WorldWideScience

Sample records for international unconventional gas

  1. Intergas `95: International unconventional gas symposium. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The International Unconventional Gas Symposium was held on May 14--20, 1995 in Tuscaloosa, Alabama where 52 reports were presented. These reports are grouped in this proceedings under: geology and resources; mine degasification and safety; international developments; reservoir characterization/coal science; and environmental/legal and regulatory. Each report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Unconventional Gas, Status and Perspectives for Its Exploration in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Orelvis Delgado López; Osvaldo López Corzo; Rafael Tenreyro Pérez; Juan Guillermo López Rivera

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this paper, is to define the unconventional gas types that can be found in Cuba andelaborate premises of perspectives areas for its exploration in Cuba. For this reason, a bibliographicrevision was done over the internet, because of the absent of textbooks and experiences of this topicin Cuba. For the enunciation of perspectives areas for unconventional gas exploration in Cuba, bothgas exploration reports in national territory and theoretical aspects elucidated over the intern...

  3. IMPACT OF UNCONVENTIONAL GAS PRODUCTION ON LNG SUPPLY AND DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Karasalihović Sedlar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of unconventional gas plays a double role in the case of liquefied natural gas (LNG industry. Technological development of gas production from unconventional resources could result in significant decrease of LNG import demand but at the same time unconventional resources also represent a potential for new sources of LNG supply. In past few years unconventional gas production in North America has increased constantly what has contributed to natural gas prices decrease and LNG imports reduction. The rise of unconventional gas production along with global recession significantly influenced LNG demand decrease in the USA. Concerning unconventional gas production rapid development, potential decrease of LNG demand in rest of the world is expected (the paper is published in Croatian.

  4. Final report on unconventional gas in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The main purpose of the study on the title subject is to analyse how the relevant applicable European legal framework, including environmental law, is applied to the licensing/authorisation and operational permitting for prospection, exploration and production/exploitation of shale gas based on a sample of four Member States, i.e. Poland, France, Germany and Sweden. It is, however, not purpose of the study to assess whether Member State legislation based on EU legislation has been properly transposed. This study focuses on shale gas exploration, because shale gas is the type of unconventional gas most discussed and contentious currently. Also, compared to tight gas and coal bed methane, relatively less experience exists in Europe for shale formations as new source of natural gas. The focus on exploration is due to the stage of projects in Europe. No commercial scale shale gas exploitation has taken place yet and it is only expected in a few years time. Nevertheless, this study also takes into account a possible future production phase and especially analyses legal issues especially related to the transfer from exploration to production stage. As regards areas of law to be studied, the focus is the 'core' licensing and permitting process. Given the importance of environmental law in the area of shale gas exploration and production, it is included as an integral part of the study. However, within the scope of this study it is not possible to perform a thorough assessment of the appropriateness of the EU environmental legislation. Nevertheless, the present report describes and analyses EU environmental legislation which was assumed to be of most relevance for shale gas projects, especially as regards its interface with the 'core' licensing and permitting processes. Thereby it contributes to further efforts to assess the appropriateness of the EU legal framework especially with a view to a future production phase and the challenge to ensure a high

  5. Unconventional Gas, Status and Perspectives for Its Exploration in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orelvis Delgado López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this paper, is to define the unconventional gas types that can be found in Cuba andelaborate premises of perspectives areas for its exploration in Cuba. For this reason, a bibliographicrevision was done over the internet, because of the absent of textbooks and experiences of this topicin Cuba. For the enunciation of perspectives areas for unconventional gas exploration in Cuba, bothgas exploration reports in national territory and theoretical aspects elucidated over the internet wereused. Through this method of research it was possible to understand the theoretical aspect ofunconventional gas, the definition of the unconventional gas types that can be present in Cuba andthe most perspectives areas in order to begin its exploration. From these results it is possible toconclude that: The term unconventional gas is used because of the unconventional technical used formake the production of natural gas profitable from low quality reservoirs, and not because it is ahydrocarbon with different characteristics. The main unconventional gas types, which are beingdeveloped nowadays worldwide, are: Tight gas, shale gas y coal bed methane. Preliminarily, in Cubaonly exist conditions for tight and shale gas development.

  6. The Noble Gas Fingerprint in a UK Unconventional Gas Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKavney, Rory; Gilfillan, Stuart; Györe, Domokos; Stuart, Fin

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, there has been an unprecedented expansion in the development of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. Concerns have arisen about the effect of this new industry on groundwater quality, particularly focussing on hydraulic fracturing, the technique used to increase the permeability of the targeted tight shale formations. Methane contamination of groundwater has been documented in areas of gas production1 but conclusively linking this to fugitive emissions from unconventional hydrocarbon production has been controversial2. A lack of baseline measurements taken before drilling, and the equivocal interpretation of geochemical data hamper the determination of possible contamination. Common techniques for "fingerprinting" gas from discrete sources rely on gas composition and isotopic ratios of elements within hydrocarbons (e.g. δ13CCH4), but the original signatures can be masked by biological and gas transport processes. The noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) are inert and controlled only by their physical properties. They exist in trace quantities in natural gases and are sourced from 3 isotopically distinct environments (atmosphere, crust and mantle)3. They are decoupled from the biosphere, and provide a separate toolbox to investigate the numerous sources and migration pathways of natural gases, and have found recent utility in the CCS4 and unconventional gas5 industries. Here we present a brief overview of noble gas data obtained from a new coal bed methane (CBM) field, Central Scotland. We show that the high concentration of helium is an ideal fingerprint for tracing fugitive gas migration to a shallow groundwater. The wells show variation in the noble gas signatures that can be attributed to differences in formation water pumping from the coal seams as the field has been explored for future commercial development. Dewatering the seams alters the gas/water ratio and the degree to which noble gases degas from the formation water. Additionally the

  7. Unconventional gas resources in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Jon; Vossoughi, Shapour

    2012-05-01

    Unconventional gas accounts for more than 40% of U.S. domestic gas production and more than 10% of world output. The amount of resources available is still uncertain and estimates vary to a large degree. In this paper, unconventional gas resources within the United States will be examined. This paper will take a brief look at all types of unconventional gas resources (there have been 6 identified) but will concentrate on shale gas and coal-bed methane, as they are the resources receiving the most attention. This paper will also delve into the technology in unconventional gas production and exploration, including recent innovations in the industry. Finally, environmental concerns unique to unconventional gas production will be addressed. Natural gas refers to naturally occurring hydrocarbons found trapped underground. It occurs as mixtures of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights (methane, butane, etc.) and was formed millions of years ago from fossilized organic matter. Natural gas can be used as a cleaner burning alternative to other fossil fuels for power generation. It produces half the amount of carbon dioxide as coal and roughly 25 percent less carbon dioxide than gasoline. Consequently, it is becoming more popular in today's environmentally conscious world. Worldwide demand is expected to increase at twice the rate of oil until at least 2030. Interest in natural gas is at an all-time high in the United States. Only recently have we learned about the vast unconventional resources that exist within our borders. The implications for reduced dependence on foreign sources of gas are promising for the future of this country. There may be sufficient resources within the United States to allow this energy source to thrive for many years to come. Natural gas can be divided into two categories: 1) Conventional gas which is found in reservoirs where the gas has been trapped by a layer of rock. Usually conventional gas refers to that which exists on top of crude oil

  8. Unconventional oil and gas: The role of politics and proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelly, Chelsea

    2016-10-01

    Political divisions are important in understanding public perceptions of unconventional oil and natural gas development, but so is proximity to drilling activities. New research highlights that, as geographical distance from development areas increases, political ideology becomes more influential in explaining diverging perceptions.

  9. 76 FR 56412 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ...-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program 2011...-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program on... Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research Program, reflects an important shift...

  10. Unconventional Heavy Oil Growth and Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduagu, Experience I; Gates, Ian D

    2015-07-21

    Enormous global reserves of unconventional heavy oil make it a significant resource for economic growth and energy security; however, its extraction faces many challenges especially on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, and recently, social acceptability. Here, we question whether it makes sense to extract and use unconventional heavy oil in spite of these externalities. We place unconventional oils (oil sands and oil shale) alongside shale gas, coal, lignite, wood and conventional oil and gas, and compare their energy intensities and life cycle GHG emissions. Our results reveal that oil shale is the most energy intensive fuel among upgraded primary fossil fuel options followed by in situ-produced bitumen from oil sands. Lignite is the most GHG intensive primary fuel followed by oil shale. Based on future world energy demand projections, we estimate that if growth of unconventional heavy oil production continues unabated, the incremental GHG emissions that results from replacing conventional oil with heavy oil would amount to 4-21 Gt-CO2eq GtCO2eq over four decades (2010 by 2050). However, prevailing socio-economic, regional and global energy politics, environmental and technological challenges may limit growth of heavy oil production and thus its GHG emissions contributions to global fossil fuel emissions may be smaller.

  11. Experience with unconventional gas turbine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, D.K. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Low grade fuels such as Blast Furnace Gas, biomass, residual oil, coke, and coal - if used in conjunction with appropriate combustion, gasification, and clean-up processes and in combination with a gas turbine combined cycle -offer attractive and environmentally sound power generation. Recently, the Bao Shan Iron and Steel Company in Shanghai placed an order with Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan, to supply a combined-cycle power plant. The plant is to employ ABB`s GT 11N2 with a combustor modified to burn blast furnace gas. Recent tests in Shanghai and at Kawasaki Steel, Japan, have confirmed the burner design. The same basic combustor concept can also be used for the low BTU gas derived from airblown gasification processes. ABB is also participating in the API project: A refinery-residual gasification combined-cycle plant in Italy. The GT 13E2 gas turbine employees MBTU EV burners that have been successfully tested under full operating conditions. These burners can also handle the MBTU gas produced in oxygenblown coal gasification processes. ABB`s vast experience in burning blast furnace gas (21 plants built during the 1950s and 1960s), residuals, crude, and coal in various gas turbine applications is an important asset for building such power plants. This presentation discusses some of the experience gained in such plants. (orig.) 6 refs.

  12. Unconventional oil and gas extraction and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, M; Oswald, R E

    2014-08-01

    The extraction of hydrocarbons from shale formations using horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing (unconventional shale gas and tight oil extraction), while derived from methods that have been used for decades, is a relatively new innovation that was introduced first in the United States and has more recently spread worldwide. Although this has led to the availability of new sources of fossil fuels for domestic consumption and export, important issues have been raised concerning the safety of the process relative to public health, animal health, and our food supply. Because of the multiple toxicants used and generated, and because of the complexity of the drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion processes including associated infrastructure such as pipelines, compressor stations and processing plants, impacts on the health of humans and animals are difficult to assess definitively. We discuss here findings concerning the safety of unconventional oil and gas extraction from the perspectives of public health, veterinary medicine, and food safety.

  13. Preparation of environmental analyses for synfuel and unconventional gas technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, R.M. (ed.)

    1982-09-01

    Government agencies that offer financial incentives to stimulate the commercialization of synfuel and unconventional gas technologies usually require an analysis of environmental impacts resulting from proposed projects. This report reviews potentially significant environmental issues associated with a selection of these technologies and presents guidance for developing information and preparing analyses to address these issues. The technologies considered are western oil shale, tar sand, coal liquefaction and gasification, peat, unconventional gas (western tight gas sands, eastern Devonian gas shales, methane from coal seams, and methane from geopressured aquifers), and fuel ethanol. Potentially significant issues are discussed under the general categories of land use, air quality, water use, water quality, biota, solid waste disposal, socioeconomics, and health and safety. The guidance provided in this report can be applied to preparation and/or review of proposals, environmental reports, environmental assessments, environmental impact statements, and other types of environmental analyses. The amount of detail required for any issue discussed must, by necessity, be determined on a case-by-case basis.

  14. 77 FR 23105 - Supporting Safe and Responsible Development of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas Resources #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0... Development of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas Resources By the authority vested in me as President by the... gas resources, while giving American families and communities confidence that natural and...

  15. Data inconsistencies from states with unconventional oil and gas activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Samantha; Kelso, Matthew; Auch, Ted; Edelstein, Karen; Ferrar, Kyle; Jalbert, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The quality and availability of unconventional oil and gas (O&G) data in the United States have never been compared methodically state-to-state. By conducting such an assessment, this study seeks to better understand private and publicly sourced data variability and to identify data availability gaps. We developed an exploratory data-grading tool - Data Accessibility and Usability Index (DAUI) - to guide the review of O&G data quality. Between July and October 2013, we requested, collected, and assessed 5 categories of unconventional O&G data (wells drilled, violations, production, waste, and Class II disposal wells) from 10 states with active drilling activity. We based our assessment on eight data quality parameters (accessibility, usability, point location, completeness, metadata, agency responsiveness, accuracy, and cost). Using the DAUI, two authors graded the 10 states and then averaged their scores. The average score received across all states, data categories, and parameters was 67.1 out of 100, largely insufficient for proper data transparency. By state, Pennsylvania received the highest average ( = 93.5) and ranked first in all but one data category. The lowest scoring state was Texas ( = 44) largely due to its policy of charging for certain data. This article discusses the various reasons for scores received, as well as methodological limitations of the assessment metrics. We argue that the significant variability of unconventional O&G data-and its availability to the public-is a barrier to regulatory and industry transparency. The lack of transparency also impacts public education and broader participation in industry governance. This study supports the need to develop a set of data best management practices (BMPs) for state regulatory agencies and the O&G industry, and suggests potential BMPs for this purpose.

  16. 78 FR 41047 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ...-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program 2013...-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program on.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elena Melchert, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Oil and...

  17. Assessment of unconventional oil and gas resources in Northeast Mexico, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Weaver, Jean Noe

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 0.78 billion barrels of unconventional oil, 23.5 trillion cubic feet of unconventional gas, and 0.88 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Sabinas Basin, Burgos Basin, and Tampico-Misantla Basin provinces of northeast Mexico.

  18. Geology and assessment of unconventional oil and gas resources of northeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of State, quantitatively assessed the potential for unconventional oil and gas resources within the onshore portions of the Tampico-Misantla Basin, Burgos Basin, and Sabinas Basin provinces of northeastern Mexico. Unconventional resources of the Veracruz Basin were not quantitatively assessed because of a current lack of required geological information. Unconventional resources include shale gas, shale oil, tight gas, tight oil, and coalbed gas. Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed in Mexico in 2012.

  19. Perinatal outcomes and unconventional natural gas operations in Southwest Pennsylvania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaina L Stacy

    Full Text Available Unconventional gas drilling (UGD has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15,451 live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from 2007-2010. Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted (IDW well count; least exposed mothers (first quartile had an IDW well count less than 0.87 wells per mile, while the most exposed (fourth quartile had 6.00 wells or greater per mile. Multivariate linear (birth weight or logistical (small for gestational age (SGA and prematurity regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. Comparison of the most to least exposed, however, revealed lower birth weight (3323 ± 558 vs 3344 ± 544 g and a higher incidence of SGA (6.5 vs 4.8%, respectively; odds ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.63. While the clinical significance of the differences in birth weight among the exposure groups is unclear, the present findings further emphasize the need for larger studies, in regio-specific fashion, with more precise characterization of exposure over an extended period of time to evaluate the potential public health significance of UGD.

  20. Perinatal outcomes and unconventional natural gas operations in Southwest Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Shaina L; Brink, LuAnn L; Larkin, Jacob C; Sadovsky, Yoel; Goldstein, Bernard D; Pitt, Bruce R; Talbott, Evelyn O

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional gas drilling (UGD) has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15,451 live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from 2007-2010. Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted (IDW) well count; least exposed mothers (first quartile) had an IDW well count less than 0.87 wells per mile, while the most exposed (fourth quartile) had 6.00 wells or greater per mile. Multivariate linear (birth weight) or logistical (small for gestational age (SGA) and prematurity) regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. Comparison of the most to least exposed, however, revealed lower birth weight (3323 ± 558 vs 3344 ± 544 g) and a higher incidence of SGA (6.5 vs 4.8%, respectively; odds ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.63). While the clinical significance of the differences in birth weight among the exposure groups is unclear, the present findings further emphasize the need for larger studies, in regio-specific fashion, with more precise characterization of exposure over an extended period of time to evaluate the potential public health significance of UGD.

  1. The International Impact of US Unconventional Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Chandler

    2015-01-01

    Using a structural factor-augmented vector autoregression model and a large data set of daily time series, we study the impact of US unconventional monetary policy on British and German financial markets. Our findings indicate that a surprise US unconventional monetary policy easing leads...

  2. Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu

    2007-06-19

    The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical

  3. Potential Unconventional Gas Plays in the Mature Basin of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujok Petr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of unconventional resources has been proven in deeper parts of mature oil and gas provinces and coal basins of the world. In this context, it is worth to focus also on the prospects of unconventional gas production from within hydrocarbon provinces of the Moravian part of the Vienna basin. The estimation of hydrocarbon generation potential of Jurasic marls from the Mikulov Formation of the Czech part of the Vienna Basin was performed based on the Rock Eval pyrolysis.

  4. Organic Substances from Unconventional Oil and Gas Production in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W. H.; Varonka, M.; Crosby, L.; Schell, T.; Bates, A.; Engle, M.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production has emerged as an important element in the US and world energy mix. Technological innovations in the oil and gas industry, especially horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, allow for the enhanced release of oil and natural gas from shale compared to conventional oil and gas production. This has made commercial exploitation possible on a large scale. Although UOG is enormously successful, there is surprisingly little known about the effects of this technology on the targeted shale formation and on environmental impacts of oil and gas production at the surface. We examined water samples from both conventional and UOG shale wells to determine the composition, source and fate of organic substances present. Extraction of hydrocarbon from shale plays involves the creation and expansion of fractures through the hydraulic fracturing process. This process involves the injection of large volumes of a water-sand mix treated with organic and inorganic chemicals to assist the process and prop open the fractures created. Formation water from a well in the New Albany Shale that was not hydraulically fractured (no injected chemicals) had total organic carbon (TOC) levels that averaged 8 mg/L, and organic substances that included: long-chain fatty acids, alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, alkyl benzenes, and alkyl phenols. In contrast, water from UOG production in the Marcellus Shale had TOC levels as high as 5,500 mg/L, and contained a range of organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at thousands of μg/L for individual compounds. These chemicals and TOC decreased rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery as injected fluids were recovered, but residual organic compounds (some naturally-occurring) remained up to 250 days after the start of water recovery (TOC 10-30 mg/L). Results show how hydraulic fracturing changes the organic

  5. Enhanced recovery of unconventional gas. Executive summary. Volume I (of 3 volumes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuuskraa, V. A.; Brashear, J. P.; Doscher, T. M.; Elkins, L. E.

    1978-10-01

    R and D efforts in enhanced gas recovery of near-conventional and unconventional gas sources are needed in order to augment domestic supplies. Unconventional gas sources could provide 200 to 220 Tcf of additional gas supply, if a combination of economic incentives and publicly sponsored R and D is used, and as much as 2 to 8 Tcf could be delivered per year by 1990. This volume comprises three parts discussing the public policy issues, proposed research strategy in enhanced gas recovery, and methodology. 14 figures. (DLC)

  6. Unconventional gas recovery program. Semi-annual report for the period ending September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manilla, R.D. (ed.)

    1980-04-01

    This document is the third semi-annual report describing the technical progress of the US DOE projects directed at gas recovery from unconventional sources. Currently the program includes Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Project, Eastern Gas Shales Project, Western Gas Sands Project, and Geopressured Aquifers Project.

  7. Shale Gas Geomechanics for Development and Performance of Unconventional Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domonik, Andrzej; Łukaszewski, Paweł; Wilczyński, Przemysław; Dziedzic, Artur; Łukasiak, Dominik; Bobrowska, Alicja

    2017-04-01

    Mechanical properties of individual shale formations are predominantly determined by their lithology, which reflects sedimentary facies distribution, and subsequent diagenetic and tectonic alterations. Shale rocks may exhibit complex elasto-viscoplastic deformation mechanisms depending on the rate of deformation and the amount of clay minerals, also bearing implications for subcritical crack growth and heterogeneous fracture network development. Thus, geomechanics for unconventional resources differs from conventional reservoirs due to inelastic matrix behavior, stress sensitivity, rock anisotropy and low matrix permeability. Effective horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies are required to obtain and maintain high performance. Success of these techniques strongly depends on the geomechanical investigations of shales. An inelastic behavior of shales draws increasing attention of investigators [1], due to its role in stress relaxation between fracturing phases. A strong mechanical anisotropy in the vertical plane and a lower and more variable one in the horizontal plane are characteristic for shale rocks. The horizontal anisotropy plays an important role in determining the direction and effectiveness of propagation of technological hydraulic fractures. Non-standard rock mechanics laboratory experiments are being applied in order to obtain the mechanical properties of shales that have not been previously studied in Poland. Novel laboratory investigations were carried out to assess the creep parameters and to determine time-dependent viscoplastic deformation of shale samples, which can provide a limiting factor to tectonic stresses and control stress change caused by hydraulic fracturing. The study was supported by grant no.: 13-03-00-501-90-472946 "An integrated geomechanical investigation to enhance gas extraction from the Pomeranian shale formations", funded by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBiR). References: Ch. Chang M. D

  8. US presidential candidates’ views on unconventional gas and oil: Who has it right?

    OpenAIRE

    Evensen, Darrick T.N.

    2016-01-01

    Unconventional oil and gas extraction (from shale, coal, or tight sands) via hydraulic fracturing (often just ‘fracking’) has the potential to transform the US physical and political landscape. This issue has played a role in the 2008 and 2012 US presidential contests and recently emerged as a point of demarcation between the final four democrat and republican contenders for the White House. On the democrat side, broadly, Sanders advocates for a ban on unconventional hydrocarbon development, ...

  9. Just fracking: a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Emily; Bell, Derek

    2016-02-01

    This letter presents a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in the area of Pennsylvania lying over the Marcellus Shale, the largest shale gas formation in play in the United States. The extraction of shale gas using unconventional wells, which are hydraulically fractured (fracking), has increased dramatically since 2005. As the number of wells has grown, so have concerns about the potential public health effects on nearby communities. These concerns make shale gas development an environmental justice issue. This letter examines whether the hazards associated with proximity to wells and the economic benefits of shale gas production are fairly distributed. We distinguish two types of distributive environmental justice: traditional and benefit sharing. We ask the traditional question: are there a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells in Pennsylvania? However, we extend this analysis in two ways: we examine income distribution and level of education; and we compare before and after shale gas development. This contributes to discussions of benefit sharing by showing how the income distribution of the population has changed. We use a binary dasymetric technique to remap the data from the 2000 US Census and the 2009-2013 American Communities Survey and combine that data with a buffer containment analysis of unconventional wells to compare the characteristics of the population living nearer to unconventional wells with those further away before and after shale gas development. Our analysis indicates that there is no evidence of traditional distributive environmental injustice: there is not a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells. However, our analysis is consistent with the claim that there is benefit sharing distributive environmental injustice: the income distribution of the population nearer to shale gas wells

  10. Enhanced recovery of unconventional gas. Volume II. The program. [Tight gas basins; Devonian shale; coal seams; geopressured aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Brashear, J.P.; Doscher, T.M.; Elkins, L.E.

    1978-10-01

    This study was conducted to assist public decision-makers in selecting among many choices to obtain new gas supplies by addressing 2 questions: 1) how severe is the need for additional future supplies of natural gas, and what is the economic potential of providing part of future supply through enhanced recovery from unconventional natural gas resources. The study also serves to assist the DOE in designing a cost-effective R and D program to stimulate industry to recover this unconventional gas and to produce it sooner. Tight gas basins, Devonian shale, methane from coal seams, and methane from geopressured aquifers are considered. It is concluded that unconventional sources, already providing about 1 Tcf per year, could provide from 3 to 4 Tcf in 1985 and from 6 to 8 Tcf in 1990 (at $1.75 and $3.00 per Mcf, respectively). However, even with these additions to supply, gas supply is projected to remain below 1977 usage levels. (DLC)

  11. Investigating the Effects of Uncertainties Associated with the Unconventional Gas Development in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eker, S.; Van Daalen, C.

    2012-01-01

    The natural gas production in the Netherlands is estimated to decline significantly in the coming 25 years. This situation has led producers to consider alternatives such as unconventional gas resources which are successfully utilized in the US and debated all over the world. However, despite the su

  12. A review of water and greenhouse gas impacts of unconventional natural gas development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, Doug; Logan, Jeff; Macknick, Jordan; Boyd, William; Medlock , Kenneth; O' Sullivan, Francis; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Huntington, Hill; Heath, Garvin; Statwick, Patricia M.; Bazilian, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the production and use of unconventional natural gas in the United States with a focus on water and greenhouse gas emission implications. If unconventional natural gas in the U.S. is produced responsibly, transported and distributed with little leakage, and incorporated into integrated energy systems that are designed for future resiliency, it could play a significant role in realizing a more sustainable energy future; however, the increased use of natural gas as a substitute for more carbon intensive fuels will alone not substantially alter world carbon dioxide concentration projections.

  13. Unconventional gas development and its effect on forested ecosystems in the Northern Appalachians, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drohan, Patrick; Brittingham, Margaret; Mortensen, David; Barlow, Kathryn; Langlois, Lillie

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide unconventional shale-gas development has the potential to cause substantial landscape disturbance. The northeastern U.S.A. Appalachian Mountains across the states of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky, are experiencing rapid landscape change as unconventional gas development occurs. We highlight several years of our research from this region in order to demonstrate the unique effect unconventional development has had on forested ecosystems. Infrastructure development has had a wide-reaching and varied effect on forested ecosystems and their services, which has resulted in temporary disturbances and long-lasting ones altering habitats and their viability. Corridor disturbances, such as pipelines, are the most spatially extensive disturbance and have substantially fragmented forest cover. Core forest disturbance, especially, in upper watershed positions, has resulted in disproportionate disturbances to forested ecosystems and their wildlife, and suggests a need for adaptive land management strategies to minimize and mitigate the effects of gas development. Soil and water resources are most affected by surface disturbances; however, soil protection and restoration strategies are evolving as the gas play changes economically. Dynamic soil properties related to soil organic matter and water availability respond uniquely to unconventional gas development and new, flexible restoration strategies are required to support long-term ecosystem stability. While the focus of management and research to date has been on acute disturbances to forested ecosystems, unconventional gas development is clearly a greater chronic, long-term disturbance factor in the Appalachian Mountains. Effectively managing ecosystems where unconventional gas development is occurring is a complicated interplay between public, private and corporate interests.

  14. Recent federal initiatives to promote unconventional gas: High octane delivery of just hot air?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griff, M.T.

    1995-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent initiatives of the United States which promote greater use of natural gas and unconventional gas as one part of this nations`s larger response to the global warming threat. Measurable increases in greenhouse gas concentrations since the beginning of the industrial revolution have led to the belief in the existence of a global warming problem. The international community has responded to the global warming threat with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change which is directed toward the stabilization of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The Climate Change Action Plan is the Clinton Administration`s detailed response to the global warming threat. It is designed to return United States emissions of greenhouse gases to their 1990 levels by the year 2000. The Action Plan targets all greenhouse gases and emphasizes energy efficiency. Significant regulatory reformation designed to increase the efficiency of the natural gas industry has already occurred and will be continued. Recovery of methane emissions from landfills will be encouraged through indentification of suitable sites and use of existing technology and development of new technology. Recovery of methane from coal mining operations will be promoted by targeting 50 of the gassiest mines in the United States. Even if the Action Plan is fully implemented. legitimate questions arise as to whether its goals will be achieved as a result of funding shortfalls.

  15. Unconventional energy resources: 2015 review. Shale gas and liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Neil S.; Bowker, Kent; Cander, Harris; Cardott, Brian; Charette, Marc; Chew, Kenneth; Chidsey, Thomas; Dubiel, Russell F.; Egenhoff, Sven O.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Hammes, Ursula; Harrison, William; Jiang, Shu; LeFever, Julie A.; McCracken, Jock; Nordeng, Stephen; Nyahay, Richard; Sonnenberg, Stephen; Vanden Berg, Michael; ,

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As the source rocks from which petroleum is generated, organic-rich shales have always been considered an important component of petroleum systems. Over the last few years, it has been realized that in some mudrocks, sufficient hydrocarbons remain in place to allow for commercial development, although advanced drilling and completion technology is typically required to access hydrocarbons from these reservoirs. Tight oil reservoirs (also referred to as continuous oil accumulations) contain hydrocarbons migrated from source rocks that are geologically/stratigraphically interbedded with or occur immediately overlying/underlying them. Migration is minimal in charging these tight oil accumulations (Gaswirth and Marra 2014). Companies around the world are now successfully exploiting organic-rich shales and tight rocks for contained hydrocarbons, and the search for these types of unconventional petroleum reservoirs is growing. Unconventional reservoirs range in geologic age from Ordovician to Tertiary (Silverman et al. 2005; EIA 2013a). 

  16. The next big thing : unconventional gas explorers lay technical foundations for shale gas development across Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2007-12-15

    Canadian exploration companies have successfully developed strategies for economically extracting gas from coal seams and unconventional tight reservoirs. According to Talisman Energy Inc., the next step is to tap into Canada's shale gas resource. In contrast to conventional gas targets, shale gas acts both as a source rock and reservoir rock with the natural gas contained within shale sequences. The gas is stored as adsorbed gas attached to kerogen in the shale, or exists as free gas in pores and fractures. The 2 main types of shale reservoirs include those where the gas was produced thermogenically through high temperatures and those where the gas was produced biogenically through bacterial breakdown. Innovative drilling and stimulation technologies are needed to extract sufficient volumes of gas and to commercially produce either type of shale play. Western Canada is the primary focus for shale gas exploration, mostly in deeper thermogenic shales in northern Alberta and British Columbia. Industry experts are comparing a play in the Fort Nelson area to the prolific Barnett Shale in Texas. Directional drilling and measurement while drilling technology has allowed shale developers in the United States to more accurately hit target prospects and to intersect more of the prospective pay zone. Improved fracturing technology has also allowed developers to improve the permeability of shale reservoirs. This experience will be helpful in Canada, although much experimenting is still required, including microseismic mapping that provides images of the fractures created by hydraulic fracturing. The area for biogenic shale exploration in Canada is in the Colorado Cretaceous Group of shales stretching across central Alberta and Saskatchewan. Stealth Ventures Ltd. and PanTerra Resource Corp. have been testing several technologies to make the shale play economic. Developing the plays will require the appropriate drilling and completion technologies to assess the plays. It

  17. Integrated reservoir and decision modeling to optimize spacing in unconventional gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkarslan, G.; McVay, D.A.; Ortiz, R.R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Bickel, J.E.; Montiel, L.V. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Unconventional gas plays are risky and operators must balance the need to conserve capital and protect the environment by avoiding over drilling with the desire to increase profitability. The purpose of this study was to develop technology and tools to help operators determine optimal well spacing in highly uncertain and risky unconventional gas reservoirs as quickly as possible. The paper presented a study that developed an integrated reservoir and decision modeling system that incorporated uncertainty. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to match and predict production performance in unconventional gas reservoirs. Simulation results were integrated with a Bayesian decision model that accounted for the risk facing operators. In order to determine optimal development strategies, these integrated tools were applied to a hypothetical case based on data from Deep Basin tight gas sands in Alberta. The paper provided background information on the Deep Basin Sands and the reservoir model. The Monte Carlo simulation and geostatistical analysis were presented. It was concluded that it is important to incorporate the lessons learned between development stages in unconventional gas reservoirs. 23 refs., 9 tabs., 16 figs.

  18. Analysis of Vapour Liquid Equilibria in Unconventional Rich Liquid Gas Condensate Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczyński, Szymon

    2014-12-01

    At the beginning of 21st century, natural gas from conventional and unconventional reservoirs has become important fossil energy resource and its role as energy fuel has increased. The exploration of unconventional gas reservoirs has been discussed recently in many conferences and journals. The paper presents considerations which will be used to build the thermodynamic model that will describe the phenomenon of vapour - liquid equilibrium (VLE) in the retrograde condensation in rocks of ultra-low permeability and in the nanopores. The research will be limited to "tight gas" reservoirs (TGR) and "shale gas" reservoirs (SGR). Constructed models will take into account the phenomenon of capillary condensation and adsorption. These studies will be the base for modifications of existing compositional simulators

  19. Environmental risks associated with unconventional gas extraction: an Australian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallants, Dirk; Bekele, Elise; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Miotlinski, Konrad; Gerke Gerke, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    Coal seam gas is naturally occurring methane gas (CH4) formed by the degradation of organic material in coal seam layers over geological times, typically over several millions of years. Unlike conventional gas resources, which occur as discrete accumulations in traps formed by folds and other structures in sedimentary layers, coal seam gas is generally trapped in low permeable rock by adsorption of the gas molecules within the rock formation and cannot migrate to a trap and form a conventional gas deposit. Extraction of coal seam gas requires producers to de pressurise the coal measures by abstracting large amounts of groundwater through pumping. For coal measures that have too low permeabilities for gas extraction to be economical, mechanical and chemical techniques are required to increase permeability and thus gas yield. One such technique is hydraulic fracturing (HF). Hydraulic fracturing increases the rate and total amount of gas extracted from coal seam gas reservoirs. The process of hydraulic fracturing involves injecting large volumes of hydraulic fracturing fluids under high pressure into the coal seam layers to open up (i.e. fracture) the gas-containing coal layers, thus facilitating extraction of methane gas through pumping. After a hydraulic fracturing operation has been completed in a coal seam gas well, the fracturing fluid pressure is lowered and a significant proportion of the injected fluid returns to the surface as "flowback" water via coal seam gas wells. Flowback water is fluid that returns to the surface after hydraulic fracturing has occurred but before the well is put into production; whereas produced water is fluid from the coal measure that is pumped to the surface after the well is in production. This paper summarises available literature data from Australian coal seam gas practices on i) spills from hydraulic fracturing-related fluids used during coal seam gas drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations, ii) leaks to soil and shallow

  20. U.S. Geological Survey assessments of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources, 2000 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-10-20

    From 2000 to 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted 139 quantitative assessments of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas accumulations within the United States. This report documents those assessments more fully than previously done by providing detailed documentation of both the assessment input and output. This report also compiles the data into spreadsheet tables that can be more readily used to provide analogs for future assessments, especially for hypothetical continuous accumulations.

  1. Unconventional attitudes: New thinking drives gas in south Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2002-05-01

    New natural gas wells under development and coming on stream in southern Alberta are discussed. These new wells are contrary to expectations since conventional wisdom holds that the future lies in the north frontier and the foothills of northwestern Alberta and northeastern British Columbia. Among these new developments are the wells of the Okotoks field which have been producing for years, but over 100 Bcf of gas remains to be exploited. The same company (Compton Petroleum Inc) is continuing to develop its deep gas Hooker play by drilling 15 successful wells in 2001 and acquiring additional land. The average stabilized rate on the Hooker wells is 1.7 MMcf/d, with expected decline rates of 10 per cent. West of Calgary Compton holds some more speculative opportunities on the Tsuu Tina Reserve and the Stoney Reserve. Impact Energy is another player generating interest in southern Alberta with its Whisky Creek play in the historic Turner Valley area. Impact Energy hit pay dirt at Whisky Creek last year with the 7-5 discovery well which is currently producing at a restricted rate of 5.0 MMcf/d with 50 bbl/MMcf of liquids. Two more wells in the play are expected to potentially add 30 Bcf of reserves, if successful. EnCana Energy and Quicksilver Resources subsidiary MGV Energy are also pushing the technological frontier with their coalbed methane play in the Palliser triangle in southeastern Alberta. A 250 well development is planned within the Palliser Block for later in 2002. Government figures put the potential for coalbed methane on Alberta's plains between 125 and 250 Tcf, more gas than remains in conventional reserves.

  2. Unconventional oil and gas development and risk of childhood leukemia: Assessing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Elise G; Trinh, Pauline; Ma, Xiaomei; Leaderer, Brian P; Ward, Mary H; Deziel, Nicole C

    2017-01-15

    The widespread distribution of unconventional oil and gas (UO&G) wells and other facilities in the United States potentially exposes millions of people to air and water pollutants, including known or suspected carcinogens. Childhood leukemia is a particular concern because of the disease severity, vulnerable population, and short disease latency. A comprehensive review of carcinogens and leukemogens associated with UO&G development is not available and could inform future exposure monitoring studies and human health assessments. The objective of this analysis was to assess the evidence of carcinogenicity of water contaminants and air pollutants related to UO&G development. We obtained a list of 1177 chemicals in hydraulic fracturing fluids and wastewater from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and constructed a list of 143 UO&G-related air pollutants through a review of scientific papers published through 2015 using PubMed and ProQuest databases. We assessed carcinogenicity and evidence of increased risk for leukemia/lymphoma of these chemicals using International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monographs. The majority of compounds (>80%) were not evaluated by IARC and therefore could not be reviewed. Of the 111 potential water contaminants and 29 potential air pollutants evaluated by IARC (119 unique compounds), 49 water and 20 air pollutants were known, probable, or possible human carcinogens (55 unique compounds). A total of 17 water and 11 air pollutants (20 unique compounds) had evidence of increased risk for leukemia/lymphoma, including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, cadmium, diesel exhaust, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Though information on the carcinogenicity of compounds associated with UO&G development was limited, our assessment identified 20 known or suspected carcinogens that could be measured in future studies to advance exposure and risk assessments of cancer-causing agents. Our findings support the need for investigation into

  3. Health Impact Assessments, Regulation, and the Unconventional Gas Industry in the UK: Exploiting Resources, Ideology, and Expertise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Andrew; Dinan, William

    2016-02-01

    Health impact assessments (HIAs) across the globe may be used by governments and industries to secure approval for unconventional gas extraction developments. HIA is an umbrella term that covers an array of health review and assessment practices, ranging from the very general to quite specific and technical health studies. Our concern in this paper is principally with the specialist end of the HIA continuum and particularly its application to unconventional gas extraction in the UK. We outline the context within which HIAs in unconventional gas extraction may be conducted. We then explain what HIAs may do. HIAs are often commissioned from consultancy companies to assess unconventional gas extraction project risks and benefits and propose mitigation measures. Communities can rarely afford HIAs in the planning process and may consider them biased when commissioned by vested interests. The oil and gas industry uses these techniques for its own ends. Hiring experts, be they specialist consultants, researchers, lobbyists, ex-government officials, or regulators, to influence planning and regulation is a well-tried tactic and structural advantage exploited by industry in seeking license to operate. Equitable and ethical HIA principles are urgently needed in the UK in relation to unconventional gas to secure the integrity and probity of the emerging regulatory system and address concerns regarding unregulated practitioners.

  4. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  5. Shale Gas. An unconventional gas ressource for the future energy mix in Europe?; Shale Gas. Eine unkonventionelle Gasressource fuer den zukuenftigen Energiemix in Europa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Martin [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), Potsdam (Germany); Horsfield, Brian [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), Potsdam (Germany); Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Kapp, Ingo [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Natural gas has a 23-per-cent-share of the energy mix of primary energy in Germany. Regarding the geological availability, natural gas is available in sufficient quantity globally. A large amount of conventional natural gas reserves are stored in a few countries. The gas market is influenced by the relatively high and increasing costs for transportation to the final customer. Against this background, unconventional natural gas resources are studied and developed. The focus of interest is the shale-gas (natural gas in clay formations).

  6. Volatile organic compound emissions from unconventional natural gas production: Source signatures and air quality impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, Robert F.

    Advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing over the past two decades have allowed access to previously unrecoverable reservoirs of natural gas and led to an increase in natural gas production. Intensive unconventional natural gas extraction has led to concerns about impacts on air quality. Unconventional natural gas production has the potential to emit vast quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. Many VOCs can be toxic, can produce ground-level ozone or secondary organic aerosols, and can impact climate. This dissertation presents the results of experiments designed to validate VOC measurement techniques, to quantify VOC emission rates from natural gas sources, to identify source signatures specific to natural gas emissions, and to quantify the impacts of these emissions on potential ozone formation and human health. Measurement campaigns were conducted in two natural gas production regions: the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeast Colorado and the Marcellus Shale region surrounding Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. An informal measurement intercomparison validated the canister sampling methodology used throughout this dissertation for the measurement of oxygenated VOCs. Mixing ratios of many VOCs measured during both campaigns were similar to or higher than those observed in polluted cities. Fluxes of natural gas-associated VOCs in Colorado ranged from 1.5-3 times industry estimates. Similar emission ratios relative to propane were observed for C2-C6 alkanes in both regions, and an isopentane:n-pentane ratio ≈1 was identified as a unique tracer for natural gas emissions. Source apportionment estimates indicated that natural gas emissions were responsible for the majority of C2-C8 alkanes observed in each region, but accounted for a small proportion of alkenes and aromatic compounds. Natural gas emissions in both regions accounted for approximately 20% of hydroxyl radical reactivity, which could hinder federal ozone standard

  7. Point source attribution of ambient contamination events near unconventional oil and gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Mach, Phillip M; McBride, Ethan M; Dorreyatim, M Navid; Taylor, Josh T; Carlton, Doug D; Meik, Jesse M; Fontenot, Brian E; Wright, Kenneth C; Schug, Kevin A; Verbeck, Guido F

    2016-12-15

    We present an analysis of ambient benzene, toluene, and xylene isomers in the Eagle Ford shale region of southern Texas. In situ air quality measurements using membrane inlet mobile mass spectrometry revealed ambient benzene and toluene concentrations as high as 1000 and 5000 parts-per-billion, respectively, originating from specific sub-processes on unconventional oil and gas well pad sites. The detection of highly variant contamination events attributable to natural gas flaring units, condensate tanks, compressor units, and hydrogen sulfide scavengers indicates that mechanical inefficiencies, and not necessarily the inherent nature of the extraction process as a whole, result in the release of these compounds into the environment. This awareness of ongoing contamination events contributes to an enhanced knowledge of ambient volatile organic compounds on a regional scale. While these reconnaissance measurements on their own do not fully characterize the fluctuations of ambient BTEX concentrations that likely exist in the atmosphere of the Eagle Ford Shale region, they do suggest that contamination events from unconventional oil and gas development can be monitored, controlled, and reduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Unconventional natural gas development and human health: thoughts from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon L; Hays, Jake; Law, Adam

    2015-10-05

    If unconventional gas development (UGD) continues to expand in Australia, the potential health and environmental impacts should be adequately addressed and preventive public health measures should be implemented. The United States has embraced UGD and has decades of experience that could be beneficial to Australia as stakeholders debate the potential benefits and harms of the technique. Additional research on the health impacts of UGD is necessary. Baseline and trend morbidity and mortality data need to be collected to assess changes in population health over time. To date, few health or epidemiological studies have been conducted, so it remains difficult to assess actual health outcomes. In the absence of scientific consensus, there are two possible risks: failing to develop unconventional natural gas when the harms are manageable; or developing it when the harms are substantial. Many government bodies around the world have chosen to minimise the risk of the latter until the impacts of UGD are better understood. Policies should be informed by empirical evidence based on actual experience rather than assurance of best practices. There is a strong rationale for precautionary measures based on the health and environmental risks identified in the scientific literature.

  9. Mineral content prediction for unconventional oil and gas reservoirs based on logging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maojin, Tan; Youlong, Zou; Guoyue

    2012-09-01

    Coal bed methane and shale oil &gas are both important unconventional oil and gas resources, whose reservoirs are typical non-linear with complex and various mineral components, and the logging data interpretation model are difficult to establish for calculate the mineral contents, and the empirical formula cannot be constructed due to various mineral. The radial basis function (RBF) network analysis is a new method developed in recent years; the technique can generate smooth continuous function of several variables to approximate the unknown forward model. Firstly, the basic principles of the RBF is discussed including net construct and base function, and the network training is given in detail the adjacent clustering algorithm specific process. Multi-mineral content for coal bed methane and shale oil &gas, using the RBF interpolation method to achieve a number of well logging data to predict the mineral component contents; then, for coal-bed methane reservoir parameters prediction, the RBF method is used to realized some mineral contents calculation such as ash, volatile matter, carbon content, which achieves a mapping from various logging data to multimineral. To shale gas reservoirs, the RBF method can be used to predict the clay content, quartz content, feldspar content, carbonate content and pyrite content. Various tests in coalbed and gas shale show the method is effective and applicable for mineral component contents prediction

  10. Variability of oil and gas well productivities for continuous (unconventional) petroleum accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, oil and gas well productivities were estimated using decline-curve analysis for thousands of wells as part of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources in the United States. The estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) of these wells show great variability that was analyzed at three scales: within an assessment unit (AU), among AUs of similar reservoir type, and among groups of AUs with different reservoir types. Within a particular oil or gas AU (such as the Barnett Shale), EURs vary by about two orders of magnitude between the most productive wells and the least productive ones (excluding those that are dry and abandoned). The distributions of EURs are highly skewed, with most of the wells in the lower part of the range. Continuous AUs were divided into four categories based on reservoir type and major commodity (oil or gas): coalbed gas, shale gas, other low-permeability gas AUs (such as tight sands), and low-permeability oil AUs. Within each of these categories, there is great variability from AU to AU, as shown by plots of multiple EUR distributions. Comparing the means of each distribution within a category shows that the means themselves have a skewed distribution, with a range of approximately one to two orders of magnitude. A comparison of the three gas categories (coalbed gas, shale gas, and other low-permeability gas AUs) shows large overlap in the ranges of EUR distributions. Generally, coalbed gas AUs have lower EUR distributions, shale gas AUs have intermediate sizes, and the other low-permeability gas AUs have higher EUR distributions. The plot of EUR distributions for each category shows the range of variation among developed AUs in an appropriate context for viewing the historical development within a particular AU. The Barnett Shale is used as an example to demonstrate that dividing wells into groups by time allows one to see the changes in EUR distribution. Subdivision into groups

  11. Optimization of Multiple Hydraulically Fractured Horizontal Wells in Unconventional Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate placement of multiple horizontal wells drilled from the same well pad plays a critical role in the successful economical production from unconventional gas reservoirs. However, there are high cost and uncertainty due to many inestimable and uncertain parameters such as reservoir permeability, porosity, fracture spacing, fracture half-length, fracture conductivity, gas desorption, and well spacing. In this paper, we employ response surface methodology to optimize multiple horizontal well placement to maximize Net Present Value (NPV with numerically modeling multistage hydraulic fractures in combination with economic analysis. This paper demonstrates the accuracy of numerical modeling of multistage hydraulic fractures for actual Barnett Shale production data by considering the gas desorption effect. Six uncertain parameters, such as permeability, porosity, fracture spacing, fracture half-length, fracture conductivity, and distance between two neighboring wells with a reasonable range based on Barnett Shale information, are used to fit a response surface of NPV as the objective function and to finally identify the optimum design under conditions of different gas prices based on NPV maximization. This integrated approach can contribute to obtaining the optimal drainage area around the wells by optimizing well placement and hydraulic fracturing treatment design and provide insight into hydraulic fracture interference between single well and neighboring wells.

  12. Mixing in three-phase systems: Implications for enhanced oil recovery and unconventional gas extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Porter, M. L.; Hyman, J.; Carey, J. W.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Although the mixing of fluids within a porous media is a common process in natural and industrial systems, how the degree of mixing depends on the miscibility of multiple phases is poorly characterized. Often, the direct consequence of miscible mixing is the modification of the resident fluid (brine and hydrocarbons) rheological properties. We investigate supercritical (sc)CO2 displacement and mixing processes in a three-phase system (scCO2, oil, and H2O) using a microfluidics experimental system that accommodates the high pressures and temperatures encountered in fossil fuel extraction operations. The miscibility of scCO2 with the resident fluids, low with aqueous solutions and high with hydrocarbons, impacts the mixing processes that control sweep efficiency in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and the unlocking of the system in unconventional oil and gas extraction. Using standard volume-averaging techniques we upscale the aqueous phase saturation to the field-scale (i.e., Darcy scale) and interpret the results as a simpler two-phase system. This process allows us to perform a statistical analysis to quantify i) the degree of heterogeneity in the system resulting from the immiscible H2O and ii) how that heterogeneity impacts mixing between scCO2 and oil and their displacement. Our results show that when scCO2 is used for miscible displacement, the presence of an aqueous solution, which is common in secondary and tertiary EOR and unconventional oil and gas extraction, strongly impacts the mixing of scCO2 with the hydrocarbons due to low scCO2-H2O miscibility. H2O, which must be displaced advectively by the injected scCO2, introduces spatio-temporal variability into the system that acts as a barrier between the two miscibile fluids. This coupled with the effect of viscosity contrast, i.e., viscous fingering, has an impact on the mixing of the more miscible pair.

  13. Generating and Synthesizing Information about Risks in Unconventional Oil and Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, H.

    2013-12-01

    Hannah Wiseman, Florida State University College of Law Stakeholders, agency staff, and policymakers all need more and better information about the risks of unconventional oil and gas development, including horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. To create more accurate and accessible information in this area, three steps are needed: better production of information about technologies; better production of information about risks; and better synthesis and organization of information. We also must decide who should be primarily responsible for these tasks. First, we must produce information about the technologies involved at each stage of well development. It is impossible to understand the risks without understanding the technologies behind them. When the Bureau of Land Management proposed that all oil and gas operators on BLM lands would have to submit a cement bond log for each well, industry actors argued that cement bond log readings are often unreliable close to the surface due to temperatures and acoustics. Industry has the most knowledge in this area, and government officials need to work with industry to better understand the technology and communicate information about it to the public. This is likely best done by a federal agency: the technologies are, broadly speaking, similar across regions--even for shale oil and gas. To understand and communicate risks we also need better data about risks. Industry actors often have few incentives to share information about known risks, as more data could lead to more regulation. States, who have the most jurisdictional authority over the risks, therefore should require industry to produce limited data. Alternatively, states--or the federal government--must collect this data themselves, as the U.S. Geological Survey has already begun to do for water in oil and gas regions. Specifically, they should require: baseline and post-development testing of surface and underground water sources around well sites before

  14. Reservoir Engineering for Unconventional Gas Reservoirs: What Do We Have to Consider?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarkson, Christopher R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The reservoir engineer involved in the development of unconventional gas reservoirs (UGRs) is required to integrate a vast amount of data from disparate sources, and to be familiar with the data collection and assessment. There has been a rapid evolution of technology used to characterize UGR reservoir and hydraulic fracture properties, and there currently are few standardized procedures to be used as guidance. Therefore, more than ever, the reservoir engineer is required to question data sources and have an intimate knowledge of evaluation procedures. We propose a workflow for the optimization of UGR field development to guide discussion of the reservoir engineer's role in the process. Critical issues related to reservoir sample and log analysis, rate-transient and production data analysis, hydraulic and reservoir modeling and economic analysis are raised. Further, we have provided illustrations of each step of the workflow using tight gas examples. Our intent is to provide some guidance for best practices. In addition to reviewing existing methods for reservoir characterization, we introduce new methods for measuring pore size distribution (small-angle neutron scattering), evaluating core-scale heterogeneity, log-core calibration, evaluating core/log data trends to assist with scale-up of core data, and modeling flow-back of reservoir fluids immediately after well stimulation. Our focus in this manuscript is on tight and shale gas reservoirs; reservoir characterization methods for coalbed methane reservoirs have recently been discussed.

  15. Montney unconventional gas : next generation, an integrated approach to optimizing wellbore completions technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapper, N.; Schnell, R. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Montney Formation is a prolific tight gas reservoir located in the western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in British Columbia and Alberta. The key to achieving economic success in the Peace River Arch area lies with horizontal wells with multiple fractures. The driver for the next generation of completions involves using various area drilling and completion techniques as a starting point to lower the installation cost without affecting the completion or production results. This presentation discussed unconventional gas in the Montney Formation and a next generation, integrated approach to optimizing wellbore completions technology. In order to address the need to change from cemented liners with pump down plugs and perforations completions, the presentation provided background information on swellable packers that could take the place of cement. Swellpacker completion bottom hole assembly and design considerations were presented. A solution for reducing costs was presented along with 6 case histories. It was concluded that new technology is the key to reducing costs in the Montney. Technology must be thoroughly vetted by drilling and completion experts and properly applied. figs.

  16. Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal, conventional and unconventional natural gas for electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with natural gas use recently published by Howarth et al. (2011) stated that use of natural gas produced from shale formations via hydraulic fracturing would generate greater lifecycle GHG emissions than petro...

  17. Landscape disturbance from unconventional and conventional oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale region of Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, Terry E.; Milheim, Lesley E.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial footprint of unconventional (hydraulic fracturing) and conventional oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale region of the State of Pennsylvania was digitized from high-resolution, ortho-rectified, digital aerial photography, from 2004 to 2010. We used these data to measure the spatial extent of oil and gas development and to assess the exposure of the extant natural resources across the landscape of the watersheds in the study area. We found that either form of development: (1) occurred in ~50% of the 930 watersheds that defined the study area; (2) was closer to streams than the recommended safe distance in ~50% of the watersheds; (3) was in some places closer to impaired streams and state-defined wildland trout streams than the recommended safe distance; (4) was within 10 upstream kilometers of surface drinking water intakes in ~45% of the watersheds that had surface drinking water intakes; (5) occurred in ~10% of state-defined exceptional value watersheds; (6) occurred in ~30% of the watersheds with resident populations defined as disproportionately exposed to pollutants; (7) tended to occur at interior forest locations; and (8) had >100 residents within 3 km for ~30% of the unconventional oil and gas development sites. Further, we found that exposure to the potential effects of landscape disturbance attributable to conventional oil and gas development was more prevalent than its unconventional counterpart.

  18. Landscape Disturbance from Unconventional and Conventional Oil and Gas Development in the Marcellus Shale Region of Pennsylvania, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Terrence Slonecker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial footprint of unconventional (hydraulic fracturing and conventional oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale region of the State of Pennsylvania was digitized from high-resolution, ortho-rectified, digital aerial photography, from 2004 to 2010. We used these data to measure the spatial extent of oil and gas development and to assess the exposure of the extant natural resources across the landscape of the watersheds in the study area. We found that either form of development: (1 occurred in ~50% of the 930 watersheds that defined the study area; (2 was closer to streams than the recommended safe distance in ~50% of the watersheds; (3 was in some places closer to impaired streams and state-defined wildland trout streams than the recommended safe distance; (4 was within 10 upstream kilometers of surface drinking water intakes in ~45% of the watersheds that had surface drinking water intakes; (5 occurred in ~10% of state-defined exceptional value watersheds; (6 occurred in ~30% of the watersheds with resident populations defined as disproportionately exposed to pollutants; (7 tended to occur at interior forest locations; and (8 had >100 residents within 3 km for ~30% of the unconventional oil and gas development sites. Further, we found that exposure to the potential effects of landscape disturbance attributable to conventional oil and gas development was more prevalent than its unconventional counterpart.

  19. Unconventional oil and gas spills: Materials, volumes, and risks to surface waters in four states of the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly O.; Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Patterson, Lauren A.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Entrekin, Sally; Fargione, Joe E.; Kiesecker, Joseph M.; Konschnik, Kate E.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Trainor, Anne M.; Saiers, James E.; Wiseman, Hannah J.

    2017-01-01

    Extraction of oil and gas from unconventional sources, such as shale, has dramatically increased over the past ten years, raising the potential for spills or releases of chemicals, waste materials, and oil and gas. We analyzed spill data associated with unconventional wells from Colorado, New Mexico, North Dakota and Pennsylvania from 2005 to 2014, where we defined unconventional wells as horizontally drilled into an unconventional formation. We identified materials spilled by state and for each material we summarized frequency, volumes and spill rates. We evaluated the environmental risk of spills by calculating distance to the nearest stream and compared these distances to existing setback regulations. Finally, we summarized relative importance to drinking water in watersheds where spills occurred. Across all four states, we identified 21,300 unconventional wells and 6622 reported spills. The number of horizontal well bores increased sharply beginning in the late 2000s; spill rates also increased for all states except PA where the rate initially increased, reached a maximum in 2009 and then decreased. Wastewater, crude oil, drilling waste, and hydraulic fracturing fluid were the materials most often spilled; spilled volumes of these materials largely ranged from 100 to 10,000 L. Across all states, the average distance of spills to a stream was highest in New Mexico (1379 m), followed by Colorado (747 m), North Dakota (598 m) and then Pennsylvania (268 m), and 7.0, 13.3, and 20.4% of spills occurred within existing surface water setback regulations of 30.5, 61.0, and 91.4 m, respectively. Pennsylvania spills occurred in watersheds with a higher relative importance to drinking water than the other three states. Results from this study can inform risk assessments by providing improved input parameters on volume and rates of materials spilled, and guide regulations and the management policy of spills.

  20. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources in Texas and Other Mining Activities: the Water Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicot, J.

    2011-12-01

    , Eagle Ford, Haynesville, and other shales and tight formations) were made with the help of various sources by estimating the amount of oil and gas to be produced in the state in the next decades and by distributing it through time. We projected that the state overall water use will peak in the 2020-2030 decade at ~305 thousand AF, thanks to the oil and gas unconventional resources that will start to decrease in terms of water use around that time. Both coal and aggregates are slated to keep increasing, more strongly for aggregates.

  1. Stream Vulnerability to Widespread and Emergent Stressors: A Focus on Unconventional Oil and Gas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally A Entrekin

    Full Text Available Multiple stressors threaten stream physical and biological quality, including elevated nutrients and other contaminants, riparian and in-stream habitat degradation and altered natural flow regime. Unconventional oil and gas (UOG development is one emerging stressor that spans the U.S. UOG development could alter stream sedimentation, riparian extent and composition, in-stream flow, and water quality. We developed indices to describe the watershed sensitivity and exposure to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and computed a vulnerability index from these two scores across stream catchments in six productive shale plays. We predicted that catchment vulnerability scores would vary across plays due to climatic, geologic and anthropogenic differences. Across-shale averages supported this prediction revealing differences in catchment sensitivity, exposure, and vulnerability scores that resulted from different natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. For example, semi-arid Western shale play catchments (Mowry, Hilliard, and Bakken tended to be more sensitive to stressors due to low annual average precipitation and extensive grassland. Catchments in the Barnett and Marcellus-Utica were naturally sensitive from more erosive soils and steeper catchment slopes, but these catchments also experienced areas with greater UOG densities and urbanization. Our analysis suggested Fayetteville and Barnett catchments were vulnerable due to existing anthropogenic exposure. However, all shale plays had catchments that spanned a wide vulnerability gradient. Our results identify vulnerable catchments that can help prioritize stream protection and monitoring efforts. Resource managers can also use these findings to guide local development activities to help reduce possible environmental effects.

  2. Application of a New Wavelet Threshold Method in Unconventional Oil and Gas Reservoir Seismic Data Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guxi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic data processing is an important aspect to improve the signal to noise ratio. The main work of this paper is to combine the characteristics of seismic data, using wavelet transform method, to eliminate and control such random noise, aiming to improve the signal to noise ratio and the technical methods used in large data systems, so that there can be better promotion and application. In recent years, prestack data denoising of all-digital three-dimensional seismic data is the key to data processing. Contrapose the characteristics of all-digital three-dimensional seismic data, and, on the basis of previous studies, a new threshold function is proposed. Comparing between conventional hard threshold and soft threshold, this function not only is easy to compute, but also has excellent mathematical properties and a clear physical meaning. The simulation results proved that this method can well remove the random noise. Using this threshold function in actual seismic processing of unconventional lithologic gas reservoir with low porosity, low permeability, low abundance, and strong heterogeneity, the results show that the denoising method can availably improve seismic processing effects and enhance the signal to noise ratio (SNR.

  3. Unconventional Gas Development in the USA: Exploring the Risk Perception Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John D; Rupp, John A; Schenk, Olga

    2015-10-01

    Unconventional gas development (UGD) is growing rapidly in the United States. Drawing on insights from risk perception and risk governance theories and recent public opinion surveys, we find that UGD is an emerging technology that is likely to be perceived as risky, even though objective risk assessments suggest that risks are low and controllable through best risk management practices. Perceived risk varies significantly depending on the state and locality but perceptions of risk appear to be increasing as the technology is used more widely in the United States and as organized opponents of the technology intensify their efforts. Risk perceptions are attenuated somewhat because of the perceived benefits of UGD and compensation schemes for individuals and communities. The types of triggering events necessary for large-scale social amplification and stigmatization have not yet occurred but awareness of UGD is growing and organized opposition has been sufficient to cause prohibitions of UGD in some U.S. states and localities. Additional directions for social science research on public reactions to UGD are recommended. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Unconventional oil and gas spills: Risks, mitigation priorities, and state reporting requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Lauren A.; Konschnik, Katherine E.; Wiseman, Hannah; Fargione, Joseph; Maloney, Kelly O.; Kiesecker, Joseph M.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Entrekin, Sally; Trainor, Anne; Saiers, James

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth in unconventional oil and gas (UOG) has produced jobs, revenue, and energy, but also concerns over spills and environmental risks. We assessed spill data from 2005 to 2014 at 31 481 UOG wells in Colorado, New Mexico, North Dakota, and Pennsylvania. We found 2–16% of wells reported a spill each year. Median spill volumes ranged from 0.5 m3 in Pennsylvania to 4.9 m3 in New Mexico; the largest spills exceeded 100 m3. Seventy-five to 94% of spills occurred within the first three years of well life when wells were drilled, completed, and had their largest production volumes. Across all four states, 50% of spills were related to storage and moving fluids via flowlines. Reporting rates varied by state, affecting spill rates and requiring extensive time and effort getting data into a usable format. Enhanced and standardized regulatory requirements for reporting spills could improve the accuracy and speed of analyses to identify and prevent spill risks and mitigate potential environmental damage. Transparency for data sharing and analysis will be increasingly important as UOG development expands. We designed an interactive spills data visualization tool (http://snappartnership.net/groups/hydraulic-fracturing/webapp/spills.html) to illustrate the value of having standardized, public data.

  5. Development of engine activity cycles for the prime movers of unconventional natural gas well development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek; Heltzel, Robert; Nix, Andrew; Barrow, Rebekah

    2017-03-01

    With the advent of unconventional natural gas resources, new research focuses on the efficiency and emissions of the prime movers powering these fleets. These prime movers also play important roles in emissions inventories for this sector. Industry seeks to reduce operating costs by decreasing the required fuel demands of these high horsepower engines but conducting in-field or full-scale research on new technologies is cost prohibitive. As such, this research completed extensive in-use data collection efforts for the engines powering over-the-road trucks, drilling engines, and hydraulic stimulation pump engines. These engine activity data were processed in order to make representative test cycles using a Markov Chain, Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation method. Such cycles can be applied under controlled environments on scaled engines for future research. In addition to MCMC, genetic algorithms were used to improve the overall performance values for the test cycles and smoothing was applied to ensure regression criteria were met during implementation on a test engine and dynamometer. The variations in cycle and in-use statistics are presented along with comparisons to conventional test cycles used for emissions compliance.

  6. Improved simulation design factors for unconventional crude vacuum units : cracked gas make and stripping section performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remesat, D. [Koch-Glitsch Canada LP, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Operating data for unconventional heavy oil vacuum crude units were reviewed in order to optimize the design of vacuum columns. Operational data from heavy crude vacuum units operating with stripping and velocity were used to investigate the application of a proven vacuum distillation tower simulation topology designed for use with heavy oil and bitumen upgrader feeds. Design factors included a characterization of the crude oils or bitumens processed in the facility; the selection of thermodynamic models; and the non-equilibrium simulation topology. Amounts of generated cracked gas were calculated, and entrainment and stripping section performance was evaluated. Heater designs for ensuring the even distribution of heat flux were discussed. Data sets from vacuum units processing crude oils demonstrated that the amount of offgas flow increased as the transfer line temperature increased. The resulting instability caused increased coke generation and light hydrocarbon formation. Results also indicated that overhead vacuum ejector design and size as well as heat transfer capabilities of quench and pumparound zones must be considered when designing vacuum column units. Steam stripping lowered hydrocarbon partial pressure to allow materials to boil at lower temperatures. It was concluded that setting appropriate entrainment values will ensure the accuracy of sensitivity analyses for transfer line designs, inlet feed devices, and wash bed configurations. 9 refs., figs.

  7. Methane Emissions from Conventional and Unconventional Natural Gas Production Sites in the Marcellus Shale Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omara, Mark; Sullivan, Melissa R; Li, Xiang; Subramanian, R; Robinson, Allen L; Presto, Albert A

    2016-02-16

    There is a need for continued assessment of methane (CH4) emissions associated with natural gas (NG) production, especially as recent advancements in horizontal drilling combined with staged hydraulic fracturing technologies have dramatically increased NG production (we refer to these wells as "unconventional" NG wells). In this study, we measured facility-level CH4 emissions rates from the NG production sector in the Marcellus region, and compared CH4 emissions between unconventional NG (UNG) well pad sites and the relatively smaller and older "conventional" NG (CvNG) sites that consist of wells drilled vertically into permeable geologic formations. A top-down tracer-flux CH4 measurement approach utilizing mobile downwind intercepts of CH4, ethane, and tracer (nitrous oxide and acetylene) plumes was performed at 18 CvNG sites (19 individual wells) and 17 UNG sites (88 individual wells). The 17 UNG sites included four sites undergoing completion flowback (FB). The mean facility-level CH4 emission rate among UNG well pad sites in routine production (18.8 kg/h (95% confidence interval (CI) on the mean of 12.0-26.8 kg/h)) was 23 times greater than the mean CH4 emissions from CvNG sites. These differences were attributed, in part, to the large size (based on number of wells and ancillary NG production equipment) and the significantly higher production rate of UNG sites. However, CvNG sites generally had much higher production-normalized CH4 emission rates (median: 11%; range: 0.35-91%) compared to UNG sites (median: 0.13%, range: 0.01-1.2%), likely resulting from a greater prevalence of avoidable process operating conditions (e.g., unresolved equipment maintenance issues). At the regional scale, we estimate that total annual CH4 emissions from 88 500 combined CvNG well pads in Pennsylvania and West Virginia (660 Gg (95% CI: 500 to 800 Gg)) exceeded that from 3390 UNG well pads by 170 Gg, reflecting the large number of CvNG wells and the comparably large fraction of

  8. Estimating national water use associated with unconventional oil and gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Delzer, Gregory C.

    2016-05-18

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Water Availability and Use Science Program (WAUSP) goals are to provide a more accurate assessment of the status of the water resources of the United States and assist in the determination of the quantity and quality of water that is available for beneficial uses. These assessments would identify long-term trends or changes in water availability since the 1950s in the United States and help to develop the basis for an improved ability to forecast water avail- ability for future economic, energy-production, and environmental uses. The National Water Census (http://water.usgs.gov/watercensus/), a research program of the WAUSP, supports studies to develop new water accounting tools and assess water availability at the regional and national scales. Studies supported by this program target focus areas with identified water availability concerns and topical science themes related to the use of water within a specific type of environmental setting. The topical study described in this fact sheet will focus on understanding the relation between production of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) for energy and the water needed to produce and sustain this type of energy development. This relation applies to the life-cycle of renewable and nonrenewable forms of UOG energy and includes extraction, production, refinement, delivery, and disposal of waste byproducts. Water-use data and models derived from this topical study will be applied to other similar oil and gas plays within the United States to help resource managers assess and account for water used or needed in these areas. Additionally, the results from this topical study will be used to further refine the methods used in compiling water-use data for selected categories (for example, mining, domestic self-supplied, public supply, and wastewater) in the USGS’s 5-year national water-use estimates reports (http://water.usgs.gov/watuse/).

  9. 77 FR 51021 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources, Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ..._plan.pdf or in print form (see ``Contact'' below). The 2012 Annual Plan is in compliance with the... Unconventional Resources will focus on protecting groundwater and air quality, understanding rock and...

  10. Quantitative Survey and Structural Classification of Fracking Chemicals Reported in Unconventional Gas Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Martin; Schreglmann, Kathrin

    2015-04-01

    Few technologies are being discussed in such controversial terms as hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in the recovery of unconventional gas. Particular concern regards the chemicals that may return to the surface as a result of hydraulic fracturing. These are either "fracking chemicals" - chemicals that are injected together with the fracking fluid to optimize the fracturing performance or geogenic substances which may turn up during gas production, in the so-called produced water originating from the target formation. Knowledge about them is warranted for several reasons. (1) Monitoring. Air emissions are reported to arise from well drilling, the gas itself or condensate tanks. In addition, potential spills and accidents bear the danger of surface and shallow groundwater contaminations. Monitoring strategies are therefore warranted to screen for "indicator" substances of potential impacts. (2) Chemical Analysis. To meet these analytical demands, target substances must be defined so that adequate sampling approaches and analytical methods can be developed. (3) Transformation in the Subsurface. Identification and classification of fracking chemicals (aromatics vs. alcohols vs. acids, esters, etc.) is further important to assess the possibility of subsurface reactions which may potentially generate new, as yet unidentified transformation products. (4) Wastewater Treatment. For the same reason chemical knowledge is important for optimized wastewater treatment strategies. (5) Human and Ecosystem Health. Knowledge of the most frequent fracking chemicals is further essential for risk assessment (environmental behavior, toxicity) (6) Public Discussions. Finally, an overview of reported fracking chemicals can provide unbiased scientific into current public debates and enable critical reviews of Green Chemistry approaches. Presently, however, such information is not readily available. We aim to close this knowledge gap by providing a quantitative overview of chemical

  11. Unconventional Gas and Oil Drilling Is Associated with Increased Hospital Utilization Rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jemielita

    Full Text Available Over the past ten years, unconventional gas and oil drilling (UGOD has markedly expanded in the United States. Despite substantial increases in well drilling, the health consequences of UGOD toxicant exposure remain unclear. This study examines an association between wells and healthcare use by zip code from 2007 to 2011 in Pennsylvania. Inpatient discharge databases from the Pennsylvania Healthcare Cost Containment Council were correlated with active wells by zip code in three counties in Pennsylvania. For overall inpatient prevalence rates and 25 specific medical categories, the association of inpatient prevalence rates with number of wells per zip code and, separately, with wells per km2 (separated into quantiles and defined as well density were estimated using fixed-effects Poisson models. To account for multiple comparisons, a Bonferroni correction with associations of p<0.00096 was considered statistically significant. Cardiology inpatient prevalence rates were significantly associated with number of wells per zip code (p<0.00096 and wells per km2 (p<0.00096 while neurology inpatient prevalence rates were significantly associated with wells per km2 (p<0.00096. Furthermore, evidence also supported an association between well density and inpatient prevalence rates for the medical categories of dermatology, neurology, oncology, and urology. These data suggest that UGOD wells, which dramatically increased in the past decade, were associated with increased inpatient prevalence rates within specific medical categories in Pennsylvania. Further studies are necessary to address healthcare costs of UGOD and determine whether specific toxicants or combinations are associated with organ-specific responses.

  12. Water Resource Impacts During Unconventional Shale Gas Development: The Pennsylvania Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.; Yoxtheimer, D.; Arjmand, S.; Grieve, P.; Vidic, R.; Abad, J. D.; Simon, C. A.; Pollak, J.

    2013-12-01

    The number of unconventional Marcellus shale wells in PA has increased from 8 in 2005 to more than 6000 today. This rapid development has been accompanied by environmental issues. We analyze publicly available data describing this Pennsylvania experience (data from www.shalenetwork.org and PA Department of Environmental Protection, i.e., PA DEP). After removing permitting and reporting violations, the average percent of wells/year with at least one notice of violation (NOV) from PA DEP is 35 %. Most violations are minor. An analysis of NOVs reported for wells drilled before 2013 revealed a rate of casing, cement, or well construction issues of 3.4%. Sixteen wells were given notices specifically related to migration of methane. A similarly low percent of wells were contaminated by brine components. Such contamination could derive from spills, subsurface migration of flowback water or shallow natural brines, or contamination by drill cuttings. Most cases of contamination of drinking water supplies with methane or brine components were reported in the previously glaciated part of the state. Before 2011, flowback and production water was often discharged legally into streams after minimal treatment, possibly increasing dissolved Br concentrations in some rivers. The rate of large spills or releases of gas-related industrial wastes in the state peaked in 2009 but little evidence of spills has been found in publicly available surface water chemistry data. The most likely indicators of spillage or subsurface release of flowback or production waters are the dissolved ions Na, Ca, and Cl. However, the data coverage for any given analyte is generally spatially and temporally sparse. Publicly available water quality data for before and after spills into Larrys Creek and Bobs Creek document the difficulties of detecting such events. An observation from the Pennsylvania experience is that the large number of people who have complained about their water supply (~1000 letters

  13. A review of biophysical and socio-economic effects of unconventional oil and gas extraction - Implications for South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhuyse, Surina; Avenant, Marinda; Redelinghuys, Nola; Kijko, Andrzej; Glazewski, Jan; Plit, Lisa; Kemp, Marthie; Smit, Ansie; Vos, A Tascha; Williamson, Richard

    2016-12-15

    The impacts associated with unconventional oil and gas (UOG) extraction will be cumulative in nature and will most likely occur on a regional scale, highlighting the importance of using strategic decision-making and management tools. Managing possible impacts responsibly is extremely important in a water scarce country such as South Africa, versus countries where more water may be available for UOG extraction activities. This review article explains the possible biophysical and socio-economic impacts associated with UOG extraction within the South African context and how these complex impacts interlink. Relevant policy and governance frameworks to manage these impacts are also highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Petroleum systems modelling of the Muensterland Basin and Ruhr Basin with special emphasis on unconventional gas resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uffmann, A.K.; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal

    2013-08-01

    A 3D petroleum system model was built for the area of the northern Rhenish Massif and Muensterland/Ruhr Basin in order to reconstruct burial and temperature histories as well as petroleum generation and storage. The basin contains numerous potential unconventional gas reservoirs, i.e. more than 100 Pennsylvanian (Westphalian and upper Namurian) coal seams and several black shales of Pennsylvanian and Mississippian age. The focus here is on the Upper Alum Sahle ('Hangende Alaunschiefer') representing the uppermost Mississippian.

  15. Production of unconventional natural gas. Risks and opportunities of fracking; Foerderung von unkonventionellem Erdgas. Risiken und Chancen des Fracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, Frank-Rainer; Kreutz, Giannina [Baker und McKenzie, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Through its legislation for the promotion of electricity production from renewable resources and the nuclear phase-out the German Federal Republic has taken decisive steps in orienting its energy policy towards the envisioned energy turnaround. Production of natural gas from unconventional natural gas sources could assist in implementing this policy while at the same time improving Germany's energy self-sufficiency. After intensive discussions in the public arena as well as in expert rounds the Federal Ministers of the Environment and of Economic Affairs have agreed on a draft for an ordinance on the exploitation of unconventional gas resources by means of hydraulic fracturing (fracking). On sober analysis of the risks and opportunities involved in this technology one obtains an overall picture which, taking into account the differentiated view it affords on the various aspects involved, ultimately reveals that, on condition of strict compliance with the necessary requirements, for all the risks associated with it fracking is a viable option for Germany.

  16. Impact of Unconventional Shale Gas Waste Water Disposal on Surficial Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, I.; Akob, D.; Mumford, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    The development of unconventional natural gas resources has been rapidly increasing in recent years, however, the environmental impacts and risks are not yet well understood. A single well can generate up to 5 million L of produced water (PW) consisting of a blend of the injected fluid and brine from a shale formation. With thousands of wells completed in the past decade, the scope of the challenge posed in the management of this wastewater becomes apparent. The USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program is studying both intentional and unintentional releases of PW and waste solids. One method for the disposal of PW is underground injection; we are assessing the potential risks of this method through an intensive, interdisciplinary study at an injection disposal facility in the Wolf Creek watershed in WV. Disposal of PW via injection begun in 2002, with over 5.5 mil. L of PW injected to date. The facility consists of the injection well, a tank farm, and two former holding ponds (remediated in early 2014) and is bordered by two small tributaries of Wolf Creek. Water and sediments were acquired from these streams in June 2014, including sites upstream, within, and downstream from the facility. We are analyzing aqueous and solid phase geochemistry, mineralogy, hydrocarbon content, microbial community composition, and potential toxicity. Field measurements indicated that conductivity downstream (416 μS/cm) was elevated in comparison to upstream (74 μS/cm) waters. Preliminary data indicated elevated Cl- (115 mg/L) and Br- (0.88 mg/L) concentrations downstream, compared to 0.88 mg/L Cl- and streams. In addition, total Fe concentrations downstream were 8.1 mg/L, far in excess of the 0.13 mg/L found upstream from the facility, suggesting the potential for microbial Fe cycling. We are conducting a broad suite of experiments to assess the potential for microbial metabolism of the organic components of PW, and to determine the effects of this metabolism on the geochemistry of

  17. Asthma Exacerbations and Unconventional Natural Gas Development in the Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sara G.; Ogburn, Elizabeth L.; McCormack, Meredith; Casey, Joan A.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Mercer, Dione G.; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Asthma is common and can be exacerbated by air pollution and stress. Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) has community and environmental impacts. In Pennsylvania, development began in 2005 and by 2012, 6,253 wells were drilled. There are no prior studies of UNGD and objective respiratory outcomes. Objective To evaluate associations between UNGD and asthma exacerbations. Design A nested case-control study comparing asthma patients with exacerbations to asthma patients without exacerbations from 2005–12. Setting The Geisinger Clinic, which provides primary care services to over 400,000 patients in Pennsylvania. Participants Asthma patients aged 5–90 years (n = 35,508) were identified in electronic health records; those with exacerbations were frequency-matched on age, sex, and year of event to those without. Exposure(s) On the day before each patient’s index date (cases: date of event or medication order; controls: contact date), we estimated UNGD activity metrics for four phases (pad preparation, drilling, stimulation [“fracking”], and production) using distance from the patient’s home to the well, well characteristics, and the dates and durations of phases. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) We identified mild, moderate, and severe asthma exacerbations (new oral corticosteroid medication order, emergency department encounter, and hospitalization, respectively). Results We identified 20,749 mild, 1,870 moderate, and 4,782 severe asthma exacerbations, and frequency-matched these to 18,693, 9,350, and 14,104 control index dates, respectively. In three-level adjusted models, there was an association between the highest group of the activity metric for each UNGD phase compared to the lowest group for 11 out of 12 UNGD-outcome pairs (odds ratios [95% CI] ranged from 1.5 [1.2–1.7] for the association of the pad metric with severe exacerbations to 4.4 [3.8–5.2] for the association of the production metric with mild exacerbations). Six of

  18. Overview of microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing for unconventional oil and gas plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemeta, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    The exponential growth of unconventional resources for oil and gas production has been driven by the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. These drilling and completion methods increase the contact area of the low permeability and porosity hydrocarbon bearing formations and allow for economic production in what was previously considered uncommercial rock. These new resource plays have sparked an enormous interest in microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracture treatments. As a hydraulic fracture is pumped, microseismic events are emitted in a volume of rock surrounding the stimulated fracture. The goal of the monitoring is to identify and locate the microseismic events to a high degree of precision and to map the position of the induced hydraulic fracture in time and space. The microseismic events are very small, typically having a moment-magnitude range of -4 to 0. The microseismic data are collected using a variety of seismic array designs and instrumentation, including borehole, shallow borehole, near-surface and surface arrays, using either of three-component clamped 15 Hz borehole sondes to simple vertical 10 Hz geophones for surface monitoring. The collection and processing of these data is currently under rapid technical development. Each monitoring method has technical challenges which include accurate velocity modeling, correct seismic phase identification and signal to noise issues. The microseismic locations are used to guide hydrocarbon exploration and production companies in crucial reservoir development decisions such as the direction to drill the horizontal well bores and the appropriate inter-well spacing between horizontal wells to optimally drain the resource. The fracture mapping is also used to guide fracture and reservoir engineers in designing and calibrating the fluid volumes and types, injection rates and pressures for the hydraulic fracture treatments. The microseismic data can be located and mapped in near real-time during

  19. Unconventional energy resources: 2007-2008 review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, P.D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes five 2007-2008 resource commodity committee reports prepared by the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Current United States and global research and development activities related to gas hydrates, gas shales, geothermal resources, oil sands, and uranium resources are included in this review. These commodity reports were written to advise EMD leadership and membership of the current status of research and development of unconventional energy resources. Unconventional energy resources are defined as those resources other than conventional oil and natural gas that typically occur in sandstone and carbonate rocks. Gas hydrate resources are potentially enormous; however, production technologies are still under development. Gas shale, geothermal, oil sand, and uranium resources are now increasing targets of exploration and development, and are rapidly becoming important energy resources that will continue to be developed in the future. ?? 2009 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  20. Water acquisition and use during unconventional oil and gas development and the existing data challenges: Weld and Garfield counties, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Panagiotis D; Kallenberger, Julie A; Waskom, Reagan M; Boone, Karie K; Plombon, Elizabeth N; Ryan, Joseph N

    2016-10-01

    Colorado has recently experienced a significant increase in unconventional oil and gas development, with the greatest concentration of activity occurring in Weld and Garfield counties. Water for oil and gas development has received much attention mainly because water resources are limited in these regions and development is taking place closer to populated areas than it did in the past. Publicly available datasets for the period 2011-2014 were used to identify water acquisition strategies and sources of water used for oil and gas. In addition, the annual average water used in these two counties was quantified and compared to their total water withdrawals. The analysis also quantified the water needed for different well types, along with the flowback water that is retrieved. Weld and Garfield counties are dissimilar in respect to development practices for water acquisition, preferred well type and the fate of flowback water. But at the same time, this difference displays how geological characteristics, water availability, and administration localities are the key elements along with economics in the decision making process within the oil and gas sector. This effort also revealed data challenges regarding accessibility and reliability of reported information, and the need for additional data. Improving the understanding of the unconventional oil and gas sector's water use will help identify possible effects and tradeoffs on the local/regional level, which could diminish the conflicting perspectives that shape the water-energy discussions. This would complement the ability to make informed water resources planning and management decisions that are environmentally and socially acceptable.

  1. Evaluation of procedures for prediction of unconventional gas in the presence of geologic trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Coburn, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the application of local spatial nonparametric prediction models to the estimation of recoverable gas volumes in continuous-type gas plays to regimes where there is a single geologic trend. A transformation is presented, originally proposed by Tomczak, that offsets the distortions caused by the trend. This article reports on numerical experiments that compare predictive and classification performance of the local nonparametric prediction models based on the transformation with models based on Euclidean distance. The transformation offers improvement in average root mean square error when the trend is not severely misspecified. Because of the local nature of the models, even those based on Euclidean distance in the presence of trends are reasonably robust. The tests based on other model performance metrics such as prediction error associated with the high-grade tracts and the ability of the models to identify sites with the largest gas volumes also demonstrate the robustness of both local modeling approaches. ?? International Association for Mathematical Geology 2009.

  2. SeTES: A self-teaching expert system for the analysis, design, and prediction of gas production from unconventional gas resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Anderson Kuzma, Heidi; Blasingame, Thomas A.; Wayne Huang, Y.; Santos, Ralph; Boyle, Katie L.; Freeman, Craig M.; Ilk, Dilhan; Cossio, Manuel; Bhattacharya, Srimoyee; Nikolaou, Michael

    2013-08-01

    SeTES is a self-teaching expert system that (a) can incorporate evolving databases involving any type and amount of relevant data (geological, geophysical, geomechanical, stimulation, petrophysical, reservoir, production, etc.) originating from unconventional gas reservoirs, i.e., tight sands, shale or coalbeds, (b) can continuously update its built-in public database and refine the its underlying decision-making metrics and process, (c) can make recommendations about well stimulation, well location, orientation, design, and operation, (d) offers predictions of the performance of proposed wells (and quantitative estimates of the corresponding uncertainty), and (e) permits the analysis of data from installed wells for parameter estimation and continuous expansion of its database. Thus, SeTES integrates and processes information from multiple and diverse sources to make recommendations and support decision making at multiple time-scales, while expanding its internal database and explicitly addressing uncertainty. It receives and manages data in three forms: public data, that have been made available by various contributors, semi-public data, which conceal some identifying aspects but are available to compute important statistics, and a user's private data, which can be protected and used for more targeted design and decision making. It is the first implementation of a novel architecture that allows previously independent analysis methods and tools to share data, integrate results, and intelligently and iteratively extract the most value from the dataset. SeTES also presents a new paradigm for communicating research and technology to the public and distributing scientific tools and methods. It is expected to result in a significant improvement in reserve estimates, and increases in production by increasing efficiency and reducing uncertainty.

  3. Fugitive and Vented Gas Emissions Across Conventional and Unconventional Oil Developments in Southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, J.; Risk, D. A.; Atherton, E. E.; Fougère, C. R.; O'Connell, E.; Lavoie, M.; MacKay, K.; Marshall, A. D.; Williams, J. P.; Macintyre, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Southeastern Saskatchewan (SK) is a major oil-producing region in central Canada. Mainly, the developed plays include the historic Weyburn-Midale unit (conventional), and Bakken unit (unconventional). Collectively, developments across these plays occupy about 10,000 km2. To help reduce fugitive emissions and venting in SK, we need a baseline understanding of emission patterns across developments, and seasons. We undertook regional-scale monitoring using vehicle-based surveys in the summer, and autumn of 2015 across 7 survey domains of 100 km2 each. Our surveys targeted 5 conventional and Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) sites in the Weyburn-Midale field, and 2 unconventional sites in the Bakken. We surveyed each domain 8 times for CO2, CH4, and H2S, which allowed us to identify persistent emission sources of various types. These survey domains allowed us to conduct replicate sampling of 3,000 of 25,000 wells owned by 25 operators in the study area. Persistent fugitive emissions associated with oil infrastructure were present in all 7 domains, with nearly 25% of infrastructure being flagged as a probable emission source. Producing wells were generally the main source of emissions, however facilities were also emitters. Infrastructure age played a role, as older wells tended to emit more frequently than newer wells. Fugitive emission frequency was much more variable between adjacent operators than between development types (conventional vs unconventional), suggesting that opportunity exists to better harmonize emissions management best practice. These results provide a good basis from which operators and policymakers can come together for discussions on how to improve practice and reduce emissions.

  4. Associations between Unconventional Natural Gas Development and Nasal and Sinus, Migraine Headache, and Fatigue Symptoms in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustin, Aaron W; Hirsch, Annemarie G; Rasmussen, Sara G; Casey, Joan A; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Schwartz, Brian S

    2017-02-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) produces environmental contaminants and psychosocial stressors. Despite these concerns, few studies have evaluated the health effects of UNGD. We investigated associations between UNGD activity and symptoms in a cross-sectional study in Pennsylvania. We mailed a self-administered questionnaire to 23,700 adult patients of the Geisinger Clinic. Using standardized and validated questionnaire items, we identified respondents with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), migraine headache, and fatigue symptoms. We created a summary UNGD activity metric that incorporated well phase, location, total depth, daily gas production and inverse distance-squared to patient residences. We used logistic regression, weighted for sampling and response rates, to assess associations between quartiles of UNGD activity and outcomes, both alone and in combination. The response rate was 33%. Of 7,785 study participants, 1,850 (24%) had current CRS symptoms, 1,765 (23%) had migraine headache, and 1,930 (25%) had higher levels of fatigue. Among individuals who met criteria for two or more outcomes, adjusted odds ratios for the highest quartile of UNGD activity compared with the lowest were [OR (95% CI)] 1.49 (0.78, 2.85) for CRS plus migraine, 1.88 (1.08, 3.25) for CRS plus fatigue, 1.95 (1.18, 3.21) for migraine plus fatigue, and 1.84 (1.08, 3.14) for all three outcomes together. Significant associations were also present in some models of single outcomes. This study provides evidence that UNGD is associated with nasal and sinus, migraine headache, and fatigue symptoms in a general population representative sample. Citation: Tustin AW, Hirsch AG, Rasmussen SG, Casey JA, Bandeen-Roche K, Schwartz BS. 2017. Associations between unconventional natural gas development and nasal and sinus, migraine headache, and fatigue symptoms in Pennsylvania. Environ Health Perspect 125:189-197; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP281.

  5. A cost-benefit analysis of produced water management opportunities in selected unconventional oil and gas plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsters, P.; Macknick, J.; Bazilian, M.; Newmark, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas production in North America has grown enormously over the past decade. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has made production from shale and other unconventional resources economically attractive for oil and gas operators, but has also resulted in concerns over potential water use and pollution issues. Hydraulic fracturing operations must manage large volumes of water on both the front end as well as the back end of operations, as significant amounts of water are coproduced with hydrocarbons. This water--often called flowback or produced water--can contain chemicals from the hydraulic fracturing fluid, salts dissolved from the source rock, various minerals, volatile organic chemicals, and radioactive constituents, all of which pose potential management, safety, and public health issues. While the long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing on aquifers, drinking water supplies, and surface water resources are still being assessed, the immediate impacts of produced water on local infrastructure and water supplies are readily evident. Produced water management options are often limited to underground injection, disposal at centralized treatment facilities, or recycling for future hydraulic fracturing operations. The costs of treatment, transport, and recycling are heavily dependent on local regulations, existing infrastructure, and technologies utilized. Produced water treatment costs also change over time during energy production as the quality of the produced water often changes. To date there is no publicly available model that evaluates the cost tradeoffs associated with different produced water management techniques in different regions. This study addresses that gap by characterizing the volume, qualities, and temporal dynamics of produced water in several unconventional oil and gas plays; evaluating potential produced water management options, including reuse and recycling; and assessing how hydraulic

  6. Assessing the hydraulic connection between fresh water aquifers and unconventional gas production using methane and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverach, Charlotte P.; Cendón, Dioni I.; Hankin, Stuart I.; Lowry, Dave; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F. J.

    2015-04-01

    Unconventional gas developments pose a risk to groundwater quality and quantity in adjacent or overlying aquifers. To manage these risks there is a need to measure the background concentration of indicator groundwater chemicals and to map pathways of hydraulic connectivity between aquifers. This study presents methane (CH4) concentration and isotopic composition, dissolved organic carbon concentration ([DOC]) and tritium (3H) activity data from an area of expanding coal seam gas (CSG) exploration and production (Condamine Catchment, south-east Queensland, Australia). The target formation for gas production within the Condamine Catchment is the Walloon Coal Measures (WCM). This is a 700 m thick, low-rank CSG resource, which consists of numerous thin discontinuous lenses of coal separated by very fine-to medium-grained sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone, with minor calcareous sandstone, impure limestone and ironstone. The thickness of the coal makes up less than 10% of the total thickness of the unit. The WCM are overlain by sandstone formations, which form part of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB). The Condamine Alluvium fills a paleo-valley carved through the above formations. A combination of groundwater and degassing air samples were collected from irrigation bores and government groundwater monitoring boreholes. Degassing air samples were collected using an SKC 222-2301 air pump, which pumped the gas into 3 L Tedlar bags. The groundwater was analysed for 3H and [DOC]. A mobile CH4 survey was undertaken to continuously sample air in and around areas of agricultural and unconventional gas production. The isotopic signature of gas from the WCM was determined by sampling gas that was off-gassing from a co-produced water holding pond as it was the largest emission that could be directly linked to the WCM. This was used to determine the source signature of the CH4 from the WCM. We used Keeling plots to identify the source signature of the gas sampled. For the borehole

  7. Carbon Disulfide (CS2) Interference in Glucose Metabolism from Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction and Processing Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alisa L; Patel, Jay T; Al-Angari, Samiah S

    2016-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) has been historically associated with the manufacturing of rayon, cellophane, and carbon tetrachloride production. This study is one of the first to identify elevated atmospheric levels of CS2 above national background levels and its mechanisms to dysregulate normal glucose metabolism. Interference in glucose metabolism can indirectly cause other complications (diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, and retinopathy), which may be preventable if proper precautions are taken. Rich et al found CS2 and 12 associated sulfide compounds present in the atmosphere in residential areas where unconventional shale oil and gas extraction and processing operations were occurring. Ambient atmospheric concentrations of CS2 ranged from 0.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to 103 ppbv over a continuous 24-hour monitoring period. One-hour ambient atmospheric concentrations ranged from 3.4 ppbv to 504.6 ppbv. Using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Urban Air Toxic Monitoring Program study as a baseline comparison for atmospheric CS2 concentrations found in this study, it was determined that CS2 atmospheric levels were consistently elevated in areas where unconventional oil and gas extraction and processing occurred. The mechanisms by which CS2 interferes in normal glucose metabolism by dysregulation of the tryptophan metabolism pathway are presented in this study. The literature review found an increased potential for alteration of normal glucose metabolism in viscose rayon occupational workers exposed to CS2. Occupational workers in the energy extraction industry exposed to CS2 and other sulfide compounds may have an increased potential for glucose metabolism interference, which has been an indicator for diabetogenic effect and other related health impacts. The recommendation of this study is for implementation of regular monitoring of blood glucose levels in CS2-exposed populations as a preventative health measure.

  8. Identifying sources, formation pathways and geological controls of methane in shallow groundwater above unconventional natural gas plays in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, B.; Humez, P.; Nightingale, M.; Ing, J.; Kingston, A. W.; Clarkson, C.; Cahill, A.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J. A.; Millot, R.; Kloppmann, W.; Osadetz, K.; Lawton, D.

    2015-12-01

    With the advent of shale gas development facilitated by hydraulic fracturing it has become increasingly important to develop tracer tools to scientifically determine potential impacts of stray gases on shallow aquifers. To assess potential future impacts on shallow aquifers by leakage of natural gas from unconventional energy resource development, it is essential to establish a reliable baseline. Occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater in Alberta (Canada) between 2006 and 2014 was assessed and was ubiquitous in 186 sampled monitoring wells. Free and dissolved gas sampling and measurement approaches yielded comparable results with often low methane concentrations in shallow groundwater, but in 28 samples methane exceeded 10 mg/L in dissolved gas and 300,000 ppmv in free gas. Methane concentrations in free and dissolved gas samples were found to increase with well depth and were especially elevated in groundwater obtained from aquifers containing coal seams and shale units. Carbon isotope ratios of methane averaged -69.7 ± 11.1 ‰ in free gas and -65.6 ± 8.9 ‰ in dissolved gas. δ13C values were not found to vary with well depth or lithology indicating that the methane in Alberta groundwater was formed via a similar mechanism. The low δ13C values in concert with average δ2H values of -289 ± 44 ‰ suggest that most methane was of biogenic origin predominantly generated via CO2 reduction. This interpretation is confirmed by gas dryness parameters typically >500 due to only small amounts of ethane and a lack of propane in most samples. Novel approaches of in-situ concentration and isotope measurements for methane during drilling of a 530 m deep well yielded a mud-gas profile characterizing natural gas occurrences in the intermediate zone. Comparison with mudgas profile carbon isotope data revealed that methane in the investigated shallow groundwater in Alberta is isotopically similar to hydrocarbon gases found in 100-250 meter depths in the Western

  9. Enhanced recovery of unconventional gas. The methodology--Volume III (of 3 volumes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuuskraa, V. A.; Brashear, J. P.; Doscher, T. M.; Elkins, L. E.

    1979-02-01

    The methodology is described in chapters on the analytic approach, estimated natural gas production, recovery from tight gas sands, recovery from Devonian shales, recovery from coal seams, and recovery from geopressured aquifers. (JRD)

  10. Upper Paleozoic coal measures and unconventional natural gas systems of the Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Tang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper Paleozoic coal measures in the Ordos Basin consist of dark mudstone and coal beds and are important source rocks for gas generation. Gas accumulations include coal-bed methane (CBM, tight gas and conventional gas in different structural areas. CBM accumulations are mainly distributed in the marginal area of the Ordos Basin, and are estimated at 3.5 × 1012 m3. Tight gas accumulations exist in the middle part of the Yishan Slope area, previously regarded as the basin-centered gas system and now considered as stratigraphic lithologic gas reservoirs. This paper reviews the characteristics of tight gas accumulations: poor physical properties (porosity < 8%, permeability < 0.85 × 10−3 μm2, abnormal pressure and the absence of well-defined gas water contacts. CBM is a self-generation and self-reservoir, while gas derived from coal measures migrates only for a short distance to accumulate in a tight reservoir and is termed near-generation and near-reservoir. Both CBM and tight gas systems require source rocks with a strong gas generation ability that extends together over wide area. However, the producing area of the two systems may be significantly different.

  11. Total petroleum system assessment of undiscovered resources in the giant Barnett Shale continuous (unconventional) gas accumulation, Fort Worth Basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Undiscovered natural gas having potential for additions to reserves in the Mississippian Barnett Shale of the Fort Worth Basin, north-central Texas, was assessed using the total petroleum system assessment unit concept and a cell-based methodology for continuous-type (Unconventional) resources. The Barnett-Paleozoic total petroleum system is defined in the Bend arch-Fort Worth Basin as encompassing the area in which the organic-rich Barnett is the primary source rock for oil and gas produced from Paleozoic carbonate and clastic reservoirs. Exploration, technology, and drilling in the Barnett Shale play have rapidly evolved in recent years, with about 3500 vertical and 1000 horizontal wells completed in the Barnett through 2005 and more than 85% of the them completed since 1999. Using framework geology and historical production data, assessment of the Barnett Shale was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey using vertical wells at the peak of vertical well completions and before a transition to completions with horizontal wells. The assessment was performed after (1) mapping critical geological and geochemical parameters to define assessment unit areas with future potential, (2) defining distributions of drainage area (cell size) and estimating ultimate recovery per cell, and (3) estimating future success rates. Two assessment units are defined and assessed for the Barnett Shale continuous gas accumulation, resulting in a total mean undiscovered volume having potential for additions to reserves of 26.2 TCFG. The greater Newark East fracture-barrier continuous Barnett Shale gas assessment unit represents a core-producing area where thick, organic-rich, siliceous Barnett Shale is within the thermal window for gas generation (Ro ??? 1.1%) and is overlain and underlain by impermeable limestone barriers (Pennsylvanian Marble Falls Limestone and Ordovician Viola Limestone, respectively) that serve to confine induced fractures during well completion to maximize gas

  12. Toward a multi-objective decision support framework to support regulations of unconventional oil and gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, M.; Howard, C.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Ryan, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development (UOGD) using hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling has recently fostered an unprecedented acceleration in energy development. Regulations seek to protect environmental quality of areas surrounding UOGD, while maintaining economic benefits. One such regulation is a setback distance, which dictates the minimum proximity between an oil and gas well and an object such as a residential or commercial building, property line, or water source. In general, most setback regulations have been strongly politically motivated without a clear scientific basis for understanding the relationship between the setback distance and various performance outcomes. This presentation discusses a new decision support framework for setback regulations, as part of a large NSF-funded sustainability research network (SRN) on UOGD. The goal of the decision support framework is to integrate a wide array of scientific information from the SRN into a coherent framework that can help inform policy regarding UOGD. The decision support framework employs multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) optimization coupled with simulation models of air quality and other performance-based outcomes on UOGD. The result of the MOEA optimization runs are quantitative tradeoff curves among different objectives. For example, one such curve could demonstrate air pollution concentrations versus estimates of energy development profits, for different levels of setback distance. Our results will also inform policy-relevant discussions surrounding UOGD such as comparing single- and multi-well pads, as well as regulations on the density of well development over a spatial area.

  13. Temporal variation in groundwater quality in the Permian Basin of Texas, a region of increasing unconventional oil and gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Meik, Jesse M; Walton, Jayme L; Thacker, Jonathan B; Korlie, Stephanie; Shelor, C Phillip; Kadjo, Akinde F; Clark, Adelaide; Usenko, Sascha; Hamilton, Jason S; Mach, Phillip M; Verbeck, Guido F; Hudak, Paul; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-08-15

    The recent expansion of natural gas and oil extraction using unconventional oil and gas development (UD) practices such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has raised questions about the potential for environmental impacts. Prior research has focused on evaluations of air and water quality in particular regions without explicitly considering temporal variation; thus, little is known about the potential effects of UD activity on the environment over longer periods of time. Here, we present an assessment of private well water quality in an area of increasing UD activity over a period of 13months. We analyzed samples from 42 private water wells located in three contiguous counties on the Eastern Shelf of the Permian Basin in Texas. This area has experienced a rise in UD activity in the last few years, and we analyzed samples in four separate time points to assess variation in groundwater quality over time as UD activities increased. We monitored general water quality parameters as well as several compounds used in UD activities. We found that some constituents remained stable over time, but others experienced significant variation over the period of study. Notable findings include significant changes in total organic carbon and pH along with ephemeral detections of ethanol, bromide, and dichloromethane after the initial sampling phase. These data provide insight into the potentially transient nature of compounds associated with groundwater contamination in areas experiencing UD activity.

  14. Semi-annual report for the unconventional gas recovery program, period ending September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manilla, R.D. (ed.)

    1980-11-01

    Progress is reported in research on methane recovery from coalbeds, eastern gas shales, western gas sands, and geopressured aquifers. In the methane from coalbeds project, data on information evaluation and management, resource and site assessment and characterization, model development, instrumentation, basic research, and production technology development are reported. In the methane from eastern gas shales project, data on resource characterization and inventory, extraction technology, and technology testing and verification are presented. In the western gas sands project, data on resource assessments, field tests and demonstrations and project management are reported. In the methane from geopressured aquifers project, data on resource assessment, supporting research, field tests and demonstrations, and technology transfer are reported.

  15. Human exposure to unconventional natural gas development: A public health demonstration of periodic high exposure to chemical mixtures in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David R; Lewis, Celia; Weinberger, Beth I

    2015-01-01

    Directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing of shale gas and oil bring industrial activity into close proximity to residences, schools, daycare centers and places where people spend their time. Multiple gas production sources can be sited near residences. Health care providers evaluating patient health need to know the chemicals present, the emissions from different sites and the intensity and frequency of the exposures. This research describes a hypothetical case study designed to provide a basic model that demonstrates the direct effect of weather on exposure patterns of particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) and volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). Because emissions from unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) sites are variable, a short term exposure profile is proposed that determines 6-hour assessments of emissions estimates, a time scale needed to assist physicians in the evaluation of individual exposures. The hypothetical case is based on observed conditions in shale gas development in Washington County, Pennsylvania, and on estimated emissions from facilities during gas development and production. An air exposure screening model was applied to determine the ambient concentration of VOCs and PM2.5 at different 6-hour periods of the day and night. Hourly wind speed, wind direction and cloud cover data from Pittsburgh International Airport were used to calculate the expected exposures. Fourteen months of daily observations were modeled. Higher than yearly average source terms were used to predict health impacts at periods when emissions are high. The frequency and intensity of exposures to PM2.5 and VOCs at a residence surrounded by three UNGD facilities was determined. The findings show that peak PM2.5 and VOC exposures occurred 83 times over the course of 14 months of well development. Among the stages of well development, the drilling, flaring and finishing, and gas production stages produced higher intensity exposures than the

  16. Popular epidemiology and "fracking": citizens' concerns regarding the economic, environmental, health and social impacts of unconventional natural gas drilling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Martha; Saberi, Poune; Pepino, Richard; Strupp, Emily; Bugos, Eva; Cannuscio, Carolyn C

    2015-06-01

    Pennsylvania sits atop the Marcellus Shale, a reservoir of natural gas that was untapped until the 2004 introduction of unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) in the state. Colloquially known as fracking, UNGDO is a controversial process that employs large volumes of water to fracture the shale and capture gas; it has become a multi-billion dollar industry in Pennsylvania. We analyzed letters to the editor of the most widely circulated local newspaper in the most heavily drilled county in Pennsylvania (Bradford County) in order to characterize residents' concerns and their involvement in popular epidemiology--the process by which citizens investigate risks associated with a perceived environmental threat. We reviewed 215 letters to the editor that referenced natural gas operations and were published by The Daily Review between January 1, 2008 and June 8, 2013. We used NVivo 10 to code and analyze letters and identify major themes. Nvivo is qualitative data analysis software (http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_nvivo.aspx) that allows researchers to code and analyze "unstructured" data, including text files of any type (e.g., interview transcripts, news articles, letters, archival materials) as well as photographs and videos. Nvivo can be used to classify, sort, query, comment on, and share data across a research group. Letters demonstrated citizen engagement in beginning and intermediate stages of lay epidemiology, as well as discord and stress regarding four main issues: socio-economic impacts, perceived threats to water, population growth and implications, and changes to the rural landscape. Residents called for stronger scientific evidence and a balance of economic development and health and environmental protections. Citizens' distress regarding UNGDO appeared to be exacerbated by a dearth of information to guide economic growth and health, environmental, and social concerns. This analysis proposes locally informed questions to guide future

  17. The geochemistry of naturally occurring methane and saline groundwater in an area of unconventional shale gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Jennifer S.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Whyte, Colin J.; Moore, Myles T.; Millot, Romain; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Jackson, Robert B.; Vengosh, Avner

    2017-07-01

    Since naturally occurring methane and saline groundwater are nearly ubiquitous in many sedimentary basins, delineating the effects of anthropogenic contamination sources is a major challenge for evaluating the impact of unconventional shale gas development on water quality. This study investigates the geochemical variations of groundwater and surface water before, during, and after hydraulic fracturing and in relation to various geospatial parameters in an area of shale gas development in northwestern West Virginia, United States. To our knowledge, we are the first to report a broadly integrated study of various geochemical techniques designed to distinguish natural from anthropogenic sources of natural gas and salt contaminants both before and after drilling. These measurements include inorganic geochemistry (major cations and anions), stable isotopes of select inorganic constituents including strontium (87Sr/86Sr), boron (δ11B), lithium (δ7Li), and carbon (δ13C-DIC), select hydrocarbon molecular (methane, ethane, propane, butane, and pentane) and isotopic tracers (δ13C-CH4, δ13C-C2H6), tritium (3H), and noble gas elemental and isotopic composition (helium, neon, argon) in 105 drinking-water wells, with repeat testing in 33 of the wells (total samples = 145). In a subset of wells (n = 20), we investigated the variations in water quality before and after the installation of nearby ( 50 mg/L). The integrated geochemical data indicate that the saline groundwater originated via naturally occurring processes, presumably from the migration of deeper methane-rich brines that have interacted extensively with coal lithologies. These observations were consistent with the lack of changes in water quality observed in drinking-water wells following the installation of nearby shale-gas wells. In contrast to groundwater samples that showed no evidence of anthropogenic contamination, the chemistry and isotope ratios of surface waters (n = 8) near known spills or leaks

  18. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2015 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Energy Minerals Division

    2015-12-15

    This paper includes 10 summaries for energy resource commodities including coal and unconventional resources, and an analysis of energy economics and technology prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. Such resources include coalbed methane, oil shale, U and Th deposits and associated rare earth elements of industrial interest, geothermal, gas shale and liquids, tight gas sands, gas hydrates, and bitumen and heavy oil. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy resource commodity in the topical sections of this report, followed by analysis of unconventional energy economics and technology.

  19. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Utica Shale Unconventional Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  20. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Unconventional Assessment Units from 2000 to 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  1. Hazard Ranking Methodology for Assessing Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development and Production: The Maryland Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Meleah D; Payne-Sturges, Devon C; Sangaramoorthy, Thurka; Wilson, Sacoby; Nachman, Keeve E; Babik, Kelsey; Jenkins, Christian C; Trowell, Joshua; Milton, Donald K; Sapkota, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The recent growth of unconventional natural gas development and production (UNGDP) has outpaced research on the potential health impacts associated with the process. The Maryland Marcellus Shale Public Health Study was conducted to inform the Maryland Marcellus Shale Safe Drilling Initiative Advisory Commission, State legislators and the Governor about potential public health impacts associated with UNGDP so they could make an informed decision that considers the health and well-being of Marylanders. In this paper, we describe an impact assessment and hazard ranking methodology we used to assess the potential public health impacts for eight hazards associated with the UNGDP process. The hazard ranking included seven metrics: 1) presence of vulnerable populations (e.g. children under the age of 5, individuals over the age of 65, surface owners), 2) duration of exposure, 3) frequency of exposure, 4) likelihood of health effects, 5) magnitude/severity of health effects, 6) geographic extent, and 7) effectiveness of setbacks. Overall public health concern was determined by a color-coded ranking system (low, moderately high, and high) that was generated based on the overall sum of the scores for each hazard. We provide three illustrative examples of applying our methodology for air quality and health care infrastructure which were ranked as high concern and for water quality which was ranked moderately high concern. The hazard ranking was a valuable tool that allowed us to systematically evaluate each of the hazards and provide recommendations to minimize the hazards.

  2. Wastewater disposal from unconventional oil and gas development degrades stream quality at a West Virginia injection facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akob, Denise M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Engle, Mark A.; Klinges, Julia (Grace); Kent, Douglas B.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources has rapidly increased in recent years; however, the environmental impacts and risks are poorly understood. A single well can generate millions of liters of wastewater, representing a mixture of formation brine and injected hydraulic fracturing fluids. One of the most common methods for wastewater disposal is underground injection; we are assessing potential risks of this method through an intensive, interdisciplinary study at an injection disposal facility in West Virginia. In June 2014, waters collected downstream from the site had elevated specific conductance (416 μS/cm) and Na, Cl, Ba, Br, Sr, and Li concentrations, compared to upstream, background waters (conductivity, 74 μS/cm). Elevated TDS, a marker of UOG wastewater, provided an early indication of impacts in the stream. Wastewater inputs are also evident by changes in 87Sr/86Sr in streamwater adjacent to the disposal facility. Sediments downstream from the facility were enriched in Ra and had high bioavailable Fe(III) concentrations relative to upstream sediments. Microbial communities in downstream sediments had lower diversity and shifts in composition. Although the hydrologic pathways were not able to be assessed, these data provide evidence demonstrating that activities at the disposal facility are impacting a nearby stream and altering the biogeochemistry of nearby ecosystems.

  3. Wastewater Disposal from Unconventional Oil and Gas Development Degrades Stream Quality at a West Virginia Injection Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akob, Denise M; Mumford, Adam C; Orem, William; Engle, Mark A; Klinges, J Grace; Kent, Douglas B; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M

    2016-06-07

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources has rapidly increased in recent years; however, the environmental impacts and risks are poorly understood. A single well can generate millions of liters of wastewater, representing a mixture of formation brine and injected hydraulic fracturing fluids. One of the most common methods for wastewater disposal is underground injection; we are assessing potential risks of this method through an intensive, interdisciplinary study at an injection disposal facility in West Virginia. In June 2014, waters collected downstream from the site had elevated specific conductance (416 μS/cm) and Na, Cl, Ba, Br, Sr, and Li concentrations, compared to upstream, background waters (conductivity, 74 μS/cm). Elevated TDS, a marker of UOG wastewater, provided an early indication of impacts in the stream. Wastewater inputs are also evident by changes in (87)Sr/(86)Sr in streamwater adjacent to the disposal facility. Sediments downstream from the facility were enriched in Ra and had high bioavailable Fe(III) concentrations relative to upstream sediments. Microbial communities in downstream sediments had lower diversity and shifts in composition. Although the hydrologic pathways were not able to be assessed, these data provide evidence demonstrating that activities at the disposal facility are impacting a nearby stream and altering the biogeochemistry of nearby ecosystems.

  4. Shifts in microbial community structure and function in surface waters impacted by unconventional oil and gas wastewater revealed by metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenfeld, N.L.; Reyes, Hannah Delos; Eramo, Alessia; Akob, Denise M.; Mumford, Adam; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2017-01-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production produces large quantities of wastewater with complex geochemistry and largely uncharacterized impacts on surface waters. In this study, we assessed shifts in microbial community structure and function in sediments and waters upstream and downstream from a UOG wastewater disposal facility. To do this, quantitative PCR for 16S rRNA and antibiotic resistance genes along with metagenomic sequencing were performed. Elevated conductivity and markers of UOG wastewater characterized sites sampled downstream from the disposal facility compared to background sites. Shifts in overall high level functions and microbial community structure were observed between background sites and downstream sediments. Increases in Deltaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia and decreases in Thaumarchaeota were observed at downstream sites. Genes related to dormancy and sporulation and methanogenic respiration were 18–86 times higher at downstream, impacted sites. The potential for these sediments to serve as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance was investigated given frequent reports of the use of biocides to control the growth of nuisance bacteria in UOG operations. A shift in resistance profiles downstream of the UOG facility was observed including increases in acrB and mexB genes encoding for multidrug efflux pumps, but not overall abundance of resistance genes. The observed shifts in microbial community structure and potential function indicate changes in respiration, nutrient cycling, and markers of stress in a stream impacted by UOG waste disposal operations.

  5. Assessment of surface water chloride and conductivity trends in areas of unconventional oil and gas development-Why existing national data sets cannot tell us what we would like to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.; Cade, Brian S.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Farag, Aida M.; Mott, David N.; Potter, Christopher J.; Cinotto, Peter J.; Clark, Melanie L.; Kappel, William M.; Kresse, Timothy M.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Paschke, Suzanne; Susong, David D.; Varela, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Heightened concern regarding the potential effects of unconventional oil and gas development on regional water quality has emerged, but the few studies on this topic are limited in geographic scope. Here we evaluate the potential utility of national and publicly available water-quality data sets for addressing questions regarding unconventional oil and gas development. We used existing U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data sets to increase understanding of the spatial distribution of unconventional oil and gas development in the U.S. and broadly assess surface water quality trends in these areas. Based on sample size limitations, we were able to estimate trends in specific conductance (SC) and chloride (Cl-) from 1970 to 2010 in 16% (n=155) of the watersheds with unconventional oil and gas resources. We assessed these trends relative to spatiotemporal distributions of hydraulically fractured wells. Results from this limited analysis suggest no consistent and widespread trends in surface water quality for SC and Cl- in areas with increasing unconventional oil and gas development and highlight limitations of existing national databases for addressing questions regarding unconventional oil and gas development and water quality.

  6. 75 FR 11147 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... other petroleum resources exploration and production technology, and technology challenges of small..., additional funding will be provided from available funds. The NETL Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil... and Development. Planning and analysis related to the Program, including benefits assessment and...

  7. An Energy Bridge Too Far? Unconventional Natural Gas Innovations and Eurasia’s Energy Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Treaty Organization OPEC Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries OSCE Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe SCO...states’ principles or actions incense an authoritarian export nation.221 While the 1973 oil embargo may seem a tempting example of this fear, a gas- OPEC ...energy security. During this oil crisis, the United Kingdom was still subjected to OPEC pressure because BP followed the guidance of OPEC instead of

  8. Embodied Energy and GHG Emissions from Material Use in Conventional and Unconventional Oil and Gas Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R

    2015-11-01

    Environmental impacts embodied in oilfield capital equipment have not been thoroughly studied. In this paper, we present the first open-source model which computes the embodied energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with materials consumed in constructing oil and gas wells and associated infrastructure. The model includes well casing, wellbore cement, drilling mud, processing equipment, gas compression, and transport infrastructure. Default case results show that consumption of materials in constructing oilfield equipment consumes ∼0.014 MJ of primary energy per MJ of oil produced, and results in ∼1.3 gCO2-eq GHG emissions per MJ (lower heating value) of crude oil produced, an increase of 15% relative to upstream emissions assessed in earlier OPGEE model versions, and an increase of 1-1.5% of full life cycle emissions. A case study of a hydraulically fractured well in the Bakken formation of North Dakota suggests lower energy intensity (0.011 MJ/MJ) and emissions intensity (1.03 gCO2-eq/MJ) due to the high productivity of hydraulically fractured wells. Results are sensitive to per-well productivity, the complexity of wellbore casing design, and the energy and emissions intensity per kg of material consumed.

  9. ECOLOGY SAFETY TECHNOLOGIES OF UNCONVENTIONAL OIL RESERVES RECOVERY FOR SUSTAINABLE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Zyrin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of effective technology for heavy oil recovery nowadays has a great importance, because of worsening geological conditions of the developed deposits, decreasing recovery factor, increasing the part of heavy oil. For the future sustainable development of oil producing industry the involved technologies must require energy effectiveness and ecological safety. The paper proves the enhanced oil recovery methods necessity for heavy oil deposits, highlighted thermal technologies as the most effective. But traditional thermal treatment technologies is a source of air pollutant emission, such as CO, NO etc. The calculation of emissions for traditional steam generator is provided. Besides, the paper shows the effectiveness of electrical enhanced oil recovery methods. The advantages of associated gas as a fuel for cogeneration plants is shown. The main approaches to implementation of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies in the oil and gas industry of Russia are defined. Conceptual view of СО2-EOR technologies potential within the context of sustainable development of oil and gas industry are presented. On the basis of the conducted research a number of scientific research and practical areas of the CCS technology development are revealed.

  10. 低碳视角下中国非常规天然气的开发利用前景%Development and utilization prospects of unconventional natural gas in China from a low-carbon perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云箭; 覃国军; 徐凤银; 李兴春; 钟宁宁; 吴伟涛

    2012-01-01

    Based on the study of the large-scale utilization o£ unconventional natural gas in the United States, geological conditions and development situations of unconventional gas resources in China were investigated thoroughly, and main factors influencing the unconventional natural gas development in China were addressed from the resource evaluation, exploration technology and governmental policy aspects. In view of severe challenges currently met in the energy sector of China, such as low energy efficiency, scarce energy supply and high carbon emission, an "Extraordinary Unconventional Natural Gas Scenario" was constructed from the perspective of low-carbon development based on the forecast by "The New Policy Scenario" and "The Golden Age of Gas Scenario" from International Energy Agency (IEA). It is estimated under this scenario that China will achieve an extraordinary development in the unconventional natural gas industry by 2035, which will become an important alternative to the conventional gas energy. Hence, coal resources will be greatly replaced, the energy consumption structure will be optimized further, a low-carbon energy system will be basically formed and the greenhouse gas emission will decelerate significantly.%在对美国非常规天然气产业规模化利用研究的基础上,全面分析了中国非常规天然气资源的地质条件和开发状况,并从资源评价、勘探开发和配套政策三方面剖析了制约中国非常规天然气产业快速发展的主要因素.基于中国在实现低碳转型中所面临的能源利用效率低、供应不足以及碳排放强度大等诸多挑战,依据国际能源署(IEA)在“新政策”情景和“天然气黄金时代”情景关于中国到2035年能源结构的预测,对比分析美国非常规天然气开发利用成果,提出在低碳视角下的“强化非常规天然气”情景.在该情景下,中国非常规天然气产业将迎来超常规发展时期,到2035年,非常规天然气

  11. The Need for, and Limits of, Scientific Information in Local Decision Making on Unconventional Oil and Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phartiyal, P.; Field, P.; Kansal, T.

    2014-12-01

    Scientific information on, and regulatory oversight of, the U.S. oil and gas extraction have been outpaced by the scale and extent of development, particularly in states like Pennsylvania. Through recent convenings and focus groups with local officials from municipalities and counties facing such development, we asked how scientific information can be gathered and communicated to help policymakers make decisions on whether to proceed with development and, if so, what regulatory and non-regulatory approaches to consider to manage the risks from such activity. We found that the highly technical nature of unconventional oil and gas development can make conveying information difficult and public conversations harder. And, although there is scientific agreement on areas of greater risk, such as air, water, and socioeconomics effects, communities vary widely in their perceptions and concerns about these. Local leaders expressed concerns about the availability and accessibility of information: much of it is scattered, sourced from a variety of sources and viewpoints, and is viewed with confusion, skepticism, or disbelief among various stakeholders. In order to generate independent and trusted information, baseline testing, monitoring and enforcement, and data sharing are needed - but the specifics of who would do the studies, who would fund them, and how much data one would need before decisions can be made remain largely unclear. One reason for this uncertainty is the patchwork and contested nature of regulation between local, state, tribal, and federal authorities. Another is the fragmented operations disbursed across the landscape, numerous kinds and scales of operators, and the host of actors involved in land access, well development, production, and piping, lead to disjointed sources of studies, data, and communication. Another reason is that the impacts of oil and gas development activities are nested and complex, each affecting the other at varied levels, local to

  12. Unconventional Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Marinescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of leadership change symbolizes the existence of the organization.Most assuredly, this is not a matter of change at all costs, but rather of increasing organizational performance and training people. As leadership is a creative activity, in this paper, we aim to show that the unconventional is closely connected to creativity. From the perspective of interpersonal relationships the leader has to continually create contexts in which people can express themselves. On the one hand, the success of leaders is contingent on the moment the development of their personal career starts. On the other hand, the team is thus given the opportunity to develop. In order for people in an organization to acknowledge a leader’s point of view, it is essential that the latter be compelling. From our point of view, most unconventional leaders possess an informal educational component which allows them to reveal their true potential without any constraints. When we talk about potential we have the native constituent in mind, whence we can adduce a few terms that define realities such as: multiple intelligence, emotional intelligence, social intelligence,adaptive intelligence, spiritual intelligence. The examples that we share in this paper, regarding the development of projects and organizational systems, state the ways in which unconventional leadership can occur. The unconventional leader will be ingenious, innovative, creative, charismatic, a finalizer and an example in the eyes of the team.

  13. Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Lerch, Harry E.; Bates, Anne L.; Engle, Mark A.; Crosby, Lynn M.; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from organic carbon (TOC) in CBM produced water is generally in the 1–4 mg/L range. Excursions from this general pattern in produced waters from individual wells arise from contaminants introduced by production activities (oils, grease, adhesives, etc.). Organic substances in produced and formation water from gas shale unimpacted by production chemicals have a similar range of compound classes as CBM produced water, and TOC levels of about 8 mg/L. However, produced water from the Marcellus Shale using hydraulic fracturing has TOC levels as high as 5500 mg/L and a range of added organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at levels of 1000 s of μg/L for individual compounds. Levels of these hydraulic fracturing chemicals and TOC decrease rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery and some level of residual organic contaminants remain up to 250 days after hydraulic fracturing. Although the environmental impacts of the organics in produced water are not well defined, results

  14. Capital flows, bazookas and unconventional monetary policy : Essays in international financial stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frost, Jonathon Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Do international capital flows make countries more or less vulnerable to financial crises? Should countries shield their economies from stress with capital controls? ‎Once a crisis hits, should the public sector launch large-scale support programs ("bazookas")? And if the central bank decides to lau

  15. Capital flows, bazookas and unconventional monetary policy : Essays in international financial stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frost, Jonathon Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Do international capital flows make countries more or less vulnerable to financial crises? Should countries shield their economies from stress with capital controls? ‎Once a crisis hits, should the public sector launch large-scale support programs ("bazookas")? And if the central bank decides to

  16. Unconventional natural gas development did not result in detectable changes in water chemistry (within the South Fork Little Red River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bradley J; Scott, Erin; Massey, Leslie; Evans-White, Michelle A; Entrekin, Sally; Haggard, Brian E

    2017-05-01

    The Fayetteville Shale within north central Arkansas is an area of extensive unconventional natural gas (UNG) production. Recently, the Scott Henderson Gulf Mountain Wildlife Management Area (GMWMA) was leased from the state of Arkansas for NG exploration, raising concerns about potential impacts on water resources. From November 2010 through November 2014, we monitored four reaches of the South Fork Little Red River (SFLRR), within the GMWMA, establishing baseline physico-chemical characteristics prior to UNG development and assessing trends in parameters during and after UNG development. Water samples were collected monthly during baseflow conditions and analyzed for conductivity, turbidity, ions, total organic carbon (TOC), and metals. All parameters were flow-adjusted and evaluated for monotonic changes over time. The concentrations of all constituents measured in the SFLRR were generally low (e.g., nitrate ranged from <0.005 to 0.268 mg/l across all sites and sample periods), suggesting the SFLRR is of high water quality. Flow-adjusted conductivity measurements and sodium concentrations increased at site 1, while magnesium decreased across all four sites, TOC decreased at sites 1 and 3, and iron decreased at site 1 over the duration of the study. With the exception of conductivity and sodium, the physico-chemical parameters either decreased or did not change over the 4-year duration, indicating that UNG activities within the GMWMA have had minimal or no detectable impact on water quality within the SFLRR. Our study provides essential baseline information that can be used to evaluate water quality within the SFLRR in the future should UNG activity within the GMWMA expand.

  17. Natural gas pricing: concepts and international overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodicht, Daniel Monnerat [Gas Energy, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao; Fidelis, Marco Antonio Barbosa; Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The core of this article is a critical analysis of different forms of pricing of natural gas existing in the world today. This paper is to describe the various scenarios of natural gas price formation models. Along the paper, the context is emphasized by considering their cases of applications and their results. Today, basically, there are three main groups of models for natural gas pricing: i) competition gas-on-gas, i.e., a liberalized natural gas market, II) gas indexed to oil prices or its products and III) bilateral monopolies and regulated prices. All the three groups of models have relevant application worldwide. Moreover, those are under dynamic influence of economic, technological and sociopolitical factors which bring complexity to the many existing scenarios. However, at first this paper builds a critical analysis of the international current situation of natural gas today and its economic relevance. (author)

  18. 加拿大非常规油气田优快钻井技术%Optimized fast drilling technology for unconventional oil/gas ifeld in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯立中; 郑德帅; 吴俊霞

    2014-01-01

    Due to high cost of unconventional oil/gas ifelds development like tight gas, it is in urgent need to study optimized fast drilling in order to reduce drilling costs. The development of unconventional oil and gas needs to place long horizontal sectionin in the reservoir. In view of the technical challenges like dififculty in control of wellbore trajectory in long horizontal section and low penetra-tion rate, the mechanical properties of bottomhole assembly was analyzed and optimized through computation, and the compound drill-ing rate in the horizontal section was improved, all of which reduced the number of trips in combination with bit selection. The drillstring oscillator was used to improve wob transferring efifciency;oil-based drilling lfuid was specially prepared for horizontal section, which greatly reduced the friction factor and effectively inhibited wellbore instability. The application of optimized fast drilling technology in Daylight Unconventional Oil/Gas Field (Canada) shows that this technology signiifcantly reduces drilling period and drilling costs, and provides useful reference for high-efifcient development of domestic unconventional oil/gas ifelds.%由于致密气等非常规油气田开发成本高,迫切需要进行优快钻井研究降低钻井成本。非常规油气开发需要在储层内布置长水平井段,针对长水平井段井眼轨迹控制困难、机械钻速低的技术难题,通过计算,分析了底部钻具组合力学特性,优化了底部钻具组合,提高水平段复合钻进比例,配合钻头选型,减少了起下钻次数;采用钻柱振荡器提高钻压传递效率,针对水平井段优化配置油基钻井液体系,大幅度降低了摩擦因数,又抑制了井壁失稳。加拿大daylight非常规油气田应用结果表明,应用优快钻井技术大幅度降低了钻井周期和成本,为国内非常规油气田高效开发提供了借鉴。

  19. The Pilot Test on Multi-Survey Modes of MSM and its Applications in Unconventional Shale Gas in Sichuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.; Wu, F.; Yin, C.

    2016-12-01

    Sichuan province has been the hot spot on shale gas plays in China, and has conducted many valuable pioneering geophysical and other experiments to better explore this unconventional resource. From the year 2010 to now, we have explored and applied at least five different kinds of MSM surveys to improve the reliability and location precision. The surveys conducted include DWS, the sensors deployed in the borehole nearby the reservoir. SSS, the sensors deployed in the surface with the star-shaped receiving arms. MSWS, the sensors deployed in the shallow borehole drilled around the treatment well. SPSS, the sensors deployed in the surface with the scattered distribution, and CS, the combination of the four types of survey. However, different surveys usually result in different microseismic cloud shape. This puzzles the vendors and even makes them lose the confidence for microseismic, especially for the SSS and SPSS. In 2014, we conducted a project with four kinds of observation geometry, including the DWS, SSS, MSWS and SPSS. Compared to the conventional surveys, the new geometries show more advantages. (1) It is convenient to deploy the sensor, especially for the SPSS. (2) The DWS and SPSS are more economical than SSS and MSWS, but with the better S/N ratio because the sensors deployed in more quiet site. (3) The SSS and SPSS have the better reliability to invert the focus mechanism because the wide range of observation azimuth. (4)The DWS has the highest location precision, especially in Z direction. Different from the other examples from overseas, the microseismic clouds from those four surveys show surprising similarity. Undoubtedly, the result improves our confidence in microseismic monitoring, more specifically, the feasibility for four surveys, the reliability of our processing techniques or workflows and the locating algorithm. Moreover, this project also helps us to explore a more economical observational geometry, because the SPSS with the least sensors can

  20. Weighted Average Cost of Retail Gas (WACORG) highlights pricing effects in the US gas value chain: Do we need wellhead price-floor regulation to bail out the unconventional gas industry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weijermars, Ruud, E-mail: R.Weijermars@TUDelft.nl [Alboran Energy Strategy Consultants and Department of Geotechnology, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The total annual revenue stream in the US natural gas value chain over the past decade is analyzed. Growth of total revenues has been driven by higher wellhead prices, which peaked in 2008. The emergence of the unconventional gas business was made possible in part by the pre-recessional rise in global energy prices. The general rise in natural gas prices between 1998 and 2008 did not lower overall US gas consumption, but shifts have occurred during the past decade in the consumption levels of individual consumer groups. Industry's gas consumption has decreased, while power stations increased their gas consumption. Commercial and residential consumers maintained flat gas consumption patterns. This study introduces the Weighted Average Cost of Retail Gas (WACORG) as a tool to calculate and monitor an average retail price based on the different natural gas prices charged to the traditional consumer groups. The WACORG also provides insight in wellhead revenues and may be used as an instrument for calibrating retail prices in support of wellhead price-floor regulation. Such price-floor regulation is advocated here as a possible mitigation measure against excessive volatility in US wellhead gas prices to improve the security of gas supply. - Highlights: > This study introduces an average retail price, WACORG. > WACORG can monitor price differentials for the traditional US gas consumer groups. > WACORG also provides insight in US wellhead revenues. > WACORG can calibrate retail prices in support of wellhead price-floor regulation. > Gas price-floor can improve security of gas supply by reducing price volatility.

  1. MALDI-TOF MS for the Identification of Cultivable Organic-Degrading Bacteria in Contaminated Groundwater near Unconventional Natural Gas Extraction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Martin, Misty S; Carlton, Doug D; Amorim, Catarina L; Castro, Paula M L; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Schug, Kevin A

    2017-08-10

    Groundwater quality and quantity is of extreme importance as it is a source of drinking water in the United States. One major concern has emerged due to the possible contamination of groundwater from unconventional oil and natural gas extraction activities. Recent studies have been performed to understand if these activities are causing groundwater contamination, particularly with respect to exogenous hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. The impact of contaminants on microbial ecology is an area to be explored as alternatives for water treatment are necessary. In this work, we identified cultivable organic-degrading bacteria in groundwater in close proximity to unconventional natural gas extraction. Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acinetobacter haemolyticus were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), which proved to be a simple, fast, and reliable method. Additionally, the potential use of the identified bacteria in water and/or wastewater bioremediation was studied by determining the ability of these microorganisms to degrade toluene and chloroform. In fact, these bacteria can be potentially applied for in situ bioremediation of contaminated water and wastewater treatment, as they were able to degrade both compounds.

  2. MALDI-TOF MS for the Identification of Cultivable Organic-Degrading Bacteria in Contaminated Groundwater near Unconventional Natural Gas Extraction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês C. Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater quality and quantity is of extreme importance as it is a source of drinking water in the United States. One major concern has emerged due to the possible contamination of groundwater from unconventional oil and natural gas extraction activities. Recent studies have been performed to understand if these activities are causing groundwater contamination, particularly with respect to exogenous hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. The impact of contaminants on microbial ecology is an area to be explored as alternatives for water treatment are necessary. In this work, we identified cultivable organic-degrading bacteria in groundwater in close proximity to unconventional natural gas extraction. Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acinetobacter haemolyticus were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS, which proved to be a simple, fast, and reliable method. Additionally, the potential use of the identified bacteria in water and/or wastewater bioremediation was studied by determining the ability of these microorganisms to degrade toluene and chloroform. In fact, these bacteria can be potentially applied for in situ bioremediation of contaminated water and wastewater treatment, as they were able to degrade both compounds.

  3. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, consumptive water use and levelized costs of unconventional oil in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan

    Conventional petroleum production in many countries that supply U.S. crude oil as well as domestic production has declined in recent years. Along with instability in the world oil market, this has stimulated the discussion of developing unconventional oil production, e.g., oil sands and oil shale. Expanding the U.S. energy mix to include oil sands and oil shale may be an important component in diversifying and securing the U.S. energy supply. At the same time, life cycle GHG emissions of these energy sources and consumptive water use are a concern. In this study, consumptive water use includes not only fresh water use but entire consumptive use including brackish water and seawater. The goal of this study is to determine the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and consumptive water use of synthetic crude oil (SCO) derived from Canadian oil sands and U.S. oil shale to be compared with U.S. domestic crude oil, U.S. imported crude oil, and coal-to-liquid (CTL). Levelized costs of SCO derived from Canadian oil sands and U.S. oil shale were also estimated. The results of this study suggest that CTL with no carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and current electricity grid mix is the worst while crude oil imported from United Kingdom is the best in GHG emissions. The life cycle GHG emissions of oil shale surface mining, oil shale in-situ process, oil sands surface mining, and oil sands in-situ process are 43% to 62%, 13% to 32%, 5% to 22%, and 11% to 13% higher than those of U.S. domestic crude oil. Oil shale in-situ process has the largest consumptive water use among alternative fuels, evaluated due to consumptive water use in electricity generation. Life cycle consumptive water use of oil sands in-situ process is the lowest. Specifically, fresh water consumption in the production processes is the most concern given its scarcity. However, disaggregated data on fresh water consumption in the total water consumption of each fuel production process is not available

  4. Assessment of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources in the Late Cretaceous Mancos Shale of the Piceance Basin, Uinta-Piceance Province, Colorado and Utah, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Sarah J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Tom M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phoung A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2016-06-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geology-based assessment of the continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources in the Late Cretaceous Mancos Shale within the Piceance Basin of the Uinta-Piceance Province (fig. 1). The previous USGS assessment of the Mancos Shale in the Piceance Basin was completed in 2003 as part of a comprehensive assessment of the greater UintaPiceance Province (U.S. Geological Survey Uinta-Piceance Assessment Team, 2003). Since the last assessment, more than 2,000 wells have been drilled and completed in one or more intervals within the Mancos Shale of the Piceance Basin (IHS Energy Group, 2015). In addition, the USGS Energy Resources Program drilled a research core in the southern Piceance Basin that provided significant new geologic and geochemical data that were used to refine the 2003 assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas in the Mancos Shale.

  5. Unconventional Gas Resources in the Paleozoic of Central Europe Ressources de gaz non conventionnels dans le Paléozoïque de l’Europe Centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littke R.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Whereas gas production from unconventional reserves has greatly increased over the past decades, there is still a largely unexplored potential in the Paleozoic of Central Europe. For this area, the paper summarizes some important aspects of the geology of tight sandstone gas reservoirs, gas shales and coalbed methane. Tight sandstones with low permeabilities are especially present in the Permian (Rotliegend Formation of The Netherlands and northern Germany, but also in the underlying Carboniferous. There is already active production from some of these reservoirs. Further development greatly depends on understanding of gas charge as well as the regional distribution of porosity and permeability which in turn depend on facies and diagenesis. In contrast exploration for gas shales is just at the very beginning. Whereas Mesozoic shales in the southern Lower Saxony Basin have to be regarded as prime targets due to thickness, maturity and organic matter content, there are additional targets in the Mississippian, but also in older rocks. Currently an international gas shale research programme (Gas shales in Europe, GASH gathers relevant data for these units. Coalbed methane exploration started already about 20 years ago in the Ruhr Basin, but was not successful at that time due to small flow rates. On the other hand, production from abandoned coal mines provided substantial amounts of gas. Due to the abundance of coal seams and the suitable maturity conditions and gas contents, there is a high potential for future substantial coalbed methane in the area. Alors que l’extraction du gaz naturel des gisements non conventionnels a fortement augmenté ces dernières dizaines d’années, un large potentiel de ressources reste inexploré dans les couches paléozoïques de l’Europe Centrale. Cet article présente, pour cette région, quelques aspects importants de la géologie des grès de faible perméabilité (tight gas sands, des gaz de schiste (gas

  6. The future of oil: unconventional fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Kenneth J

    2014-01-13

    Unconventional fossil hydrocarbons fall into two categories: resource plays and conversion-sourced hydrocarbons. Resource plays involve the production of accumulations of solid, liquid or gaseous hydro-carbons that have been generated over geological time from organic matter in source rocks. The character of these hydrocarbons may have been modified subsequently, especially in the case of solids and extra-heavy liquids. These unconventional hydrocarbons therefore comprise accumulations of hydrocarbons that are trapped in an unconventional manner and/or whose economic exploitation requires complex and technically advanced production methods. This review focuses primarily on unconventional liquid hydro-carbons. The future potential of unconventional gas, especially shale gas, is also discussed, as it is revolutionizing the energy outlook in North America and elsewhere.

  7. Atmospheric Gas Concentrations in the pre- and post-production Phases of an Unconventional Oil and Gas Recovery Operation at the MSEEL Test Site, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. P.; Reeder, M.; Pekney, N.; Osborne, J.; Risk, D. A.; McCawley, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Marcellus Shale Energy and Environment Laboratory (MSEEL) in West Virginia provides a unique opportunity in the field of unconventional energy research. By studying near-surface atmospheric chemistry over several phases of a hydraulic fracturing event, the project will help evaluate the impact of current practices, as well as new techniques and mitigation technologies. A total of 10 mobile surveys were conducted around the MSEEL site that contains 3 test wells (1 science well and 2 natural gas producing wells) and over several miles of nearby regional routes. Our surveying technique involved using a vehicle-mounted Los Gatos Research Ultraportable Methane/Acetylene Analyzer that provided geo-located measurements of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The ratios of super-ambient concentrations of CO2 and CH4 were used to separate drilling- and fracturing-related observations from the natural background concentrations over the various well pad developmental stages. We found that regional background methane concentrations were elevated in all surveys, with a mean concentration of 3.21ppm (n = 99376), which simply reflected the mix of anthropogenic and natural CH4 sources in this riverine urban location. Over time and through successive stages of well development, we noted a progressive rise in the occurrence of enriched methane in the vicinity of the developed wells. While there was a moderate degree of variability over time, we did observe a higher occurrence of CH4-enriched observations during and after production began at the test site ( 25% of measurements within 500 meters of the test wells) compared to the baseline surveys (>10% of measurements). This change was expected, as we anticipated some level of increased emissions from the well pads as production began. However, we did not expect the rise to be so noticeable. The results of this study show that there is a statistically significant increase in the occurrence of enriched methane values in the

  8. Insights into contaminant transport from unconventional oil and gas developments from analog system analysis of methane-bearing thermal springs in the northern Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Grant; Grasby, Stephen E.

    2017-09-01

    Natural gas is currently being produced from shales of the Montney and Liard basins in western Canada. Production requires hydraulic fracturing due to the low permeability of the shales in the basins. Stratigraphically equivalent shales are present in the northern Canadian Rocky Mountains. Thermal springs with notable hydrocarbon concentrations occur where large-scale faults intersect the same shale units that are the focus of gas development, indicating that under certain circumstances, connection of deep fractured shales to the land surface is possible. To constrain these conditions, simulations were conducted for the spring with the highest hydrocarbon flux (Toad River Spring), results of which indicate that in order to supply sufficient water to a fault to support measurable advection, the effective permeability of the shales in these structurally deformed areas must be one to four orders of magnitude higher than in areas of active gas production to the east. The spatial scale of enhanced permeability is much greater than that which is achieved by hydraulic fracturing and the mechanism of maintaining high pressures at depth is more persistent in time. Examination of groundwater velocities suggests that upward migration of solutes from hydraulic fracturing may take decades to centuries. Results also indicate that any temperature anomaly will be associated with transport along a fault at such velocities. No such temperature anomaly has been documented in regions with unconventional oil and gas development to date. Such an anomaly would be diagnostic of a deep solute source.

  9. Management of Water for Unconventional Oil and Gas Operations Enhanced with the Expanded U.S.Geological Survey Produced Waters Geochemical Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, K. D.; Blondes, M. S.; Thordsen, J. J.; Thomas, B.; Reidy, M. E.; Engle, M.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Rowan, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    Increases in hydraulic fracturing practices for shale gas and tight oil reservoirs have dramatically increased petroleum production in the USA, but have also made the issue of water management from these operations a high priority. Hydraulic fracturing requires ~ 10,000 to 50,000 m3 of water per well for injection in addition to water used to drill the well. Initially much of the water used for hydraulic fracturing was fresh water, but attitudes and operations are changing in response to costs and concerns. Concerns about groundwater depletion and contamination have prompted operators to increase the amount of produced water that can be recycled for hydraulic fracturing and to find suitable locations for salt-water injection. Knowledge of the geochemistry of produced waters is valuable in determining the feasibility of produced water recycling. Water with low salinity can be reclaimed for use outside of the petroleum industry (e.g. irrigation, municipal uses, and industrial operations). The updated and expanded USGS Produced Waters Database available at http://eerscmap.usgs.gov/pwapp/ will facilitate and enhance studies on management of water, including produced water, for unconventional oil and gas drilling and production. The USGS database contains > 160,000 samples. Expanding on the 2002 database, we have filled in state and regional gaps with information from conventional and unconventional wells and have increased the number of constituents to include minor and trace chemicals, isotopes, and time series data. We currently have produced water data from 5,200 tight gas wells, 4,500 coal-bed methane (CBM) wells, 3,500 shale gas wells, and 700 tight oil wells. These numbers will increase as we continue to receive positive responses from oil companies, state oil and gas commissions, and scientists wanting to contribute their data. This database is an important resource for a wide range of interested parties. Scientists from universities, government agencies, public

  10. Chinese Players Active in International Oil and Gas Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Xuefeng

    2011-01-01

    @@ In recent years, Chinese oil companies have been pacing the globe to secure energy assets to fuel the fast- growing Asian powerhouse's economy.China's enterprises eyed global expansion via mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in 2010 as the country's economic power was on increase.Apparently, China accelerated the pace of cross-border cooperation "in" its "go-world" policy last year, to tap into more natural resources through the M&A activities of its big oil and gas producers.Among the deals, 80 percent took place in Canada and South America and unconventional sources, including deepwater drilling and oil sands assets.

  11. Prospects for Strengthening the Security of Ukraine’s Energy Supply through Development of Unconventional Natural Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the American experience in development of natural shale gas in the US, identifies the causes that led to the shale revolution. Its current state is characterized by achieving the peak production simultaneously with shift in the emphasis from natural shale gas to shale oil. The potential technically extracted gas reserves as well as trends in terms of the growth of conventional natural gas reserves and the development of trade in liquefied natural gas are regarded as global preconditions for enlargement of the shale natural gas output. Natural shale gas can be considered as an alternative project only for liquefied natural gas while, compared to pipeline gas, its production is uncompetitive. The national preconditions for development of the industry of nonconventional natural gas production are determined on the basis of the current trends in Ukraine’s gas market. The main obstacles to the realization of this direction are reduction of the gas needs and liberalization of natural gas trade on the basis of European principles. Economic evaluation of the feasibility of natural shale gas production made it possible to forecast its production cost at the wellhead at different depths and estimate its investment attractiveness in different aggregate states. On the basis of the approbation of the presented methodological approach carried out for the Dnieper-Donets and Carpathian shale basins, it was concluded that the investment attractiveness of the first one is higher, given its reservoir properties and the presence of deposits of nonconventional hydrocarbons in different states of aggregation.

  12. The AirWaterGas Teacher Professional Development Program: Lessons Learned by Pairing Scientists and Teachers to Develop Curriculum on Global Climate Change and Regional Unconventional Oil and Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, L. S.; Hatheway, B.; Rogers, J. D.; Casey, J. G.; Lackey, G.; Birdsell, D.; Brown, K.; Polmear, M.; Capps, S.; Rosenblum, J.; Sitterley, K.; Hafich, K. A.; Hannigan, M.; Knight, D.

    2015-12-01

    The AirWaterGas Teacher Professional Development Program, run by the UCAR Center for Science Education, brought together scientists and secondary science teachers in a yearlong program culminating in the development of curriculum related to the impacts of unconventional oil and gas development. Graduate students and research scientists taught about their research area and its relationship to oil and gas throughout three online courses during the 2015-16 school year, during which teachers and scientists engaged in active online discussions. Topics covered included climate change, oil and gas infrastructure, air quality, water quality, public health, and practices and policies relating to oil and gas development. Building upon their initial online interactions and a face-to-face meeting in March, teachers were paired with appropriate AirWaterGas team members as science advisors during a month-long residency in Boulder, Colorado. During the residency, graduate student scientists provided resources and feedback as teachers developed curriculum projects in collaboration with each other and UCAR science educators. Additionally, teachers and AirWaterGas researchers shared experiences on an oil and gas well site tour, and a short course on drilling methods with a drilling rig simulator. Here, we share lessons learned from both sides of the aisle, including initial results from program assessment conducted with the participating teachers.

  13. Unconventional hydrogen bonding to organic ions in the gas phase: stepwise association of hydrogen cyanide with the pyridine and pyrimidine radical cations and protonated pyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Ahmed M; El-Shall, M Samy; Hilal, Rifaat; Elroby, Shaaban; Aziz, Saadullah G

    2014-08-07

    Equilibrium thermochemical measurements using the ion mobility drift cell technique have been utilized to investigate the binding energies and entropy changes for the stepwise association of HCN molecules with the pyridine and pyrimidine radical cations forming the C5H5N(+·)(HCN)n and C4H4N2 (+·)(HCN)n clusters, respectively, with n = 1-4. For comparison, the binding of 1-4 HCN molecules to the protonated pyridine C5H5NH(+)(HCN)n has also been investigated. The binding energies of HCN to the pyridine and pyrimidine radical cations are nearly equal (11.4 and 12.0 kcal/mol, respectively) but weaker than the HCN binding to the protonated pyridine (14.0 kcal/mol). The pyridine and pyrimidine radical cations form unconventional carbon-based ionic hydrogen bonds with HCN (CH(δ+)⋯NCH). Protonated pyridine forms a stronger ionic hydrogen bond with HCN (NH(+)⋯NCH) which can be extended to a linear chain with the clustering of additional HCN molecules (NH(+)⋯NCH··NCH⋯NCH) leading to a rapid decrease in the bond strength as the length of the chain increases. The lowest energy structures of the pyridine and pyrimidine radical cation clusters containing 3-4 HCN molecules show a strong tendency for the internal solvation of the radical cation by the HCN molecules where bifurcated structures involving multiple hydrogen bonding sites with the ring hydrogen atoms are formed. The unconventional H-bonds (CH(δ+)⋯NCH) formed between the pyridine or the pyrimidine radical cations and HCN molecules (11-12 kcal/mol) are stronger than the similar (CH(δ+)⋯NCH) bonds formed between the benzene radical cation and HCN molecules (9 kcal/mol) indicating that the CH(δ+) centers in the pyridine and pyrimidine radical cations have more effective charges than in the benzene radical cation.

  14. 非常规天然气勘探开发评价及影响综述%A review of evaluation and impacts from exploration and development of unconventional gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙肖阳; 张宝生; 魏新强; 郭克强

    2016-01-01

    北美页岩气开发开启了非常规天然气资源勘探开发的新纪元,引起了全球的关注.但是全球特别是北美以外地区的非常规天然气地质特征、资源量和经济评价效果仍然不确定,非常规天然气开发利用带来的社会经济和环境影响尚未可知.非常规天然气勘探开发评价研究表明非常规天然气地质特征和分布不同于常规天然气资源,开采难度更大;资源量评估也不同于常规天然气,存在很大不确定性;经济技术评价方法主要是净现值模型和不确定分析模型.非常规天然气开发利用社会经济和环境影响研究主要是现状描述和替代效果比较.综合考虑资源、技术进步、经济成本因素,并结合各气田差异性和特殊性的全面研究还有待加强;在非常规油气开发的社会经济影响和环境影响方面,研究的方法相对简单,至今还未形成完善的研究方法与模型体系.总之,此领域存在较大的研究空间和必要性.%The development of shale gas in North American has opened a new era for unconventional gas resources exploration and development ,and attracted the attention all over the world .But geological characteristics ,resources and economic evaluation effects of unconventional gas are still uncertain ,especially in the area outside North America .Socioeconomic and environmental impacts form the development and utilization of unconventional gas remains to be studied .Unconventional gas exploration and development evaluation studies show that unconventional gas geological characteristics and distribution are different from the conventional gas resources ,and it is much more difficult in the case of unconventional gas extraction . Resources evaluation are different in conventional and unconventional gas ,and it is much more uncertainty . Economic and technological evaluation methods are mainly the net present value model and the uncertainty analysis model .Socioeconomic and

  15. Unconventional oil and gas development and its stresses on water resources in the context of Water-Energy-Food Nexus: The case of Weld County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, P. D.; Waskom, R.; Boone, K.; Ryan, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas resources in Colorado started to rapidly increase since the early 2000's. The recent oil price plunge resulted in a decline of well starts' rate in the US, but in Weld County, Colorado, it is currently at the 2013-levels. The additional water demand, despite its insignificant percentage in overall state's demand (0.1% in 2012), it competes with traditional ones, since Colorado's water is almost fully appropriated. Presently, the state has 53,597 active producing oil and gas wells. More than 40% of these are located in Weld County, which happens also to be one of top food production U.S. counties. The competition for land and water resources between the energy and agricultural sectors in water stressed areas, like the western U.S., is further intensified if recycle and reuse practices are not preferred to water disposal by the energy industry. Satisfying the multiple objectives of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in order to achieve sustainable economic development requires balanced management of these resources. Identifying pressures on key areas that food and energy sectors are competing for water, is essential for prudent water management and developing appropriate policies. Weld County, as a water stressed and fossil fuel producing area, was selected for investigating current stresses on local water resources alongside with future climatic and water demand scenarios for exploring probable long-term effects.

  16. Potential hazards of air pollutant emissions from unconventional oil and natural gas operations on the respiratory health of children and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ellen; Hays, Jake; Dyrszka, Larysa; Rodriguez, Brian; Cox, Caroline; Huffling, Katie; Bushkin-Bedient, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    Research on air pollutant emissions associated with unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development has grown significantly in recent years. Empirical investigations have focused on the identification and measurement of oil and gas air pollutants [e.g. volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), methane] and the influence of UOG on local and regional ambient air quality (e.g. tropospheric ozone). While more studies to better characterize spatial and temporal trends in exposure among children and newborns near UOG sites are needed, existing research suggests that exposure to air pollutants emitted during lifecycle operations can potentially lead to adverse respiratory outcomes in this population. Children are known to be at a greater risk from exposure to air pollutants, which can impair lung function and neurodevelopment, or exacerbate existing conditions, such as asthma, because the respiratory system is particularly vulnerable during development in-utero, the postnatal period, and early childhood. In this article, we review the literature relevant to respiratory risks of UOG on infants and children. Existing epidemiology studies document the impact of air pollutant exposure on children in other contexts and suggest impacts near UOG. Research is sparse on long-term health risks associated with frequent acute exposures - especially in children - hence our interpretation of these findings may be conservative. Many data gaps remain, but existing data support precautionary measures to protect the health of infants and children.

  17. Real-time detection of dielectric anisotropy or isotropy in unconventional oil-gas reservoir rocks supported by the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Honglei; Wang, Jin; Zhao, Kun; Lű, Huibin; Jin, Kuijuan; He, Liping; Yang, Guozhen; Xiao, Lizhi

    2016-12-01

    Current geological extraction theory and techniques are very limited to adequately characterize the unconventional oil-gas reservoirs because of the considerable complexity of the geological structures. Optical measurement has the advantages of non-interference with the earth magnetic fields, and is often useful in detecting various physical properties. One key parameter that can be detected using optical methods is the dielectric permittivity, which reflects the mineral and organic properties. Here we reported an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) technique that is sensitive to the dielectric and surface properties and can be applied to characterization of reservoir rocks, such as shale and sandstone core samples extracted from subsurface. The layered distribution of the dielectric properties in shales and the uniform distribution in sandstones are clearly identified using the OIRD signals. In shales, the micro-cracks and particle orientation result in directional changes of the dielectric and surface properties, and thus, the isotropy and anisotropy of the rock can be characterized by OIRD. As the dielectric and surface properties are closely related to the hydrocarbon-bearing features in oil-gas reservoirs, we believe that the precise measurement carried with OIRD can help in improving the recovery efficiency in well-drilling process.

  18. Real-time detection of dielectric anisotropy or isotropy in unconventional oil-gas reservoir rocks supported by the oblique-incidence reflectivity difference technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Honglei; Wang, Jin; Zhao, Kun; Lű, Huibin; Jin, Kuijuan; He, Liping; Yang, Guozhen; Xiao, Lizhi

    2016-01-01

    Current geological extraction theory and techniques are very limited to adequately characterize the unconventional oil-gas reservoirs because of the considerable complexity of the geological structures. Optical measurement has the advantages of non-interference with the earth magnetic fields, and is often useful in detecting various physical properties. One key parameter that can be detected using optical methods is the dielectric permittivity, which reflects the mineral and organic properties. Here we reported an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OIRD) technique that is sensitive to the dielectric and surface properties and can be applied to characterization of reservoir rocks, such as shale and sandstone core samples extracted from subsurface. The layered distribution of the dielectric properties in shales and the uniform distribution in sandstones are clearly identified using the OIRD signals. In shales, the micro-cracks and particle orientation result in directional changes of the dielectric and surface properties, and thus, the isotropy and anisotropy of the rock can be characterized by OIRD. As the dielectric and surface properties are closely related to the hydrocarbon-bearing features in oil-gas reservoirs, we believe that the precise measurement carried with OIRD can help in improving the recovery efficiency in well-drilling process. PMID:27976746

  19. Feasibility study for alternate fuels production: unconventional natural gas from wastewater treatment plants. Volume II, Appendix D. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overly, P.; Tawiah, K.

    1981-12-01

    Data are presented from a study performed to determined the feasibility of recovering methane from sewage at a typical biological secondary wastewater treatment plant. Three tasks are involved: optimization of digester gas; digester gas scrubbing; and application to the East Bay Municipal Utility District water pollution control plant. Results indicate that excess digester gas can be used economically at the wastewater treatment plant and that distribution and scrubbing can be complex and costly. (DMC) 193 references, 93 figures, 26 tables.

  20. Potential for technically recoverable unconventional gas and oil resources in the Polish-Ukrainian Foredeep, Poland, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Pitman, Janet K.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 1,345 billion cubic feet of potentially technically recoverable gas and 168 million barrels of technically recoverable oil and natural gas liquids in Ordovician and Silurian age shales in the Polish- Ukrainian Foredeep basin of Poland.

  1. Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: methane from coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ethridge, L.J.; Cowan, C.E.; Riedel, E.F.

    1980-07-01

    Potential public health and safety problems and the potential environmental impacts from the recovery of gas from coalbeds are identified and examined. The technology of methane recovery is described and economic and legal barriers to production are discussed. (ACR)

  2. Environmental health research recommendations from the Inter-Environmental Health Sciences Core Center Working Group on unconventional natural gas drilling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Trevor M; Breysse, Patrick N; Gray, Kathleen; Howarth, Marilyn; Yan, Beizhan

    2014-11-01

    Unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) (which include hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) supply an energy source that is potentially cleaner than liquid or solid fossil fuels and may provide a route to energy independence. However, significant concerns have arisen due to the lack of research on the public health impact of UNGDO. Environmental Health Sciences Core Centers (EHSCCs), funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), formed a working group to review the literature on the potential public health impact of UNGDO and to make recommendations for needed research. The Inter-EHSCC Working Group concluded that a potential for water and air pollution exists that might endanger public health, and that the social fabric of communities could be impacted by the rapid emergence of drilling operations. The working group recommends research to inform how potential risks could be mitigated. Research on exposure and health outcomes related to UNGDO is urgently needed, and community engagement is essential in the design of such studies.

  3. Construction of East China unconventional oil and gas source database system%华东非常规油气源头数据库系统建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敬钟伟

    2013-01-01

    With the continuous development of the unconventional business of East China company of SINOPEC, oil comprehen⁃sive research, production runing, and operation and management develop towards a deeper and finer direction, and the demands of information expect“complete and unified, accurate and timely”more. After informatization construction, East China company es⁃tablish part of the specialized database and data application system to support the management research and production in oil field well. But as with the conventional oil and gas field, the business which involves in several fields of the exploration and development such as geophysical exploration, logging, analysis and testing, is without comprehensive traffic grooming and has no mature busi⁃ness standard as the reference, so that it is necessary to comb the unconventional business by the collection, population and con⁃struction of source to provide supporting of business of East China company. With the deepening of the application, the necessity of data integration and source arrangement combing is more apparent. This paper makes a brief introduction from the establishment of database to the database management and other aspects of the design in order to timely supervise and count the unconventional business data. And it provides better storage, management and application for large amounts of data produced from the process of the modern production, scientific research and management of East China company.%  随着中国石化华东分公司非常规业务的不断开展,油田的综合研究、生产运行、经营管理正向着更深、更精细化方向发展,对信息的需求也提出“完整统一、准确及时”的更高要求。华东分公司经过信息化建设,建立了部分专业数据库和数据应用系统,较好地支撑了油田管理研究和生产工作。但同常规油气田一样,涵盖的业务涉及了勘探开发的物探、录

  4. Unconventional Resources Lure Chinese Oil Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yong; Song Chengli

    2010-01-01

    @@ Development of section fits with the nation's move to use clean energy China has also commenced the exploration and development of flammable gas both onshore and offshore.The country is currently at the preliminary stage in the use of these unconventional gases, but these clean energies will become "effective substitutes" for natural gas.

  5. Integration of inorganic and isotopic geochemistry with endocrine disruption activity assays to assess risks to water resources near unconventional oil and gas development in Garfield County, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, J.; Kassotis, C.; Cornelius, J.; Nagel, S.; Vengosh, A.

    2016-12-01

    The rise of hydraulic fracturing in the United States has sparked a debate about the impact of oil and gas development on the quality of water resources. Wastewater associated with hydraulic fracturing includes injection fluid that is a mixture of sand, freshwater and synthetic organic chemicals, flowback water that is a mixture of injection fluid and formation brine, and produced water that is primarily brine. The fluids range in salinity and chemical composition that can have different environmental impacts. We analyzed the inorganic and isotope geochemistry of 58 surface and groundwater samples near and away from unconventional oil and gas operations (UOG), along with hormonal profiles via bioassays. Cl (0.12 to 198 mg/L), Na (1.2 to 518 mg/L) and Sr (1.4 to 2410 ug/L) were higher in both groundwater and surface water near UOG wells. Four surface waters and one groundwater had Br/Cl indicative of brine contamination (>1.5x10-3). Three of the SW samples also had 87Sr/86Sr ratios similar to values found in produced or flowback water (0.7118 and 0.7158, respectively) from the Williams-Fork formation and elevated compared to background ratios (0.71062 to 0.7115). Increased progestogenic activity was observed in groundwater near UOG operations and inncreased estrogenic, androgenic, progestogenic, anti-androgenic, anti-progestogenic, and anti-glucocorticoid activities in surface water near UOG operations. The association of increased EDCs with inorganic and isotopic indicators of UOG wastewater provides evidence for possible environmental and health impacts from drilling activity.

  6. Carbon Disulfide (CS2) Mechanisms in Formation of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Formation from Unconventional Shale Gas Extraction and Processing Operations and Global Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alisa L; Patel, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) has been historically associated with the production of rayon, cellophane, and carbon tetrachloride. This study identifies multiple mechanisms by which CS2 contributes to the formation of CO2 in the atmosphere. CS2 and other associated sulfide compounds were found by this study to be present in emissions from unconventional shale gas extraction and processing (E&P) operations. The breakdown products of CS2; carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are indirect greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to CO2 levels in the atmosphere. The heat-trapping nature of CO2 has been found to increase the surface temperature, resulting in regional and global climate change. The purpose of this study is to identify five mechanisms by which CS2 and the breakdown products of CS2 contribute to atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The five mechanisms of CO2 formation are as follows: Chemical Interaction of CS2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) present in natural gas at high temperatures, resulting in CO2 formation;Combustion of CS2 in the presence of oxygen producing SO2 and CO2;Photolysis of CS2 leading to the formation of COS, CO, and SO2, which are indirect contributors to CO2 formation;One-step hydrolysis of CS2, producing reactive intermediates and ultimately forming H2S and CO2;Two-step hydrolysis of CS2 forming the reactive COS intermediate that reacts with an additional water molecule, ultimately forming H2S and CO2. CS2 and COS additionally are implicated in the formation of SO2 in the stratosphere and/or troposphere. SO2 is an indirect contributor to CO2 formation and is implicated in global climate change.

  7. The Role of Innovative Development in Unconventional Hydrocarbon Exploitation in the Context of the Shale Gas Revolution in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent drop in oil prices, there is a strong interest in the influence of the shale revolution on the global supply and demand of hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, the attention of many economists and industry analysts is drawn to the technological, institutional and regulatory aspects of hydrocarbon production from shale deposits in the USA. The authors analyze factors facilitating the shale gas revolution in the USA, and find that in addition to the obvious factors, such as high p...

  8. Surface Spills at Unconventional Oil and Gas Sites: a Contaminant Transport Modeling Study for the South Platte Alluvial Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, J. E.; Kanno, C.; McLaughlin, M.; Blotevogel, J.; Borch, T.

    2016-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has revolutionized the U.S.'s energy portfolio by making shale reservoirs productive and commercially viable. However, the public is concerned that the chemical constituents in hydraulic fracturing fluid, produced water, or natural gas itself could potentially impact groundwater. Here, we present fate and transport simulations of aqueous fluid surface spills. Surface spills are the most likely contamination pathway to occur during oil and gas production operations. We have three primary goals: 1) evaluate whether or not these spills pose risks to groundwater quality in the South Platte aquifer system, 2) develop a screening level methodology that could be applied at other sites and for various pollutants, and 3) demonstrate the potential importance of co-contaminant interactions using selected chemicals. We considered two types of fluid that can be accidentally released at oil and gas sites: produced water and hydraulic fracturing fluid. Benzene was taken to be a representative contaminant of interest for produced water. Glutaraldehyde, polyethylene glycol, and polyacrylamide were the chemical additives considered for spills of hydraulic fracturing fluid. We focused on the South Platte Alluvial Aquifer, which is located in the greater Denver metro area and overlaps a zone of high-density oil and gas development. Risk of groundwater pollution was based on predicted concentration at the groundwater table. In general, results showed groundwater contamination due to produced water and hydraulic fracturing fluid spills is low in most areas of the South Platte system for the contaminants and spill conditions investigated. Substantial risk may exist in certain areas where the groundwater table is shallow (less than 10 ft below ground surface) and when large spills and large post-spill storms occur. Co-chemical interactions are an important consideration in certain cases when modeling hydraulic fracturing fluid spills. By helping to identify locations

  9. Marcellus and mercury: Assessing potential impacts of unconventional natural gas extraction on aquatic ecosystems in northwestern Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Christopher J; Weimer, Alexander B; Marks, Nicole K; Perow, Elliott S; Oster, Jacob M; Brubaker, Kristen M; Trexler, Ryan V; Solomon, Caroline M; Lamendella, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a persistent element in the environment that has the ability to bioaccumulate and biomagnify up the food chain with potentially harmful effects on ecosystems and human health. Twenty-four streams remotely located in forested watersheds in northwestern PA containing naturally reproducing Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout), were targeted to gain a better understanding of how Marcellus shale natural gas exploration may be impacting water quality, aquatic biodiversity, and Hg bioaccumulation in aquatic ecosystems. During the summer of 2012, stream water, stream bed sediments, aquatic mosses, macroinvertebrates, crayfish, brook trout, and microbial samples were collected. All streams either had experienced hydraulic fracturing (fracked, n = 14) or not yet experienced hydraulic fracturing (non-fracked, n = 10) within their watersheds at the time of sampling. Analysis of watershed characteristics (GIS) for fracked vs non-fracked sites showed no significant differences (P > 0.05), justifying comparisons between groups. Results showed significantly higher dissolved total mercury (FTHg) in stream water (P = 0.007), lower pH (P = 0.033), and higher dissolved organic matter (P = 0.001) at fracked sites. Total mercury (THg) concentrations in crayfish (P = 0.01), macroinvertebrates (P = 0.089), and predatory macroinvertebrates (P = 0.039) were observed to be higher for fracked sites. A number of positive correlations between amount of well pads within a watershed and THg in crayfish (r = 0.76, P shale natural gas exploration is having an effect on aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: Devonian shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and examine potential public health and safety issues and the potential environmental impacts from recovery of natural gas from Devonian age shale. This document will serve as background data and information for planners within the government to assist in development of our new energy technologies in a timely and environmentally sound manner. This report describes the resource and the DOE eastern gas shales project in Section 2. Section 3 describes the new and developing recovery technologies associated with Devonian shale. An assessment of the environment, health and safety impacts associated with a typical fields is presented in Section 4. The typical field for this assessment occupies ten square miles and is developed on a 40-acre spacing (that is, there is a well in each 40-acre grid). This field thus has a total of 160 wells. Finally, Section 5 presents the conclusions and recommendations. A reference list is provided to give a greater plant. Based on the estimated plant cost and the various cases of operating income, an economic analysis was performed employing a profitability index criterion of discounted cash flow to determine an interest rate of return on the plant investment.

  11. Progress in China's Unconventional Oil & Gas Exploration and Development and Theoretical Technologies%中国非常规油气勘探开发与理论技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹才能; 王玉满; 王岚; 黄金亮; 王淑芳; 杨智; 朱如凯; 张国生; 侯连华; 吴松涛; 陶士振; 袁选俊; 董大忠

    2015-01-01

    The new century has witnessed a strategic breakthrough in unconventional oil & gas.Hydrocarbon accumulated in micro-/nano-scale pore throat shale systems has become an important domain that could replace current oil &gas resources.Unconventional oil & gas plays an increasingly important role in our energy mix.Tight gas,CBM,heavy oil and asphaltic sand have served as a key domain of exploration &development,with tight oil becoming a'bright spot'domain and shale gas becoming a'hotspot'domain. China has made great breakthroughs in unconventional oil & gas resources,such as tight gas,shale gas, tight oil and CBM,and great progress in oil shale,gas hydrate,heavy oil and oil sand.China has an estimated (223~263)×108 t of unconventional oil resources and (890~1260)×1012 m3 of gas resources. China has made a breakthrough for progress in unconventional oil &gas study.New progress achieved in fine-grained sedimentary studies related to continental open lacustrine basin large-scale shallow-water delta sand bodies,lacustrine basin central sandy clastic flow sediments and marine-continental fine-grained sediments provide a theoretical basis for the formation and distribution of basin central reservoir bodies. Great breakthroughs have been made in unconventional reservoir geology in respect of research methodology & technology,multi-scale data merging and physical simulation of formation conditions. Overall characterization of unconventional reservoirs via multi-method and multi-scale becomes increasingly popular and facilitates the rapid development of unconventional oil & gas geological theory,method and technology.The formation of innovative,continuous hydrocarbon accumulation theory,the establishment of the framework of the unconventional oil & gas geological theory system,and the determination of the implications, geological feature, formation mechanism, distribution rule and core technology of unconventional oil &gas geological study lays a theoretical foundation for

  12. Toward an Understanding of the Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development: A Categorical Assessment of the Peer-Reviewed Scientific Literature, 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Jake; Shonkoff, Seth B C

    2016-01-01

    The body of science evaluating the potential impacts of unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) has grown significantly in recent years, although many data gaps remain. Still, a broad empirical understanding of the impacts is beginning to emerge amidst a swell of research. The present categorical assessment provides an overview of the peer-reviewed scientific literature from 2009-2015 as it relates to the potential impacts of UNGD on public health, water quality, and air quality. We have categorized all available original research during this time period in an attempt to understand the weight and direction of the scientific literature. Our results indicate that at least 685 papers have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals that are relevant to assessing the impacts of UNGD. 84% of public health studies contain findings that indicate public health hazards, elevated risks, or adverse health outcomes; 69% of water quality studies contain findings that indicate potential, positive association, or actual incidence of water contamination; and 87% of air quality studies contain findings that indicate elevated air pollutant emissions and/or atmospheric concentrations. This paper demonstrates that the weight of the findings in the scientific literature indicates hazards and elevated risks to human health as well as possible adverse health outcomes associated with UNGD. There are limitations to this type of assessment and it is only intended to provide a snapshot of the scientific knowledge based on the available literature. However, this work can be used to identify themes that lie in or across studies, to prioritize future research, and to provide an empirical foundation for policy decisions.

  13. Unconventional Reservoirs: Ideas to Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    There is no shortage of coal, oil, and natural gas in the world. What are sometimes in short supply are fresh ideas. Scientific innovation combined with continued advances in drilling and completion technology revitalized the natural gas industry in North America by making production from shale economic. Similar advances are now happening in shale oil. The convergence of ideas and technology has created a commercial environment in which unconventional reservoirs could supply natural gas to the North American consumer for 50 years or more. And, although not as far along in terms of resource development, oil from the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales and the oil sands in Alberta could have a similar impact. Without advanced horizontal drilling, geosteering, staged hydraulic-fracture stimulation, synthetic and natural proppants, evolution of hydraulic fluid chemistry, and high-end monitoring and simulation, many of these plays would not exist. Yet drilling and completion technology cannot stand alone. Also required for success are creative thinking, favorable economics, and a tolerance for risk by operators. Current understanding and completion practices will leave upwards of 80% of oil and natural gas in the shale reservoirs. The opportunity to enhance recovery through advanced reservoir understanding and imaging, as well as through recompletions and infill drilling, is considerable. The path from ideas to commercialization will continue to provide economic results in unconventional reservoirs.

  14. Unconventional shale-gas systems: The Mississippian Barnett Shale of north-central Texas as one model for thermogenic shale-gas assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, D.M.; Hill, R.J.; Ruble, T.E.; Pollastro, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Shale-gas resource plays can be distinguished by gas type and system characteristics. The Newark East gas field, located in the Fort Worth Basin, Texas, is defined by thermogenic gas production from low-porosity and low-permeability Barnett Shale. The Barnett Shale gas system, a self-contained source-reservoir system, has generated large amounts of gas in the key productive areas because of various characteristics and processes, including (1) excellent original organic richness and generation potential; (2) primary and secondary cracking of kerogen and retained oil, respectively; (3) retention of oil for cracking to gas by adsorption; (4) porosity resulting from organic matter decomposition; and (5) brittle mineralogical composition. The calculated total gas in place (GIP) based on estimated ultimate recovery that is based on production profiles and operator estimates is about 204 bcf/section (5.78 ?? 109 m3/1.73 ?? 104 m3). We estimate that the Barnett Shale has a total generation potential of about 609 bbl of oil equivalent/ac-ft or the equivalent of 3657 mcf/ac-ft (84.0 m3/m3). Assuming a thickness of 350 ft (107 m) and only sufficient hydrogen for partial cracking of retained oil to gas, a total generation potential of 820 bcf/section is estimated. Of this potential, approximately 60% was expelled, and the balance was retained for secondary cracking of oil to gas, if sufficient thermal maturity was reached. Gas storage capacity of the Barnett Shale at typical reservoir pressure, volume, and temperature conditions and 6% porosity shows a maximum storage capacity of 540 mcf/ac-ft or 159 scf/ton. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of radium-226 in high salinity wastewater from unconventional gas extraction by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tieyuan; Bain, Daniel; Hammack, Richard; Vidic, Radisav D

    2015-03-01

    Elevated concentration of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in wastewater generated from Marcellus Shale gas extraction is of great concern due to potential environmental and public health impacts. Development of a rapid and robust method for analysis of Ra-226, which is the major NORM component in this water, is critical for the selection of appropriate management approaches to properly address regulatory and public concerns. Traditional methods for Ra-226 determination require long sample holding time or long detection time. A novel method combining Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) with solid-phase extraction (SPE) to separate and purify radium isotopes from the matrix elements in high salinity solutions is developed in this study. This method reduces analysis time while maintaining requisite precision and detection limit. Radium separation is accomplished using a combination of a strong-acid cation exchange resin to separate barium and radium from other ions in the solution and a strontium-specific resin to isolate radium from barium and obtain a sample suitable for analysis by ICP-MS. Method optimization achieved high radium recovery (101 ± 6% for standard mode and 97 ± 7% for collision mode) for synthetic Marcellus Shale wastewater (MSW) samples with total dissolved solids as high as 171,000 mg/L. Ra-226 concentration in actual MSW samples with TDS as high as 415,000 mg/L measured using ICP-MS matched very well with the results from gamma spectrometry. The Ra-226 analysis method developed in this study requires several hours for sample preparation and several minutes for analysis with the detection limit of 100 pCi/L with RSD of 45% (standard mode) and 67% (collision mode). The RSD decreased to below 15% when Ra-226 concentration increased over 500 pCi/L.

  16. Gas Hydrates Research Programs: An International Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2009-12-09

    Gas hydrates sediments have the potential of providing a huge amount of natural gas for human use. Hydrate sediments have been found in many different regions where the required temperature and pressure conditions have been satisfied. Resource exploitation is related to the safe dissociation of the gas hydrate sediments. Basic depressurization techniques and thermal stimulation processes have been tried in pilot efforts to exploit the resource. There is a growing interest in gas hydrates all over the world due to the inevitable decline of oil and gas reserves. Many different countries are interested in this valuable resource. Unsurprisingly, developed countries with limited energy resources have taken the lead in worldwide gas hydrates research and exploration. The goal of this research project is to collect information in order to record and evaluate the relative strengths and goals of the different gas hydrates programs throughout the world. A thorough literature search about gas hydrates research activities has been conducted. The main participants in the research effort have been identified and summaries of their past and present activities reported. An evaluation section discussing present and future research activities has also been included.

  17. Gas sensor with multiple internal reference electrodes and sensing electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a potentiometric gas sensor, or potentiometric gas detection element, with multiple internal reference electrodes and multiple sensing electrodes for determining the concentrations of gas components in a gaseous mixture. The sensor for gas detection comprises: a solid...... electrolyte, at least two sensing electrodes (SEs) in solid contact with the electrolyte, and at least two internal reference electrodes (IREs) in solid contact with the electrolyte, wherein each IRE comprises a composite material, comprising a binary mixture of a metal and a metal oxide dispersed to form...

  18. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Christopher; Babbitt, Guy

    2016-12-27

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a method is featured which includes placing a first cylinder of an internal combustion engine in a compressor mode, and compressing a gas within the first cylinder, using the cylinder as a reciprocating compressor. In some embodiments a compression check valve system is used to regulate pressure and flow within cylinders of the engine during a compression process.

  19. Internal Combustion Engine Powered by Synthesis Gas from Pyrolysed Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chríbik Andrej

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the application of synthesis gas from pyrolysis of plastics in petrol engine. The appropriate experimental measurements were performed on a combustion engine LGW 702 designated for micro-cogeneration unit. The power parameters, economic parameters in term of brake specific fuel consumption, and internal parameters of the engine were compared to the engine running on the reference fuel - natural gas and synthesis gas. Burning synthesis gas leads to decreased performance by about 5% and to increased mass hourly consumption by 120 %. In terms of burning, synthesis gas has similar properties as natural gas. Compared with [5] a more detailed study has been prepared on the effects of angle of spark advance on the engine torque, giving more detailed assessment of engine cycle variability and considering specification of start and end of combustion in the logarithm p-V diagram.

  20. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Christopher L.; Babbitt, Guy; Turner, Christopher; Echter, Nick; Weyer-Geigel, Kristina

    2016-04-19

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a system for compressing a gas comprises a reciprocating internal combustion engine including at least one piston-cylinder assembly comprising a piston configured to travel in a cylinder and to compress gas in the cylinder in multiple compression stages. The system can further comprise a first pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the first pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure, and a second pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly and the first pressure tank. The second pressure tank can be configured to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the second pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure. When the first and second pressure tanks have reached the predetermined pressures, the first pressure tank can be configured to supply gas to the piston-cylinder assembly, and the piston can be configured to compress the gas supplied by the first pressure tank such that the compressed gas flows into the second pressure tank.

  1. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Christopher L.; Babbitt, Guy; Turner, Christopher; Echter, Nick; Weyer-Geigel, Kristina

    2016-04-19

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a system for compressing a gas comprises a reciprocating internal combustion engine including at least one piston-cylinder assembly comprising a piston configured to travel in a cylinder and to compress gas in the cylinder in multiple compression stages. The system can further comprise a first pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the first pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure, and a second pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly and the first pressure tank. The second pressure tank can be configured to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the second pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure. When the first and second pressure tanks have reached the predetermined pressures, the first pressure tank can be configured to supply gas to the piston-cylinder assembly, and the piston can be configured to compress the gas supplied by the first pressure tank such that the compressed gas flows into the second pressure tank.

  2. Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing spinning gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyko, V I; Fisch, N J

    2014-08-01

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A remarkable gain in fuel efficiency is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in efficiency.

  3. Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing spinning gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyko, V. I.; Fisch, N. J.

    2014-08-01

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A remarkable gain in fuel efficiency is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in efficiency.

  4. UNCONVENTIONAL MONETARY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIACONESCU DIANA RALUCA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Central banks in advanced economies have deployed a variety of unconventional policies during the crisis. It can be seen that the central banks have been mostly successful at achieving their objectives and that spillover to other countries have—thus far at least—been benign overall. Also it can be considered that using unconventional measures may be appropriate in some circumstances, but also they can have disadvantages and all the benefits for using such measures need to be balanced against potential costs. Prior to the crisis the monetary policy was implemented by central banks in a predictable and systematic way, and its transmission mechanism was understood by the economic agents. A transparent central bank reaction function (or broad rule guided market expectations of future interest rates. After the crisis appeared, the central banks from developed countries applied unconventional tools1 to address two important objectives: first one is to restore the proper functioning of financial markets and intermediation, and second one is to provide further monetary policy accommodation. Both these objectives need to support financial stability, including the diminishing big risks in acute phases of the crisis (collapse of the financial system, depression, and deflation. This paper reviews recent experience with these policies and considers issues related to their continued use in the future in the Romanian economy. It will be a tentative to explain how to avoid liquidity trap2 or get out of it – these also can be seen in the Romanian economy in the last few years.

  5. Unconventional colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Justin; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2014-12-15

    Butterflies and stomatopods are certainly outliers in their unconventional colour sense and despite some similarities at first glance, in fact sample the world of colour very differently. In one way, butterflies are relatively conventional, possessing either tri-or tetrachromatic colour vision, then just adding one or several task-specific sub-mechanisms onto this. It is the stomatopods so far that have really pushed the boat out into a different colour vision mechanism. Over 400 million years of independent evolution they have arrived at a solution with more in common with the way a satellite sensor examines the colours of the earth than other animals. Remember, however, that unconventional colour vision is not just the realm of the serially polychromatic. Apparently waterfleas with four classes of spectral receptors living in ponds operate a task-specific spectral sense with no need, or indeed neural processing power, to construct a complex discriminatory mechanism. It seems they have the butterfly added-extra set without the more complex comparative chromatic mechanisms, although in truth, conclusive behavioural proof is lacking. Behavioural observation of colour vision in the ecological context of each animal is vital before making the distinction between conventional and unconventional. Just counting spectral sensitivities is never enough.

  6. Unconventional Liquids, Peak Oil and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil is the largest source of primary energy in the world, at 32% of 2014 consumption. Forecasts by the International Energy Agency suggest oil will continue to provide the largest share of global energy through 2040, even with new policies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The IPCC's Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios indicate that between 1.5 and 3.8 trillion barrels of oil will be burnt between 2015 and 2100. Various sources suggest that the world has 5 to 6 trillion barrels of remaining recoverable oil, more than half of which are in low grade deposits. Although oil sands and extra heavy oil are claimed to hold 1.5 trillion barrels, assessments of major deposits in the Canadian oil sands and the Venezuela Orinoco Belt, which hold the bulk of these resources, total less than 500 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Kerogen oil (oil shale), which has never been produced in anything but miniscule volumes, comprises an additional trillion barrels of these estimates. These unconventional deposits are very different from the conventional oil of the past as: - they are rate constrained, as they require massive upfront capital investments and lengthy construction periods, and therefore cannot be scaled up quickly in response to declines in conventional production. - they are expensive, both in terms of cost per barrel and the large energy inputs required for production. The best in situ oil sands deposits may yield an energy return of 3:1 and kerogen oil even less if it ever becomes commercially viable. This compares to 10:1 or more for conventional oil. Shale oil (light tight oil), may yield another 300 billion barrels worldwide, but suffers from high decline rates, expensive wells and limited availability of high quality deposits. The most productive and economically viable portions of these unconventional deposits tend to be exploited first, leaving the less productive, higher cost oil for later. As a result, increasing global oil consumption

  7. Liability rules for international trading of greenhouse gas emissions quotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haites, E.; Missfeldt, F.

    2001-01-01

    To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under these circu......To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under...... these circumstances emissions trading enables a country to benefit financially through non-compliance. To counter non-compliance due to trading a range of liability proposals have been suggested. Using a simple global model, we analyze the economic and environmental performance of these proposals for the first...

  8. The impact of international greenhouse gas emissions reduction on Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Susandi, A.

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation represents a summary of three papers addressing impacts of climate policy on Indonesia. The extended version of MERGE (Model for Evaluating the Regional and Global Effects of Greenhouse Gas Reduction Policies) has been used to project Indonesian’s energy production, consumption and export to the year 2100, for a reference scenario and mitigation scenarios. In addition to the international trade of energy, coal has been included in this version. The study also analyzes the in...

  9. The impact of international greenhouse gas emissions reduction on Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Susandi, Armi

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation represents a summary of three papers addressing impacts of climate policy on Indonesia. The extended version of MERGE (Model for Evaluating the Regional and Global Effects of Greenhouse Gas Reduction Policies) has been used to project Indonesian’s energy production, consumption and export to the year 2100, for a reference scenario and mitigation scenarios. In addition to the international trade of energy, coal has been included in this version. The study al...

  10. Conventional and unconventional superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M.

    2012-02-01

    Superconductivity has been one of the most fruitful areas of research in condensed matter physics, bringing together researchers with distinct interests in a collaborative effort to understand from its microscopic basis to its potential for unprecedented technological applications. The concepts, techniques, and methods developed along its centennial history have gone beyond the realm of condensed matter physics and influenced the development of other fascinating areas, such as particle physics and atomic physics. These notes, based on a set of lectures given at the 2011 Advanced Summer School of Cinvestav, aim to motivate the young undergraduate student in getting involved in the exciting world of conventional and unconventional superconductors.

  11. Soot filter for the exhaust gas of internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abthoff, J.; Schuster, H.D.; Langer, H.J.

    1980-06-19

    In the previously known soot filters, the exhaust gas flows through the cylindrical filter radially from the outside to the inside. The exhaust gas touches a relatively large area of the filter housing and therefore loses a large part of the thermal energy required for post-combustion. According to the invention, these disadvantages are avoided in the new filter, where the filter material forms hollow spaces at the internal wall of the filter, which take the exhaust gas after it has flowed through the filter and carry it in an axial direction of the filter housing to the exhaust. Due to this design of the filter and the saving in heat, the areas on which the exhaust gas impinges can be kept appreciably smaller and better use can be made of the heat in the exhaust gas. The ceramic filter material can consist of an outer layer of loose ceramic fibres and an inner woven ceramic fibre mat. In order to increase the effectiveness of the filter, the soot filter can be used as a fine filter after a coarse filter.

  12. Unconventional Specimen Preparation Techniques Using High Resolution Low Voltage Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy to Study Cell Motility, Host Cell Invasion, and Internal Cell Structures in Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Heide; Ris, Hans

    2002-04-01

    Apicomplexan parasites employ complex and unconventional mechanisms for cell locomotion, host cell invasion, and cell division that are only poorly understood. While immunofluorescence and conventional transmission electron microscopy have been used to answer questions about the localization of some cytoskeletal proteins and cell organelles, many questions remain unanswered, partly because new methods are needed to study the complex interactions of cytoskeletal proteins and organelles that play a role in cell locomotion, host cell invasion, and cell division. The choice of fixation and preparation methods has proven critical for the analysis of cytoskeletal proteins because of the rapid turnover of actin filaments and the dense spatial organization of the cytoskeleton and its association with the complex membrane system. Here we introduce new methods to study structural aspects of cytoskeletal motility, host cell invasion, and cell division of Toxoplasma gondii, a most suitable laboratory model that is representative of apicomplexan parasites. The novel approach in our experiments is the use of high resolution low voltage field emission scanning electron microscopy (LVFESEM) combined with two new specimen preparation techniques. The first method uses LVFESEM after membrane extraction and stabilization of the cytoskeleton. This method allows viewing of actin filaments which had not been possible with any other method available so far. The second approach of imaging the parasite's ultrastructure and interactions with host cells uses semithick sections (200 nm) that are resin de-embedded (Ris and Malecki, 1993) and imaged with LVFESEM. This method allows analysis of structural detail in the parasite before and after host cell invasion and interactions with the membrane of the parasitophorous vacuole as well as parasite cell division.

  13. Advances in unconventional computing

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The unconventional computing is a niche for interdisciplinary science, cross-bred of computer science, physics, mathematics, chemistry, electronic engineering, biology, material science and nanotechnology. The aims of this book are to uncover and exploit principles and mechanisms of information processing in and functional properties of physical, chemical and living systems to develop efficient algorithms, design optimal architectures and manufacture working prototypes of future and emergent computing devices. This first volume presents theoretical foundations of the future and emergent computing paradigms and architectures. The topics covered are computability, (non-)universality and complexity of computation; physics of computation, analog and quantum computing; reversible and asynchronous devices; cellular automata and other mathematical machines; P-systems and cellular computing; infinity and spatial computation; chemical and reservoir computing. The book is the encyclopedia, the first ever complete autho...

  14. Unconventional protein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Wang, Juan; Wang, Junqi; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Robinson, David G; Jiang, Liwen

    2012-10-01

    It is generally believed that protein secretion or exocytosis is achieved via a conventional ER (endoplasmic reticulum)-Golgi-TGN (trans-Golgi network)-PM (plasma membrane) pathway in the plant endomembrane system. However, such signal peptide (SP)-dependent protein secretion cannot explain the increasing number of SP-lacking proteins which are found outside of the PM in plant cells. The process by which such leaderless secretory proteins (LSPs) gain access to the cell exterior is termed unconventional protein secretion (UPS) and has been well-studied in animal and yeast cells, but largely ignored by the plant community. Here, we review the evidence for UPS in plants especially in regard to the recently discovered EXPO (exocyst-positive-organelle).

  15. Internal hysteresis experienced on a high pressure syn gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, F. Y.

    1984-01-01

    A vibration instability phenomenon experienced in operating high pressure syn gas centrifugal compressors in two ammonia plants is described. The compressors were monitored by orbit and spectrum analysis for changes from baseline readings. It is found that internal hysteresis was the major destabilizing force; however, the problem was further complicated by seal lockup at the suction end of the compressor. A coupling lockup problem and a coupling fit problem, which frettage of the shaft, are also considered as contributors to the self excited vibrations.

  16. International oil and gas exploration and development activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-29

    This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. International Seminar on Gasification 2009 - Biomass Gasification, Gas Clean-up and Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-15

    During the seminar international and national experts gave presentations concerning Biomass gasification, Gas cleaning and gas treatment; and Strategy and policy issues. The presentations give an overview of the current status and what to be expected in terms of development, industrial interest and commercialization of different biomass gasification routes. The following PPT presentations are reproduced in the report: Black Liquor Gasification (Chemrec AB.); Gasification and Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Synfuels and 2nd Generation Biofuels (Lurgi GmbH); Commercial Scale BtL Production on the Verge of Becoming Reality (Choren Industries GmbH.); Up-draft Biomass Gasification (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S); Heterogeneous Biomass Residues and the Catalytic Synthesis of Alcohols (Enerkem); Status of the GoBiGas-project (Goeteborg Energi AB.); On-going Gasification Activities in Spain (University of Zaragoza,); Biomass Gasification Research in Italy (University of Perugia.); RDandD Needs and Recommendations for the Commercialization of High-efficient Bio-SNG (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.); Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification (Vienna University of Technology); Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Tar Cracking Process Development (Research Triangle Institute); Syngas Cleaning with Catalytic Tar Reforming (Franhofer UMSICHT); Biomass Gas Cleaning and Utilization - The Topsoee Perspective (Haldor Topsoee A/S); OLGA Tar Removal Technology (Dahlman); Bio-SNG - Strategy and Activities within E.ON (E.ON Ruhrgas AG); Strategy and Gasification Activities within Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency); 20 TWh/year Biomethane (Swedish Gas Association)

  18. Internal gas target system for the DarkLight experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friscic, Ivica

    2017-01-01

    The DarkLight experiment at Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab) will perform a search for a dark photon in the mass range from 10 to 100 MeV/c2. The experimental design requires very high luminosity, but at the same time must keep the background rate as low as possible. Therefore, the experiment will use the 100 MeV electron beam from JLab's Low Energy Recirculator Facility (LERF) and a windowless gas target. In the summer of 2016 we deployed Phase 1A of this experiment, including a thin-walled, windowless target, using narrow apertures to restrict the flow of gas and aggressive pumping systems to reduce the pressure outside of the target region. Here we present the current design of the DarkLight internal gas target system, its performance during the 2016 summer beam tests, and future prospects. This work is supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-94ER40818 and NSF grant PHY-1437402.

  19. The Combination of Internal-Combustion Engine and Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, K.

    1947-01-01

    While the gas turbine by itself has been applied in particular cases for power generation and is in a state of promising development in this field, it has already met with considerable success in two cases when used as an exhaust turbine in connection with a centrifugal compressor, namely, in the supercharging of combustion engines and in the Velox process, which is of particular application for furnaces. In the present paper the most important possibilities of combining a combustion engine with a gas turbine are considered. These "combination engines " are compared with the simple gas turbine on whose state of development a brief review will first be given. The critical evaluation of the possibilities of development and fields of application of the various combustion engine systems, wherever it is not clearly expressed in the publications referred to, represents the opinion of the author. The state of development of the internal-combustion engine is in its main features generally known. It is used predominantly at the present time for the propulsion of aircraft and road vehicles and, except for certain restrictions due to war conditions, has been used to an increasing extent in ships and rail cars and in some fields applied as stationary power generators. In the Diesel engine a most economical heat engine with a useful efficiency of about 40 percent exists and in the Otto aircraft engine a heat engine of greatest power per unit weight of about 0.5 kilogram per horsepower.

  20. Aspects of unconventional density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kazumi; Dóra, Balázs; Virosztek, Attila

    2003-12-01

    Recently many people discuss unconventional density waves (i.e. unconventional charge density waves (UCDW) and unconventional spin density waves (USDW)). Unlike in conventional density waves, the quasiparticle spectrum in these systems is gapless. Also these systems remain metallic. Indeed it appears that there are many candidates for UDW. The low temperature phase of α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4, the antiferromagnetic phase in URu2Si2, the CDW in transition metal dichalcogenite NbSe2, the pseudogap phase in high Tc cuprate superconductors, the glassy phase in organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br. After a brief introduction on UCDW and USDW, we shall discuss some of the above systems, where we believe we have evidence for unconventional density waves.

  1. Shake gas. Basic information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    The ongoing improvement of production technologies has enabled access to unconventional gas resources present in source rocks. Whether Poland is going to see a gas revolution depends chiefly on the geological conditions. At this point it is difficult to estimate the actual size of Poland's shale gas resources and commercialization of shale gas production. First results will be known in the next four or five years, when operators complete the work under exploration and appraisal licences granted to them by the Ministry of the Environment. Polish government is offering licences on exceptionally favourable terms as an incentive for research on unconventional gas resources. Such an approach is driven by the strategic objective of ending Poland's reliance on foreign sources of natural gas in the future. Shale gas will not change Poland's and the region's energy landscape instantaneously. As in the case of all commodity and energy revolutions, changes occur slowly, but shale gas development offers huge opportunities for a permanent shift in the Polish and European energy sectors. Poland stands a chance of becoming fully independent on natural gas imports, and Polish companies - a chance of improving their international standing.

  2. Unconventional Theories and Strategies for Fracturing Treatments of Shale Gas Strata%页岩储层压裂改造的非常规理论与技术构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢和平; 高峰; 鞠杨; 傅强; 周福宝

    2012-01-01

    近十多年来美国页岩气的成功大规模开发,在世界范围内掀起了一场“新能源革命”。中国页岩气资源丰富,储量位居世界第一。但是中国页岩储层埋深大,成藏条件复杂,构造运动剧烈,页岩板块零碎,特别是西北华北等页岩气储量丰富的地区严重缺乏水资源,页岩储层后期改造困难,页岩气开发的难度和复杂程度都超过美国。为此提出了非常规页岩气开发理论与技术构想,通过分形重构实现页岩中油气储运的精细描述,利用高能热力耦合气体使页岩脆化并产生高度体破裂,在此基础上提出了页岩储层压裂改造的气动脆裂技术和高分子中空热胀支撑剂技术,以上理论与技术构想将为中国页岩气开发特别是贫水缺水地区的页岩气开发探索新途径。%In recent years, the U.S. has successfully launched an extensive exploitation of shale gas, revolutionizing a new energy in- dustry in the world. China is abundant of shale gas with the largest reserves in the world. However, China' s shale gas reservoirs are deeply buried featuring complicated forming environment, violent tectonic movement and fragmentary plates. Especially, the northwest and north China regions, i.e. the shale-gas-rich areas, severely lack water supply, where implementing reservoir stimulation is ex- tremely intractable and, consequently, recovering shale gas is much more difficult and complicated than recovering in the U. S. To treat the challenges, a few innovative theories and strategies for unconventional shale gas exploitation were proposed. The fractal reconstruc- tion theory was established to accurately describe the storage and transportation of the resources in shale rock. The high energy thermal- mechanical coupled air fracturing technology was proposed to embrittle shale rock producing a rich fracture of rock body. Upon these, the technology so-called air-driving fracturing and the

  3. Modelling internal air systems in gas turbine engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J Michael Owen

    2007-01-01

    Rotating-disc systems can be used to model,experimentally and computationally,the flow and heat transfer that occur inside the internal cooling-air systems of gas turbine engines.These rotating-disc systems have been used successfully to simplify and understand some of the complex flows that occur in internal-air systems,and designers have used this insight to improve the cooling effectiveness,thereby increasing the engine efficiency and reducing the emissions.In this review paper,three important cases are considered:hot-gas ingress;the pre-swirl system;and buoyancy-induced flow.Ingress,or ingestion,occurs when hot gas from the mainstream gas path is ingested into the wheel-space between the turbine disc and its adjacent casing.Rim seals are fitted at the periphery of the system,and sealing flow is used to reduce or prevent ingress.However,too much sealing air reduces the engine efficiency,and too little can cause serious overheating,resulting in damage to the turbine rim and blade roots.Although the flow is three-dimensional and unsteady,there are encouraging signs that simple 'orifice models' could be used to estimate the amount of ingress into the wheel-space.In a pre-swirl system,the cooling air for the gas-turbine blades is swirled by stationary nozzles,and the air is delivered to the blades via receiver holes in the rotating turbine disc.Swirling the air reduces its temperature relative to the rotating blades,and the designer needs to calculate the air temperature and pressure drop in the system.The designer also needs to calculate the effect of this swirling flow on the heat transfer from the turbine disc to the air,as this has a significant effect on the temperature distribution and stresses in the disc.Recent experimental and computational studies have given a better understanding of the flow and heat transfer in these systems.Buoyancy-induced flow occurs in the cavity between two co-rotating compressor discs when the temperature of the discs is higher

  4. Recent Operational Experience with the Internal Thermal Control System Dual-Membrane Gas Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Lukens, Clark; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2004-01-01

    A dual-membrane gas trap is currently used to remove gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station. The gas trap consists of concentric tube membrane pairs, comprised of outer hydrophilic tubes and inner hydrophobic fibers. Liquid coolant passes through the outer hydrophilic membrane, which traps the gas bubbles. The inner hydrophobic fiber allows the trapped gas bubbles to pass through and vent to the ambient atmosphere in the cabin. The gas removal performance and operational lifetime of the gas trap have been affected by contamination in the ITCS coolant. However, the gas trap has performed flawlessly with regard to its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. This paper discusses on-orbit events over the course of the last year related to the performance and functioning of the gas trap.

  5. Unconventional microfluidics: expanding the discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Mao, Xiaole; Stratton, Zackary S; Huang, Tony Jun

    2013-04-21

    Since its inception, the discipline of microfluidics has been harnessed for innovations in the biomedicine/chemistry fields-and to great effect. This success has had the natural side-effect of stereotyping microfluidics as a platform for medical diagnostics and miniaturized lab processes. But microfluidics has more to offer. And very recently, some researchers have successfully applied microfluidics to fields outside its traditional domains. In this Focus article, we highlight notable examples of such "unconventional" microfluidics applications (e.g., robotics, electronics). It is our hope that these early successes in unconventional microfluidics prompt further creativity, and inspire readers to expand the microfluidics discipline.

  6. Theory of disordered unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keles, A.; Andreev, A. V.; Spivak, B. Z., E-mail: spivak@uw.edu [University of Washington, Department of Physics (United States); Kivelson, S. A. [Stanford University, Department of Physics (United States)

    2014-12-15

    In contrast to conventional s-wave superconductivity, unconventional (e.g., p- or d-wave) superconductivity is strongly suppressed even by relatively weak disorder. Upon approaching the superconductormetal transition, the order parameter amplitude becomes increasingly inhomogeneous, leading to effective granularity and a phase ordering transition described by the Mattis model of spin glasses. One consequence of this is that at sufficiently low temperatures, between the clean unconventional superconducting and the diffusive metallic phases, there is necessarily an intermediate superconducting phase that exhibits s-wave symmetry on macroscopic scales.

  7. Photoreceptors: unconventional ways of seeing

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, Naryttza N.; Sprecher, Simon G.

    2011-01-01

    Animals perceive light typically by photoreceptor neurons assembled in eyes, but some also use non-eye photosensory neurons. Multidendritic neurons in the body wall of Drosophila larvae have now been shown to use an unconventional phototransduction mechanism to sense light.

  8. Unconventional, High-Efficiency Propulsors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul

    1996-01-01

    The development of ship propellers has generally been characterized by search for propellers with as high efficiency as possible and at the same time low noise and vibration levels and little or no cavitation. This search has lead to unconventional propulsors, like vane-wheel propulsors, contra-r...

  9. Effect of internal gas pressure on the shock consolidation of 304 stainless steel powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, N.E.; Staudhammer, K.P.

    1990-01-01

    Capsules of 304 SS powders having a pre-compacted density of 67% were shock consolidated at peak pressures of 100 GPa. Initial internal N{sub 2} gas pressures from 7 {times} 10 {sup {minus}4} Pa to 0.1 Gpa were employed. However, as the internal N{sub 2} gas pressure in the powders was increased, the quality of the compacted density decreased. While it is intuitive that high internal gas pressures in porous materials do not enhance their consolidation, a greater understanding of the consolidation process and the part entrapped (intentional or unintentional) gas plays is elucidated. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Types, characteristics, genesis and prospects of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon accumulations:taking tight oil and tight gas in China as an instance%常规与非常规油气聚集类型、特征、机理及展望——以中国致密油和致密气为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹才能; 李登华; 白斌; 王岚; 朱如凯; 吴松涛; 杨智; 陶士振; 袁选俊; 侯连华; 杨华; 徐春春

    2012-01-01

    油气勘探开发领域从常规油气向非常规油气跨越,是石油工业发展的必然趋势,二者在油气类型、地质特征及聚集机理等方面明显不同.常规油气研究的灵魂是成藏,目标是回答圈闭是否有油气;非常规油气研究的灵魂是储层,目标是回答储集有多少油气.非常规油气主要表现在连续分布、无自然工业产量.目前,常规油气面临非常规的问题,非常规需要发展成新的“常规”.伴随技术的进步,非常规可向常规转化.常规油气聚集包括构造油气藏、岩性-地层油气藏,油气以孤立的单体式或较大范围的集群式展布,圈闭界限明显,储集体发育毫米级—微米级孔喉系统,浮力成藏.非常规油气聚集包括致密砂岩油和气、致密碳酸盐岩油和气、页岩油和气等,一般源储共生,大面积连续或准连续分布于盆地斜坡或中心,圈闭界限不明显,页岩系统储集体广泛发育纳米级孔喉,浮力作用受限,油气以原位滞留或短距离运移为主.以中国重点盆地致密油和致密气为例,系统分析了其地质特征与勘探潜力.非常规油气储集空间主体为纳米级孔喉系统,局部发育微米—毫米级孔隙,其中页岩气储层孔径为5~200 nm,致密灰岩油储层孔径为40~500 nm,致密砂岩油储层孔径为50~900 nm,致密砂岩气储层孔径为40~700 nm.针对全球石油工业和纳米等技术的快速发展,提出了“纳米油气”的概念,指出“纳米油气”是未来石油工业的发展方向,需要发展纳米油气透视观测镜、纳米油气驱替剂、纳米油气开采机器人等换代技术,油气智能化时代将随之到来.%It is an inevitable trend for oil and gas industry to transform exploration & development domain from conventional hydrocarbon accumulations to unconventional hydrocarbon ones. Which are obviously different in types, geological features and genesis. Conventional petroleum focuses on

  11. A review on hydraulic fracturing of unconventional reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanshu Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is widely accepted and applied to improve the gas recovery in unconventional reservoirs. Unconventional reservoirs to be addressed here are with very low permeability, complicated geological settings and in-situ stress field etc. All of these make the hydraulic fracturing process a challenging task. In order to effectively and economically recover gas from such reservoirs, the initiation and propagation of hydraulic fracturing in the heterogeneous fractured/porous media under such complicated conditions should be mastered. In this paper, some issues related to hydraulic fracturing have been reviewed, including the experimental study, field study and numerical simulation. Finally the existing problems that need to be solved on the subject of hydraulic fracturing have been proposed.

  12. Case Study - internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines; Estudo de caso - corrosao interna em dutos transportadores de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, A.C.V. da; Barbosa, A.F.F.; Silva, D.R. da [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Corrosao]. E-mail: anacecilia@eol.com.br; andreafranciscab@yahoo.com; djalma@ccet.ufrn.br; Pimenta, G.S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Peixoto, D.G. [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal/Fortaleza, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios

    2003-07-01

    One of the aspects what more characterize the gas natural is the possibility of your state physical can be adapted the conditions of transport , since the zone where is producing until the region where it is consumer (distant only one from another), you can stand out this three principal alternatives: gas pipelines; in the form of liquefied, in cryogenic ships; in the form of derive compounds that can be liquids or solid. For susceptibilities to the corrosion of the carbons steels used in the equipment and natural gas pipelines of the production reservoirs until the denominated city gates, it makes be necessary to identify the acting corrosive agents and monitoring them along time, because, the failures for internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines can carry serious environmental problems, damages to the image of the distributors companies and prejudices related to operational continuity. Some aspects of the processing of the natural gas are argued, as well as your effect regarding the internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines. To leave of this analysis, it tries establishing a monitoring and controlling methodology of the internal corrosion in field for natural gas pipelines. For chemical characterization of the samples of the black powder were used analyses for Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, X-Ray Fluorescence. (author)

  13. Airpower Support to Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    supplies to isolated mountain outposts (Trest 2000, 109). The Helio Couriers operated out of small dirt strips, referred to as lima sites, usually... rosa : The O.S.S. and American espionage. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock. AF Special Operations Command white paper. 2007. USAF irregular warfare...Symposium on the role of airpower in counterinsurgency and unconventional warfare: A brief summary of viewpoints. Santa Monica, CA: The RAND

  14. TRUCE: A Coordination Action for Unconventional Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amos, M.; Stepney, S.; Doursat, R.;

    2012-01-01

    Unconventional computation (UCOMP) is an important and emerging area of scientific research, which explores new ways of computing that go beyond the traditional model, as well as quantum- and brain inspired computing. Such alternatives may encompass novel substrates (e.g., DNA, living cells...... quickly, and has the potential to revolutionize not only our fundamental understanding of the nature of computing, but the way in which we solve problems, design networks, do industrial fabrication, make drugs or construct buildings. The problems we already face in the 21 st century will require new...... and creative approaches, conceptual frameworks, mechanisms and perspectives. UCOMP offers one route towards this. TRUCE is a coordination action to help organize the international UCOMP community. The inherent diversity of the field has led to fragmentation, with many sub-fields developing in parallel...

  15. The Unconventional Revolution in Exploration Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    During the last 25 years, 3D seismic imaging has revolutionized hydrocarbon exploration by delivering an accurate 3 dimensional picture of the subsurface. The image is capable of detecting fluids within the reservoir, and has significantly reduced the risk of locating and developing hydrocarbon deposits. In late 1990s, deregulation of natural gas prices allowed long recognized deposits of natural gas locked in tight rocks be economic. It sparked factory drilling (repeatable high density evenly spaced) wells and hydraulic fracturing that would help unlock the reservoirs. All that was needed was a geologist to determine depths and limits of the reservoir and engineers to drill and complete the wells. If 3D seismic data was available, it might have been used to define both the limits of the field and drilling hazards. Generally the cost and time required to process and interpret 3D Seismic was considered too high to affect the perceived geologic risk of the Factory approach. Completion costs in unconventional reservoirs account for over 50% of the well costs. It's therefore critical to understand the geometry of how the rock is fracturing and determine optimum well spacing to balance the cost of development with the value of the gas or oil being produced. By extending AVO to the pre-stack domain, it's possible to simultaneously invert for Vp, Vs and density. Armed with these three fundamental rock properties that dictate elastic and inelastic rock response, researchers were able to combine those properties to tie directly to how well a rock will respond to hydraulic fracturing, or which rocks contain a higher TOC, or other rock properties that control how a rock responds to seismic waves or hydraulic fracturing. Combining these results allows interpreters to map areas of higher productivity, and identify bypassed reserves. Currently hundreds of different seismic attributes that are generated from 3D seismic data are used to identify the highest productive areas and

  16. Unconventional Pathways of Secretion Contribute to Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael J. D.; Brough, David

    2017-01-01

    In the conventional pathway of protein secretion, leader sequence-containing proteins leave the cell following processing through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi body. However, leaderless proteins also enter the extracellular space through mechanisms collectively known as unconventional secretion. Unconventionally secreted proteins often have vital roles in cell and organism function such as inflammation. Amongst the best-studied inflammatory unconventionally secreted proteins are interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1α, IL-33 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). In this review we discuss the current understanding of the unconventional secretion of these proteins and highlight future areas of research such as the role of nuclear localisation. PMID:28067797

  17. Unconventional aqueous humor outflow: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; McLaren, Jay W; Overby, Darryl R

    2017-05-01

    Aqueous humor flows out of the eye primarily through the conventional outflow pathway that includes the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal. However, a fraction of aqueous humor passes through an alternative or 'unconventional' route that includes the ciliary muscle, supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. From there, unconventional outflow may drain through two pathways: a uveoscleral pathway where aqueous drains across the sclera to be resorbed by orbital vessels, and a uveovortex pathway where aqueous humor enters the choroid to drain through the vortex veins. We review the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of these pathways. We also discuss methods to determine unconventional outflow rate, including direct techniques that use radioactive or fluorescent tracers recovered from tissues in the unconventional pathway and indirect methods that estimate unconventional outflow based on total outflow over a range of pressures. Indirect methods are subject to a number of assumptions and generally give poor agreement with tracer measurements. We review the variety of animal models that have been used to study conventional and unconventional outflow. The mouse appears to be a promising model because it captures several aspects of conventional and unconventional outflow dynamics common to humans, although questions remain regarding the magnitude of unconventional outflow in mice. Finally, we review future directions. There is a clear need to develop improved methods for measuring unconventional outflow in both animals and humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Unconventional screening approaches for antibiotic discovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farha, Maya A; Brown, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, a paucity of new antibacterial drugs in discovery and development pipelines using traditional approaches has prompted a variety of unconventional and disruptive strategies for antibacterial drug discovery...

  19. Internal gas and liquid distributor for electrodeionization device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, YuPo J.; Snyder, Seth W.; Henry, Michael P.; Datta, Saurav

    2016-05-17

    The present invention provides a resin-wafer electrodeionization (RW-EDI) apparatus including cathode and anode electrodes separated by a plurality of porous solid ion exchange resin wafers, which when in use are filled with an aqueous fluid. The apparatus includes one or more wafers comprising a basic ion exchange medium, and preferably includes one or more wafers comprising an acidic ion exchange medium. The wafers are separated from one another by ion exchange membranes. The gas and aqueous fluid are introduced into each basic wafer via a porous gas distributor which disperses the gas as micro-sized bubbles laterally throughout the distributor before entering the wafer. The fluid within the acidic and/or basic ion exchange wafers preferably includes, or is in contact with, a carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme or inorganic catalyst to facilitate conversion of bicarbonate ion to carbon dioxide within the acidic medium.

  20. ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE REACTOR SYSTEM - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ELI Eco Logic International Inc. (Eco Logic) process thermally separates organics, then chemically reduces them in a hydrogen atmosphere, converting them to a reformed gas that consists of light hydrocarbons and water. A scrubber treats the reformed gas to remove hydrogen chl...

  1. A moving-bed gasifier with internal recycle of pyrolysis gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, H.; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1996-01-01

    A co-current moving bed gasifier with internal recycle and separate combustion of pyrolysis gas has been developed with the aim of producing a design suitable for scaling-up downdraft gasifiers while maintaining a low tar content in the producer gas. Using wood chips with a moisture content of 7-9 w

  2. Internal coating of air cooled gas turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, P. L.

    1979-01-01

    Six coating systems were evaluated for internal coating of decent stage (DS) eutectic high pressure turbine blades. Sequential deposition of electroless Ni by the hydrazine process, slurry Cr, and slurry Al, followed by heat treatment provided the coating composition and thickness for internal coating of DS eutectic turbine blades. Both NiCr and NiCrAl coating compositions were evaluated for strain capability and ductile to brittle transition temperature.

  3. JETSET: Physics at LEAR with an Internal Gas Jet Target and an Advanced General Purpose Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment involves an internal gas cluster jet target surrounded by a compact general-purpose detector. The LEAR beam and internal jet target provide several important experimental features: high luminosity $ ( 10 ^{3} ^0 $ cm$^- ^{2} $ sec$^- ^{1} ) $, excellent mass resolution ($\\Delta

  4. Gas reactor international cooperative program. HTR-synfuel application assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This study assesses the technical, environmental and economic factors affecting the application of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor (HTR) to: synthetic fuel production; and displacement of fossil fuels in other industrial and chemical processes. Synthetic fuel application considered include coal gasification, direct coal liquefaction, oil shale processing, and the upgrading of syncrude to motor fuel. A wide range of other industrial heat applications was also considered, with emphasis on the use of the closed-loop thermochemical energy pipeline to supply heat to dispersed industrial users. In this application syngas (H/sub 2/ +CO/sub 2/) is produced at the central station HTR by steam reforming and the gas is piped to individual methanators where typically 1000/sup 0/F steam is generated at the industrial user sites. The products of methanation (CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/O) are piped back to the reformer at the central station HTR.

  5. International working group on gas-cooled reactors. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-15

    The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on safety and licensing aspects for gas-cooled reactors in order to provide comprehensive review of the present status and of directions for future applications and development. Contributions were made concerning the operating experience of the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) HTGR Power Plant in the United States of America, the experimental power station Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) in the Federal Republic of Germany, and the CO/sub 2/-cooled reactors in the United Kingdom such as Hunterson B and Hinkley Point B. The experience gained at each of these reactors has proved the high safety potential of Gas-cooled Reactor Power Plants.

  6. Comparison of an Internal Combustion Engine Derating Operated on Producer Gas from Coal and Biomass Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ade Andriansyah Efendi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is an effective and clean way to convert coal and biomass into useful fuels and chemical feedstocks. Producer gas utilization for internal combustion engine has been studied, not only from biomass gasification but also from coal gasification. This paper compares the research that has done author using coal gasification with other research results using biomass gasification. Coal gasifier performance test conducted with capacity of 20 kg/h coal. The proximate and ultimate analysis of raw coal, ash product and producer gas was conducted and comparised. The result of analysis shows that the efficiency of the coal gasification was 61% while range of gasifier efficiency for biomass is between 50-80%. Meanwhile, the experimental results on the performance of internal combustion engines using gas producer shows that the derating for power generation using coal producer gas was 46% and biomass was 20-50% depend on compression ratio of engine and characteristic of producer gas

  7. The 8th ICGG International Conference on Gas Geochemistry Preface: Fluids and tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Italiano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The 8th International Conference on Gas Geochemistry provided the opportunity for scientists from different countries to meet each other, exchange ideas on the state of the art in gas geochemistry, and discuss advance in fluid geochemistry. The 8th ICGG meeting focused on three main geologic environments currently interacting with the human life: volcanoes, earthquakes and hydrocarbons. Ninety-four presentations gave participants chance to cover a variety of important research topics on gas geochemistry in geosciences including: gas migration in terrestrial and marine environments, Earth degassing and its relation to seismicity, volcanic eruptions, rare gases and application of isotope techniques, measurement and analytical techniques.

  8. Electronic transport in unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, M.J.

    1998-12-31

    The author investigates the electron transport coefficients in unconventional superconductors at low temperatures, where charge and heat transport are dominated by electron scattering from random lattice defects. He discusses the features of the pairing symmetry, Fermi surface, and excitation spectrum which are reflected in the low temperature heat transport. For temperatures {kappa}{sub B}T {approx_lt} {gamma} {much_lt} {Delta}{sub 0}, where {gamma} is the bandwidth of impurity induced Andreev states, certain eigenvalues become universal, i.e., independent of the impurity concentration and phase shift. Deep in the superconducting phase ({kappa}{sub B}T {approx_lt} {gamma}) the Wiedemann-Franz law, with Sommerfeld`s value of the Lorenz number, is recovered. He compares the results for theoretical models of unconventional superconductivity in high-{Tc} and heavy fermion superconductors with experiment. The findings show that impurities are a sensitive probe of the low-energy excitation spectrum, and that the zero-temperature limit of the transport coefficients provides an important test of the order parameter symmetry.

  9. REPORT ON THE INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR GAS TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION'S 2002 ACCOMPLISHMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary Lang

    2003-03-01

    This is the final technical report for the U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG26-02NT41445 for Membership in the International Centre for Gas Technology Information. The grant period began January 1, 2002 and ended December 31, 2002. The primary purpose of this grant was to continue U.S. country membership in the International Energy Agency's International Centre for Gas Technology Information (ICGTI) for calendar year 2002. The mission of ICGTI is to promote international cooperation and collaboration on natural gas technology development and commercialization. This final technical report describes ICGTI's 2002 activities, in which U.S. country membership in ICGTI was sustained and supported, but ICGTI's activities were curtailed by loss of funding.

  10. Kinetic theory of a gas with internal degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehring, L.

    Balance equations for density, momentum, angular momentum, stress and couple-stress tensor, and heat flux are derived for a gas composed of nonrigid dumb-bell shaped particles. Some simple approximations for particle interactions are investigated analytically. By averaging the equations over all values of size and orientation of the particles, new balance equations are derived for particles whose structure changes more rapidly than the position of their mass centers. In a limiting case, the volume viscosity is given in terms of the collision frequency.

  11. Politics and economics to shape international oil and gas activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-27

    This paper reports that political and economic events play unusually strong roles in shaping worldwide oil and gas activity levels this year. Developments in the former U.S.S.R. will be critical. As the now-independent republics adopt new economic systems, production and demand patterns will change, as will exports from what has been the world's leading oil producer. Changing conditions in the Middle East among members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries also will affect the industry in the year following the brief Persian Gulf war. Unless worldwide demand surges unexpectedly, these substantial additions to supply will tend to weaken oil prices in 1992.

  12. A Novel Repair Technique for the Internal Thermal Control System Dual-Membrane Gas Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Patel, Vipul; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2005-01-01

    A dual-membrane gas trap is currently used to remove gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). The gas trap consists of concentric tube membrane pairs, comprised of outer hydrophilic tubes and inner hydrophobic fibers. Liquid coolant passes through the outer hydrophilic membrane, which traps the gas bubbles. The inner hydrophobic fiber allows the trapped gas bubbles to pass through and vent to the ambient atmosphere in the cabin. The gas trap was designed to last for the entire lifetime of the ISS, and therefore was not designed to be repaired. However, repair of these gas traps is now a necessity due to contamination from the on-orbit ITCS fluid and other sources on the ground as well as a limited supply of flight gas traps. This paper describes a novel repair technique that has been developed that will allow the refurbishment of contaminated gas traps and their return to flight use.

  13. Minimizing the water and air impacts of unconventional energy extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional energy generates income and, done well, can reduce air pollution compared to other fossil fuels and even water use compared to fossil fuels and nuclear energy. Alternatively, it could slow the adoption of renewables and, done poorly, release toxic chemicals into water and air. Based on research to date, some primary threats to water resources come from surface spills, wastewater disposal, and drinking-water contamination through poor well integrity. For air resources, an increase in volatile organic compounds and air toxics locally is a potential health threat, but the switch from coal to natural gas for electricity generation will reduce sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, and particulate pollution regionally. Critical needs for future research include data for 1) estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of unconventional hydrocarbons; 2) the potential for further reductions of water requirements and chemical toxicity; 3) whether unconventional resource development alters the frequency of well-integrity failures; 4) potential contamination of surface and ground waters from drilling and spills; and 5) the consequences of greenhouse gases and air pollution on ecosystems and human health.

  14. Optimization of simultaneous tritium-radiocarbon internal gas proportional counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonicalzi, R. M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Mace, E. K.; Moran, J. J.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.; Seifert, A.

    2016-03-01

    Specific environmental applications can benefit from dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements in a single compound. Assuming typical environmental levels, it is often the low tritium activity relative to the higher radiocarbon activity that limits the dual measurement. In this paper, we explore the parameter space for a combined tritium and radiocarbon measurement using a natural methane sample mixed with an argon fill gas in low-background proportional counters of a specific design. We present an optimized methane percentage, detector fill pressure, and analysis energy windows to maximize measurement sensitivity while minimizing count time. The final optimized method uses a 9-atm fill of P35 (35% methane, 65% argon), and a tritium analysis window from 1.5 to 10.3 keV, which stops short of the tritium beta decay endpoint energy of 18.6 keV. This method optimizes tritium-counting efficiency while minimizing radiocarbon beta-decay interference.

  15. Flow in Coal Seams: An Unconventional Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R. T.; Mostaghimi, P.; Jing, Y.; Gerami, A.

    2016-12-01

    A significant unconventional resource for energy is the methane gas stored in shallow coal beds, known as coal seam gas. An integrated imaging and modelling framework is developed for analysing petrophysical behaviour of coals. X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is applied using a novel contrast agent method for visualising micrometer-sized fractures in coal. The technique allows for the visualisation of coal features not visible with conventional imaging methods. A Late Permian medium volatile bituminous coal from Moura Coal Mine (Queensland, Australia) is imaged and the resulting three-dimensional coal fracture system is extracted for fluid flow simulations. The results demonstrate a direct relationship between coal lithotype and permeability. Scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) together with X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods are used for identifying mineral matters at high resolution. SEM high-resolution images are also used to calibrate the micro-CT images and measure the exact aperture size of fractures. This leads to a more accurate estimation of permeability using micro-CT images. To study the significance of geometry and topology of the fracture system, a fracture reconstruction method based on statistical properties of coal is also developed. The network properties including the frequency, aperture size distribution, length, and spacing of the imaged coal fracture system. This allows for a sensitivity analysis on the effects that coal fracture topology and geometry has on coal petrophysical properties. Furthermore, we generate microfluidic chips based on coal fracture observations. The chip is used for flow experiments to visualise multi-fluid processes and measure recovery of gas. A combined numerical and experimental approach is applied to obtain relative permeability curves for different regions of interest. A number of challenges associated with coal samples are discussed and insights are provided for better

  16. The european directive for the internal market in natural gas; La Directiva Europea sobre el mercado interior del gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, P.

    1998-12-31

    The Directive concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas is the culmination of a process to establish an internal energy market throughout the European Union from the year 2000. The growing consumption of natural gas, both in new and traditional sectors of the market and particularly in the generation of electricity, is now a constant on the energy scene as much for its environmental qualities as for its cost. As a result of long years of negotiations and compromises between the European Parliament, the Council and the European Commission, the Directive establishes new rules for the operators of the sector and allows those clients which are qualified to do so, to select their supplier, irrespective of national frontiers. (Author)

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Dissipation in Unconventional Environments FOCUS ON QUANTUM DISSIPATION IN UNCONVENTIONAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Milena; Paladino, Elisabetta

    2008-11-01

    Quantum dissipation has been the object of study within the physics and chemistry communities for many years. Despite this, the field is in constant evolution, largely due to the fact that novel systems where the understanding of dissipation and dephasing processes is of crucial importance have become experimentally accessible in recent years. Among the ongoing research themes, we mention the defeat of decoherence in solid state-based quantum bits (qubits) (e.g. superconducting qubits or quantum dot based qubits), or dissipation due to non-equilibrium Fermi reservoirs, as is the case for quantum transport through meso- and nanoscale structures. A close inspection of dissipation in such systems reveals that one has to deal with 'unconventional' environments, where common assumptions of, for example, linearity of the bath and/or equilibrium reservoir have to be abandoned. Even for linear baths at equilibrium it might occur that the bath presents some internal structure, due, for example, to the presence of localized bath modes. A large part of this focus issue is devoted to topics related to the rapidly developing fields of quantum computation and information with solid state nanodevices. In these implementations, single and two-qubit gates as well as quantum information transmission takes place in the presence of broadband noise that is typically non-Markovian and nonlinear. On both the experimental and theory side, understanding and defeating such noise sources has become a crucial step towards the implementation of efficient nanodevices. On a more fundamental level, electron and spin transport through quantum dot nanostructures may suffer from 'unconventional' dissipation mechanisms such as the simultaneous presence of spin relaxation and fermionic dissipation, or may represent themselves out of equilibrium baths for nearby mesoscopic systems. Finally, although not expected from the outset, the present collection of articles has revealed that different

  18. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): the natural gas becoming a world commodity and creating international price references; GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito): o gas natural se tornando uma commodity mundial e criando referencias de preco internacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demori, Marcio Bastos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Comercializacao de Gas e GNL; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    The transportation of large quantities of natural gas through long distances has been done more frequently by Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The increase of natural gas demand and the distance of major reserves, allied to technological improvements and cost reduction through LNG supply chain, have triggered the expressive increase of LNG world market This paper tries to evaluate the influence that LNG should cause on natural gas world market dynamic, analyzing the tendency of gas to become a world commodity, creating international price references, like oil and its derivates. For this, are shown data as natural gas world reserves, the participation of LNG in natural gas world market and their increase. Furthermore, will be analyzed the interaction between major natural gas reserves and their access to major markets, still considering scheduled LNG projects, the following impacts from their implementation and price arbitrage that should be provoked on natural gas markets. (author)

  19. Effect of Gas Mixture Composition on the Parameters of an Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Chríbik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the use of the internal combustion piston engine, which is a drive unit for micro-cogeneration units. The introduction is a brief statement of the nature of gas mixture compositions that are useful for the purposes of combustion engines, together with the basic physical and chemical properties relevant to the burning of this gas mixture. Specifically, we will discuss low-energy gases (syngases and mixtures of natural gas with hydrogen. The second section describes the conversion of the Lombardini LGW 702 combustion engine that is necessary for these types of combustion gases. Before the experimental measurements, a simulation in the Lotus Engine simulation program was carried out to make a preliminary assessment of the impact on the performance of an internal combustion engine. The last section of the paper presents the experimental results of partial measurements of the performance and emission parameters of an internal combustion engine powered by alternative fuels.

  20. Impact Of Melter Internal Design On Off-Gas Flammability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. S.; Lee, S. Y.

    2012-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) identify the more dominant design parameters that can serve as the quantitative measure of how prototypic a given melter is, (2) run the existing DWPF models to simulate the data collected using both DWPF and non-DWPF melter configurations, (3) confirm the validity of the selected design parameters by determining if the agreement between the model predictions and data is reasonably good in light of the design and operating conditions employed in each data set, and (4) run Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to gain new insights into how fluid mixing is affected by the configuration of melter internals and to further apply the new insights to explaining, for example, why the agreement is not good.

  1. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S.; Gupta, Sreenath Borra; Sekar, R. Raj; McConnell, Steven S.

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  2. Analysis of Internal Cooling Geometry Variations in Gas Turbine Blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Eifel; V. Caspary; H. H(o)nen; P. Jeschke

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation analyzes the effects of major geometrical modifications to the interior of a convection cooled gas turbine rotor blade. The main focus lies on the flow of the leading edge channels and the impact on the heat transfer. An experimental approach is performed with flow visualization via paint injection into water. Also numerical calculations are carried out in two sets, on the one hand water calculations accompanying the experi-ments and on the other hand conjugate heat transfer calculations under realistic engine conditions. The latter cal-culations are still ongoing delivering preliminary results. Five geometry configurations are investigated, three of them with differing turbulator arrangements in the leading edge channels. The operating point of the base configuration is set to Re = 50,000 at the inlet while for the modi-fied geometries the pressure ratio is held constant compared to the base. Among several investigated configurations one could be identified that leads to a heat transfer enhancement in one leading edge channel 7 % larger compared to the base.

  3. Compounded turbocharged rotary internal combustion engine fueled with natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, P.E.

    1992-10-15

    This patent describes a compounded engine. It comprises: a first Wankel engine having a housing with a trochoidal inner surface containing a generally triangular shaped rotor, the engine containing a fuel supply system suitable for operating the engine with natural gas as a fuel; a turbocharge compressing air for combustion by the engine, the turbocharger being driven by the exhaust gases which exit from the engine; a combustion chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust from the engine after that exhaust has passed through the turbocharger, the chamber having an ignition device suitable for igniting hydrocarbons in the engine exhaust, whereby the engine timing, and the air and fuel mixture of the engine are controlled so that when the engine exhaust reaches the combustion chamber the exhaust contains a sufficient amount of oxygen and hydrocarbons to enable ignition and combustion of the engine exhaust in the combustion chamber without the addition of fuel or air, and whereby the engine operating conditions are controlled to vary the performance of the secondary combustor; and a controllable ignition device to ignite the exhaust gases in the combustion chamber at predetermined times.

  4. Unconventional Tools for an Unconventional Resource: Community and Landscape Planning for Shale in the Marcellus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtha, T., Jr.; Orland, B.; Goldberg, L.; Hammond, R.

    2014-12-01

    Deep shale natural gas deposits made accessible by new technologies are quickly becoming a considerable share of North America's energy portfolio. Unlike traditional deposits and extraction footprints, shale gas offers dispersed and complex landscape and community challenges. These challenges are both cultural and environmental. This paper describes the development and application of creative geospatial tools as a means to engage communities along the northern tier counties of Pennsylvania, experiencing Marcellus shale drilling in design and planning. Uniquely combining physical landscape models with predictive models of exploration activities, including drilling, pipeline construction and road reconstruction, the tools quantify the potential impacts of drilling activities for communities and landscapes in the commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Dividing the state into 9836 watershed sub-basins, we first describe the current state of Marcellus related activities through 2014. We then describe and report the results of three scaled predictive models designed to investigate probable sub-basins where future activities will be focused. Finally, the core of the paper reports on the second level of tools we have now developed to engage communities in planning for unconventional gas extraction in Pennsylvania. Using a geodesign approach we are working with communities to transfer information for comprehensive landscape planning and informed decision making. These tools not only quantify physical landscape impacts, but also quantify potential visual, aesthetic and cultural resource implications.

  5. Dynamical properties of unconventional magnetic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helgesen, G. [ed.

    1997-05-01

    The Advanced Study Institute addressed the current experimental and theoretical knowledge of the dynamical properties of unconventional magnetic systems including low-dimensional and mesoscopic magnetism, unconventional ground state, quantum magnets and soft matter. The main approach in this Advanced Study Institute was to obtain basic understanding of co-operative phenomena, fluctuations and excitations in the wide range unconventional magnetic systems now being fabricated or envisioned. The report contains abstracts for lectures, invited seminars and posters, together with a list of the 95 participants from 24 countries with e-mail addresses

  6. Ethanol as Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Spirit Drinks by Gas Chromatography

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Kulevich, Nikita V; Makoed, Nicolai M; Mazanik, Arkadzi L; Sytova, Svetlana N

    2012-01-01

    The new methodical approach of using ethanol as internal standard in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile compounds in spirit drinks in daily practice of testing laboratories is proposed. This method provides determination of volatile compounds concentrations in spirit drinks directly expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of absolute alcohol according to official methods without measuring of alcohol strength of analyzed sample. The experimental demonstration of this method for determination of volatile compounds in spirit drinks by gas chromatography is described. Its validation was carried out by comparison with experimental results obtained by internal standard method and external standard method.

  7. Gas exporting countries forum as a new actor of international gas market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Beschasna

    2014-12-01

    In the article analyzes not only main objectives and provisions of work association, butalso the key problems. In particular, it is a conflict between member states. Different political and economic interests of the participants cannot effectively work within the organization. Also has a significant influence position of the EU and the US, who believe that the a forum directed at monopolizing global gas market.

  8. Development of the Next Generation Gas Trap for the Space Station Internal Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Spelbring, Chris; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2003-01-01

    The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove non-condensed gases (NCG) from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Design goals are to meet or exceed the current requirements to (1) include greater operating ranges and conditions, (2) eliminate reliance on the current hydrophilic tube fabrication process, and (3) increase operational life and tolerance to particulate and microbial growth fouling. In addition, the next generation gas trap will essentially be a 'dropin" design such that no modifications to the ITCS pump package assembly (PPA) will be required, and the implementation of the new design will not affect changes to the ITCS operational conditions, interfaces, or software. This paper will present the initial membrane module design and development work which has included (1) a trade study among several conceptual designs, (2) performance modeling of a hydrophobic-only design, and (3) small-scale development test data for the hydrophobic-only design. Testing has shown that the hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal.

  9. Comparative environmental assessment of unconventional power installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnina, E. N.; Masleeva, O. V.; Kryukov, E. V.

    2015-08-01

    Procedure of the strategic environmental assessment of the power installations operating on the basis of renewable energy sources (RES) was developed and described. This procedure takes into account not only the operational process of the power installation but also the whole life cycles: from the production and distribution of power resources for manufacturing of the power installations to the process of their recovery. Such an approach gives an opportunity to make a more comprehensive assessment of the influence of the power installations on environments and may be used during adaptation of the current regulations and development of new regulations for application of different types of unconventional power installations with due account of the ecological factor. Application of the procedure of the integrated environmental assessment in the context of mini-HPP (Hydro Power Plant); wind, solar, and biogas power installations; and traditional power installation operating natural gas was considered. Comparison of environmental influence revealed advantages of new energy technologies compared to traditional ones. It is shown that solar energy installations hardly pollute the environment during operation, but the negative influence of the mining operations and manufacturing and utilization of the materials used for solar modules is maximum. Biogas power installations are on the second place as concerns the impact on the environment due to the considerable mass of the biogas installation and gas reciprocating engine. The minimum impact on the environment is exerted by the mini-HPP. Consumption of material and energy resources for the production of the traditional power installation is less compared to power installations on RES; however, this factor incomparably increases when taking into account the fuel extraction and transfer. The greatest impact on the environment is exerted by the operational process of the traditional power installations.

  10. Transformation: A Bold Case for Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    raid to rescue American hostages UW? Although it may be “special” it certainly is not unconventional in the terms we have described. Therefore, we...9 Special Operations Command ( JSOC ) in 1982, and subsequently, the US Special Operations Command

  11. Finding Lawrence recruiting talent for unconventional warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Mourouzis, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. From Francis Marion's guerrilla war against the British to advising the resistance against the Nazis and Japanese, the United States has depended on unconventional warfare (UW) as a component of national defense. Today, the U.S. Army Special Forces (SF) is the premiere unconventional warfare unit in the U.S. military. With a smaller Army and increasing missions, SF must expand its recruiting efforts. This thesis analyzes the recruitme...

  12. Gas Hold-Up, Mixing Time and Circulation Time in Internal Loop Airlift Bubble Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdul Rahman–Al Ezzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of superficial gas in the riser (Vgr and liquid phase properties on the gas hold-up(ɛg , mixing time (Tm and circulation time (TC were studied in 8 liter internal air lift loop reactor (down comer-to-riser crosssectional area ratio = 0.249. Air was used as a gas phase. Water and four aqueous solutions of 10% concentration methanol, ethanol, (were used to simulate the behavior of non-coalescing organic liquids 50% glycerol and 2% Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC were used to simulate the behavior of coalescing viscous liquids. Polyethylene-non-porous-solid particles with a concentration of (50 Kg/m3 were used as solid phase. Superficial gas velocity varied from 0.01 m/s to 0.1 m/s and air dispersed into the center of the draught tube by using a porous gas distributor. The results showed that (εg increased with increasing gas velocity and coalescence inhibition of liquid, while Tm and Tc decrease with increasing gas velocity. It was found that increasing liquid viscosity and coalescence reduces (εg but increases (Tm and (Tc. The gas holdup was correlated with dimensionless groups and independent parameter with correlation coefficient is 0.967, the following correlation is obtained.

  13. ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE THERMAL DESORPTION UNIT - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELI ECO Logic International, Inc.'s Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) is specifically designed for use with Eco Logic's Gas Phase Chemical Reduction Process. The technology uses an externally heated bath of molten tin in a hydrogen atmosphere to desorb hazardous organic compounds fro...

  14. Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometric Determination of Myo-inositol in Humans Utilizing a Deuterated Internal Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Larsen, Elfinn; Harbo, Helge;

    1982-01-01

    , was added as internal standard to the samples at an early stage in the analytical procedure. After separation and derivatization to the hexa-acetate, the gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis was carried out. A 25 m fused silica capillary column coated with methyl silicone was used, and the ions...

  15. Conditions for long-lasting gas eruptions: The 2013 event at Fiumicino International Airport (Rome, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, G.; Carapezza, M. L.; Monica, G. Della; Todesco, M.; Tuccimei, P.; Carlucci, G.; De Benedetti, A. A.; Gattuso, A.; Lucchetti, C.; Piersanti, M.; Ranaldi, M.; Tarchini, L.; Pagliuca, N. M.; Ricci, T.; Facchini, S.; D'Ambrosio, F.; Misuraca, M.; Bonamico, A.; Geshi, N.

    2016-10-01

    A hazardous gas eruption from two very close shallow boreholes occurred near the Fiumicino International Airport of Roma (Italy) from August to December 2013. The erupted gas was mostly CO2 of deep origin and gas output was high and sustained over time reaching values of nearly 20 t day- 1. After 3 months, the gas flux was still above 5 t day- 1 and was only stopped in December 2013 by long and expensive works of closure of the boreholes. The gas eruption was uncommon as being associated with the building of two mud volcanoes. This style of sustained deep CO2 eruptions contrasts with the more common short-lived eruptions of shallow biogenic methane-dominated gas pockets. In this work, we present the chronology of the event, the results of geological, geochemical, and geophysical monitoring and a numerical modeling. We propose that the August-December 2013 sustained and prolonged event does not relate to the simple degassing of a shallow, isolated pocket of gas. On the contrary, it reflects very specific conditions in a shallow reservoir (hosted in a 10 m thick gravel layer at - 40 m within the Tiber river delta deposits), related to the interplay between the total pressure and the fraction of free CO2 initially present, across very narrow value ranges around 0.59 MPa and 0.18, respectively. The coexistence of short-lived and long-lived eruptions from the same reservoir suggest that these conditions are not achieved everywhere in the gas reservoir, despite its homogeneous properties. This consideration implies either a pressure compartmentalization of the reservoir, or the occurrence of a transient, possibly associated with an impulsive release of gas from greater depths. The involvement of deeper and larger gas reservoirs connected along faults is evidenced by geophysical investigations. This conceptual model bears significant implications for gas hazard studies.

  16. The Second International Conference on Northeast Asia Natural Gas Pipeline Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ying

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Second International Conference on Northeast Asia Natural Gas Pipeline co-sponsored by the National Pipeline Research Society of Japan, the Korea Pan-Asia Natural Gas Pipeline Association and China National Petroleum Corporation was held in Beijing, during September 23-24,1996. The 145 participants were from 13 countries, i.e.,Japan, South Korea, China, Russia, Mongolia, North Korea,Thailand, the USA, UK, Canada, Australia, Germany and Italy. The Conference mainly aimed at providing an opportunity for making a discussion on the Northeast Asia Pipeline and acted as a preparatory meeting to establish an organization for joint study on an international natural gas pipeline network in the Northeast Asia region.

  17. Gas Loss by Ram Pressure Stripping and Internal Feedback From Low Mass Milky Way Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Emerick, Andrew; Grcevich, Jana; Gatto, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of dwarf satellites of the Milky Way is affected by the combination of ram pressure and tidal stripping, and internal feedback from massive stars. We investigate gas loss processes in the smallest satellites of the Milky Way using three-dimensional, high resolution, idealized wind tunnel simulations, accounting for gas loss through both ram pressure stripping and expulsion by supernova feedback. Using initial conditions appropriate for a dwarf galaxy like Leo T, we investigate whether or not environmental gas stripping and internal feedback can quench these low mass galaxies on the expected timescales, shorter than 2 Gyr. We find that supernova feedback contributes negligibly to the stripping rate for these low star formation rate galaxies. However, we also find that ram pressure stripping is less efficient than expected in the stripping scenarios we consider. Our work suggests that, although ram pressure stripping can eventually completely strip these galaxies, other physics is likely at play t...

  18. Dynamical Contents of Unconventional Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Guevara, Alfredo; Zanelli, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The Dirac Hamiltonian formalism is applied to a system in $(2+1)$-dimensions consisting of a Dirac field $\\psi$ minimally coupled to Chern-Simons $U(1)$ and $SO(2,1)$ connections, $A$ and $\\omega$, respectively. This theory is connected to a supersymmetric Chern-Simons form in which the gravitino has been projected out (unconventional supersymmetry) and, in the case of a flat background, corresponds to the low energy limit of graphene. The separation between first-class and second-class constraints is performed explicitly, and both the field equations and gauge symmetries of the Lagrangian formalism are fully recovered. The degrees of freedom of the theory in generic sectors shows that the propagating states correspond to fermionic modes in the background determined by the geometry of the graphene sheet and the nondynamical electromagnetic field. This is shown for the following canonical sectors: i) a conformally invariant generic description where the spinor field and the dreibein are locally rescaled; ii) a...

  19. Dynamical contents of unconventional supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Alfredo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Pais, Pablo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Zanelli, Jorge [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile)

    2016-08-11

    The Dirac Hamiltonian formalism is applied to a system in (2+1)-dimensions consisting of a Dirac field ψ minimally coupled to Chern-Simons U(1) and SO(2,1) connections, A and ω, respectively. This theory is connected to a supersymmetric Chern-Simons form in which the gravitino has been projected out (unconventional supersymmetry) and, in the case of a flat background, corresponds to the low energy limit of graphene. The separation between first-class and second-class constraints is performed explicitly, and both the field equations and gauge symmetries of the Lagrangian formalism are fully recovered. The degrees of freedom of the theory in generic sectors shows that the propagating states correspond to fermionic modes in the background determined by the geometry of the graphene sheet and the nondynamical electromagnetic field. This is shown for the following canonical sectors: i) a conformally invariant generic description where the spinor field and the dreibein are locally rescaled; ii) a specific configuration for the Dirac fermion consistent with its spin, where Weyl symmetry is exchanged by time reparametrizations; iii) the vacuum sector ψ=0, which is of interest for perturbation theory. For the latter the analysis is adapted to the case of manifolds with boundary, and the corresponding Dirac brackets together with the centrally extended charge algebra are found. Finally, the SU(2) generalization of the gauge group is briefly treated, yielding analogous conclusions for the degrees of freedom.

  20. Hybrid slime mould-based system for unconventional computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzina, T.; Dimonte, A.; Cifarelli, A.; Erokhin, V.

    2015-04-01

    Physarum polycephalum is considered to be promising for the realization of unconventional computational systems. In this work, we present results of three slime mould-based systems. We have demonstrated the possibility of transporting biocompatible microparticles using attractors, repellents and a DEFLECTOR. The latter is an external tool that enables to conduct Physarum motion. We also present interactions between slime mould and conducting polymers, resulting in a variation of their colour and conductivity. Finally, incorporation of the Physarum into the organic memristive device resulted in a variation of its electrical characteristics due to the slime mould internal activity.

  1. Natural gas across the Andes : a case study of an international business venture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, E.B.; Smith, B.

    2002-07-01

    This book describes the challenges and complexities of constructing the GasAndes pipeline from Argentinian gas fields across the Andes to Santiago in Chile. The project was a joint international effort between Canada's NOVA Corporation, Chile's Gasco and Gener, and Argentina's Compania General de Combustibles and Techint Compania Tecnica Internacional. The book relates how NOVA Gas International, together with its partners, accomplished the task of constructing the first major natural gas pipeline across the Andes mountains despite significant challenges such as steep mountain slopes, many river crossings, high altitude, high winds and bitter cold. It describes how the partnership developed and how political and socio-economic issues were dealt with. It demonstrates how business practices were modified to deal with local conditions and to ensure that the fragile environment of the Andean meadows was protected. It also describes how the builders of the pipeline addressed the concerns of communities along the pipeline route. The pipeline was constructed at a time when democracy was returning and market economies were shifting from a reduced role of government in the energy sector. The 463 km GasAndes pipeline has been in operation since August 7, 1997. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Development of unconventional forming methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rusz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Paper presents results of progress ECAP processing method for UFG structure reached (gained.The properties and microstructure are influenced by technological factors during application ECAP method.Design/methodology/approach: Summary of methods studied on Department of technology at Machining faculty of VŠB-TU Ostrava through of co-operation with Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology is presented.Findings: Achievement of ultra-fine grained structure in initial material leads to substantial increase of plasticity and makes it possible to form materials in conditions of „superplastic state“. Achievement of the required structure depends namely of the tool geometry, number of passes through the matrix, obtained deformation magnitude and strain rate, process temperature and lubrication conditions. High deformation at comparatively low homologous temperatures is an efficient method of production of ultra-fine grained solid materials.The new technologies, which use severe plastic deformation, comprise namely these techniques: High Pressure Torsion, Equal Channel Angular Pressing = ECAP, Cyclic Channel Die Compression = CCDC, Cyclic Extrusion Compression = CEC, Continuous Extrusion Forming = CONFORM, Accumulative Roll Bonding, Constrained Groove Pressing.Research limitations/implications: Achieved hardness and microstructure characteristics will be determined by new research.Practical implications: The results may be utilized for a relation between structure and properties of the investigated materials in future process of manufacturing.Originality/value: These results contribute to complex evaluation of properties new metals after application unconventional forming methods. The results of this paper are determined for research workers deal by the process severe plastic deformation.

  3. Theoretical studies of unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groensleth, Martin Sigurd

    2008-07-01

    This thesis presents four research papers. In the first three papers we have derived analytical results for the transport properties in unconventional superconductors and ferromagnetic systems with multiple broken symmetries. In Paper I and parts of Paper II we have studied tunneling transport between two non-unitary ferromagnetic spin-triplet superconductors, and found a novel interplay between ferromagnetism and superconductivity manifested in the Josephson effect as a spin- and charge-current in the absence of an applied voltage across the junction. The critical amplitudes of these currents can be adjusted by the relative magnetization direction on each side of the junction. Furthermore, in Paper II, we have found a way of controlling a spin-current between two ferromagnets with spin-orbit coupling. Paper III considers a junction consisting of a ferromagnet and a non-unitary ferromagnetic superconductor, and we show that the conductance spectra contains detailed information about the superconducting gaps and pairing symmetry of the Cooper-pairs. In the last paper we present a Monte Carlo study of an effective Hamiltonian describing orbital currents in the CuO2 layers of high-temperature superconductive cuprates. The model features two intrinsically anisotropic Ising models, coupled through an anisotropic next-nearest neighbor interaction, and an Ashkin-Teller nearest neighbor fourth order coupling. We have studied the specific heat anomaly, as well as the anomaly in the staggered magnetization associated with the orbital currents and its susceptibility. We have found that in a limited parameter regime, the specific heat anomaly is substantially suppressed, while the susceptibility has a non-analytical peak across the order-disorder transition. The model is therefore a candidate for describing the breakup of hidden order when crossing the pseudo-gap line on the under-doped side in the phase diagram of high-temperature superconductors. (Author) 64 refs., figs

  4. Effects of Surfactant Contamination on the Next Generation Gas Trap for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Lukens, Clark; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2004-01-01

    The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove non-condensed gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Previous testing has shown that a hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal in clean deionized water. This paper presents results of testing to evaluate the effects of surfactant contamination on the steady-state performance of the hydrophobic-only design.

  5. Unconventional resource's production under desorption-induced effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sina Hosseini Boosari

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a numerical model to study the effect of changes in porosity, permeability and compaction on four major U.S. shale formations considering their Langmuir isotherm desorption behavior. These resources include; Marcellus, New Albany, Barnett and Haynesville Shales. First, we introduced a model that is a physical transport of single-phase gas flow in shale porous rock. Later, the governing equations are implemented into a one-dimensional numerical model and solved using a fully implicit solution method. It is found that the natural gas production is substantially affected by desorption-induced porosity/permeability changes and geomechancis. This paper provides valuable insights into accurate modeling of unconventional reservoirs that is more significant when an even small correction to the future production prediction can enormously contribute to the U.S. economy.

  6. Gas pipeline internal painting: an economical advantage; Uso da pintura interna em gasodutos: uma vantagem economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Christian E.; Santos, Paulo T. [Soco-Ril do Brasil S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)]|[Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Oliveira, Luiz C. [Confab Industrial S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)]|[Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Campos, Paulo H. [Confab Industrial S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Focusing the fabulous financial losses due to the corrosion problems, it had been necessary increase the range of new technologies and developments regarding material protection. The application of internal painting systems have become the most employed protection technical, showing a lot of benefits: improved flow characteristics of gas, reduced energy consumption of pumping, reduced pressure drops, easily application, inspection and maintenance, faster commissioning, reduced deposition of condensate and microorganism, excellent preventing corrosion during storage and operation, and others. The present paper describe the advantages and the technical and financial benefits of liquid epoxy internal coating. (author)

  7. Development of an Internally Circulating Fluidized Bed Membrane Reactor for Hydrogen Production from Natural Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Dong-lai; GRACE John R; LIM C Jim

    2006-01-01

    An innovative Internally Circulating Fluidized Bed Membrane Reactor (ICFBMR) was designed and operated for ultra-pure hydrogen production from natural gas. The reactor includes internal catalyst solids circulation for conveying heat between a reforming zone and an oxidation zone. In the reforming zone, catalyst particles are transported upwards by reactant gas where steam reforming reactions are taking place and hydrogen is permeating through the membrane surfaces. Air is injected into the oxidation zone to generate heat which is carried by catalyst particles to the reforming zone supporting the endothermic steam reforming reaction. The technology development process is introduced: cold model test,pilot plant and industrial demonstration unit. The process flow diagram and key components of each unit are described.The ICFBMR process has the potential to provide improved performance relative to conventional SMR fixed-bed tubular reactors.

  8. Unconventional Algorithms: Complementarity of Axiomatics and Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Dodig Crnkovic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze axiomatic and constructive issues of unconventional computations from a methodological and philosophical point of view. We explain how the new models of algorithms and unconventional computations change the algorithmic universe, making it open and allowing increased flexibility and expressive power that augment creativity. At the same time, the greater power of new types of algorithms also results in the greater complexity of the algorithmic universe, transforming it into the algorithmic multiverse and demanding new tools for its study. That is why we analyze new powerful tools brought forth by local mathematics, local logics, logical varieties and the axiomatic theory of algorithms, automata and computation. We demonstrate how these new tools allow efficient navigation in the algorithmic multiverse. Further work includes study of natural computation by unconventional algorithms and constructive approaches.

  9. How useful are unconventional cancer treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E; Cassileth, B R

    1999-10-01

    Unconventional cancer treatments are used frequently. Therefore, oncologists need to know about them. This article gives an overview of current knowledge on the most prevalent complementary or alternative cancer therapies. A distinction is made between alleged cures, preventive and adjunctive measures. Shark cartilage, mistletoe, thymus therapy, essiac, hydrazine sulphate, 714-X, dietary regimens, green tea and Panax ginseng are all covered specifically. None of these treatments offer reasonable hope for a cure. Some strategies are promising in terms of cancer prevention. The true potential of unconventional therapies might lie in adjunctive and palliative care. It is concluded that good evidence in this area is scarce. Vis-à-vis the high prevalence of unconventional cancer treatments, rigorous investigations are mandatory, not least for increasing the safety of future patients.

  10. Characteristics of three-phase internal loop airlift bioreactors with complete gas recirculation for non-Newtonian fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jianping; Jia, Xiaoqiang; Cheng, Xianrui; Yang, Peng

    2005-05-01

    Hydrodynamic and gas-liquid mass transfer characteristics, such as liquid velocity, gas holdup, solid holdup and gas-liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient, in the riser and downcomer of the gas-liquid-solid three-phase internal loop airlift bioreactors with complete gas recirculation for non-Newtonian fluids, were investigated. A mathematical model for the description of flow behavior and gas-liquid mass transfer of these bioreactors was developed. The predicted results of this model agreed well with the experimental data.

  11. Limits to international diversification in oil and gas -domestic vs foreign asset control

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We provide evidence that international diversification in the oil and gas sector comes at an important cost; lower control over foreign oilfield assets (and therefore reduced control over oilfield cash-flows). This work examines the factors that drive companies to diversify despite the loss of control over oilfields. Detailed worldwide data for 293 companies owning 6633 field stakes enable us to demonstrate that diversification increases with firm size but results in lower asset control - wit...

  12. World Natural Gas Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    RAMSGAS, the Research and Development Analysis Modeling System World Natural Gas Model, was developed to support planning of unconventional gaseoues fuels research and development. The model is a scenario analysis tool that can simulate the penetration of unconventional gas into world markets for oil and gas. Given a set of parameter values, the model estimates the natural gas supply and demand for the world for the period from 1980 to 2030. RAMSGAS is based on a supply/demand framwork and also accounts for the non-renewable nature of gas resources. The model has three fundamental components: a demand module, a wellhead production cost module, and a supply/demand interface module. The demand for gas is a product of total demand for oil and gas in each of 9 demand regions and the gas share. Demand for oil and gas is forecast from the base year of 1980 through 2030 for each demand region, based on energy growth rates and price-induced conservation. For each of 11 conventional and 19 unconventional gas supply regions, wellhead production costs are calculated. To these are added transportation and distribution costs estimates associated with moving gas from the supply region to each of the demand regions and any economic rents. Based on a weighted average of these costs and the world price of oil, fuel shares for gas and oil are computed for each demand region. The gas demand is the gas fuel share multiplied by the total demand for oil plus gas. This demand is then met from the available supply regions in inverse proportion to the cost of gas from each region. The user has almost complete control over the cost estimates for each unconventional gas source in each year and thus can compare contributions from unconventional resources under different cost/price/demand scenarios.

  13. Study on Deformation of Miniature Metal Bellows in Cryocooler Following Temperature Change of Internal Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Ha [LIGNex1 Co. Ltd., Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Won [Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    A bellows is an important temperature control component in a Joule-Thomson micro-cryocooler. It is designed using a very thin shell, and the inside of the bellows is filled with nitrogen gas. The bellows is made of a nickel-cobalt alloy that maintains its strength and elastic properties in a wide range of temperatures from cryogenic to 300℃. The pressure of the gas and the volume within the bellows vary according to the temperature of the gas. As a result, the bellows contracts or expands in the axial direction like a spring. To explore this phenomenon, the deformation of the bellows and its internal volume must be calculated iteratively under a modified pressure until the state equation of the gas is satisfied at a given temperature. In this paper, the modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin state equation is adopted to describe the temperature-volume-pressure relations of the gas. Experiments were performed to validate the proposed method. The results of a numerical analysis and the experiments showed good agreement.

  14. GRAVITATIONAL LENSES AND UNCONVENTIONAL GRAVITY THEORIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEKENSTEIN, JD; SANDERS, RH

    1994-01-01

    We study gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies in the context of the generic class of unconventional gravity theories which describe gravity in terms of a metric and one or more scalar fields (called here scalar-tensor theories). We conclude that, if the scalar fields have positive energy, t

  15. Unconventional superconductivity induced by interfaces and surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eschrig, Matthias [Institut fuer Theoretische Festkoerperphysik and DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Ordered many-body states in solids are often characterized by an order parameter that breaks one or more of the symmetries of the crystal. Such unconventional states lead to interesting new physics associated with the spontaneously broken symmetries. However, in order that such a symmetry breaking can occur it has to be energetically favored. Some of the most interesting symmetry broken states have never been found experimentally in bulk materials for that reason. However, symmetries can be broken also by introducing interfaces with other materials. In this case, the evasive unconventional states might be induced locally near the interface, and can then penetrate as correlations into bulk materials. The properties of the induced states depend on the scattering characteristics of the interfaces and on the proximity induced states produced by the adjacent materials. We discuss in particular interface-induced unconventional superconductivity in heterostructures with magnetically active materials, that may exhibit e.g. odd-frequency pairing or equal-spin triplet pairing states. We study the conditions under which such unconventional pairing amplitudes are induced and demonstrate how they can be tested in experiment and used for quantum devices.

  16. Unconventional eating practices and their health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, R M; Zlotkin, S H

    1985-04-01

    The authors discuss a number of unconventional or faddist foods and eating practices and their health implications. Among the topics included are vegetarianism, Zen macrobiotic diets, fast foods, junk foods, megavitamins and their toxicity, health foods, fad diets in infancy, and elimination diets.

  17. GRAVITATIONAL LENSES AND UNCONVENTIONAL GRAVITY THEORIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEKENSTEIN, JD; SANDERS, RH

    1994-01-01

    We study gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies in the context of the generic class of unconventional gravity theories which describe gravity in terms of a metric and one or more scalar fields (called here scalar-tensor theories). We conclude that, if the scalar fields have positive energy,

  18. Wastewater off-gas to electricity: A look at energy recovery using the internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, S.C. [Eckenfelder Inc., Greenville, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Historically, publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) have not been regulated for air pollutant emissions. Federal, state, and local regulatory agencies have placed increased scrutiny on POTW volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions. In fact, the USEPA is developing Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for publicly owned facilities that receive and treat sewage and wastewater from residential, commercial, and industrial generators. Once promulgated, this standard will require POTWs to limit and control HAP emissions. One option available for the control of HAP emissions from wastewater facilities is the use of the internal combustion (IC) engine-generator systems to convert wastewater off-gas to energy. Single or multiple IC engines can be arranged to utilize wastewater off-gas in place of natural gas and diesel fuel to produce electricity. The electricity generated can then be used to power the treatment facility or sold to the local utility. These systems utilize an otherwise wasted energy resource while significantly reducing HAP and VOC emissions from the wastewater treatment process. This paper will discuss the principles of using the internal combustion engine for energy recovery and examine the technical and economic benefits involved with their use at POTW facilities.

  19. Comprehensive verification of new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Markovsky, Mikhail G; Yakuba, Yurii F; Kotov, Yurii N

    2014-01-01

    Recently proposed new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography is investigated from different sides. Results of experimental study from three different laboratories from Belarus and Russian Federation are presented.

  20. HEAT RECOVERY FROM A NATURAL GAS POWERED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE BY CO2 TRANSCRITICAL POWER CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Farzaneh-Gord

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides details of energy accounting of a natural gas powered internal combustion engine and achievable work of a utilized CO2 power cycle. Based on experimental performance analysis of a new designed IKCO (Iran Khodro Company 1.7 litre natural gas powered engine, full energy accounting of the engine were carried out on various engine speeds and loads. Further, various CO2 transcritical power cycle configurations have been appointed to take advantages of exhaust and coolant water heat lost. Based on thermodynamic analysis, the amount of recoverable work obtainable by CO2 transcritical power cycles have been calculated on various engine conditions. The results show that as much as 18 kW power could be generated by the power cycle. This would be considerable amount of power especially if compared with the engine brake power.

  1. Gas-turbine expander power generating systems for internal needs of compressor stations of gas-main pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanov, A. A.; Biryuk, V. V.; Sheludko, L. P.; Shabanov, K. Yu.

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of this paper, there have been analyzed power station building methods to construct a power station for utilities for gas-main pipelines compressor stations. The application efficiency of turbo expanders in them to expand the power gas of compressor stations' gas compressor units has been shown. New schemes for gas-turbine expander power generating systems have been proposed.

  2. Nutritive value evaluation of unconventional feeds in south China agricul-ture region using in vitro gas production technique%体外产气法评价南方农区非常规饲料资源的营养价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂远璐; 孟梅娟; 高立鹏; 白云峰; 宋谦

    2015-01-01

    To select unconventional feeds suitable in south China agriculture area, thirty-two unconventional feeds collected from Nanjing and its surrounding areas were evaluted for the nutritive values to ruminants by measuring cumulative gas productions in 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h, 12 h, 17 h, 24 h, 48 h, fermentation parameters and in vitro digestibilities of dry matter ,acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber. There were nine feeds showing maximum gas productions a-bove 200 ml, which were soybean hull, corn bract, corn bran, orange peel, broad bean pod, apple pomace, sorghum hull, rice bran meal, and corn stalk, from the highest th the lowest. Among them, four feeds took longer time to start gas produc-tion, which were soybean hull, orange peel, apple pomace, and sorghum hull and two feeds, orange peel and apple pom-ace, displayed lower gas production speeds. Soybean hull had the highest in vitro dry matter digestibility(85. 41%) and corn stalk had the lowest (56. 85%). The top five feeds with higher fiber digestibility were soybean hull, corn bran, con bract, orange peel and garlic leaves, with neutral detergent fiber digestibility all above 60%. For crop there are seven different kinds feeds including rice bran meal, hull, corn bran, orange peel, apple pomace, corn bract and broad bean pod owning high nutritional values suitable for ruminants in south China agriculture region.%为筛选适宜南方农区推广的非常规饲料资源,采用体外产气法测定从南京周边搜集到的32种非常规饲料2 h、4 h、6 h、8 h、10 h、12 h、17 h、24 h、48 h累积产气量( GP)、发酵参数( A、b、LAG)、干物质体外消化率( IVD-MD)和纤维体外消化率( IVNDFD、IVADFD),评定其对反刍动物的营养价值。结果表明:理论最大产气量大于200 ml的非常规饲料由高到低依次为大豆皮、玉米苞叶、喷浆玉米皮、桔子皮、蚕豆荚、苹果渣、高粱壳、米糠粕、京甜紫花糯2号秸秆,其中大豆皮

  3. Chemical potential and internal energy of the noninteracting Fermi gas in fractional-dimensional space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Panda; B K Panda

    2010-09-01

    Chemical potential and internal energy of a noninteracting Fermi gas at low temperature are evaluated using the Sommerfeld method in the fractional-dimensional space. When temperature increases, the chemical potential decreases below the Fermi energy for any dimension equal to 2 and above due to the small entropy, while it increases above the Fermi energy for dimensions below 2 as a result of high entropy. The ranges of validity of the truncated series expansions of these quantities are extended from low to intermediate temperature regime as well as from high to relatively low density regime by using the Pad ́e approximant technique.

  4. Recent Trends in the World Gas Market: Economical, Geopolitical and Environmental Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Toscano; Filiberto Bilotti; Francesco Asdrubali; Claudia Guattari; Luca Evangelisti; Carmine Basilicata

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas is considered by energy experts to be the most promising fossil fuel for the 21st century, and as a matter of fact, the International Energy Agency (IEA) introduced for the first time in the 2011 World Energy Outlook a high gas use scenario called the “Golden Age of Gas”. Natural gas is an easy to burn and clean fuel; its proven reserves are large and furthermore, enormous possibilities are offered by unconventional resources. There are anyway some geopolitical concerns in the glo...

  5. Commissioning experiment of the polarized internal gas target with deuterium at ANKE/COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Boxing [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Collaboration: ANKE-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    In order to conduct the production experiments with polarized deuterium target and (un)polarized proton beam at ANKE/COSY, a commissioning experiment of the polarized internal target with deuterium is imperative. The commissioning experiment includes the measurements of both the vector (Q{sub y}) and tensor (Q{sub yy}) polarization of the deuterium gas target through the nuclear reactions with large and well known analyzing powers, which can be detected in ANKE. The dependence of the polarizations along the storage cell is also determined. The poster presents the physics case for the experiments with deuterium polarized internal target and the apparatus needed for the commissioning experiment, as well as the procedure of extraction for spin observables.

  6. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Joseph; Walker, Richard; Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Cheek, Dianne; Thornton, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will extend the SAGE data record from the ideal vantage point of the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS orbital inclination is ideal for SAGE measurements providing coverage between 70 deg north and 70 deg south latitude. The SAGE data record includes an extensively validated data set including aerosol optical depth data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) experiments in 1975 and 1978 and stratospheric ozone profile data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) in 1979. These and subsequent data records, notably from the SAGE II experiment launched on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite in 1984 and the SAGE III experiment launched on the Russian Meteor-3M satellite in 2001, have supported a robust, long-term assessment of key atmospheric constituents. These scientific measurements provide the basis for the analysis of five of the nine critical constituents (aerosols, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapor (H2O), and air density using O2) identified in the U.S. National Plan for Stratospheric Monitoring. SAGE III on ISS was originally scheduled to fly on the ISS in the same timeframe as the Meteor-3M mission, but was postponed due to delays in ISS construction. The project was re-established in 2009.

  7. INTERNAL REPAIR OF GAS PIPLINES SURVEY OF OPERATOR EXPERIENCE AND INDUSTRY NEEDS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian D. Harris

    2003-09-01

    A repair method that can be applied from the inside of a gas transmission pipeline (i.e., a trenchless repair) is an attractive alternative to conventional repair methods since the need to excavate the pipeline is precluded. This is particularly true for pipelines in environmentally sensitive and highly populated areas. The objectives of the project are to evaluate, develop, demonstrate, and validate internal repair methods for pipelines; develop a functional specification for an internal pipeline repair system; and prepare a recommended practice for internal repair of pipelines. The purpose of this survey is to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. A total of fifty-six surveys were sent to pipeline operators. A total of twenty completed surveys were returned, representing a 36% response rate, which is considered very good given the fact that tailored surveys are known in the marketing industry to seldom attract more than a 10% response rate. The twenty survey responses produced the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water (e.g., lakes and swamps) in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. All these areas tend to be very difficult and very costly if, and where, conventional excavated repairs may be currently used. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem in a water/river crossing. (3) The typical travel distances required can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). In concept, these groups require pig-based systems; despooled umbilical systems could be considered for the first two groups

  8. Exploring unconventional capabilities of holographic tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R. J.; Pagliusi, P.; Provenzano, C.; Cipparrone, G.

    2011-06-01

    We report an investigation of manipulation and trapping capabilities of polarization holographic tweezers. A polarization gradient connected with a modulation of the ellipticity shows an optical force related to the polarization of the light that can influence optically isotropic particles. While in the case of birefringent particles an unconventional trapping in circularly polarized fringes is observed. A liquid crystal emulsion has been adopted to investigate the capabilities of the holographic tweezers. The unusual trapping observed for rotating bipolar nematic droplets has suggested the involvement of the lift hydrodynamic force responsible of the Magnus effect, originating from the peculiar optical force field. We show that the Magnus force which is ignored in the common approach can contribute to unconventional optohydrodynamic trapping and manipulation.

  9. Unconventional Disorder Effects in Correlated Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastiasoro, Maria N.; Bernardini, Fabio; Andersen, Brian M.

    2016-12-01

    We study the effects of disorder on unconventional superconductors in the presence of correlations, and explore a novel correlated disorder paradigm dominated by strong deviations from standard Abrikosov-Gor'kov theory due to generation of local bound states and cooperative impurity behavior driven by Coulomb interactions. Specifically we explain under which circumstances magnetic disorder acts as a strong poison destroying high-Tc superconductivity at the sub-1% level, and when nonmagnetic disorder, counterintuitively, hardly affects the unconventional superconducting state while concomitantly inducing an inhomogeneous full-volume magnetic phase. Recent experimental studies of Fe-based superconductors have discovered that such unusual disorder behavior seems to be indeed present in those systems.

  10. PREFACE: 12th International Conference on Gas Discharge Plasmas and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, N.; Landl, N.; Bogdan, A.; Yudin, A.

    2015-11-01

    The 12th International Conference ''Gas Discharge Plasmas and Their Applications'' (GDP 2015) was held in Tomsk, Russia, on September 6-11, 2015. GDP 2015 represents a continuation of the conferences on physics of gas discharge held in Russia since 1984 and seminars and conferences on the technological applications of low temperature plasmas traditionally organized in Tomsk. The six-day Conference brought together the specialists from different countries and organizations and provided an excellent opportunity to exchange knowledge, make oral contributions and poster presentations, and initiate discussions on the topics that are of interest to the Conference participants. The selected papers of the Conference cover a wide range of technical areas and modern aspects of the physical processes in the generators of low-temperature plasma, the low and high-pressure discharges, the pulsed plasma sources, the surface modification, and other gas-discharge technologies. The Conference was hosted by Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk Scientific Center, and Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building.

  11. Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode Microstructures: Making Sense of the Internal Framework Affecting Gas Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Jeffrey

    Optimal electrodes for solid-oxide fuel cells will combine high porosity for gas diffusion, high phase connectivity for ion and electron conduction, and high surface area for chemical and electrochemical reactions. Tracer-diffusion simulations are used to gain a better understanding of the interplay between microstructure and transport in porous materials. Results indicate that the coefficient of diffusion through a porous medium is a function of the details of the internal geometry (microscopic) and porosity (macroscopic). I report that current solid-oxide fuel cell electrodes produced from high-temperature sintering of ceramic powders severely hinder gas transport because the resulting structures are highly tortuous, complex three-dimensional networks. In addition, poor phase connectivities will assuredly limit ion and electron transport, as well as the density of active sites for power-producing reactions. With new access to a wide range of technologies, micro- and nano-fabrication capabilities, and high-performance materials, there is a new ability to engineer the fuel cell electrode architecture, optimizing the physical processes within, increasing performance, and greatly reducing cost per kilowatt. Even simple packed-sphere and inverse-opal architectures will increase gas diffusion by an order of magnitude, and provide a higher level of connectivity than traditional powder-based structures.

  12. Optical Multi-Gas Monitor Technology Demonstration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Johnson, Michael D.; Mudgett, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) employs a suite of portable and permanently located gas monitors to insure crew health and safety. These sensors are tasked with functions ranging from fixed mass spectrometer based major constituents analysis to portable electrochemical sensor based combustion product monitoring. An all optical multigas sensor is being developed that can provide the specificity of a mass spectrometer with the portability of an electrochemical cell. The technology, developed under the Small Business Innovation Research program, allows for an architecture that is rugged, compact and low power. A four gas version called the Multi-Gas Monitor was launched to ISS in November 2013 aboard Soyuz and activated in February 2014. The portable instrument is comprised of a major constituents analyzer (water vapor, carbon dioxide, oxygen) and high dynamic range real-time ammonia sensor. All species are sensed inside the same enhanced path length optical cell with a separate vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) targeted at each species. The prototype is controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The optical and electronic approaches are designed for scalability and future versions could add three important acid gases and carbon monoxide combustion product gases to the four species already sensed. Results obtained to date from the technology demonstration on ISS are presented and discussed.

  13. Neutron scattering study of unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seunghun

    2014-06-30

    My group’s primary activity at the University of Virginia supported by DOE is to study novel electronic, magnetic, and structural phenomena that emerge out of strong interactions between electrons. Some of these phenomena are unconventional superconductivity, exotic states in frustrated magnets, quantum spin liquid states, and magneto-electricity. The outcome of our research funded by the grant advanced microscopic understanding of the emergence of the collective states in the systems.

  14. Imperfect nesting in unconventional density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóra, Balázs; Virosztek, Attila; Maki, Kazumi

    2002-03-01

    Recently, we have shown that unconventional charge density wave (UCDW) is the most likely candidate for the unidentified low-temperature phase (LTP) in α-(ET)2 salts. In particular, UCDW describes reasonably well the temperature dependence of the threshold electric field of LTP in α-(ET)2KHg(SCN)4. Here, we shall show that the imperfect nesting in UCDW is crucial to further improve the theoretical description of the threshold electric field.

  15. Unconventional high-Tc superconductivity in fullerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Yasuhiro; Prassides, Kosmas

    2016-09-13

    A3C60 molecular superconductors share a common electronic phase diagram with unconventional high-temperature superconductors such as the cuprates: superconductivity emerges from an antiferromagnetic strongly correlated Mott-insulating state upon tuning a parameter such as pressure (bandwidth control) accompanied by a dome-shaped dependence of the critical temperature, Tc However, unlike atom-based superconductors, the parent state from which superconductivity emerges solely by changing an electronic parameter-the overlap between the outer wave functions of the constituent molecules-is controlled by the C60 (3-) molecular electronic structure via the on-molecule Jahn-Teller effect influence of molecular geometry and spin state. Destruction of the parent Mott-Jahn-Teller state through chemical or physical pressurization yields an unconventional Jahn-Teller metal, where quasi-localized and itinerant electron behaviours coexist. Localized features gradually disappear with lattice contraction and conventional Fermi liquid behaviour is recovered. The nature of the underlying (correlated versus weak-coupling Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory) s-wave superconducting states mirrors the unconventional/conventional metal dichotomy: the highest superconducting critical temperature occurs at the crossover between Jahn-Teller and Fermi liquid metal when the Jahn-Teller distortion melts.This article is part of the themed issue 'Fullerenes: past, present and future, celebrating the 30th anniversary of Buckminster Fullerene'.

  16. Heavy fermions, quantum criticality, and unconventional superconductivity in filled skutterudites and related materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraka, Bohdan [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-05-14

    The main goal of this program was to explore the possibility of novel states and behaviors in Pr-based system exhibiting quantum critical behavior, PrOs₄Sb₁₂. Upon small changes of external parameter, such as magnetic field, physical properties of PrOs₄Sb₁₂ are drastically altered from those corresponding to a superconductor, to heavy fermion, to field-induced ordered phase with primary quadrupolar order parameter. All these states are highly unconventional and not understood in terms of current theories thus offer an opportunity to expand our knowledge and understanding of condensed matter. At the same time, these novel states and behaviors are subjects to intense international controversies. In particular, two superconducting phases with different transition temperatures were observed in some samples and not observed in others leading to speculations that sample defects might be partially responsible for these exotic behaviors. This work clearly established that crystal disorder is important consideration, but contrary to current consensus this disorder suppresses exotic behavior. Superconducting properties imply unconventional inhomogeneous state that emerges from unconventional homogeneous normal state. Comprehensive structural investigations demonstrated that upper superconducting transition is intrinsic, bulk, and unconventional. The high quality of in-house synthesized single crystals was indirectly confirmed by de Haas-van Alphen quantum oscillation measurements. These measurements, for the first time ever reported, spanned several different phases, offering unprecedented possibility of studying quantum oscillations across phase boundaries.

  17. International Space Station (ISS) Gas Logistics Planning in the Post Shuttle Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Daniel J.; Cook, Anthony J.; Lehman, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Over its life the International Space Station (ISS) has received gas (nitrogen, oxygen, and air) from various sources. Nitrogen and oxygen are used in the cabin to maintain total pressure and oxygen partial pressures within the cabin. Plumbed nitrogen is also required to support on-board experiments and medical equipment. Additionally, plumbed oxygen is required to support medical equipment as well as emergency masks and most importantly EVA support. Gas are supplied to ISS with various methods and vehicles. Vehicles like the Progress and ATV deliver nitrogen (both as a pure gas and as air) and oxygen via direct releases into the cabin. An additional source of nitrogen and oxygen is via tanks on the ISS Airlock. The Airlock nitrogen and oxygen tanks can deliver to various users via pressurized systems that run throughout the ISS except for the Russian segment. Metabolic oxygen is mainly supplied via cabin release from the Elektron and Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), which are water electrolyzers. As a backup system, oxygen candles (Solid Fuel Oxygen Generators-SFOGs) supply oxygen to the cabin as well. In the past, a major source of nitrogen and oxygen has come from the Shuttle via both direct delivery to the cabin as well as to recharge the ISS Airlock tanks. To replace the Shuttle capability to recharge the ISS Airlock tanks, a new system was developed called Nitrogen/Oxygen Recharge System (NORS). NIORS consists of high pressure (7000 psi) tanks which recharge the ISS Airlock tanks via a blowdown fill for both nitrogen and oxygen. NORS tanks can be brought up on most logistics vehicles such as the HTV, COTS, and ATV. A proper balance must be maintained to insure sufficient gas resources are available on-orbit so that all users have the required gases via the proper delivery method (cabin and/or plumbed).

  18. Map of assessed continuous (unconventional) oil resources in the United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Biewick, Laura R. H.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts quantitative assessments of potential oil and gas resources of the onshore United States and associated coastal State waters. Since 2000, the USGS has completed assessments of continuous (unconventional) resources in the United States based on geologic studies and analysis of well-production data and has compiled digital maps of the assessment units classified into four categories: shale gas, tight gas, coalbed gas, and shale oil or tight oil (continuous oil). This is the fourth digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps; its focus being shale-oil or tight-oil (continuous-oil) assessments. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hardcopy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, which includes an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and a published map file (.pmf). Supporting geologic studies of total petroleum systems and assessment units, as well as studies of the methodology used in the assessment of continuous-oil resources in the United States, are listed with hyperlinks in table 1. Assessment results and geologic reports are available at the USGS websitehttp://energy.usgs.gov/OilGas/AssessmentsData/NationalOilGasAssessment.aspx.

  19. Environmental impacts of fracking in the exploration and production of natural gas from unconventional deposits. Risk assessment, recommendations for action and evaluation of existing legal regulations and administrative structures; Umweltauswirkungen von Fracking bei der Aufsuchung und Gewinnung von Erdgas aus unkonventionellen Lagerstaetten. Risikobewertung, Handlungsempfehlungen und Evaluierung bestehender rechtlicher Regelungen und Verwaltungsstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiners, Georg; Denneborg, Michael; Mueller, Frank [ahu AG Wasser - Boden - Geomatik, Aachen (Germany); Bergmann, Axel; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Dopp, Elke; Hansen, Carsten; Schueth, Christoph [IWW Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wasser - Beratungs- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    We examine the water-related environmental impacts and the risks for human health and the environment that could potentially be caused by hydraulic fracturing (fracking) during exploration and exploitation of unconventional natural gas reservoirs in Germany. This study covers both scientific-technical aspects and the existing mining and environmental regulations. Both were analyzed with respect to consistency, differences and current gaps of knowledge and lack of relevant information. After a general introduction, this study is divided into four sections: We first focus on the description of geospatial conditions, technical aspects and the chemical additives employed by hydraulic fracturing (Part A) and the existing regulatory and administrative framework (Part B), before we conduct a risk and deficit analysis (Part C) and derive recommendations for further actions and proceedings (Part D). The foundation of a sound risk analysis is a description of the current system, the relevant effect pathways and their interactions. We describe known and assumed unconventional natural gas reservoirs in Germany based on publicly available information. We present qualitatively the relevant system interactions for selected geosystems and assess potential technical and geological effect pathways. With regard to the technical aspects, we describe the principles of rock mechanics and provide an overview of the technical fracturing process. In terms of groundwater protection, the key focus is on borehole completion, modelling of fracture propagation and the longterm stability of the borehole (incl. cementation). The injected fracturing fluids contain proppants and several additional chemical additives. The evaluation of fracturing fluids used to date in Germany shows that even in newer fluids several additives were used which exhibit critical properties and/or for which an assessment of their behaviour and effects in the environment is not possible or limited due to lack of the

  20. Unconventional supersymmetry and its breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Pedro D., E-mail: alvarez@physics.ox.ac.uk [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Pais, Pablo, E-mail: pais@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Zanelli, Jorge, E-mail: z@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-07-30

    We present a gauge theory for a superalgebra that includes an internal gauge (G) and local Lorentz (so(1,D−1)) algebras. These two symmetries are connected by fermionic supercharges. The field content of the system includes a (non-)abelian gauge potential A, a spin-1/2 Dirac spinor ψ, the Lorentz connection ω{sup ab}, and the vielbein e{sub μ}{sup a}. The connection one-form A is in the adjoint representation of G, while ψ is in the fundamental. In contrast to standard supersymmetry and supergravity, the metric is not a fundamental field and is in the center of the superalgebra: it is not only invariant under the internal gauge group, G, and under Lorentz transformations, SO(1,D−1), but is also invariant under supersymmetry. The distinctive features of this theory that mark the difference with standard supersymmetries are: i) the number of fermionic and bosonic states is not necessarily the same; ii) there are no superpartners with equal mass; iii) although this supersymmetry originates in a local gauge theory and gravity is included, there is no gravitino; iv) fermions acquire mass from their coupling to the background or from higher order self-couplings, while bosons remain massless. In odd dimensions, the Chern–Simons (CS) form provides an action that is (quasi-)invariant under the entire superalgebra. In even dimensions, the Yang–Mills (YM) form is the only natural option and the symmetry breaks down to G⊗SO(1,D−1). In four dimensions, the construction follows the Townsend–Mac Dowell–Mansouri approach, starting with an osp(4|2)∼usp(2,2|1) connection. Due to the absence of osp(4|2)-invariant traces in four dimensions, the resulting Lagrangian is only invariant under u(1)⊕so(3,1), which includes a Nambu–Jona-Lasinio (NJL) term. In this case, the Lagrangian depends on a single dimensionful parameter that fixes Newton's constant, the cosmological constant and the NJL coupling.

  1. USU Alternative and Unconventional Energy Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behunin, Robert [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Wood, Byard [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Heaslip, Kevin [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Zane, Regan [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Lyman, Seth [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Simmons, Randy [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Christensen, David [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    2014-01-29

    and is poised to quickly become a multi-million dollar company with clients around the globe. Moreover, USU students and researchers alike are now on the leading edge of the electrified transportation workforce. Finally, the legacy of this DOE investment in electric transportation is continuing at USU with the formation in progress of an industry sponsored research center built around the Electric Roadway and Vehicle (EVR) research facility and test track (http://evr.usu.edu). The research conducted in unconventional energy environmental monitoring and beneficial reuse technologies experienced broad success developing experimental and modeling tools and implementing those tools to better understand environmental impacts of industrial processes used in unconventional energy development in the Utah’s Uintah Basin. Before this project began the USU Uintah Basin branch campus had minimal capability to perform this regionally critical environmental research. This research investment enabled monitoring and modeling equipment and expertise to assess impacts of energy development to all aspects of environmental quality. Laboratory capability for environmental analysis has been developed and engaged along with field testing at multiple locations. Successful campaigns to measure greenhouse gas and hydrocarbon emissions from produced water surface impoundments and leakage from subsurface oil and gas infrastructure were executed. A computer model of meteorological conditions during winter inversion episodes was created, and commercialization efforts are underway for those models. Finally, in the past 24 months, nearly $2 million in non- DOE external funding from state, local, federal and private entities has been awarded to USU Uintah Basin to continue and add to work and capability established by this task. The preceding examples represent a few highlights resulting from the USU Alternative and Unconventional Energy Research and Development project. The following report

  2. A modified nodal pressure method for calculating flow distribution in hydraulic circuits for the case of unconventional closing relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor M. Mikhailovsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a method for numerically solving the problem of flow distribution in hydraulic circuits with lumped parameters for the case of random closing relations. The conventional and unconventional types of relations for the laws of isothermal steady fluid flow through the individual hydraulic circuit components are studied. The unconventional relations are presented by those given implicitly by the flow rate and dependent on the pressure of the working fluid. In addition to the unconventional relations, the formal conditions of applicability were introduced. These conditions provide a unique solution to the flow distribution problem. A new modified nodal pressure method is suggested. The method is more versatile in terms of the closing relation form as compared to the unmodified one, and has lower computational costs as compared to the known technique of double-loop iteration. The paper presents an analysis of the new method and its algorithm, gives a calculated example of a gas transportation network, and its results.

  3. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) on the International Space Station (ISS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Gasbarre, Joseph; Eckman, Richard; Topiwala, Nandkishore; Rodriquez-Alvarez, Otilia; Cheek, Dianne; Hall, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will provide the science community with high-vertical resolution and nearly global observations of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gas species in the stratosphere and upper-troposphere. SAGE III/ISS measurements will extend the long-term Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) and SAGE data record begun in the 1970s. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense scrutiny and are considered the international standard for accuracy and stability. SAGE data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol. Key objectives of the mission are to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, to re-establish the aerosol measurements needed by both climate and ozone models, and to gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The space station mid-inclination orbit allows for a large range in latitude sampling and nearly continuous communications with payloads. The SAGE III instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring atmospheric constituents with high vertical resolution. The SAGE III instrument is a moderate resolution spectrometer covering wavelengths from 290 nm to 1550 nm. Science data is collected in solar occultation mode, lunar occultation mode, and limb scatter measurement mode. A SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle will provide access to space. Mounted in the unpressurized section of the Dragon trunk, SAGE III will be robotically removed from the Dragon and installed on the space station. SAGE III/ISS will be mounted to the ExPRESS Logistics Carrier-4 (ELC-4) location on the starboard side of the station. To facilitate a nadir view from this location, a Nadir Viewing Platform (NVP) payload was developed which mounts between the carrier and the SAGE III Instrument Payload (IP).

  4. International comparison of a hydrocarbon gas standard at the picomol per mol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoderick, George C; Duewer, David L; Apel, Eric; Baldan, Annarita; Hall, Bradley; Harling, Alice; Helmig, Detlev; Heo, Gwi Suk; Hueber, Jacques; Kim, Mi Eon; Kim, Yong Doo; Miller, Ben; Montzka, Steve; Riemer, Daniel

    2014-03-04

    Studies of climate change increasingly recognize the diverse influences of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere, including roles in particulates and ozone formation. Measurements of key nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) suggest atmospheric mole fractions ranging from low picomoles per mol (ppt) to nanomoles per mol (ppb), depending on location and compound. To accurately establish mole fraction trends and to relate measurement records from many laboratories and researchers, it is essential to have accurate, stable, calibration standards. In February of 2008, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed and reported on picomoles per mol standards containing 18 nonmethane hydrocarbon compounds covering the mole fraction range of 60 picomoles per mol to 230 picomoles per mol. The stability of these gas mixtures was only characterized over a short time period (2 to 3 months). NIST recently prepared a suite of primary standard gas mixtures by gravimetric dilution to ascertain the stability of the 2008 picomoles per mol NMHC standards suite. The data from this recent chromatographic intercomparison of the 2008 to the 2011 suites confirm a much longer stability of almost 5 years for 15 of the 18 hydrocarbons; the double-bonded alkenes of propene, isobutene, and 1-pentene showed instability, in line with previous publications. The agreement between the gravimetric values from preparation and the analytical mole fractions determined from regression illustrate the internal consistency of the suite within ±2 pmol/mol. However, results for several of the compounds reflect stability problems for the three double-bonded hydrocarbons. An international intercomparison on one of the 2008 standards has also been completed. Participants included National Metrology Institutes, United States government laboratories, and academic laboratories. In general, results for this intercomparison agree to within about ±5% with the gravimetric mole fractions of the hydrocarbons.

  5. Stereo-selective partitioning of translation-to-internal energy conversion in gas ensembles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaffery, Anthony J., E-mail: A.J.McCaffery@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Sussex, Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-07

    A recent computational study of translation-to-internal energy transfer to H{sub 2} (v = 0,j = 0), hereinafter denoted H{sub 2} (0;0), in a bath of H atoms [A. J. McCaffery and R. J. Marsh, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234310 (2013)] revealed an unexpected energy partitioning in which the H{sub 2} vibrational temperature greatly exceeds that of rotation. This occurs despite rotation and vibration distributions being close to Boltzmann from early in ensemble evolution. In this work, the study is extended to include H{sub 2} (0;0), O{sub 2} (0;0), and HF (0;0) in a wide range of atomic bath gases comprising some 22 ensembles in all. Translation-to-internal energy conversion in the systems studied was found to be relatively inefficient, falling approximately with (√μ′){sup −1} as bath gas mass increases, where μ′ is the reduced mass of the diatomic–bath gas pair. In all 22 systems studied, T{sub v} exceeds T{sub r} – by a factor > 4 for some pairs. Analysis of the constraints that influence (0;0) → (1;j) excitation for each diatomic–atom pair in momentum–angular momentum space demonstrates that a vibrational preference results from energy constraints that limit permitted collision trajectories to those of low effective impact parameter, i.e., to those that are axial or near axial on impact with the Newton surface. This implies that a steric constraint is an inherent feature of vibration-rotation excitation and arises because momentum and energy barriers must be overcome before rotational states may be populated in the higher vibrational level.

  6. Monitoring internal corrosion in natural gas pipelines; Monitoracao da corrosao interna em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Ana C.V.; Silva, Djalma R.; Pimenta, Gutemberg S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Barbosa, Andrea F.F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-07-01

    For susceptibilities to the corrosion of the pipelines and equipment made in carbon steel and used by the natural gas, it makes be necessary to identify the acting corrosive agents and monitoring them along time, controlling failures for internal corrosion. Also, of that process it origins the black powder (solid particles) that can not commit the structural integrity of the equipment, but it can also bring the company other implications very serious, like quality of the sold product, as well as stops due to blockages and wastes for erosion of the equipment. The monitoring methodology and control of the corrosion in field consisted of the use of corrosion test equipment, chemical characterization of samples of black powder and liquids and analysis of the operational data of processes and plants. Like this, it was identified for the gas pipeline in analysis the most responsible parameters for the corrosive action of the fluid, establishing a controlling methodology and operational actions to maintain the corrosion rates at safe levels and structural warranty of the same. (author)

  7. New Rock-Eval Method for Characterization of Unconventional Shale Resource Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Sarmiento Maria-Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional resources such as tight, fractured and hybrid shale gas and oil plays as well as oil or kerogen shale systems, are considered exploitable self-contained source and reservoir rocks. A better understanding of the thermal cracking of sedimentary organic matter, hydrocarbons generation, expulsion, storage and retention mechanisms constitutes a key point, estimating the oil and gas in-place, free or adsorbed, for their exploration and exploitation. Herein, we introduce a new “ready to use” method of analysis and interpretation for the Rock-Eval 6 device for better assessment of free or sorbed hydrocarbons in unconventional shale plays. This method was developed at IFP Energies nouvelles (France and was tested on 15 actual or potential unconventional shale samples from Silurian Shale (Algeria, Mississippian Barnett Shale (USA, Early Jurassic Shale (France, Late Jurassic Bazhenov Shale (Russia and Eocene Green River Shale at different thermal maturity stages. Results indicate a better quantification of free and/or sorbed hydrocarbons (Sh0 and Sh1 peaks as well as a more accurate determination of the Rock-Eval Tmax maturity parameter.

  8. Monitoring radionuclides in subsurface drinking water sources near unconventional drilling operations: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew W; Knight, Andrew W; Eitrheim, Eric S; Schultz, Michael K

    2015-04-01

    Unconventional drilling (the combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) to extract oil and natural gas is expanding rapidly around the world. The rate of expansion challenges scientists and regulators to assess the risks of the new technologies on drinking water resources. One concern is the potential for subsurface drinking water resource contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials co-extracted during unconventional drilling activities. Given the rate of expansion, opportunities to test drinking water resources in the pre- and post-fracturing setting are rare. This pilot study investigated the levels of natural uranium, lead-210, and polonium-210 in private drinking wells within 2000 m of a large-volume hydraulic fracturing operation--before and approximately one-year following the fracturing activities. Observed radionuclide concentrations in well waters tested did not exceed maximum contaminant levels recommended by state and federal agencies. No statistically-significant differences in radionuclide concentrations were observed in well-water samples collected before and after the hydraulic fracturing activities. Expanded monitoring of private drinking wells before and after hydraulic fracturing activities is needed to develop understanding of the potential for drinking water resource contamination from unconventional drilling and gas extraction activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CFD Analysis of Gas Distributor in Packed Column--Prediction of Gas Flow and Effect of Tower Internals Geometry Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张吕鸿; 周海鹰; 李鑫钢; 杜玉萍

    2004-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out on the gas flow patterns of twin-tangential annular deflector gas distributor in the absence of liquid flow in a packed column (6.4 m in diameter), and the gas flow field in the column was presented close to reality on the whole. Furthermore, after ame-lioration of this gas distributor frame, turbulence energy and turbulence energy dissipation rate were both decreased greatly.Simulation results showed that the flow pattern and the distribution of gas flow were strongly affected by the column bottom frame; the proper column bottom frame could decrease the flow pressure drop greatly. Multifold factors, such as the column bottom geometry structure and distributor structure which affects the distribution capacity, must be considered.

  10. Brazil's insertion in the international LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) route; A insercao do Brasil na rota internacional de GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueng, Stephan de Carvalho; Bastos, Filipe Sant' Ana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the late 1990's, PETROBRAS began considering diversifying its energy sources. This included the possibility of importing LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas), making it one additional source for gas supply in Brazil. There is a belief that the imported LNG is the cheapest, quickest and most efficient option in terms of infrastructure compared to other transportation, such as pipelines. This will permit an increase in gas supply, given the growing demand for this energy source in the domestic market. The current international LNG trading market is adjusting itself to the world integration, where short-term (spot) agreements prevail. These agreements have many advantages, such as: lowering fixed trading costs; the possibility to diversify suppliers; minimizing gas supply risk; and facilitating import market supply adjustment. In Brazil, the main objective to import LNG is to supply natural gas (NG) to thermal plants, supplementing the hydroelectric - gas integration of the electric system. For the accomplishment of this project, it is forecasted the construction of LNG offloading terminals, together with the construction of gas distribution networks. Therefore, LNG transportation will guarantee security in supply, permit the diversification of the NG supply source and enable the increased use of NG in the Brazilian energy grid. (author)

  11. Internal mixing of the organic aerosol by gas phase diffusion of semivolatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marcolli

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that most of the so far identified constituents of the tropospheric organic particulate matter belong to a semivolatile fraction for which gas phase diffusion in the lower troposphere is sufficiently fast to establish thermodynamic equilibrium between aerosol particles. For the first time analytical expressions for this process are derived. Inspection of vapor pressure data of a series of organic substances allows a rough estimate for which substances this mixing process must be considered. As general benchmarks we conclude that for typical aerosol radii between 0.1 and 1 µm this mixing process is efficient at 25°C for polar species with molecular weights up to 200 and for non-polar species up to 320. At −10°C, these values are shifted to 150 for polar and to 270 for non-polar substances. The extent of mixing of this semivolatile fraction is governed by equilibrium thermodynamics, leading to a selectively, though not completely, internally mixed aerosol. The internal mixing leads to a systematic depression of melting and deliquescence points of organic and mixed organic/inorganic aerosols, thus leading to an aerosol population in the lower troposphere which is predominantly liquid.

  12. Venting of gas explosion through relief ducts: interaction between internal and external explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, G; Willacy, S K; Phylaktou, H N; Andrews, G E; Di Benedetto, A; Salzano, E; Russo, G

    2008-06-30

    Relief ducts fitted to venting openings is a widespread configuration in the industrial practice. The presence of a duct has been reported to severely increase the violence of the vented explosion posing a problem for the proper design of the venting device. Several studies have reported the leading importance--in the whole complex explosion phenomenology--of a secondary explosion in the duct. Modern approaches in the study of simply vented explosions (without ducts) have focused on the study of the interaction between internal and external explosion as a key issue in the mechanisms of pressure generation. The issue is even more relevant when a duct is fitted to the vent due the confined nature of the external explosion. In this work the interaction between internal and external events is experimentally investigated for gas explosions vented through a relief duct. The work has aimed at studying mechanisms underlying the pressure rise of this venting configuration. The study has put the emphasis on the mutual nature of the interaction. A larger scale than laboratory has been investigated allowing drawing results with a greater degree of generality with respect to data so far presented in literature.

  13. Innovative method for carbon dioxide determination in human postmortem cardiac gas samples using headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and stable labeled isotope as internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, V; Smith, F; de Froidmont, S; Dominguez, A; Rinaldi, A; Augsburger, M; Mangin, P; Grabherr, S

    2013-06-19

    A novel approach to measure carbon dioxide (CO2) in gaseous samples, based on a precise and accurate quantification by (13)CO2 internal standard generated in situ is presented. The main goal of this study was to provide an innovative headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) method applicable in the routine determination of CO2. The main drawback of the GC methods discussed in the literature for CO2 measurement is the lack of a specific internal standard necessary to perform quantification. CO2 measurement is still quantified by external calibration without taking into account analytical problems which can often occur considering gaseous samples. To avoid the manipulation of a stable isotope-labeled gas, we have chosen to generate in situ an internal labeled standard gas ((13)CO2) on the basis of the stoichiometric formation of CO2 by the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaH(13)CO3). This method allows a precise measurement of CO2 concentration and was validated on various human postmortem gas samples in order to study its efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Unconventional pontics in fixed partial dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi Manish Oswal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical success of fixed prosthodontics is dependent in part upon the type of pontic design. The selection of pontic design plays an important role in the outcome of the treatment. At present, there are many different pontic designs and materials present in the market. For some patients, one pontic may have an advantage over another and the choice is a matter of preference with the operator. It is recognized that clinical circumstances will require infinite variations. Hence, the present study briefs about the unconventional pontic designs which can be used on regular basis for better clinical results.

  15. Collective excitations in unconventional superconductors and superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Brusov, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This is the first monograph that strives to give a complete and detailed description of the collective modes (CMs) in unconventional superfluids and superconductors (UCSF&SC). Using the most powerful method of modern theoretical physics - the path (functional) integral technique - authors build the three- and two-dimensional models for s -, p - and d -wave pairing in neutral as well as in charged Fermi-systems, models of superfluid Bose-systems and Fermi-Bose-mixtures. Within these models they study the collective properties of such systems as superfluid 3 He, superfluid 4 He, superfluid 3 He-

  16. Unconventional tail configurations for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carmona, A.; Cuerno-Rejado, C.; García-Hernández, L.

    2017-06-01

    This article presents the bases of a methodology in order to size unconventional tail configurations for transport aircraft. The case study of this paper is a V-tail con¦guration. Firstly, an aerodynamic study is developed for determining stability derivatives and aerodynamic forces. The objective is to size a tail such as it develops at least the same static stability derivatives than a conventional reference aircraft. The optimum is obtained minimizing its weight. The weight is estimated through two methods: adapted Farrar£s method and a statistical method. The solution reached is heavier than the reference, but it reduces the wetted area.

  17. Threshold electric field in unconventional density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóra, Balázs; Virosztek, Attila; Maki, Kazumi

    2001-07-01

    As it is well known most charge-density waves (CDW's) and spin-density waves exhibit nonlinear transport with well-defined threshold electric field ET. Here we study theoretically the threshold electric field of unconventional density waves. We find that the threshold field increases monotonically with temperature without divergent behavior at Tc, unlike the one in conventional CDW. The present result in the three-dimensional weak pinning limit appears to describe rather well the threshold electric field observed recently in the low-temperature phase of α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4.

  18. Unconventional screening approaches for antibiotic discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farha, Maya A; Brown, Eric D

    2015-09-01

    The dramatic rise in microbial drug resistance in recent years has led to ongoing searches for novel drugs to add to the armory against infectious disease. Nevertheless, a paucity of new antibacterial drugs in discovery and development pipelines using traditional approaches has prompted a variety of unconventional and disruptive strategies for antibacterial drug discovery. Herein, we review recent nontraditional approaches that have been piloted for early drug discovery efforts. These unique methodologies open new avenues for finding the next generation of antimicrobials. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Amplification Effects and Unconventional Monetary Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile BASTIDON GILLES

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Global financial crises trigger off amplification effects, which allow relatively small shocks to propagate through the whole financial system. For this reason, the range of Central banks policies is now widening beyond conventional monetary policies and lending of last resort. The aim of this paper is to establish a rule for this practice. The model is based on the formalization of funding conditions in various types of markets. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the “unconventional monetary policies”, and especially quantify government bonds purchases by the Central bank.

  20. Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Thacker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trillions of liters of wastewater from oil and gas extraction are generated annually in the US. The contribution from unconventional drilling operations (UDO, such as hydraulic fracturing, to this volume will likely continue to increase in the foreseeable future. The chemical content of wastewater from UDO varies with region, operator, and elapsed time after production begins. Detailed chemical analyses may be used to determine its content, select appropriate treatment options, and identify its source in cases of environmental contamination. In this study, one wastewater sample each from direct effluent, a disposal well, and a waste pit, all in West Texas, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, high performance ion chromatography, total organic carbon/total nitrogen analysis, and pH and conductivity analysis. Several compounds known to compose hydraulic fracturing fluid were detected among two of the wastewater samples including 2-butoxyethanol, alkyl amines, and cocamide diethanolamines, toluene, and o-xylene. Due both to its quantity and quality, proper management of wastewater from UDO will be essential.

  1. International gas turbine congress 1999 Kobe. Technical program; 1999 nen kokusai gas turbine kaigi hokoku. Ronbun kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaru, T. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-20

    Presented at the above-named congress were 6 keynote speeches, 31 lectures on special fields in an organized session, and 112 lectures on general technologies. The keynotes speeches were Industrial Gas Turbines in a Globally Competitive Market and Environmental Regulations, by Ichiro Fukue of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.; Gas Turbine Combustion and Emission Abatement Technology - Current and Projected Status, by D. W. Bahr; State of the Art and Future of Turbine Technology, by John D. Denton; Gas Turbine Compressor Technology: Status and Opportunities, by E. M. Greitzer and David C. Wisler; Commercial Aircraft Gas Turbines in 21st Century, by Genji Ito of Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.; and Gas Turbine Hot Parts Maintenance and Repair Technology, by Tomohiro Honma of Toshiba Corporation. The lectures on special fields were 5 on ceramic gas turbines; 5 on gas turbines for ships and industries; 4 on advanced combined cycle; 5 on advanced materials and coatings; 7 on HYPR-HST/SST (Super/Hypersonic Transport Propulsion System); and 6 on nonstationary aerodynamics and vibration. There were 112 lectures on general technologies involving development and performance, aerodynamics, heat transfer, combustion, and element parts and materials. Also, there was panel discussion. (NEDO)

  2. Analysis of cutaneous and internal gill gas exchange morphology in early larval amphibians, Pseudophryne bibronii and Crinia georgiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Casey A; Seymour, Roger S

    2012-08-01

    This study uses stereological techniques to examine body, internal gill and cardiovascular morphology of two larval amphibians, Pseudophryne bibronii and Crinia georgiana, to evaluate the roles of diffusive and convective gas exchange. Gosner stage 27 specimens were prepared for light microscopy and six parallel sections of equal distance taken through the body as well as a further six through the heart and internal gills. Body, internal gill and heart volume as well as body and internal gill surface areas were determined. The harmonic mean distance across the internal gills was also measured and used to estimate oxygen diffusive conductance, DO₂. The species were of similar body size and surface area, but the heart and internal gills were larger in P. bibronii, which may represent precursors for greater growth of the species beyond stage 27. The much larger surface area of the skin compared to the internal gills in both species suggests it is the main site for gas exchange, with the gills supplementing oxygen uptake. The sparse cutaneous capillary network suggests diffusion is the main oxygen transport mechanism across the skin and directly into deeper tissues. A numerical model that simplifies larval shape, and has an internal (axial vessels) and external oxygen source, confirms that diffusion is able to maintain tissue oxygen with limited convective input.

  3. Hadronic Matter with Internal Symmetries and its Consequences: An Expanding Hadronic Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Turko, Ludwik

    1994-01-01

    We consider an ideal gas of massive hadrons in thermal and chemical equilibrium. The gas expands longitudinally in accordance with Bjorken law. Strangeness and baryon number conservation is taken into account. This gas has different features as compared to the pion gas.

  4. Geomechanical Properties of Unconventional Shale Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad O. Eshkalak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production from unconventional reservoirs has gained an increased attention among operators in North America during past years and is believed to secure the energy demand for next decades. Economic production from unconventional reservoirs is mainly attributed to realizing the complexities and key fundamentals of reservoir formation properties. Geomechanical well logs (including well logs such as total minimum horizontal stress, Poisson’s ratio, and Young, shear, and bulk modulus are secured source to obtain these substantial shale rock properties. However, running these geomechanical well logs for the entire asset is not a common practice that is associated with the cost of obtaining these well logs. In this study, synthetic geomechanical well logs for a Marcellus shale asset located in southern Pennsylvania are generated using data-driven modeling. Full-field geomechanical distributions (map and volumes of this asset for five geomechanical properties are also created using general geostatistical methods coupled with data-driven modeling. The results showed that synthetic geomechanical well logs and real field logs fall into each other when the input dataset has not seen the real field well logs. Geomechanical distributions of the Marcellus shale improved significantly when full-field data is incorporated in the geostatistical calculations.

  5. Modeling electron fractionalization with unconventional Fock spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobanera, Emilio

    2017-08-01

    It is shown that certain fractionally-charged quasiparticles can be modeled on D-dimensional lattices in terms of unconventional yet simple Fock algebras of creation and annihilation operators. These unconventional Fock algebras are derived from the usual fermionic algebra by taking roots (the square root, cubic root, etc) of the usual fermionic creation and annihilation operators. If the fermions carry non-Abelian charges, then this approach fractionalizes the Abelian charges only. In particular, the mth-root of a spinful fermion carries charge e/m and spin 1/2. Just like taking a root of a complex number, taking a root of a fermion yields a mildly non-unique result. As a consequence, there are several possible choices of quantum exchange statistics for fermion-root quasiparticles. These choices are tied to the dimensionality D=1,2,3,\\ldots of the lattice by basic physical considerations. One particular family of fermion-root quasiparticles is directly connected to the parafermion zero-energy modes expected to emerge in certain mesoscopic devices involving fractional quantum Hall states. Hence, as an application of potential mesoscopic interest, I investigate numerically the hybridization of Majorana and parafermion zero-energy edge modes caused by fractionalizing but charge-conserving tunneling.

  6. Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Garvin A; O'Donoughue, Patrick; Arent, Douglas J; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-08-05

    Recent technological advances in the recovery of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas, have served to dramatically increase domestic production and reserve estimates for the United States and internationally. This trend has led to lowered prices and increased scrutiny on production practices. Questions have been raised as to how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the life cycle of shale gas production and use compares with that of conventionally produced natural gas or other fuel sources such as coal. Recent literature has come to different conclusions on this point, largely due to differing assumptions, comparison baselines, and system boundaries. Through a meta-analytical procedure we call harmonization, we develop robust, analytically consistent, and updated comparisons of estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for electricity produced from shale gas, conventionally produced natural gas, and coal. On a per-unit electrical output basis, harmonization reveals that median estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas-generated electricity are similar to those for conventional natural gas, with both approximately half that of the central tendency of coal. Sensitivity analysis on the harmonized estimates indicates that assumptions regarding liquids unloading and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of wells have the greatest influence on life cycle GHG emissions, whereby shale gas life cycle GHG emissions could approach the range of best-performing coal-fired generation under certain scenarios. Despite clarification of published estimates through harmonization, these initial assessments should be confirmed through methane emissions measurements at components and in the atmosphere and through better characterization of EUR and practices.

  7. Forecasting unconventional resource productivity - A spatial Bayesian model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, J.; O'sullivan, F.

    2015-12-01

    Today's low prices mean that unconventional oil and gas development requires ever greater efficiency and better development decision-making. Inter and intra-field variability in well productivity, which is a major contemporary driver of uncertainty regarding resource size and its economics is driven by factors including geological conditions, well and completion design (which companies vary as they seek to optimize their performance), and uncertainty about the nature of fracture propagation. Geological conditions are often not be well understood early on in development campaigns, but nevertheless critical assessments and decisions must be made regarding the value of drilling an area and the placement of wells. In these situations, location provides a reasonable proxy for geology and the "rock quality." We propose a spatial Bayesian model for forecasting acreage quality, which improves decision-making by leveraging available production data and provides a framework for statistically studying the influence of different parameters on well productivity. Our approach consists of subdividing a field into sections and forming prior distributions for productivity in each section based on knowledge about the overall field. Production data from wells is used to update these estimates in a Bayesian fashion, improving model accuracy far more rapidly and with less sensitivity to outliers than a model that simply establishes an "average" productivity in each section. Additionally, forecasts using this model capture the importance of uncertainty—either due to a lack of information or for areas that demonstrate greater geological risk. We demonstrate the forecasting utility of this method using public data and also provide examples of how information from this model can be combined with knowledge about a field's geology or changes in technology to better quantify development risk. This approach represents an important shift in the way that production data is used to guide

  8. Controlling internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the corrosion inhibitor selection software (CISS) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The internal pitting corrosion of oil and gas pipelines can be effectively controlled through the addition of inhibitors. However, simulation of field operating conditions is necessary because the performance of corrosion inhibitors is influenced by several interacting parameters. This paper reviewed the Corrosion Inhibitor Selection Software (CISS) program. The materials transported in production pipelines are often multiphase, containing oil, aqueous (brine), and gas phases. The corrosion rate and inhibitor performance are influenced by composition, temperature, flow and pressure. Steel composition and structure also influence both the rate and type of corrosion. Improvements in corrosion test methodologies are aimed at simulating field corrosion conditions in the laboratory in a compressed time-scale. The parameters that influence the types of corrosion must be simulated in order for laboratory methodology to be relevant. The variables controlled should be quantifiable. There should also be a correlation between the influence of variables controlled in the laboratory and of the same variables in the field. The CISS program evaluates inhibitors in the following 4 steps: (1) pipeline operating conditions, (2) selection of laboratory methodology, (3) determination of operating conditions for the laboratory methodologies, and (4) selection of corrosion inhibitors. The 7 objectives of the CISS program are to optimize the strategies of inhibitor selection for pipeline applications; determine the hydrodynamic parameters of the pipe from field operating conditions; select appropriate laboratory methodologies for evaluating inhibitors; determine flow conditions for high-shear laboratory methodologies; develop a qualitative relationship between corrosion rates of non-shear laboratory methodologies and of pipelines; evaluate corrosion inhibitors based on results from different laboratory methodologies; and design cost-effective inhibitors for future applications. 47 refs

  9. Unconventional Fano effect and off-resonance field enhancement in plasmonic coated spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Arruda, Tiago J; Pinheiro, Felipe A

    2013-01-01

    We investigate light scattering by coated spheres composed of a dispersive plasmonic core and a dielectric shell. By writing the absorption cross-section in terms of the internal electromagnetic fields, we demonstrate it is an observable sensitive to interferences that ultimately lead to the Fano effect. Specially, we show that unconventional Fano resonances, recently discovered for homogeneous spheres with large dielectric permittivities, can also occur for metallic spheres coated with single dielectric layers. These resonances arise from the interference between two electromagnetic modes with the same multipole moment inside the shell and not from interactions between various plasmon modes of different layers of the particle. In contrast to the case of homogeneous spheres, unconventional Fano resonances in coated spheres exist even in the Rayleigh limit. These resonances can induce an off-resonance field enhancement, which is approximately one order of magnitude larger than the one achieved with conventiona...

  10. SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS, BAY CITY, MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SITE Program funded a field demonstration to evaluate the Eco Logic Gas-Phase Chemical Reduction Process developed by ELI Eco Logic International Inc. (ELI), Ontario, Canada. The Demonstration took place at the Middleground Landfill in Bay City, Michigan using landfill wa...

  11. Developing and testing an internal audit tool of the psychosocial work environment in the oil and gas industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vestly Bergh, L.I.; Hinna, S.; Leka, S.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and discuss a pilot study for conducting internal psychosocial risk auditing in the oil and gas industry, focusing on offshore units. Psychosocial risk auditing is a proactive method for monitoring the status of psychosocial factors influencing the risk of s

  12. International greenhouse gas emissions trading : who should be held liable for the non-compliance by sellers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.X.

    1999-01-01

    Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol authorizes emissions trading, but the rules governing emissions trading have been deferred to subsequent conferences. In designing and implementing an international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading scheme, assigning liability has been considered to be one of th

  13. The Nickel Assisted Decomposition of Pentanal in the Gas Phase at Various Internal Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Adam; Bellert, Darrin

    2014-06-01

    The rate constants for the dissociation of Ni+Pentanal at various internal energies (15000 cm-1-18800 cm-1) were measured using a custom time of flight instrument. Clusters are generated in a large source chamber by ablating the surface of a rotating nickel rod with an excimer and entraining the ablated metal atoms in a helium gas plume slightly doped with pentanal vapor. The molecular beam enters a Wiley-Mclaren type acceleration grid, and cations are accelerated along a 1.8 meter long time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS). At the other end of the TOF is a sector and a detector. The sector allows ions of a particular kinetic energy through to the detector. If an ion breaks apart in the time it takes to reach the sector, the mass (and therefore kinetic energy) is reduced, and the sector can be set to allow these fragment ions to reach the detector (fig 2). In our experiment, the energy required to initiate the breakdown is provided by a laser pulse between 15000 cm-1 and 18800 cm-1.

  14. Unconventional Fermi surface in an insulating state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tan, B. S. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hsu, Y. -T. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Zeng, B. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Hatnean, M. Ciomaga [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Zhu, Z. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hartstein, M. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kiourlappou, M. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Srivastava, A. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Johannes, M. D. [Center for Computational Materials Science, Washington, DC (United States); Murphy, T. P. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Park, J. -H. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Balicas, L. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Lonzarich, G. G. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Balakrishnan, G. [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Sebastian, Suchitra E. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-17

    Insulators occur in more than one guise; a recent finding was a class of topological insulators, which host a conducting surface juxtaposed with an insulating bulk. Here, we report the observation of an unusual insulating state with an electrically insulating bulk that simultaneously yields bulk quantum oscillations with characteristics of an unconventional Fermi liquid. We present quantum oscillation measurements of magnetic torque in high-purity single crystals of the Kondo insulator SmB6, which reveal quantum oscillation frequencies characteristic of a large three-dimensional conduction electron Fermi surface similar to the metallic rare earth hexaborides such as PrB6 and LaB6. As a result, the quantum oscillation amplitude strongly increases at low temperatures, appearing strikingly at variance with conventional metallic behavior.

  15. Environmental impacts of fracking in the exploration and production of natural gas from unconventional deposits. Risk assessment, recommendations for action and evaluation of existing legal regulations and administrative structures; Umweltauswirkungen von Fracking bei der Aufsuchung und Gewinnung von Erdgas aus unkonventionellen Lagerstaetten. Risikobewertung, Handlungsempfehlungen und Evaluierung bestehender rechtlicher Regelungen und Verwaltungsstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiners, Georg; Denneborg, Michael; Mueller, Frank [ahu AG Wasser - Boden - Geomatik, Aachen (Germany); Bergmann, Axel; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Dopp, Elke; Hansen, Carsten; Schueth, Christoph [IWW Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wasser - Beratungs- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    We examine the water-related environmental impacts and the risks for human health and the environment that could potentially be caused by hydraulic fracturing (fracking) during exploration and exploitation of unconventional natural gas reservoirs in Germany. This study covers both scientific-technical aspects and the existing mining and environmental regulations. Both were analyzed with respect to consistency, differences and current gaps of knowledge and lack of relevant information. After a general introduction, this study is divided into four sections: We first focus on the description of geospatial conditions, technical aspects and the chemical additives employed by hydraulic fracturing (Part A) and the existing regulatory and administrative framework (Part B), before we conduct a risk and deficit analysis (Part C) and derive recommendations for further actions and proceedings (Part D). The foundation of a sound risk analysis is a description of the current system, the relevant effect pathways and their interactions. We describe known and assumed unconventional natural gas reservoirs in Germany based on publicly available information. We present qualitatively the relevant system interactions for selected geosystems and assess potential technical and geological effect pathways. With regard to the technical aspects, we describe the principles of rock mechanics and provide an overview of the technical fracturing process. In terms of groundwater protection, the key focus is on borehole completion, modelling of fracture propagation and the longterm stability of the borehole (incl. cementation). The injected fracturing fluids contain proppants and several additional chemical additives. The evaluation of fracturing fluids used to date in Germany shows that even in newer fluids several additives were used which exhibit critical properties and/or for which an assessment of their behaviour and effects in the environment is not possible or limited due to lack of the

  16. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Paris Basin, France, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phoung A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 222 million barrels of unconventional oil; 2,092 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas; 18 million barrels of conventional oil; and 47 billion cubic feet of conventional gas resources in the Paris Basin of France.

  17. The Benefits of Internalizing Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Externalities in the US Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kristen E.

    The emission of pollutants from energy use has effects on both local air quality and the global climate, but the price of energy does not reflect these externalities. This study aims to analyze the effect that internalizing these externalities in the cost of energy would have on the US energy system, emissions, and human health. In this study, we model different policy scenarios in which fees are added to emissions related to generation and use of energy. The fees are based on values of damages estimated in the literature and are applied to upstream and combustion emissions related to electricity generation, industrial energy use, transportation energy use, residential energy use, and commercial energy use. The energy sources and emissions are modeled through 2055 in five-year time steps. The emissions in 2045 are incorporated into a continental-scale atmospheric chemistry and transport model, CMAQ, to determine the change in air quality due to different emissions reduction scenarios. A benefit analysis tool, BenMAP, is used with the air quality results to determine the monetary benefit of emissions reductions related to the improved air quality. We apply fees to emissions associated with health impacts, climate change, and a combination of both. We find that the fees we consider lead to reductions in targeted emissions as well as co-reducing non-targeted emissions. For fees on the electric sector alone, health impacting pollutant (HIP) emissions reductions are achieved mainly through control devices while Greenhouse Gas (GHG) fees are addressed through changes in generation technologies. When sector specific fees are added, reductions come mainly from the industrial and electricity generation sectors, and are achieved through a mix of energy efficiency, increased use of renewables, and control devices. Air quality is improved in almost all areas of the country with fees, including when only GHG fees are applied. Air quality tends to improve more in regions with

  18. The case for and against using ball-drop multi-stage fracturing systems in unconventional horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, Lyle V. [Society of Petroleum Engineers (United States); Shah, Koras [StrataGen (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the recent years, the development of unconventional oil and gas production has been made possible by the increasing oil prices and the implementation of new technologies. Multi stage stimulation tools have been developed to stimulate horizontal wells in a more efficient manner. The aim of this paper is to present the advantages and disadvantages of using those tools in unconventional matrices and naturally fractured based oil and gas completions. The effects of multi stage stimulation tools in horizontal wells are explored in terms of production rate, ultimate recovery and service costs. Results showed that the choice of completion system depends on reservoir perm and pressure and fracture conductivity and spacing; in addition, net present value was found to be a good means to assess the benefits of each completion system. This paper pointed out that the optimal technique to stimulate horizontal wells depends on the reservoir's properties.

  19. Field Observations of Methane Emissions from Unconventional and Conventional Fossil Fuel Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M.; Lindenmaier, R.; Arata, C.; Costigan, K. R.; Frankenberg, C.; Kort, E. A.; Rahn, T. A.; Henderson, B. G.; Love, S. P.; Aubrey, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    Energy from methane (CH4) has lower carbon dioxide and air pollutant emissions per unit energy produced than coal or oil making it a desirable fossil fuel. Hydraulic fracturing is allowing United States to harvest the nation's abundant domestic shale gas reservoirs to achieve energy independence. However, CH4 is a gas that is hard to contain during mining, processing, transport and end-use. Therefore fugitive CH4 leaks occur that are reported in bottom up inventories by the EPA. Recent targeted field observations at selected plays have provided top down CH4 leak estimates that are larger than the reported EPA inventories. Furthermore, no long-term regional baselines are available to delineate leaks from unconventional mining operations from historical conventional mining. We will report and compare observations of fugitive CH4 leaks from conventional and unconventional mining to understand changes from technology shifts. We will report in situ and regional column measurements of CH4, its isotopologue 13CH4 and ethane (C2H6) at our Four Corners site near Farmington, NM. The region has substantial coal bed methane, conventional oil and gas production, processing and distribution with minimal hydraulic fracturing activity. We observe large enhancements in in situ and regional column CH4 with distinct time dependence. Our in situ 13CH4 observations and remote C2H6/CH4 provide strong evidence of thermogenic sources. Comparisons of WRF-simulations with emissions inventory (Edgar) with our observations show that the fugitive CH4 leaks from conventional mining are 3 times greater than reported. We also compare in situ mobile surveys of fugitive CH4 and 13CH4 leak signals in basins with conventional (San Juan) mining and unconventional (Permian and Powder River) mining. A large number of active and closed wells were sampled in these regions. Furthermore, play scale surveys on public roads allowed us to gain a regional perspective. The composition of atmospheric 13CH4

  20. Embryo impacts and gas giant mergers II: Diversity of Hot Jupiters' internal structure

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shang-Fei; Lin, D N C; Li, Shu-Lin

    2014-01-01

    We consider the origin of compact, short-period, Jupiter-mass planets. We propose that their diverse structure is caused by giant impacts of embryos and super-Earths or mergers with other gas giants during the formation and evolution of these hot Jupiters. Through a series of numerical simulations, we show that typical head-on collisions generally lead to total coalescence of impinging gas giants. Although extremely energetic collisions can disintegrate the envelope of gas giants, these events seldom occur. During oblique and moderately energetic collisions, the merger products retain higher fraction of the colliders' cores than their envelopes. They can also deposit considerable amount of spin angular momentum to the gas giants and desynchronize their spins from their orbital mean motion. We find that the oblateness of gas giants can be used to infer the impact history. Subsequent dissipation of stellar tide inside the planets' envelope can lead to runaway inflation and potentially a substantial loss of gas ...

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from the international maritime transport of New Zealand's imports and exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Warren B.; Howitt, Oliver J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Smith, Inga J., E-mail: inga@physics.otago.ac.n [Department of Physics, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2011-03-15

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international maritime transport are exempt from liabilities under the Kyoto Protocol. Research into quantifying these emissions is ongoing, and influences policy proposals to reduce emissions. This paper presents a cargo-based analysis of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from New Zealand's international maritime transport of goods. Maritime transport moves 99.5% (by mass) of New Zealand's internationally traded products. It is estimated that 73% of visiting vessels' activity can be directly attributed to the movement of goods in and out of New Zealand. A cargo-based methodology was used to estimate that the international maritime transport of New Zealand's imports and exports consumed 2.5 million tonnes (Mt; 2.6 billion litres) of fuel during the year 2007, which generated 7.7 Mt of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. Double-counting of emissions would occur if a similar method was applied to all New Zealand's trading partners. In contrast, since few large vessels refuel in New Zealand, the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory listed 2007 international maritime transportation emissions as 0.98 Mt of CO{sub 2}, calculated from fuel bunkered for international transport. The results, therefore, show a significant difference between activity-based and bunker-fuel methodologies in quantifying New Zealand's emissions. International policy implications are discussed. - Research highlights: {yields} Cargo-based analysis of GHG emissions from New Zealand's international maritime transport of goods. {yields} 7.7 Mt of CO{sub 2} estimated from international maritime transport of NZ's 2007 imports and exports. {yields} 73% of visiting vessels' 2007 activity attributed to the movement of goods in and out of NZ. {yields} The results were significantly different from NZ's GHG Inventory bunker-fuel derived emissions figure. {yields} Detailed approach for international transport emissions

  2. The Geopolitical Impact of Shale Gas: The Modelling Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auping, W.L.; De Jong, S.; Pruyt, E.; Kwakkel, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    The US’ shale gas revolution, a spectacular increase in natural gas extraction from previously unconventional sources, has led to considerable lower gas prices in North America. This study focusses on consequences of the shale gas revolution on state stability of traditional oil and gas exporting co

  3. Heat transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled blades for heavy-duty gas turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, B; Semmler, K; von Wolfersdorf, J

    2001-05-01

    The present review paper, although far from being complete, aims to give an overview about the present state of the art in the field of heat transfer technology for internal cooling of gas turbine blades. After showing some typical modern cooled blades, the different methods to enhance heat transfer in the internal passages of air-cooled blades are discussed. The complicated flows occurring in bends are described in detail, because of their increasing importance for modern cooling designs. A short review about testing of cooling design elements is given, showing the interaction of the different cooling features as well. The special focus of the present review has been put on the cooling of blades for heavy-duty gas turbines, which show several differences compared to aero-engine blades.

  4. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system with directed internal gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael Jerome; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2010-02-09

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an inlet adapted to introduce gas into the interior of the vessel, an outlet adapted to withdraw gas from the interior of the vessel, and an axis; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region; and (c) one or more gas flow control partitions disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and adapted to change a direction of gas flow within the vessel.

  5. Shaped Ni nanoparticles with an unconventional hcp crystalline structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanyeon; Kim, Cheonghee; Lee, Kangtaek; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2014-06-18

    Hourglass-shaped Ni nanoparticles were synthesized with a hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure. The unconventional crystalline structure could be stabilized by intensive utilization of hexadecylamine. The dense organic layer on the surface protected the meta-stable crystalline structure.

  6. 5th international exhaust gas and particulate emissions forum. Proceedings; 5. Internationales Forum Abgas- und Partikelemissionen. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-11

    The Proceedings of the 5th International Exhaust Gas and Particulate Emissions Forum contains 22 printed contributions as well as a CD-ROM. The titles of them are: (1) Diesel Emissions Control in the United States - 2010 and Beyond; (2) The MBE90 commercial vehicle engine for EPA '07 emissions regulations; (3) Concepts for engines and exhaust-gas cleaning systems for heavy duty trucks of the future; (4) HD Engine Technology for Near-Zero Emissions and Lowest Cost of Ownership; (5) (Partially-) Homogeneous Diesel Combustion; (6) Exhaust gas sensors for NOx storage catalysts and ammonia-SCR systems; (7) Sensors for modern exhaust gas after-treatment systems; (8) New reducing agents for low NOx-SCR Techno-logy; (9) Exhaust gas Aftertreatment on Lean Burn Gasoline Direct Injection Engines: The System of TWC and NOx-Storage Catalyst; (10) New Platinum/Palladium based catalyzed filter technologies for future passenger car applications; (11) Development of a Roadway Hydrocarbon Sorption Model and Characterization of a Novel PM Generator; (12) Requirements for current and future particulate measurement instrumentation from the point of view of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt; (13) Standardized dilution conditions for gravimetric PM sampling - measures to assure results that correlate; (14) Particle Counting according PMP; (15) Future high-confidence measurement of diesel particulate emissions for approval and development; (16) New developments in optical instrumentation for exhaust gas; (17) Simultaneous Detection of Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Components by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy; (18) Boundaries of modern exhaust gas instrumentation; (19) Raising quality and reducing application effort through efficient data input to the particulate filter load model for a EURO5 diesel car; (20) Stop-start operation of diesel engines - modified require-ment for exhaust gas after-treatment?; (21) Particulates emission with Biodiesel B30 impact on CSF management; (22

  7. ¨ A Dilemma of Abundance: Governance Challenges of Reconciling Shale Gas Development and Climate Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karena Shaw

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas proponents argue this unconventional fossil fuel offers a “bridge” towards a cleaner energy system by offsetting higher-carbon fuels such as coal. The technical feasibility of reconciling shale gas development with climate action remains contested. However, we here argue that governance challenges are both more pressing and more profound. Reconciling shale gas and climate action requires institutions capable of responding effectively to uncertainty; intervening to mandate emissions reductions and internalize costs to industry; and managing the energy system strategically towards a lower carbon future. Such policy measures prove challenging, particularly in jurisdictions that stand to benefit economically from unconventional fuels. We illustrate this dilemma through a case study of shale gas development in British Columbia, Canada, a global leader on climate policy that is nonetheless struggling to manage gas development for mitigation. The BC case is indicative of the constraints jurisdictions face both to reconcile gas development and climate action, and to manage the industry adequately to achieve social licence and minimize resistance. More broadly, the case attests to the magnitude of change required to transform our energy systems to mitigate climate change.

  8. Les perspectives du commerce international de gaz naturel d'ici 2000 The World Natural Gas Trade Outlook to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valais M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'abondance des ressources gazières mondiales et l'excellence des qualités du gaz naturel, comme combustible et matière première pétrochimique, devraient lui permettre d'accroître sa pénétration sur les marchés énergétiques internationaux. Toutefois, la répartition géographique de ses réserves prouvées coïncide de moins en moins avec celle de sa consommation. En conséquence, la croissance du commerce international de gaz naturel apparaît comme une nécessité de plus en plus vitale du développement mondial de ses marchés. A partir d'une étude prospective menée au sein de l'Association Technique de l'industrie du Gaz en France (ATG, le présent mémoire se propose d'analyser les perspectives des échanges gaziers internationaux d'ici l'horizon 2000. The abundance of the world reserves of natural gas and the excellence of its qualities as a fuel and a petrochemical feedstock should enable natural gas to increase its penetration on international energy markets. However the geographic distribution of its proved reserves coincides less and less with the distribution of its consumption. Therefore, the increase in international gas trade appears more and more to be of vital necessity for the world development of its markets. On the basis of a study carried out within the Association Technique de l'industrie du Gaz en France (ATG, the present paper will attempt to analyse the outlook for international gas trade between now and the year 2000.

  9. Unconventional dentistry: Part III. Legal and regulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, B H

    2000-10-01

    This is the third in a series of 5 articles providing a contemporary overview and introduction to unconventional dentistry (UD) and its correlation to unconventional medicine (UM). UD presents issues of dental quackery, fraud and malpractice, and it also engenders professional concerns about public protection and professional risks. Case reports illustrate numerous issues. The reader is encouraged to evaluate the cases for problems related to malpractice, fraud, ethics, behaviours and professionalism. A discussion of ethical issues is beyond the scope of this paper.

  10. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION - ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patented Eco Logic Process employs a gas-phase reduction reaction of hydrogen with organic and chlorinated organic compounds at elevated temperatures to convert aqueous and oily hazardous contaminants into a hydrocarbon-rich gas product. After passing through a scrubber, the ...

  11. Unconventional neutron sources for oil well logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, C.M., E-mail: cfrankle@lanl.gov; Dale, G.E.

    2013-09-21

    Americium–Beryllium (AmBe) radiological neutron sources have been widely used in the petroleum industry for well logging purposes. There is strong desire on the part of various governmental and regulatory bodies to find alternate sources due to the high activity and small size of AmBe sources. Other neutron sources are available, both radiological ({sup 252}Cf) and electronic accelerator driven (D–D and D–T). All of these, however, have substantially different neutron energy spectra from AmBe and thus cause significantly different responses in well logging tools. We report on simulations performed using unconventional sources and techniques to attempt to better replicate the porosity and carbon/oxygen ratio responses a well logging tool would see from AmBe neutrons. The AmBe response of these two types of tools is compared to the response from {sup 252}Cf, D–D, D–T, filtered D–T, and T–T sources. -- Highlights: • AmBe sources are widely used for well logging purposes. • Governmental bodies would prefer to minimize AmBe use. • Other neutron sources are available, both radiological and electronic. • Tritium–tritium spectrum neutrons have similar logging tool response to AmBe. • A tritium–tritium neutron generator may be a viable AmBe replacement.

  12. "Unconventional" Neutralizing Activity of Antibodies Against HIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies are recognized to be one of the essential elements of the adaptive immune response that must be induced by an effective vaccine against HIV. However, only a limited number of antibodies have been identified to neutralize a broad range of primary isolates of HIV-1 and attempts to induce such antibodies by immunization were unsuccessful. The difficulties to generate such antibodies are mainly due to intrinsic properties of HIV-1 envelope spikes, such as high sequence diversity, heavy glycosylation, and inducible and transient nature of certain epitopes. In vitro neutralizing antibodies are identified using "conventional" neutralization assay which uses phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human PBMCs as target cells. Thus, in essence the assay evaluates HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells. Recently, several laboratories including us demonstrated that some monoclonal antibodies and HIV-1-specific polyclonal IgG purified from patient sera, although they do not have neutralizing activity when tested by the "conventional" neutralization assay, do exhibit potent and broad neutralizing activity in "unconventional" ways. The neutralizing activity of these antibodies and IgG fractions is acquired through post-translational modifications, through opsonization of virus particles into macrophages and immature dendritic cells (iDCs), or through expression of antibodies on the surface of HIV-1-susceptible cells. This review will focus on recent findings of this area and point out their potential applications in the development of preventive strategies against HIV.

  13. YBCO SQUIDs with unconventional current phase relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauch, T. [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: Thilo.bauch@mc2.chalmers.se; Johansson, J.; Cedergren, K. [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Lindstroem, T. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Lombardi, F. [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-10-01

    We have studied the dynamics of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) dc sperconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) characterized by an unconventional Josephson current phase relation (CPR). We have focused on SQUID configurations with Josephson junctions where the lobe of the order parameter in one electrode is facing a node in the other electrode. This order parameter arrangement should enhance the appearance of a sin(2{phi}) term in the CPR. The response of the critical current of the dc SQUID, under the effect of an external magnetic field, has been measured in temperature, down to 20 mK. Our experimental data have been compared with numerical simulations of the SQUIDs dynamics by considering a CPR of a single junction of the form I({phi}) = I{sup I} sin({phi}) - I{sup II} sin(2{phi}) where I{sup I} and I{sup II} are, respectively, the first and second harmonic component. In our devices the values of the sin(2{phi}) term are such that the fundamental state of the SQUID is naturally double degenerate. This is of great relevance for applications of d-wave SQUIDs in quantum information processing.

  14. Nanoarchitectonic atomic switch networks for unconventional computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demis, Eleanor C.; Aguilera, Renato; Scharnhorst, Kelsey; Aono, Masakazu; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.

    2016-11-01

    Developments in computing hardware are constrained by the operating principles of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, fabrication limits of nanometer scaled features, and difficulties in effective utilization of high density interconnects. This set of obstacles has promulgated a search for alternative, energy efficient approaches to computing inspired by natural systems including the mammalian brain. Atomic switch network (ASN) devices are a unique platform specifically developed to overcome these current barriers to realize adaptive neuromorphic technology. ASNs are composed of a massively interconnected network of atomic switches with a density of ∼109 units/cm2 and are structurally reminiscent of the neocortex of the brain. ASNs possess both the intrinsic capabilities of individual memristive switches, such as memory capacity and multi-state switching, and the characteristics of large-scale complex systems, such as power-law dynamics and non-linear transformations of input signals. Here we describe the successful nanoarchitectonic fabrication of next-generation ASN devices using combined top-down and bottom-up processing and experimentally demonstrate their utility as reservoir computing hardware. Leveraging their intrinsic dynamics and transformative input/output (I/O) behavior enabled waveform regression of periodic signals in the absence of embedded algorithms, further supporting the potential utility of ASN technology as a platform for unconventional approaches to computing.

  15. Unconventional Use of Intense Pulsed Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Piccolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature, intense pulsed light (IPL represents a versatile tool in the treatment of some dermatological conditions (i.e., pigmentation disorders, hair removal, and acne, due to its wide range of wavelengths. The authors herein report on 58 unconventional but effective uses of IPL in several cutaneous diseases, such as rosacea (10 cases, port-wine stain (PWS (10 cases, disseminated porokeratosis (10 cases, pilonidal cyst (3 cases, seborrheic keratosis (10 cases, hypertrophic scar (5 cases and keloid scar (5 cases, Becker’s nevus (2 cases, hidradenitis suppurativa (2 cases, and sarcoidosis (1 case. Our results should suggest that IPL could represent a valid therapeutic support and option by providing excellent outcomes and low side effects, even though it should be underlined that the use and the effectiveness of IPL are strongly related to the operator’s experience (acquired by attempting at least one specific course on the use of IPL and one-year experience in a specialized centre. Moreover, the daily use of these devices will surely increase clinical experience and provide new information, thus enhancing long-term results and improving IPL effectiveness.

  16. Embryo impacts and gas giant mergers - II. Diversity of hot Jupiters' internal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shang-Fei; Agnor, Craig B.; Lin, D. N. C.; Li, Shu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    We consider the origin of compact, short-period, Jupiter-mass planets. We propose that their diverse structure is caused by giant impacts of embryos and super-Earths or mergers with other gas giants during the formation and evolution of these hot Jupiters. Through a series of numerical simulations, we show that typical head-on collisions generally lead to total coalescence of impinging gas giants. Although extremely energetic collisions can disintegrate the envelope of gas giants, these events seldom occur. During oblique and moderately energetic collisions, the merger products retain higher fraction of the colliders' cores than their envelopes. They can also deposit considerable amount of spin angular momentum to the gas giants and desynchronize their spins from their orbital mean motion. We find that the oblateness of gas giants can be used to infer the impact history. Subsequent dissipation of stellar tide inside the planets' envelope can lead to runaway inflation and potentially a substantial loss of gas through Roche lobe overflow. The impact of super-Earths on parabolic orbits can also enlarge gas giant planets' envelope and elevates their tidal dissipation rate over ˜100 Myr time scale. Since giant impacts occur stochastically with a range of impactor sizes and energies, their diverse outcomes may account for the dispersion in the mass-radius relationship of hot Jupiters.

  17. An Effective Continuum Model for the Gas Evolution in Internal Steam Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2002-06-11

    This report examines the gas phase growth from a supersaturated, slightly compressible, liquid in a porous medium, driven by heat transfer and controlled by the application of a constant-rate decline of the system pressure.

  18. A Technical Review of Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Rosli A. Bakar

    2008-01-01

    Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Engine conversion technology is well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For spark ignition engines there are two op...

  19. CURRENT LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL OIL AND GAS COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Lomakina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions of modern situation of the development of oil and gas branch of Russian economy are arisen with the accent to the problems, difficulties and role of high technologies in their overcoming. The comparative analysis of investment volumes and their efficiency in oil and gas branch of different countries is made. There is an attempt to investigate the reasons of the modern situation of this branch of economy and to give some recommendations.

  20. Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui

    2017-03-01

    At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe2), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.

  1. A Technical Review of Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed natural gas (CNG has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Engine conversion technology is well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For spark ignition engines there are two options, a bi-fuel conversion and use a dedicated to CNG engine. For compression ignition engines converted to run on natural gas, there are two main options discussed, there are dual-fuel engines and normal ignition can be initiated. Natural gas engines can operate at lean burn and stoichiometric conditions with different combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the CNG engines research and development fueled using CNG are highlighted to keep the output power, torque and emissions of natural gas engines comparable to their gasoline or diesel counterparts. The high activities for future CNG engines research and development to meet future CNG engines is recorded in the paper.

  2. Research on the internal pressure behavior of metal gas distribution pipelines with different types of tubing defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Stefan Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to approach an important subject related to natural gas distribution networks which, depending on the expansion of the localities, are composed of intercommunicating pipes, pressure reducing stations and branch connections fittings. The urban networks are the most complex ones and the rural areas networks are the simplest. However, irrespective of their installation, they must meet the safety operating requirements as much as possible. According to standards, all these components must be tight and pressure resistant. In this regard, we intend to approach a very important issue related to the behavior of the tubular steel material showing corrosion and/or material defects, and to the internal stress caused by the gas pressure on the walls of the tubing material.

  3. Estimates of Future Supply of International Greenhouse Gas Offsets: A Critical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Peter; Lazarus, Michael (Stockholm Environment Inst. (United States)), e-mail: mlaz@sei-us.org; Kelly, Alexia (World Resources Inst., (United States))

    2010-07-01

    This report reviews estimates of the projected availability (i.e., supply) of international offsets, evaluates the various methods used and outlines factors that should be incorporated into future analyses of international offset supply and quality. U.S. policymakers have relied on offsets from developing countries as a primary form of cost containment in proposed cap-and-trade legislation. These legislative proposals allow for emitters to use up to 1.5 billion tons CO{sub 2}e of offsets from developing countries to meet their annual compliance obligations. In this paper, we review estimates of the projected availability (i.e., supply) of international offsets, and evaluate the various methods used. We find that: (1) Estimates of supply of international offsets to global markets vary widely, with estimates differing by billions of tons CO{sub 2}e annually in 2020; (2) Despite the variation, existing studies suggest that by 2020 gross international offset supply will likely exceed U.S. demand for international offsets under current Congressional cap-and-trade designs; (3) Competition with governments and entities with emission reduction obligations (e.g. the EU), as well as with policies and measures undertaken by developing countries as part of their own mitigation contributions, could reduce the net offset supply available to U.S. entities; and (4) Several important offset program design and market factors that are central to future offset markets and credit issuance (e.g., sources of offset supply, program stringency and crediting methods, establishment of international governance and market structures) have yet to be systematically considered in offset supply assessments. This paper outlines factors that should be incorporated into future analyses of international offset supply and quality. 7 Such analyses could prove particularly germane as policy makers continue to deliberate on the role of international offsets, including whether and how to recognize credits

  4. Size and profitability in the international oil- and gas industry; Stoerrelse og loennsomhet i den internasjonale olje- og gassindustrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Mohn, Klaus; Espedal, Harald; Loevaas, Kjell

    2002-07-01

    Many industrial sectors have gone through a series of mergers and acquisitions. In the international oil- and gas industry this has produced new companies such as ExxonMobil and TotalFinaElf. BP and Amoco merged and then subjugated Atlantic Richfield (ARCO). ChevronTexaco has been established and ConocoPhillips are currently working on the same thing. Saga was previously acquired by Norsk Hydro and Statoil, and Shell recently bought Enterprise and Pennzoil-Quaker. Taking the stock market's principles for corporate analysis and valuation as a starting point, this article discusses the forces behind this consolidation process.

  5. The storage cell of the polarized H/D internal gas target of the HERMES experiment at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgarten, C; Carassiti, V; Ciullo, G; Court, G; Dalpiaz, P F; Garutti, E; Golendukhin, A; Graw, G; Haeberli, W; Henoch, M; Hertenberger, R; Koch, N; Kolster, H; Lenisa, P; Marukyan, H; Nass, A; Reggiani, D; Rith, K; Stancari, M; Steffens, E; Stewart, J; Wise, T

    2003-01-01

    The storage cell of the internal, longitudinally polarized, atomic gas target of the Hermes experiment is presented. The polarized atoms of hydrogen or deuterium are accumulated in an open-ended thin walled storage cell through which the circulating electron or positron beam of the HERA accelerator passes. The target areal density is 10 sup 1 sup 4 atoms/cm sup 2 , two orders of magnitude larger than without the cell. The construction details of the cell are described and the cell's performance during HERMES run of 1997-2000 is discussed.

  6. Calculation of temperature field in gas flow with internal heat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimov Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas flow sequentially moving through three zones (input z1 of a cylindrical channel was considered. Analytical solutions taking into account the influence of heat source limitation in the axial direction and intensity of air flow in this direction on thermal balance were obtained.

  7. Method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography in daily practice

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Makhomet, Andrey A; Guguchkina, Tatiana I; Markovsky, Mikhail G; Yakuba, Yurii F; Kotov, Yurii N

    2016-01-01

    Recently proposed new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography (GC) is investigated from different sides including method testing on prepared standard solutions like cognac and brandy, different ethanol-water solutions and certified reference material CRM LGC5100 Whisky-Congeners. Analysis of obtained results of experimental study from four different laboratories shows that relative bias between the experimentally measured concentrations calculated in accordance with proposed method and the values of concentrations assigned during the preparation by gravimetric method for all analyzed compounds does not exceed 10 %. It is shown that relative response factors (RRF) between analyzed volatile compounds and ethanol do not depend on time of analysis and are constant for every model of GC. It is shown the possibility to use predetermined RRF in daily practice of testing laboratories and to implement this new method in the international s...

  8. Effects of cooling and internal wave motions on gas transfer coefficients in a boreal lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni J. Heiskanen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lakes and other inland waters contribute significantly to regional and global carbon budgets. Emissions from lakes are often computed as the product of a gas transfer coefficient, k 600 , and the difference in concentration across the diffusive boundary layer at the air–water interface. Eddy covariance (EC techniques are increasingly being used in lacustrine gas flux studies and tend to report higher values for derived k 600 than other approaches. Using results from an EC study of a small, boreal lake, we modelled k 600 using a boundary-layer approach that included wind shear and cooling. During stratification, fluxes estimated by EC occasionally were higher than those obtained by our models. The high fluxes co-occurred with winds strong enough to induce deflections of the thermocline. We attribute the higher measured fluxes to upwelling-induced spatial variability in surface concentrations of CO2 within the EC footprint. We modelled the increased gas concentrations due to the upwelling and corrected our k 600 values using these higher CO2 concentrations. This approach led to greater congruence between measured and modelled k values during the stratified period. k 600 has a well-resolved and ~cubic relationship with wind speed when the water column is unstratified and the dissolved gases well mixed. During stratification and using the corrected k 600 , the same pattern is evident at higher winds, but k 600 has a median value of ~7 cm h−1 when winds are less than 6 m s−1, similar to observations in recent oceanographic studies. Our models for k 600 provide estimates of gas evasion at least 200% higher than earlier wind-based models. Our improved k 600 estimates emphasize the need for integrating within lake physics into models of greenhouse gas evasion.

  9. Metallothioneins, Unconventional Proteins from Unconventional Animals: A Long Journey from Nematodes to Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Isani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins (MTs are ubiquitous low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins characterized by high affinity for d10 electron configuration metals, including essential (Zn and Cu and non-essential (Cd and Hg trace elements. The biological role of these ancient and well-conserved multifunctional proteins has been debated since MTs were first discovered in 1957. Their main hypothesized functions are: (1 homeostasis of Zn and Cu; (2 detoxification of Cd, and Hg; and (3 free radical scavenging. This review will focus on MTs in unconventional animals, those not traditionally studied in veterinary medicine but of increasing interest in this field of research. Living in different environments, these animals represent an incredible source of physiological and biochemical adaptations still partly unexplored. The study of metal-MT interactions is of great interest for clinicians and researchers working in veterinary medicine, food quality and endangered species conservation.

  10. Metallothioneins, unconventional proteins from unconventional animals: a long journey from nematodes to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isani, Gloria; Carpenè, Emilio

    2014-04-22

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are ubiquitous low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins characterized by high affinity for d10 electron configuration metals, including essential (Zn and Cu) and non-essential (Cd and Hg) trace elements. The biological role of these ancient and well-conserved multifunctional proteins has been debated since MTs were first discovered in 1957. Their main hypothesized functions are: (1) homeostasis of Zn and Cu; (2) detoxification of Cd, and Hg; and (3) free radical scavenging. This review will focus on MTs in unconventional animals, those not traditionally studied in veterinary medicine but of increasing interest in this field of research. Living in different environments, these animals represent an incredible source of physiological and biochemical adaptations still partly unexplored. The study of metal-MT interactions is of great interest for clinicians and researchers working in veterinary medicine, food quality and endangered species conservation.

  11. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Unconventional bacterial association for dough leavening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatti, Alida; Mapelli, Chiara; Foschino, Roberto; Picozzi, Claudia; Rollini, Manuela

    2016-11-21

    The purpose of the research was to obtain innovative yeast-free doughs leavened by Zymomonas mobilis and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. Z. mobilis, as well as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, produces an equimolar mixture of ethanol and CO2 through glucose, fructose or sucrose fermentation. In the present work, the inability of Z. mobilis to metabolize maltose has been circumvented by the addition of L. sanfranciscensis in the formulation. Indeed, L. sanfranciscensis, a heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium (LAB) typical of sourdough environment, hydrolyzes maltose releasing glucose which can be used by Z. mobilis for its metabolism. Biomass samples of Z. mobilis subs. mobilis DSM 424 and L. sanfranciscensis DSM 20663 were grown separately in liquid media and then associated in a model dough. Leavening trials set up by using three different microbial combinations (Lactobacillus:Zymomonas 80+80mg, 15+145mg and 145+15mg biomass, i.e. 1:1, 1:10 and 10:1 respectively on cell dry weight basis) evidenced CO2 production levels (mL) higher than the mathematical sum of CO2 produced by the single bacteria. In particular, when the biomass combination of L. sanfranciscensis and Z. mobilis was 1:1 (80+80mg cdw) and 10:1 (145+15mg cdw) a CO2 production of 46.3-41.4mL versus 26.7-28.5mL was achieved. The calculated productivity gain showed positive performances of the microbial combination up to 180-240min leavening. The subsequent efficiency loss may be due several factors, above all glucose shortage for Z. mobilis, as well as decrease of dough pH that can negatively affect both Lactobacillus and Zymomonas metabolism. As in traditional sourdoughs, L. sanfranciscensis was responsible for the souring activity with positive effects on both dough tasting and reduction of spoilage microbiota; Z. mobilis was instead responsible for most of the CO2 production. A bakery product leavened with the unconventional association Z. mobilis - L. sanfranciscensis will be addressed to people having

  13. Magnetothermopower and Nernst effect in unconventional charge density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóra, Balázs; Maki, Kazumi; Ványolos, András; Virosztek, Attila

    2003-12-01

    Recently we have shown that the striking angular dependent magnetoresistance in the low-temperature phase (LTP) of α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 is consistently described in terms of unconventional charge density wave (UCDW). Here we investigate theoretically the thermoelectric power and the Nernst effect in unconventional density wave (UDW). The present results account consistently for the recent data of magnetothermopower in α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 obtained by Choi et al. [Phys. Rev. B 65, 205119 (2002)]. This confirms further our identification of LTP in this salt as UCDW. We propose also that the Nernst effect provides a clear signature of UDW.

  14. CONTRIBUTIONS ON THE DESIGN OF UNCONVENTIONAL CORRUGATED BOARD STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEIDONI Nadina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper depicts a few contributions on the design of several unconventional corrugated board structures. In general, cardboard and corrugated cardboard is strongly linked to packaging. However, limiting these materials to their primary use does nothing else but to restrict the possibilities of using them in other interesting areas. Consequently, new structures built from cardboard have been imagined and in the paper there are presented a few unconventional uses of the corrugated fiberboard, namely as furniture elements, along with the technology used in the design and the manufacturing process.

  15. Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2013-09-03

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  16. The Influence of Hydrogen Gas on the Measures of Efficiency of Diesel Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Latakas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper energy and ecological parameters of diesel engine which works under addition of hydrogen (10, 20, 30 l/ min are presented. A survey of research literature has shown that addition of hydrogen gases improve diesel combustion; increase indicated pressure; decrease concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2, hydrocarbons (HC, particles; decrease fuel consumptions. Results of the experiment revealed that hydrogen gas additive decreased pressure in cylinder in kinetic combustion phase. Concentration of CO2 and nitrous oxides (NOx decreased not significantly, HC – increased. Concentration of particles in engine exhaust gases significantly decreased. In case when hydrogen gas as additive was supplied, the fuel consumptions decreased a little. Using AVL BOOST software combustion process analysis was made. It was determined that in order to optimize engine work process under hydrogen additive usage, it is necessary to adjust diesel injection angle.

  17. Rapid Dissolution of Quicklime into Molten Slag by Internally Formed Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruoka, Nobuhiro; Nogami, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    In steelmaking process, quicklime is used to produce CaO-based slag. Although rapid dissolution of quicklime is required for high-efficiency refining, it is known that the rate decreases when dicalcium silicate (C2S) layer forms around the quicklime by reacting with slag. The equation that driving force is the difference of CaO content between in slag and a liquid phase of slag saturated by C2S has been often used for estimating the dissolution rate of lime, in which this saturated value is thermodynamically determined. The authors, however, revealed that the quicklime used in actual operation showed much faster dissolving rate than that of completely calcined lime that is covered by C2S layer during dissolution into slag. This was caused by a gas formation due to a thermal decomposition of residual limestone existed in quicklime. In this study, the dissolution rate of quicklime with the gas formation is quantitatively investigated.

  18. International markets for greenhouse gas emission reduction policies - possibilities for integrating developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, K.; Olhoff, A.

    2005-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are affecting a global common: the climate, and as a global environmental problem with a public good character it provides attractive opportunities for minimising control costs through the use of emission trading markets. This paper introduces cost and benefit princ...... principles that can be applied to the assessment of global markets for GHG emission reduction options and evaluates the scope for and the potential economic gains of such markets.......Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are affecting a global common: the climate, and as a global environmental problem with a public good character it provides attractive opportunities for minimising control costs through the use of emission trading markets. This paper introduces cost and benefit...

  19. Prediction of internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the Srinivasan model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The corrosivity of carbon dioxide (CO-)2-containing brines must be predicted when designing oil and gas production equipment and transportation facilities. De Waard and Milliams have played a role towards establishing an industry-standard approach to predicting CO{sub 2} and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) corrosion. The de Waard equation was developed as an engineering tool to determine the relationship between potential corrosivity of aqueous media for a given level of dissolved CO{sub 2}, defined by its partial pressure, at any given temperature. The relative simplicity of this approach and its ease of use have contributed to its broad acceptance. However, input of inspection and monitoring data may be needed to refine the models' accuracy or field and well specificity. This paper presented the Predict TM2 model developed by Srinivasan. The basis for this software tool is the de Waard-Milliams relationship for CO{sub 2} corrosion, but other correction factors are also used. A flow chart delineating the hierarchical reasoning structure of the predictive model was included in this paper. The following factors are considered when determining corrosivity: H2{sub S} partial pressure; maximum operating temperature; dissolved chlorides; gas-to-oil ratio; water-to-gas ratio/water cut; oil type and its persistence; elemental sulfur/aeration; fluid velocity; type of flow; inhibition type and efficiency. This paper also reviewed the effects of the following parameters on corrosivity: pH and CO{sub 2}; layer formation; role of H{sub 2}S; temperature effects; chlorides; bicarbonates; velocity; water/gas/oil ratio; and aeration sulphur. The paper also explained why it is necessary to examine the parameter interactions before capturing the synergistic effects of these parameters on corrosion. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  20. The variation in molecular gas depletion time: II the impact of galaxy internal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Mei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    We use a data set of nearby galaxies drawn from the HERACLES, ATLAS3D, and COLD GASS surveys to study variations in molecular gas depletion time (Tdep) in galaxy structures such as bulges, grand-design spiral arms, bars and rings. Molecular gas is traced by CO line emission and star formation rate (SFR) is derived using the combination of far-ultraviolet and mid-infrared (MIR) data. The contribution of old stars to MIR emission for the ATLAS3D sample is corrected using 2MASS K-band images. We apply a two-dimensional image decomposition algorithm to decompose galaxies into bulges and discs. Spiral arms, bars and rings are identified in the residual maps, and molecular gas depletion times are derived on a square grid of 1 kpc^2 size. In previous work, we showed that Tdep correlates strongly with specific star formation rate (sSFR). We now find that at a given sSFR, the bulge has shorter Tdep than the disc. The shift to shorter depletion times is most pronounced in the inner bulge (R < 0.1Re). Grids from gala...

  1. Development of advanced material composites for use as internal insulation for LH2 tanks (gas layer concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A program is described that was conducted to develop an internal insulation system for potential application to the liquid hydrogen tanks of a reusable booster, where the tanks would be subjected to repeated high temperatures. The design of the internal insulation is based on a unique gas layer concept, in which capillary or surface tension effects are used to maintain a stable gas layer, within a cellular core structure, between the tank wall and the contained liquid hydrogen. Specific objectives were to select materials for insulation systems that would be compatible with wall temperatures of 350 F and 650 F during reentry into the earth's atmosphere, and to fabricate and test insulation systems under conditions simulating the operating environment. A materials test program was conducted to evaluate the properties of candidate materials at elevated temperatures and at the temperature of liquid hydrogen, and to determine the compatibility of the materials with a hydrogen atmosphere at the appropriate elevated temperature. The materials that were finally selected included Kapton polyimide films, silicone adhesives, fiber glass batting, and in the case of the 350 F system, Teflon film.

  2. Fast spatially resolved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) distribution measurements in an internal combustion engine using absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2015-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  3. Controlling thermal properties of dense gas fluidized beds for concentrated solar power by internal and external solids circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, Paola; Bareschino, Piero; Chirone, Riccardo; Salatino, Piero; Solimene, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    Fluidization technology displays a long record of success stories, mostly related to applications to thermal and thermochemical processes, which are fostering extension to novel and relatively unexplored fields. Application of fluidized beds to collection and thermal storage of solar radiation in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is one of the most promising, a field which poses challenging issues and great opportunities to fluidization scientists and technologists. The potential of this growing field calls for reconsideration of some of the typical design and operation guidelines and criteria, with the goal of exploiting the inherently good thermal performances of gas-fluidized beds at their best. "Creative" and non-conventional design and operation of fluidized beds, like those based on internal and external solids circulation, may be beneficial to the enhancement of thermal diffusivity and surface-to-bed heat transfer, improving the potential for application in the very demanding context of CSP with thermal energy storage. This paper investigated: i) a fluidized bed configuration with an uneven distribution of the fluidizing gas to promote vortices in the scale of bed height (internal solids circulation); ii) a dual fluidized bed configuration characterized by an external solids circulation achieved by the operation of a riser and a bubbling fluidized bed. CFD simulations showed the hydrodynamics conditions under which the internal solids circulation was established. The hydrodynamic characterization of the external solids circulation was achieved by an experimental study carried out with different cold models. The dual fluidized bed system was optimized in terms of operating conditions and geometrical features of the connections between two fluidized beds.

  4. Mechanism of internal browning of pineapple: The role of gibberellins catabolism gene (AcGA2ox) and GAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Rao, Xiuwen; Zhang, Lubin; He, Congcong; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Shijiang

    2016-01-01

    Internal browning (IB), a physiological disorder (PD) that causes severe losses in harvested pineapple, can be induced by exogenous gibberellins (GAs). Over the years, studies have focused on roles of Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2oxs), the major GAs catabolic enzyme in plants, in the regulation of changes in morphology or biomass. However, whether GA2oxs could regulate PD has not been reported. Here, a full-length AcGA2ox cDNA was isolated from pineapple, with the putative protein sharing 23.59% to 72.92% identity with GA2oxs from five other plants. Pineapples stored at 5 °C stayed intact, while those stored at 20 °C showed severe IB. Storage at 5 °C enhanced AcGA2ox expression and decreased levels of a GAs (GA4) ‘compared with storage at 20 °C. However, at 20 °C, exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA) significantly suppressed IB. ABA simultaneously upregulated AcGA2ox and reduced GA4. Ectopic expression of AcGA2ox in Arabidopsis resulted in reduced GA4, lower seed germination, and shorter hypocotyls and roots, all of which were restored by exogenous GA4/7. Moreover, in pineapple, GA4/7 upregulated polyphenol oxidase, while storage at 5 °C and ABA downregulated it. These results strongly suggest the involvement of AcGA2ox in regulation of GAs levels and a role of AcGA2ox in regulating IB. PMID:27982026

  5. Controlling internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the systematic treatment of pitting sequence (SToPS) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Chu, F.Y.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The oil and gas pipeline industry relies on the use of carbon and low-alloy steels. As such, there is a need to predict the corrosivity of brines containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) when designing production equipment and transportation facilities. A true industry-standard approach to predicting CO{sub 2} and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) corrosion does not exist, but there are similarities in existing approaches and models. This paper reviewed the Systematic Treatment of Pitting Sequence (SToPS) software program developed by the materials assessment team at Natural Resources Canada to predict the internal pitting corrosion rate of multiphase, oil producing, gas producing, oil transmission, and gas transmission pipelines. The main output of SToPS is the prediction of how long the pipe is safe. SToPS considers the pipeline to be safe until the depth of the deepest pit is 50 percent of the pipe wall thickness. In addition, SToPS predicts pH, wall shear stress, flow regime, as well as the probability of pitting corrosion. SToPS requires details about pipeline properties, production conditions of the pipeline and gas composition in order to accurately predict the pitting corrosion. SToPS calculates the pitting corrosion rate by combining the effect of 11 different operational parameters. This paper explained how each of these components affects the pitting corrosion rate and how to calculate their individual corrosion rates. The paper showed that each operational parameter can alter the pitting corrosion rate. There are currently 2 versions of SToPS, notably SToPS v1.1, and SToPS v2.0 which produces 7 different graphs to help the user understand the corrosion occurring in their pipeline over the production periods. 16 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  6. Search for unconventional final states at ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Spiezia, Aniello

    2017-01-01

    Unconventional searches for new physics performed using proton proton collisions recorded by ATLAS and CMS experiments are shown. Two model independent searches designed to reduce theories dependency and increase the sensitivity for new discoveries are presented together with searches for black holes and long lived particles.

  7. Unconventional spin texture of a topologically nontrivial semimetal Sb(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strózecka, A.; Eiguren, A.; Bianchi, Marco;

    2012-01-01

    of Sb(110). The existence of the unconventional spin texture is corroborated by the investigations of the electron scattering on this surface. The charge interference patterns formed around single scattering impurities, imaged by scanning tunneling microscopy, reveal the absence of direct backscattering...

  8. Unconventional Hamilton-type variational principles for analytical mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity, in a simple and unified new way proposed by Luo, the un-conventional Hamilton-type variational principles of holonomic conservative system in analytical mechanics can be established systematically. This unconventional Hamilton-type variational principle can fully characterize the initial-value problem of analytical mechanics, so that it is an important innovation for the Hamilton-type variational principle. In this paper, an important integral relation is given, which can be considered as the expression of the generalized principle of virtual work for analytical mechanics in mechanics. Based on this relation, it is possible not only to obtain the principle of virtual work of holonomic conservative system in analytical mechanics, but also to derive systematically the complementary functionals for three-field and two-field unconventional variational principles, and the functional for the one-field one by the generalized Legendre transformation given in this paper. Further, with this new approach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly. Meanwhile, the unconventional Hamilton-type variational principles of nonholonomic conservative system in analytical mechanics can also be established systematically in this paper.

  9. Unconventional Hamilton-type variational principles for analytical mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO En; LIANG LiFu; LI WeiHua

    2007-01-01

    According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity, in a simple and unified new way proposed by Luo, the unconventional Hamilton-type variational principles of holonomic conservative system in analytical mechanics can be established systematically. This unconventional Hamilton-type variational principle can fully characterize the initial-value problem of analytical mechanics, so that it is an important innovation for the Hamilton-type variational principle. In this paper, an important integral relation is given, which can be considered as the expression of the generalized principle of virtual work for analytical mechanics in mechanics. Based on this relation, it is possible not only to obtain the principle of virtual work of holonomic conservative system in analytical mechanics, but also to derive systematically the complementary functionals for three-field and two-field unconventional variational principles, and the functional for the one-field one by the generalized Legendre transformation given in this paper. Further, with this new approach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly. Meanwhile, the unconventional Hamilton-type variational principles of nonholonomic conservative system in analytical mechanics can also be established systematically in this paper.

  10. Towards a Novel Integrated Approach for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Support of International Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Henne, S.; Brunner, D.; Emmenegger, L.; Manning, A.; Fraser, P. J.; Krummel, P. B.; Dunse, B. L.; DeCola, P.; Tarasova, O. A.

    2016-12-01

    In the recently adopted Paris Agreement the community of signatory states has agreed to limit the future global temperature increase between +1.5 °C and +2.0 °C, compared to pre-industrial times. To achieve this goal, emission reduction targets have been submitted by individual nations (called Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, INDCs). Inventories will be used for checking progress towards these envisaged goals. These inventories are calculated by combining information on specific activities (e.g. passenger cars, agriculture) with activity-related, typically IPCC-sanctioned, emission factors - the so-called bottom-up method. These calculated emissions are reported on an annual basis and are checked by external bodies by using the same method. A second independent method estimates emissions by translating greenhouse gas measurements made at regionally representative stations into regional/global emissions using meteorologically-based transport models. In recent years this so-called top-down approach has been substantially advanced into a powerful tool and emission estimates at the national/regional level have become possible. This method is already used in Switzerland, in the United Kingdom and in Australia to estimate greenhouse gas emissions and independently support the national bottom-up emission inventories within the UNFCCC framework. Examples of the comparison of the two independent methods will be presented and the added-value will be discussed. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and partner organizations are currently developing a plan to expand this top-down approach and to expand the globally representative GAW network of ground-based stations and remote-sensing platforms and integrate their information with atmospheric transport models. This Integrated Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (IG3IS) initiative will help nations to improve the accuracy of their country-based emissions inventories and their ability to evaluate the

  11. Prediction of internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the Crolet model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The oil and gas industry relies heavily on the use of carbon and low-alloy steels for production equipment. Predicting the corrosivity of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})-containing brines is therefore necessary when designing wells. This paper presented Crolet's CORMED model which predicts the probability of corrosion in wells. The model, which is based on a detailed analysis of field experience on CO{sub 2} downhole corrosion, can predict low, medium or high risk for tubing perforation within 10 years. The 3 complementary conditions required for local attack are that water must be present in contact with the metal; the water must have a sufficient potential corrosivity (PC); and the conditions must be favourable for corrosion to develop locally. The model consists of approximately 20 equations that take into account parameters such as pH, H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, acetic acid, temperature and flow rate. Of all parameters relating to CO{sub 2} corrosion, PC is the simplest to measure experimentally. The model requires the following input data: reservoir data; production water, with concentrations of all major cation and anion species; gas content; production data; type of gas lift and nature of well equipment; corrosion data; observed damage; and time elapsed since attainment of a significant water-cut. Based on the input data, the model calculates the following parameters of a well: CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the conditions where the corrosion is severe; the minimum in-situ pH of the production water; the in-situ acetic concentration, under the conditions of maximum acidity; and the maximum PC corresponding to the production conditions. The model describes the character of the wells qualitatively, as either corrosive, with a lifetime of less than 2 to 3 years; possibly corrosive where the absence of problems is not definitive; and non-corrosive where no corrosion problems have been encountered over a period of at least eight years, despite significant water

  12. TANGR2015 Heidelberg. Second international workshop on tracer applications of noble gas radionuclides in the geosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    TANGR2015 is a workshop on the progress in the technique and application of Atom Trap Trace Analyis (ATTA). It is a follow-up to the first TANGR workshop, TANGR2012, which was held at the Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, USA, in June 2012. It is organized in response to recent technical advances and new applications of Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA), an analytical method for measuring the isotopes {sup 81}Kr, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 39}Ar. The primary aim of the workshop is to discuss the technical progress of ATTA and thereby enable innovative and timely applications of the noble gas radionuclides to important scientific problems in earth and environmental sciences, e.g. in the fields of groundwater hydrology, glaciology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology.

  13. Flow structure and heat exchange analysis in internal cooling channel of gas turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwaba, Ryszard; Kaczynski, Piotr; Doerffer, Piotr; Telega, Janusz

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the study of the flow structure and heat transfer, and also their correlations on the four walls of a radial cooling passage model of a gas turbine blade. The investigations focus on heat transfer and aerodynamic measurements in the channel, which is an accurate representation of the configuration used in aeroengines. Correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop used in the design of radial cooling passages are often developed from simplified models. It is important to note that real engine passages do not have perfect rectangular cross sections, but include corner fillet, ribs with fillet radii and special orientation. Therefore, this work provides detailed fluid flow and heat transfer data for a model of radial cooling geometry which possesses very realistic features.

  14. Prediction of internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the Dayalan model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The corrosivity of brines containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) must be determined when designing oil and gas pipelines. This paper presented a newly developed computational procedure and a computer program for predicting corrosion rates of carbon steel pipelines carrying CO{sub 2}-containing flowing fluids in oil and gas field conditions. The computational procedure is based on a mechanistic model for CO{sub 2} corrosion. The model is based on the current knowledge of the CO{sub 2} corrosion mechanism and the kinetics of electrochemical reactions, chemical equilibrium reactions, and mass transfer. Initially the model was developed for predicting uniform CO{sub 2} corrosion rates in the absence of scale on the metal surface. A mechanistic model for scale formation was then developed to extend the model to conditions where FeCO{sub 3} layer formation occurs. The 3 species that undergo reduction on the metal surface and contribute to corrosion are hydrogen ions, H{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ions and HCO{sub 3} ions. The iron dissolution reaction is the corresponding anodic reaction. The general corrosion process involves 4 major steps, notably dissolution of CO{sub 2} in the aqueous solution to form the various reactive species which take part in the CO{sub 2} corrosion reaction; transportation of these reactants to the surface of the metal; cathodic and anodic electrochemical reactions taking place at the metal surface; and transportation of the products of the corrosion reaction to the bulk of the solution. The overall rate of the corrosion process depends on the rate at which each of these individual steps take place under a given set of conditions. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. Eastern gas shales bibliography selected annotations: gas, oil, uranium, etc. Citations in bituminous shales worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, V.S. (comp.)

    1980-06-01

    This bibliography contains 2702 citations, most of which are annotated. They are arranged by author in numerical order with a geographical index following the listing. The work is international in scope and covers the early geological literature, continuing through 1979 with a few 1980 citations in Addendum II. Addendum I contains a listing of the reports, well logs and symposiums of the Unconventional Gas Recovery Program (UGR) through August 1979. There is an author-subject index for these publications following the listing. The second part of Addendum I is a listing of the UGR maps which also has a subject-author index following the map listing. Addendum II includes several important new titles on the Devonian shale as well as a few older citations which were not found until after the bibliography had been numbered and essentially completed. A geographic index for these citations follows this listing.

  16. Just War Theory v/s Unconventional Weapon. An Analysis from Ethical Moral and Legal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Vijaya Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Just war theory deals withthe justification of how and why wars are fought. Thejustification can be either theoretical or historical. The theoretical aspect is concerned with ethicallyjustifying war and the forms that warfare may or may not take. The historical aspect, or the “just wartradition,” deals with the historical body of rules or agreements that have applied in various warsacross the ages. For instance, international agreements such as the Geneva and Hague conventions arehistorical rules aimed at limiting certain kinds of warfare which lawyers may refer to in prosecutingtransgressors, but it is the role of ethics to examine these institutional agreements for theirphilosophical coherence as well as to inquire into whether aspects of the conventions ought to bechanged. The just war tradition may also consider the thoughts of various philosophers and lawyersthrough the ages and examine both their philosophical visions of war’s ethical limits (or absence ofand whether their thoughts have contributed to the body of conventions that have evolved to guidewar, especially nuclear warfare which is an unconventional weapon. The seriousness of suchprohibited weapon was a debatable issue not only in the contemporary law of armed conflict but, alsoin the ancient law of war. This paper shall try to evaluate the essence of just war theory in a newdimension interlinking it with ethics and moral value to judge the use of unconventional weapon andcondemn it as inhuman and against the theory of just war.

  17. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions

  18. Processing of unconventional stimuli requires the recruitment of the non-specialized hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoed Nissan Kenett

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional visual stimuli in the context of visual and verbal creative ability. In Experiment 1, we studied two unconventional visual recognition tasks – Mooney face and objects' silhouette recognition – and found a significant relationship between measures of verbal creativity and unconventional face recognition. In Experiment 2 we used the split visual field paradigm to investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional faces and its relation to verbal and visual characteristics of creativity. Results showed that while conventional faces were better processed by the specialized right hemisphere, unconventional faces were better processed by the non-specialized left hemisphere. In addition, only unconventional face processing by the non-specialized left hemisphere was related to verbal and visual measures of creative ability. Our findings demonstrate the role of the non-specialized hemisphere in processing unconventional stimuli and how it relates to creativity.

  19. Processing of unconventional stimuli requires the recruitment of the non-specialized hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenett, Yoed N; Anaki, David; Faust, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional visual stimuli in the context of visual and verbal creative ability. In Experiment 1, we studied two unconventional visual recognition tasks-Mooney face and objects' silhouette recognition-and found a significant relationship between measures of verbal creativity and unconventional face recognition. In Experiment 2 we used the split visual field (SVF) paradigm to investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional faces and its relation to verbal and visual characteristics of creativity. Results showed that while conventional faces were better processed by the specialized right hemisphere (RH), unconventional faces were better processed by the non-specialized left hemisphere (LH). In addition, only unconventional face processing by the non-specialized LH was related to verbal and visual measures of creative ability. Our findings demonstrate the role of the non-specialized hemisphere in processing unconventional stimuli and how it relates to creativity.

  20. Important geological properties of unconventional resource shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatt, Roger

    2011-12-01

    The revelation of vast global quantities of potentially productive gas and oil-prone shales has led to advancements in understanding important geological properties which impact reservoir performance. Based upon research on a variety of shales, several geological properties have been recognized as being common and important to hydrocarbon production. (1) transport/depositional processes include hemipelagic `rain', hyperpycnal flows, turbidity current flows, tempestites, wave-reworking, and contour currents in both shallow and deep water settings. (2) Common shale minerals include clays, quartz, calcite, dolomite, apatite, and pyrite; organic constituents include spores (Tasmanites), plant remains, biogenic quartz and calcite, and arenaceous foraminifera. (3) Porosity and permeability are characteristically low with pore sizes ranging down to the nanoscale. Main pore types include intergranular (including pores within clay floccules), porous organic matter, porous fecal pellets, and microfractures. (4) Important geochemical characteristics include organic richness (>3%), maturity (>1.1%Ro for shale gas and 0.6-0.9% for shale oil) and type (I-IV), in addition to certain biomarkers which are indicators of bottom water oxicity during deposition. Remaining hydrocarbon potential [RHP = (S1 + S2)/TOC] also reflects temporal environmental changes. `Isotopic reversals' can be used to detect best producing areas in shale-gas plays. (5) Lithofacies stacking patterns and sequence stratigraphy are the result of eustatic depositional history. A general sequence stratigraphic model is presented here that highlights this commonality. (6) Geomechanical properties are key to drilling, fracturing and production of hydrocarbons. Brittle-ductile couplets at several scales occur in shale sequences. (7) Geophysical properties, when calibrated to rock properties, provide a means of regionally to locally mapping the aforementioned properties. (8) Economic and societal considerations in the

  1. Internal limiting membrane peeling and gas tamponade for myopic foveoschisis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bo; Zhao, Lu; Yin, Yi; Li, Hongyang; Wang, Xiaolei; Yang, Xiufen; You, Ran; Wang, Jialin; Zhang, Youjing; Wang, Hui; Du, Ran; Wang, Ningli; Zhan, Siyan; Wang, Yanling

    2017-09-08

    Myopic foveoschisis (MF) is among the leading causes of visual loss in high myopia. However, it remains controversial whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling or gas tamponade is necessary treatment option for MF. PubMed, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, WANFANG DATA and VIP databases were systematically reviewed. Outcome indicators were myopic foveoschisis resolution rate, visual acuity improvement and postoperative complications. Nine studies that included 239 eyes were selected. The proportion of resolution of foveoschisis was higher in ILM peeling group than non-ILM peeling group (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.06-4.35; P = 0.03). The proportion of postoperative complications was higher in Tamponade group than non-Tamponade group (OR = 10.81, 95% CI: 1.26-93.02; P = 0.03). However, the proportion of visual acuity improvement (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 0.56-4.80; P = 0.37) between ILM peeling group and non-ILM peeling group and the proportion of resolution of foveoschisis (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 0.76-4.28; P = 0.18) between Tamponade group and non-Tamponade group were similar. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling could contribute to better resolution of myopic foveoschisis than non-peeling, however it does not significantly influence the proportion of visual acuity improvement and postoperative complications. Vitrectomy with gas tamponade is associated with more complications than non-tamponade and does not significantly influence the proportion of visual acuity improvement and resolution of myopic foveoschisis.

  2. Prediction of internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : miscellaneous models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    There is a need to predict the corrosivity of brines containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) when designing production equipment and transportation facilities because CO{sub 2} and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) corrosion of carbon and low-alloy steels is a major cause of corrosion damage in oil and gas field operations. This paper presented eight CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S prediction models that have been developed by oil companies and research institutions. The Mishra Model derives a corrosion rate equation on the basis of the fundamental reaction rate theory and compares it with empirically determined relationships reported in the literature. The predictive equation is developed as a function of pH, partial pressure of CO{sub 2} and temperature. The Anderko Model combines a thermodynamic model that provides realistic speciation of aqueous systems with an electrochemical model for partial cathodic and anodic processes on the metal surface. The partial processes taken into account by the model include the oxidation of iron and reduction of hydrogen ions, water, carbonic acid and H{sub 2}S. The Oddo Model takes into consideration the protective films that form by the deposition of mineral scales and which reduce or eliminate corrosion. The Pots Model predicts the CO{sub 2} corrosion rate on the basis of mechanistic modelling that considers the effect of fluid flow. The Limiting Corrosion Rate (LCR) model provides a theoretical upper limit for the corrosion rate based on the assumption that the rate-determining steps are the transport and production of protons and carbonic acid in the diffusion and reaction boundary layers. The LIPUCOR Model calculates corrosion rates based on temperature, CO{sub 2} concentration, water chemistry, flow regime, flow velocity, characteristics of the produced fluid, and material composition. The SSH Model is a worst case-based model derived primarily from laboratory data at low temperature and a combination of laboratory and field data at

  3. Exploring an unconventional approach to cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-08-01

    cancer. With the fact that environmental factors play a significant role in cancer development and we are moving towards producing medication tailored to the individual patient based on the predicted response, complementary treatment becomes essential,” says Dr. Amleh. She further adds, “Complementary/alternative treatment such as following a special diet or using acupuncture may help in reducing the side effects of cancer treatment among other forms of treatment.” Dr. Amleh is currently focusing on exploring a novel non-conventional approach to reduce platinum-based drug resistance, which aims to improve the survival of cancer patients. “In my effort to tackle the shortfall of cancer chemotherapy treatment modality, I am also involved in a collaborative study with the metagenomic research team at AUC” says Dr. Amleh. “The collaborative project is aimed at identifying candidate sequences with potential anticancer activity by screening a metagenomic dataset, established at AUC and derived from the microbial community in several brine pools of the central Red Sea,” she adds.“Another area of study I’m working on is a collaborative effort with Canada’s Ryerson University, which is focused on characterizing the bioactivity of newly synthesized biomaterial intended for developing implants. This research puts my group at the interface with chemistry, physics, materials science, and medical science,” says the scientist.As a researcher with almost 20 years of experience in medical research, Dr. Amleh urged researchers to continually aim just beyond their current range. “I would recommend that researchers spend more time in exploring unconventional complementary or alternative approached in cancer treatments. There are no downsides to working in the research field. I just wish that the developing countries would allocate more money for research,” she concludes.Dr. Asma Amleh publishes her work entitled “The potential involvement of the cofactor of BRCA1

  4. Velocity Modeling and Inversion Techniques for Locating Microseismic Events in Unconventional Reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianzhong Zhang; Han Liu; Zhihui Zou; Zhonglai Huang

    2015-01-01

    A velocity model is an important factor influencing microseismic event locations. We re-view the velocity modeling and inversion techniques for locating microseismic events in exploration for unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. We first describe the geological and geophysical characteristics of reservoir formations related to hydraulic fracturing in heterogeneity, anisotropy, and variability, then discuss the influences of velocity estimation, anisotropy model, and their time-lapse changes on the accuracy in determining microseismic event locations, and then survey some typical methods for build-ing velocity models in locating event locations. We conclude that the three tangled physical attributes of reservoirs make microseismic monitoring very challenging. The uncertainties in velocity model and ig-noring its anisotropies and its variations in hydraulic fracturing can cause systematic mislocations of microseismic events which are unacceptable in microseismic monitoring. So, we propose some potential ways for building accurate velocity models.

  5. Modelling of heat and mass transfer in a granular medium during high-temperature air drying. Effect of the internal gas pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Hammouda; Hassini, Lamine; Lamloumi, Raja; El Cafsi, Mohamed Afif

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive internal heat and water transfer model including the gas pressure effect has been proposed in order to improve the industrial high-temperature air drying of inserts made of agglomerated sand. In this model, the internal gas phase pressure effect was made perfectly explicit, by considering the liquid and vapour transfer by filtration and the liquid expulsion at the surface. Wet sand enclosed in a tight cylindrical glass bottle dried convectively at a high temperature was chosen as an application case. The model was validated on the basis of the experimental average water content and core temperature curves for drying trials at different operating conditions. The simulations of the spatio-temporal distribution of internal gas pressure were performed and interpreted in terms of product potential damage. Based on a compromise between the drying time and the pressure increase, a simple drying cycle was implemented in order to optimize the drying process.

  6. PetroChina to Harness New Natural Gas Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ As climate change is alarming policymakers,a string of oil companies are eyeing to harness China's plentiful unconventional natural gas resources,such as coalbed methane gas,deeply locked in China's bountiful coal reserves,which is expected to reduce China's reliance on natural gas imports for decades to come.

  7. National greenhouse-gas accounting for effective climate policy on international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kander, Astrid; Jiborn, Magnus; Moran, Daniel D.; Wiedmann, Thomas O.

    2015-05-01

    National greenhouse-gas accounting should reflect how countries’ policies and behaviours affect global emissions. Actions that contribute to reduced global emissions should be credited, and actions that increase them should be penalized. This is essential if accounting is to serve as accurate guidance for climate policy. Yet this principle is not satisfied by the two most common accounting methods. Production-based accounting used under the Kyoto Protocol does not account for carbon leakage--the phenomenon of countries reducing their domestic emissions by shifting carbon-intensive production abroad. Consumption-based accounting (also called carbon footprinting) does not credit countries for cleaning up their export industries, and it also punishes some types of trade that could contribute to more carbon efficient production worldwide. We propose an improvement to consumption-based carbon accounting that takes technology differences in export sectors into account and thereby tends to more correctly reflect how national policy changes affect total global emissions. We also present empirical results showing how this new measure redraws the global emissions map.

  8. Prediction of internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the Nesic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    When designing oil and gas pipelines and production equipment, it is necessary to predict the corrosivity of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})-containing brines since they are a major cause of corrosion damage in carbon and low-alloy steels. This paper presented a model developed by Nesic in which a theoretical approach was taken to model individual electrochemical reactions occurring in an acidic water-CO{sub 2} system. The model considers the electrochemical reactions at the metal surface and the transport process of all the species in the system such as H+, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Fe++. In this study, transport processes were simplified by assuming independent diffusion of the species and by using well-established mass transfer coefficients for a rotating cylinder and pipe flow. Temperature, pH, CO{sub 2} partial pressure, oxygen concentration, steel, and flow geometry are the inputs needed for the Nesic model. Performance of the model was validated by comparing the predictions with results from glass loop experiments. It was concluded that the model contributes to a better understanding of the complex processes taking place during corrosion in the presence of surface films. 4 refs.

  9. Hydraulic fracturing in unconventional reservoirs - Identification of hazards and strategies for a quantitative risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, R.; Kissinger, A.; Class, H.; Ebigbo, A.

    2012-12-01

    The production of unconventional gas resources, which require a fracking process to be released, such as shale gas, tight gas and coal bed methane, has become an economically attractive technology for a continued supply of fossil-fuel energy sources in many countries. Just recently, a major focus of interest has been directed to hydraulic fracking in Germany. The technology is controversial since it involves severe risks. The main difference in risk with respect to other technologies in the subsurface such as carbon sequestration is that fracking is remunerative, and it is important to distinguish between economical and environmental issues. The hydrofracking process may pose a threat to groundwater resources if fracking fluid or brine can migrate through fault zones into shallow aquifers. Diffuse methane emissions from the gas reservoir may not only contaminate shallow groundwater aquifers but also escape into the atmosphere where methane acts as a greenhouse gas. The working group "Risks in the Geological System" as part of ExxonMobil's hydrofracking dialogue and information dissemination processes was tasked with the assessment of possible hazards posed by migrating fluids as a result of hydrofracking activities. In this work several flow paths for fracking fluid, brine and methane are identified and scenarios are set up to qualitatively estimate under what circumstances these fluids would leak into shallower layers. The parametrization for potential fracking sites in North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony (both in Germany) is derived from literature using upper and lower bounds of hydraulic parameters. The results show that a significant fluid migration is only possible if a combination of several conservative assumptions are met by a scenario. Another outcome of this work is the demand for further research, as many of the involved processes in the hydrofracking process have yet not been fully understood (e.g. quantification of source terms for methane in the

  10. Determination of internal pressure and the backfill gas composition of nuclear fuel rods; Determinacion de la presion interna y la composicion del gas de llenado de barras de combustible nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia C, M.A.; Cota S, G.; Merlo S, L.; Fernandez T, F. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    An important consideration in the nuclear fuel manufacturing is the measurement of the helium atmosphere pressure and its composition analysis inside the nuclear fuel rod. In this work it is presented a system used to measure the internal pressure and to determine the backfill gas composition of fuel rods. The system is composed of an expansion chamber provided of a seals system to assure that when rod is drilled, the gas stays contained inside the expansion chamber. The system is connected to a pressure measurement digital system: Baratron MKS 310-AHS-1000. Range 1000 mm Hg from which the pressure readings are taken when this is stabilized in all the system. After a gas sample is sent toward a Perkin Elmer gas chromatograph, model 8410 with thermal conductivity detector to get the corresponding chromatogram and doing the necessary calculations for obtaining the backfill gas composition of the rod in matter. (Author)

  11. Thermal investigation of an internally cooled strut injector for scramjet application at moderate and hot gas conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dröske, Nils C.; Förster, Felix J.; Weigand, Bernhard; von Wolfersdorf, Jens

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we present a combined experimental and numerical approach to assess the thermal loads and the cooling mechanism of an internally cooled strut injector for a supersonic combustion ramjet. Infrared measurements of the injector surface are conducted at a moderate external flow temperature. In addition, the main flow field is investigated with the LITA technique. Main features of the cooling mechanism are identified based on experimental data. However, a full evaluation can only be obtained using a complex, conjugate CFD simulation, which couples the external and internal flow fields to the heat conduction inside the injector body. Furthermore, numerical simulations are also presented for hot gas conditions corresponding to combustion experiments. Both hydrogen, which would be used as fuel for flight tests, and air are considered as coolants. While the main features of the cooling mechanism will be shown to remain unchanged, the combustor wall temperature is found to have a significant influence on the cooling. This emphasizes the importance and the usefulness of such complex conjugate numerical simulations.

  12. Catalytic modification of conventional SOFC anodes with a view to reducing their activity for direct internal reforming of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boder, M.; Dittmeyer, R. [Research Group Technical Chemistry, Karl-Winnacker-Institut, DECHEMA e.V., Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2006-04-18

    When using natural gas as fuel for the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), direct internal reforming lowers the requirement for cell cooling and, theoretically, offers advantages with respect to capital cost and efficiency. The high metal content of a nickel/zirconia anode and the high temperature, however, cause the endothermic reforming reaction to take place very fast. The resulting drop of temperature at the inlet produces thermal stresses, which may lower the system efficiency and limit the stack lifetime. To reduce the reforming rate without lowering the electrochemical activity of the cell, a wet impregnation procedure for modifying conventional cermets by coverage with a less active metal was developed. As the coating material copper was chosen. Copper is affordable, catalytically inert for the reforming reaction and exhibits excellent electronic conductivity. The current density-voltage characteristics of the modified units showed that it is possible to maintain a good electrochemical performance of the cells despite the catalytic modification. A copper to nickel ratio of 1:3 resulted in a strong diminution of the catalytic reaction rate. This indicates that the modification could be a promising method to improve the performance of solid oxide fuel cells with direct internal reforming of hydrocarbons. (author)

  13. Prediction of internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the de Waard - Milliams model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    Predicting the corrosivity of carbon dioxide (CO-)2-containing brines is necessary when designing oil and gas production equipment and transportation facilities. De Waard and Milliams have played a role towards establishing standard guidelines for predicting CO{sub 2} and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) corrosion. The de Waard equation determines the relationship between potential corrosivity of aqueous media for a given level of dissolved CO{sub 2}, defined by its partial pressure, at any given temperature. The model is widely used because of its relative simplicity, but input of inspection and monitoring data may be needed to refine the models' accuracy or field and well specificity. The de Waard model is the most frequently referenced model. The first version developed in 1975 was based on temperature and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} only. The model has been revised many times. The 1971 version considered the corrosion factors for the effect of hydrocarbon liquid, pH and scale. The 1993 version considered the effect of flow, notably mass transport and fluid velocity. A revised version that included steel composition was published in 1995. This model represents a best fit for various flow loop data generated. The de Waard Milliams model gives a good description of experimental CO{sub 2} corrosion rates and the effect of liquid velocity for conditions where protective films are not formed. It explains many of the observations and features of older models. It was concluded that in order to predict corrosion rates in practical situations, such as in multiphase pipelines, the model should only be used while taking the effect of dissolved iron and FeCO{sub 3} precipitation kinetics into consideration. Carbide films left behind as a result of corrosion can have a pronounced influence on the CO{sub 2} corrosion rate. 5 refs.

  14. Brayton cycle for internal combustion engine exhaust gas waste heat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Galindo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An average passenger car engine effectively uses about one-third of the fuel combustion energy, while the two-thirds are wasted through exhaust gases and engine cooling. It is of great interest to automotive industry to recover some of this wasted energy, thus increasing the engine efficiency and lowering fuel consumption and contamination. Waste heat recovery for internal combustion engine exhaust gases using Brayton cycle machine was investigated. The principle problems of application of such a system in a passenger car were considered: compressor and expander machine selection, machine size for packaging under the hood, efficiency of the cycle, and improvement of engine efficiency. Important parameters of machines design have been determined and analyzed. An average 2-L turbocharged gasoline engine’s New European Driving Cycle points were taken as inlet points for waste heat recovery system. It is theoretically estimated that the recuperated power of 1515 W can be achieved along with 5.7% improvement in engine efficiency, at the point where engine power is 26550 W.

  15. Golden Rules for a Golden Age of Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    Natural gas is poised to enter a golden age, but this future hinges critically on the successful development of the world's vast unconventional gas resources. North American experience shows unconventional gas - notably shale gas - can be exploited economically. Many countries are lining up to emulate this success. But some governments are hesitant, or even actively opposed. They are responding to public concerns that production might involve unacceptable environmental and social damage. This report, in the World Energy Outlook series, treats these aspirations and anxieties with equal seriousness. It features two new cases: a Golden Rules Case, in which the highest practicable standards are adopted, gaining industry a 'social licence to operate'; and its counterpart, in which the tide turns against unconventional gas as constraints prove too difficult to overcome.

  16. Unconventional dc Transport in Rashba Electron Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosco, Valentina; Benfatto, Lara; Cappelluti, Emmanuele; Grimaldi, Claudio

    2016-04-22

    We discuss the transport properties of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas with strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We show that in the high-density regime where the Fermi energy overcomes the energy associated with spin-orbit coupling, dc transport is accurately described by a standard Drude's law, due to a nontrivial compensation between the suppression of backscattering and the relativistic correction to the quasiparticle velocity. On the contrary, when the system enters the opposite dominant spin-orbit regime, Drude's paradigm breaks down and the dc conductivity becomes strongly sensitive to the spin-orbit coupling strength, providing a suitable tool to test the entanglement between spin and charge degrees of freedom in these systems.

  17. Unconventional Hamilton-type variational principles for electromagnetic elastodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modern dual-complementarity, in a simple and unified new way proposed by Luo, the unconventional Hamilton-type variational principles for electromagnetic elastodynamics can be established systematically. This new variational principles can fully characterize the initial-boundary-value problem of this dynamics. In this paper, the expression of the generalized principle of virtual work for electromagnetic dynamics is given. Based on this equation, it is possible not only to obtain the principle of virtual work in electromagnetic dynamics, but also to derive systematically the complementary functionals for eleven-field, nine-field and six-field unconventional Hamilton-type variational principles for electromagnetic elastodynamics, and the potential energy functionals for four-field and three-field ones by the generalized Legendre transformation given in this paper. Furthermore, with this approach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly.

  18. Unconventional phase field simulations of transforming materials with evolving microstructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Yu Li; Chi-Hou Lei; Liang-Jun Li; Yi-Chung Shu; Yun-Ya Liu

    2012-01-01

    Transforming materials with evolving microstructures is one of the most important classes of smart materials that have many potential technological applications,and an unconventional phase field approach based on the characteristic functions of transforming variants has been developed to simulate the formation and evolution of their microstructures.This approach is advantageous in its explicit material symmetry and energy well structure,minimal number of material coefficients,and easiness in coupling multiple physical processes and order parameters,and has been applied successfully to study the microstructures and macroscopic properties of shape memory alloys,ferroelectrics,ferromagnetic shape memory alloys,and multiferroic magnetoelectric crystals and films with increased complexity.In this topical review,the formulation of this unconventional phase field approach will be introduced in details,and its applications to various transforming materials will be discussed.Some examples of specific microstructures will also be presented.

  19. Unconventional superconductors experimental investgation of the order-parameter symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Goll, Gernot

    2006-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive summary of experiments that are especially suited to reveal the order-parameter symmetry of unconventional superconductors. It briefly introduces readers to the basic theoretical concepts and terms of unconventional superconductivity, followed by a detailed overview of experimental techniques and results investigating the superconducting energy gap and phase, plus the pairing symmetry. This review includes measurements of specific heat, thermal conductivity, penetration depth and nuclearmagnetic resonance and muon-spin rotation experiments. Further, point-contact and tunnelling spectroscopy and Josephson experiments are addressed. Current understanding is reviewed from the experimental point of view. With an appendix offering five tables with almost 200 references that summarize the present results from ambient pressure heavy-fermion and noncopper-oxide superconductors, the monograph provides a valuable resource for further studies in this field.

  20. Unconventional Monetary Policy and Bank Risk Taking in Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Pleșcău

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central banking over the world has changed after the 2008 financial crisis. Monetary policyhas expanded the array of instruments it used in order to influence the macro economy. Majorcentral banks started using not only traditional, conventional instruments, but also some nonstandardmeasures in order to avoid economic collapse and sustain the banking system. The aim ofthis paper is to analyse the impact of European Central Bank unconventional instruments,measured using the change in its balance sheet, on the bank risk-taking of commercial banks fromEurozone, captured by Z-Score. Our findings point to an increase of bank risk-taking, due to theuse of unconventional monetary policy measures.

  1. [Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: neuroinfections with unconventional immune reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrová, E

    1997-04-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) as well as the properties of the major component of the infectious agent-prion, and the most important human and animal prion diseases are characterized. Considering the recent biochemical and molecular biological data, possible explanations of natural resistance, species barrier and lack of the immune response to the unconventional infectious particles are presented. Finally the importance of immunoblotting and immunostaining as the most specific confirmation of TSE diagnosis is underlined. (Ref. 11.)

  2. Two types of superconducting domes in unconventional superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tanmoy; Panagopoulos, Christos

    2016-10-01

    Uncovering the origin of unconventional superconductivity is often plagued by the overwhelming material diversity with varying normal and superconducting (SC) properties. In this article, we deliver a comprehensive study of the SC properties and phase diagrams using multiple tunings (such as disorder, pressure or magnetic field in addition to doping and vice versa) across several families of unconventional superconductors, including the copper-oxides, heavy-fermions, organics and the recently discovered iron-pnictides, iron-chalcogenides, and oxybismuthides. We discover that all these families often possess two types of SC domes, with lower and higher SC transition temperatures T c, both unconventional but with distinct SC and normal states properties. The lower T c dome arises with or without a quantum critical point (QCP), and not always associated with a non-Fermi liquid (NFL) background. On the contrary, the higher-T c dome clearly stems from a NFL or strange metal phase, without an apparent intervening phase transition or a QCP. The two domes appear either fully separated in the phase diagram, or merged into one, or arise independently owing to their respective normal state characteristics. Our findings suggest that a QCP-related mechanism is an unlikely scenario for the NFL phase in these materials, and thereby narrows the possibility towards short-range fluctuations of various degrees of freedom in the momentum and frequency space. We also find that NFL physics may be a generic route to higher-T c superconductivity.

  3. Unconventional spin distributions in thick Ni80Fe20 nanodisks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Lupo, P.; Haldar, A.; Adeyeye, A. O.

    2016-05-01

    We study the spin distributions in permalloy (Py: Ni80Fe20) nanodisks as a function of diameter D (300 nm ≤ D ≤ 1 μm) and thickness L (30 nm ≤ L ≤ 100 nm). We observed that beyond a certain thickness, for a fixed disk diameter, an unconventional spin topology precipitates which is marked by the presence of a divergence field within the magnetic vortex curl. The strength of this divergence changes anti-symmetrically from negative to positive—depending on the core polarity—along the axis of the cylindrical nanodisk. This is also accompanied by a skyrmion-like out-of-plane bending of the spin vectors farther away from the disk center. Additionally, the vortex core dilates significantly when compared to its typical size. This has been directly observed using magnetic force microscopy. We determined from the ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements that the unconventional topology in the thicker nanodisks gyrated at a frequency, which is significantly lower than what is predicted by a magnetic vortex based analytical model. Micromagnetic simulations involving dipolar and exchange interactions appear to satisfactorily reproduce the experimentally observed static and dynamic behaviors. Besides providing a physical example of an unconventional topology, these results can also aid the design of topologically protected memory elements.

  4. Unconventional Hamilton-type variational principles for nonlinear coupled thermoelastodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗恩; 邝君尚; 黄伟江; 罗志国

    2002-01-01

    According to the basic idea of classical yin-yang complementarity and modem dual-com plementarity, in a simple and unified new way proposed by Luo, the unconventional Hamilton-type vari ational principles for geometrically nonlinear coupled thermoelastodynamics can be established system atically. The new unconventional Hamilton-type variational principle can fully characterize the initia boundary-value problem of this dynamics. In this paper, an important integral relation is given, which can be considered as the expression of the generalized principle of virtual work for geometrically nonlin ear coupled thermodynamics. Based on this relation, it is possible not only to obtain the principle of vir tual work in geometrically nonlinear coupled thermodynamics, but also to derive systematically the complementary functionals for eight-field, six-field, four-field and two-field unconventional Hamilton type variational principles by the generalized Legendre transformations given in this paper. Further more, with this approach, the intrinsic relationship among various principles can be explained clearly.

  5. Conventional vs. unconventional enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzebisashvili, K.; Breede, K.; Liu, X.; Falcone, G. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE

    2013-08-01

    Enhanced (or Engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS) have evolved from the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept, implemented for the first time at Fenton Hill in 1977, and subsequently through the Stimulated Geothermal System, the Deep Heat Mining and finally the Deep Earth Geothermal. All of these systems usually imply petro-thermal processes. The term EGS has evolved to include conduction dominated, low permeability resources in sedimentary and basement formations, as well as geopressured, magma, and low-grade, unproductive hydrothermal resources. Co-produced hot water from hydrocarbon wells has also been included by some in the definition of EGS, which constitutes a considerable divergence from the original concept. Four decades on from the first EGS implementation, this paper highlights the lessons learned from 'conventional' systems and contrasts the 'unconventional' solutions that have been proposed. Examples of unconventional EGS include single-well solutions, downhole heat exchangers, engineered well profiles and using circulation fluids other than water. Perhaps some of the ideas proposed in the past, which would be considered unconventional, have remained dormant or never made it to a commercial stage for field implementation, but they may yet open doors to the future generations of EGS. (orig.)

  6. Unconventional Density Waves in Organic Conductors and in Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, K.; Dóra, B.; Virosztek, A.

    Unconventional density waves (UDW) are one of the ground states in metallic crystalline solids and have been speculated already in 1968. However, more focused studies on UDWstarted only recently, perhaps after the identification of the low temperature phase in α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 as unconventional charge density wave (UCDW) in 2002. More recently, the metallic phase of Bechgaard salts (TMTSF)2X with X=PF6 and ReO4 under both pressure and magnetic field appears to be unconventional spin density wave (USDW). The pseudogap regime of high T c superconductors LSCO, YBCO, Bi2212 and the one in CeCoIn5 belong to d-wave density waves (d-DW). In these identifications, the angular dependent magnetoresistance and the giant Nernst effect have played the crucial role. These are the simplest manifestations of the Landau quantization of quasiparticle energy in UDW in the presence of magnetic field (the Nersesyan effect). Also we speculate that UDW will be most likely found in α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3, α-(BEDT-TTF)2I2Br, κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2, κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(CN)2Br, γ-(BEDT)2GaCl4 and in many other organic compounds.

  7. Conventional vs. unconventional enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzebisashvili, K.; Breede, K.; Liu, X.; Falcone, G. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE

    2013-08-01

    Enhanced (or Engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS) have evolved from the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept, implemented for the first time at Fenton Hill in 1977, and subsequently through the Stimulated Geothermal System, the Deep Heat Mining and finally the Deep Earth Geothermal. All of these systems usually imply petro-thermal processes. The term EGS has evolved to include conduction dominated, low permeability resources in sedimentary and basement formations, as well as geopressured, magma, and low-grade, unproductive hydrothermal resources. Co-produced hot water from hydrocarbon wells has also been included by some in the definition of EGS, which constitutes a considerable divergence from the original concept. Four decades on from the first EGS implementation, this paper highlights the lessons learned from 'conventional' systems and contrasts the 'unconventional' solutions that have been proposed. Examples of unconventional EGS include single-well solutions, downhole heat exchangers, engineered well profiles and using circulation fluids other than water. Perhaps some of the ideas proposed in the past, which would be considered unconventional, have remained dormant or never made it to a commercial stage for field implementation, but they may yet open doors to the future generations of EGS. (orig.)

  8. Quantitative mass spectrometry of unconventional human biological matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Ewelina P.; Urban, Pawel L.

    2016-10-01

    The development of sensitive and versatile mass spectrometric methodology has fuelled interest in the analysis of metabolites and drugs in unconventional biological specimens. Here, we discuss the analysis of eight human matrices-hair, nail, breath, saliva, tears, meibum, nasal mucus and skin excretions (including sweat)-by mass spectrometry (MS). The use of such specimens brings a number of advantages, the most important being non-invasive sampling, the limited risk of adulteration and the ability to obtain information that complements blood and urine tests. The most often studied matrices are hair, breath and saliva. This review primarily focuses on endogenous (e.g. potential biomarkers, hormones) and exogenous (e.g. drugs, environmental contaminants) small molecules. The majority of analytical methods used chromatographic separation prior to MS; however, such a hyphenated methodology greatly limits analytical throughput. On the other hand, the mass spectrometric methods that exclude chromatographic separation are fast but suffer from matrix interferences. To enable development of quantitative assays for unconventional matrices, it is desirable to standardize the protocols for the analysis of each specimen and create appropriate certified reference materials. Overcoming these challenges will make analysis of unconventional human biological matrices more common in a clinical setting. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  9. Magnetic flux periodicities and finite momentum pairing in unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loder, Florian

    2009-12-22

    This work contains a thorough study of the magnetic flux periodicity of loops of conventional and unconventional, especially d-wave, superconductors. Although already in 1961, several independent works showed that the flux period of a conventional superconducting loop is the superconducting flux quantum hc/2e, this question has never been investigated deeply for unconventional superconductors. And indeed, we show here that d-wave superconducting loops show a basic flux period of the normal flux quantum hc/e, a property originating from the nodal quasi-particle states. This doubling of the flux periodicity is best visible in the persistent current circulating in the loop, and it affects other properties of the superconductor such as the periodicity of d-wave Josephson junctions. In the second part of this work, the theory of electron pairing with finite center-of-mass momentum, necessary for the description of superconducting loops, is extended to systems in zero magnetic field. We show that even in the field free case, an unconventional pairing symmetry can lead to a superconducting ground state with finite-momentum electron pairs. Such a state has an inhomogeneous charge density and therefore is a basis for the description of coexistence of superconductivity and stripe order. (orig.)

  10. Natural gas - the new Argentine regulation and the impact on the international relationships; Gas natural - nueva regulacion argentina y su impacto en las relaciones internacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Ximena [Escritorio Marval, O' Farrell and Mairal, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Energia

    2005-07-15

    Under the mentioned regulations important enterprises have been developed such as natural gas exportation to three specific regions of Chile (the mining region of North; the central region supplying the Santiago and Concepcion markets; and the supplying of a methanol plant at the extreme south); the natural gas exportation to a power plant at southern Brazil (Uruguaiana), at Mato Grosso (through Bolivia) and the natural gas exportation to Uruguay.

  11. TRUCE: A Coordination Action for Unconventional Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amos, M.; Stepney, S.; Doursat, R.

    2012-01-01

    quickly, and has the potential to revolutionize not only our fundamental understanding of the nature of computing, but the way in which we solve problems, design networks, do industrial fabrication, make drugs or construct buildings. The problems we already face in the 21 st century will require new...... and creative approaches, conceptual frameworks, mechanisms and perspectives. UCOMP offers one route towards this. TRUCE is a coordination action to help organize the international UCOMP community. The inherent diversity of the field has led to fragmentation, with many sub-fields developing in parallel....... With large-scale project support now being offered by the European Commission, the time is precisely right to organize and coordinate the field at the European level. This coordination action will engage the European community (and beyond), construct the first UCOMP roadmap, reach out to a wider public...

  12. [Comparative analysis of occupational health services practice of international companies of oil and gas industry and ILO Convention "Occupational Health Services"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkian, É V; Spiridonov, V L; Shatokhin, A S; Ékgardt, E V; Avdokhin, A V; Iakovlev, A P

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of current work practices of occupational health services of international companies of Russian oil & gas industry and provisions of ILO Convention 161 and Recommendation 171 "Occupational Health Services" has been carried out. Proposals for improvement and harmonization of labor legislation related to this problem have been formulated.

  13. Multiphase Transport in Porous Media: Gas-Liquid Separation Using Capillary Pressure Gradients International Space Station (ISS) Flight Experiment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Holtsnider, John T.; Dahl, Roger W.; Deeks, Dalton; Javanovic, Goran N.; Parker, James M.; Ehlert, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of multiphase flow characteristics under variable gravity conditions will ultimately lead to improved and as of yet unknown process designs for advanced space missions. Such novel processes will be of paramount importance to the success of future manned space exploration as we venture into our solar system and beyond. In addition, because of the ubiquitous nature and vital importance of biological and environmental processes involving airwater mixtures, knowledge gained about fundamental interactions and the governing properties of these mixtures will clearly benefit the quality of life here on our home planet. The techniques addressed in the current research involving multiphase transport in porous media and gas-liquid phase separation using capillary pressure gradients are also a logical candidate for a future International Space Station (ISS) flight experiment. Importantly, the novel and potentially very accurate Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) modeling of multiphase transport in porous media developed in this work offers significantly improved predictions of real world fluid physics phenomena, thereby promoting advanced process designs for both space and terrestrial applications.This 3-year research effort has culminated in the design and testing of a zero-g demonstration prototype. Both the hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (Teflon) media Capillary Pressure Gradient (CPG) cartridges prepared during the second years work were evaluated. Results obtained from ground testing at 1-g were compared to those obtained at reduced gravities spanning Martian (13-g), Lunar (16-g) and zero-g. These comparisons clearly demonstrate the relative strength of the CPG phenomena and the efficacy of its application to meet NASAs unique gas-liquid separation (GLS) requirements in non-terrestrial environments.LB modeling software, developed concurrently with the zero-g test effort, was shown to accurately reproduce observed CPG driven gas-liquid separation

  14. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III - International Space Station: Extending Long-Term Ozone and Aerosol Observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, R.; Zawodny, J. M.; Cisewski, M.; Gasbarre, J.; Flittner, D. E.; Hill, C.; Roell, M.; Moore, J. R.; Hernandez, G.; McCormick, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III - International Space Station (SAGE III on ISS) will extend the global measurements of vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gases begun with SAGE I in 1979, enabling the detection of long-term trends. SAGE III on ISS is the fourth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring these constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. The SAGE III instrument is a moderate resolution spectrometer covering wavelengths from 290 nm to 1550 nm, using the heritage occultation technique, utilizing both the sun and the moon. Launch to ISS is planned for early 2015 aboard a Falcon 9 spacecraft. SAGE III will investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the measured species in order to determine their role in climatological processes, biogeochemical cycles, the hydrologic cycle, and atmospheric chemistry. It will characterize tropospheric, as well as stratospheric aerosols and upper tropospheric and stratospheric clouds, and investigate their effects on the Earth's environment including radiative, microphysical, and chemical interactions. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense scrutiny and are the international standard for accuracy and stability. SAGE data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol. Amongst its key objectives will be to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, to reestablish the aerosol measurements needed by both climate and ozone models, and to gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The ISS is ideal for Earth observing experiments; its mid-inclination orbit allows for a large range in latitude sampling and nearly continuous communications with payloads. In this presentation, we describe the SAGE III on ISS mission, its implementation, current status, and concentrate on its key science objectives.

  15. Long-term impacts of unconventional drilling operations on human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Public health concerns related to the expansion of unconventional oil and gas drilling have sparked intense debate. In 2012, we published case reports of animals and humans affected by nearby drilling operations. Because of the potential for long-term effects of even low doses of environmental toxicants and the cumulative impact of exposures of multiple chemicals by multiple routes of exposure, a longitudinal study of these cases is necessary. Twenty-one cases from five states were followed longitudinally; the follow-up period averaged 25 months. In addition to humans, cases involved food animals, companion animals and wildlife. More than half of all exposures were related to drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations; these decreased slightly over time. More than a third of all exposures were associated with wastewater, processing and production operations; these exposures increased slightly over time. Health impacts decreased for families and animals moving from intensively drilled areas or remaining in areas where drilling activity decreased. In cases of families remaining in the same area and for which drilling activity either remained the same or increased, no change in health impacts was observed. Over the course of the study, the distribution of symptoms was unchanged for humans and companion animals, but in food animals, reproductive problems decreased and both respiratory and growth problems increased. This longitudinal case study illustrates the importance of obtaining detailed epidemiological data on the long-term health effects of multiple chemical exposures and multiple routes of exposure that are characteristic of the environmental impacts of unconventional drilling operations.

  16. Natural gas outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R. [TransCanada Transmission, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation reviewed natural gas supply and demand issues facing Ontario and outlined TransCanada's role as a key player in Ontario's energy industry. TransCanada's gas transmission assets include 39,000 km of wholly owned pipelines from British Columbia to Atlantic Canada that carry 11 Bcf of gas per day. In addition, TransCanada operates 29 power generating plants, of which 6 are in Ontario. The company is also involved the proposed Mackenzie Valley and Alaska pipeline. A map illustrating Ontario and Quebec operations was included along with graphs depicting the 2004 base case for North American gas demand by region. Historical and forecasted gas demand by end use sector in Ontario and Quebec was also illustrated. A chart of North American gas supply indicates that new supply is needed to meet energy demands. Production forecasts for Western Canada for conventional and unconventional reserves indicates that by 2015, unconventional reserves such as coalbed methane (CBM) will make up a larger portion of the production mix. A map indicating existing and proposed import terminals along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts for liquefied natural gas (LNG) was included. The challenges facing the North American gas market include price volatility, the need to update energy policies, the need to improve regulatory efficiency, and aligning the interests of market participants. It was concluded that although natural gas from Western Canada will continue to be a stable supply source for many years, the natural gas market in North America is seeking new supply in frontier gas, LNG and CBM to meeting growing demand. 1 tab., 11 figs.

  17. U.S. shale gas trends - economic and global implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, T.

    2016-09-01

    Natural gas from shale has moved the U.S., and North America more broadly, to become one of the largest producers of the commodity worldwide. Large technological gains have allowed reservoirs of unconventional hydrocarbons to become commercially viable to extract and market. The addition of this growing supply into the global marketplace, has upended longstanding trading patterns, and created new economic outcomes worth noting. This paper will discuss the recent trends of shale energy development in the U.S., the impact it is having on domestic and international markets, and the implications as the world shifts to a new low carbon energy paradigm. It will cover changes in workforce, midstream build out, power generation trends, petrochemicals, and emerging LNG export capacities.

  18. Recent Trends in the World Gas Market: Economical, Geopolitical and Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Toscano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is considered by energy experts to be the most promising fossil fuel for the 21st century, and as a matter of fact, the International Energy Agency (IEA introduced for the first time in the 2011 World Energy Outlook a high gas use scenario called the “Golden Age of Gas”. Natural gas is an easy to burn and clean fuel; its proven reserves are large and furthermore, enormous possibilities are offered by unconventional resources. There are anyway some geopolitical concerns in the global gas market, since the most important reserves are concentrated in a limited number of countries; the environmental impacts in the extraction of shale gas should also be taken into account. The paper presents an updated and thorough overview of recent advances and trends in the global gas market, highlighting the role of Europe in the World scenario. Statistical data from the main international reports are presented; economical, geopolitical and especially environmental aspects are presented and discussed.

  19. STATIC TESTS OF UNCONVENTIONAL PROPULSION UNITS FOR ULTRALIGHT AIRPLANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Helmich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents static tests of a new unconventional propulsion unit for small aviation airplanes. Our laboratory stand – a fan drive demonstrator – enables us to compare various design options. We performed experiments to verify the propulsion functionality and a measurement procedure to determine the available thrust of the propulsion unit and its dependence on engine speed. The results used for subsequent optimization include the operating parameters of the propulsion unit, and the temperature and velocity fields in parts of the air duct.

  20. Searches for dark matter and new physics with unconventional signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Wulz, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Selected results on searches for dark matter and unconventional signatures with the CMS detector are presented. Dark matter searches in channels with one or two jets, single photons, vector bosons, or top and bottom quarks combined with missing momentum in the final states are described. Unusual signatures such as displaced objects, disappearing or kinked tracks, delayed or stopped particles have also been explored. The analyses were performed with proton-proton data recorded at LHC centre-of-mass energies up to 13 TeV.

  1. Imperfect nesting and transport properties in unconventional density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóra, Balázs; Maki, Kazumi; Virosztek, Attila

    2002-10-01

    We consider the effect of imperfect nesting in quasi-one-dimensional unconventional density waves (DW's). The phase diagram is very close to those in a conventional DW's. The linear and non-linear aspects of the electric conductivity are discussed. At T=0 the frequency dependent electric conductivity develops a small dip at low frequencies. The threshold electric field depends strongly on the imperfect nesting parameter, allowing us to describe very well the measured threshold electric field in the low temperature phase of the quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor, α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4.

  2. Unconventional geometric quantum phase gates with a cavity QED system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shi-Biao

    2004-11-01

    We propose a scheme for realizing two-qubit quantum phase gates via an unconventional geometric phase shift with atoms in a cavity. In the scheme the atoms interact simultaneously with a highly detuned cavity mode and a classical field. The atoms undergo no transitions during the gate operation, while the cavity mode is displaced along a circle in the phase space, aquiring a geometric phase conditional upon the atomic state. Under certain conditions, the atoms are disentangled with the cavity mode and thus the gate is insensitive to both the atomic spontaneous emission and the cavity decay.

  3. Unconventional research in USSR and Russia: short overview

    CERN Document Server

    Kernbach, Serge

    2013-01-01

    This work briefly surveys unconventional research in Russia from the end of the 19th until the beginning of the 20th centuries in areas related to generation and detection of a 'high-penetrating' emission of non-biological origin. The overview is based on open scientific and journalistic materials. The unique character of this research and its history, originating from governmental programs of the USSR, is shown. Relations to modern studies on biological effects of weak electromagnetic emission, several areas of bioinformatics and theories of physical vacuum are discussed.

  4. Practical recommendations for increasing transparency in international gas and coal markets. Report by IEA, IEF and OPEC to G20 Finance Ministers, May 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-26

    The communique from the G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors meeting held on 5 November 2012 in Mexico City included the following passage: ''We welcome the report prepared by the IEA, the IEF and the OPEC on increasing transparency in international gas and coal markets and ask these organizations to propose practical steps by mid-2013 that G20 countries could take to implement them.'' The attached joint paper represents a collaborative effort by the three international organizations to fulfill the request from the G20. The joint paper was submitted to the G20 on 24 May 2013.

  5. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  6. The Impact of Conventional and Unconventional Monetary Policy on Investor Sentiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Chandler

    2015-01-01

    the fed funds rate is at its zero lower bound, research results indicate that expansionary unconventional monetary policy shocks also have a large and positive impact on investor mood. Together, our findings highlight the importance of both conventional and unconventional monetary policy...

  7. Framework for comparing ecosystem impacts of developing unconventional energy resources on western US rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs P. Kreuter; William E. Fox; John A. Tanaka; Kristie A. Maczko; Daniel W. McCollum; John E. Mitchell; Clifford S. Duke; Lori Hidinger

    2012-01-01

    More diverse sources of energy are needed for countries to progress toward energy independence and to meet future food production needs. The US Task Force on Strategic Unconventional Fuels concluded that to achieve this objective it is essential to develop a domestic unconventional fuels industry. Rangelands, which cover 50% to 70% of the earth's terrestrial...

  8. Unconventional Word Segmentation in Emerging Bilingual Students' Writing: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores cross-language and longitudinal patterns in unconventional word segmentation in 25 emerging bilingual students' (Spanish/English) writing from first through third grade. Spanish and English writing samples were collected annually and analyzed for two basic types of unconventional word segmentation: hyposegmentation, in…

  9. "This Wooden Shack Place": The Logic of an Unconventional Reading. Occasional Paper No. 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Glynda; Rose, Mike

    A case study examined the logic of a student's unconventional interpretation of a poem. The subject, an outgoing and well-spoken student from the lower-middle class enrolled in a remedial composition class at the University of California, offered an unconventional reading of a poem by a contemporary Japanese-American writer. Data consisted of…

  10. Study and Application of Internal Coating Technique to Drag Reduction of the Trunk Pipeline for the West-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuShixin; QuShenyang; LinZhu

    2004-01-01

    Coverage layer coated in the internal wall of pipeline enables the friction drag to be reduced, the throughput and the gas transmission efficiency to be increased, the frequency of pigging and the number of the intermediate compressor station to be reduced, and the power consumption of the compressor to be decreased etc. The drag reduction is a high advanced scientific technique with outstanding economical benefit. The study and application of internal coating technique for drag reduction of 4000km trunk pipeline in West-East gas transmission pipeline (WEGTP) project are described, in which the main points are the drag reduction principle, coating process and the indoor study of this technique with own-decided knowledge property right at home.

  11. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment, SAGE III on ISS, An Earth Science Mission on the International Space Station, Schedule Risk Analysis, A Project Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonine, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The presentation provides insight into the schedule risk analysis process used by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station Project. The presentation focuses on the schedule risk analysis process highlighting the methods for identification of risk inputs, the inclusion of generic risks identified outside the traditional continuous risk management process, and the development of tailored analysis products used to improve risk informed decision making.

  12. Carbon dioxide storage in unconventional reservoirs workshop: summary of recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin B.; Blondes, Madalyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional reservoirs” for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage—that is, geologic reservoirs in which changes to the rock trap CO2 and therefore contribute to CO2 storage—including coal, shale, basalt, and ultramafic rocks, were the focus of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) workshop held March 28 and 29, 2012, at the National Conservation Training Center in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. The goals of the workshop were to determine whether a detailed assessment of CO2 storage capacity in unconventional reservoirs is warranted, and if so, to build a set of recommendations that could be used to develop a methodology to assess this storage capacity. Such an assessment would address only the technically available resource, independent of economic or policy factors. At the end of the workshop, participants agreed that sufficient knowledge exists to allow an assessment of the potential CO2 storage resource in coals, organic-rich shales, and basalts. More work remains to be done before the storage resource in ultramafic rocks can be meaningfully assessed.

  13. Unconventional fermionic pairing states in a monochromatically tilted optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, A.; Polkovnikov, A.; Feiguin, A. E.

    2017-02-01

    We study the one-dimensional attractive fermionic Hubbard model under the influence of periodic driving with the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group method. We show that the system can be driven into an unconventional pairing state characterized by a condensate made of Cooper pairs with a finite center-of-mass momentum similar to a Fulde-Ferrell state. We obtain results both in the laboratory and the rotating reference frames demonstrating that the momentum of the condensate can be finely tuned by changing the ratio between the amplitude and the frequency of the driving. In particular, by quenching this ratio to the value corresponding to suppression of the tunneling and the Coulomb interaction strength to zero, we are able to "freeze" the condensate. We finally study the effects of different initial conditions and compare our numerical results to those obtained from a time-independent Floquet theory in the large frequency regime. Our work offers the possibility of engineering and controlling unconventional pairing states in fermionic condensates.

  14. Upgrading Unconventional Oil Resources with the EST Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbianco, Alberto; Meli, Salvatori; Panariti, Nicolleta; Rispoli, Giacomo

    2007-07-01

    We strongly believe that unconventional oils will play a much larger role in the growth of supply than is currently recognized. As a matter of fact, whereas the earth's conventional proven world oil reserves are 1.3 trillion barrels, extra-heavy plus bitumen resources amount to about 4 trillion barrels. The unconventional oils are characterized by low API gravity (<10), high viscosity and high concentration of poisons such as sulphur, nitrogen, metals, and asphaltenes. For this reason, a key role for the full exploitation of these hydrocarbon resources is played by the downstream processes that are required to upgrade and convert them into valuable products. In this scenario, Eni has developed a novel hydrocracking process (EST: Eni Slurry Technology) which is particularly well-suited for the conversion and upgrading of heavy feedstocks (conventional vacuum residues, extra-heavy oils and bitumen). EST employs nano-sized hydrogenation catalysts and an original process scheme that allow complete feedstock conversion to an upgraded synthetic crude oil (SCO) with an API gravity gain greater than 20 and avoid the production of residual by-products, such as pet-coke or heavy fuel oil. A Commercial Demonstration Unit (CDP) of 1200 bbl/d capacity is successfully operating in the Eni's Taranto refinery since November 2005. (auth)

  15. Searching for the Genes of Unconventional High Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangping

    In the past, both curates and iron-based superconductors were discovered accidentally. Lacking of successful predictions on new high Tc materials is one of major obstacles to reach a consensus on the high Tc mechanism. In this talk, we discuss two emergent principles, which are called as the correspondence principle and the selective magnetic pairing rule, to unify the understanding of both cuprates and iron-based superconductors. These two principles provide an unified explanation why the d-wave pairing symmetry and the s-wave pairing symmetry are robust respectively in cuprates and iron-based superconductors. In the meanwhile, the above two principles explain the rareness of unconventional high Tc superconductivity, identify necessary electronic environments required for high Tc superconductivity and finally serve as direct guiding rules to search new high Tc materials. We predict that the third family of unconventional high Tc superconductors exist in the compounds which carry two dimensional hexagonal lattices formed by cation-anion trigonal bipyramidal complexes with a d filling configuration on the cation ions. Their superconducting states are expected to be dominated by the d+id pairing symmetry and their maximum Tc should be higher than those of iron-based superconductors. Verifying the prediction can convincingly establish the high Tc superconducting mechanism and pave a way to design new high Tc superconductors

  16. Unconventional gradient coil designs in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minhua; Xia, Ling; Liu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the gradient coils are used to encode the spatial positions of protons by varying the magnetic field linearly across the imaging subject. With the latest development of MRI technique and new clinical and research applications, the gradient coil system requires increasingly innovative designs. In this paper, four unconventional gradient coil designs are reviewed: (1) local gradient coils; (2) new coil configurations with reduced peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS); (3) dedicated structures designed for hybrid systems (combining MRI with other medical devices); and (4) the full 3D coil designs. For the first type, the development of local gradient coils (mainly head coils) is discussed chronologically and divided into three stages: the "golden" stage in the 1990s, the "wane" stage in the 2000s, and the "revival" stage in the 2010s. For the second type, various designs for the reduction of PNS problems have been described, including local and whole-body gradient coil systems. For the third design, a dedicated gradient coil design for multi-modality combination is illustrated with an MRI-LINAC system. Finally, gradient systems with non-layered coil structure are described in the fourth design type. We hope that this review on unconventional gradient coil designs will be useful for the new development of MRI technology and emerging medical applications.

  17. Natural gas market under the Natural Gas Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, M.; Ody, N.; O' Neill, R.; Rodekohr, M.; Shambaugh, P.; Thrasher, R.; Trapmann, W.

    1981-06-01

    This first of a series of analyses presents data on the exploration, development, production, and pricing of US natural gas since the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act in 1978. Designed to give pricing incentives for new-well activity, the NGPA has apparently eliminated many of the pricing differences that existed between interstate and intrastate markets. Estimates of the annual production volumes in trillion CF/yr of gas for the categories defined by the NGPA include new gas 4.5, new onshore wells 4.1, high-cost unconventional gas 0.7, and stripper wells 0.4. Preliminary statistics on the end-use pricing of natural gas suggest that significant changes in the average wellhead prices have not caused correspondingly large increases in the price of delivered gas.

  18. The role of ethics in shale gas policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo-Martín, Inmaculada; Hays, Jake; Finkel, Madelon L

    2014-02-01

    The United States has experienced a boom in natural gas production due to recent technological innovations that have enabled natural gas to be produced from unconventional sources, such as shale. There has been much discussion about the costs and benefits of developing shale gas among scientists, policy makers, and the general public. The debate has typically revolved around potential gains in economics, employment, energy independence, and national security as well as potential harms to the environment, the climate, and public health. In the face of scientific uncertainty, national and international governments must make decisions on how to proceed. So far, the results have been varied, with some governments banning the process, others enacting moratoria until it is better understood, and others explicitly sanctioning shale gas development. These policies reflect legislature's preferences to avoid false negative errors or false positive ones. Here we argue that policy makers have a prima facie duty to minimize false negatives based on three considerations: (1) protection from serious harm generally takes precedence over the enhancement of welfare; (2) minimizing false negatives in this case is more respectful to people's autonomy; and (3) alternative solutions exist that may provide many of the same benefits while minimizing many of the harms.

  19. The domestic natural gas shortage in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting

    This thesis analyzes the domestic shortage in the Chinese natural gas market. Both the domestic supply and demand of natural gas are growing fast in China. However, the supply cannot catch up with the demand. Under the present pricing mechanism, the Chinese natural gas market cannot get the equilibrium by itself. Expensive imports are inadequate to fill the increasing gap between the domestic demand and supply. Therefore, the shortage problem occurs. Since the energy gap can result in the arrested development of economics, the shortage problem need to be solved. This thesis gives three suggestions to solve the problem: the use of Unconventional Gas, Natural Gas Storage and Pricing Reform.

  20. China's natural gas exploration and development strategies under the new normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China's natural gas industry has experienced a great leap-forward development in the past decade. Since the second half of 2014, however, international oil price has dropped sharply and global oil and gas markets have been sluggish. In China, economy growth rate slows down and resource environments tend to be more restricted. And energy production and consumption revolution speed up, and the development of natural gas industry experience profound changes internally and externally. Through review on the achievements in recent high-speed development and analysis on the future development of China's natural gas industry, it is believed that the growth rates of China's natural gas output and consumption will slow down and the supply and demand fundamentals present loose states. Low-permeability tight, deep–extra deep and unconventional reservoirs will be the principal targets of natural gas exploration and development and the tendency of resource deterioration is inevitable. The pressure to the decrease of gas price rises due to the sustained recession of oil price and the sharp decrease of alternative energy price. The normal means to increase benefits is to control investment strictly and reduce cost greatly. As for the new normal, five suggestions are proposed for natural gas exploration and development in China. Firstly, reinforce exploration continuously by guaranteeing work load and investment at the required level, and tamp the development basis. Secondly, pay much attention to early development evaluation, give prominence to plan implementation design and control productivity construction rhythm. Thirdly, pay attention to the top-level design of mature gas field development and adjustment, with fine description and management as the priority, and improve overall development level. Fourthly, strengthen the researches on exploration and development technologies, with the simplification and practicability of technologies as the focus, and

  1. Desempeño y emisiones de un motor de combustión interna con combustible dual Diesel – Gas natural ;Performance and emissions study of an internal combustion engine with dual fuel diesel - natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Mantilla González

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Muchos de los problemas reportados para los sistemas duales diesel- gas natural ocurren por mala dosificación del gas. Por esta razón se adaptó un sistema de alimentación dual con inyección electrónica de gas natural a un motor de combustión interna encendido por compresión. Se plantea un diseño experimental controlando el dosado de gas natural.Como resultado se obtiene un análisis comparativo entre los valoresde desempeño y emisiones desde la operación Diesel y Diesel-Gas natural. A partir de este análisis es posible observar que el desempeño del motor no se ve afectado por la operación del motor bajo el esquema Dual Diesel-GN, es decir que el motor funcionando bajo modo dual puede sostener las cargas solicitadas al motor. También se observa que la eficiencia volumétrica mejora bajo todas las condiciones de operación dual y las emisiones son mejores sólo cuando el motor trabaja a altas cargas. Many of the problems reported for dual diesel-natural gas systems occur due to poor gas dosage. For this reason a natural gas electronic injection feeding system was adapted to a compression ignitios internal combustion engine. An experimental design controlling the natural gas dosage is considered. As a result a comparative analysis between performance and emissions from the Diesel-and diesel-Natural Gas operation is obtained. From this analysis it is possible to see that engine performance is not affected by operation of the engine under the dual mode, i.e. the motor running under dual mode can support the loads applied to the engine. It is also observed that the volumetric efficiency improves under all conditions of operation and emissions from the dual mode of operation are better only when working at high engine loads.

  2. Gas depletion in Local Group dwarfs on ~250 kpc scales: Ram pressure stripping assisted by internal heating at early times

    CERN Document Server

    Nichols, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    A recent survey of the Galaxy and M31 reveals that more than 90% of dwarf galaxies within 270 kpc of their host galaxy are deficient in HI gas. At such an extreme radius, the coronal halo gas is an order of magnitude too low to remove HI gas through ram-pressure stripping for any reasonable orbit distribution. However, all dwarfs are known to have an ancient stellar population (\\geq 10 Gyr) from early epochs of vigorous star formation which, through heating of HI, could allow the hot halo to remove this gas. Our model looks at the evolution of these dwarf galaxies analytically as the host-galaxy dark matter halo and coronal halo gas builds up over cosmic time. The dwarf galaxies - treated as spherically symmetric, smooth distributions of dark matter and gas - experience early star formation, which sufficiently heats the gas allowing it to be removed easily through tidal stripping by the host galaxy, or ram-pressure stripping by a tenuous hot halo (n_H = 3x10^{-4} cm^{-3} at 50 kpc). This model of evolution is...

  3. A Gas Target Internal to the LHC for the Study of pp Single-Spin Asymmetries and Heavy Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Barschel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the application of an open storage cell as gas target for a proposed LHC fixed-target experiment AFTER@LHC. The target provides a high areal density at minimum gas input, which may be polarized 1H, 2H, or 3He gas or heavy inert gases in a wide mass range. For the study of single-spin asymmetries in pp interaction, luminosities of nearly 1033/cm2 s can be produced with existing techniques.

  4. International Cooperation for the Construction of South Korea — North Korea — Russia Pipeline Natural Gas (PNG): Effectiveness and Restrictions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ji Won Yun

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to examine the process and restrictions of the energy cooperation between South Korea and Russia which began with the initiation of the Kovykta gas field project...

  5. World Energy Outlook 2012 Special Report: Golden Rules for a Golden Age of Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Natural gas is poised to enter a golden age, but this future hinges critically on the successful development of the world’s vast unconventional gas resources. North American experience shows unconventional gas - notably shale gas - can be exploited economically. Many countries are lining up to emulate this success. But some governments are hesitant, or even actively opposed. They are responding to public concerns that production might involve unacceptable environmental and social damage. This report, in the World Energy Outlook series, treats these aspirations and anxieties with equal seriousness. It features two new cases: a Golden Rules Case, in which the highest practicable standards are adopted, gaining industry a {sup s}ocial licence to operate{sup ;} and its counterpart, in which the tide turns against unconventional gas as constraints prove too difficult to overcome.

  6. WEO Special Report 2012: Golden Rules for a Golden Age of Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Natural gas is poised to enter a golden age, but this future hinges critically on the successful development of the world's vast unconventional gas resources. North American experience shows unconventional gas - notably shale gas - can be exploited economically. Many countries are lining up to emulate this success. But some governments are hesitant, or even actively opposed. They are responding to public concerns that production might involve unacceptable environmental and social damage. This report, in the World Energy Outlook series, treats these aspirations and anxieties with equal seriousness. It features two new cases: a Golden Rules Case, in which the highest practicable standards are adopted, gaining industry a {sup s}ocial licence to operate{sup ;} and its counterpart, in which the tide turns against unconventional gas as constraints prove too difficult to overcome.

  7. Low-frequency RF Coupling To Unconventional (Fat Unbalanced) Dipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, M M; Brown, C G; Perkins, M P; Speer, R D; Javedani, J B

    2010-12-07

    The report explains radio frequency (RF) coupling to unconventional dipole antennas. Normal dipoles have thin equal length arms that operate at maximum efficiency around resonance frequencies. In some applications like high-explosive (HE) safety analysis, structures similar to dipoles with ''fat'' unequal length arms must be evaluated for indirect-lightning effects. An example is shown where a metal drum-shaped container with HE forms one arm and the detonator cable acts as the other. Even if the HE is in a facility converted into a ''Faraday cage'', a lightning strike to the facility could still produce electric fields inside. The detonator cable concentrates the electric field and carries the energy into the detonator, potentially creating a hazard. This electromagnetic (EM) field coupling of lightning energy is the indirect effect of a lightning strike. In practice, ''Faraday cages'' are formed by the rebar of the concrete facilities. The individual rebar rods in the roof, walls and floor are normally electrically connected because of the construction technique of using metal wire to tie the pieces together. There are two additional requirements for a good cage. (1) The roof-wall joint and the wall-floor joint must be electrically attached. (2) All metallic penetrations into the facility must also be electrically connected to the rebar. In this report, it is assumed that these conditions have been met, and there is no arcing in the facility structure. Many types of detonators have metal ''cups'' that contain the explosives and thin electrical initiating wires, called bridge wires mounted between two pins. The pins are connected to the detonator cable. The area of concern is between the pins supporting the bridge wire and the metal cup forming the outside of the detonator. Detonator cables usually have two wires, and in this example, both wires generated the same voltage at the

  8. Unconventional spin texture in a noncentrosymmetric quantum spin Hall insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera Acosta, C.; Babilonia, O.; Abdalla, L.; Fazzio, A.

    2016-07-01

    We propose that the simultaneous presence of both Rashba and band inversion can lead to a Rashba-like spin splitting formed by two bands with the same in-plane helical spin texture. Because of this unconventional spin texture, the backscattering is forbidden in edge and bulk conductivity channels. We propose a noncentrosymmetric honeycomb-lattice quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulator family formed by the IV, V, and VII elements with this property. The system formed by Bi, Pb, and I atoms is mechanically stable and has both a large Rashba spin splitting of 60 meV and a large nontrivial band gap of 0.14 eV. Since the edge and the bulk states are protected by the time-reversal (TR) symmetry, contrary to what happens in most doped QSH insulators, the bulk states do not contribute to the backscattering in the electronic transport, allowing the construction of a spintronic device with less energy loss.

  9. Unconventional fermi surface instabilities in the kagome Hubbard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Maximilian L; Platt, Christian; Thomale, Ronny

    2013-03-22

    We investigate the competing Fermi surface instabilities in the kagome tight-binding model. Specifically, we consider on-site and short-range Hubbard interactions in the vicinity of van Hove filling of the dispersive kagome bands where the fermiology promotes the joint effect of enlarged density of states and nesting. The sublattice interference mechanism devised by Kiesel and Thomale [Phys. Rev. B 86, 121105 (2012)] allows us to explain the intricate interplay between ferromagnetic fluctuations and other ordering tendencies. On the basis of the functional renormalization group used to obtain an adequate low-energy theory description, we discover finite angular momentum spin and charge density wave order, a twofold degenerate d-wave Pomeranchuk instability, and f-wave superconductivity away from van Hove filling. Together, this makes the kagome Hubbard model the prototypical scenario for several unconventional Fermi surface instabilities.

  10. Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2016-07-27

    We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the lights polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity αyx = 0 at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with αyx = e2/2h. These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at (±1/2,±3/2,±5/2, ...)e2/h. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK.

  11. Compensation strategies for PET scanners with unconventional scanner geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gundlich, B; Oehler, M

    2006-01-01

    The small animal PET scanner ClearPET®Neuro, developed at the Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH in cooperation with the Crystal Clear Collaboration (CERN), represents scanners with an unconventional geometry: due to axial and transaxial detector gaps ClearPet®Neuro delivers inhomogeneous sinograms with missing data. When filtered backprojection (FBP) or Fourier rebinning (FORE) are applied, strong geometrical artifacts appear in the images. In this contribution we present a method that takes the geometrical sensitivity into account and converts the measured sinograms into homogeneous and complete data. By this means artifactfree images are achieved using FBP or FORE. Besides an advantageous measurement setup that reduces inhomogeneities and data gaps in the sinograms, a modification of the measured sinograms is necessary. This modification includes two steps: a geometrical normalization and corrections for missing data. To normalize the measured sinograms, computed sinograms are used that describe the geometric...

  12. AN AIRPLANE WITH UNCONVENTIONALLY PLACED PROPELLER POWER UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Červinka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The significance of the influence of operating propellers on the aircraft aerodynamic characteristics is well-known. Wind tunnel testing of an airplane model with operating propellers is a complex task regarding the required similarity of the full-scale and the model case. Matching sufficient similarity in axial and rotational velocities in the propeller slipstream is the primordial condition for the global aerodynamic similarity of the windtunnel testing. An example of the model power units with related devices is presented. Examples of the wind tunnel testing results illustrate the extent of the propeller influence on aerodynamic characteristics of an aircraft of unconventional configuration with power units positioned at the fuselage afterbody.

  13. Unconventional superconductors under a rotating magnetic field. II. Thermal transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorontsov, A. B.; Vekhter, I.

    2007-06-01

    We present a microscopic approach to the calculations of thermal conductivity in unconventional superconductors for a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. Our work employs the nonequilibrium Keldysh formulation of the quasiclassical theory. We solve the transport equations using a variation of the Brandt-Pesch-Tewordt method that accounts for the quasiparticle scattering on vortices. We focus on the dependence of the thermal conductivity on the direction of the field with the respect to the nodes of the order parameter, and discuss it in the context of experiments aiming to determine the shape of the gap from such anisotropy measurements. We consider quasi-two-dimensional Fermi surfaces with vertical line nodes and use our analysis to establish the location of gap nodes in heavy-fermion CeCoIn5 and the organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2 .

  14. Searches for New Physics in Unconventional Signatures at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00348488; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Various physics models predict new long-lived particles to be generated at the Large Hadron Collider, which leave unconventional signatures in the detectors. In order to maximise our discovery potential for new physics, the ATLAS experiment has developed novel analysis techniques for the long-lived particles. In these proceedings, a new result with $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt s = 13~\\rm{TeV}$ in LHC Run 2 is presented, which exploits the ionisation energy loss measurements in the Pixel subsystem in the ATLAS detector to search for a massive charged long-lived particle with a velocity significantly below the speed of light. Several other characteristic searches performed with $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt s = 7 - 8~\\rm{TeV}$ in LHC Run 1 are briefly summarised.

  15. Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M; Vasilopoulos, P; Schwingenschlögl, U

    2016-09-28

    We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the light's polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity [Formula: see text] at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with [Formula: see text]. These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at [Formula: see text].

  16. Conventional and Unconventional Pairing and Condensates in Dilute Nuclear Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, John W; Stein, Martin; Huang, Xu-Guang; Khodel, Victor A; Shaginyan, Vasily R; Zverev, Mikhail V

    2016-01-01

    This contribution will survey recent progress toward an understanding of diverse pairing phenomena in dilute nuclear matter at small and moderate isospin asymmetry, with results of potential relevance to supernova envelopes and proto-neutron stars. Application of {\\it ab initio} many-body techniques has revealed a rich array of temperature-density phase diagrams, indexed by isospin asymmetry, which feature both conventional and unconventional superfluid phases. At low density there exist a homogeneous translationally invariant BCS phase, a homogeneous LOFF phase violating translational invariance, and an inhomogeneous translationally invariant phase-separated BCS phase. The transition from the BCS to the BEC phases is characterized in terms of the evolution, from weak to strong coupling, of the pairing gap, condensate wave function, and quasiparticle occupation numbers and spectra. Additionally, a schematic formal analysis of pairing in neutron matter at low to moderate densities is presented that establishes...

  17. Partner Country Series: Gas Pricing - China's Challenges and IEA Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    China will play a positive role in the global development of gas, the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) Executive Director, Maria Van der Hoeven has said in Beijing on 11 September, 2012 when launching a new IEA report: Gas Pricing and Regulation, China’s challenges and IEA experiences. In line with its aim to meet growing energy demand while shifting away from coal, China has set an ambitious goal of doubling its use of natural gas from 2011 levels by 2015. Prospects are good for significant new supplies – both domestic and imported, conventional and unconventional – to come online in the medium-term, but notable challenges remain, particularly concerning gas pricing and the institutional and regulatory landscape. While China’s circumstances are, in many respects unique, some current issues are similar to those a number of IEA countries have faced. This report highlights some key challenges China faces in its transition to greater reliance on natural gas, then explores in detail relevant experiences from IEA countries, particularly in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States as well as the European Union (EU). Preliminary suggestions about how lessons learned in other countries could be applied to China’s situation are offered as well. The aim of this report is to provide stakeholders in China with a useful reference as they consider decisions about the evolution of the gas sector in their country.

  18. Current fluctuations in unconventional superconductor junctions with impurity scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burset, Pablo; Lu, Bo; Tamura, Shun; Tanaka, Yukio

    2017-06-01

    The order parameter of bulk two-dimensional superconductors is classified as nodal if it vanishes for a direction in momentum space, or gapful if it does not. Each class can be topologically nontrivial if Andreev bound states are formed at the edges of the superconductor. Nonmagnetic impurities in the superconductor affect the formation of Andreev bound states and can drastically change the tunneling spectra for small voltages. Here, we investigate the mean current and its fluctuations for two-dimensional tunnel junctions between normal-metal and unconventional superconductors by solving the quasiclassical Eilenberger equation self-consistently, including the presence of nonmagnetic impurities in the superconductor. As the impurity strength increases, we find that superconductivity is suppressed for almost all order parameters since (i) at zero applied bias, the effective transferred charge calculated from the noise-current ratio tends to the electron charge e , and (ii) for finite bias, the current-voltage characteristics follows that of a normal-state junction. There are notable exceptions to this trend. First, gapful nontrivial (chiral) superconductors are very robust against impurity scattering due to the linear dispersion relation of their surface Andreev bound states. Second, for nodal nontrivial superconductors, only px-wave pairing is almost immune to the presence of impurities due to the emergence of odd-frequency s -wave Cooper pairs near the interface. Due to their anisotropic dependence on the wave vector, impurity scattering is an effective pair-breaking mechanism for the remaining nodal superconductors. All these behaviors are neatly captured by the noise-current ratio, providing a useful guide to find experimental signatures for unconventional superconductivity.

  19. Potential water resource impacts of hydraulic fracturing from unconventional oil production in the Bakken shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Namita; Chilkoor, Govinda; Wilder, Joseph; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Stone, James J

    2017-01-01

    Modern drilling techniques, notably horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, have enabled unconventional oil production (UOP) from the previously inaccessible Bakken Shale Formation located throughout Montana, North Dakota (ND) and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The majority of UOP from the Bakken shale occurs in ND, strengthening its oil industry and businesses, job market, and its gross domestic product. However, similar to UOP from other low-permeability shales, UOP from the Bakken shale can result in environmental and human health effects. For example, UOP from the ND Bakken shale generates a voluminous amount of saline wastewater including produced and flowback water that are characterized by unusual levels of total dissolved solids (350 g/L) and elevated levels of toxic and radioactive substances. Currently, 95% of the saline wastewater is piped or trucked onsite prior to disposal into Class II injection wells. Oil and gas wastewater (OGW) spills that occur during transport to injection sites can potentially result in drinking water resource contamination. This study presents a critical review of potential water resource impacts due to deterministic (freshwater withdrawals and produced water management) and probabilistic events (spills due to leaking pipelines and truck accidents) related to UOP from the Bakken shale in ND.

  20. [Spectral quantitative analysis by nonlinear partial least squares based on neural network internal model for flue gas of thermal power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Li, Yao-Jiang; Zhou, Yan; Wang, Yan-Xia

    2014-11-01

    To deal with nonlinear characteristics of spectra data for the thermal power plant flue, a nonlinear partial least square (PLS) analysis method with internal model based on neural network is adopted in the paper. The latent variables of the independent variables and the dependent variables are extracted by PLS regression firstly, and then they are used as the inputs and outputs of neural network respectively to build the nonlinear internal model by train process. For spectra data of flue gases of the thermal power plant, PLS, the nonlinear PLS with the internal model of back propagation neural network (BP-NPLS), the non-linear PLS with the internal model of radial basis function neural network (RBF-NPLS) and the nonlinear PLS with the internal model of adaptive fuzzy inference system (ANFIS-NPLS) are compared. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of sulfur dioxide of BP-NPLS, RBF-NPLS and ANFIS-NPLS are reduced by 16.96%, 16.60% and 19.55% than that of PLS, respectively. The RMSEP of nitric oxide of BP-NPLS, RBF-NPLS and ANFIS-NPLS are reduced by 8.60%, 8.47% and 10.09% than that of PLS, respectively. The RMSEP of nitrogen dioxide of BP-NPLS, RBF-NPLS and ANFIS-NPLS are reduced by 2.11%, 3.91% and 3.97% than that of PLS, respectively. Experimental results show that the nonlinear PLS is more suitable for the quantitative analysis of glue gas than PLS. Moreover, by using neural network function which can realize high approximation of nonlinear characteristics, the nonlinear partial least squares method with internal model mentioned in this paper have well predictive capabilities and robustness, and could deal with the limitations of nonlinear partial least squares method with other internal model such as polynomial and spline functions themselves under a certain extent. ANFIS-NPLS has the best performance with the internal model of adaptive fuzzy inference system having ability to learn more and reduce the residuals effectively. Hence, ANFIS-NPLS is an

  1. A model of turbocharger radial turbines appropriate to be used in zero- and one-dimensional gas dynamics codes for internal combustion engines modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, J.R.; Arnau, F.J.; Dolz, V.; Tiseira, A. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Cervello, C. [Conselleria de Cultura, Educacion y Deporte, Generalitat Valenciana (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    The paper presents a model of fixed and variable geometry turbines. The aim of this model is to provide an efficient boundary condition to model turbocharged internal combustion engines with zero- and one-dimensional gas dynamic codes. The model is based from its very conception on the measured characteristics of the turbine. Nevertheless, it is capable of extrapolating operating conditions that differ from those included in the turbine maps, since the engines usually work within these zones. The presented model has been implemented in a one-dimensional gas dynamic code and has been used to calculate unsteady operating conditions for several turbines. The results obtained have been compared with success against pressure-time histories measured upstream and downstream of the turbine during on-engine operation. (author)

  2. Integrated reservoir characterization for unconventional reservoirs using seismic, microseismic and well log data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Debotyam

    This study is aimed at an improved understanding of unconventional reservoirs which include tight reservoirs (such as shale oil and gas plays), geothermal developments, etc. We provide a framework for improved fracture zone identification and mapping of the subsurface for a geothermal system by integrating data from different sources. The proposed ideas and methods were tested primarily on data obtained from North Brawley geothermal field and the Geysers geothermal field apart from synthetic datasets which were used to test new algorithms before actual application on the real datasets. The study has resulted in novel or improved algorithms for use at specific stages of data acquisition and analysis including improved phase detection technique for passive seismic (and teleseismic) data as well as optimization of passive seismic surveys for best possible processing results. The proposed workflow makes use of novel integration methods as a means of making best use of the available geophysical data for fracture characterization. The methodology incorporates soft computing tools such as hybrid neural networks (neuro-evolutionary algorithms) as well as geostatistical simulation techniques to improve the property estimates as well as overall characterization efficacy. The basic elements of the proposed characterization workflow involves using seismic and microseismic data to characterize structural and geomechanical features within the subsurface. We use passive seismic data to model geomechanical properties which are combined with other properties evaluated from seismic and well logs to derive both qualitative and quantitative fracture zone identifiers. The study has resulted in a broad framework highlighting a new technique for utilizing geophysical data (seismic and microseismic) for unconventional reservoir characterization. It provides an opportunity to optimally develop the resources in question by incorporating data from different sources and using their temporal

  3. Project of multiple controller models for the maintenance of air/fuel ratio in natural gas internal combustion motors; Projeto de controladores multiplos modelos para manutencao da relacao ar/combustivel em motores de combustao interna movidos a gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas Junior, Fernando Sousa e; Fleury, Agenor de Toledo [Sao Paulo Univ. SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: ffreitas@usp.br; agfleury@ipt.br

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is the study of advanced control techniques for the reduction of pollutant gases generated by internal combustion engines powered by natural gas. In this paper three techniques are applied to control the fuel injection and the ignition timing: the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC), the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and H{infinity} Control by Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI). To each one of those techniques were developed a multiple model structure seeking to include the vast operation region of the engine. The controller's performance is measured by the efficiency in maintaining the fuel/air ratio around 1% of maximum deviation in relation to the stoichiometric value. The results show the possibility of controlling pollutant emission generated by this kind of engine to conform to international emission standards, improving life quality. (author)

  4. Considerations and concerting on the european directive transposition to the internal gas market; Mission de reflexion et de concertation sur la transposition de la directive europeenne sur ''le marche interieur du gaz''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bricq, N

    1999-10-01

    In the framework of the directive 98/30/CE transposition on the the gas internal market, a report has been asked by the First Ministry to define the new form of the gas utilities. The directive deals with the competition opening. The first part presents the gas market organization in France, today and after the transposition. The second part analyses the big stakes of this transposition. (A.L.B)

  5. The international gas markets. Of major changes and challenges for Europe; Die internationalen Gasmaerkte. Von grossen Veraenderungen und Herausforderungen fuer Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphal, Kirsten [Deutsches Institut fuer Internationale Politik und Sicherheit, Berlin (Germany). Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (SWP), Forschungsgruppe Globale Fragen

    2014-01-15

    Already in the 2010 edition of its World Energy Outlook the World Energy Agency noted an unprecedented degree of uncertainty surrounding the international energy markets. The rate of change in these markets is indeed stupendous, posing formidable tasks to business companies as well as the political leadership. The European gas markets face new challenges in protecting their security of supply which stem from the combined effects of the shift of LNG trade flows into the Pacific region, decreasing rates of home production and the ongoing transformation process within the EU.

  6. Unconventional metaphors and emotional-cognitive regulation in a metacognitive interpersonal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelo, Omar Carlo Gioacchino; Mergenthaler, Erhard

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between unconventional (i.e., creative) metaphors and emotional-cognitive regulation in a metacognitive interpersonal therapy (MIT). The occurrence of unconventional metaphor was identified using the Metaphor Analysis in Psychotherapy (MAP) model, and emotional-cognitive regulation was assessed by the Therapeutic Cycles Model (TCM). The results showed that the dyad's frequency of unconventional metaphors is significantly related to emotional-cognitive integration, reflective processes and moments of therapeutic engagement based on the quality of such regulation. More specifically, client metaphors were associated with emotional-cognitive integration and moments of therapeutic engagement, while therapist metaphors were associated with reflective processes. The results suggest that unconventional metaphors may be considered markers for different cognitive-emotional regulatory processes and moments of heightened therapeutic work and change in MIT.

  7. Old concept with new power - Why digital and unconventional activities can be political participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; Albæk, Erik; de Vreese, Claes Holger

    Digitally networked activities and unconventional actions on a community level increase citizens’ repertoire of participation. Political communication research, however, is having a hard time to consistently integrate such activities into the concept of political participation. Our study empirica...

  8. Structural Basis of Cargo Recognition by Unconventional Myosins in Cellular Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianchao; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Mingjie

    2016-08-01

    Unconventional myosins are a superfamily of actin-based molecular motors playing diverse roles including cellular trafficking, mechanical supports, force sensing and transmission, etc. The variable neck and tail domains of unconventional myosins function to bind to specific cargoes including proteins and lipid vesicles and thus are largely responsible for the diverse cellular functions of myosins in vivo. In addition, the tail regions, together with their cognate cargoes, can regulate activities of the motor heads. This review outlines the advances made in recent years on cargo recognition and cargo binding-induced regulation of the activity of several unconventional myosins including myosin-I, V, VI and X in cellular trafficking. We approach this topic by describing a series of high-resolution structures of the neck and tail domains of these unconventional myosins either alone or in complex with their specific cargoes, and by discussing potential implications of these structural studies on cellular trafficking of these myosin motors.

  9. Variable-Fidelity Conceptual Design System for Advanced Unconventional Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ongoing work in unconventional air-vehicles, i.e. deformable mold-lines and bio-mimetics, is beginning to provide the insight necessary to exploit performance...

  10. Environmental Stress Testing of the Single Sample Cylinder: A Proven Consensus Standard for Internal Gas Analysis (IGA) or Residual Gas Analysis (RGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuessler, Philipp WH

    2010-01-01

    In August 2008, Schuessler Consulting was contracted by NASA GSFC in support of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) program to perform two separate studies on moisture laden air in a stainless steel cylinder that had been designed to become a consensus standard for Test Method 1018. This Test Method was originally released for hybrids under Mil. Std. 883 but was quickly utilized on other microelectronic devices under the auspice of Mil. Std. 750. The cylinder had subsequently been fabricated for the 750 community. It was back-filled with moist air and subsequently analyzed over a period of time under a previous NASA contract. It had been shown that moisture in the 4000 - 5000 ppm range could be analyzed rather precisely with a mass spectrometer, commonly referred to as a Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). The scope of this study was to ascertain if the composition and precision varied as a function of thermal shock at sub-zero temperatures and whether there was consensus when the standard was submitted to other RGA units. It was demonstrated and published that the consensus standard would yield precise RGA data for moisture within +/- 1% when optimized for a given RGA unit. It has been subsequently shown in this study at Oneida Research Services, that sub-zero storage did not affect that precision when a well-defined protocol for the analysis was followed. The consensus standard was taken to a second facility for analysis where it was found that moisture adsorption on the transfer lines caused precision to drop to +/- 12%. The Single Sample Cylinder (SSC) is a one liter stainless steel cylinder with associated sampling valves and has considerable weight and volume. But this considerable size allows for approximately 300 gas samples of the same composition to be delivered to any RGA unit. Lastly, a smaller cylinder, approximately 75 cc, of a second consensus standard was fabricated and tested with a different mix of fixed gases where moisture was kept in the

  11. USE OF POLYMERS TO RECOVER VISCOUS OIL FROM UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall Seright

    2011-09-30

    This final technical progress report summarizes work performed the project, 'Use of Polymers to Recover Viscous Oil from Unconventional Reservoirs.' The objective of this three-year research project was to develop methods using water soluble polymers to recover viscous oil from unconventional reservoirs (i.e., on Alaska's North Slope). The project had three technical tasks. First, limits were re-examined and redefined for where polymer flooding technology can be applied with respect to unfavorable displacements. Second, we tested existing and new polymers for effective polymer flooding of viscous oil, and we tested newly proposed mechanisms for oil displacement by polymer solutions. Third, we examined novel methods of using polymer gels to improve sweep efficiency during recovery of unconventional viscous oil. This report details work performed during the project. First, using fractional flow calculations, we examined the potential of polymer flooding for recovering viscous oils when the polymer is able to reduce the residual oil saturation to a value less than that of a waterflood. Second, we extensively investigated the rheology in porous media for a new hydrophobic associative polymer. Third, using simulation and analytical studies, we compared oil recovery efficiency for polymer flooding versus in-depth profile modification (i.e., 'Bright Water') as a function of (1) permeability contrast, (2) relative zone thickness, (3) oil viscosity, (4) polymer solution viscosity, (5) polymer or blocking-agent bank size, and (6) relative costs for polymer versus blocking agent. Fourth, we experimentally established how much polymer flooding can reduce the residual oil saturation in an oil-wet core that is saturated with viscous North Slope crude. Finally, an experimental study compared mechanical degradation of an associative polymer with that of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. Detailed results from the first two years of the project may be

  12. Northern gas fields and NGH technology. A feasibility study to develop natural gas hydrate technology for the international gas markets; Nordlige gassfelt and NGH-teknologi. En studie av muligheter for utvikling av naturgasshydratteknologi for det internasjonale gassmarked

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsland, Trond Ragnvald; Loy, Erik F.; Doesen, Sturle

    1997-12-31

    Two natural gas fields have been studied for three different technological solutions using two different economic theories. The aim was to examine whether a new technology for transporting natural gas, Natural Gas Hydrates (NGH), can compete with the existing technologies pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). Natural gas can rarely be used immediately after production and the supply systems can be divided into four interrelated parts: 1) Exploration. 2) Development and production. 3) Transportation. 4) Distribution. The emphasis in the study is on production costs and transportation. Exploration is assumed carried out and thus viewed sunk cost. Distribution from landing point to consumers is not part of the study. Production can take place either onshore or offshore, the natural gas can be transported to the market either by pipeline or ship and the costs are becoming more important as the distance from the fields to the markets increase. Natural gas projects have long lead times and large capital requirements. New supplies will materialise then if there is confidence that demand for the gas exists at a profitable price. Therefore natural gas is generally sold on long term contracts. The conclusions are that economies of scale exist and that pipeline is the superior technology for high volumes but cannot compete for smaller volumes where the LNG technology has been the best alternative. However, the report concludes that the NGH can compete fully. The distance to the market where the natural gas is to be transported is crucial for choice of transportation mode. The shipping modes are superior for long transportation distances. NGH is superior to LNG also with regards to distance. Despite that the two economic models used for the evaluation have provided very different absolute project values, they have provided the same conclusions about the ranking of the different technologies. It is clear then that if NGH technology is developed further into a reliable and

  13. Hybrid gate dielectric materials for unconventional electronic circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Young-Geun; Everaerts, Ken; Hersam, Mark C; Marks, Tobin J

    2014-04-15

    Recent advances in semiconductor performance made possible by organic π-electron molecules, carbon-based nanomaterials, and metal oxides have been a central scientific and technological research focus over the past decade in the quest for flexible and transparent electronic products. However, advances in semiconductor materials require corresponding advances in compatible gate dielectric materials, which must exhibit excellent electrical properties such as large capacitance, high breakdown strength, low leakage current density, and mechanical flexibility on arbitrary substrates. Historically, conventional silicon dioxide (SiO2) has dominated electronics as the preferred gate dielectric material in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated transistor circuitry. However, it does not satisfy many of the performance requirements for the aforementioned semiconductors due to its relatively low dielectric constant and intransigent processability. High-k inorganics such as hafnium dioxide (HfO2) or zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) offer some increases in performance, but scientists have great difficulty depositing these materials as smooth films at temperatures compatible with flexible plastic substrates. While various organic polymers are accessible via chemical synthesis and readily form films from solution, they typically exhibit low capacitances, and the corresponding transistors operate at unacceptably high voltages. More recently, researchers have combined the favorable properties of high-k metal oxides and π-electron organics to form processable, structurally well-defined, and robust self-assembled multilayer nanodielectrics, which enable high-performance transistors with a wide variety of unconventional semiconductors. In this Account, we review recent advances in organic-inorganic hybrid gate dielectrics, fabricated by multilayer self-assembly, and their remarkable synergy with unconventional semiconductors. We first discuss the principals and functional

  14. Unconventional Bose-Einstein Condensations from Spin-Orbit Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiang-Fa; WU Cong-Jun; Ian Mondragon-Shem

    2011-01-01

    According to the "no-node" theorem, the many-body ground state wavefunctions of conventional Bose-Einstein condensations (BEC) are positive-definite, thus time-reversal symmetry cannot be spontaneously broken. We find that multi-component bosons with spin-orbit coupling provide an unconventional type of BECs beyond this paradigm. We focus on a subtle case ofisotropic Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the spin-independent interaction. In the limit of the weak confining potential, the condensate wavefunctions are frustrated at the Hartree-Fock level due to the degeneracy of the Rashba ring. Quantum zero-point energy selects the spin-spiral type condensate through the "order-from-disorder" mechanism. In a strong harmonic confining trap, the condensate spontaneously generates a half-quantum vortex combined with the skyrmion type of spin texture. In both cases, time-reversal symmetry is spontaneously broken. These phenomena can be realized in both cold atom systems with artificial spin-orbit couplings generated from atom-laser interactions and exciton condensates in semi-conductor systems.%@@ According to the"no-node"theorem,the many-body ground state wavefunctions of conventional Bose-Einstein condensations(BEC)are positive-definite,thus time-reversal symmetry cannot be spontaneously broken.We find that multi-component bosons with spin-orbit coupling provide an unconventional type of BECs beyond this paradigm.We focus on a subtle case of isotropic Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the spin-independent interaction.In the limit of the weak confining potential,the condensate wavefunctions are frustrated at the Hartree-Fork level due to the degeneracy of the Rashba ring.Quantum zero-point energy selects the spin-spiral type condensate through the"order-from-disorder"mechanism.In a strong harmonic confining trap,the condensate spontaneously generates a half-quantum vortex combined with the skyrmion type of spin texture.In both cases,time-reversal symmetry is spontaneously broken

  15. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paranhos, Elizabeth [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Boyd, William [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Carlson, Ken [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Domestic natural gas production was largely stagnant from the mid-1970s until about 2005. However, beginning in the late 1990s, advances linking horizontal drilling techniques with hydraulic fracturing allowed drilling to proceed in shale and other formations at much lower cost. The result was a slow, steady increase in unconventional gas production. The Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) designed this study to address four related key questions, which are a subset from the wider dialogue on natural gas; regarding the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas compared to conventional natural gas and other fuels used to generate electricity; existing legal and regulatory frameworks governing unconventional gas development at federal, state, and local levels, and changes in response to the rapid industry growth and public concerns; natural gas production companies changing their water-related practices; and demand for natural gas in the electric sector.

  16. STUDY OF UNCONVENTIONAL TEXTILES USED AS INSERTION FOR CLOTHES IN TERMS OF ITS DYNAMIC TENSILE STREGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA Dorina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional textiles are manufactured different from those obtained by the classic spinning weaving and knitting. They are obtained by mechanical or chemical consolidation of a textile backing up of fibrous layers or combinations of layers of fiber and yarn, fabrics and yarns, fabrics or knitted fabrics and fibers. For the apparel industry has expanded the use of unconventional fabrics especially in auxiliary materials they replace traditional materials such as woven tassel and buckram. Application of reinforcement layers have very important role in increasing the stability of form and material exploitation basic characteristics. Using unconventional fabrics used as insertions for clothing presents a desosibit advantage in terms of possible replacement joints bonded by heat sealed seam, thus saving time and using technology more accessible. For unconventional fabrics used as auxiliaries in the apparel industry is usually determined flexural stiffness, tensile strength, resistance to repeated stretches but more efficient in terms of proximity to the real conditions of the clothing is dynamic tensile resistance. Unconventional textile materials have a certain anisotropy in terms of the performed measurements. So, we followed the conducted research to highlight the anisotropy of several samples and characterization of best of unconventional materials in this regard, to be used under conditions effective as clothing industry.

  17. Sec16A is critical for both conventional and unconventional secretion of CFTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, He; Kim, Jiyoon; Noh, Shin Hye; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Kim, Joo Young; Lee, Min Goo

    2017-01-01

    CFTR is a transmembrane protein that reaches the cell surface via the conventional Golgi mediated secretion pathway. Interestingly, ER-to-Golgi blockade or ER stress induces alternative GRASP-mediated, Golgi-bypassing unconventional trafficking of wild-type CFTR and the disease-causing ΔF508-CFTR, which has folding and trafficking defects. Here, we show that Sec16A, the key regulator of conventional ER-to-Golgi transport, plays a critical role in the ER exit of protein cargos during unconventional secretion. In an initial gene silencing screen, Sec16A knockdown abolished the unconventional secretion of wild-type and ΔF508-CFTR induced by ER-to-Golgi blockade, whereas the knockdown of other COPII-related components did not. Notably, during unconventional secretion, Sec16A was redistributed to cell periphery and associated with GRASP55 in mammalian cells. Molecular and morphological analyses revealed that IRE1α-mediated signaling is an upstream regulator of Sec16A during ER-to-Golgi blockade or ER stress associated unconventional secretion. These findings highlight a novel function of Sec16A as an essential mediator of ER stress-associated unconventional secretion. PMID:28067262

  18. Investigation of the Frequency Shift of a SAD Circuit Loop and the Internal Micro-Cantilever in a Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng You

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Micro-cantilever sensors for mass detection using resonance frequency have attracted considerable attention over the last decade in the field of gas sensing. For such a sensing system, an oscillator circuit loop is conventionally used to actuate the micro-cantilever, and trace the frequency shifts. In this paper, gas experiments are introduced to investigate the mechanical resonance frequency shifts of the micro-cantilever within the circuit loop(mechanical resonance frequency, MRF and resonating frequency shifts of the electric signal in the oscillator circuit (system working frequency, SWF. A silicon beam with a piezoelectric zinc oxide layer is employed in the experiment, and a Self-Actuating-Detecting (SAD circuit loop is built to drive the micro-cantilever and to follow the frequency shifts. The differences between the two resonating frequencies and their shifts are discussed and analyzed, and a coefficientrelated to the two frequency shifts is confirmed.Micro-cantilever sensors for mass detection using resonance frequency have attracted considerable attention over the last decade in the field of gas sensing. For such a sensing system, an oscillator circuit loop is conventionally used to actuate the micro-cantilever, and trace the frequency shifts. In this paper, gas experiments are introduced to investigate the mechanical resonance frequency shifts of the micro-cantilever within the circuit loop(mechanical resonance frequency, MRF and resonating frequency shifts of the electric signal in the oscillator circuit (system working frequency, SWF. A silicon beam with a piezoelectric zinc oxide layer is employed in the experiment, and a Self-Actuating-Detecting (SAD circuit loop is built to drive the micro-cantilever and to follow the frequency shifts. The differences between the two resonating frequencies and their shifts are discussed and analyzed, and a coefficientrelated to the two frequency shifts is confirmed.

  19. Water management technologies used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-07-30

    Natural gas represents an important energy source for the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 22% of the country's energy needs are provided by natural gas. Historically, natural gas was produced from conventional vertical wells drilled into porous hydrocarbon-containing formations. During the past decade, operators have increasingly looked to other unconventional sources of natural gas, such as coal bed methane, tight gas sands, and gas shales.

  20. Dynamic Thermodynamics with Internal Energy, Volume, and Amount of Moles as States : Application to Liquefied Gas Tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendsen, A. R. J.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic models for process design, optimization, and control usually solve a set of heat and/or mass balances as a function of time and/or position in the process. To obtain more robust dynamic models and to minimize the amount of assumptions, internal energy, volume, and amount of moles are chosen

  1. Dynamic Thermodynamics with Internal Energy, Volume, and Amount of Moles as States : Application to Liquefied Gas Tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendsen, A. R. J.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic models for process design, optimization, and control usually solve a set of heat and/or mass balances as a function of time and/or position in the process. To obtain more robust dynamic models and to minimize the amount of assumptions, internal energy, volume, and amount of moles are chosen

  2. Mechanism of unconventional aerodynamic characteristics of an elliptic airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aerodynamic characteristics of elliptic airfoil are quite different from the case of conventional airfoil for Reynolds number varying from about 104 to 106. In order to reveal the fundamental mechanism, the unsteady flow around a stationary two-dimensional elliptic airfoil with 16% relative thickness has been simulated using unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations and the γ-Reθt‾ transition turbulence model at different angles of attack for flow Reynolds number of 5 × 105. The aerodynamic coefficients and the pressure distribution obtained by computation are in good agreement with experimental data, which indicates that the numerical method works well. Through this study, the mechanism of the unconventional aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil is analyzed and discussed based on the computational predictions coupled with the wind tunnel results. It is considered that the boundary layer transition at the leading edge and the unsteady flow separation vortices at the trailing edge are the causes of the case. Furthermore, a valuable insight into the physics of how the flow behavior affects the elliptic airfoil’s aerodynamics is provided.

  3. Ambipolar organic field-effect transistors on unconventional substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosseddu, P.; Mattana, G.; Orgiu, E.; Bonfiglio, A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we report on the realization of flexible all-organic ambipolar field-effect transistors (FETs) realized on unconventional substrates, such as plastic films and textile yarns. A double layer pentacene-C60 heterojunction was used as the semiconductor layer. The contacts were made with poly(ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and patterned by means of soft lithography microcontact printing (μCP). Very interestingly growing C60 on a predeposited pentacene buffer layer leads to a clear improvement in the morphology and crystallinity of the film so it obtains n-type conduction despite the very high electron injection barrier at the interface between PEDOT:PSS and C60. As a result, it was possible to obtain all-organic ambipolar FETs and to optimize their electrical properties by tuning the thicknesses of the two employed active layers. Moreover, it will be shown that modifying the triple interface between dielectric/semiconductor/electrodes is a crucial point for optimizing and balancing injection and transport of both kinds of charge carriers. In particular, we demonstrate that using a middle contact configuration in which source and drain electrodes are sandwiched between pentacene and C60 layers allows significantly improving the electrical performance in planar ambipolar devices. These findings are very important because they pave the way for the realization of low-cost, fully flexible and stretchable organic complementary circuits for smart wearable and textile electronics applications.

  4. Computation of the Added Masses of an Unconventional Airship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoufel Azouz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modelling of an unmanned airship. We are studying a quadrotor flying wing. The modelling of this airship includes an aerodynamic study. A special focus is done on the computation of the added masses. Considering that the velocity potential of the air surrounding the airship obeys the Laplace's equation, the added masses matrix will be determined by means of the velocity potential flow theory. Typically, when the shape of the careen is quite different from that of an ellipsoid, designers in preprocessing prefer to avoid complications arising from mathematical analysis of the velocity potential. They use either complete numerical studies, or geometric approximation methods, although these methods can give relatively large differences compared to experimental measurements performed on the airship at the time of its completion. We tried to develop here as far as possible the mathematical analysis of the velocity potential flow of this unconventional shape using certain assumptions. The shape of the careen is assumed to be an elliptic cone. To retrieve the velocity potential shapes, we use the spheroconal coordinates. This leads to the Lamé's equations. The whole system of equations governing the interaction air-structure, including the boundary conditions, is solved in an analytical setting.

  5. Unconventional methods of reclamation of used moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the literature provides information on a constant search for new ways of regenerating of moulding sand deprived disadvantagesof existing solutions, especially in the case of low efficiency of regeneration of a mixture of used masses of certain technologies, and high energy intensity of the high temperature heat recovery. In the advanced stage of the research are both attempts to apply a very hightemperature (about 22000C for short-term impact on the surface of regenerated moulding sand, as well as support of thermal regenerationof oxygen addition in order to increase the temperature and direct combustion of organic components. At the second end of the scale areattempts to apply the extremely low temperatures to changes in physical properties of used binding material to reduce the work of crushing and recycling of other waste (eg. bentonite.The article presents the results of author’s own investigation of the regeneration process of mechanical and thermal carried out with thenew, unconventional treatments which improve the reclaimability of used moulding sands.

  6. Unconventional phases of attractive Fermi gases in synthetic Hall ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudeep Kumar; Greschner, Sebastian; Yadav, Umesh K.; Mishra, Tapan; Rizzi, Matteo; Shenoy, Vijay B.

    2017-06-01

    An innovative way to produce quantum Hall ribbons in a cold atomic system is to use M hyperfine states of atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice to mimic an additional "synthetic dimension." A notable aspect here is that the SU(M ) symmetric interaction between atoms manifests as "infinite ranged" along the synthetic dimension. We study the many-body physics of fermions with SU(M ) symmetric attractive interactions in this system using a combination of analytical field theoretic and numerical density-matrix renormalization-group methods. We uncover the rich ground-state phase diagram of the system, including unconventional phases such as squished baryon fluids, shedding light on many-body physics in low dimensions. Remarkably, changing the parameters entails interesting crossovers and transition; e.g., we show that increasing the magnetic field (that produces the Hall effect) converts a "ferrometallic" state at low fields to a "squished baryon superfluid" (with algebraic pairing correlations) at high fields. We also show that this system provides a unique opportunity to study quantum phase separation in a multiflavor ultracold fermionic system.

  7. Probing unconventional superconductivity in inversion-symmetric doped Weyl semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngseok; Park, Moon Jip; Gilbert, Matthew J.

    2016-06-01

    Unconventional superconductivity has been predicted to arise in the topologically nontrivial Fermi surface of doped inversion-symmetric Weyl semimetals (WSMs). In particular, Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) and nodal BCS states are theoretically predicted to be possible superconductor pairing states in inversion-symmetric doped WSMs. In an effort to resolve the preferred pairing state, we theoretically study two separate four-terminal quantum transport methods that each exhibit a unique electrical signature in the presence of FFLO and nodal BCS states in doped WSMs. We first introduce a Josephson junction that consists of a doped WSM and an s -wave superconductor in which we show that the application of a transverse uniform current in s -wave superconductors effectively cancels the momentum carried by FFLO states in doped WSMs. From our numerical analysis, we find a peak in Josephson current amplitude at finite uniform current in s -wave superconductors that serves as an indicator of FFLO states in doped WSMs. Furthermore, we show using a four-terminal measurement configuration that the nodal points may be shifted by an application of transverse uniform current in doped WSMs. We analyze the topological phase transitions induced by nodal pair annihilation in nonequilibrium by constructing the phase diagram and we find a characteristic decrease in the density of states that serves as a signature of the quantum critical point in the topological phase transition, thereby identifying nodal BCS states in doped WSMs.

  8. Unconventional protein secretion in plants: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David G; Ding, Yu; Jiang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Unconventional protein secretion (UPS) is a collective term for mechanisms by which cytosolic proteins that lack a signal peptide ("leaderless secretory proteins" (LSPs)) can gain access to the cell exterior. Numerous examples of UPS have been well documented in animal and yeast cells. In contrast, our understanding of the mechanism(s) and function of UPS in plants is very limited. This review evaluates the available literature on this subject. The apparent large numbers of LSPs in the plant secretome suggest that UPS also occurs in plants but is not a proof. Although the direct transport of LSPs across the plant plasma membrane (PM) has not yet been described, it is possible that as in other eukaryotes, exosomes may be released from plant cells through fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) with the PM. In this way, LSPs, but also small RNAs (sRNAs), that are passively taken up from the cytosol into the intraluminal vesicles of MVBs, could reach the apoplast. Another possible mechanism is the recently discovered exocyst-positive organelle (EXPO), a double-membrane-bound compartment, distinct from autophagosomes, which appears to sequester LSPs.

  9. Bogoliubov-de Gennes soliton dynamics in unconventional Fermi superfluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Daisuke A.

    2016-01-01

    Exact self-consistent soliton dynamics based on the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) formalism in unconventional Fermi superfluids/superconductors possessing an SU(d ) -symmetric two-body interaction is presented. The derivation is based on the ansatz having the similar form as the Gelfand-Levitan-Marchenko equation in the inverse scattering theory. Our solutions can be regarded as a multicomponent generalization of the solutions recently derived by Dunne and Thies [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 121602 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.121602]. We also propose superpositions of occupation states, which make it possible to realize various filling rates even in one-flavor systems, and include Dirac and Majorana fermions. The soliton solutions in the d =2 systems, which describe the mixture of singlet s -wave and triplet p -wave superfluids, exhibit a variety of phenomena such as rotating polar phases by soliton spins, SU(2)-DHN breathers, Majorana triplet states, s -p mixed dynamics, and so on. These solutions are illustrated by animations, where order parameters are visualized by spherical harmonic functions. The full formulation of the BdG theory is also supported, and the double-counting problem of BdG eigenstates and N -flavor generalization are discussed.

  10. Capabilities of Unconventional Processing of Multiphase AHSS Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirkova, H.; Masek, B.; Stadler, C.; Jenicek, S.

    2016-03-01

    Today, new types of materials and procedures are sought continuously in order to achieve lower manufacturing costs, reduced energy consumption, shorter production times and other savings. In terms of the materials, TRIP steels are an attractive choice, as they provide an excellent combination of strength and ductility. They also offer good energy absorption in crash scenarios. Their main use is in the production of automotive body parts. One can expect that well-chosen processing parameters and unconventional forming routes would enable a wider range of thin-walled products to be made of these steels. Those could include thin-walled hollow products with excellent mechanical properties imparted by effective manufacturing routes at relatively low costs. If these materials are to be employed in real-world forming processes, an appropriate forming route must be chosen, integrated into an appropriate production chain and then optimized in terms of its parameters. This article describes a study of a rotary spin extrusion process. In the first stage, the impact of strain magnitude on microstructural evolution was studied in CMnSi steel using physical modelling of thermomechanical treatment. Subsequently, trials of a real-life technology chain, which efficiently combined incremental forming and heat treatment, were carried out on low-alloy CMnSi and CMnSiNb steels. The resulting products were stepped hollow parts of various diameters. Their strength was close to 1000 MPa and their elongation level exceeded 20%.

  11. Prelysosomal Compartments in the Unconventional Secretion of Amyloidogenic Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Borland

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanistic link between neuron-to-neuron transmission of secreted amyloid and propagation of protein malconformation cytopathology and disease has recently been uncovered in animal models. An enormous interest in the unconventional secretion of amyloids from neurons has followed. Amphisomes and late endosomes are the penultimate maturation products of the autophagosomal and endosomal pathways, respectively, and normally fuse with lysosomes for degradation. However, under conditions of perturbed membrane trafficking and/or lysosomal deficiency, prelysosomal compartments may instead fuse with the plasma membrane to release any contained amyloid. After a brief introduction to the endosomal and autophagosomal pathways, we discuss the evidence for autophagosomal secretion (exophagy of amyloids, with a comparative emphasis on Aβ1–42 and α-synuclein, as luminal and cytosolic amyloids, respectively. The ESCRT-mediated import of cytosolic amyloid into late endosomal exosomes, a known vehicle of transmission of macromolecules between cells, is also reviewed. Finally, mechanisms of lysosomal dysfunction, deficiency, and exocytosis are exemplified in the context of genetically identified risk factors, mainly for Parkinson’s disease. Exocytosis of prelysosomal or lysosomal organelles is a last resort for clearance of cytotoxic material and alleviates cytopathy. However, they also represent a vehicle for the concentration, posttranslational modification, and secretion of amyloid seeds.

  12. Unconventional Political Campaigns in Romania: Presidential Impeachment Referendum (2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Cmeciu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Every referendum brings forth a crisis of legitimacy. Traian Băsescu experienced this political situation in 2007 when he was suspended by the Romanian Parliament. Having as theoretical background social semiotics (Kress, van Leeuwen [1996] 2006; van Leeuwen, 2005, our paper focuses on four semiotic systems (represented participants, composition, multimodality, interactive participants applied to the images produced by the Romanian citizens, who had been “called up” to an unconventional political campaign through a personal production of a digital guerilla. Beyond its mere iconic function, number “322” has an indexical function of pinpointing the MPs who voted for Traian Băsescu’s impeachment. This number constitutes the main reason for the embodiment of these Romanian MPs in pictorial metaphors. Metaphors activate the semiotic system of multimodality because they become a sign of creativity by combining layers belonging to different iconic isotopic clusters. The humour comes from the allotopies (Greimas 1966 created through the surprising interweaving of politicians and animals, fairy-tales characters or evil/ good heroes.

  13. Adjustment of positional geodetic networks by unconventional estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gašincová

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The content of this paper is the adjustment of positional geodetic networks by robust estimations. The techniques (basedon the unconventional estimations of repeated least-square method which have turned out to be suitable and applicable in the practisehave been demonstrated on the example of the local geodetic network, which was founded to compose this thesis. In the thesisthe following techniques have been chosen to compare the Method of least-squares with those many published in foreign literature:M-estimation of Biweight,M-estimation of Welsch and Danish method. All presented methods are based on the repeated least-squaremethod principle with gradual changing of weight of individual measurements. In the first stage a standard least-square method wascarried out in the following steps – iterations we gradually change individual weights according to the relevant instructions/ regulation(so-called weight function. Iteration process will be stopped when no deviated measurements are found in the file of measured data.MatLab programme version 5.2 T was used to implement mathematical adjustment.

  14. Unconventional Bearing Capacity Analysis and Optimization of Multicell Box Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Tepic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with unconventional bearing capacity analysis and the procedure of optimizing a two-cell box girder. The generalized model which enables the local stress-strain analysis of multicell girders was developed based on the principle of cross-sectional decomposition. The applied methodology is verified using the experimental data (Djelosevic et al., 2012 for traditionally formed box girders. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of results obtained for the two-cell box girder is realized based on comparative analysis using the finite element method (FEM and the ANSYS v12 software. The deflection function obtained by analytical and numerical methods was found consistent provided that the maximum deviation does not exceed 4%. Multicell box girders are rationally designed support structures characterized by much lower susceptibility of their cross-sectional elements to buckling and higher specific capacity than traditionally formed box girders. The developed local stress model is applied for optimizing the cross section of a two-cell box carrier. The author points to the advantages of implementing the model of local stresses in the optimization process and concludes that the technological reserve of bearing capacity amounts to 20% at the same girder weight and constant load conditions.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered gas resources of the Thrace Basin, Turkey, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2016-01-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 787 billion cubic feet of conventional gas and 1,630 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas in the Thrace Basin, Turkey.

  16. Sixty-sixth annual report of the state oil and gas supervisor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This report contains tabulated oil and gas statistics compiled during 1980 in California. On-shore and off-shore oil production, gas production, reserves, drilling activity, enhanced recovery activity, unconventional heavy oil recovery, geothermal operations and financial data are reported. (DMC)

  17. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  18. Internal standards for use in the comprehensive analysis of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography combined with multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Adan; Imasaka, Totaro

    2016-10-28

    To decrease health-risks to humans, non-toxic compounds were evaluated for use as internal standards for calibrating data obtained by gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry (GC-MPI-MS) using an ultraviolet femtosecond laser as the ionization source. The retention time in the mass chromatogram was calibrated using a retention index, in which a series of n-alkanes was employed as internal standards for evaluating the retention times for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To compensate for changes in signal intensity in MPI-MS, the dependence of signal intensity on the laser pulse energy was investigated for the dioxin-like compounds, in addition to five non-toxic aromatic hydrocarbons, that were used as internal standards. Based on their similar behavior,the non-toxic PCDD/PCDF, its (13)C-isotope, and pentachlorobenzene behave similarly, we conclude that they can be used for calibrating the signal intensities in MPI-MS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. From Target Selection to Post-Stimulation Analysis: Example of an Unconventional Faulted Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCalvez, J. H.; Williams, M.; Xu, W.; Stokes, J.; Moros, H.; Maxwell, S. C.; Conners, S.

    2011-12-01

    As the global balance of supply and demand forces the hydrocarbon industry toward unconventional resources, technology- and economics-driven shale oil and gas production is gaining momentum throughout many basins worldwide. Production from such unconventional plays is facilitated by massive hydraulic fracturing treatments aimed at increasing permeability and reactivating natural fractures. Large-scale faulting and fracturing partly control stress distribution, hence stimulation-derived hydraulically-induced fracture systems development. Therefore, careful integrated approaches to target selection, treatment staging, and stimulation methods need to be used to economically maximize ultimate hydrocarbon recovery. We present a case study of a multistage, multilateral stimulation project in the Fort Worth Basin, Texas. Wells had to be drilled within city limits in a commercially developing building area. Well locations and trajectories were determined in and around large-scale faults using 3D surface seismic with throws varying from seven to thirty meters. As a result, three horizontal wells were drilled in the Lower Barnett Shale section, 150 m apart with the central well landed about 25 m shallower than the outside laterals. Surface seismic indicates that the surface locations are on top of a major fault complex with the lateral sections drilling away from the major fault system and through a smaller fault. Modeling of the borehole-based microseismic monitoring options led to the selection of an optimum set of configurations given the operational restrictions faced: monitoring would mainly take place using a horizontal array to be tractored downhole and moved according to the well and stage to be monitored. Wells were completed using a perf-and-plug approach allowing for each stimulation stage to obtain a precise orientation of the various three-component accelerometers of the monitoring array as well as the calibration of the velocity model used to process the

  20. Seeking prospects for enhanced gas recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, M.G.; Randolph, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the Institute of Gas Technology's (IGT) ongoing research on unconventional natural gas sources, a methodology to locate gas wells that had watered-out under over-pressured conditions was developed and implemented. Each year several trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas are produced from reservoirs that are basically geopressured aquifers with large gas caps. As the gas is produced, the gas-water interface moves upward in the sandstone body trapping a portion of gas at the producing reservoir pressure. The methodology for identifying such formations consisted of a computer search of a large data base using a series of screening criteria to select or reject wells. The screening criteria consisted of depth cutoff, minimum production volume, minimum pressure gradient, and minimum water production. Wells chosen by the computer search were further s