-Retina Barrier with (R)-11C-Verapamil PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Martin; Karch, Rudolf; Tournier, Nicolas; Cisternino, Salvatore; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Hacker, Marcus; Marhofer, Peter; Zeitlinger, Markus; Langer, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) is expressed at the blood-retina barrier (BRB), where it may control distribution of drugs from blood to the retina and thereby influence drug efficacy and toxicity. Methods: We performed PET scans with the ABCB1 substrate ( R )- 11 C-verapamil on 5 healthy male volunteers without and with concurrent infusion of the ABCB1 inhibitor tariquidar. We estimated the rate constants for radiotracer transfer across the BRB ( K 1 , k 2 ) and total retinal distribution volume V T Results: During ABCB1 inhibition, retinal V T and influx rate constant K 1 were significantly, by 1.4 ± 0.5-fold and 1.5 ± 0.3-fold, increased compared with baseline. Retinal efflux rate constant k 2 was significantly decreased by 2.8 ± 1.0-fold. Conclusion: We found a significant increase in ( R )- 11 C-verapamil distribution to the retina during ABCB1 inhibition, which provides first in vivo evidence for ABCB1 transport activity at the human BRB. The increase in retinal distribution was approximately 2.5-fold less pronounced than previously reported for the blood-brain barrier. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  9. Multidrug resistance circumvention by a new triazinoaminopiperidine derivative S9788 in vitro: definition of the optimal schedule and comparison with verapamil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, A. M.; Roché, H.; Berlion, M.; Lucas, C.; Milano, G.; Robert, J.; Bizzari, J. P.; Canal, P.

    1994-01-01

    The current work was undertaken to investigate the importance of exposure sequence and duration in achieving the maximum reversal action of S9788 on doxorubicin (DOX) cytotoxicity against cells that exhibit the (MDR) multidrug resistance phenotype: the MCF7/DOX cell line. Accumulation and release of DOX were examined in this cell line. The reversal effect was compared with that obtained with verapamil. S9788 activity was schedule dependent: when comparing incubation with S9788 before or after treatment with DOX, the best reversal factor was obtained in the case of a post-treatment incubation (65.6 +/- 7.7 vs 20.8 +/- 7.0). S9788 was a more potent modulating agent than verapamil, whatever the schedule of exposure of the cells to the reversal agent. The reversal of resistance after short-term DOX exposures was caused not only by prolonged cellular accumulation of DOX, but also by its prolonged retention after transfer of cells to DOX-free medium. A relationship was noted between cellular exposure to DOX and the cytotoxic effect, and so the reversal of resistance induced by S9788 appears to be directly linked to the level of cell exposure to DOX. This work provided a rationale for improving the schedule of administration of S9788 in clinical trials. PMID:8180016

  10. Assessment of mutagenic, hematological and oxidative stress biomarkers in liver of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in response to sublethal verapamil exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajima, Malachy N O; Pandey, Pramod K; Kumar, Kundan; Poojary, Nalini

    2017-07-01

    The influx of pharmaceutical drugs and their metabolites have been reported to cause negative impact on aquatic biota. In this study, effects of long-term exposure of verapamil on mutagenic, hematological parameters and activities of the oxidative enzymes of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus were investigated for 60 days exposure at the concentrations of 0.29, 0.58 and 1.15 mg L -1 in the fish liver. The exposure resulted in significantly high (p biomarkers (lipid peroxidation and carbonyl protein) showed elevated level, depicting a positive correlation with both time and concentration. More so, the activity of energy-related parameter (Na +  -K + - ATPase) in the tissue was significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) at the end of 60 days exposure period. Further, the activity of catalase (CAT) was inhibited while reduced glutathione (GSH) level was decreased in the liver tissue. There was increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) after 30 days at 0.29 mg L -1 . The study demonstrated that prolonged exposure to verapamil at sublethal concentration can result in mutagenic effects and oxidative dysfunctions in O. niloticus.

  11. Part I. Naltrexone-derived conjugate addition ligands for opioid receptors. Part II. Chemical and enantioselective aspects of the metabolism of verapamil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Selective chemoaffinity ligands to aid in identification and purification of opioid receptor subtypes were prepared from 6α- and 6β-naltrexol, obtained stereoselectively from the μ-receptor antagonist naltrexone. The targets were the 6α- and 6β-methacrylate ethers and 6α- and 6β-methacrylate esters prepared from reaction of 6α- and 6β-naltrexol with methyl α-(bromomethyl)acrylate or methacryloyl chloride. Of three methacrylate derivatives, the 6α-ether was the most potent in an opioid receptor binding assay with [ 3 H]-naltrexone. In the presence of sodium ion, preincubation of the 6α-ether resulted in recovery of about 60% of original [ 3 H]-naltrexone binding suggesting some irreversible effects. The methacrylate esters precipitated withdrawal in morphine dependent monkeys. The enantiomers of verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, have different pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties. The oxidative metabolism of verapamil was studied in rat and human liver microsomes and in man after a single oral dose

  12. Part I. Naltrexone-derived conjugate addition ligands for opioid receptors. Part II. Chemical and enantioselective aspects of the metabolism of verapamil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Selective chemoaffinity ligands to aid in identification and purification of opioid receptor subtypes were prepared from 6..cap alpha..- and 6..beta..-naltrexol, obtained stereoselectively from the ..mu..-receptor antagonist naltrexone. The targets were the 6..cap alpha..- and 6..beta..-methacrylate ethers and 6..cap alpha..- and 6..beta..-methacrylate esters prepared from reaction of 6..cap alpha..- and 6..beta..-naltrexol with methyl ..cap alpha..-(bromomethyl)acrylate or methacryloyl chloride. Of three methacrylate derivatives, the 6..cap alpha..-ether was the most potent in an opioid receptor binding assay with (/sup 3/H)-naltrexone. In the presence of sodium ion, preincubation of the 6..cap alpha..-ether resulted in recovery of about 60% of original (/sup 3/H)-naltrexone binding suggesting some irreversible effects. The methacrylate esters precipitated withdrawal in morphine dependent monkeys. The enantiomers of verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, have different pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties. The oxidative metabolism of verapamil was studied in rat and human liver microsomes and in man after a single oral dose.

  13. Factors regulating the secretion of lysophosphatidylcholine by rat hepatocytes compared with the synthesis and secretion of phosphatidylcholine and triacylglycerol. Effects of albumin, cycloheximide, verapamil, EGTA and chlorpromazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A; Bennett, A J; McLean, A A; Zammit, V A; Brindley, D N

    1988-01-01

    1. The synthesis and secretion of glycerolipid by monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes was measured by determining the incorporations of [3H]glycerol, [3H]oleate and [14C]choline and by the absolute concentration of triacylglycerol. 2. The presence of albumin in the medium stimulated the accumulation of lysophosphatidylcholine in the medium by 11-13-fold. 3. Cycloheximide did not significantly alter the accumulation of lysophosphatidylcholine. 4. This process was particularly sensitive to inhibition by chlorpromazine and verapamil, compared with the secretion of triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. By contrast, it was relatively less sensitive to EGTA. 5. It is suggested that intracellular Ca2+ may be important in the production of lysophosphatidylcholine, which then accumulates in the medium by binding to albumin. In vivo this lysophosphatidycholine may be a means of delivering choline and polyunsaturated fatty acids to other organs. PMID:3140785

  14. Efeitos do Verapamil (Dilacoron), bloqueador dos canais de calcio, na regenaração do figado de ratos apos hepatectomia parcial

    OpenAIRE

    Maria das Graças Vilela Goulart

    2004-01-01

    Resumo: Têm sido referidos na literatura, efeitos hepatoprotetores de fármacos bloqueadores dos canais de cálcio em lesões hepáticas induzidas por drogas ou hipóxia. Entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre os efeitos dessas drogas no fígado em regeneração, nos aspectos funcionais e histomorfológicos. Propôs-se estudar neste trabalho, os efeitos do verapamil, bloqueador dos canais de cálcio, na regeneração do fígado de ratos após hepatectomia parcial. Avaliou-se os efeitos da droga na evolução estrutu...

  15. Effect of verapamil, a calcium channel blocker, on the odontogenic activity of human dental pulp cells cultured with silicate-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Buor-Chang; Kao, Chia-Tze; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Hung, Chi-Jr; Shie, Ming-You; Chung, Hsien-Yang

    2014-08-01

    This study examines how calcium silicate cement extracts influence the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) through calcium channels and active mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, in particular extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK). HDPCs are treated with various silicon concentrations both with and without verapamil, after which the cells' viability and odontogenic differentiation markers are determined by using PrestoBlue assay and Western blot, respectively. The silicon promoted cell proliferation and inhibited calcium channel blockers. It was also found that silicon increased ERK and p38 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, it raised the expression and secretion of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and dentin matrix protein-1. In addition, statistically significant differences (P calcium silicate substrates play a key role in odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs through calcium channels and modulate ERK activation. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Polymorphism in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter protein links verapamil enhancement of chloroquine sensitivity with the clinical efficacy of amodiaquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warhurst David C

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroquine accumulates in the acidic digestive vacuole of the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite, and prevents the detoxication of haematin released during haemoglobin digestion. Changes in protein PfCRT in the digestive vacuole membrane of growing intra-erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum are crucial for resistance. Expressed in yeast, PfCRT resembles an anion channel. Depressed anion channel function could increase intralysosomal pH to reduce entry of basic drug, or enhanced function could reduce drug interaction with target haematin. The most important resistance-associated change is from positively-charged lysine-76 to neutral threonine which could facilitate drug efflux through a putative channel. It has been proposed that the resistance-reversing effect of verapamil is due to hydrophobic binding to the mutated PfCRT protein, and replacement of the lost positive charge, which repels the access of 4-aminoquinoline cations, thus partially restoring sensitivity. Desethylamodiaquine, the active metabolite of amodiaquine, which has significant activity in chloroquine-resistance, may also act similarly on its own. Methods Changes in physicochemical parameters in different CQ-resistant PfCRT sequences are analysed, and correlations with drug activity on lines transfected with different alleles of the pfcrt gene are examined. Results and conclusions The results support the idea that PfCRT is a channel which, in resistant parasites, can allow efflux of chloroquine from the digestive vacuole. Activity of the chloroquine/verapamil combination and of desethylamodiaquine both correlate with the mean hydrophobicity of PfCRT residues 72-76. This may partly explain clinical-resistance to amodiaquine found in the first chloroquine-resistant malaria cases from South America and enables tentative prediction of amodiaquine's clinical activity against novel haplotypes of PfCRT.

  17. Alteration in DNA structure, molecular responses and Na+ -K+ -ATPase activities in the gill of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in response to sub-lethal verapamil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajima, Malachy N O; Pandey, Pramod K; Kumar, Kundan; Poojary, Nalini

    2018-01-01

    The ecotoxicological consequences of residues from pharmaceutical drugs on aquatic biota have necessitated the development of sensitive and reliable techniques to assess the impact of these xenobiotics on aquatic organisms. This study investigated the alteration in DNA structure, molecular responses and the activities of Na + -K + -ATPase and antioxidant enzymes in the gill of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to long-term effects at the concentrations (0.14, 0.28 and 0.57mgL -1 ) of verapamil in static renewal system for 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Evaluation of DNA structure, using single cell gel electrophoresis, revealed certain degree of DNA damages in the gill in a time and concentration-dependent relationship. Transcription of mRNA of superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase (cat) and heat shock protein (hsp70) genes in the gill of the fish showed the genes were up-regulated. Na + -K + -ATPase activity was inhibited in a concentration and time dependent manner. The indices of oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation and carbonyl protein) as well as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase were elevated in the treated fish in comparison to the control. Further, the level of reduced glutathione and catalase activity were inhibited at 0.28mgL -1 after day 30. Long-term exposure to sub-lethal concentration of verapamil can cause DNA damages, molecular effects and oxidative stress in O. niloticus. The biomarkers analysed can be used as early warning signals in environmental biomonitoring and assessment of drug contamination in aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. (R-[11C]Verapamil PET studies to assess changes in P-glycoprotein expression and functionality in rat blood-brain barrier after exposure to kainate-induced status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammertsma Adriaan A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased functionality of efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier may contribute to decreased drug concentrations at the target site in CNS diseases like epilepsy. In the rat, pharmacoresistant epilepsy can be mimicked by inducing status epilepticus by intraperitoneal injection of kainate, which leads to development of spontaneous seizures after 3 weeks to 3 months. The aim of this study was to investigate potential changes in P-glycoprotein (P-gp expression and functionality at an early stage after induction of status epilepticus by kainate. Methods (R-[11C]verapamil, which is currently the most frequently used positron emission tomography (PET ligand for determining P-gp functionality at the blood-brain barrier, was used in kainate and saline (control treated rats, at 7 days after treatment. To investigate the effect of P-gp on (R-[11C]verapamil brain distribution, both groups were studied without or with co-administration of the P-gp inhibitor tariquidar. P-gp expression was determined using immunohistochemistry in post mortem brains. (R-[11C]verapamil kinetics were analyzed with approaches common in PET research (Logan analysis, and compartmental modelling of individual profiles as well as by population mixed effects modelling (NONMEM. Results All data analysis approaches indicated only modest differences in brain distribution of (R-[11C]verapamil between saline and kainate treated rats, while tariquidar treatment in both groups resulted in a more than 10-fold increase. NONMEM provided most precise parameter estimates. P-gp expression was found to be similar for kainate and saline treated rats. Conclusions P-gp expression and functionality does not seem to change at early stage after induction of anticipated pharmacoresistant epilepsy by kainate.

  19. Comparative study on reversal efficacy of SDZ PSC 833, cyclosporin a and verapamil on multidrug resistance in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Toru; Tsuge, Harumi; Oh-Hara, Tomoko; Naito, Mikihiko; Tsuruo, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    A non-immunosuppressive cyclosporin, SDZ PSC 833 (PSC833), shows a reversal effect on multidrug resistance (MDR) by functional modulation of MDR1 gene product, P-glycoprotein. The objective of the present study was to compare the reversal efficacy of three multidrug resistance modulators, PSC833, cyclosporin A (CsA) and verapamil (Vp). PSC833 has approximately 3-10-fold greater potency than CsA and Vp with respect to the restoring effect on reduced accumulation of doxorubicin (ADM) and vincristine (VCR) in ADM-resistant K562 myelogenous leukemia cells (K562/ADM) in vitro and also on the sensitivity of K562/ADM to ADM and VCR in in vitro growth inhibition. The in vivo efficacy of a combination of modifiers (PSC833 and CsA: 50 mg/kg, Vp 100 mg/kg administered p.o. 4 h before the administration of anticancer drugs) with anticancer drugs (ADM 2.5 mg/kg i.p., Q4D days 1, 5 and 9, VCR 0.05 mg/kg i.p., QD days 1-5) was tested in ADM-resistant P388-bearing mice. PSC833 significantly enhanced the increase in life span by more than 80%, whereas CsA and Vp enhanced by less than 50%. This reversal potency, which exceeded that of CsA and Vp, was confirmed by therapeutic experiments using colon adenocarcinoma 26-bearing mice. These results demonstrated that PSC833 has significant potency to reverse MDR in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that PSC833 is a good candidate for reversing multidrug resistance in clinical situations. (orig.)

  20. Comparing the Effects of Krebs Plus Verapamil Solution on Endothelial Function of Harvested Human Greater Saphenous Vein with Heparinized Blood, an Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Mitra; Moradpour, Reza; Shafaroudi, Majid Malekzade; Rezaei, Nourollah; Tabary, Shervin Ziabakhsh

    2017-06-01

    Integrity of the great saphenous vein (GSV) endothelium is the most important key element for long-term patency rate of grafts in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Storage solutions play an important role in maintaining viability of vein endothelium. Diminished nitric oxide (NO) because of endothelial dysfunction may facilitate vascular inflammation and formation of atherosclerotic plaque. So, we decided to find a reasonable alternative preservative solution instead of heparinized blood (HB) by measuring NO concentration with Griess assay. SVG samples were obtained from 54 patients undergoing elective CABG. 3 mm rings were stored in solutions: heparinized blood (HB), Krebs (K), Krebs + Propranolol (K+P) 6.66 g/l, Krebs + Adrenaline (K+A) 200 µl/l, and Krebs + Verapamil (K+V) 200 µl/l for 30, 45, 60 and 90 min. Nitrite concentration was measured by Griess assay at 540 nm. H&E staining was performed for histologic test. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (V16). Results were expressed as (Means ± SE) followed by One-Way ANOVA for finding best preservative solution. Repeated measurement test was used to investigate best time. In all analysis, (PHB=K=K+A=K+P). Also, our investigations showed that NO concentration in (K+V) has the highest rate in time 90 min (10.07±0.56, p=0.002):. More than 50 percent of endothelial cells stay normal in (K+V) compare with other solutions. It seems that (K+V) is the best solution for the maintenance of normal physiology of SVGs endothelial cells. The most appropriate SVGs endothelial function is within 90 minutes after harvesting.

  1. A comparative small-animal PET evaluation of [{sup 11}C]tariquidar, [{sup 11}C]elacridar and (R)-[{sup 11}C]verapamil for detection of P-glycoprotein-expressing murine breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanek, Thomas; Kuntner, Claudia; Sauberer, Michael [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Health and Environment Department, Molecular Medicine, Seibersdorf (Austria); Bankstahl, Jens P.; Bankstahl, Marion; Loescher, Wolfgang [University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy, Hannover (Germany); Stanek, Johann; Langer, Oliver [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Health and Environment Department, Molecular Medicine, Seibersdorf (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Vienna (Austria); Mairinger, Severin [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Health and Environment Department, Molecular Medicine, Seibersdorf (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Vienna (Austria); University of Vienna, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Vienna (Austria); Strommer, Sabine; Wacheck, Volker; Mueller, Markus [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Vienna (Austria); Erker, Thomas [University of Vienna, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-01-15

    One important mechanism for chemoresistance of tumours is overexpression of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Pgp reduces intracellular concentrations of chemotherapeutic drugs. The aim of this study was to compare the suitability of the radiolabelled Pgp inhibitors [{sup 11}C]tariquidar and [{sup 11}C]elacridar with the Pgp substrate radiotracer (R)-[{sup 11}C]verapamil for discriminating tumours expressing low and high levels of Pgp using small-animal PET imaging in a murine breast cancer model. Murine mammary carcinoma cells (EMT6) were continuously exposed to doxorubicin to generate a Pgp-overexpressing, doxorubicin-resistant cell line (EMT6AR1.0 cells). Both cell lines were subcutaneously injected into female athymic nude mice. One week after implantation, animals underwent PET scans with [{sup 11}C]tariquidar (n = 7), [{sup 11}C]elacridar (n = 6) and (R)-[{sup 11}C]verapamil (n = 7), before and after administration of unlabelled tariquidar (15 mg/kg). Pgp expression in tumour grafts was evaluated by Western blotting. [{sup 11}C]Tariquidar showed significantly higher retention in Pgp-overexpressing EMT6AR1.0 compared with EMT6 tumours: the mean {+-} SD areas under the time-activity curves in scan 1 from time 0 to 60 min (AUC{sub 0-60}) were 38.8 {+-} 2.2 min and 25.0 {+-} 5.3 min (p = 0.016, Wilcoxon matched pairs test). [{sup 11}C]Elacridar and (R)-[{sup 11}C]verapamil were not able to discriminate Pgp expression in tumour models. Following administration of unlabelled tariquidar, both EMT6Ar1.0 and EMT6 tumours showed increases in uptake of [{sup 11}C]tariquidar, [{sup 11}C]elacridar and (R)-[{sup 11}C]verapamil. Among the tested radiotracers, [{sup 11}C]tariquidar performed best in discriminating tumours expressing high and low levels of Pgp. Therefore [{sup 11}C]tariquidar merits further investigation as a PET tracer to assess Pgp expression levels in solid tumours. (orig.)

  2. Study of rat hepatocytes in primary culture submitted to hypoxia and reoxygenation: action of the cytoprotectors prostaglandin E1, superoxide dismutase, allopurinol and verapamil Estudo de hepatócitos de rato em cultura primária submetidos a hipóxia e reoxigenação: ação dos citoprotetores prostaglandina E1, superóxido dismutase, alopurinol e verapamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahir Ramos de Andrade Jr.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Exposure of hepatocytes to pathological conditions in a microenvironment of hypoxia and reoxygenation is very frequent in hepatic diseases. Several substances present perspectives for cytoprotective action on hepatocyte submitted to reoxygenation after hypoxia and simple hypoxia. OBJECTIVE: We research therapeutic options for hepatocytes submitted to hypoxia and hypoxia + reoxygenation injury. METHODS: Primary culture of rat hepatocytes was submitted to hypoxia (2 hours plus reoxygenation (2 hours and simple hypoxia (4 hours in the presence or the absence of cytoprotectors. The hepatocyte lesion was evaluated by functional criteria through percentage of lactate dehydrogenase released and cell viability. The effects of the cytoprotectors prostaglandin E1 3 ηg/mL, superoxide dismutase 80 μg/mL, allopurinol 20 μM and verapamil 10-4 M were studied in this model of injury. RESULTS: Reoxygenation after hypoxia induced more significant lesion in cultured hepatocytes compared to simple hypoxia, detected by analysis of functional criteria. There was a significant reduction of percentage of lactate dehydrogenase released and a significant increase of percentage of cell viability in the hypoxia + reoxygenation + cytoprotectors groups compared to hypoxia + reoxygenation groups. Prostaglandin E1, superoxide dismutase and verapamil also protected the group submitted to simple hypoxia, when evaluated by functional criteria. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that reoxygenation after hypoxia significantly increased the lesion of cultured rat hepatocytes when compared to simple hypoxia. Prostaglandin E1, superoxide dismutase, allopurinol and verapamil acted as cytoprotectors to the rat cultured hepatocytes submitted to hypoxia + reoxygenation in vitro. The substances prostaglandin E1, superoxide dismutase and verapamil protected hepatocytes submitted to simple hypoxia on the basis of all the criteria studied in this experimental model.CONTEXTO: A exposi

  3. Pharmacological modification of multi-drug resistance (MDR) in vitro detected by a novel fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay. Reversal of resistance and selective cytotoxic actions of cyclosporin A and verapamil on MDR leukemia T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, R; Nygren, P

    1990-07-15

    A novel fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA), based on measurements of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis and DNA staining by Hoechst 33342, was used for drug sensitivity testing and detection of resistance reversal in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines. The 72-hr assay was found to be sensitive, reproducible and linearly related to the number of viable cells within a broad range of cell concentrations. At clinically achievable drug concentrations, the calcium channel blocker Verapamil (ver) and the immunosuppressant Cyclosporin A (csA) were found to partly reverse acquired Vincristine (vcr) resistance in multi-drug resistant (MDR) T-ALL L100 cells with little or no effect on the drug-sensitive parental L0 cell line. By combining the fluorometric indices, we found that low concentrations of csA were growth-inhibitory, whereas higher concentrations (greater than 10 micrograms/ml) were progressively cytotoxic for drug-sensitive L0 cells. In MDR L100 cells, on the other hand, csA produced significant cell kill even at low drug concentrations. Ver had no effects on sensitive L0 cells but showed considerable cytotoxic action towards MDR L100 cells. There was no apparent relationship between drug reversal of vcr resistance and the cytotoxic actions of the drug per se since the calcium channel blocker diltiazem (dil) significantly potentiated the actions of vcr on MDR L100 cells without being more toxic to these cells (compared to vcr-sensitive L0 cells).

  4. Dose-response assessment of tariquidar and elacridar and regional quantification of P-glycoprotein inhibition at the rat blood-brain barrier using (R)-[11C]verapamil PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntner, Claudia; Wanek, Thomas; Stundner, Gloria; Bankstahl, Jens P.; Bankstahl, Marion; Loescher, Wolfgang; Stanek, Johann; Mueller, Markus; Karch, Rudolf; Brauner, Rebecca; Meier, Martin; Ding, Xiaoqi; Langer, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Overactivity of the multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is believed to play an important role in resistance to central nervous system drug treatment. (R)-[ 11 C]verapamil (VPM) PET can be used to measure the function of P-gp at the BBB, but low brain uptake of VPM hampers the mapping of regional differences in cerebral P-gp function and expression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response relationship of two potent P-gp inhibitors and to investigate if increased brain uptake of VPM mediated by P-gp inhibition can be used to assess regional differences in P-gp activity. Two groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12) underwent single VPM PET scans at 120 min after administration of different doses of the P-gp inhibitors tariquidar and elacridar. In an additional six rats, paired VPM PET scans were performed before and after administration of 3 mg/kg tariquidar. Inhibitor administration resulted in an up to 11-fold increase in VPM brain distribution volumes (DV) with half-maximum effective dose (ED 50 ) values of 3.0 ± 0.2 and 1.2 ± 0.1 mg/kg for tariquidar and elacridar, respectively. In paired PET scans, 3 mg/kg tariquidar resulted in regionally different enhancement of brain activity distribution, with lowest DV in cerebellum and highest DV in thalamus. Our data show that tariquidar and elacridar are able to increase VPM brain distribution in rat brain up to 11-fold over baseline at maximum effective doses, with elacridar being about three times more potent than tariquidar. Regional differences in tariquidar-induced modulation of VPM brain uptake point to regional differences in cerebral P-gp function and expression in rat brain. (orig.)

  5. Increased susceptibility of a triclabendazole (TCBZ)-resistant isolate of Fasciola hepatica to TCBZ following co-incubation in vitro with the P-glycoprotein inhibitor, R(+)-verapamil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, M; Savage, J; Brennan, G P; Hoey, E; Trudgett, A; Fairweather, I

    2013-09-01

    A study was carried out to investigate whether the action of triclabendazole sulphoxide (TCBZ.SO) against the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica is altered by inhibition of P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-linked drug efflux pumps. The Oberon TCBZ-resistant and Cullompton TCBZ-susceptible fluke isolates were used for this in vitro study and the Pgp inhibitor selected was R(+)-verapamil [R(+)-VPL]. For experiments with the Oberon isolate, flukes were incubated for 24 h with either R(+)-VPL (1×10-4 m) on its own, TCBZ.SO (15 μg mL-1) alone, a combination of R(+)-VPL (1×10-4 m) plus TCBZ.SO (15 μg mL-1), TCBZ.SO (50 μg mL-1) on its own, or a combination of TCBZ.SO (50 μg mL-1) plus R(+)-VPL (1×10-4 m). They were also incubated in TCBZ.SO (50 μg mL-1) alone or in combination with R(+)-VPL (1×10-4 m) until they became inactive; and in TCBZ.SO (50 μg mL-1) alone for a time to match that of the combination inactivity time. Flukes from the Cullompton isolate were treated with either TCBZ.SO (50 μg mL-1) alone or in combination with R(+)-VPL (1×10-4 m) until they became inactive, or with TCBZ.SO (50 μg mL-1) alone time-matched to the combination inactivity time. Morphological changes resulting from drug treatment and following Pgp inhibition were assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy. Incubation in R(+)-VPL alone had a minimal effect on either isolate. TCBZ.SO treatment had a relatively greater impact on the TCBZ-susceptible Cullompton isolate. When R(+)-VPL was combined with TCBZ.SO in the incubation medium, however, the surface disruption to both isolates was more severe than that seen after TCBZ.SO treatment alone; also, the time taken to reach inactivity was shorter. More significantly, though, the potentiation of drug activity was greater in the Oberon isolate; also, it was more distinct at the higher concentration of TCBZ.SO. So, the Oberon isolate appears to be particularly sensitive to efflux pump inhibition. The results of this study suggest that enhanced

  6. INTRALESIONAL VERAPAMIL INJECTION IN TREATMENT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'évaluation de la réponse a été réalisée de façon subjective concernant la douleur et la dysfonction sexuelle et de façon objective concernant le volume de la plaque et le degré d'incurvation de la verge. Résultats: Au bout du traitement, la douleur était améliorée dans 88.9% (8/9 patients) dans le groupe d'étude tandis ...

  7. Synergy between verapamil and other multidrug -resistance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    17 18–21. Klohs W D, Steinkampf R W, Havlick M J and Jackson R C. 1986 Resistance to anthrapyrazoles and anthracyclines in multi-resistant P388 murine leukemia cells: reversal by calcium blockers and calmodulin antagonists; Cancer Res. 46. 4352–4356. Loewe S 1928 Die quantitativen Probleme der Pharmakologie;.

  8. Internal and International Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This subject, whence the name of this paper originates from, must be addressed with courage and intellectual integrity by all of us, the different parts of the civil society, the public institutions, the entrepreneurs and the legal professionals, the youth and the new generations. All the public policies of the European governments share the belief of a direct correlation between the criminal density connected to corruption of States political and economic protagonists and the lack of availability of investments on young talents, new generations, both in the entrepreneurial and in the professional fields. In most Member States, anticorruption policies have gained an increased prominence in government agendas and the financial crisis has drawn attention to the integrity and accountability of policy-makers. Most Member States that are currently in serious financial difficulties have acknowledged the seriousness of issues related to corruption and have created (or are planning anticorruption programs in order to deal with the risks deriving from this issue and with the diversion of public funds. In some Member States, the economic adjustment programs provide for explicit obligations related to anti-corruption policies. Even when not formally connected to adjustment programs, anticorruption policies complement the adjustment measures, especially in those countries in which corruption is a serious issue.  During the European Semester of economic policy coordination, recommendations for efficiently fighting corruption have been laid out; Among the most vulnerable sectors, urban development and building projects are certainly very exposed to corruption risks and to infiltration of internal and transnational organized crime.

  9. International arbejdsdeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Article dealing with the implications of informátion and communication technologies on the international division of labour.......Article dealing with the implications of informátion and communication technologies on the international division of labour....

  10. MARC International

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Coward

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative development of the Library of Congress MARC II Profect and the British National Bibliography MARC II Project is described and presented as the forerunner of an international MARC network. Emphasis is placed on the necessity for a standard MARC record for international exchange and for acceptance of international standards of cataloging.

  11. Internal Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Rathouský, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    The diploma thesis focuses on characteristics of internal communication, its implementation in various forms in different companies and analysis of the internal communication in one selected company. After the analysis of its current state in the multinational company, the thesis will recommend improvements to the areas of internal communication and human resources, with the main focus of global implementation of these recommendations.

  12. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  13. International marketing

    OpenAIRE

    T Cannon

    1989-01-01

    The international marketplace has been transformed in recent years by shifts in trading patterns and practices. These changes have been reinforced by new technologies and evolving economic relationships. This paper is an attempt to integrate these developments into the burgeoning literature on international marketing as well as recent research findings. The research emphasis within the subject has evolved alongside changes in the stress given to key aspects of international trade. The preoccu...

  14. Internal branding

    OpenAIRE

    Rijal, Ramesh; Dhakal, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  15. International Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  16. International skatteret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Sørensen, Niels; Wittendorff, Jens

    1996-01-01

    De seneste 6 måneders udvikling indenfor international skatteret beskrives. NW-S har skrevet artiklens afsnit om udvalgte afgørelser og om EU-skatteret.......De seneste 6 måneders udvikling indenfor international skatteret beskrives. NW-S har skrevet artiklens afsnit om udvalgte afgørelser og om EU-skatteret....

  17. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  18. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Concerning international relations, the different meetings in the field of nuclear safety are reported (Western european nuclear regulator association or Wenra, Nea, IAEA, northern dimension environmental partnership or N.D.E.P., nuclear safety and security group or N.S.S.G., international nuclear regulators association or I.N.R.A.). (N.C.)

  19. International indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Therese

    En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer......En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer...

  20. International Curriculums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  1. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma......: Flat or uneven? Change and transformation in the international system • Block 3: Just or unjust? Intervention and inequality in the international system • Block 4: Top-down or bottom-up? Governance in the international system • Block 5: Secure or insecure? Pursuing security in the international system...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity....

  2. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test......Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...

  3. International Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  4. Juris International

    CERN Document Server

    A database on international trade law aimed at lawyers and legal counsel in developing and transition economies. Juris International is a multilingual collection (English, Spanish, and French) of legal information on international trade. Juris International aims to facilitate and reduce the work involved in research for business lawyers, advisers and in-house counsel, and state organizations in developing nd transition economies, by providing access to texts which have often been difficult to obtain. Its objective is to gather a large quantity of basic information at one site (favoring complete legal texts), without the need to send for the information, and consequently without excessive communication costs for users who d benefit from an efficient and cheap telecommunications network.

  5. International Criminalization of International Terrorizm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grigoryevich Volevodz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and studying of the terrorism in all its facets is a complex entangled problem with less clear legal regulation that it might seem at first glance, especially after its transformation from local phenomenon into a world threat. Hitherto terrorism and actions connected to it have been criminalized by the majority of states. There are in modern criminal law whole systems of rules on criminal liability for terrorism which differs considerably from country to country. Terrorism has been criminalized in numerous international regional and universal antiterrorist legal instruments. The author notes that differences in definitions that are enshrined in them hinders international cooperation in criminal matters with respect to terrorist cases. Difficulties reside in the necessity to meet the dual criminality requirement and in the political offense exception. These difficulties can only be overcome through elaboration of a universally recognized definition of the notion of international terrorism and making it legally binding via its inclusion into a universal convention. The issue of definition of international terrorism is an important part of an efficient mutual assistance among states in fight against this crime. In this article the author accounts of actual ways of tackling by the international community of the issue of criminalization of international terrorism and of factors influencing them.

  6. International collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the wake of the demise of the US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) project last year which empoverished both US and world science, some rapid scene shifting is going on. The SSC may be dead, but the underlying physics quest lives on. In the US, the 'future vision' subpanel of the High Energy Physics Advisory Board (HEPAP) is at work formulating its recommendations. On the international front, the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) at a special meeting in Vancouver in January drafted a statement

  7. International Illiquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malkhozov, Aytek; Mueller, Philippe; Vedolin, Andrea

    We build a parsimonious international asset pricing model in which deviations of government bond yields from a fitted yield curve of a country measure the tightness of investors' capital constraints. We compute these measures at daily frequency for six major markets and use them to test the model...

  8. Transparency International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M. (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the

  9. Interne evalueringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    Det er en gennemgående tese i denne undersøgelse af interne evalueringer, at en af de vigtigste kendetegn ved den New Public Management -dominerede udvikling af den offentlige sektors reguleringspolitik, som Danmark såvel som en række andre OECD lande har gennemlevet, er en omfattende brug af alle...

  10. Cooperating Internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    A number of college and university consortia have embarked on international educational cooperation ventures, providing valuable experiences and benefits for faculty, students, alumni, and the community. For these programs to be effective, they must have high-level institutional support, equal opportunities to participate, effective marketing and…

  11. Transparency International

    OpenAIRE

    Hulten, van, M. (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the world”. Its stated goal is “to take action to combat corruption and prevent criminal activities arising from corruption so as to help build a world in which Government, politics, business...

  12. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  13. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisich, A.

    1992-01-01

    Europe is certainly the part of the world where the largest number of international arrangements have been established for dealing with international cooperation in cases of major oil spills at sea. Let me list the most important of these multilateral arrangements: Bonn Agreement: covers the North Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC Barcelona Convention: (protocol for emergency situations) covers the Mediterranean Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC; Helsinki Convention: covers the Baltic Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and (soon) the EEC; Lisbon Agreement: covers the NE Atlantic Contracting Parties: France, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and the EEC; Community Action Plan: covers the whole community waters; EEC; Members States participate in this plan. It should be underlined that, in addition to these large multilateral agreements a number of bilateral or trilateral arrangements have been set up, such as the Copenhagen Agreement, Denger Plan, Manche Plan, etc. The Commission involvement in these international frameworks is very important: as an example, it is presently chairing the Bonn Agreement Contracting Parties meeting. In addition, being the only contracting party to all these agreements, it is able to play a unique role of coordination and information to avoid duplications and contradictions. Having given this overview, I would now focus on the Community Action Plan

  14. Conceptualizing international education : From international student to international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madge, Clare; Raghuram, Parvati; Noxolo, Pat

    2015-01-01

    In a rapidly changing transnational eduscape, it is timely to consider how best to conceptualize international education. Here we argue for a conceptual relocation from international student to international study as a means to bridge the diverse literatures on international education. International

  15. International Competitiveness.

    OpenAIRE

    Fagerberg, Jan

    1988-01-01

    This paper develops and tests a model of differing trends in international competi tiveness and economic growth across countries. The model relates the development of market shares at home and abroad to the three sets of factors: the ability to compete in technology, the ability to compete in delivery (capacity), and the ability to compete in price. The tes t, using data for fifteen OECD countries for the period 1961-83, show s that, in the medium and long run, factors related to technology a...

  16. International Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Fagerberg

    1988-01-01

    This paper develops and tests a model of differing trends in international competitiveness and economic growth across countries. The model relates the development of market shares at home and abroad to three sets of factors: the ability to compete in technology, the ability to compete in delivery(capacity) and the ability to compete in price. The test, using data for 15 OECD countries for the period 1961-1983, shows that in the medium and long run, factors related to technology and capacity a...

  17. Internal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Zagorc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: The importance of internal trainings in an organization. Purpose: The purpose of research is to examine and present internal trainings in an organization and their contribution to greater success of an organization. The paper studies employee training in a company, how the organization itself looks after its employees during training, how trainings contribute to further development of organization and the advancement of knowledge for successful operation of organization. Method: How to achieve the purpose of research, used methods and theoretical approach. Results: Specific examples and opinions of employees. Results show the importance of trainings for an organization. We can see that all employees are fairly motivated and ready to participate in trainings and can adapt to changing business environment very well. The results demonstrate that all trainings in the organization are very important and welcome. Only with continuous learning, the organization can be successful and survive in the market despite strong competition. Organization: Trainings are designed for all employees inside an organization. Different employees participate in trainings in a different way as all trainings are divided into certain work and fields that are important for each individual or department in an organization. Society: Trainings have an impact on the whole organization by contributing to its development. Originality: The originality of study is what was new in the research, what is the value and originality of research. Limitations/Future Research: Research was limited to a small number of sources.

  18. International recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Bo

    1986-01-01

    Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed a certain threshold value. These effects, therefore, can only appear after high accidental exposures. After the Chernobyl accident, they only affected about 200 individuals involved in fire extinction and rescue work at the damaged nuclear power plant. Stochastic effects, with some simplification, may be seen as the result of initial changes in the genetic code of some surviving cells. If these cells are germ cells, this may lead to hereditary harm. If they are somatic cells, the result could be cancer

  19. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The French nuclear safety authority (A.S.N.) has participated at different meeting in European Union as nuclear decommissioning assistance programme(N.D.A.P.), Regulatory assistance management group (R.A.M.G.) and Instrument for nuclear safety cooperation (I.N.S.C.). The members of Western European nuclear regulator association (W.E.N.R.A.) met and discussed about the future of W.E.N.R.A. and its representativeness and its cooperation with European nuclear safety regulator group (E.N.S.R.E.G.) and head of European radiation control authorities (H.E.R.C.A.). About International relations it is to noticed a meeting at the invitation of IAEA to discuss about the possibility to resort to the Ines scale for medical events. An audit mission under the IAEA aegis stood at Fessenheim, O.S.A.R.T. for operational safety review team. Two years and a half passed by between the audit mission Integrated regulatory review service (I.R.S.S.) welcome by A.S.N. in november 2006 and the audit mission follow up in 2009, 12 experts from 11 different countries and coordinated by three representatives of IAEA worked, the conclusions were that 90% of recommendations made to A.S.N. in 2006 were treated in a satisfying way; the evaluation gives three new recommendations, 7 new suggestions and 11 new correct practices. A meeting of the commission on safety standards (C.S.S.) stood in april 2009. Some others meeting are to be noticed: nuclear safety and security group (N.S.S.G.), expert group on nuclear and radiation safety (E.G.N.R.S.) instituted by the council of the Baltic sea states (C.B.S.S.) treats data exchange on the national networks of dose rates and surveillance of radioactivity in air. International nuclear regulator association (I.N.R.A.) held its first meeting in april 2009 at Seoul (Korea). Bilateral relations with Poland, Italy, Ukraine and Germany planed cooperation or information exchange in the field of nuclear safety. Participation to conference in Usa, meetings with United

  20. Community College Internal Auditors: Internal Audit Guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronna; And Others

    This guidebook includes information compiled by the "Audit Manual" committee of Community College Internal Auditors (CCIA) from several California community college districts regarding their internal auditing practices. The first section of the guidebook discusses the purpose of internal audits, indicating that audits assist members of…

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle: international market, international constraints and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, R.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the constraints on the nuclear fuel cycle are ones arising from economic and financial reasons, those caused by uranium resources and their distribution, those arising from technical reasons, issues of public acceptance, and those quite independent of normal industrial considerations, but caused by elements of international politics. The nuclear fuel cycle and the international market, matters of nuclear non-proliferation, and international cooperation are discussed

  2. Melanoma International Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the state of Pennsylvania, certificate #29498 © 2013 Melanoma International Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of Use Toll-free: 866-463-6663 International: 610-942-3432 Melanoma International Foundation 250 Mapleflower ...

  3. Degradation of Verapamil hydrochloride in water by gliding arc discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krishna, S.; Mašláni, Alan; Izdebski, T.; Horáková, M.; Klementová, Š.; Špatenka, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 152, June (2016), s. 47-54 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Gliding arc discharge * Emission spectroscopy * Pharmaceuticals * Half-life * Degradation mechanism Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.208, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653516302442

  4. Synergy between verapamil and other multidrug-resistance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4. Faculté de Pharmacie, 27, Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille, France; CNRS Délégation Régionale Languedoc-Roussillon, 34293 Montpellier, France; Faculté de Médecine Xavier -Bichat, 75870 Paris, France; Institut de Biologie ...

  5. Cardiovascular collapse due to intravenous verapamil in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    controlled with propranolol in one and sotalol in the other. Factors contributing to the cardiovascular collapse ... controlled for 8 months, during which the patient remained asymptomatic. Thereafter he returned to his home in ... decrease in cardiac output, cause marked hypotension. Circulatory arrest in patient 1 was due to ...

  6. Models og International Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2015-01-01

    on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms, the motivating factors that give rise to such firms and their growth modalities and strategies. These models reflect the merger...... of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship....

  7. The International Criminal Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity.......This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity....

  8. The Internal Audit Outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Gołębiowski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores an issue of the internal audit outsourcing. It indicates the differences between internal audit, outsourcing and cosourcing of this service as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Drawing from the research on internal audit outsourcing the recent market trends were identified as well as motivations for choosing different forms of internal auditing.

  9. Models of international entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2012-01-01

    The purpose with this article is to review models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures in order to investigate how and why international new ventures are established and developed. This article attempts an integration of extant theory...... on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms (Figure 1), the motivating factors that give rise to such firms (Figure 2) and their growth modalities and strategies (Figure 3......). These models reflect the merger of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship. Managers in international entrepreneurial firms and students in international business and entrepreneurship can use the models as framework for understanding international...

  10. Models og International Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2015-01-01

    The purpose with this article is to review models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures in order to investigate how and why international new ventures are established and developed. This article attempts an integration of extant theory...... on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms, the motivating factors that give rise to such firms and their growth modalities and strategies. These models reflect the merger...... of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship....

  11. Internal Control: Peran Dan Perkembangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Murtin, Alek

    2000-01-01

    Perhatian terhadap pentingnya internal control dalam organisasi berjalan dari waktu ke waktu untuk meningkatkan fungsi internal control yang disesuaikan dengan perkembangan lingkungan organisasi, dimulai dengan adanya internal check, kemudian internal control system, internal control structure dan terakhir adalah internal control-integrated framework. Internal control system sempat berkembang beberapa tahun di Indonesia yang selanjutnya digantikan oleh internal control structure yang digunaka...

  12. International energy outlook, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2035, : prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, including outlooks : for major energy fuels and associated carbon dioxide emissions. The International Energy Outlook 2010 (...

  13. Economics and International Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramesh

    1983-01-01

    A methodology linking the teaching of economics to the promotion of international understanding is discussed. The content of a course dealing with the new international economic order is examined. (Author/RM)

  14. International trade and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada L, Luis Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Topics are presented as economic theory and theory of the international trade, international dimension of the environmental problems, economic prosperity, environmental quality and lineament are given for an alternative, among others

  15. International images: business cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, S; Pucci, J

    1991-01-01

    Nursing specialists engage in a variety of international professional activities. Business cards are an important aspect of establishing a professional image. This article presents recommended business card contents, international etiquette, card design and production, and cared innovations.

  16. International aspects of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    International collaborative efforts in magnetic confinement fusion in which the USA is involved are reviewed. These efforts are carried under the auspices of international agencies and through bilateral agreements

  17. International diversification and Microfinance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, Rients; Lensink, Robert; Spierdijk, Laura

    International commercial banks, institutional investors, and private investors have become increasingly interested in financing microfinance institutions (MFIs). This paper investigates whether adding microfinance funds to a portfolio of risky international assets yields diversification gains. By

  18. International diversification and Microfinance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, R.; Lensink, B.W.; Spierdijk, L.

    2011-01-01

    International commercial banks, institutional investors, and private investors have become increasingly interested in financing microfinance institutions (MFIs). This paper investigates whether adding microfinance funds to a portfolio of risky international assets yields diversification gains. By

  19. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain

    2014-12-04

    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  20. International double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Odarčenko, Michal

    2015-01-01

    1 Summary This thesis deals with the issue of international double taxation of income and capital and methods for its solution. International double taxation is an issue which states began to deal with in the late 19th century. This interest intensified after the First World War when also the League of Nations (predecessor of the United Nations) began to deal with international double taxation. Most attention the phenomenon of double taxation of income and capital with an international elemen...

  1. Internal wave interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Manikandan; Peacock, Thomas

    2010-03-19

    Internal waves are a ubiquitous and significant means of momentum and energy transport in the oceans, atmosphere, and astrophysical bodies. Here, we show that internal wave propagation in nonuniform density stratifications, which are prevalent throughout nature, has a direct mathematical analogy with the classical optical problem of a Fabry-Perot multiple-beam light interferometer. We rigorously establish this correspondence, and furthermore provide the first experimental demonstration of an internal wave interferometer, based on the theory of resonant transmission of internal waves.

  2. International Courts and Tribunals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaya Castro, J.M.; Cali, B.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter introduces a type of institution that is very important in the field of international law: international courts. The last few decades have seen an enormous rise in the number and importance of such courts, not just for states but for all (international) actors. Increasingly, what

  3. Petroleum and international policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2002-01-01

    To illustrate the relation between the petroleum and the international policy, the author presents the place of the petroleum industry in the international relations by an analysis of the historical aspects, the states and international organizations interventions and the prices evolution. (A.L.B.)

  4. National and International Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, David

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Canadian government policy dealing with internal matters of party politics and international questions of human rights. Describes the political situation in Burma as an oppressive military regime. Urges the Canadian government to take a firmer stand to influence the international community against tolerating regimes that are guilty of…

  5. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  6. Attracting International Hotels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Agbola, Frank Wogbe

    2015-01-01

    With the increased international competition facing hotel chains, it is essential that the next destination they enter is the most attractive option possible. The host destinations too have a keen interest in strategically positioning themselves in order to attract international hotels since thei...... for international hotels. We then rank these. The results show that welcomeness, infrastructure, and crime rate are the three most important factors that influence the location of international hotels in host destinations.......With the increased international competition facing hotel chains, it is essential that the next destination they enter is the most attractive option possible. The host destinations too have a keen interest in strategically positioning themselves in order to attract international hotels since...... their presence has several positive effects. Using, for the first time, actual on-location data we investigate the factors that matter most for international hotels when selecting host destinations. Specifically, we identify 23 factors that make a destination an attractive (or unattractive) location...

  7. International safeguards data authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, R.B.; Smith, C.E.; DeLand, S.M.; Manatt, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    The International Safeguards community is becoming increasingly reliant on information stored in electronic form. In international monitoring and related activities it must be possible to verify and maintain the integrity of this electronic information. This paper discusses the use of data authentication technology to assist in accomplishing this task. The paper provides background information, identifies the relevance to international safeguards, discusses issues related to export controls, algorithm patents, key management and the use of commercial vs. custom software.

  8. School of International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Michail M. Narinskii

    2014-01-01

    International Relations have been and remain not only one of the basic academic disciplines, but also one of the main directions of research work at MGIMO. Doing IR is closely intertwined with theory and practice, history and current events, the desire to combine a deep knowledge of the factual material and research-based evaluation in accordance with objective laws found in international life. Training of highly qualified specialists in international relations is impossible without a fundame...

  9. International New Ventures

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2004-01-01

    The label ‘International New Ventures’ has been used to designate firms, which from their inception are oriented towards the international market place. The present article aims to test empirically whether such a type of manufacturing firms differ from comparable firms with respect to some basic characteristics. The motivation for doing so is to evaluate the usefulness of studying International New Ventures as a distinct form of economic organization.

  10. International Research Chairs Initiative | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The International Research Chairs Initiative (IRCI) is a seven-year, CA$8 million research program that pairs top research talent from universities in Canada with their counterparts in developing countries to address key development challenges. These specialists share their advanced skills and knowledge to confront issues ...

  11. International Ecohealth Forum 2008 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will be hosted by the National Institute of Public Health (INSP) in Mérida, Mexico, 1-4 December 2008. The Forum is expected to bring together more than 700 participants from around the world and will constitute a seminal step toward consolidating an international community of practitioners with a holistic perspective ...

  12. International Rehabilitation Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, William

    2001-01-01

    The International Rehabilitation Network's goal is to improve the quality of services for land mine survivors and other amputee's through the dissemination of educational programs to rehabilitation professionals...

  13. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  14. SME International Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Child, John; Hsieh, Linda; Elbanna, Said

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses two questions through a study of 180 SMEs located in contrasting industry and home country contexts. First, which business models for international markets prevail among SMEs and do they configure into different types? Second, which factors predict the international business...... models that SMEs follow? Three distinct international business models (traditional market-adaptive, technology exploiter, and ambidextrous explorer) are found among the SMEs studied. The likelihood of SMEs adopting one business model rather than another is to a high degree predictable with reference...... to a small set of factors: industry, level of home economy development, and decision-maker international experience....

  15. Archives: Animal Research International

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 40 of 40 ... Archives: Animal Research International. Journal Home > Archives: Animal Research International. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 40 of 40 ...

  16. International Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    This article, with a focus on North American postsecondary education, identifies international students as a strategic enrollment management institutional priority; presents themes in the international student retention, satisfaction, and success research literature; and describes related best practices. It also presents the findings from an…

  17. Publishing International Counseling Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…

  18. International Perspectives. Chapter 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains seven papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities that provide an international perspective on the therapeutic community (TC) movement as it is today. Papers include: (1) "What's Happening on an International Level" (William B. O'Brien); (2) "Therapeutic Communities of America"…

  19. OCRWM international procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    These international procedures provide guidance and assistance for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and for OCRWM Project Offices, contractors and subcontractors in conducting international activities. They supplement the relevant Department of Energy (DOE) orders (which are referenced), not supplant them

  20. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...

  1. International Entrepreneurship and Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Servais, Per; Zucchella, Antonella; Palamera, Giada

    2006-01-01

    This contribution focuses on international sourcing as an entrepreneurial act and aims at demonstrating that it is actually at the core of internationalization processes of small firms, both established and international new ventures. Another issue of this research is to understand how these firms...

  2. International Resource Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabel, H. G.

    The International Resource Management program enables undergraduate students of the University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, College of Natural Resources to complete an academic minor in International Resource Management. The program attempts to alert students and faculty to global environmental issues and their interconnectedness with a variety of…

  3. INTERNAL AUDIT CHARTER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    sblanchard

    2015-03-30

    Mar 30, 2015 ... The Chief Audit Executive, staff and consultants do not assume any responsibility or authority over any Centre activities outside of the. Risk Management and Internal Audit unit. The performance of internal audit activities does not relieve management of any of their assigned responsibilities. The Chief Audit ...

  4. Modeling Internal Radiation Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Theo E.; Pellegrini, M.; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.

    2011-01-01

    A new technique is described to model (internal) radiation therapy. It is founded on morphological processing, in particular distance transforms. Its formal basis is presented as well as its implementation via the Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transform. Its use for all variations of internal

  5. Research in International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolby, Nadine; Rahman, Aliya

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, international education has existed at the margins of educational research. However, in the current context of globalization, international education has moved closer to the center of educational research throughout the world. In this article, the authors identify, describe, and analyze six distinct research approaches to…

  6. International skatteret 2. udgave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage

    Bogen redegør for de grundlæggende principper i den internationale skatteret, der omfatter intern dansk udlandsskatteret, herunder samspillet med fremmed ret, dobbeltbeskatningsaftalerne , herunder samspillet med dansk ret, samt EU-skatteretten, herunder samspillet mellem intern dansk ret og EU...

  7. [Internal quality control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, C; Arnaud, J; Adjidé, V; Vassault, A

    2010-12-01

    The internal quality control is a key technical requirement through accreditation by the NF EN ISO 15189. This document presents recommendations to assist the medical laboratory to design, implement and operate daily and retrospectively an efficient system of internal control quality. It identifies the important issues attached to these different steps.

  8. International Trade and Protectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  9. International Youth Nuclear Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.

    2017-01-01

    International Youth Nuclear Congress (IYNC) was Initiated by an international YG group of enthusiasts in 1997. Mission statement developed at ENC1998 in Nice, France Growth in enthusiasm and support: IAEA, Nuclear Societies, companies. IYNC run by the Young Generation with full support of experienced advisors, nuclear societies and companies. First came to African continent when IYNC 2010 was hosted by South Africa

  10. International mercury conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leaner, J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg) affects human health and the environment, it calls for immediate action. Action is needed at local, regional and international level to reduce the risk associated with mercury, which is a global international problem, as it is a...

  11. A New International Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1973-01-01

    Comments on the cooperative spirit of geophysicists which resulted in the largest scientific cooperative project ever conducted: the International Geophysical Year. Describes a new international venture (called Geodynamics Project) that is designed to exploit the many opportunities for new insights resulting from recent advances in earth science.…

  12. International New Venture Legitimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2013-01-01

    There is limited theoretical understanding and empirical evidence for how international new ventures legitimate. Drawing from legitimation theory, this study fills in this gap by exploring how international new ventures legitimate and strive for survival in the face of critical events during...... the process of their emergence. It is a longitudinal, multiple-case study research that employs critical incident technique for data collection, analysis and interpretation. Following theory driven sampling, five international new ventures were selected that were operating in the software sector in the UK...... types of legitimation strategies: technology, operating, and anchoring. Studying international new ventures through theoretical lenses of legitimation is a promising area of research that would contribute to the advancement of international entrepreneurship theory....

  13. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  14. UNCLOS and International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Romera, Beatriz; Coelho, Nelson F.

    2018-01-01

    here is that of unilateral state practice and that practice has been relying, at least to some extent, on general public international law. This chapter explains how it is important to revisit international law to better understand the relative relevance of the UNCLOS in oceans governance today. Indeed......, treaty law is only one of many sources of the law that governs international relations, the others being customary international law and principles of law. The main conclusion of this chapter is that states may have to wake up to the limitations of the UNCLOS and that this will require understanding......The UNCLOS has been since its signature in 1982 the fundamental international legal reference for oceans governance. Indeed, this treaty was written “in pursuit of our common dream of writing a constitution for the oceans”. Yet much alike any dream, reality sooner or later catches up. The reality...

  15. Internal Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vibeke Thøis

    2018-01-01

    Internal social media is a web-based communication arena that provides all organizational members with a communication opportunity. The media has emerged in organizations since 2004, and is increasingly seen as a way of giving employees a voice in organizations which can benefit the organization...... in terms of knowledge sharing, collaboration, and employee participation and engagement. The first wave of studies of internal social media was primarily from an information-systems perspective and focused more on its adoption, its affordances, and the outcome of its introduction. The second wave...... of studies was more concerned with studying the dynamics of communication on internal social media, in order to understand coworkers as strategic communicators and how communication on internal social media can constitute the organization. With a successful introduction of internal social media, coworkers...

  16. FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU NICOLAE BĂLUNĂ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

  17. Cancer from internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation from internal emitters, or internally deposited radionuclides, is an important component of radiation exposures encountered in the workplace, home, or general environment. Long-term studies of human populations exposed to various internal emitters by different routes of exposure are producing critical information for the protection of workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to examine recent developments and discuss their potential importance for understanding lifetime cancer risks from internal emitters. The major populations of persons being studied for lifetime health effects from internally deposited radionuclides are well known: Lung cancer in underground miners who inhaled Rn progeny, liver cancer from persons injected with the Th-containing radiographic contrast medium Thorotrast, bone cancer from occupational or medical intakes of 226 Ra or medical injections of 224 Ra, and thyroid cancer from exposures to iodine radionuclides in the environment or for medical purposes

  18. Exploring Links between Internal and International Migration in Albania : a View from Internal Migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, Erka; Bailey, Ajay; Van Wissen, Leo J. G.

    Over the last 20years, Albania has experienced sweeping economic and social changes, caused in part by increasing internal and international migration flows. Migration trajectories of Albanians represent a combination of internal, international, and return migration. Whereas scholars have previously

  19. NASA International Environmental Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie; Valek, Susan

    2010-01-01

    For nearly five decades, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been preeminent in space exploration. NASA has landed Americans on the moon, robotic rovers on Mars, and led cooperative scientific endeavors among nations aboard the International Space Station. But as Earth's population increases, the environment is subject to increasing challenges and requires more efficient use of resources. International partnerships give NASA the opportunity to share its scientific and engineering expertise. They also enable NASA to stay aware of continually changing international environmental regulations and global markets for materials that NASA uses to accomplish its mission. Through international partnerships, NASA and this nation have taken the opportunity to look globally for solutions to challenges we face here on Earth. Working with other nations provides NASA with collaborative opportunities with the global science/engineering community to explore ways in which to protect our natural resources, conserve energy, reduce the use of hazardous materials in space and earthly applications, and reduce greenhouse gases that potentially affect all of Earth's inhabitants. NASA is working with an ever-expanding list of international partners including the European Union, the European Space Agency and, especially, the nation of Portugal. Our common goal is to foster a sustainable future in which partners continue to explore the universe while protecting our home planet's resources for future generations. This brochure highlights past, current, and future initiatives in several important areas of international collaboration that can bring environmental, economic, and other benefits to NASA and the wider international space community.

  20. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.

    2014-08-05

    Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling. If properly imaged, internal multiples (internally scattered energy) can enhance the seismic image. Conventionally, to image internal multiples, accurate, sharp contrasts in the velocity model are required to construct a Green’s function with all the scattered energy. As an alternative, we have developed a generalized internal multiple imaging procedure that images any order internal scattering using the background Green’s function (from the surface to each image point), constructed from a smooth velocity model, usually used for conventional imaging. For the first-order internal multiples, the approach consisted of three steps, in which we first back propagated the recorded surface seismic data using the background Green’s function, then crosscorrelated the back-propagated data with the recorded data, and finally crosscorrelated the result with the original background Green’s function. This procedure images the contribution of the recorded first-order internal multiples, and it is almost free of the single-scattering recorded energy. The cost includes one additional crosscorrelation over the conventional single-scattering imaging application. We generalized this method to image internal multiples of any order separately. The resulting images can be added to the conventional single-scattering image, obtained, e.g., from Kirchhoff or reverse-time migration, to enhance the image. Application to synthetic data with reflectors illuminated by multiple scattering (double scattering) demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.

  1. International Students in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut ÖZER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are over three million international students worldwide, and in recent years higher education institutions compete with each other in order to receive these students to their institutions. International students are now one of the most important indicator of the internationalization of the higher education systems and institutions. In this context, the detection of the status of this indicator in our higher education system and institutions is of great importance as our higher education system shows a large expansion. This study, discusses the status of international students in our country.

  2. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  3. Internalized Meaning Factualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwy, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    The normative character of meaning creates deep problems for the attempt to give a reductive explanation of the constitution of meaning. I identify and critically examine an increasingly popular Carnap-style position, which I call Internalized Meaning Factualism (versions of which I argue...... that is internal to meaning discourse, then we can preserve the normativity of meaning and yet locate meaning in the natural world. I develop a generic motivation for this position, but argue that, since this motivation is consistent with the Ramsey-Carnap-Lewis-Jackson reductionist strategy, internalized meaning...

  4. Unilateralism in International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    international law. This note considers when and how a State or a regional organisation may legitimately take unilateral measures to protect the environment. The note will does not consider the legality of including foreign aircraft within the ETS, which has been dealt with elsewhere. Instead, it will focus...... on the legality and importance of unilateral acts for the development of international law.......The 1997 Kyoto Protocol deferred negotiations on emissions from aviation to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Also within this specialised body, agreement on how to deal with emissions from aviation has been difficult to reach.Frustrated by the lack of progress, the European...

  5. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  6. International monitoring of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.; Stein, G.

    1990-01-01

    The monitoring of the civilian nuclear energy sector has been effected successfully by IAEA and EURATOM and has contributed to a reduction of fears within the communities of nations. Certainly, it will not be possible to subject the whole world and whole spectrum of technology to monitoring. However, the nations should be enabled to reduce their greatest fears concerning an abuse and a misuse of technology by verification, and to check the compliance with such international agreements which regulate the application of a number of technologies. There are some (as yet rudimentary) approaches to an international verification in the field of environmental protection and resource policies. Nuclear energy with its sophisticated verification procedure has taken one great step ahead of the other fields. The strengths and weaknesses of its verification regime should be learned from when filling the virgin fields of international technology monitoring and its instrument, i.e. international verification. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  8. International Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  9. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben

    in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all...... the countries/regions they operate in. Instead, they focus on a few strategic markets. International user studies tend to be large-scale studies that involve the effort of many both internal and external/local human resources. The studies typically cover 2-4 countries/regions and many end users in each country...... across nationalities and (2) that it often is more important to focus on and take differences in market conditions into account than national culture per se. Companies are in the process of finding out how best to present the insights about international end users to their employees. However, so far...

  10. The Internal Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Internal control comprises the plan of organization and all the coordinate methods and measures adopted within a school system to safeguard its assets, check the reliability of its accounting data, promote operational efficiency, and encourage adherence to prescribed policies. (Author)

  11. Globalisation of international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, G

    1998-02-07

    40 years ago, activities in international health were the domain of WHO, governments (based on bilateral agreements), and non-governmental organisations. This has changed. Today, new players (such as the World Bank and, increasingly, the World Trade Organisation) have an influence on international health. As globalisation of trade and markets takes hold, new coalitions and alliances are forming to examine and deal with the direct and indirect consequences on health. This paper examines the changing context of cooperation in international health, and voices concerns about rising potential inequalities in health, both within and between countries. The question of how such changes will affect the actions of organisations working in international health is also addressed.

  12. International Transplant Nurses Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The term "clinical ladder" refers to a "grading structure which facilitates career progression and associated differentiation of ... 20-1589538 Copyright © 2006 - 2014 International Transplant Nurses Society (ITNS). No materials, including graphics, may be reused, ...

  13. Seventh International Beaver Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri A. Gorshkov

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents data on the seventh international Beaver Symposium. Brief historical background about previous Beaver Symposia beaver is shown. Data on the sections of symposium, number of participants and reports are presented.

  14. Seventh International Beaver Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri A. Gorshkov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the seventh international Beaver Symposium. Brief historical background about previous Beaver Symposia beaver is shown. Data on the sections of symposium, number of participants and reports are presented.

  15. ASKME Enterprise Portal (internal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASKME Enterprise Portal Internal (AEPi) is envisioned to be an integrated, single-point-of-entry solution that contains modular components. The AEPi will provide...

  16. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  17. International Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvorak, M F; Itshayek, E; Fehlings, M G

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Survey of expert opinion, feedback and final consensus. OBJECTIVE: To describe the development and the variables included in the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data set. SETTING: International working group. METHODS......: A committee of experts was established to select and define data elements. The data set was then disseminated to the appropriate committees and organizations for comments. All suggested revisions were considered and both the International Spinal Cord Society and the American Spinal Injury Association endorsed...... spinal intervention and procedure is coded (variables 1 through 7) and the spinal segment level is described (variables 8 and 9). Sample clinical cases were developed to illustrate how to complete it. CONCLUSION: The International SCI Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data Set...

  18. Developing international personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben; Hautopp, Heidi; Nielsen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    as they show an increasing interest in international personas. However, research on personas in a global context is limited. To address this gap, this paper provides an overview of extant research on international personas. Secondly, it presents an empirical study on challenges Danish IT companies experience...... when using the persona method to collect and present insights about their international users. A key finding in both the literature review and the empirical study was the ambiguity concerning the concept of culture. Therefore, the paper draws on theories about culture, and especially practice theory......, to discuss how challenges related to perceptions of culture and intercultural communication might be overcome when working with international personas. In particular, it is suggested that the persona method could benefit from creating narratives that focus more on the similar practices enacted...

  19. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  20. Cyberinfrastructure for international competitiveness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Happy M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available to these facilities, researchers in South Africa have started to produce high-quality scientific outputs. Furthermore, South Africa has managed to attract big international science projects, such as the Square Kilometre Array, and continues to contribute...

  1. International OCD Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and productive lives. Join Donate Volunteer Events International OCD Foundation Research. Resources. Respect. About OCD About IOCDF ... Donate Here Why Should You Attend the Annual OCD Conference? Watch the Video Find Help Search the ...

  2. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-09

    in Albania. Born in 1937. Graduate of Moscow Institute of International Relations. Worked for TASS starting in: 1968 , Was editor for the European...deputy chairman of the USSR Committee of Youth Organizations; chief of the international administration, " Olimpiada - 80" Organizing Committee; chief...Syrian border. As a result of conducting a racist policy of exterminating or expelling the Palestinian Arabs, Israel by 1968 (i.e., within two

  3. International trade and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Urata, Sh¯ujir¯o; Narjoko, Dionisius A.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of globalization on equality has become a serious concern for many countries. More evidence that challenges the theoretical prediction of positive impact of international trade on income distribution has increasingly become available recently. This paper addresses this subject, surveying the empirical findings on the impact of international trade on inequalities from various perspectives. The survey reveals that an increase in trade openness by developing countries appears to have ...

  4. Marketing CANDU internationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langstaff, J.H.

    1980-06-01

    The market for CANDU reactor sales, both international and domestic, is reviewed. It is reasonable to expect that between five and ten reactors can be sold outside Canada before the end of the centry, and new domestic orders should be forthcoming as well. AECL International has been created to market CANDU, and is working together with the Canadian nuclear industry to promote the reactor and to assemble an attractive package that can be offered abroad. (L.L.)

  5. The international uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.

    1984-01-01

    Shortages, glut, political manipulation and worries about security have all marked the international trade in uranium. In this book, the director of the International Energy Studies Program of the MIT Energy Laboratory sorts out these factors, looks closely at the position of a number of countries, and speculates on the future of a market in which supply will exceed demand, costs will vary widely, and governments will continue to be directly involved for as far ahead as anyone can see

  6. International Commercial Arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Hlušička, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of my thesis is to analyse one of the most used type of extrajudicial procedures, the International commercial arbitration. The reason for my research is the progress and elevation of use of the arbitration and not only on international field. The thesis is composed of six chapters, each of them dealing with different aspects of Arbitration. Chapter One is introductory and defines basic terminology used in the thesis. The chapter is subdivided into two parts. Part One describes in...

  7. International sales contract

    OpenAIRE

    Lauermannová, Irena

    2013-01-01

    75 International Sales Contract Abstract The objective of this thesis is to describe the ways of avoidance of the contract available under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (hereinafter the "Convention") and to make an analysis of its key term "fundamental breach of contract" as it is defined in its article 25. The thesis is composed of the introduction, three main chapters and the conclusion. The first chapter introduces the Convention itself. It ...

  8. International antitrust institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Budzinski, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The paper discussed the economic theory of international antitrust institutions. Economic theory shows that non-coordinated competition policies of regimes that are territorially smaller than the international markets on which business companies compete violate cross-border allocative efficiency and are deficient with respect to global welfare. At the same time, some diversity of antitrust institutions and policies promotes dynamic and evolutionary efficiency so that globally binding, worldwi...

  9. International energy outlook, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the current Energy Information Administration (EIA) assessment of the long-term outlook for international energy markets. This and other EIA reports are provided as a statistical service for use by managers and international energy analysts, not as a Government energy plan. Current US Government policies and foreign government policies are assumed to hold over the projection interval, which extends to the year 2010

  10. International oil law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkzad, B.

    1997-01-01

    The 1973 energy crisis demonstrated that the international petroleum industry is not totally free. Very often it has been the object of an organization, even during the domination of international oil companies which have established a petroleum international system with a system of concession rights. This system is based on an oligopolistic structure which had the characteristics of a monopoly. This vertically integrated structure of the world petroleum industry during the 1920-1950 era was more or less locked up by the system of concessions. The incompatibility of this system of excessively long concession contracts with the economical development needs of oil exporting countries has led to their abolishment. They have been replaced by new agreements. As soon as the creation of stable and permanent international oil organizations (OPEC, OAPEC, IEA), an institutional right has been established which has generated international rights and principles governing the contractual relations between oil exporting and oil importing countries. This international petroleum right is both original and specific, it is evolutive, contractual and normative. (J.S.)

  11. International opportunities and value creation in international entrepreneurship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainela, Tuija; Puhakka, Vesa; Wakkee, Ingrid; Marinova, Svetla; Larimo, Jorma; Nummela, Niina

    2016-01-01

    International entrepreneurship (IE) as a field of research has emerged at the intersection of internationalization and entrepreneurship theories. At this intersection it has come to emphasize the activities centered on international opportunities. International opportunities, then, are about value

  12. Managerial Attention in International SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Jiasi

    2017-01-01

    Managerial attention affects organizational strategies and the resulting consequences. In the international business context, it is noted that how much attention managers give to the international marketplace, i.e., international attention, has profound implications for large global companies’

  13. Internal targets for LEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, K.; Gspann, J.; Mohl, D.; Poth, H.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter considers the use of thin internal targets in conjunction with phase-space cooling at the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). Topics considered include the merits of internal target operation; the most efficient use of antiprotons and of proton synchrotron (PS) protons, highest center-of-mass (c.m.) energy resolution; highest angular resolution and access to extreme angles; the transparent environment for all reaction products; a windowless source and pure targets; highest luminosity and count rates; access to lowest energies with increasing resolution; internal target thickness and vacuum requirements; required cooling performance; and modes of operation. It is demonstrated that an internal target in conjunction with phase-space cooling has the potential of better performance in terms of the economic use of antiprotons and consequently of PS protons; energy resolution; angular resolution; maximum reaction rate capability (statistical precision); efficient parasitic operation; transparency of the target for reaction products; access to low energies; and the ease of polarized target experiments. It is concluded that all p - experiments which need high statistics and high p - flux, such as studies of rare channels or broad, weak resonance structures, would profit from internal targets

  14. Internal Markets for Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    of R&D to affiliated companies in the same business group. The challenges are analysed for affiliates in order to engage themselves in group-internal markets, for instance to avoid bottlenecks in the product development or to improve their technological knowledge. To research this phenomenon, a case...... study is accomplished by investigating a Multinational company whose affiliates are self-reliant and horizontally diversified. Mixed methods are applied by having structured depth interviews with the responsible R&D managers as well as by sending a survey out to associated project managers. The study...... indicates that the organizational complexity, infrastructures within the business group and the impact of external market structures play an essential role for the usage and effectiveness of group-internal markets. Hence, the insights offer valuable clues why internal markets have advantages...

  15. International power opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, A.

    1995-01-01

    Key factors in international development were discussed, using TransAlta Energy Corporation as an example. Trans-Alta is a company generating 4,500 MW of electricity from coal, hydro and natural gas. It has operating facilities in Canada, Argentina and New Zealand, including extensive coal mining interests in Canada. The climate for international opportunities in the energy field were judged to be very good in view of the projected requirement for some 900,000 MW of new power generation in different parts of the world by the year 2003. The five key factors identified for international power development were: (1) using core skills to add value, (2) have a long-term focus, (3) focus on specific countries and selected regions, (4) develop strong relationships with local partners, and (5) develop appropriate projects. 2 figs

  16. Assessment of internal doses

    CERN Document Server

    Rahola, T; Falk, R; Isaksson, M; Skuterud, L

    2002-01-01

    There is a definite need for training in dose calculation. Our first course was successful and was followed by a second, both courses were fully booked. An example of new tools for software products for bioassay analysis and internal dose assessment is the Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis (IMBA) were demonstrated at the second course. This suite of quality assured code modules have been adopted in the UK as the standard for regulatory assessment purposes. The intercomparison measurements are an important part of the Quality Assurance work. In what is known as the sup O utside workers ' directive it is stated that the internal dose measurements shall be included in the European Unions supervision system for radiation protection. The emergency preparedness regarding internal contamination was much improved by the training with and calibration of handheld instruments from participants' laboratories. More improvement will be gained with the handbook giving practical instructions on what to do in case of e...

  17. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, J.D.; Stasko, R.R.

    1989-09-01

    An international design team comprised of members from Canada, Europe, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America, are designing an experimental fusion test reactor. The engineering and testing objectives of this International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are to validate the design and to demonstrate controlled ignition, extended burn of a deuterium and tritium plasma, and achieve steady state using technology expected to be available by 1990. The concept maximizes flexibility while allowing for a variety of plasma configurations and operating scenarios. During physics phase operation, the machine produces a 22 MA plasma current. In the technology phase, the machine can be reconfigured with a thicker shield and a breeding blanket to operate with an 18 MA plasma current at a major radius of 5.5 meters. Canada's involvement in the areas of safety, facility design, reactor configuration and maintenance builds on our internationally recognized design and operational expertise in developing tritium processes and CANDU related technologies

  18. International energy annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  19. International energy outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1994 (IEO94) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets between 1990 and 2010. The report is provided as a statistical service to assist energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. These forecasts are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Depart. of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 205(c). The IEO94 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1993-which means that provisions of the Climate Change Action Plan unveiled by the Administration in mid-October are not reflected by the US projections.

  20. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  1. International Data & Economic Analysis (IDEA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — International Data UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Food Price Index; IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics; Millennium Challenge Corporation; and World Bank,...

  2. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  3. International nuclear agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miatello, A.; Severino, R.

    1988-01-01

    This multilingual glossary, in the laborious compilation of which the authors have been greatly assisted by a group of professional translators and experts, presents for the first time a substantial number of entries in four languages (English, French, German and Italian), whose terminology and phraseology, all bearing the appropriate normative reference, has been drawn from the official text of the most relevant international agreements on nuclear policy. It is complemented by a thorough critical study on the status of nonproliferation by Lawrence Scheinman and Josef Pilat. Librarians, translators and interpreters as well as scholars and researchers in international law will find this volume a reference tool of specific interest

  4. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  5. Internal Waves in CVX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Robert F.

    1996-01-01

    Near the liquid-vapor critical point, density stratification supports internal gravity waves which affect 1-g viscosity measurements in the CVX (Critical Viscosity of Xenon) experiment. Two internal-wave modes were seen in the horizontal viscometer. The frequencies of the two modes had different temperature dependences: with decreasing temperature, the higher frequency increased monotonically from 0.7 to 2.8 Hz, but the lower frequency varied non-monotonically, with a maximum of 1.0 Hz at 20 mK above the critical temperature. The measured frequencies agree with independently calculated frequencies to within 15%.

  6. International Market Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2009-01-01

    The review presents the book International Market Analysis: Theories and Methods, written by John Kuiada, professor at Centre of International Business, Department of Business Studies, Aalborg University. The book is refreshingly new in its way of looking at a classical problem. It looks at market...... analysis from the point of vie of ways of thinking about markets. Furthermore, the book includes the concept of learning in the analysis of markets og how the way we understand business reality influneces our choice of methodology for market analysis....

  7. Internal variables in thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Berezovski, Arkadi

    2017-01-01

    This book describes an effective method for modeling advanced materials like polymers, composite materials and biomaterials, which are, as a rule, inhomogeneous. The thermoelastic theory with internal variables presented here provides a general framework for predicting a material’s reaction to external loading. The basic physical principles provide the primary theoretical information, including the evolution equations of the internal variables. The cornerstones of this framework are the material representation of continuum mechanics, a weak nonlocality, a non-zero extra entropy flux, and a consecutive employment of the dissipation inequality. Examples of thermoelastic phenomena are provided, accompanied by detailed procedures demonstrating how to simulate them.

  8. Bourdieu in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The last few years have seen a genuine wave of publications promoting sociology in international relations. Scholars have suggested that Bourdieu’s vocabulary can be applied to study security, diplomacy, migration and global environmental politics. Yet we still lack a systematic and accessible....... The chapters demonstrate how these concepts can be reinterpreted and used in new ways when exposed to Bourdieusian logic. Challenging key pillars of IR scholarship, Bourdieu in International Relations will be of interest to critical theorists, and scholars of IR theory....

  9. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics......, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance...

  10. Internal friction in zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyada-Naborikawa, L.T.; De Batist, R.; Eersels, L.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of type (bending, tension or torsion) and temperature (100 K, 300 K) of deformation on the internal friction spectrum of well-annealed polycrystalline zirconium has been investigated at frequencies of about 1 Hz and about 100 Hz. The result of ageing at temperatures not higher than 300 K on both the modulus and the internal friction is also described. The observed peaks are discussed in terms of either dislocation relaxation or dislocation point defect interaction effects and combined with literature data to obtain better defined values for the relaxation parameters

  11. Internal sources dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, Eduardo

    1994-01-01

    The absorbed dose, need of estimation in risk evaluation in the application of radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine practice,internal dosimetry,internal and external sources. Calculation methodology,Marinelli model,MIRD system for absorbed dose calculation based on biological parameters of radiopharmaceutical in human body or individual,energy of emitted radiations by administered radionuclide, fraction of emitted energy that is absorbed by target body.Limitation of the MIRD calculation model. A explanation of Marinelli method of dosimetry calculation,β dosimetry. Y dosimetry, effective dose, calculation in organs and tissues, examples. Bibliography .

  12. International Conference on Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    OMICS International, (conference series) the World Class Open Access Publisher and Scientific Event Organizer is hosting “International Conference on physics” which is going to be the biggest conference dedicated to Physics. The theme “Highlighting innovations and challenges in the field of Physics” and it features a three day conference addressing the major breakthroughs, challenges and the solutions adopted. The conference will be held during June 27-29, 2016 at New Orleans, USA. Will be published in: http://physics.conferenceseries.com/

  13. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  14. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  15. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  16. Analysing international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    theories to ‘explain’ international relations and distinguishes between different kinds of explanation. In Section 4 I look at how different theories have been grouped – first according to their underlying views of what is valid knowledge, and second in terms of different accounts of how history works....... matters by depicting reality in new ways. I then show how different theories rely on different ‘pictures’ of what makes up the international system. Section 2 shows how theories differ in terms of their scope, their aims and their purposes. Section 3 explores some of the choices to be made when using...

  17. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This document is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. The Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand and trade in OECD countries.

  18. Internationalism and Globalization as Contexts for International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, James; Thompson, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    A problem with the construction of an inclusive definition of international education is that the word 'international' has a variety of connotations. It is proposed that the term 'international education' is ambiguous because it appears to refer to contrasting usages in educational studies. International education is frequently discussed in the…

  19. The international climate compromise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Moor, A.P.G.; Van Beers, C.P.

    2001-01-01

    A proposal is made to combine an international strategy for the abolition of energy subsidies and forestry subsidies with the realization of a global climate regime. This can be the argument for the USA to join the Kyoto Protocol. 6 refs

  20. International development trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuermann, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Survey: World primary energy consumption balance 1976/77; world consumption of primary energy sources 1957/77; world petroleum extraction in the first half of 1978; international perspective of petroleum consumption and petroleum prices; the West German power industry in the 1st half of 1978. (HP) [de

  1. Medications and International Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-12

    This podcast answers a listener's question about her medications and an international trip she's planning.  Created: 4/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/12/2011.

  2. International Photovoltaic Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-12-01

    The International Photovoltaics Program Plan is in direct response to the Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (PL 95-590). As stated in the Act, the primary objective of the plan is to accelerate the widespread use of photovoltaic systems in international markets. Benefits which could result from increased international sales by US companies include: stabilization and expansion of the US photovoltaic industry, preparing the industry for supplying future domestic needs; contribution to the economic and social advancement of developing countries; reduced world demand for oil; and improvements in the US balance of trade. The plan outlines programs for photovoltaic demonstrations, systems developments, supplier assistance, information dissemination/purchaser assistance, and an informaion clearinghouse. Each program element includes tactical objectives and summaries of approaches. A program management office will be established to coordinate and manage the program plan. Although the US Department of Energy (DOE) had the lead responsibility for preparing and implementing the plan, numerous federal organizations and agencies (US Departments of Commerce, Justice, State, Treasury; Agency for International Development; ACTION; Export/Import Bank; Federal Trade Commission; Small Business Administration) were involved in the plan's preparation and implementation.

  3. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...

  4. INTERNAL AUDIT CHARTER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sandra Blanchard

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... IDRC supports “Innovating for Development” and is committed to excellence in all spheres of its activities including ... with the President, review of the performance of the Internal Audit function and the sufficiency ... Establishing and maintaining a quality assurance program that covers all aspects of the.

  5. International waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the international waste management conference. Topics covered include: Quality assurance in the OCR WM program; Leading the spirit of quality; Dept. of Energy hazardous waste remedial actions program; management of hazardous waste projects; and System management and quality assurance

  6. Introducing International Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Geneva is variously known as the city of peace, the world’s smallest metropolis and a place where great ideas have taken form. It has been the home to philosophers such as Rousseau and Voltaire. It was the centre of the Calvinist reformation and birthplace of the Red Cross.   I hardly need to tell you that it is also a city of great international collaboration in science. Little wonder, then, that over the years, Geneva has developed into the world’s capital of internationalism in the broadest sense of the word. Yet while we all know of the existence of modern day International Geneva, how many of us really know what it does? Here at CERN, we’re about to find out. Next week sees the first in a series of talks at the Laboratory from the heads of some of the institutions that make up International Geneva. On Friday, 20 February, it will be my pleasure to introduce you to Michael Møller, Acting Director-General of the United Nations Office at Geneva (UNO...

  7. International Engagement Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    International Travel System; Expedite Lawful Flows of U.S.-Bound People and Goods; Promote Lawful Immigration; and Enhance Cybersecurity. In order to...of Intent (LOI) to support targeted engagements. S&T continually seeks improvements in cooperative activity development and delivery. Cooperative

  8. International Neutron Radiography Newsletter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    At the First World Conference on Neutron Radiography i t was decided to continue the "Neutron Radiography Newsletter", published previously by J.P. Barton, as the "International Neutron Radiography Newsletter" (INRNL), with J.C. Doraanus as editor. The British Journal of Non-Destructive Testing...

  9. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  10. Direct vision internal urethrotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, H; Willumsen, H; Søndergaard Jensen, L

    1984-01-01

    During a five-year period, direct vision internal urethrotomy was used for the treatment of urethral strictures in 34 men. After the primary operation the patients were followed for an average period of 29 months (range 3-73 months). During this period 53% of the patients were found to have one...

  11. International environmental agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, Aart

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of environmental externalities at the global level requires international agreements between sovereign states. Game theory provides an appropriate theoretical tool for analysis. However, game theory can result in a wide range of outcomes, and therefore it is important to discuss the

  12. International thermal reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    The worldwide development of nuclear power plants is reviewed. Charts are presented which show the commitment to light-water reactor capacity construction with breakdown by region and country. Additional charts show the major nuclear research centers which have substantial scope in light water reactor development and extensive international activities

  13. Intrapreneurship - An International Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, N.S.; Stam, E.; Wennekers, A.R.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of a novel international comparative study of intrapreneurship, i.e., employees developing new business activities for their employer. This study is based on an exploratory investigation in the framework of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2008, in which

  14. Successful international negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerry, G.

    1997-01-01

    These remarks on successful international trade negotiations deal with the following topics: culture and differences in psychology; building friendly relationships and letting both sides appear to win; well written proposals; security of negotiating information; the complexity and length of nuclear negotiations

  15. International Students in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As the number of international students in Chinese higher education increases steadily, this volume is one of the first to focus on their many and varied experiences. With contributions focusing on such topics as intercultural adaptation, soft power and interculturality, language learning strateg...

  16. Gun Internal Ballistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An approximate method of analysis is formulated for gun internal ballistics. The method is incorporated in a digital computer program which is...described. The validity of the method of analysis and computational procedure is substantiated by comparison of theoretical results with experimental

  17. The international spinach database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Menting, F.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    The database concentrates on passport data of spinach of germplasm collections worldwide. All available passport data of accessions included in the International Spinach Database are downloadable as zipped Excel file. This zip file also contains the decoding tables, except for the FAO institutes

  18. The International Lactuca database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Menting, F.B.J.

    2014-01-01

    The International Lactuca Database includes accessions of species belonging to the genus Lactuca, but also a few accessions belonging to related genera. Passport data can be searched on-line or downloaded. Characterization and evaluation data can be accessed via the downloading section. Requests for

  19. Internal budget control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mervete Shala

    2011-06-01

    Generally, duties of internal control officers within ministries and institutions must be clearly divided to reduce the risk of inco-rrect behaviour. Operations of an efficient control mechanism influence and ensure conditions for rule of law, good governance, and democracy.

  20. International fuel bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group discusses the establishment of an international bank for nuclear fuels. The statements by representatives of seven countries discuss the specific features of a bank of this kind which is set up to facilitate access to nuclear fuels but also to permit a more rigid control in the sense of the non-proliferation philosophy

  1. International nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, M.M. de.

    1981-01-01

    The peculiar feature of a developing nuclear law is discussed. Opinions from various writers and jurists are presented. It is concluded that it should be considered as international law, whose main sources are the various treaties, conventions and agreements. (A.L.) [pt

  2. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  3. [Internal migration studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stpiczynski, T

    1986-10-01

    Recent research on internal migration in Poland is reviewed. The basic sources of data, consisting of censuses or surveys, are first described. The author discusses the relationship between migration studies and other sectors of the national economy, and particularly the relationship between migration and income.

  4. Pathways Intern Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggett, Daniel James

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) provides a formal training program for prospective employees titled, Pathways Intern Employment. The Pathways program targets graduate and undergraduate students who strive to become an active contributor to NASA's goal of space exploration. The report herein provides an account of Daniel Huggett's Pathways experience for the Spring and Summer 2017 semesters.

  5. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, Lineke

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  6. When managerialism meets internationalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dykmann, Klaas; Lewis, Jenny; Bentzen, Sune Raahede

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether reform ideas that gained influence in national-level bureaucracies in the 1970s were also on the United Nations’ internal agenda. The Joint Inspection Unit (Bertrand) Report of 1971 is the focus of this analysis, as it addressed personnel problems in the UN Secretari...

  7. Independence of Internal Auditors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montondon, Lucille; Meixner, Wilda F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 288 college and university auditors investigated patterns in their appointment, reporting, and supervisory practices as indicators of independence and objectivity. Results indicate a weakness in the positioning of internal auditing within institutions, possibly compromising auditor independence. Because the auditing function is…

  8. Reshaping the International Order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1976-01-01

    textabstractIn October the third report to the Club of Rome was published under the title Reshaping the International Order (RIO).1 It was formulated by a group of about twenty experts from developing as well as developed countries, including one from Romania. The initiative to undertake this study

  9. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  10. Simulation in International Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists have long worked to replicate real-world phenomena in their research and teaching environments. Unlike our biophysical science colleagues, we are faced with an area of study that is not governed by the laws of physics and other more predictable relationships. As a result, social scientists, and international studies scholars more…

  11. International energy outlook 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA`s projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA`s World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts` knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs.

  12. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ely, James H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haas, Derek A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harper, Warren W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heimbigner, Tom R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hubbard, Charles W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Humble, Paul H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Madison, Jill C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Panisko, Mark E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ripplinger, Mike D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stewart, Timothy L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  13. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  14. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  15. Developing international personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben; Hautopp, Heidi; Nielsen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    , to discuss how challenges related to perceptions of culture and intercultural communication might be overcome when working with international personas. In particular, it is suggested that the persona method could benefit from creating narratives that focus more on the similar practices enacted...

  16. International Olympiad in Informatics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. International Olympiad in Informatics. Information and Announcements Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 102-107. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/01/0102-0107. Resonance ...

  17. Internal split field generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundat,; George, Thomas [Knoxville, TN; Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Vass, Arpad Alexander [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-01-03

    A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.

  18. International energy outlook 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA's projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA's World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts' knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs

  19. Internalized homophobia in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Yanykin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to empirically verify that the combination of negative attitudes of LGB people towards homosexuality in general and to their own personal characteristics associated with a gay orientation has a negative impact on their self-esteem. Design. To test this hypothesis we adapted and standardized the Russian version of the personal homonegativity scale (Mayfield, 2001. Using the adapted measure, we studied how personal homonegativity affects the self-esteem of LGB people. We explored the reliability and validity of the adapted measure with 92 gay respondents aged over 21. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-scale structure — the method was proved. The modified measure includes ten statements divided into two scales: Homonegativity (internalized homophobia; Cronbach’s alpha =0.96 and Acceptance of one’s own homosexuality (Cronbach alpha’s = 0.88. The results indicated that the adapted measure was suitable for assessing internalized homonegativity among gay individuals in Russia. Results. More than a half of the respondents (55.4 % had a rather low level of internalized homophobia which was related to fewer neurotic symptoms and emotional discomfort in comparison with other respondents. However, a higher level of internalized homophobia in remaining respondents (44.6 % was related to a more positive emotional acceptance of their own homosexuality and to a higher level of self-esteem. Conclusion. The results of the analyses of the original hypothesis were confirmed only partially. Internalized homophobia of LGB people appeared to adversely affect the severity of neurotic symptoms and subjective well-being.

  20. International fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear energy of the light elements deuterium and lithium can be released if the 100 MK degree temperature required for deuterium-tritium thermonuclear fusion reactions can be achieved together with sufficient thermal insulation for a net energy yield. Progress of world-wide research shows good prospect for these physical conditions being achieved by the use of magnetic field confinement and of rapidly developing heating methods. Tokamak systems, alternative magnetic systems and inertial confinement progress are described. International co-operation features a number of bilateral agreements between countries: the Euratom collaboration which includes the Joint European Torus, a joint undertaking of eleven Western European nations of Euratom, established to build and operate a major confinement experiment; the development of co-operative projects within the OECD/IEA framework; the INTOR workshop, a world-wide study under IAEA auspices of the next major step in fusion research which might be built co-operatively; and assessments of the potential of nuclear fusion by the IAEA and the International Fusion Research Council. The INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) studies have outlined a major plant of the tokamak type to study the engineering and technology of fusion reactor systems, which might be constructed on a world-wide basis to tackle and share the investment risks of the developments which lie ahead. This paper summarizes the recent progress of research on controlled nuclear fusion, featuring those areas where international co-operation has played an important part, and describes the various arrangements by which this international co-operation is facilitated. (author)

  1. International space science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author begins his paper by noting the range of international cooperation which has occured in science since its earliest days. The brightest minds were allowed to cross international frontiers even in the face of major wars, to work on their interests and to interact with like minded scientists in other countries. There has of course been a political side to this movement at times. The author makes the point that doing science on an international basis is extemely important but it is not a way of conducting foreign policy. Even though governments may work together on scientific efforts, it is no glue which will bind them to work together on larger political or economic issues. The reason for doing science on an international basis is that it will lead to better science, not better international relations. There are a limited number of great scientists in the world, and they must be allowed to develop their talents. He then discusses two internationl space programs which have has such collaboration, the Soviet-American Space Biology Program, and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). He then touches on the NASA space exploration program, and the fact that its basic objectives were laid out in the 1940's and l950's. With this laid out he argues in favor of establishment of a lunar base, one of the key elements of NASA's plan, arguing for the value of this step based upon the infrared astronomical work which could be done from a stable lunar site, away from the earth's atmosphere

  2. Internal audit consider the implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Grant D; Hamilton, Angela

    2004-06-01

    Internal audit can not only allay external and internal concerns about appropriateness of business operations, but also help improve efficiency and the bottom line. To get an internal audit function under way, healthcare organizations need to obtain board buy-in, form an audit committee of the board, determine resources needed, perform a risk assessment, and develop an internal audit plan.

  3. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  4. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  5. Factors Affecting the Internal Audit Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Mustika, Adhista Cahya

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the factors that influence the internal audit effectiveness, including internal auditor competencies, internal auditor independence, auditee support to internal audit activity, and the internal and external auditor relationship. Using the internal auditor inspectorate in Java Province, Indonesia, we found that the internal audit effectiveness can be attained through increase internal audit competence, independence and strong relationship between internal and external auditor....

  6. The Development of Customary International Law by International Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odermatt, Jed

    2017-01-01

    In his Fourth Report on the Identification of Customary International Law (2016), Special Rapporteur Michael Wood confirmed that ‘[i]n certain cases, the practice of international organizations also contributes to the expression, or creation, of rules of customary international law.......’ That the practice of international organizations can be relevant when identifying customary international law is relatively uncontroversial. The practice of states within international organizations such as the UN General Assembly, for example, may contribute to the development of custom. Yet, there is little...... discussion about whether and how the practice of international organizations as such may contribute to the development of customary international law. This contribution discusses the organization that is the most capable of contributing to the development of customary international law in its own right...

  7. International plutonium policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    The need to distinguish between diversion by sub-national groups and by governments is clearly stated. The paper identifies the international safeguards measures which already exist for the handling of plutonium. It proposes that the implementation of Article XII A5 of the IAEA statute concerning the international storage of plutonium could be an important additional measure. The paper also mentions the concept of using confinement as a complimentary safeguards measure and identifies the PIPEX concept. In addition, greater use is proposed of containment and surveillance procedures. The multiplication of small reprocessing plants spread over many countries is perceived as a proliferation risk. Other means such as co-location of reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities are relevant to diversion by sub-national groups

  8. Genetic discrimination: international perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlowski, M; Taylor, S; Bombard, Y

    2012-01-01

    Genetic discrimination (GD) is a complex, multifaceted ethical, psychosocial, and legal phenomenon. It is defined as the differential treatment of asymptomatic individuals or their relatives on the basis of their real or assumed genetic characteristics. This article presents an overview of GD within the contemporary international context. It describes the concept of GD and its contextual features, reviews research evidence regarding people's experiences of GD and the impact of GD within a range of domains, and provides an overview of legal and policy responses to GD that have emerged globally. We argue that GD is a significant and internationally established phenomenon that requires multilevel responses to ensure social justice and equitable outcomes for all citizens. Future research should monitor GD and its impacts within the community as well as institutions and should evaluate the effectiveness of legislative, policy, community education, and systemic responses.

  9. Financing Canadian international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle, G.

    1996-01-01

    A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs

  10. English for international journalists

    CERN Document Server

    Gandon, Mike

    2013-01-01

    English for International Journalists is a clear and engaging step-by-step guide for non-native speakers using English in journalism across all forms of media. In-depth language analysis is provided in the specialised context of journalism, as well as a comprehensive approach to the rules and guidelines necessary for avoiding the pitfalls and errors that undermine accuracy and clarity. The book, written by Mike Gandon and edited by Heather Purdey, covers a broad range of vital subjects, including: Making contact Interviewing Grammar and journalistic writing Sensitive issues The language of argument The language of impartial and accurate reporting Bloggers and broadcasters Reporting economy, health and the environment. The book is closely supported by online resources concentrating on the spoken word, intonation and pronunciation, and also features an expansive range of exercises and tests, suitable for self-study or to be set as coursework. English for International Journalists presents readers with ...

  11. Interne eller eksterne ledere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Royer, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    How family firms succeed in transferring strategically relevant knowledge from one generation to the next is the core question in this paper. In this context we differentiate between situations in which a family member takes over and such situations where an external successor is selected. Here we...... built on previous research that developed the contingency model of family business succession in order to understand when family successors are preferred because of their family-specific experiential knowledge. A case study analysis from the German-Danish border region explores how a family firm has...... used internal successors for the last 12 successions. We argue that in industries where tacit knowledge forms the basis for competitive advantage, the use of internal successors can help family firms excel after a transition of power has occurred. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed...

  12. Geneva international synergies

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Geneva has a long history of hosting international organizations, which is part of the reason why CERN is here, and it makes the canton an ideal place to forge links between such organizations. Over recent weeks, CERN has signed agreements with the ITU, WIPO and the WMO. At first sight, there may not seem to be much common ground between CERN and, say, the World Meteorological Organization, but scratch the surface, and you’ll soon find a common thread. All of these organizations have a vocation to stimulate technological innovation, and together we’re stronger.   Let’s start with ITU, the International Telecommunications Union. There, the synergies are evident. When ITU organized the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003, CERN provided a significant side event examining the Role of Science in the Information Society. The current agreement builds on that, allowing our two organizations to work together on important societal issues such as the extension of b...

  13. International Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  14. International energy outlook, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the current Energy Information Administration (EIA) assessment of the long-term outlook for international energy markets. The historic political and economic changes occurring in Easter Europe and the former Soviet Union will, no doubt, transform regional markets and world trade. This report pays particular attention to energy markets and resources in those countries that were once a part of the Centrally Planned Economies (CPE's) and how prospective changes in these countries might influence the energy outlook for the rest of the world. Several major EIA estimates determine, in large part, the resulting energy projections presented here. These include estimates of the energy intensity of economic activity; oil and natural gas production capacities; nuclear and hydroelectric generation capacities; international coal trade; and the rate of incremental energy requirements met by alternatives to oil

  15. Retrievability: An international overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    Using available information from the published literature and material obtained from a network of contacts, a short introductory overview of international developments in the field of retrievability of emplaced nuclear waste was produced for the Swedish National Siting Coordinator for Nuclear Waste Disposal. This examined the issue in terms of a number of basic questions: Definition, Need, Design Implications, Safeguards for Fissile Material, Public Acceptability and Safety Assessment. The report was submitted in February 1999, and acted as a catalyst for the organisation of an international seminar by KASAM, the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste (these proceedings). This paper describes the report contents, and points to the invited papers at the seminar which expand on and update the limited descriptions in the original report. (author)

  16. International operations networks

    CERN Document Server

    Farooq, Sami; Cheng, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Although the area of International Manufacturing Network (IMN) and International Operations Network (ION) has received considerable attention in the literature, most of studies appear multifaceted and interdisciplinary, and thereby require thorough investigation from both academic and practical perspectives, in order to deepen our related understanding. The book seeks advanced contributions that will combine theoretical insights and empirical experience by offering a detailed examination of IMN and, further, ION from various perspectives. This book can be used as a reference material for scholarpractitioners, business executives, and university researchers who need to deepen their understanding on the importance and influence of IMN and ION as well as their development. The book is important because there are few reference/resource materials available related to IMN and ION.

  17. International Lunar Decade Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ; Crisafulli, J.; Dunlop, D.; Foing, B.

    2017-09-01

    The International Lunar Decade is a global decadal event designed to provide a framework for strategically directed international cooperation for permanent return to the Moon. To be launched July 20, 2019, the 50th anniversary of the giant leap for mankind marked by Neil Armstrong's first step on the Moon, the ILD launch will include events around the world to celebrate space exploration, science, and the expansion of humanity into the Solar System. The ILD framework links lunar exploration and space sciences with the development of enabling technologies, infrastructure, means of financing, laws and policies aimed at lowering the costs and risks of venturing into space. Dramatically reduced costs will broaden the range of opportunities available in space and widen access to space for more states, companies and people worldwide. The ILD is intended to bring about the efflorescence of commercial business based on space resources from the Moon, asteroids, comets and other bodies in the Solar System.

  18. Dynamic international oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Linde, C.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic International Oil Market Developments and Structure 1860-1990 discusses the logic of changing market structures of the international oil industry. The market structures have, in the course of time, oscillated between competition and oligopoly, as the oil market expanded, matured, stagnated, and expanded again. This book provides a dynamic interpretation of the intensifying struggle among producer, and consumer governments, and oil companies, over the distribution of economic rents and profits. In particular, it shows the shifting fortunes of the governments and companies as they try to control the recurring capacity constraints between the upstream and downstream sectors, generated by the instability of the oil market. The first part of the book examines market conditions and developments between 1860 and 1990; the second part analyzes market structures after 1945

  19. Theorising International Monetary Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2015-01-01

    on Cohen's treatment of electronic money and its significance for the Politics of International Monetary Relations. The first question posed is about ontology, the second about agency and the third about the scope of politics. The three questions are raised as a conversation in which arguments...... and counterarguments are advanced. The questions are therefore posed with Cohen's contributions to theorizing the political significance of materiality as their point of departure. They are formulated as a consequence of bringing these contributions in relation to insights from the Social Studies of Finance. From...... this perspective it would seem that a more far reaching engagement with materiality (in terms of ontology, agency and epistemology) is necessary to capture its political significance for international monetary politics and currency hierarchies. The article does not conclude in conventional fashion but purposefully...

  20. International Fisheries Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pintassilgo, Pedro; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of game theory to the economic analysis of international fisheries agreements. The relevance of this study comes not only from the existence of a vast literature on the topic but especially from the specific features of these agreements. The emphasis of the survey...... is on coalition games, an approach that has become prominent in the fisheries economics literature over the last decade. It is shown that coalition games were first applied to international fisheries agreements in the late 1990s addressing cooperative issues under the framework of characteristic function games....... Then, progres- sively, this cooperative approach was combined with non-cooperative elements such as the stability analysis of the agreements. Finally, partition function games, which model coalition formation endogenously, were introduced and became the standard approach to study the formation...

  1. What interns talk about.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Darius A; Wright, Scott M

    2005-03-01

    Peer education is an important component of residency training and it generally takes the form of informal discussions. Residents may also prepare more formal presentations for their peers and analysing the topics they choose to address can serve as a form of needs assessment by giving faculty insight into the content they believe should be taught. At our internal medicine residency program, interns participating in an evidence-based medicine rotation make a formal 30-minute presentation on the topic of their choosing. We reviewed the Power Point slides from 88 presentations given over the past 6 years and have characterized the topics that were covered. Many of the talks were innovative and dealt with subject matter not covered elsewhere in the residency curriculum. Providing housestaff with more opportunities to formally teach each other may improve the educational experience of residency training.

  2. International Water Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The urban district of Nancy and the Town of Nancy, France, have taken the initiative of creating an International Center of Water (Centre International de l'Eau à Nancy—NAN.C.I.E.) in association with two universities, six engineering colleges, the Research Centers of Nancy, the Rhine-Meuse Basin Agency, and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The aim of this center is to promote research and technology transfer in the areas of water and sanitation. In 1985 it will initiate a research program drawing on the experience of 350 researchers and engineers of various disciplines who have already been assigned to research in these fields. The research themes, the majority of which will be multidisciplinary, concern aspects of hygiene and health, the engineering of industrial processes, water resources, and the environment and agriculture. A specialist training program offering five types of training aimed at university graduates, graduates of engineering colleges, or experts, will start in October 1984.

  3. Globalization and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Yirmibeşoğlu, Gözde

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has been a significant debate issue inthe academic research for the last decades. There is not a consensus on theinitiation of globalization. Although there are many aspects of globalizationsuch as economic, social, political and cultural features, this paper focusesmostly on its economic aspect. Globalization broke down commercial bordersbetween countries and destroyed barriers against trade among countries. As aresult, business performing in the international arena were forced...

  4. ["Charcot, international physician"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, T

    1994-01-01

    The theme of Charcot's world-wide reputation is considered from the threefold perspective of 1) the role of various countries in his professional ascension as orchestrated through contacts with foreign colleagues and travels abroad 2) his foreign students at the Salpêtrière and 3) his international clientele. After a preliminary analysis of the remarkable number and proportion of Paris medical theses written by foreign medical students over which Charcot presided, Charcot's special rapport with the international community is discussed in terms of three case examples: 1) Great Britain and the United States 2) Russia 3) German-speaking countries. The Anglo-Saxon example sheds light on the first half of Charcot's career prior to the establishment of his professorial chair in neurology, a period of increasing prestige culminating in the recognition of his preeminence by his colleagues at the London international medical congress of 1881. The Russian example emphasizes Charcot's personal charisma as a practitioner and healer with an affluent clientele. Finally the example of Charcot's rapport with German-speaking colleagues and students shows his intense scientific competitiveness in putting forward his conception of hysteria in the context of France's hostility toward the victors of 1870. In conclusion, the claim is made that Charcot's international success was not merely a passive honorific consequence of his work but a strategy actively pursued by the chief of the Salpêtrière in order to advance his Salpêtrière school at home and defeat opposition to his programme by rivals.

  5. International Seismological Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, H.; Hughes, A.

    1979-01-01

    The International Seismological Centre had its origins when the British seismologist Professor John Milne returned to England from Japan in 1895 to retire at Shide on the Isle of Eight. In cooperation with the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Milne had set up a number of seismographic stations around the world and, while Tokyo, had published a Catalogue of 8,33 Earthquakes Recorded in Japan, 1885-1892. 

  6. International diversity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    While the concern with demographic diversity in organizations has increased during recent years, international diversity management still remains an understudied area. This is unfortunate since the transfer of diversity management practices within multinational corporations faces particular...... challenges in balancing between global integration and local responsiveness. The aim of this paper is to illustrate some of the central problems that multinational corporations need to deal with when transferring diversity management practices from headquarters to local subsidiaries. This is illustrated...

  7. International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Cryocoolers 13

    2005-01-01

    This is the 13th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature super-capacitor applications.

  8. URGENT - Internal Mail Envelopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  9. URGENT - Internal Mail Envelopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2004-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  10. Enresa International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 with the mandate to undertake responsibility for radioactive waste management in Spain. From the very beginning, ENRESA was fully aware of the fact that international cooperation plays a very important role in the development of national programmes. Aspects such as the setting up of international databases, the development and validation of models or site characterization technique such enormous efforts and amounts of resources that they could hardly be undertaken individually. Furthermore, joint participation in research, development and demonstration projects reinforces the level of confidence, not only in the decision-making process but also in the technologies, techniques and practices used. ENRESA's participation in the international contexts is largely defined, on the one hand, by the needs arising from its technical programme, as reflected in the General Radioactive Waste Plan and in the Research and Development Plan, and on the other by the need to support spanish governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental forums. The formula for cooperation varies according to needs, this cooperation generally being accomplished by means of bilateral agreements with other institutions having similar competence or by participating in the programmes of inter-governmental organizations. In particular, ENRESA has reached cooperation agreements with most of the agencies with similar responsibilities in other countries and participates very actively in the programmes of the European Union, the Nuclear energy Agency (NEA/OECD) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (Author)

  11. International Young Art 2001

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Programm 'ArtLink@Sotheby's International Young Art' valib ligi 100 kunstnikku osalema 2001. a. üritusel. Valitud tööd eksponeeritakse näitusel ja seejärel antakse Sotheby oksjonile Tel Avivis, Chicagos, Euroopas. Avalduste esitamise tähtaeg 9. II 2000. Info: www.artlink2000.net; e-post: debbie@artlink2000.net jm.

  12. Roget's international thesaurus

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Robert L

    2001-01-01

    A classic reference book that has been used by millions all over the world, Roget's International Thesaurus is the product of more than a century and a half of continuous expansion, reorganization, and improvement. Today, this book is not only the most time-tested and bestselling thesaurus ever, but, newly revised, it is also the most up-to-date and comprehensive reflection of the English language as it is currently used.

  13. International technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Won Gi

    1991-11-01

    This book introduces technology progress and economic growth, theoretical consideration of technology transfer, policy and mechanism on technology transfer of a developed country and a developing country, reality of international technology transfer technology transfer and industrial structure in Asia and the pacific region, technology transfer in Russia, China and Eastern Europe, cooperation of science and technology for development of Northeast Asia and strategy of technology transfer of Korea.

  14. Internally plasticised cellulose polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnup, M.; Hayes, G.F.; Fydelor, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Plasticised cellulose polymers comprise base polymer having a chain of β-anhydroglucose units joined by ether linkages, with at least one of said units carrying at least one chemically unreactive side chain derived from an allylic monomer or a vinyl substituted derivative of ferrocene. The side chains are normally formed by radiation grafting. These internally plasticised celluloses are useful in particular as inhibitor coatings for rocket motor propellants and in general wherever cellulose polymers are employed. (author)

  15. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This monthly publication provides current data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  16. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This document is a monthly publication which provides current data on international oil production,demand,imports and stocks. This report has four sections which contain time series data on world oil production and oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Also included is oil supply/demand balance information for the world, and data on oil imports and trade by OECD countries.

  17. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  18. USSR Report, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-08

    prepared to support their verbal condemnation of international terrorism with practical steps, but stood in the way not only of the development but also of...Crisis and Perspectives], Moscow, Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, September 1984, 255 pp] [Text] In foreign economic literature devoted to Latin America...States the Saudis then participated in the secret opera- tion to help the ’Contras.’" What, then, can explain the fact that Riyadh, while verbally

  19. IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH INTERNAL MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Dumitrescu

    2009-01-01

    The paper takes into consideration the role of internal marketing in enhancing and sustaining a company’s ability to compete: · much new thinking and practice in strategic marketing is concerned with managing relationships: with the customer, and with partners in strategic alliances. However, a further aspect of relationship management and relationship marketing is the relationship with the employees and managers, upon whose skills, commitment and performance the success of a marketing strate...

  20. International Data Centre (IDC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, P.

    2002-01-01

    The presentation outlines the International Data Centre (Indc) mission, objective and historical background. The Indc progressive commissioning and organizational plans are presented on charts. The IMS stations providing data to Indc operations and the global communication infrastructure are plotted on world maps. The various types of IMS data are thus listed as seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide. Finally Indc products and services together with its main achievements are listed

  1. The uranium International trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez U, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the understanding of how the present dynamic of uranium International trade is developed, the variables which fall into, the factors that are affecting and conditioning it, in order to clarify which are going to be the outlook in the future of this important resource in front of the present ecological situation and the energetic panorama of XXI Century. For this purpose, as starting point, the uranium is considered as a strategic material which importance take root in its energetic potential as alternate energy source, and for this reason in Chapter I, the general problem of raw materials, its classification and present situation in the global market is presented. In Chapter II, by means of a historical review, is explain what uranium is, how it was discovered, and how since the end of the past Century and during the last three decades of present, uranium pass of practically unknown element, to the position of a strategic raw material, which by degrees, generate an International market, owing to its utilization as a basic resource in the generation of energy. Chapter III, introduce us in the roll played by uranium, since its warlike applications until its utilization in nuclear reactors for the generation of electricity. Also is explain the reason for this change in the perception at global level. Finally, in Chapter IV we enter upon specifically in the present conditions of the International market of this mineral throughout the trends of supply and demand, the main producers, users, price dynamics, and the correlation among these economical variables and other factors of political, social and ecological nature. All of these with the purpose to found out, if there exist, a meaning of the puzzle that seems to be the uranium International trade

  2. International Masterclass at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Lapka, M

    2012-01-01

    The CMS collaboration welcomed a class of French high school students to the CERN facility in Meyrin, Switzerland on the 12 of March, 2012. Students spent the day meeting with physicists, hearing talks, asking questions, and participating in a hands-on exercise using real data collected by the CMS experiment on the Large Hadron Colider. Talks and other resources are available here: http://ippog-dev.web.cern.ch/resources/2012/ippog-international-masterclass-2012-cms

  3. Project: Internal communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Lydia

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceived information needs of NASA Langley employees. One hundred and twelve face-to-face interviews were conducted with a representative sample of aero-space technologists, administrative professionals, technicians. and secretarial/clerical personnel. Results of employee perceptions are analyzed and summarized using affinity diagramming. Particular strategies to maximize use of existing internal communication networks are discussed.

  4. Dictionary of international commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, William J

    1985-01-01

    International trade is vital to the well-being of the international market. No textbook suited virtually every nation, because no nation is my purpose, so I set about to write one. capable of satisfying its material needs beyond the subsistence level entirely from domestic My first task was to define my terms-tar­ iffs, non-tariff barriers, shipping terminology, resources. As a nation's technology advances and edu­ etc. As this labor progressed over many cational levels improve, heavy industry and months, it became evident there was need for manufacturing are often supplanted by serv­ an encyclopedic reference work which fo­ ice industries, as evidenced by the economies cused upon international trade. My enquiries of Europe, North America, and Japan. The having divulged no similar work in English, I shift to a service economy increases import decided to concentrate efforts upon an reliance, especially in the areas of consumer encyclopedia. products and basic industrial commodities, In selecting entries, i...

  5. Apparatus for internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, E.V.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for internal irradiation wherein the radioactive material is applied in the shape of a ball row consisting of contiguous radioactive and neutral balls. This ball row is prepared beforehand and is pneumatically transferred to an applicator tube adapted to be introduced into a body cavity. In order that the balls may stay exactly in the right places during the irradiation, the applicator tube is provided with an internal channel having a narrow end portion, passing through a shoulder into the remaining wider portion, and a final ball is added to each ball row, this final ball having a larger diameter than the other balls, so that it is not admitted in the narrow end portion of the internal channel in the applicator tube. Thus, upon introduction of a ball row, the final ball is arrested by the shoulder and keeps the other balls in place. A plurality of applicator tubes may be applied, each of which is associated with an intermediate container in which the ball row is composed. After the irradiation, the ball row is returned through the intermediate container to a sorting device directing the balls to appropriate storage containers. However, the final ball is retained in the intermediate container, so that it may be added to the next ball row to be composed

  6. Rotary internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, J.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine assembly. It includes: a central rotor means formed with at least one peripheral fuel cavity. The cavity having a first surface defining a thrust surface and a second surface defining a contoured surface; a housing means enclosing the rotor and having an internal wall encircling the rotor. The internal wall being intercepted by at least two recesses defining cylinder means. The housing means and the rotor means being relatively rotatable; piston means individual to each the cylinder means and reciprocable therein; each piton means having a working face complementary to aid contoured surface; and power means for urging the working face into intimate areal contact with the contoured surface to create a first seal means. The housing means having at lest one fuel inlet port, at least one fuel ignition means and at least one exhaust port whereby during the course of a revolution of the rotor means relative to the housing means, the first seal means, the power means, the respective ports, the ignition means and the fuel cavity cooperate to develop fuel compression, fuel ignition and exhaust functions.

  7. International energy financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedavalli, Rangaswamy

    1994-01-01

    Some of the innovative financing options being considered by developing countries and economies in transition as ways of mobilizing international energy financing are discussed. Build-Own-Operate (BOO) and Transfer (BOOT) is the most commonly adopted approach. This involves limited resource financing of a project on the basis of the associated cash flow and risks and not on the credit of the project owners. The World Bank has set up the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency to provide, on a fee basis, guarantees against certain non-commercial forms of risk in order to promote international capital flow to developing countries. In 1989, the World Bank introduced the Expanded Co-financing Operations (ECO) programme as an instrument to catalyze the flow of private finance into developing countries and to improve their access to international financial markets. Other financial instruments currently being established include: leasing of equipment or whole plants by foreign investors; private ownership or operation of generation and distribution facilities; exchange of specific export goods for energy imports; developing instruments to finance local costs; revenue bonds; tax-exempt bonds; sale of electricity futures to those seeking more stable, longer term electricity price contracts. (UK)

  8. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  9. Temporary internal pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Díaz-Miguel, R; Gómez Grande, M L

    2014-12-01

    Technology and insertion techniques for cardiac temporary internal pacing have experienced a remarkable development over the last few years. Despite this fact, the procedure continues to have potentially fatal associated complications. Temporary internal pacing is indicated for the treatment of bradyarrhythmias or tachyarrhythmias refractory to conventional treatment, or arrhythmias causing cardiovascular or clinical instability of the patient. On the other hand, the indications of temporary cardiac pacing are far less well defined than those of permanent pacing. Since the decision of implementing temporary pacing is complex and delicate, it should always be carefully considered, and over-indication should be avoided. We must base these decisions on robust knowledge of the arrhythmias that may benefit from temporary internal pacing, and should also acquire the habit of considering external temporary pacing among other less aggressive treatments, and to make the best use of new technologies such as echocardiography that add accuracy to the procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. International Space Station Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an unparalleled international scientific and technological cooperative venture that will usher in a new era of human space exploration and research and provide benefits to people on Earth. On-Orbit assembly began on November 20, 1998, with the launch of the first ISS component, Zarya, on a Russian Proton rocket. The Space Shuttle followed on December 4, 1998, carrying the U.S.-built Unity cornecting Module. Sixteen nations are participating in the ISS program: the United States, Canada, Japan, Russia, Brazil, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The ISS will include six laboratories and be four times larger and more capable than any previous space station. The United States provides two laboratories (United States Laboratory and Centrifuge Accommodation Module) and a habitation module. There will be two Russian research modules, one Japanese laboratory, referred to as the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), and one European Space Agency (ESA) laboratory called the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF). The station's internal volume will be roughly equivalent to the passenger cabin volume of two 747 jets. Over five years, a total of more than 40 space flights by at least three different vehicles - the Space Shuttle, the Russian Proton Rocket, and the Russian Soyuz rocket - will bring together more than 100 different station components and the ISS crew. Astronauts will perform many spacewalks and use new robotics and other technologies to assemble ISS components in space.

  11. International Humanitarian Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The International Humanitarian Award recognizes extraordinary humanitarian services and activism by psychologists, including professional and volunteer work conducted primarily in the field with underserved populations. Award recipients are psychologists who, by their extraordinary service at a difficult time, improve the lives and contribute to the well-being of people in a large or small geographic area anywhere in the world. The 2017 recipient of the APA International Humanitarian Award was selected by the 2016 Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP). The members of the 2016 CIRP were Melissa Morgan Consoli, PhD, and Arpana G. Inman, PhD (Co-chairs); Rehman Abdulrehman, PhD; Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD; Frederic Bemak, EdD; Brigitte Khoury, PhD; Susan Nolan, PhD; Nancy Sidun, PsyD; and Danny Wedding, PhD. Dr. Morgan Consoli, Dr. Inman, Dr. Nolan, and Doctor Sidun were members of the subcommittee for the 2017 award. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. International nuclear material safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Azmi Syed Ali

    1985-01-01

    History can be a very dull subject if it relates to events which have long since lost their relevance. The factors which led to the creation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), however, are as important and relevant today as they were when the Agency was first created. Without understanding these factors it is impossible to realise how important the Agency is in the present world or to understand some of the controversies surrounding its future. Central to these controversies is the question of how best to promote the international transfer of nuclear technology without contributing further to the problem of proliferating nuclear explosives or explosive capabilities. One effective means is to subject nuclear materials (see accompanying article in box), which forms the basic link between the manufacture of nuclear explosives and nuclear power generation, to international safeguards. This was realized very early in the development of nuclear power and was given greater emphasis following the deployment of the first two atomic bombs towards the end of World War II. (author)

  13. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created

  14. English as an International Language: International Student and Identity Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Phan Le

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the literature on Asian international students, current debates surrounding English as an international language (EIL), and the conceptual tools of appropriation, this article reports the findings of a qualitative research study with eight Asian international students studying at a university in Thailand to explore their taking…

  15. New international services and the competitiveness of Tokyo International Airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, R.; Matsumoto, H.

    2012-01-01

    With the completion of Narita International Airport (Narita) in the Greater Tokyo Area, Tokyo International Airport (Haneda) was practically downgraded to a domestic airport. It lost its position as a key traffic hub for domestic to international air transport in Japan. Now the Japanese government

  16. Director, Risk Management and Internal Audit | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Directs the establishment of the Internal Audit plans and priorities and performs risk-based Internal Audits designed to provide objective assurance and advice to the ... Establishes internal quality assessment processes and as directed by the Finance and Audit Committee ensures that external quality assessments are ...

  17. International health law : an emerging field of public international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This article discusses the nature and scope of international health law as an emerging field of public international law. It is argued that the protection of health reflects a pressing social need that should now be spoken of in the vocabulary of international law. Furthermore, there is an urgent

  18. Broadening the concept of international entrepreneurship: 'Consumers as international entrepreneurs'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra, Y.; Coviello, N.

    2010-01-01

    We integrate theories from international business, entrepreneurship, innovation, marketing and network economics to develop a four-part typology of ‘consumers as international entrepreneurs’. This broadens the concept of international entrepreneurship and complements the firm-level focus customary

  19. International safeguards problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheinman, L.; Curtis, H.B.

    1977-01-01

    To recognize the limitations of safeguards as a barrier to nuclear proliferation is not to deny their essential role in the effort to contain that problem. Without a safeguards system, international nuclear commerce and development would not, indeed could not, be what they are today. The problems evoked in the discussion of the spread of sensitive nuclear technology underscore the importance of ensuring that activities do not outpace our ability to control them. To sustain a global nuclear economy requires a readiness to live within the constraints that such an economy requires. Enhanced safeguards and strengthened national commitments to facilitate their application are key elements of those constraints. So also may be a prepardness by many nations to forego explicitly national control over all facets of the nuclear fuel cycle while still sharing fully and equally in the benefits of the peaceful atom. The challenge of the coming years will be to craft mechanisms and institutions enabling the continued growth of peaceful nuclear activity without further impairing international security. The constraints that such an outcome entails are not limited to nations lacking sophisticated nuclear technology; they apply to the most advanced nuclear nations as well--partly through adherence to the safeguards system that these countries call upon others to adopt, and partly through greater willingness to entertain solutions that may involve greater international involvement in, and control over, their own peaceful nuclear productive activities. With time, the relative incompatibility of nuclear energy with full national sovereignty, and the far-sighted wisdom of the Baruch Plan, are becoming increasingly clear. 1 table, 10 references

  20. International regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The 48. session of the IAEA general conference was held in Vienna from 20 to 24 september 2004 with the participation of delegates from 125 members states and representatives of various international organisations. A number of resolutions were adopted by the conference in the following fields: nuclear safety, radiation, transport and waste safety. The general conference also adopted a resolution on measures to protect against nuclear terrorism. The Director General decided in 2003 to appoint a group of experts to explore and advise on issues related to nuclear liability. This group called the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (I.N.L.E.X.) consists of 20 experts members from nuclear power and non nuclear power countries and from shipping and non shipping states. It serves three major functions: to create a forum of expertise to explore and advise on issues related to nuclear liability; to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non nuclear states to an effective nuclear liability regime, inter alia, on the basis of the convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage and the annex thereto, the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage, the Paris convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy, the joint protocol relating to the application of the vienna convention and the paris convention and the amendments thereto; and to assist in the development and strengthening of the national nuclear liability legal frameworks in IAEA members states to protect the public and the environment and to enhance nuclear safety. The second part of international regulatory concerns a directive on public access to environmental information made by the European Parliament. (N.C.)

  1. Internally displaced persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leus, X; Wallace, J; Loretti, A

    2001-01-01

    There were estimated to be over 20 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) at the end of 1999, a number that surpasses global estimates of refugees. Displacement exposes IDPs to new hazards and accrued vulnerability. These dynamics result in greater risk for the development of illness and death. Often, access of IDPs to health care and humanitarian assistance is excluded deliberately by conflicting parties. Furthermore, the arrival of IDPs into another community or region strains local health systems, and the host population ends up sharing the sufferings of the internally displaced. Health outcomes are dismaying. From a health perspective, the best option is to avoid human displacement. WHO contributes to the prevention of displacement by working for sustainable development. Placing health high on the political agenda helps maintain stability, and thereby, reduce the likelihood for displacement. Primary responsibility for assisting IDPs, irrespective of the cause, rests with the national government. However, where the government is unwilling or unable to provide the necessary aid, the international humanitarian community must step in, with WHO playing a major role in the health sector. There is consensus among the partners of the World Health Organization (WHO) that, in emergencies, the WHO must: 1) take the lead in rapid health assessment, epidemiological and nutritional surveillance, epidemic preparedness, essential drugs management, control of communicable diseases, and physical and psychosocial rehabilitation; and 2) provide guidelines and advice on nutritional requirements and rehabilitation, immunisation, medical relief items, and reproductive health. If the vital health needs of IDPs--security, food, water, shelter, sanitation and household items--are not satisfied, the provision of health services alone cannot save lives. Community participation is essential, and community participation implies bolstering the assets and capacities of the beneficiaries.

  2. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  3. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This monthly publication provides international oil data for January 1998. The report presents data on oil production, demand, imports, and stocks in four sections. Section 1 containes time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 containes annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  4. International energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided

  5. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-09-01

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  6. Optimize Internal Workflow Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia RUSU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Workflow Management has the role of creating andmaintaining an efficient flow of information and tasks inside anorganization. The major benefit of workflows is the solutions tothe growing needs of organizations. The external and theinternal processes associated with a business need to be carefullyorganized in order to provide a strong foundation for the dailywork. This paper focuses internal workflow within a company,attempts to provide some basic principles related to workflows,and a workflows solution for modeling and deploying usingVisual Studio and SharePoint Server.

  7. International trade in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two reports are presented; one has been prepared by the Uranium Institute and is submitted by the United Kingdom delegation, the other by the United States delegation. The report of the Uranium Institute deals with the influence of the government on international trade in uranium. This influence becomes apparent predominantly by export and import restrictions, as well as by price controls. The contribution submitted by the United States is a uranium market trend analysis, with pricing methods and contracting modes as well as the effect of government policies being investigated in the light of recent developments

  8. International energy annual, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-08

    This document presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 200 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy includes hydroelectric, geothermal, solar and wind electric power and alcohol for fuel. The data were largely derived from published sources and reports from US Embassy personnel in foreign posts. EIA also used data from reputable secondary sources, industry reports, etc.

  9. International energy annual, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The International Energy Annual presents current data and trends for production, consumption, stocks, imports, and exports for primary energy commodities in more than 190 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are prices on crude petroleum and petroleum products in selected countries. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed with respect to primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources and from United States Embassy personnel in foreign posts. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values familiar to the American public

  10. Developing international personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben; Hautopp, Heidi; Nielsen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Personas have become a popular method in new product development. Personas have traditionally, and are still, primarily created to represent users from a single national culture at a time during the design process. This, however, is unsatisfactory for companies operating on a global market...... when using the persona method to collect and present insights about their international users. A key finding in both the literature review and the empirical study was the ambiguity concerning the concept of culture. Therefore, the paper draws on theories about culture, and especially practice theory...

  11. International energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  12. SUPERCOLLIDER: Going international

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the wake of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) debacle in the US, US particle physicists are regrouping. 'It is clear that physics interest cannot be changed by an act of Congress,' says Ed Berger of Argonne. As part of the SSC winding up, US Secretary of Energy has been requested to produce a plan to 'maximize the value of the investment in the project and minimizing the loss to the US, including recommendations as to the feasibility of utilizing SSC assets in whole or in part in pursuit of an international high energy physics endeavour.'

  13. Threats to international science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  14. STANFORD: Internal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riordan, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Of burgeoning interest to many nuclear and particle physicists is a storage ring technique for fixed target experiments. It hinges on the use of gas-jet targets, shooting a narrow stream of atoms through a circulating beam of electrons or protons. Pioneered at CERN and the Soviet Novosibirsk Laboratory, more such 'internal targets' are being built or contemplated for storage rings in Europe, the Soviet Union, and the United States. From 9-12 January, physicists from around the world met at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to discuss prospects and problems in this expanding field

  15. Offshoring and International Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    issues on the boundaries of the firm. More or less advanced tasks can be found within all activities, e.g., in sales and marketing where telesales is on the less advanced end of the scale while branding and identity building are on the advanced end of the scale. This article focuses on the antecedents...... to achieve international competitiveness through access to cross-border knowledge flows and foreign knowledge resources. Furthermore, offshoring of advanced manufacturing tasks seems to be more widespread and experience-based than the offshoring of advanced service tasks....

  16. The internal energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The briefs compile the results of the studies the Commission worked out on the subject on the basis of experiences gained on its own part, on the part of the government and on the part of the market. The briefs are based on the schematic inventory annexed which for each energy sector points out the different existing or potential obstacles to a common energy market the most comprehensive and transparent way possible. Step by step part one and part two discuss the general problems connected with the integration of energy into the internal market, priorities which according to the Commission should be investigated into, and guidelines for such investigations. (orig./UA) [de

  17. Nuclear reactor internals arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, E.; Andrews, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor internals arrangement is disclosed which facilitates reactor refueling. A reactor vessel and a nuclear core is utilized in conjunction with an upper core support arrangement having means for storing withdrawn control rods therein. The upper core support is mounted to the underside of the reactor vessel closure head so that upon withdrawal of the control rods into the upper core support, the closure head, the upper core support and the control rods are removed as a single unit thereby directly exposing the core for purposes of refueling

  18. Internal evaluation report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Meyer, Bente Tobiesen; Levinsen, Karin

    2006-01-01

    It is the aim of this report to assess and evaluate the internal communication and management of the Lancelot project during the first year of the project's life (October 2005- October 2006). The report focuses on these issues through the perspective of a SWOT analysis carried out by the project...... members at the interim meeting in Manchester October 6-8. The SWOT analysis was chosen for its ability to identify problem areas within an organisation or group as well as focusing on and facilitating future actions and strategies. The report contains a summary of the issues raised by the SWOT as well...

  19. Internal evaluation report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Meyer, Bente; Levinsen, Karin

    It is the aim of this report to assess and evaluate the internal communication and management of the Lancelot project during the first year of the project's life (October 2005- October 2006). The report focuses on these issues through the perspective of a SWOT analysis carried out by the project...... members at the interim meeting in Manchester October 6-8. The SWOT analysis was chosen for its ability to identify problem areas within an organisation or group as well as focusing on and facilitating future actions and strategies. The report contains a summary of the issues raised by the SWOT as well...

  20. Defining International Contracting Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    procedures laid down in the International Traffic of Arms Regulations (ITARS) and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act." ( FCPA )(56:50) 2. Main Theme Discussion...direct control of the ODTC. This helps the ODTC follow the rules and procedures outlined in the ITARS and FCPA . This list is also used in applying the...Don’t Know May Hurt You," Contract Management. 30: 18-19, 4 i-44, 50 (October 1990). 22. Ellenson, Leslie A. "A Primer on Export Control Compliance

  1. Decentralization Calls for Internal Audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCello, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Outlines internal-auditing strategies necessitated by decentralization. Describes the following areas of concern: the student activities account, student attendance, and funding delegated to the site level. Guidelines for conducting an internal audit are also included. (LMI)

  2. Reflections on international medical law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattad, Mohammed S; Hrevtsova, Radmyla Yu

    2011-12-01

    Does international medical law exist, in the first place, as an independent area of study? If so, is it urgently required in an era of comparative studies? Namely, to what extent, if at all, international studies differ from comparative ones? Besides, what are the particular characteristics of such international discipline? Namely, what are the particular features of this field that elaborate on our legal and scientific understanding in sketching possible definition for this notion of "international medical law?" In addition, how does international medical law correlate with health, ethics and health policies in our globalized world? And finally, what are the challenges that might face the international community, once the concept of "international medical law" is acknowledged? This papers aims at establishing the conceptual grounds for these questions, thus calling for the acknowledgment of a new field of study described as "international medical law".

  3. INTERNATIONAL LAW: HINDRANCE OR HELP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    As international Remote Sensing/Geographic Information Systems (RS/GIS) organizations develop, legal issues are becoming an important factor in promoting or limiting international cooperation. We must keep legal considerations in mind during the creation, implementation, and ...

  4. Single Sign On Internal (SSOi)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Provides single sign-on solution for internal facing VA applications. Allows internal users access to a variety of VA systems and applications using a reduced set of...

  5. Learning Activities for International Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The National Standards for Business Education include nine areas relating to international business: awareness, communication, environmental factors, ethics, finance, management, marketing, import/export, and organizational structure of international business. (SK)

  6. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs.

  7. International cooperation in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanisms of international co-operations, co-ordinated by International Atomic Energy Agency, are presented. These co-operations are related to international safety standards, to the safety of the four hundred existing reactors in operation, to quick help and information in case of emergency, and to the already valid international conventions. The relation between atomic energy and environmental protection is also discussed briefly. (K.A.)

  8. Canada and international financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lafrance; James Powell

    1996-01-01

    International financial institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the Bank for International Settlements, are important players in the global financial system. This article provides an overview of the major international financial institutions to which Canada belongs. The paper highlights their activities and the nature of Canada's involvement, including that of the Bank of Canada. Recent initiatives coming out of the Halifax and Lyon Summits to improve the eff...

  9. Hanford internal dosimetry program manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Aldridge, T.L.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford Internal Dosimetry program. Program Services include administrating the bioassay monitoring program, evaluating and documenting assessments of internal exposure and dose, ensuring that analytical laboratories conform to requirements, selecting and applying appropriate models and procedures for evaluating internal radionuclide deposition and the resulting dose, and technically guiding and supporting Hanford contractors in matters regarding internal dosimetry. 13 refs., 16 figs., 42 tabs

  10. Hospitals' internal accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  11. The international hydrocoin project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The international co-operation project HYDROCOIN for studying groundwater flow modelling in the context of radioactive waste disposal was initiated in 1984. Thirteen organizations from ten countries and two international organizations participate in the project which is managed by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate SKI. This report summarizes the results from the first phase of HYDROCOIN. Level 1, which has been devoted to verification of 29 computer programs for groundwater hydrology. This has been done by applying the codes to seven hypothetical test cases representing different physical situations. For linear test cases, the agreement between results calculated with different codes has been satisfactory for primarily calculated entities (groundwater pressure, salt concentration and temperatures). Results for properties derived from gradients of the primary field (groundwater velocity and trajectories) show agreement to a lesser extent. Furthermore, HYDROCOIN Level 1 illustrates problems related to solving strongly non-linear cases, such as coupled flow and brine transport. HYDROCOIN Level 1 has provided an efficient means for testing strengths and weaknesses of various strategies for groundwater flow modelling and post processing. As a result of the Level 1 effort, several code enhancements have been made

  12. International Nuclear Physics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    We are pleased to announce that the 26th International Nuclear Physics Conference (INPC2016) will take place in Adelaide (Australia) from September 11-16, 2016. The 25th INPC was held in Firenze in 2013 and the 24th INPC in Vancouver, Canada, in 2010. The Conference is organized by the Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter at the University of Adelaide, together with the Australian National University and ANSTO. It is also sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and by a number of organisations, including AUSHEP, BNL, CoEPP, GSI and JLab. INPC 2016 will be held in the heart of Adelaide at the Convention Centre on the banks of the River Torrens. It will consist of 5 days of conference presentations, with plenary sessions in the mornings, up to ten parallel sessions in the afternoons, poster sessions and a public lecture. The Conference will officially start in the evening of Sunday 11th September with Registration and a Reception and will end late on the afternoon of Fri...

  13. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  14. Overview of international teledermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen McKoy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Teledermatology is essentially “dermatology at a distance”, using one of many communication technologies to expand the reach of a dermatologist to those in need of their specialized knowledge. Most international teledermatology is store-and-forward in nature, a method in which images are stored on a computer and then transmitted electronically to a consulting dermatologist. This system is more convenient and less costly than real-time teledermatology. This review will focus on several of the store-and-forward teledermatology systems being developed and utilized successfully internationally. This discussion of “who” is practicing teledermatology is not comprehensive, but attempts to show some of the breadth of teledermatology practice around the world, including government national health plans, commercial endeavors, and charitable work by individuals and institutions. The goal in many instances is to provide better health outcomes through increased access, efficiency, and/or cost-effectiveness. More studies ultimately need to be conducted to develop a more comprehensive and sustainable model for teledermatology.

  15. International energy outlook 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year's report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs

  16. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  17. International Clean Energy Coalition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  18. International trade and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada, Luis Guillermo

    1998-01-01

    The international trade conventional theory not only continues being supported upon the classic principle of comparative advantage, but also, in response to the rationality inherent to the traditional economic system, al so neglects considering the biophysical conditions under which transable goods are produced. The linkage of environment to trade is a recent concern, and it is explained on the basis that the first one has become a barrier for the second one. The environmental cause defenders, so as the free market advocates, are exposing their arguments in a context in which not necessarily to build viable solutions to the conflict is possible. The world economy behavior and tendencies do not offer the conditions needed so as that the official thesis in which the GATT - Rio - WTO thought can be summarized and the positive linkage towards the environmental quality, explicitly claimed by that thesis, becomes reality. Form these considerations, it is argument in this article in the direction of establishing a new international trade pattern and also some ideas are presented as to its characterization ecological economic view

  19. International energy outlook 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year`s report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs.

  20. Understanding Lustre Internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Drokin, Oleg [ORNL; Wang, Di [ORNL; Huang, He [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    Lustre was initiated and funded, almost a decade ago, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) Office of Science and National Nuclear Security Administration laboratories to address the need for an open source, highly-scalable, high-performance parallel filesystem on by then present and future supercomputing platforms. Throughout the last decade, it was deployed over numerous medium-to-large-scale supercomputing platforms and clusters, and it performed and met the expectations of the Lustre user community. As it stands at the time of writing this document, according to the Top500 list, 15 of the top 30 supercomputers in the world use Lustre filesystem. This report aims to present a streamlined overview on how Lustre works internally at reasonable details including relevant data structures, APIs, protocols and algorithms involved for Lustre version 1.6 source code base. More importantly, it tries to explain how various components interconnect with each other and function as a system. Portions of this report are based on discussions with Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lustre Center of Excellence team members and portions of it are based on our own understanding of how the code works. We, as the authors team bare all responsibilities for all errors and omissions in this document. We can only hope it helps current and future Lustre users and Lustre code developers as much as it helped us understanding the Lustre source code and its internal workings.

  1. OBJECTIF SCIENCES INTERNATIONAL

    CERN Multimedia

    Objectif Sciences International

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIF SCIENCES INTERNATIONAL SEJOURS DE VACANCES SCIENTIFIQUES Concilier loisirs de vacances et investigations scientifiques, voilà la recette magique de l'ONG « Objectif Sciences International » qui donne la possibilité aux amateurs de sciences de 7 à 99 ans de participer à des Programmes de Recherche dédiés au Développement Durable. Les Congés Science Solidaire proposés par l'association pour les adultes émanent directement des préoccupations des populations locales pour la préservation de leur patrimoine environnemental. Les besoins et les objectifs sont définis avec les acteurs locaux pour assurer la réalisation de nos missions sur place. En cliquant sur le lien ci-dessous, vous pourrez découvrir plus en détails la liste des thèmes et destinations proposées pour ...

  2. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  3. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  4. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  5. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  6. Quantifying Nanoparticle Internalization Using a High Throughput Internalization Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Sarah K; Czuba, Ewa; Selby, Laura I; Such, Georgina K; Johnston, Angus P R

    2016-10-01

    The internalization of nanoparticles into cells is critical for effective nanoparticle mediated drug delivery. To investigate the kinetics and mechanism of internalization of nanoparticles into cells we have developed a DNA molecular sensor, termed the Specific Hybridization Internalization Probe - SHIP. Self-assembling polymeric 'pHlexi' nanoparticles were functionalized with a Fluorescent Internalization Probe (FIP) and the interactions with two different cell lines (3T3 and CEM cells) were studied. The kinetics of internalization were quantified and chemical inhibitors that inhibited energy dependent endocytosis (sodium azide), dynamin dependent endocytosis (Dyngo-4a) and macropinocytosis (5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA)) were used to study the mechanism of internalization. Nanoparticle internalization kinetics were significantly faster in 3T3 cells than CEM cells. We have shown that ~90% of the nanoparticles associated with 3T3 cells were internalized, compared to only 20% of the nanoparticles associated with CEM cells. Nanoparticle uptake was via a dynamin-dependent pathway, and the nanoparticles were trafficked to lysosomal compartments once internalized. SHIP is able to distinguish between nanoparticles that are associated on the outer cell membrane from nanoparticles that are internalized. This study demonstrates the assay can be used to probe the kinetics of nanoparticle internalization and the mechanisms by which the nanoparticles are taken up by cells. This information is fundamental for engineering more effective nanoparticle delivery systems. The SHIP assay is a simple and a high-throughput technique that could have wide application in therapeutic delivery research.

  7. Causation and International State Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos-Jankiewicz, L.

    2012-01-01

    This work studies causation in the law of international State responsibility. It is submitted that the absence of causation as an element of the internationally wrongful act owes more to the structure of international law, than to the inadequateness of causation as a conceptual and legal construct

  8. Austrian Thinking on International Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.

    1988-01-01

    After mentioning Mises' few contributions to international monetary economics I first review Hayek's views on international economics. I then try to find out if Haberler's and Machlup's contributions to international economics do show any special Austrian traits. After that, I turn to Schumpeter.

  9. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Neonatal Jaundice in Warri. Int J Health Res, September 2011; 4(3): 122. International Journal of Health Research. The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of published articles. The journal is devoted to the promotion of health ...

  10. International school of nuclear law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    This is a report about the second International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on August 26 to September 7, 2002, by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  11. International School of Nuclear Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-12-01

    This is a report about the fourth International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on 23 August to 3 September 2004 by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  12. International fashion franchise in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Phuong

    2015-01-01

    The study concentrates on exploring international clothing franchise and particularly international clothing franchise in Finland. The main objective of the research is to discover obstacles Finnish franchisees encounter when bringing an international fashion franchise to Finland and recommendations that are beneficial to their success. The thesis is inclined to exploit aspects concerning franchisees’ perspectives. In the literature review, main concepts presented are franchising, franchi...

  13. Licensing Process for International Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christan

    2014-01-01

    Christan Raetzke, lawyer, then outlined why nuclear constructions were always international projects and in which cases it would make sense to also make the licensing process be international. His law consulting firm CONLAR focuses specifically on design review so he could adequately present why an international process would make a lot of sense without being a loss of sovereignty

  14. Language and the International Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Humphrey

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of the issue of unilinguism and linguistic pluralism on the international scene. The need for international communication where English is the dominant force and efforts to preserve cultural equality are seen as compelling reasons for promotion of an international language such as Esperanto. (AMH)

  15. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Characterisitcs of Shea butter and Theobroma fats in Emusions. Int J Health Res, December 2010; 3(4): 222. International Journal of Health Research. The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of published articles. The journal is ...

  16. International School of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This is a report about the fourth International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on 23 August to 3 September 2004 by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  17. Internal conversion of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoun, O.

    1982-01-01

    The process of the gamma-ray internal conversion is reviewed. The principle of the calculations of the internal conversion coefficients is outlined and methods of conversion electron measurements are described. The extensive utilization of internal conversion in nuclear physics, as well as several applications in chemistry and solid state physics are also discussed. (author)

  18. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract ... Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management software to ..... Table 1: Some antihypertensive chronotherapeutically-designed market medications.

  19. The security in international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Iurie RICHICINSCHI

    2016-01-01

    Regardless the fact that concerns about the nature of relations between states, the causes of war, the peacekeeping issues, the international cooperation and recognition of international actors have preceded with millennia the emergence of the academic field of International Relations as a discipline, this one has been embedded along several centuries in much broader areas of research, whose influence is still manifested today.

  20. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-24

    Dec 24, 2009 ... International Journal of Health Research. The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text of published .... [14] and free energy change temperature diagram. The former distinguishes between monotropic and enantiotropic ...

  1. Teaching international animal agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukefahr, S D

    1999-11-01

    Students who major in animal science at U.S. institutions are generally exposed to a curriculum that emphasizes commercial, large-scale production of the few traditional food animals: cattle, poultry, sheep, and swine. Globally, most farmers live in lesser-developed countries under limited-resource conditions of land, feed supplies, equipment, and capital. The promotion of commercial animal production enterprises may not be appropriate for such farms because it can subject farmers to considerable economic risk. Rather, use of limited numbers of large livestock, locally adapted breeds, or smaller livestock (e.g., ducks, goats, guinea pigs, and rabbits) may be more appropriate under subsistence, integrated farming systems. In this global context, a course in international animal agriculture has been taught for 15 yr to undergraduate and graduate students. The course consists of a review of traditional and potential livestock species well suited for impoverished families on small farms and methods to implement sustainable livestock projects, including feasibility, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation stages. To enhance student understanding, global food issues and challenges are illustrated with case studies. A term paper is also assigned for which students choose three suitable livestock species or local breeds that would be complementary on a small crop farm (< 5 ha). Daily dietary requirements of protein and energy per family member are calculated. Itemized enterprise budgets and production tables are prepared. Early in the course, the general consensus of students was that people who are malnourished and live in poverty have low personal ambition and motivation, and that their problems should be amenable to solution by application of American technology and expertise. The course modifies such attitudes and enhances a student's critical thinking and problem-solving abilities and communication skills. Course evaluations indicated that students believed

  2. Internal friction in enzyme reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Anna; Derényi, Imre; Gráf, László; Málnási-Csizmadia, András

    2013-01-01

    The empirical concept of internal friction was introduced 20 years ago. This review summarizes the results of experimental and theoretical studies that help to uncover the nature of internal friction. After the history of the concept, we describe the experimental challenges in measuring and interpreting internal friction based on the viscosity dependence of enzyme reactions. We also present speculations about the structural background of this viscosity dependence. Finally, some models about the relationship between the energy landscape and internal friction are outlined. Alternative concepts regarding the viscosity dependence of enzyme reactions are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. International Environmental Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSibio, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The International Environmental Institute is being established at the Hanford Site to provide training and education in environmental restoration and waste management technologies and to serve as an interface for exchange of information among government laboratories, regional and federal governments, universities, and US industries. Recognized as the flagship of the nation's environmental management effort, the Hanford Site provides a unique living environmental laboratory that represents the most extensive, complex, and diverse cleanup challenges anywhere. An Environmental Institute director has been selected, the organizational structure has been established, and initial phases of operation have begun. The combined resources of the Hanford Site and the Environmental Institute offer unprecedented technological capabilities for dealing with the nation's environmental issues

  4. International Logistics Science Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hompel, Michael; Meier, J

    2014-01-01

    The importance of logistics in all its variations is still increasing. New technologies emerge, new planning methods and algorithms are developed, only to face a market with a growing complexity and the need of weighting monetary costs against ecological impact. Mastering these challenges requires a scientific viewpoint on logistics, but always with applications in mind. This volume presents up-to-date logistics research in all its diversity and interconnectedness. It grew out of the “International Logistics Science Conference” (ILSC) held in Dortmund in September 2013, bringing together leading scientists and young academics from nine different countries. The conference was jointly organized by the “Efficiency Cluster Logistics” and the “Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Logistics”. The Program Committee used a double blind review process to choose the 12 strongest contributions, which were then grouped in four areas: - Sustainability logistics, including electric mobility, smart inform...

  5. International venture capital perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The emerging fuel cell industry is characterized by global cooperation and partnerships in commercial, technical, and financial aspects. In this talk, we would like to provide observations about international venture capital focused on fuel cells globally. The talk will refer to experiences Conduit Ventures has had with its portfolio companies and other investors in various countries. We discuss our approach to working with portfolio companies who are geographically remote from our main office in London. We also discuss the process of making investment decisions on possible investments in various countries. The talk will conclude with insights and 'lessons learned' which may be of interest to fellow members of Fuel Cells Canada. (author)

  6. Joint International Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2014-01-01

    The CERN and US Particle Accelerator Schools recently organised a Joint International Accelerator School on Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection, held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Newport Beach, California, USA from 5-14 November 2014. This Joint School was the 13th in a series of such schools, which started in 1985 and also involves the accelerator communities in Japan and Russia.   Photo courtesy of Alfonse Pham, Michigan State University.   The school attracted 58 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 26 lectures, each of 90 minutes, and 13 hours of case study. The students were given homework each day and had an opportunity to sit a final exam, which counted towards university credit. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. Initial dis...

  7. International organizations as orchestrators

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Kenneth W

    2015-01-01

    International Organizations as Orchestrators reveals how IOs leverage their limited authority and resources to increase their effectiveness, power, and autonomy from states. By 'orchestrating' intermediaries - including NGOs - IOs can shape and steer global governance without engaging in hard, direct regulation. This volume is organized around a theoretical model that emphasizes voluntary collaboration and support. An outstanding group of scholars investigate the significance of orchestration across key issue areas, including trade, finance, environment and labor, and in leading organizations, including the GEF, G20, WTO, EU, Kimberley Process, UNEP and ILO. The empirical studies find that orchestration is pervasive. They broadly confirm the theoretical hypotheses while providing important new insights, especially that states often welcome IO orchestration as achieving governance without creating strong institutions. This volume changes our understanding of the relationships among IOs, nonstate actors and sta...

  8. International collaborative donor project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos Zambudio, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    The International Donor Collaborative Project (PCID) research group was created in 1996 in Spain with the aim of promoting research in the field of organ donation and transplantation, led by Spanish surgeons. During this period they have developed the questionnaires of the PCID, both the attitude towards cadaver and live donation, which are the most used questionnaires in publications in indexed journals. They have been the driving group of stratified studies representative of the populations under study, and of the performance of multivariate statistical analyzes in the field of psycho-social research in organ donation and transplantation. The main contributions of the group focus on the analysis of health center professionals and emerging migrant groups. In recent years, studies have been extended to the United States, Latin America (mainly Mexico) and Europe. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. International energy indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, E. K.

    1981-02-01

    Extensive data are compiled for energy on the international scene and for the US. Data included are: world crude oil production, 1975 to date; Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; Saudi Arabia: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; OPEC (Ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia): capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973 to date; petroleum consumption by industrial countries, 1973 to date; USSR crude oil production, 1974 to date; Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, 1973 to date. Data are supplied specifically for the US on US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to date; landed cost of Saudi crude in current and 1974 dollars; US trade in bituminous coal, 1973 to date; summary of US merchandise trade, 1976 to date; and energy/GNP ratio.

  10. Control Techtronics International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.

    1995-12-31

    Polish graded coal can be burned in existing stoker boilers and meet the 1998 Air Quality standard. This is accomplished with the Control Techtronics microprocessor-based combustion controller accurately and repeatedly: (a) matching the combustion air to the coal firing rate, with continuous stack sensor feedback; (b) continuously varying the boiler`s firing rate based on output water temperature or steam pressure; (c) continuously varying the exhaust fan`s speed to maintain minimum negative pressure in the boiler`s combustion chamber; and recirculating a portion of the flue gas, at varying amounts throughout the boiler`s firing rate. Systems for five boilers have been installed and are operating on MPEC`s Balicka plant in Krakow. Control Techtronics International has $10 million of U.S. Export-Import Bank funds available for similar projects throughout Poland.

  11. International RILEM Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Birgisson, Björn; Frost, David; Wang, Linbing

    2013-01-01

    The micro- and nano-modification of infrastructure materials and the associated multi-scale characterization and simulation has the potential to open up whole new uses and classes of materials, with wide-ranging implications for society. The use of multi-scale characterization and simulation brings the ability to target changes at the very small scale that predictably effect the bulk behavior of the material and thus allowing for the optimization of material behavior and performance.   The International RILEM Symposium on Multi-Scale Modeling and Characterization of Infrastructure Materials (Stockholm, June 10-12, 2013) brought together key researchers from around the world to present their findings and ongoing research in this field in a focused environment with extended discussion times. From asphalt to concrete, from chemistry to mechanics, from nano- to macro-scale: the collection of topics covered by the Symposium represents the width and depth of the currently ongoing efforts of developing more sustain...

  12. International EUREKA: Initialization Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The Initialization Segment creates the starting description of the uranium market. The starting description includes the international boundaries of trade, the geologic provinces, resources, reserves, production, uranium demand forecasts, and existing market transactions. The Initialization Segment is designed to accept information of various degrees of detail, depending on what is known about each region. It must transform this information into a specific data structure required by the Market Segment of the model, filling in gaps in the information through a predetermined sequence of defaults and built in assumptions. A principal function of the Initialization Segment is to create diagnostic messages indicating any inconsistencies in data and explaining which assumptions were used to organize the data base. This permits the user to manipulate the data base until such time the user is satisfied that all the assumptions used are reasonable and that any inconsistencies are resolved in a satisfactory manner

  13. Microdosimetry of internal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    Microdosimetry has been limited to irradiations characterized by uniform probabilities of charged-particle production. New methods are here presented for dealing with particles emitted by radionuclides embedded in the irradiated medium; these particles seldom emerge uniformly, because the radionuclides are not dispersed uniformly. In particular, emission from radionuclides that are agglomerated into particulates is extremely nonuniform. Microdosimetric distributions for these internal emitters can be calculated by: (1) determining the probability density in specific energy due to single energy deposition events by charged particles from a point source, (2) combining these densities by Fourier-transform methods, and (3) using existing numerical methods to evaluate the Fourier result. Examples are given calculated for 239 Pu alpha particles from point sources (particulates) and from particulates uniformly distributed through all space, a half space, and a sphere

  14. International Conference UMC 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Hübner, Wolfgang; Rasing, Theo; Chantrell, Roy

    2015-01-01

    This volume on Ultrafast Magnetism is a collection of articles presented at the international “Ultrafast Magnetization Conference” held at the Congress Center in Strasbourg, France, from October 28th to November 1st, 2013. This first conference, which is intended to be held every two years, received a wonderful attendance and gathered scientists from 27 countries in the field of Femtomagnetism, encompassing many theoretical and experimental research subjects related to the spins dynamics in bulk or nanostructured materials. The participants appreciated this unique opportunity for discussing new ideas and debating on various physical interpretations of the reported phenomena. The format of a single session with many oral contributions as well as extensive time for poster presentations allowed researchers to have a detailed overview of the field. Importantly, one could sense that, in addition to studying fundamental magnetic phenomena, ultrafast magnetism has entered in a phase where applied physics and eng...

  15. NOMA 2013 International Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Fournier-Prunaret, Danièle; Nishio, Yoshifumi; Grácio, Clara

    2015-01-01

    In the field of Dynamical Systems, nonlinear iterative processes play an important role. Nonlinear mappings can be found as immediate models for many systems from different scientific areas, such as engineering, economics, biology, or can also be obtained via numerical methods permitting to solve non-linear differential equations. In both cases, the understanding of specific dynamical behaviors and phenomena is of the greatest interest for scientists. This volume contains papers that were presented at the International Workshop on Nonlinear Maps and their Applications (NOMA 2013) held in Zaragoza, Spain, on September 3-4, 2013. This kind of collaborative effort is of paramount importance in promoting communication among the various groups that work in dynamical systems and networks in their research theoretical studies as well as for applications. This volume is suitable for graduate students as well as researchers in the field.

  16. An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in the oil markets were reviewed in order to examine the international context for energy policy and challenges. The main elements and trends in global energy supply and demand were also reviewed along with the issues they present. Oil markets and energy supply industries in North America are influenced by industry consolidation, regulatory reform and oil pricing. Grid-based industries have been the main target of market reform policies. This presentation examined the world energy outlook in terms of fossil fuel use, demand growth in developing countries, energy security, and how to reduce greenhouse gases. It was noted that in addition to energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, unconventional oil from Canada's oil sands will appear in the oil business scene. The author emphasized that a key policy goal will be the removal of barriers to investment in energy supplies. figs

  17. International Multidisciplinary Microscopy Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Oral, Ahmet; Ozer, Mehmet; InterM; INTERM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Multidisciplinary Microscopy Congress (INTERM2013) was organized on October 10-13, 2013. The aim of the congress was to bring together scientists from various branches to discuss the latest advances in the field of microscopy. The contents of the congress have been broadened to a more "interdisciplinary" scope, so as to allow all scientists working on related subjects to participate and present their work. These proceedings include 39 peer-reviewed technical papers, submitted by leading academic and research institutions from over 12 countries and representing some of the most cutting-edge research available. The 39 papers are grouped into the following sections: - Applications of Microscopy in the Physical Sciences - Applications of Microscopy in the Biological Sciences

  18. INTERNATIONAL DECOMMISSIONING SYMPOSIUM 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of IDS 2000 was to deliver a world-class conference on applicable global environmental issues. The objective of this conference was to publicize environmental progress of individual countries, to provide a forum for technology developer and problem-holder interaction, to facilitate environmental and technology discussions between the commercial and financial communities, and to accommodate information and education exchange between governments, industries, universities, and scientists. The scope of this project included the planning and execution of an international conference on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and the providing of a business forum for vendors and participants sufficient to attract service providers, technology developers, and the business and financial communities. These groups, when working together with attendees from regulatory organizations and government decision-maker groups, provide an opportunity to more effectively and efficiently expedite the decommissioning projects.

  19. EVOLVE 2014 International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Tantar, Emilia; Sun, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Qian; Schütze, Oliver; Emmerich, Michael; Legrand, Pierrick; Moral, Pierre; Coello, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This volume encloses research articles that were presented at the EVOLVE 2014 International Conference in Beijing, China, July 1–4, 2014.The book gathers contributions that emerged from the conference tracks, ranging from probability to set oriented numerics and evolutionary computation; all complemented by the bridging purpose of the conference, e.g. Complex Networks and Landscape Analysis, or by the more application oriented perspective. The novelty of the volume, when considering the EVOLVE series, comes from targeting also the practitioner’s view. This is supported by the Machine Learning Applied to Networks and Practical Aspects of Evolutionary Algorithms tracks, providing surveys on new application areas, as in the networking area and useful insights in the development of evolutionary techniques, from a practitioner’s perspective. Complementary to these directions, the conference tracks supporting the volume, follow on the individual advancements of the subareas constituting the scope of the confe...

  20. International energy indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, E. Jr.

    1981-12-01

    Data are tabulated and graphically represented on international energy indicators. The following are presented: world crude oil production, 1974 to October 1981; OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels, 1975 to October, 1981; oil consumption in OECD countries, 1975 to October 1981; USSR crude oil production and exports, 1975 to October, 1981; free world and US nuclear electricity generation, 1973 to December, 1981 and current capacity. Specific US data presented are: US domestic oil supply, 1977 to June, 1981; US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to October, 1981; landed cost of Saudi crude current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade, 1975 to September, 1981; US natural gas trade, 1975 to October, 1981; summary of US merchandise trade, 1977 to October, 1981; and energy/GNP ratio

  1. Internal Ocean Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Internal waves are waves that travel within the interior of a fluid. The waves propagate at the interface or boundary between two layers with sharp density differences, such as temperature. They occur wherever strong tides or currents and stratification occur in the neighborhood of irregular topography. They can propagate for several hundred kilometers. The ASTER false-color VNIR image off the island of Tsushima in the Korea Strait shows the signatures of several internal wave packets, indicating a northern propagation direction. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 60 by 120 kilometers (37.2 by 74.4 miles) Location: 34.6 degrees North latitude, 129.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 90

  2. International law and United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Matej

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with centuries-lasting open military pretensions of world superpowers, modern diplomacy has developed, as beginning a war, as well as coming to peace demanded political activity which resulted, first in signing, and then coming into effect of international documents, on the basis of which, a foundation for the modern international order has been cast. Further on, by the formation of international organizations, codification has been allowed, as well as a progressive development of international law. Additionally, in the sense of preserving international peace and security, first the League of Nations was formed, and following the ending of World War II, the UN. Generally, the functioning of the United Nation's organs, has been regulated by legal rules, however political goals, tendencies, and mechanisms which the member states are using determine greatly the activity above all of the Security Council, but furthermore of the General Assembly, as a plenary organ. Nevertheless, the achieved results of the Commission for International Law in the meaning of creation of international conventions, as well as state adhering to the same, present unassailable achievements in the sense of development of international law. On the other hand, tendencies of motion of international relationships are aimed at establishing a multi-polar system in the international community. Today, the political scene is assuming a new appearance, by which the nearly built international system is already awaiting further progressive development.

  3. Mixture proportioning for internal curing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Dale P.; Pietro, Lura; Roberts, John W.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of internal concrete curing is steadily progressing from the laboratory to field practice. In terminology currently being considered by ACI Committee 308, Curing Concrete, “internal curing refers to the process by which the hydration of cement occurs because of the availability...... of additional internal water that is not part of the mixing water.” The additional internal water is typically supplied by using relatively small amounts of saturated, lightweight, fine aggregates (LWA) or superabsorbent polymer (SAP) particles in the concrete. Benefits of internal curing include increased...... hydration and strength development, reduced autogenous shrinkage and cracking, reduced permeability, and increased durability. The impact of internal curing begins immediately with the initial hydration of the cement, with benefits that are observed at ages as early as two days. Internal curing...

  4. International students’ information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated in the s...... and academic life and 5) social networks and support for cultural adjustment. Insights into the characteristics of international students’ information needs and behavior may help host institutions serve international students.......This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated...... in the study, including a questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The focus was on international students’ private and academic information needs and behavior ‘abroad’ in addition to their experiences of information seeking. Based on the analysis of survey data and participants’ descriptions of incidents...

  5. International Networking for Wellspring International Bilingual School Saigon

    OpenAIRE

    Bui Ngoc Phuong, Thao

    2014-01-01

    This thesis gave an overview of networking phenomenon and focused on building proposal for networking practices for the commissioner – Wellspring International Bilingual School Saigon. As international networking becomes more and more important to the development of business and education in the globalization era, Wellspring Saigon also recognized the need to international network with other education organisations and schools around the world. These future partnerships were expected to bring...

  6. International guidance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Allan C.B.

    1989-01-01

    International principles for setting Protective Action Guides (PAGs) are contained in two key documents that contain identical statements. One is Publication Number 40 of the ICRP, which was issued in 1985. The title is 'Protection of the Public in the Event of Major Radiation Accidents, Principles for Planning'. The other is the IAEA's Safety Series Publication Number 72, also issued in 1985, written by many of the same authors and titled, 'Principles for Establishing Intervention Levels'. The principles that were set forth in these documents were identical, were incomplete, and they are, unfortunately, the only principles that are now in effect, while proposed revisions go through one draft after another. There are several such draft revisions that are of significance. The most important is that of the ICRP. The basic guidance that applies to most planned exposure to radiation is ICRP Publication 26. That document has been under revision by the Commission for a number of years, and the new version will, for the first time, include recommendations for emergency response. They are now getting close to closure, and I think it should be a very much improved and useful document. But it isn't finished yet. Such guidance doesn't get developed in a vacuum, and there have been a couple of parallel efforts which have provided significant input to the ICRP, which is essentially a behind-closed-doors effort. These other efforts are more open. One of these is being carried out within the IAEA, which has convened annual meetings of national experts for a number of years in Vienna, to generate a replacement for Safety Series No. 72, mentioned earlier. There is a meeting scheduled this December to complete this effort; and, hopefully, we will reach closure at that meeting on at least the basic principles. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has also been at work. It has convened a group of experts from member nations that have been developing recommendations. There is an overlap

  7. CTBTO international cooperation workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Cooperation Workshop took place in Vienna, Austria, on 16 and 17 November 1998, with the participation of 104 policy/decision makers, Research and Development managers and diplomatic representatives from 58 States Signatories to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Workshop attempted to develop Treaty stipulations to: promote cooperation to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Treaty; enable member states to strengthen national implementation of verification measures, and to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes. The potential benefits arising from the CTBT monitoring, analysis and data communication systems are multifaceted, and as yet unknown. This Workshop provided the opportunity to examine some of these possibilities. An overview of the CTBT verification regime on the general aspects of the four monitoring technologies (seismic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides), including some of the elements that are the subject of international cooperation, were presented and discussed. Questions were raised on the potential benefits that can be derived by participating in the CTBT regime and broad-based discussions took place. Several concrete proposals on ways and means to facilitate and promote cooperation among States Signatories were suggested. The main points discussed by the participants can be summarized as follows: the purpose of the CTBT Organization is to assist member states to monitor Treaty compliance; the CTBT can be a highly effective technological tool which can generate wide-ranging data, which can be used for peaceful purposes; there are differences in the levels of technology development in the member states that is why peaceful applications should be supported by the Prep Com for the benefit of all member states, whether developed or developing, training being a key element to optimize the CTBT

  8. Impacts of Culture on International Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, James Ronald

    2010-09-01

    This paper provides practical suggestions for developing a healthy and complete working relationship between the system safety practitioner and international business partners, international vendors and international customers.

  9. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues

  10. International Business Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Lubiński

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Prime stylized facts of international business cycle theory refer to positive correlation in the cyclical components of important macroeconomic variables across countries. However a number of indicators of business cycle synchronization do not point to clear trends. It can be ascribed to the fact that different forces influence level of business cycle correlation. When investigating into the forces behind the commonness in aggregate fluctuations economic research seems to have pointed in two directions. One strand of the literature examines the idea of common exogenous shocks that affect economies simultaneously. In addition to that economic interdependencies such as trade in goods and services or capital account transactions may serve as the channels through which disturbances spill over across countries.The observed degree of output co movement reflects both the nature of the shocks that have occurred and the degree of economic interdependence. In the periods when common shocks prevail level of synchronization is usually higher than in times of transmission dominance.

  11. International uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.; Jacoby, H.D.

    1980-12-01

    Discussed in this report are 1) how one might think about uranium demand, resources and supply, 2) how producers and consumers see the market and are likely to behave, including specifics about export and import commitments, and 3) how these actors are brought together in the international market. The general conclusion is that much of current anxiety about future uranium supply results primarily from a brief but difficult period in the mid- to late-1970's; and that current conditions and trends are favorable (at least to consumers) that there is now little basis for concern. Inventories contractual positions and producer commitments--when compared with realistic (or even unrealistic) demand estimates--imply a buyer's market for at least the next decade. The result will be considerable increases in market flexibility and resilience to shock, and real prices that are low relative to those of the past few years. There is a need to reconsider assumptions about desired directions of technological development, for many current programs were planned in an era of pessimism about uranium supply and process. Similar questions must be raided about nonproliferation policies that depend on some level of control of fuel supplies by the industrial nations. With a soft and more diversified uranium market, leverage that may have existed in the past is rapidly being eroded. Finally, as world prices turn soft, there may be significant problems created for U.S. uranium producers, who have relatively high costs in relation to several large-scale foreign suppliers

  12. Dutch radiodiagnostics viewed internationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valois, J.C. de

    1990-01-01

    Dutch radiodiagnostics viewed internationally. - A quantitative description of diagnostic radiology is given in terms of radiological density (the number of radiological examinations per 1000 inhibitants), consumptions of roentgen film and contrast media. The data concerning examinations were recorded by a yearly inquiry system addressing all Dutch radiologists. The consumption of film and contrast media were derived from the data banks of the industries. In comparing these data with the data for Western Europe, Japan and the United States it is remarkable that diagnostic radiology scores lowest in regard to density, film consumption and use of contrast media. Only in the use of 35 mm cinefilm (coronary angiography) is The Netherlands number 2 on the list preceded by the United States. As a consequence radiation exposure of the population caused by diagnostic radiology is low in The Netherlands. Although the technical condition of the equipment is good due to regular and preventive service the life-span of the radiological equipment is gradually increasing beyond the limits of the normal economic depreciation. Growing arrears are found in the application of new technology: ultrasound, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The substitution of high osmolar contrast media by low osmolar media is also laggin gbehind. (author). 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tab

  13. International leadership in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ged F. Williams

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As the global community becomes overwhelmed by conflict, threat and scandal in many countries it is heartening to find that many of us can still find opportunity to give generously to the betterment of humanity.Recently we have both had our share of fun and excitement working and learning in various regions of the world, Ged in the Middle East and Africa and Wilson in the USA, The Netherlands and Brazil.We are often asked “how do you develop an international perspective”? The short answer is that it is an insidious accident sometimes, however like many things a deeper analysis reveals a journey that is often planned and other times blessed by unexpected surprises. However a sense of openness, generosity and adventure is always necessary to maximise every opportunity.Among other things, Ged allocated time to travel and to visit hospitals and nurses in other parts of Australia and the world, listening to people’s stories, dreams, and aspirations and providing reciprocal encouragement and fellowship, often through interpreters. (Rev Cuid 2013; 4(1:433-6.

  14. International Conference Medical Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The second edition of the international conference Medical radiation : research and applications which took place in Marrakech (Morocco) from 7 to 9 April 2010, was designed to bring together researchers and physicians from different countries who dedicated their talents and time to this endeavour. The conference's program defined goals were is to identify the most reliable techniques among the several tested so far and to establish the most practical standardized methodologies, taking into account such recent technological development in radiation medical research. The scientific objectives of this conference are as follows : present the state of the art of the various topics of the congress, give a progress report on the impact of the interaction of the various scientific and technical disciplinary fields (Medicine, Biology, Mathematics, Physics,..) on the applications of radiations in medicine, promote the interdisciplinary efforts of research among researchers, present new technologies and research and development tasks prepared in the field of medical radiations, contribute to the emergence of new ideas of research and development of new collaborations [fr

  15. International energy outlook 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2020, prepared by the Energy Information Administration. The outlooks for major energy fuels are discussed, along with electricity, transportation, and environmental issues. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. The historical time frame begins with data from 1970 and extends to 1996, providing readers with a 26-year historical view of energy demand. The IEO99 projections covers a 24-year period. The next part of the report is organized by energy source. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in the five fuel chapters, along with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. The third part of the report looks at energy consumption in the end-use sectors, beginning with a chapter on energy use for electricity generation. New to this year`s outlook are chapters on energy use in the transportation sector and on environmental issues related to energy consumption. 104 figs., 87 tabs.

  16. International Evoked Potentials Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    The past decade has seen great progress in the measurement of evoked potentials in man; a steady increase in our understanding of their charac­ teristics, their origins and their usefulness; and a growing application in the field of clinical diagnosis. The topic is a truly multidisciplinary one. Important research contributions have been made by workers of many different backgrounds and clinical applications span the specialities. This book represents a revised and updated version of the work originally presented at the international evoked potential symposium held in Nottingham 4-6 1978. The Nottingham Symposium provided a forum for a state-of-the-art discussion amongst workers from many different disciplines and from many different countries. For each major topic in the field an expert review set the scene for discussion of current research presentations. This format is retained in the book: the chapters in Part A provide the context in which the research presented in Part B is set. The task of selecting m...

  17. The international hydrocoin project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The International HYDROCOIN (Hydrologic Code Intercomparison) Project was started in May 1984. Fourteen organizations participate in the Project, with the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) as managing participant and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) taking part as a member of the Project secretariat. HYDROCOIN is concerned with the assessment of groundwater movements at potential nuclear waste disposal sites with the help of mathematical models and computer codes. The Project is divided into three levels. The objective of HYDROCOIN Level 1 is to verify the accuracy of groundwater flow codes. HYDROCOIN Level 2 and Level 3 are concerned with validation of hydrological models and uncertainty/sensitivity analysis, respectively. This report, which has been prepared by the NEA Secretariat and SKI in consultation with the co-ordinating group of the HYDROCOIN Project summarizes the background and objectives of the Project and presents the results of the work performed up to the middle of 1987. It is intended to provide general information on HYDROCOIN to interested parties beyond the group of directly involved specialists

  18. International exploration by independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertragne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

  19. International nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, P.; Rocchio, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Light water reactors (LWRs), originally developed in the United States, became the nuclear workhorses for utilities in Europe and Japan largely because the U.S. industry was willing and able to transfer its nuclear know-how abroad. In this international effort, the industry had the encouragement and support of the U.S. governement. In the case of the boiling water reactor (BWR) the program for technology transfer was developed in response to overseas customer demands for support in building local designs and manufacturing capabilities. The principal vehicles have been technology exchange agreements through which complete engineering and manufacturing information is furnished covering BWR systems and fuel. Agreements are held with companies in Germany, Japan, Italy, and Sweden. In recent years, a comprehensive program of joint technology development with overseas manufacturers has begun. The rapidly escalating cost of nuclear research and development make it desirable to minimize duplication of effort. These joint programs provide a mechanism for two or more parties jointly to plan a development program, assign work tasks among themselves, and exchange test results. Despite a slower-than-hoped-for start, nuclear power today is playing a significant role in the economic growth of some developing countries, and can continue to do so. Roughly half of the 23 free world nations that have adopted LWRs are developing countries

  20. Guidelines for dynamic international programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Matters of global concern-deforestation, global warming, biodiversity loss, sustainable development, fuelwood crises, watershed destruction, and large-scale flooding-frequently involve forests and natural resources. In the future, university students will enter a global setting that more than ever depends on a strong knowledge of international issues. USA land-grant universities are attempting to prepare students for this challenge by improving their international programs including forestry. To improve university programs, several factors will need to be addressed and are discussed, with examples, in this article: commitment of the faculty; program specialization; geographic specialization; reward systems for international contributions; international collaboration; recycled dollars within the university; active teaching programs; research; extention and outreach; language training; international faculty; travel grants; twinning relationships with sister institutions; selective in pursuit of international development assistance; and study centers. 6 refs

  1. Internal auditors meet at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    What does CERN have in common with INTERPOL? The answer: the challenge of managing a complex international organisation operating outside national regulations. Participants of the internal audit conference had the opportunity to visit ATLAS.On 17th &18th April CERN hosted a meeting for the Internal Audit Heads of some of the most famous international organisations in the world. Sixteen organisations were represented at the conference, including the European Commission, INTERPOL, the European Central Bank, the OECD, the European Space Agency (ESA), NATO and the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO). The objective of this annual meeting is to share best practices and benchmark performance in the fields of auditing, organizational governance, risk management and internal controls. International organisations, due to their specific legal status and the absence of applicable national legisl...

  2. International standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.

    2011-01-01

    International standards for radiation protection are issued by many bodies. These bodies differ to a large extent in their organisation, in the way the members are designated and in the way the international standards are authorised by the issuing body. Large differences also exist in the relevance of the international standards. One extreme is that the international standards are mandatory in the sense that no conflicting national standard may exist, the other extreme is that national and international standards conflict and there is no need to resolve that conflict. Between these extremes there are some standards or documents of relevance, which are not binding by any formal law or contract but are de facto binding due to the scientific reputation of the issuing body. This paper gives, for radiation protection, an overview of the main standards issuing bodies, the international standards or documents of relevance issued by them and the relevance of these documents. (authors)

  3. International Criminal Law & Its Paradoxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2017-01-01

    This article challenges international criminal tribunals' (ICTs) capacity to perform the socially constitutive work of transitional justice. Highlighting paradigmatic ICT jurisprudence, it shows both the "progress" and "justice" constructs central to the work and legitimacy of international...... criminal law are unrealizable under current ICT practice. This is due to international criminal law's foundational, legitimizing basis in natural law, rather than political liberalism. The article calls for a revision of ICT institutional accountability structures....

  4. International handling of fissionable material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The opinion of the ministry for foreign affairs on international handling of fissionable materials is given. As an introduction a survey is given of the possibilities to produce nuclear weapons from materials used in or produced by power reactors. Principles for international control of fissionable materials are given. International agreements against proliferation of nuclear weapons are surveyed and methods to improve them are proposed. (K.K.)

  5. On Interpretivism and International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Çali, Başak (Prof.)

    2017-01-01

    This article argues for the relevance of interpretivism within theoretical and normative debates about international law. To do this, the article carries out two tasks. First, it draws out the central features of interpretivism that make it a theoretically distinct contribution to understanding the nature and theory of law. Secondly, it identifies four important objections, two external and two internal, to the relevance of interpretivism to international law. External objections stem from po...

  6. Water security and international law

    OpenAIRE

    Kuokkanen Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    The article explores water security from an international law point of view. The article argues that in order to better understand water security it is important to focus on the function of international water law. Even though water security is a relatively recent concept it was latent in the process of the evolution of international water law. In addition, the article examines the relationship between man and water from the point of view of water security. The article seeks to answe...

  7. INTERNAL AUDIT IN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Gabriela UNGUREANU

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Internal Audit, compared with verification of transactions and compliance with established procedures, identify risks and assess the effectiveness of risk management.Internal audit based on risk analysis assesses the adequacy and effectiveness of internal control in all areas of activity, helps management in its task by analyzing the causes and consequences, with recommendations concerning the activities examined, whereas both shareholders and existing and potential investors are interested in how the entity is governed.

  8. International migration and the gender

    OpenAIRE

    Koropecká, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    My bachelor thesis explores the connection between international migration and gender. Gender, defined as a social, not a biological term, has a huge impact on the migration process. Statistics and expert studies that have been gender sensitive since 1970s demonstrate that women form half of the amount of the international migrants depending on the world region and representing a wide range of the kinds of international migration: family formation and reunification, labour migration, illegal ...

  9. International activities of the GRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, R.; Hachenberg, G.; Schally, P.

    1990-01-01

    The individual activities fall into three main subject areas, each with differing objectives and functions: Cooperation in multilateral and bilateral bodies and organizations, cooperation in international research projects, performance of safety analyses. In addition to describing the international activities of GRS, the paper also shows how complexly interwoven the safety of nuclear facilities is at the international level, and how varied initiatives are required in order to ensure effective cooperation in the various fields. (orig.) [de

  10. International environmental legislation; Internationales Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book on international environmental legislation includes the following contributions: Development, sources and actors concerning the international environmental legislation, cross-national environmental justice, principles of the international environmental legislation, environmental protection by lawsuit, environmental protection and human right, environmental protection and trading, responsibility and liability, peaceful settlement of disputes, climatic change, preservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity, protection of air and space, oceanic protection, protection of inland waters, protection of the Antarctic and Arctic environment, waste and hazardous materials legislation.

  11. The security in international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurie RICHICINSCHI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regardless the fact that concerns about the nature of relations between states, the causes of war, the peacekeeping issues, the international cooperation and recognition of international actors have preceded with millennia the emergence of the academic field of International Relations as a discipline, this one has been embedded along several centuries in much broader areas of research, whose influence is still manifested today.

  12. International Organizations and Environmental Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik; Kaiser, Wolfram

    Pollution, resource depletion, habitat management, and climate change are all issues that necessarily transcend national boundaries. Accordingly, they and other environmental concerns have been a particular focus for international organizations from before the First World War to the present day...... between emerging environmental concerns and international politics during the last century. It illuminates the crucial role played by international organisations in developing environmental policies, and in particular it traces the political resolve and intellectual effort behind the concept...

  13. Time, history and international law

    CERN Document Server

    Craven, Matthew; Vogiatzi, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This book examines theoretical and practical issues concerning the relationship between international law, time and history. Problems relating to time and history are ever-present in the work of international lawyers, whether understood in terms of the role of historic practice in the doctrine of sources, the application of the principle of inter-temporal law in dispute settlement, or in gaining a coherent insight into the role that was played by international law in past events. But very little has been written about the various different ways in which international lawyers approach or unders

  14. Information Warfare and International Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberg, Lawrence T; Goodman, Seymour E; Soo Hoo, Kevin J

    1998-01-01

    .... Some legal constraints will certainly apply to information warfare, either because the constraints explicitly regulate particular actions, or because more general principles of international law...

  15. Radiation safety: New international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    This article highlights an important result of this work for the international harmonization of radiation safety: specifically, it present an overview of the forthcoming International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - the so-called BSS. They have been jointly developed by six organizations - the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

  16. Information Warfare and International Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberg, Lawrence T; Goodman, Seymour E; Soo Hoo, Kevin J

    1998-01-01

    The development of "information warfare" presents international legal issues that will complicate nations' efforts both to execute and to respond to certain information warfare attacks, specifically...

  17. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  18. Internal Audits of QMS (COTS) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This is an internal audit workflow application used to automate business processes that support the AVS Quality Management System (QMS) and several Flight Standards...

  19. International Society for Violence and Injury Prevention International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Society for Violence and Injury Prevention (ISVIP) hosted the International Conference on “Children and Injuries” in Cape Town, South Africa from 31 August to 3 September 2008. ISVIP's mission is to establish global commitment to violence and injury prevention through advocacy and public policy action, ...

  20. International Education: The International Baccalaureate, Montessori and Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunold-Conesa, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) programs and Montessori education both claim to promote values associated with global citizenship in order to help prepare students for new challenges presented by an increasingly globalized world. While the IB's secondary programs are widespread in international schools, Montessori programs at that level are…