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Sample records for international thermonuclear experimental

  1. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, J.D.; Stasko, R.R.

    1989-09-01

    An international design team comprised of members from Canada, Europe, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America, are designing an experimental fusion test reactor. The engineering and testing objectives of this International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are to validate the design and to demonstrate controlled ignition, extended burn of a deuterium and tritium plasma, and achieve steady state using technology expected to be available by 1990. The concept maximizes flexibility while allowing for a variety of plasma configurations and operating scenarios. During physics phase operation, the machine produces a 22 MA plasma current. In the technology phase, the machine can be reconfigured with a thicker shield and a breeding blanket to operate with an 18 MA plasma current at a major radius of 5.5 meters. Canada's involvement in the areas of safety, facility design, reactor configuration and maintenance builds on our internationally recognized design and operational expertise in developing tritium processes and CANDU related technologies

  2. Magnet systems for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Miller, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The definition phase for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been nearly completed, thus beginning a three-year design effort by teams from the European Community (EC), Japan, US, and USSR. Preliminary parameters for the superconducting magnet system have been established to guide more detailed design work. Radiation tolerance of the superconductors and insulators has been important because it sets requirements for the neutron-shield dimension and sensitively influences reactor size. Major levels of mechanical stress appear in the structural cases of the inboard legs of the toroidal-field (TF) coils. The winding packs of the TF coils include significant fractions of steel that provide support against in-plane separating loads, but they offer little support against out-of-plane loads unless shear-bonding of the conductors can be maintained. Heat removal from nuclear and ac loads has not limited the fundamental design, but it has nonnegligible economic consequences. 3 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Magnet systems for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.; Miller, J.R.

    1988-09-22

    The definition phase for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been nearly completed, thus beginning a three-year design effort by teams from the European Community (EC), Japan, US, and USSR. Preliminary parameters for the superconducting magnet system have been established to guide more detailed design work. Radiation tolerance of the superconductors and insulators has been important because it sets requirements for the neutron-shield dimension and sensitively influences reactor size. Major levels of mechanical stress appear in the structural cases of the inboard legs of the toroidal-field (TF) coils. The winding packs of the TF coils include significant fractions of steel that provide support against in-plane separating loads, but they offer little support against out-of-plane loads unless shear-bonding of the conductors can be maintained. Heat removal from nuclear and ac loads has not limited the fundamental design, but it has nonnegligible economic consequences. 3 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] reactor building design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.L.; Blevins, J.D.; Delisle, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is at the midpoint of a two-year conceptual design. The ITER reactor building is a reinforced concrete structure that houses the tokamak and associated equipment and systems and forms a barrier between the tokamak and the external environment. It provides radiation shielding and controls the release of radioactive materials to the environment during both routine operations and accidents. The building protects the tokamak from external events, such as earthquakes or aircraft strikes. The reactor building requirements have been developed from the component designs and the preliminary safety analysis. The equipment requirements, tritium confinement, and biological shielding have been studied. The building design in progress requires continuous iteraction with the component and system designs and with the safety analysis. 8 figs

  5. Passive vertical stability of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuer, J.A.; Wesley, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Next generation tokamaks, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), are being designed with high plasma current carrying capability. High current is best achieved by increasing the plasma elongation; however, this leads to a plasma configuration which is unstable to axisymmetric vertical motion of the plasma. Passive conductors must be included in the design to stabilize this vertical motion. In this paper, the authors analyze the passive stability property of the Physics Phase (PP) operation of the ITER device. A linearized, rigid-body assumption is used to predict the stability parameter of the proposed passive stabilization structure. The problem is formulated into an eigenvalue problem and the solution predicts the critical stability margin and characteristic growth rate. The proposed stabilization structure and vacuum vessel (VV) provides 50% margin against Alfven time scale vertical motion. The growth rate is less than 50 s -1 for the nominal plasma. The plasma is shown to have low growth rates over a range of plasma internal inductance and poloidal beta. 3 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  6. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Engineering Design Activities (EDA). Agreement and protocol 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains protocol 1 to the agreement among the European Atomic Energy Community, the government of Japan, the Government of the Russian Federation, and the Government of the United States of America on cooperation in the engineering design activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, which activities shall be conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  7. The international thermonuclear experimental reactor and the future of nuclear fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Chuanhong

    2010-01-01

    Energy shortage and environmental problems are now the two largest challenges for human beings. Magnetic confinement nuclear fusion, which has achieved great progress since the 1990's, is anticipated to be a way to realize an ideal source of energy in the future because of its abundance, environmental compatibility, and zero carbon release. Exemplified by the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the development of nuclear fusion energy is now in its engineering phase, and should be realized by the middle of this century if all objectives of the ITER project are met. (author)

  8. Organization of the ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] Project - Sharing of information and procurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project is expected to fully confirm the scientific feasibility and to address the technological feasibility of fusion power. Consequently, the machine must be designed for controlled ignition and extended burn of deuterium-tritium plasma. It must also demonstrate and perform integrated testing of components required to utilize fusion power for practical purposes. Cooperation among four countries/organizations (United States, Soviet Union, Japan, and EURATOM) to build a single experimental reactor will reduce the cost for each country and provide an international pool of scientific and engineering resources. This paper describes ITER organization for conceptual design activity, schedule for conceptual design activities, ITER operating parameters, conceptual project schedule and cost, future plans, basic principles and problems related to task sharing, and basic principles in handling of intellectual property

  9. The development of beryllium plasma spray technology for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Elliott, K.E.; Hollis, K.J.; Watson, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past five years, four international parties, which include the European Communities, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States, have been collaborating on the design and development of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the next generation magnetic fusion energy device. During the ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA), beryllium plasma spray technology was investigated by Los Alamos National Laboratory as a method for fabricating and repairing and the beryllium first wall surface of the ITER tokamak. Significant progress has been made in developing beryllium plasma spraying technology for this application. Information will be presented on the research performed to improve the thermal properties of plasma sprayed beryllium coatings and a method that was developed for cleaning and preparing the surface of beryllium prior to depositing plasma sprayed beryllium coatings. Results of high heat flux testing of the beryllium coatings using electron beam simulated ITER conditions will also be presented

  10. ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] shield and blanket work package report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report summarizes nuclear-related work in support of the US effort for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Study. The purpose of this work was to prepare for the first international ITER workshop devoted to defining a basic ITER concept that will serve as a basis for an indepth conceptual design activity over the next 2-1/2 years. Primary tasks carried out during the past year included: design improvements of the inboard shield developed for the TIBER concept, scoping studies of a variety of tritium breeding blanket options, development of necessary design guidelines and evaluation criteria for the blanket options, further safety considerations related to nuclear components and issues regarding structural materials for an ITER device. 44 refs., 31 figs., 29 tabs

  11. The impact of confinement scaling on ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Galambos, J.D.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1988-09-01

    Energy confinement scaling is a major concern in the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The existing database for tokamaks can be fitted with a number of different confinement scaling expressions that have similar degrees of approximation. These scaling laws predict confinement times for ITER that vary by over an order of magnitude. The uncertainties in the form and magnitude of these scaling laws must be substantially reduced before the plasma performance of ITER can be predicted with adequate reliability. The TETRA systems code is used to calculate the dependence of major ITER parameters on the scaling laws currently in use. Design constraints of interest in the present phase of ITER consideration are used, and the minimum-cost devices arising from these constraints are reviewed. 9 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Review of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) detailed design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-18

    Dr. Martha Krebs, Director, Office of Energy Research at the US Department of Energy (DOE), wrote to the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC), in letters dated September 23 and November 6, 1996, requesting that FESAC review the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Detailed Design Report (DDR) and provide its view of the adequacy of the DDR as part of the basis for the United States decision to enter negotiations with the other interested Parties regarding the terms and conditions for an agreement for the construction, operations, exploitation and decommissioning of ITER. The letter from Dr. Krebs, referred to as the Charge Letter, provided context for the review and a set of questions of specific interest.

  13. Simulations of alpha particle ripple loss from the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redi, M.H.; Budny, R.V.; McCune, D.C.; Miller, C.O.; White, R.B.

    1996-05-01

    Calculations of collisional stochastic ripple loss of alpha particles from the new 20 toroidal field (TF) coil International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) predict small alpha ripple losses, less than 0.4%, close to the loss calculated for the full current operation of the earlier 24 TF coil design. An analytic fit is obtained to the ITER ripple data field demonstrating the nonlinear height dependence of the ripple minimum for D shaped ripple contours. In contrast to alpha loss simulations for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), a simple Goldston, White, Boozer stochastic loss criterion ripple loss model is found to require an increased renormalization of the stochastic threshold {delta}{sub s}/{delta}{sub GWB} {ge} 1. Effects of collisions, sawtooth broadening and reversal of the grad B drift direction are included in the particle following simulations.

  14. The Canadian initiative to bring the international thermonuclear experimental reactor to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the next step in fusion research. It is expected to be the last major experimental facility, before the construction of a prototype commercial reactor. The Engineering Design Activities (EDA) of ITER are being funded by the USA, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the European Union, with each of the major parties contributing about 25% of the cost. Canada participates as part of the European coalition. The EDA is due to be completed in 1998, and the major funding partners are preparing for the decision on the siting and construction of ITER. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP) formed a Canadian ITER Siting Task Group to study siting ITER in Canada. The study indicated that hosting ITER would provide significant benefits, both technological and economic, to Canada. We have also confirmed that there would be substantial benefits to the ITER Project. CFFTP then formed a Canadian ITER Siting Board, with representation from a broad range of stakeholders, to champion, 'Canada as Host'. This paper briefly outlines the ITER Project, and the benefits to both Canada and the Project of a Canadian site. With this as background, the paper discusses the international scene and assesses Canada's prospects of being chosen to host ITER. (author)

  15. Audit of United States portion of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Worldwide efforts in fusion energy research are designed to develop fusion power as a safe, environmentally sound, and economically competitive source of energy. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project is a worldwide effort to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion power. The European Community, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the United States are collaborating on ITER, with each of the four parties expected to equally share costs and benefits. Shared costs for the current engineering design phase of the project are estimated at $1 billion in 1989 dollars, excluding certain management and support costs to be absorbed by each partner, with an early estimate of $6 billion, also in 1989 dollars, for construction of the reactor. Engineering design formally began in July 1992, and this phase is in its formative stages. The US had already spent about $100 million since 1987 on ITER conceptual design activities and other preparatory activities in advance of the engineering design phase. Because of its cost significance, the importance of ITER to the US fusion energy program, and the project's unique aspects which may provide a framework for future international endeavors, we initiated an audit of the ITER project. The purpose of the audit was to evaluate management controls over the US portion of the ITER project. Our objectives was to determine whether key front-end controls were in place to ensure that the project could be managed in an efficient and effective manner

  16. TIBER (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) II as a precursor to an international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Gilleland, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor (TIBER) was pursued in the US as one option for an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This concept evolved from earlier work on the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) to develop a small, ignited tokamak. While the copper-coil versions of TFCX became the short-pulsed, 1.23-m radius, Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), the superconducting TIBER with long pulse or steady state and a 2.6-m radius was considered for international collaboration. Recently the design was updated to TIBER II, to accommodate more conservative confinement scaling, double-poloidal divertors for impurity control, steady-state current drive, and nuclear testing. 18 refs., 1 fig

  17. Requirements for US regulatory approval of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, D.A.; Haire, J.C.

    1993-12-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the first fusion machine that will have sufficient decay heat and activation product inventory to pose potential nuclear safety concerns. As a result, nuclear safety and environmental issues will be much more important in the approval process for the design, siting, construction, and operation of ITER in the United States than previous fusion devices, such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. The purpose of this report is (a) to provide an overview of the regulatory approval process for a Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility; (b) to present the dose limits used by DOE to protect workers, the public, and the environment from the risks of exposure to radiation and hazardous materials; (c) to discuss some key nuclear safety-related issues that must be addressed early in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) to obtain regulatory approval; and (d) to provide general guidelines to the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT) concerning the development of a regulatory framework for the ITER project

  18. Design of the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) neutral beam system beamline, United States concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purgalis, P.; Anderson, O.A.; Cooper, W.S.; DeVries, G.E.; Lietzke, A.F.; Kunkel, W.B.; Kwan, J.W.; Matuk, C.A.; Nakai, T.; Stearns, J.W.; Soroka, L.; Wells, R.P.; Lindquist, W.B.; Neef, W.S.; Reginato, L.L.; Sedgley, D.W.; Brook, J.W.; Luzzi, T.E.; Myers, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Design of a neutral beamline for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is described. The design incorporates a barium surface conversion D - source feeding a linear array of accelerator channels. The system uses a dc accelerator with electrostatic quadrupoles for strong focusing. A high voltage power supply that is integrated with the accelerator is presented as an attractive option. A gas neutralizer is used and residual ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected to watercooled dumps. Cryopanels are located at the accelerator exit to pump excess gas from the source and the neutralizer, and in the ion dump cavity to pump re-neutralized ions and neutralizer gas. All the above components are packaged in compact identical, independent modules that can be removed for remote maintenance. The neutral beam system delivers 75 MW of D degree into three ports with a total of nine modules arranged in stacks of three modules per port. To increase reliability each module is designed to deliver up to 10 MW at 1.3 MeV; this allows eight modules operating at partial capacity to deliver the required power in the event one module is removed from service. Radiation protection is provided by shielding and by locating critical components in the source and accelerator 35 m from the port into the torus. Neutron shielding in the drift duct provides the added feature of limiting conductance and thus reducing gas flow to and from the torus. Alternative component choices are also discussed for the evolving design. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Hanson, M.E.; Huddleston, J.R. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively.

  20. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Wolsko, T.D.; Hanson, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively

  1. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Hanson, M.E.; Huddleston, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively

  2. Radiological dose rate calculations for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, H.Y.; Santoro, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    Two-dimensional biological dose rates were calculated at different locations outside the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design. An 18 degree sector of the reactor was modeled in r-θ geometry. The calculations were performed for three different pulsing scenarios. This included a single pulse of 1000 s duration, 10 pulses of 1000 s duration with a 50% duty factor, and 9470 pulses of 1000 s duration with a 50% duty factor for a total fluence of 0.3 MW.a/m 2 . The dose rates were calculated as a function of toroidal angle at locations in the space between the toroidal field (TF) coils and cryostat, and in the space between the cryostat and the biological shield. The two-dimensional results clearly showed the toroidal effect, which is dominated by contribution from the activation of the cryostat and the biological shield. After one pulse, full access to the machine is possible within a few hours following shutdown. After 10 pulses, full access is also possible within the first day following shutdown. At the end of the Basic Performance Phase (BPP), full access is possible at any of the locations considered after one week following shutdown. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Modeling of secondary emission processes in the negative ion based electrostatic accelerator of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    G. Fubiani; H. P. L. de Esch; A. Simonin; R. S. Hemsworth

    2008-01-01

    The negative ion electrostatic accelerator for the neutral beam injector of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is designed to deliver a negative deuterium current of 40 A at 1 MeV. Inside the accelerator there are several types of interactions that may create secondary particles. The dominating process originates from the single and double stripping of the accelerated negative ion by collision with the residual molecular deuterium gas (≃29% losses). The resulting seco...

  4. The international thermonuclear reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.; Henning, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    Four governmental groups, representing Europe, Japan, USSR and U.S. met in March 1987 to consider a new international design of a magnetic fusion device for the 1990's. An interim group was appointed. The author gives a brief synopsis of what might be thought of as a draft charter. The starting point is the objective of the ITER device, which is summarized as demonstrating both scientific and technical feasibility of fusion. The paper presents an update on the current thinking and technical aspects for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This covers not only what is happening in the U.S. but also some reports of preliminary thinking of the last technical work that occurred in Vienna

  5. First operation with the JET International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, R. [EFDA-CSU, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Arnoux, G.; Beurskens, M.; Challis, C.; Giroud, C.; Lomas, P.; Maddison, G.; Matthews, G.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Meigs, A.; Rimini, F. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bobkov, V.; Dux, R.; Hobirk, J.; Lang, P.; Maggi, C.; Pütterich, T.; Sertoli, M.; Sieglin, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Brezinsek, S. [IEK-4, Association EURATOM/Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich 52425 (Germany); and others

    2013-05-15

    To consolidate International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design choices and prepare for its operation, Joint European Torus (JET) has implemented ITER's plasma facing materials, namely, Be for the main wall and W in the divertor. In addition, protection systems, diagnostics, and the vertical stability control were upgraded and the heating capability of the neutral beams was increased to over 30 MW. First results confirm the expected benefits and the limitations of all metal plasma facing components (PFCs) but also yield understanding of operational issues directly relating to ITER. H-retention is lower by at least a factor of 10 in all operational scenarios compared to that with C PFCs. The lower C content (≈ factor 10) has led to much lower radiation during the plasma burn-through phase eliminating breakdown failures. Similarly, the intrinsic radiation observed during disruptions is very low, leading to high power loads and to a slow current quench. Massive gas injection using a D{sub 2}/Ar mixture restores levels of radiation and vessel forces similar to those of mitigated disruptions with the C wall. Dedicated L-H transition experiments indicate a 30% power threshold reduction, a distinct minimum density, and a pronounced shape dependence. The L-mode density limit was found to be up to 30% higher than for C allowing stable detached divertor operation over a larger density range. Stable H-modes as well as the hybrid scenario could be re-established only when using gas puff levels of a few 10{sup 21} es{sup −1}. On average, the confinement is lower with the new PFCs, but nevertheless, H factors up to 1 (H-Mode) and 1.3 (at β{sub N}≈3, hybrids) have been achieved with W concentrations well below the maximum acceptable level.

  6. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor U.S. Home Team Quality Assurance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowder, W. K.

    1998-10-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project is unique in that the work is divided among an international Joint Central Team and four Home Teams, with the overall responsibility for the quality of activities performed during the project residing with the ITER Director. The ultimate responsibility for the adequacy of work performed on tasks assigned to the U.S. Home Team resides with the U.S. Home Team Leader and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy (DOE-OFE). This document constitutes the quality assurance plan for the ITER U.S. Home Team. This plan describes the controls exercised by U.S. Home Team management and the Performing Institutions to ensure the quality of tasks performed and the data developed for the Engineering Design Activities assigned to the U.S. Home Team and, in particular, the Research and Development Large Projects (7). This plan addresses the DOE quality assurance requirements of 10 CFR 830.120, "Quality Assurance." The plan also describes U.S. Home Team quality commitments to the ITER Quality Assurance Program. The ITER Quality Assurance Program is based on the principles described in the International Atomic Energy Agency Standard No. 50-C-QA, "Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants and Other Nuclear Facilities." Each commitment is supported with preferred implementation methodology that will be used in evaluating the task quality plans to be submitted by the Performing Institutions. The implementing provisions of the program are based on guidance provided in American National Standards Institute/American Society of Mechanical Engineers NQA-1 1994, "Quality Assurance." The individual Performing Institutions will implement the appropriate quality program provisions through their own established quality plans that have been reviewed and found to comply with U.S. Home Team quality assurance plan commitments to the ITER Quality Assurance Program. The extent of quality program provisions

  7. MHD equilibrium methods for ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] PF [poloidal field] coil design and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickler, D.J.; Galambos, J.D.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1989-03-01

    Two versions of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) free-boundary equilibrium code designed to computer the poloidal field (PF) coil current distribution of elongated, magnetically limited tokamak plasmas are demonstrated and applied to the systems analysis of the impact of plasma elongation on the design point of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). These notes were presented at the ITER Specialists' Meeting on the PF Coil System and Operational Scenario, held at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics in Garching, Federal Republic of Germany, May 24--27, 1988. 8 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Corrosion studies of a stainless steel structure for the ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] aqueous lithium salt blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duquette, D.J.; Wrisley, K.L.; Motyka, E.; Steiner, D.; Embrechts, M.J.

    1990-03-01

    The aqueous lithium salt blanket (ALSB) employs water, with a dissolved lithium compound, as both the coolant and tritium breeding medium. The ALSB concept is one of three blanket options currently being examined for breeding tritium in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). To provide data and recommendations for materials and chemistry selection relevant to application of the ALSB in ITER, corrosion studies have been initiated, focusing on Type 316 stainless steel in lithium hydroxide and lithium nitrate solutions. This report presents the preliminary results of these corrosion studies. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  9. Analysis of quench-vent pressures for present design of ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] TF [toroidal field] coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a new tokamak design project with joint participation from Japan, the European Community, the Union of the Soviet Union, and the United States. This paper examines the effects of a quench within the toroidal field (TF) coils based on current ITER design. It is a preliminary, rough analysis. Its intent is to assist ITER designers while more accurate computer codes are being developed and to provide a check against these more rigorous solutions. Rigorous solutions to the quench problem are very complex involving three-dimensional heat transfer, extreme changes in heat capacities and copper resistivity, and varying flow dynamics within the conductors. This analysis addresses all these factors in an approximate way. The result is much less accurate than a rigorous analysis. Results here could be in error as much as 30 to 40 percent. However, it is believed that this paper can still be very useful to the coil designer. Coil pressures and temperatures vs time into a quench are presented. Rate of helium vent, energy deposition in the coil, and depletion of magnetic stored energy are also presented. Peak pressures are high (about 43 MPa). This is due to the very long vent path length (446 m), small hydraulic diameters, and high current densities associated with ITER's cable-in-conduit design. The effects of these pressures as well as the ability of the coil to be self protecting during a quench are discussed. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Thermo-mechanical analysis of an acceleration grid for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor-neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yukio; Hanada, Masaya; Okumura, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2001-01-01

    In the engineering design of a negative-ion beam source for a high-power neutral beam injection (NBI) system, one of the most important issues is thermo-mechanical design of acceleration grids for producing several tens of MW ion beams. An acceleration grid for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor-neutral beam injection (ITER-NBI) system will be subjected to the heat loading as high as 1.5 MW. In the present paper, thermo-mechanical characteristics of the acceleration grid for the ITER-NBI system were analyzed. Numerical simulation indicated that maximum aperture-axis displacement of the acceleration grid due to thermal expansion would be about 0.7 mm for the heat loading of 1.5 MW. From the thin lens theory of beam optics, beamlet deflection angle by the aperture-axis displacement was estimated to be about 2 mrad, which is within the requirement of the engineering design of the ITER-NBI system. Numerical simulation also indicated that no melting on the acceleration grid would occur for a heat loading of 1.5 MW, while local plastic deformation would happen. To avoid the plastic deformation, it is necessary to reduce the heat loading onto the acceleration grid to less than 1 MW

  11. Modeling of secondary emission processes in the negative ion based electrostatic accelerator of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fubiani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The negative ion electrostatic accelerator for the neutral beam injector of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER is designed to deliver a negative deuterium current of 40 A at 1 MeV. Inside the accelerator there are several types of interactions that may create secondary particles. The dominating process originates from the single and double stripping of the accelerated negative ion by collision with the residual molecular deuterium gas (≃29% losses. The resulting secondary particles (positive ions, neutrals, and electrons are accelerated and deflected by the electric and magnetic fields inside the accelerator and may induce more secondaries after a likely impact with the accelerator grids. This chain of reactions is responsible for a non-negligible heat load on the grids and must be understood in detail. In this paper, we will provide a comprehensive summary of the physics involved in the process of secondary emission in a typical ITER-like negative ion electrostatic accelerator together with a precise description of the numerical method and approximations involved. As an example, the multiaperture-multigrid accelerator concept will be discussed.

  12. Analysis of the two accelerator concepts foreseen for the neutral beam injector of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fubiani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Typical high-energy negative ion electrostatic accelerators such as the ones designed for fusion applications produce a significant amount of secondary particles. These particles may originate from coextracted electrons, which flow from the ion source, impacting the accelerator grids or as by-products of collisions between accelerated negative ions and the residual background gas, in the accelerator. Secondary emission particles may carry a non-negligible power and consequently must be precisely studied. The electrostatic-accelerator-Monte-Carlo-simulation code (EAMCC [G. Fubiani et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 014202 (2008PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.11.014202] was developed in order to provide a three-dimensional characterization of power and current deposition on all parts of the accelerator. The code includes all the relevant physics associated with secondary emission processes and consequently may be used as a tool for design improvement. In this paper, the two accelerator designs considered for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, that is, the multiaperture-multigrid and the single gap single aperture (SINGAP designs, are discussed and their predicted performances compared. Simulations have been compared with measurements on prototype accelerators of the SINGAP type. Reasonable agreement between EAMCC calculations and measurements of backstreaming ions and transmitted electrons was found.

  13. Corrosion studies of a stainless steel structure for the ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] aqueous lithium salt blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duquette, D.J.; Wrisley, K.L.; Motyka, E.; Steiner, D.; Embrechts, M.J.

    1990-10-01

    The aqueous lithium slat blanket (ALSB) employs water, with a dissolved lithium compound, as both the coolant and tritium breeding medium. The ALSB concept is one of three blanket options currently being examined for breeding tritium in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). To provide data and recommendations for materials and chemistry selection relevant to application of the ALSB in ITER, corrosion studies have been initiated, focusing on Type 316 stainless steel in lithium hydroxide and lithium nitrate solutions. This report presents the preliminary results of these corrosion studies. The results to date, while preliminary, suggest that even at 90 C, a blanket utilizing 10% LiOH (the current lithium salt of choice for ITER ALSB applications) will not cause catastrophic failure of 316 stainless steel by either stress corrosion cracking or localized corrosion; that the general corrosion rate will not exceed about 40 μm/yr and transport of material will certainly be much less than this value since most of the corrosion product will be included in the strong adherent surface film; and that, although hydrogen may be evolved due to electrolysis, the maximum amount of hydrogen is small compared to that expected to be produced by radiolysis. These observations are predicated on the assumption that the blanket will be completely deaerated, and that the corrosion potential of the alloy will be similar to that observed in the laboratory

  14. Investigation of high purity beryllium for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), Task 002. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, S.P.

    1995-05-01

    The report includes a description of experimental abilities of Solid Structure Research Laboratory of IAE NNC RK, a results of microstructural characterization of A-4 grade polycrystal Beryllium produced at the Ulba metal plant and a technical project-for irradiation experiments. Technical project contains a detailed description of five proposed experiments, clearing behavior of Beryllium materials under the influence of irradiation, temperature, helium and hydrogen accumulation. Complex irradiation jobs, microstructural investigations and mechanical tests are planned in the framework of these experiments

  15. A radiation-cooled armor tile design for the first wall of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallix, R.; Baxi, C.; Reis, E.; Schultz, K.

    1989-01-01

    This work was performed as a contribution by the U.S. Plasma Facing Components engineering team to the concept definition effort for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In the ITER device, frequent plasma disruptions are expected during the first phase of operation, which will be devoted to plasma physics. Armor is required to protect the stainless steel first wall (FW) against the intense heat pulses caused by these disruptions. Based on successful experience in many operating fusion devices, graphite is proposed as the leading armor tile material for ITER during the first phase of operation. The tile design presented here uses radiation rather then conduction to transfer heat to the water-cooled first wall. The central, thermally insulated tile attachment minimized local thermal stresses in the first wall and facilitates remote maintenance. The tile module consists of: a graphite tile; layers of anisotropic pyrolytic carbon used as a high-temperature thermal insulator; a metallic mounting plate; carbon-reinforced carbon (C-C) screws which join the tile, the insulator and the mounting plate together; and a captive, central mounting screw. The design emphasized simplicity and ruggedness while minimizing the need for R and D. The results of a detailed, two-dimensional heat transfer and thermal stress analysis are presented for steady-state heat fluxes of 20 and 100 W/cm 2 . The effects of neutron heating, radiation conduction, contact resistances, material anisotropy, temperature dependencies, and sliding interfaces are considered. The calculated temperatures and stresses show that the proposed tile design is feasible. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Dr Robert Aymar, Director of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), was nominated to succeed Professor Luciano Maiani as CERN's Director General, to take office on 1 January 2004.

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Dr Robert Aymar, Director of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), was nominated to succeed Professor Luciano Maiani as CERN's Director General, to take office on 1 January 2004.

  17. 3D Simulation of a Loss of Vacuum Accident (LOVA in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor: Evaluation of Static Pressure, Mach Number, and Friction Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Ciparisse

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is a magnetically confined plasma nuclear reactor. Inside it, due to plasma disruptions, the formation of neutron-activated powders, which are essentially made out of tungsten and beryllium, occurs. As many windows for diagnostics are present on the reactor, which operates at very low pressure, a LOVA (Loss of Vacuum Accident could be possible and may lead to dust mobilisation and a toxic and radioactive fallout inside the plant. This study is aimed at reproducing numerically the first seconds of a LOVA in ITER, in order to get information about the dust resuspension risk. This work has been carried out by means of a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of the beginning of the pressurisation transient inside the whole Tokamak. It has been found that the pressurization transient is extremely slow, and that the friction speed on the walls is very high, and therefore a high mobilization risk of the dust is expected on the entire internal surface of the reactor. It has been observed that a LOVA in a real-scale reactor is more severe than the one reproduced in reduced-scale facilities, as STARDUST-U, because the speeds are higher, and the dust resuspension capacity of the flow is greater.

  18. Structural design of shield-integrated thin-wall vacuum vessel and manufacturing qualification tests for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Katsusuke; Shibui, Masanao; Koizumi, Koichi; Kanamori, Naokazu; Nishio, Satoshi; Sasaki, Takashi; Tada, Eisuke

    1992-09-01

    Conceptual design of shield-integrated thin-wall vacuum vessel has been done for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). The vacuum vessel concept is based on a thin-double-wall structure, which consists of inner and outer plates and rib stiffeners. Internal shielding structures, which provide neutron irradiation shielding to protect TF coils, are set up between the inner plate and the outer plate of the vessel to avoid complexity of machine systems such as supporting systems of blanket modules. The vacuum vessel is assembled/disassembled by remote handling, so that welding joints are chosen as on-site joint method from reliability of mechanical strength. From a view point of assembling TF coils, the vacuum vessel is separated at the side of port, and is divided into 32 segments similar to the ITER-CDA reference design. Separatrix sweeping coils are located in the vacuum vessel to reduce heat fluxes onto divertor plates. Here, the coil structure and attachment to the vacuum vessel have been investigated. A sectorized saddle-loop coil is available for assembling and disassembling the coil. To support electromagnetic loads on the coils, they are attached to the groove in the vacuum vessel by welding. Flexible multi-plate supporting structure (compression-type gravity support), which was designed during CDA, is optimized by investigating buckling and frequency response properties, and concept on manufacturing and fabrication of the gravity support are proposed. Partial model of the vacuum vessel is manufactured for trial, so that fundamental data on welding and fabrication are obtained. From mechanical property tests of weldment and partial models, mechanical intensity and behaviors of the weldment are obtained. Informations on FEM-modeling are obtained by comparing analysis results with experimental results. (author)

  19. THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE AND PROPAGATION OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICAL THERMONUCLEAR FLAMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remming, Ian S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Khokhlov, Alexei M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Enrico Fermi Institute, and the Computational Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    We present general equations for non-ideal, reactive flow magnetohydrodynamics (RFMHD) in the form best suited for describing thermonuclear combustion in high-density degenerate matter of SNe Ia. The relative importance of various non-ideal effects is analyzed as a function of characteristic spatial and temporal scales of the problem. From the general RFMHD equations, we derive the one-dimensional ordinary differential equations describing the steady-state propagation of a planar thermonuclear flame front in a magnetic field. The physics of the flame is first studied qualitatively using a simple case of one-step Arrhenius kinetics, a perfect gas equation of state (EOS), and constant thermal conductivity coefficients. After that, the equations are solved, the internal flame front structure is calculated, and the flame velocity, S {sub l} , and flame thickness, δ {sub l} , are found for carbon–oxygen degenerate material of supernovae using a realistic EOS, transport properties, and detailed nuclear kinetics. The magnetic field changes the flame behavior significantly, both qualitatively and quantitatively, as compared to the non-magnetic case of classical combustion. (1) The magnetic field influences the evolutionarity of a flame front and makes it impossible for a flame to propagate steadily in a wide range of magnetic field strengths and orientations relative to the front. (2) When the flame moves steadily, it can propagate in several distinct modes, the most important being the slow C {sub S} and super-Alfvénic C {sub sup} modes. (3) The speed of the flame can be diminished or enhanced by up to several factors relative to the non-magnetic laminar flame speed.

  20. Minimum quench power dissipation and current non-uniformity in international thermonuclear experimental reactor type NbTi cable-in-conduit conductor samples under direct current conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, G.; van Lanen, E. P. A.; Nijhuis, A.

    2012-05-01

    The level of current non-uniformity in NbTi cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) sections near the joints in combination with the magnetic field profile needs attention in view of proper joint design. The strand joule power and current distribution at quench under DC conditions of two samples of ITER poloidal field coil conductors, as tested in the SULTAN facility, and of the so called PFCI model coil insert, have been analyzed with the numerical cable model JackPot. The precise trajectories of all individual strands, joint design, cabling configuration, spatial distribution of the magnetic field, sample geometry, and experimentally determined interstrand resistance distributions have been taken into account. Although unable to predict the quench point due to the lack of a thermal-hydraulic routine, the model allows to assess the instantaneous strand power at quench and its local distribution in the cable once the quench conditions in terms of current and temperature are experimentally known. The analysis points out the relation of the above mentioned factors with the DC quench stability of both short samples and coils. The possible small scale and local electrical-thermal interactions were ignored in order to examine the relevance of such effects in the overall prediction of the CICC performance. The electromagnetic code shows an excellent quantitative predictive potential for CICC transport properties, excluding any freedom for matching the results. The influence of the local thermal effects in the modeling is identified as being marginal and far less than the generally accepted temperature margin for safe operation.

  1. International research co-operation in the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conscience, J.-F.

    2003-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Education and Science presents a review of activities carried out in 2002 within the framework of the International Experimental Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER) project that involves contributions from Canada, Japan, the Russian Federation and the European Union. Further agreements on the development of a fusion reactor with other countries, including Switzerland, the USA and China, are mentioned. The first chapter describes the current state of research on electricity production using nuclear fusion and discusses feasibility, safety, environmental, fuel supply and economic aspects. A second chapter reviews global efforts in the fusion area, including ITER and EURATOM projects and the activities running under the European Fusion Development Agreement EFDA and the JET Implementing Agreement. Finally, a third chapter deals with fusion research activities in Switzerland and the contributions made to international research by Swiss universities and institutes

  2. Experimental investigation of the 30S(α, p thermonuclear reaction in x-ray bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahl D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed the first measurement of 30S+α resonant elastic scattering to experimentally examine the 30S(α, p stellar reaction rate in type I x-ray bursts. These bursts are the most frequent thermonuclear explosions in the galaxy, resulting from thermonuclear runaway on the surface of accreting neutron star binaries. The 30S(α, p reaction plays a critical role in burst models, yet very little is known about the compound nucleus 34Ar at these energies nor the reaction rate itself. We performed a measurement of alpha elastic scattering with a radioactive beam of 30S to experimentally probe the entrance channel. Utilizing a gaseous active target system and silicon detector array, we extracted the excitation function from 1.8 to 5.5 MeV near 160° in the center-of-mass frame. The experimental data were analyzed with an R-Matrix calculation, and we discovered several new resonances and extracted their quantum properties (resonance energy, width, spin, and parity. Finally, we calculated the narrow resonant thermonuclear reaction rate of 30S(α, p for these new resonances.

  3. Thermonuclear Processes as a Principal Source of the Earth's Internal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terez, E. I.; Terez, I. E.

    2011-12-01

    A cosmological model of the formation of the Solar System is presented. It is shown that the main source of the Earth's energy is delivered from the thermonuclear processes in the inner Earth's core consisting of metallic hydrides. Several theoretical studies showed that under low temperature (Ttheory. By building a diagram of the mass luminosity for the giant planets and the Earth, Wang Hong-Zhang (1990) illustrated that this diagram was similar to the one corresponding to stars. This could have only one explanation-the energy is due to the thermonuclear reactions and the energy rate is increasing exponentially with temperature and pressure. In the local areas where thermonuclear reactions occur in the Earth core, one should expect a sharp increase in temperature which causes of the dissolution of hydrides, e.g. release of hydrogen from the hydride-ionic form to the proton gas in large quantities (Larin, 2005). The pressure in this zone would sharply rise, and this would cause expulsion of the streams of the hydrogen plasma outside of the Earth's core. As a result of the Earth rotation and existence of the Coriolis' acceleration, the hydrogen plumes (more exactly, the proton gas) characterized by a high electrical conductivity twirl in spirals in the outer core of the Earth. These spirals form solenoid and, as a result, create the dipole magnetic field of the Earth. The suggest hypothesis of the thermonuclear nature of the Earth's energy flux is a main reason for the endogenic geodynamic and tectonic processes in the Earth's history. This hypothesis is supported by known experimental facts, and it opens new ways to study not only our planet but other planets of the Solar System. One should note that according to accepted concepts, the dipole magnetic field could exist in planets with a sufficient rotation and a possibility of thermonuclear reactions in their core. Accordingly, these planets don't have dipole magnetic fields. The quantities of hydrogen (in the form

  4. International research co-operation in the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 26th report by the Swiss Federal Office for Education and Science presents a review of work done in Swiss institutes in 2003 as part of international research into thermonuclear fusion. A broad outline of the project and of its significance within the wider field of thermonuclear fusion research is given. This is followed by a review of the significant events in the world of fusion research, with emphasis placed on ITER and on the EURATOM fusion programme. A further chapter summarises events in Switzerland in 2003 and the report closes with a list of contacts for more information. Three annexes provide information on the current situation in fusion research, as well as scientific and technical highlights of the work performed in 2003 at the Plasma Physics Research Centre CRPP at the Federal Institute of Technology EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland. Annex 3 reports on results obtained at the Physics Institute of the University of Basle. The annexes are for the benefit of the technically and scientifically versed reader, and brief summaries of them are given in the main body of the report

  5. Thermonuclear detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistov, L.P.

    1998-01-01

    The characteristics of, and energy transfer mechanisms involved in, thermonuclear detonation are discussed. What makes the fundamental difference between thermonuclear and chemical detonation is that the former has a high specific energy release and can therefore be employed for preliminary compressing the thermonuclear mixture ahead of the burning wave. Consequently, with moderate (mega joule) initiation energies, a steady-state detonation laboratory experiment with unlimited energy multiplication becomes a possibility

  6. Thermonuclear detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistov, L P

    1998-01-01

    The characteristics of, and energy transfer mechanisms involved in, thermonuclear detonation are discussed. What makes the fundamental difference between thermonuclear and chemical detonation is that the former has a high specific energy release and can therefore be employed for preliminarily compressing the thermonuclear mixture ahead of the burning wave. Consequently, with moderate (megajoule) initiation energies, a steady-state detonation laboratory experiment with unlimited energy multiplication becomes a possibility. (from the history of physics)

  7. The Canadian initiative to host the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautovich, D.P.; James, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    At the time of the conference, the Canadian Nuclear Fuels Technology Project was making an innovative proposal whereby Ontario Hydro would provide space at its Darlington or Bruce sites as potential sites for the ITER project. An economic impact analysis, conducted by Ernst and Young, showed the potential economic benefits to Canada; other benefits could rather be considered to be scientific and technological benefits. A stable electrical supply grid, existing waste management infrastructure, an abundance of cheap power, and a skilled workforce, made Canada an attractive prospect. ITER, whatever its location, would require all of Ontario Hydro's tritium. Canada was attractive as a neutral siting alternative, and had gained early Russian support

  8. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plant layout and site services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuyanov, V.

    1999-01-01

    The ITER site has not been determined at this time. Nevertheless, to develop a construction plan and a cost estimate, it is necessary to have a detailed layout of the buildings, structures, and outdoor equipment integrated with the balance of plant service systems prototypical of large fusion power plants. These services include electric power for magnet feeds and plasma heating systems, cryogenic and conventional cooling systems, compressed air, gas supplies, de-mineralized water, steam, and drainage. Nuclear grade facilities are provided to handle tritium fuel and activated waste, as well as to prevent radioactive exposure of either the workers or the public. To avoid interference between services of different types and for efficient arrangement of buildings, structures, and equipment within the site area, a plan was developed which segregated different classes of services to four quadrants surrounding the tokamak building, placed at the approximate geographic center of the site. Location of the twenty-seven buildings on the generic site was selected to meet all design requirements at minimum total project cost. A similar approach has been used to determine the location of services above, at, and below grade. The generic site plan can be adapted to the site selected for ITER without significant changes to the buildings or equipment. Some rearrangements may be required by site topography resulting primarily in changes to the length of services that link the buildings and equipment. (author)

  9. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plant layout and site services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuyanov, V.

    2001-01-01

    The ITER site has not been determined at this time. Nevertheless, to develop a construction plan and a cost estimate, it is necessary to have a detailed layout of the buildings, structures, and outdoor equipment integrated with the balance of plant service systems prototypical of large fusion power plants. These services include electric power for magnet feeds and plasma heating systems, cryogenic and conventional cooling systems, compressed air, gas supplies, de-mineralized water, steam, and drainage. Nuclear grade facilities are provided to handle tritium fuel and activated waste, as well as to prevent radioactive exposure of either the workers or the public. To avoid interference between services of different types and for efficient arrangement of buildings, structures, and equipment within the site area, a plan was developed which segregated different classes of services to four quadrants surrounding the tokamak building, placed at the approximate geographic center of the site. Location of the twenty-seven buildings on the generic site was selected to meet all design requirements at minimum total project cost. A similar approach has been used to determine the location of services above, at, and below grade. The generic site plan can be adapted to the site selected for ITER without significant changes to the buildings or equipment. Some rearrangements may be required by site topography resulting primarily in changes to the length of services that link the buildings and equipment. (author)

  10. A high-aspect-ratio design for the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Design features and performance parameters for HARD - the high-aspect-ratio (A = 4) International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) design variant developed by the U. S. ITER Team - are presented. The HARD design makes it possible for ITER to achieve both the ignition/extended-burn and the steady-state/technology-testing performance goals set forth in the ITER Terms of Reference. These performance capabilities are obtained in a device that is otherwise similar in concept, size and cost to the low-aspect-ratio (A = 2.8) ITER design defined during the ITER Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). HARD is based on the same physics and engineering guidelines as the CDA design and achieves the same ignition performance (ignition margin evaluated against ITER-89P confinement scaling) with inductively-driven plasmas as ITER CDA, but with much greater margin for inductive sustainment of the pulse duration. With non-inductive current drive, HARD operates at lower plasma current and higher plasma density and bootstrap current fraction than ITER CDA, is less constrained by beta limit and divertor considerations, and has increased peaking of the neutron wall load at the test module location. These factors give HARD a much better potential than ITER CDA to achieve the steady-state operation and 1 MWa/m 2 technology-testing fluence goals of the ITER objectives

  11. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Yasuomi; Takahashi, Ken; Hashimoto, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the plasma confining performances by bringing the irregular magnetic fields nearly to zero and decreasing the absolute value of the irregular magnetic fields at every positions. Constitution: The winding direction of a plurality of coil elements, for instance, double pan cake coils of toroidal coils in a torus type or mirror type thermonuclear device are reversed to each other in their laminating direction, whereby the irregular magnetic fields due to the coil-stepped portions in each toroidal coils are brought nearly to zero. This enables to bring the average irregular magnetic fields as a whole in the thermonuclear device nearly to zero, as well as, decrease the absolute value of the irregular magnetic fields in each positions. Thus, the plasma confining performances can be improved. (Moriyama, K.)

  12. Thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Takao; Saito, Yasushi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the seismic wave responsivity of an exhaust duct shields thereby preventing the release of tritium in an evacuating device due to failures upon earthquakes. Constitution: The ends on the cutting side of upper outer exhaust duct shields of a thermonuclear reactor are connected with a plurality of support beams. In a case where seismic vibrations are exerted to such a thermonuclear reactor, since the ends on the cutting side are coupled with the support beams, vibrations of the upper outer exhaust duct shields are greatly restricted. Thus, since there is no more such a possibility, for example, that an exhaust duct connected to the upper portion of a reactor main body is greatly distorted due to the seismic response of the upper outside exhaust duct shields to result in the failure of the connection portion with a vacuum pump, the release of tritium due to failure of the evacuating device can be prevented. (Yoshino, Y.)

  13. Thermonuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, D.D.; Woosley, S.E.

    1974-01-01

    We discuss the types of thermonuclear reactions that are of importance to stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis, with particular attention to the explosive ejection of shells of He, C, O, and Si. We present tables of the reactions important in the various burning phases, including the reason for their importance and an estimate of the value of a carefully measured rate. This format is chosen for dual purpose: (1) to clarify the nuclear needs by evaluating the importance of specific reactions within the astronomical settings and (2) by assigning a value scale for cross-section measurements

  14. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toyokazu; Murata, Toru.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To shield superconducting coils for use in the generation of magnetic field against neutron irradiation thereby preventing tritium contamination. Constitution: The thermonuclear device comprises, in its inside, a vacuum container for containing plasmas, superconducting coils disposed to the outside of the vacuum container and neutron absorbers disposed between the super-conducting coils and the vacuum container. since neutrons issued from the plasma are absorbed by neutron absorbers and not irradiated to the superconducting coils, generation of tritium due to the reaction between 3 He in the liquid helium as the coolants for the super-conducting coils and the neutrons is prevented. (Aizawa, K.)

  15. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Noriyuki.

    1994-01-01

    In a thermonuclear device, a protrusion is protruded the direction to point X of a separatrix of magnetic fields and oscillated. Further, a protrusion continuous in the toroidal direction is formed from a first wall toward the point X and the position for the point X is oscillated in perpendicular to the divertor. If moving widths are compared for the shape of each of the divertors, it is longest in the case of the protruded shape, and a sweeping speed in a collision region is greatest in a case of the protruded shape and the moving width can be increased for the moving time and moving width of the identical point X. Accordingly, fluctuation of the magnetic fields of the divertor coils can relatively be reduced. A high heat receiving portion of the surface of the divertor can be made sufficiently great and moved rapidly with less oscillation width for the point X, thereby enabling to suppress AC loss of superconductors of toroidal coils and keep a stable superconductive state. Further, the divertor can be kept from melting, to attain a reliable thermonuclear device. (I.S.)

  16. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Masaru.

    1993-01-01

    Protrusions and recesses are formed to a vacuum vessel and toroidal magnetic coils, and they are engaged. Since the vacuum vessel is generally supported firmly by a rack or the like by support legs, the toroidal magnetic field coils can be certainly supported against tumbling force. Then, there can be attained strong supports for the toroidal magnetic field coils, in addition to support by wedges on the side of inboard and support by share panels on the side of outboard, capable of withstanding great electromagnetic forces which may occur in large-scaled next-generation devices. That is, toroidal magnetic field coils excellent from a view point of deformation and stress can be obtained, to provide a thermonuclear device of higher reliability. (N.H.)

  17. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosaki, Osamu; Masuda, Kenju.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide excellent electric properties and high reliability in a thermonuclear device by improving a current collecting board connected to a coil device. Constitution: A current collecting board element perforated with an opening for enserting a connecting terminal is sized to be inserted into a plating tank, and is surface treated in the plating tank. Only the current collecting board element preferably surface treated is picked up. A plurality of such current collecting board elements are connected and welded to form a large current collecting board. In this manner, the current collecting board having several m 2 to several ten order m 2 in area can be obtained as preferably surface treated at the connecting terminal hole. The current collecting board element can be determined in shape with the existing facility without increasing the size of a surface treating tank. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Status report on controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The International Fusion Research Council (IFRC), an advisory body to the International Atomic Energy Agency, reports on the current status of fusion; this report updates its 1978 status report. This report contains a General Overview and Executive Summary, and reports on all current approaches to fusion throughout the world; a series of technical reports is to be published elsewhere. This report is timely in that it not only shows progress which has occurred over the past, but interfaces with possible future devices, in particular the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), whose conceptual design phase is nearing completion. 5 refs, 6 figs

  19. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Takuro; Maki, Koichi.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a thermonuclear device, in which integrity of a measuring device is kept, the reactor wall temperature and wear of armour materials are monitored accurately even under intense radiation rays, so that the flow rate of coolants and plasma power can be controlled by using the signals. Infrared rays generated from the surface of the armour materials disposed on a first wall are detected to measure the reactor wall temperature. Coolant flow rate and plasma power are controlled based on the obtained reactor wall temperature. In addition, infrared rays generated from the back of the armour materials are detected to obtain the surface temperature in order to avoid intense radiation rays from plasmas. The coolant flow rate and the plasma power are controlled based on the obtained temperature on the surface of the reactor thereby controlling the temperature of the first wall and the armour material to 300degC or lower in a case of the first wall made of stainless steel and 1000degC or lower in a case of the armour material made of graphite. (I.S.)

  20. Experimental Version of a cryopanel for pumping-out in ectors of thermonuclear devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.A.; Koryagin, N.I.; Kurakin, A.K.; Naumov, V.K.; Pustovojt, Yu.M.; Rabin, A.A.; Svishchev, V.S.; Sigalov, Yu.M.; Chukhin, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    The technology of producing rolled-welded cryopannels of cryocondensation pumps, build-in directly in the capacity of a fusion device (FD) is described. Results of measurements of exploitation characteristics of experimental cryopanel sample for pumping out of FD in ectors are given. A cryopanel consists of condensing surface and two protective screens. Cryopanel elements are formed during hot rolling of two sheets of the aluminium AD-1 alloy; the picture of the channel for a cooling agent is placed on one of them by antiwelding paste. After this, sheets are welded by hot rolling with total squeesing of 55-60%. The tests of the experimental sample performed have shown that at rather high pumping-out characteristics and small expense of cooling agents for the maintenance of operating regimes, cryopanel is simple and technological in production, small-sized, and requires lesser metal expense and production labour expense as compared with the known designs. The quality of welded joints is significantly reduced which increases the reliability of cryopumping-out system made of these panels

  1. Thermonuclear power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunishi, Koyu; Saito, Seiji.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enhance the control accuracy of a thermonuclear power control device by feeding back electron temperature in addition to a thermonuclear power, thereby making the thermonuclear reactor power stably follow an objective value. Constitution: It is aimed at the fact that a high speed neutral particle incidence causes the increase in the electron temperature, and the neutral particle incidence responsive to the electron temperature is controlled by a high speed neutral particle incident device. Thus, the electron temperature is monitored, the thermonuclear power is monitored, and the control accuracy of the thermonuclear power control device is enhanced by employing a control system for feeding back these values. (Aizawa, K.)

  2. Finite element modeling and experimental study of brittle fracture in tempered martensitic steels for thermonuclear fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P. F.

    2009-10-01

    The present report studies the brittle fracture in high-chromium reduced activation tempered martensitic steels foreseen as structural materials for thermonuclear fusion reactors. Developing the adequate materials that can withstand the severe irradiation conditions of the burning plasma in a fusion reactor is one of the major challenges to be solved in order to make profit from the great advantages of thermonuclear fusion as an energy source. High-chromium tempered martensitic steels such as F82H and the most advanced version Eurofer97 are among the main candidate materials for structural applications in future fusion power plants due to low irradiation-induced swelling, good mechanical and thermal properties, and reasonably fast radioactive decay. Drawback of this kind of steels is irradiation embrittlement, which is manifested by a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature shift to higher temperatures after irradiation. The laboratory specimen fracture data has to be transferred to real components in order to assess the performance of these steels in the different operating and transient conditions they could find during the operation life of a fusion reactor. The specimen geometry effects and specimen size effects on measured fracture toughness need to be properly understood, taken into account and predicted with an appropriate model. The microstructure of Eurofer97 and F82H has been characterized and compared by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in order to identify microstructural features that could play a role in the measured fracture toughness. Both steels have similar but slightly different chemical composition and final heat treatments but the prior austenitic grain size measured in F82H is approximately 8 times larger than in Eurofer97. The alloying element tantalum is added to stabilize the austenite grain size. In Eurofer97 it forms carbides of an

  3. Experimental measurements of the 15O(alpha,gamma)19Ne reaction rate and the stability of thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisker, J; Tan, W; Goerres, J; Wiescher, M; Cooper, R

    2007-01-01

    Neutron stars in close binary star systems often accrete matter from their companion stars. Thermonuclear ignition of the accreted material in the atmosphere of the neutron star leads to a thermonuclear explosion which is observed as an X-ray burst occurring periodically between hours and days depending on the accretion rate. The ignition conditions are characterized by a sensitive interplay between the accretion rate of the fuel supply and its depletion rate by nuclear burning in the hot CNO cycle and the rp-process. For accretion rates close to stable burning the burst ignition therefore depends critically on the hot CNO breakout reaction 15 O(α, γ) 19 Ne that regulates the flow between the hot CNO cycle and the rapid proton capture process. Until recently, the 15 O(α, γ) 19 Ne reaction rate was not known experimentally and the theoretical estimates carried significant uncertainties. In this paper we perform a parameter study of the uncertainty of this reaction rate and determine the astrophysical consequences of the first measurement of this reaction rate. Our results corroborate earlier predictions and show that theoretically burning remains unstable up to accretion rates near the Eddington limit, in contrast to astronomical observations

  4. Thermonuclear fusion: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhns, H.; Maisonnier, Ch.

    1992-01-01

    Thermonuclear Fusion holds great promises for becoming an important energy source for the future. Fusion research and development is undertaken in al major countries of the world. The European Community pursues fusion in a large programme which embraces all R and D in the field of magnetic confinement fusion in the Member States, and to which Sweden and Switzerland are fully associated. The long-term objective of the programme is the joint creation of safe, environmentally sound prototype reactors. The main R and D line of the Community Fusion Programme is fusion by toroidal magnetic confinement on the basis of the Tokamak concept. Some related concepts are also studied which possibly could offer advantages for a reactor, and keep-in-touch activities exist for other approaches. Several small and medium sized specialised devices in Associated Laboratories have been built by the Community Fusion Programme as well as the Joint European Torus (JET Joint Undertaking) which is the largest and the most successful fusion device in the world. Recently, fusion power in the megawatt range has been achieved in JET. The long timescale and the large effort needed for the development of fusion as an energy source have been important elements to foster international collaboration. Engineering Design Activities for an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are undertaken, under the auspices of the IAEA, by the European Community, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States of America. The objective of ITER is to achieve self-sustained thermonuclear burn and its control under long-pulse operation and to provide basic data for the engineering of a demonstration fusion reactor. (author)

  5. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 3, no. 1. (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Engineering Design Activities)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This issues of the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter contains reports on the Fourth ITER Management Advisory Committee Meeting (MAC) held at San Diego, USA, 13-14 January, 1994, a Technical Committee Meeting on Plasma Equilibrium and Control held at Naka, Japan, 9-12 November 1993, and a Technical Committee Meeting on Radio-Frequency Heating and Current Drive held in Garching, Germany, 21-26 October 1993

  6. ITER vacuum vessel fabrication plan and cost study (D 68) for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    ITER Task No. 8, Vacuum Vessel Fabrication Plan and Cost Study (D68), was initiated to assess ITER vacuum vessel fabrication, assembly, and cost. The industrial team of Raytheon Engineers & Constructors and Chicago Bridge & Iron (Raytheon/CB&I) reviewed the current vessel basis and prepared a manufacturing plan, assembly plan, and cost estimate commensurate with the present design. The guidance for the Raytheon/CB&I assessment activities was prepared by the ITER Garching Work Site. This guidance provided in the form of work descriptions, sketches, drawings, and costing guidelines for each of the presently identified vacuum vessel Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) elements was compiled in ITER Garching Joint Work Site Memo (Draft No. 9 - G 15 MD 01 94-17-05 W 1). A copy of this document is provided as Appendix 1 to this report. Additional information and clarifications required for the Raytheon/CB&I assessments were coordinated through the US Home Team (USHT) and its technical representative. Design details considered essential to the Task 8 assessments but not available from the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT) were generated by Raytheon/CB&I and documented accordingly.

  7. Antenna design for fast ion collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Furtula, Vedran; Salewski, Mirko

    2009-01-01

    antenna is located behind the blankets and views the plasma through the gap between two blanket modules. The viewing gap has been modified to dimensions 30 × 500 mm2 to optimize the CTS signal. A 1:1 mock-up of the HFS mirror system was built. Measurements of the beam characteristics for millimeter......-waves at 60 GHz used in the mock-up agree well with the modeling....

  8. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor plate performance and lifetime considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.

    1990-03-01

    The ITER divertor plate performance during the technology phase of operation has been analyzed. High-Z materials, such as tungsten and tantalum, have been considered as plasma side materials, and refractory metal alloys, Ta-10W, TZM, Nb-1Zr, and V-15Cr-5Ti, plus copper alloys have been considered as the structural materials. The fatigue lifetime have been predicted for structural plates and for duplex plates with the plasma side material bonded to the structure. The results indicate that refractory alloys have a comparable or improved performance to copper alloys. Peak allowable heat fluxes for these analyses are in the range of 15--20 MW/m 2 for 2 mm thick structural plates and 7--11 MW/m 2 for 4 mm thick duplex plates. 4 refs., 55 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Physics modeling support for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-30

    There are two major sections to this report. The first section of the report is an executive summary of the work done this year. For each task, the major results are condensed for the reader's convenience. The major result of each memo, report or presentation is summarized briefly in this section. The second section of the report is a collection of appendices containing reports, memos, and presentations written this year. Here, the interested reader can investigate any topic discussed in the summary in more detail. The documentation is presented in chronological order, and we would like to note that the content of later documents may supercede that of earlier ones. The summaries are divided into sections, corresponding to the tasks outlined in the original proposal for the work. These sections are: MUMAK code development and application; Alfven wave stability problem; TETRA systems code development and application; lower hybrid heating and current drive; and advanced blanket modeling.

  10. Physics modeling support for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    There are two major sections to this report. The first section of the report is an executive summary of the work done this year. For each task, the major results are condensed for the reader's convenience. The major result of each memo, report or presentation is summarized briefly in this section. The second section of the report is a collection of appendices containing reports, memos, and presentations written this year. Here, the interested reader can investigate any topic discussed in the summary in more detail. The documentation is presented in chronological order, and we would like to note that the content of later documents may supercede that of earlier ones. The summaries are divided into sections, corresponding to the tasks outlined in the original proposal for the work. These sections are: MUMAK code development and application; Alfven wave stability problem; TETRA systems code development and application; lower hybrid heating and current drive; and advanced blanket modeling

  11. Engineering Design Activities (EDA) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project: January 1993 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    The task of selecting and assembling the Joint Central Team (JCT) is the authors top priority, and he has instructed the Deputy Directors and Division Heads to diligently pursue the selection of qualified team members. Several steps are involved in assembling the JCT: specification of posts, nomination of candidates, selection of team members, arrival and startup of work, and completion of secondment procedures. Only after these steps have been completed are staff able to take up their full responsibilities within the management structure of the JCT. Even then, a period of some months of acclimatization and adjustment may be required before the staff can be expected to work fully effectively

  12. Design and development of in-vessel viewing periscope for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Ito, Akira; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Tada, Eisuke [Department of Fusion Engineering Research, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka , Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    An in-vessel viewing system is essential not only to detect and locate damage of components exposed to plasma, but also to monitor and assist in-vessel maintenance operation. In ITER, the in-vessel viewing system must be capable of operating at high temperature (200degC), under intense gamma radiation (30 kGy/h) and high vacuum or 1 bar inert gas. A periscope-type in-vessel viewing system has been chosen as a reference of the ITER in-vessel viewing system due to its wide viewing capability and durability for sever environments. According to the ITER research and development program, a full-scale radiation hard periscope with a length of 15 m has been successfully developed by the Japan Home Team. The performance tests have been shown sufficient capability at high temperature up to 250degC and radiation resistance over 100 MGy. This report describes the design and R and D results of the ITER in-vessel viewing periscope based on the development of 15-m-length radiation hard periscope. (author)

  13. ITER vacuum vessel fabrication plan and cost study (D 68) for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    ITER Task No. 8, Vacuum Vessel Fabrication Plan and Cost Study (D68), was initiated to assess ITER vacuum vessel fabrication, assembly, and cost. The industrial team of Raytheon Engineers ampersand Constructors and Chicago Bridge ampersand Iron (Raytheon/CB ampersand I) reviewed the current vessel basis and prepared a manufacturing plan, assembly plan, and cost estimate commensurate with the present design. The guidance for the Raytheon/CB ampersand I assessment activities was prepared by the ITER Garching Work Site. This guidance provided in the form of work descriptions, sketches, drawings, and costing guidelines for each of the presently identified vacuum vessel Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) elements was compiled in ITER Garching Joint Work Site Memo (Draft No. 9 - G 15 MD 01 94-17-05 W 1). A copy of this document is provided as Appendix 1 to this report. Additional information and clarifications required for the Raytheon/CB ampersand I assessments were coordinated through the US Home Team (USHT) and its technical representative. Design details considered essential to the Task 8 assessments but not available from the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT) were generated by Raytheon/CB ampersand I and documented accordingly

  14. Thermonuclear reaction rates. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.J.; Fowler, W.A.; Caughlan, G.R.; Zimmerman, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    Stellar thermonuclear reaction rates are revised and updated, adding a number of new important reaction rates. Several reactions with large negative Q-values are included, and examples of them are discussed. The importance of the decay rates for Mg-26(p,n) exp 26 Al and Al-26(n,p) exp 26 Mg for stellar studies is emphasized. 19 references

  15. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-function is discussed in physical terms

  16. Inertial thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madarame, Haruki; Oomura, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Norio.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the durability of the first wall. Constitution: A reactor cavity for performing inertial thermofusion is defined within a vessel of a thermonuclear reactor, and the first wall of a tubular structure flowing coolants for taking out thermonuclear energy generated in the reactor cavity as the heat energy to the outside of the reactor is disposed, in which jet nozzles are disposed to the inside of the first wall that pulse-width jet coolants to form coolant membranes on the inner circumferential surface of the first wall to thereby surround the fire ball by the membrane of the coolants. Thus, the energy of the fire ball can be reduced by the membrane of the coolants, whereby the thermal loads and impact loads to the first wall can be moderated to substantially increase the working life and improve the safety of the first wall for which the greatest stress load is expected. (Yoshihara, H.)

  17. Blankets for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Koichi; Fukumoto, Hideshi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To produce tritium more than consumed, through thermonuclear reaction. Constitution: The energy spectrum of neutron generated by neutron multiplying reaction in a neutron multiplying blanket and moderated neutrons has a large ratio in a low energy section. In the low-energy absorption region of stainless steel which is a material of cooling pipes constituting a neutron multiplying blanket cooling channel, the neutrons are absorbed, lessening the neutron multiplying effect. To prevent this, the neutron multiplying blanket cooling channel is covered with tritium breeding blankets, thereby enabling the production of a substantially great amount of tritium more than the amount of tritium to be consumed by the thermonuclear reaction by preventing neutron absorption by the component materials of the cooling channel, improving the tritium breeding ratio by 20 to 25 %, and increasing the efficiency of use of neutrons for tritium generation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Foundation for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Akio; Odajima, Kazuo; Ota, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns foundations for a thermonuclear device or relevant facilities and, more in particular, it relates to insulation structures upon installing the foundations. In a case of receiving great force such as of a thermonuclear device by way of insulation materials, since the strength of the insulation materials is smaller as compared with that of steel materials, the size of the foundation insulation structure tends to be increased. In view of the above in the present invention, insulative resin layers are applied to anchor sleeves fitted to the upper portion of foundation bolts. With such a constitution, insulation structure can be formed within foundation concretes. Accordingly, since legs of the device are covered with insulative resins in the foundation structure, it can provide an effect of eliminating the space required for the insulation structures above the ground. The structures can be applied not only to the thermonuclear device but also to electrical insulation structures for large current circuits, with similar effects. (I.S.)

  19. The laser thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, J.; Dautray, R.; Decroisette, M.; Watteau, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Principle of the thermonuclear fusion by inertial confinement: required characteristics of the deuterium-tritium plasma and of the high power lasers to be used Development of high power lasers: active media used; amplifiers; frequency conversion; beam quality; pulse conditioning; existing large systems. The laser-matter interaction: collision and collective interaction of the laser radiation with matter; transport of the absorbed energy; heating and compression of deuterium-tritium; diagnoses and their comparison with the numerical simulation of the experiment; performances. Conclusions: difficulties to overcome; megajoule lasers; other energy source: particles beams [fr

  20. Blanket for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Yoshihiro; Uda, Tatsuhiko; Maki, Koichi.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides a blanket of a thermonuclear device which produces tritium fuels consumed in plasmas while converting neutrons generated in the plasmas into heat energy. That is, zirconium is coated to at least one of neutron breeder pebbles and breeder pebbles, to suppress reaction between them by being in direct contact with each other at a high temperature. Further, fins are attached to a cooling pipe at a pitch smaller than the diameter of both of the pebbles, to prevent direct contact at whole surface of the pebbles and the cooling pipe, which would lower a temperature excessively. The length of the fin is controlled to control the thickness of a helium gas gap. With such constitution, direct contact of neutron breeder pebbles and the breeder pebble which are to be filled and mixed, and tend to react at a high temperature, can be prevented. The temperature of the breeding blanket is reliably prevented from lowering below a tritium emitting temperature. The structure is simplified and the production is facilitated. (I.S.)

  1. Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, M.; Pawlowicz, W. [eds.] [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Department of Thermonuclear Research Annual Report 1993 presents a short review of theoretical, experimental and technological studies performed within the framework of the research program - Plasma Physics. Theoretical studies of a tokamak edge plasma, inner shell ionization by positrons, heat transfer in thin foils, and numerical simulation of HV pulse generators, are summarized. Experimental studies of X-rays and charged particles (including fusion protons) emitted from Plasma-Focus facilities, as well as measurements of plasma-ion streams generated by IONOTRON devices, are described shortly. Also presented are technological studies on data acquisition systems and material engineering, in particular the modification of solid surfaces with the plasma-ion streams. (author).

  2. Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.; Pawlowicz, W.

    1994-01-01

    Department of Thermonuclear Research Annual Report 1993 presents a short review of theoretical, experimental and technological studies performed within the framework of the research program - Plasma Physics. Theoretical studies of a tokamak edge plasma, inner shell ionization by positrons, heat transfer in thin foils, and numerical simulation of HV pulse generators, are summarized. Experimental studies of X-rays and charged particles (including fusion protons) emitted from Plasma-Focus facilities, as well as measurements of plasma-ion streams generated by IONOTRON devices, are described shortly. Also presented are technological studies on data acquisition systems and material engineering, in particular the modification of solid surfaces with the plasma-ion streams. (author)

  3. Department of Thermonuclear Research. Annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1989-01-01

    Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1988 presents a short review of theoretical, experimental and technological studies performed within a framework of two research programs: diagnostics of high-temperature plasma and nuclear technology. We describe theoretical investigations on the modelling of Tokamak edge plasmas, ion motions, atomic collisions, high-voltage electrode systems and plasma-focus (PF) facilities. The experimental studies on plasma-ion streams, high-current discharges of the PF-type, and on the interaction of ion beams with gaseous targets, are shortly summarized. Also presented are technological studies on electronic and high-voltage systems, as well as applications of the IONOTRON type plasma devices. (author)

  4. Controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Controlled production of energy by fusion of light nuclei has been the goal of a large portion of the physics community since the 1950's. In order for a fusion reaction to take place, the fuel must be heated to a temperature of 100 million degrees Celsius. At this temperature, matter can exist only in the form of an almost fully ionized plasma. In order for the reaction to produce net power, the product of the density and energy confinement time must exceed a minimum value of 10 20 sec m -3 , the so-called Lawson criterion. Basically, two approaches are being taken to meet this criterion: inertial confinement and magnetic confinement. Inertial confinement is the basis of the laser fusion approach; a fuel pellet is imploded by intense laser beams from all sides and ignites. Magnetic confinement devices, which exist in a variety of geometries, rely upon electromagnetic forces on the charged particles of the plasma to keep the hot plasma from expanding. Of these devices, the most encouraging results have been achieved with a class of devices known as tokamaks. Recent successes with these devices have given plasma physicists confidence that scientific feasibility will be demonstrated in the next generation of tokamaks; however, an even larger effort will be required to make fusion power commercially feasible. As a result, emphasis in the controlled thermonuclear research program is beginning to shift from plasma physics to a new branch of nuclear engineering which can be called fusion engineering, in which instrumentation and control engineers will play a major role. Among the new problem areas they will deal with are plasma diagnostics and superconducting coil instrumentation

  5. Controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Controlled production of energy by fusion of light nuclei has been the goal of a large portion of the physics community since the 1950's. In order for a fusion reaction to take place, the fuel must be heated to a temperature of 100 million degrees Celsius. At this temperature, matter can exist only in the form of an almost fully ionized plasma. In order for the reaction to produce net power, the product of the density and energy confinement time must exceed a minimum value of 10/sup 20/ sec m/sup -3/, the so-called Lawson criterion. Basically, two approaches are being taken to meet this criterion: inertial confinement and magnetic confinement. Inertial confinement is the basis of the laser fusion approach; a fuel pellet is imploded by intense laser beams from all sides and ignites. Magnetic confinement devices, which exist in a variety of geometries, rely upon electromagnetic forces on the charged particles of the plasma to keep the hot plasma from expanding. Of these devices, the most encouraging results have been achieved with a class of devices known as tokamaks. Recent successes with these devices have given plasma physicists confidence that scientific feasibility will be demonstrated in the next generation of tokamaks; however, an even larger effort will be required to make fusion power commercially feasible. As a result, emphasis in the controlled thermonuclear research program is beginning to shift from plasma physics to a new branch of nuclear engineering which can be called fusion engineering, in which instrumentation and control engineers will play a major role. Among the new problem areas they will deal with are plasma diagnostics and superconducting coil instrumentation.

  6. 2016 International Symposium on Experimental Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Khatib, Oussama; Venture, Gentiane

    2017-01-01

    Experimental Robotics XV is the collection of papers presented at the International Symposium on Experimental Robotics, Roppongi, Tokyo, Japan on October 3-6, 2016. 73 scientific papers were selected and presented after peer review. The papers span a broad range of sub-fields in robotics including aerial robots, mobile robots, actuation, grasping, manipulation, planning and control and human-robot interaction, but shared cutting-edge approaches and paradigms to experimental robotics. The readers will find a breadth of new directions of experimental robotics. The International Symposium on Experimental Robotics is a series of bi-annual symposia sponsored by the International Foundation of Robotics Research, whose goal is to provide a forum dedicated to experimental robotics research. Robotics has been widening its scientific scope, deepening its methodologies and expanding its applications. However, the significance of experiments remains and will remain at the center of the discipline. The ISER gatherings are...

  7. Controlled thermonuclear reactions and Tora Supra program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The research programs for the nuclear energy production by means of thermonuclear fusion are shown. TORA SUPRA, Joint European Torus, Next European Torus and those developed at the Atomic Energy Center are described. The controlled fusion necessary conditions, the energy and confinement balance, and the research of a better tokamak configuration are discussed. A description of TORA SUPRA, the ways of achieving the project and the expected delays are shown. The Controlled Fusion Research Department functions, concerning these programs, are described. The importance of international cooperation and the perspectives about the use of controlled fusion are underlined [fr

  8. Thermonuclear ignition in the next generation tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johner, J.

    1989-04-01

    The extrapolation of experimental rules describing energy confinement and magnetohydrodynamic - stability limits, in known tokamaks, allow to show that stable thermonuclear ignition equilibria should exist in this configuration, if the product aB t x of the dimensions by a magnetic-field power is large enough. Quantitative application of this result to several next-generation tokamak projects show that those kinds of equilibria could exist in such devices, which would also have enough additional heating power to promote an effective accessible ignition

  9. The structure and thermal properties of plasma-sprayed beryllium for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.G.; Bartlett, A.; Elliott, K.E.; Hollis, K.J.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma spraying is being studied for in situ repair of damaged Be and W plasma facing surfaces for ITER, the next generation magnetic fusion energy device, and is also being considered for fabricating Be and W plasma-facing components for the first wall of ITER. Investigators at LANL's Beryllium Atomization and Thermal Spray Facility have concentrated on investigating the structure-property relation between as-deposited microstructures of plasma sprayed Be coatings and resulting thermal properties. In this study, the effect of initial substrate temperature on resulting thermal diffusivity of Be coatings and the thermal diffusivity at the coating/Be substrate interface (interface thermal resistance) was investigated. Results show that initial Be substrate temperatures above 600 C can improve the thermal diffusivity of the Be coatings and minimize any thermal resistance at the interface between the Be coating and Be substrate

  10. A high-speed beam of lithium droplets for collecting diverted energy and particles in ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    A high-speed (160m/s) beam (0.14 x 0.86m) of liquid-lithium droplets passing through the divertor region(s) below (and above) the main plasma has the potential to replace and out-perform ''conventional'' solid divertor plates in both heat and particle removal. In addition to superior heat-collection properties, the lithium beam would: remove impurities; require low power to circulate the lithium; exhibit low-recycle divertor operation compatible with lower-hybrid current drive, H-mode plasma confinement, and no flow reversal in the edge plasma; be insensitive to plasma shifts; and finally protect solid structures from the plasma thermal energy for those disruptions that deposit energy preferentially into the divertor while simultaneously being rapidly re-established after a major disruption. Scoping calculations identifying the beam configuration and the droplet dynamics, including formation, MHD effects, gravitational effects, thermal response and hydrodynamics, are presented. Limitations and uncertainties are also discussed. 20 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Neutronics analysis of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) MCNP ''Benchmark CAD Model'' with the ATTILA discrete ordinance code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, M.Z.; Feder, R.; Davis, I.

    2007-01-01

    The ITER IT has adopted the newly developed FEM, 3-D, and CAD-based Discrete Ordinates code, ATTILA for the neutronics studies contingent on its success in predicting key neutronics parameters and nuclear field according to the stringent QA requirements set forth by the Management and Quality Program (MQP). ATTILA has the advantage of providing a full flux and response functions mapping everywhere in one run where components subjected to excessive radiation level and strong streaming paths can be identified. The ITER neutronics community had agreed to use a standard CAD model of ITER (40 degree sector, denoted ''Benchmark CAD Model'') to compare results for several responses selected for calculation benchmarking purposes to test the efficiency and accuracy of the CAD-MCNP approach developed by each party. Since ATTILA seems to lend itself as a powerful design tool with minimal turnaround time, it was decided to benchmark this model with ATTILA as well and compare the results to those obtained with the CAD MCNP calculations. In this paper we report such comparison for five responses, namely: (1) Neutron wall load on the surface of the 18 shield blanket module (SBM), (2) Neutron flux and nuclear heating rate in the divertor cassette, (3) nuclear heating rate in the winding pack of the inner leg of the TF coil, (4) Radial flux profile across dummy port plug and shield plug placed in the equatorial port, and (5) Flux at seven point locations situated behind the equatorial port plug. (orig.)

  12. Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs about the project of law, adopted by the Senate, giving permission to the approval of the agreement between the French government and the international organization for thermonuclear fusion energy ITER, relative to the head office of ITER organization and to the privileges and immunities of ITER organization in the French territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    The will of building up an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) gathers since several years the European community of atomic energy (Euratom), Japan, the USA, and Russia, next followed by China, South Korea and, since 2005, by India. The agreement signed in Paris between these seven parties on November 21, 2006 entrusted the international organization ITER with the realization of this project. The implications of the ITER project are enormous both in their scientific and in their economical aspects. France has a particular position in this project since the head office of ITER organisation is sited at Saint-Paul-lez-Durance and the tokamak will be built at Cadarache. Therefore, an agreement has been signed between ITER organization and the French government. The approval of this agreement is the object of this project of law. The document presents first the principle, challenge and stakes of the ITER project and the long negotiations that have led to chose France for the setting up of the research facility. Then, it presents the agreement of November 7, 2007, which fixes the general framework of the conditions necessary to the achievement of the project. The agreement comprises the classical rules, privileges and immunities of any international organization sited on the French ground, plus some more specific dispositions in particular in the domain of management of the wastes generated by the facility. (J.S.)

  13. Controlled thermonuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Brief discussions are given for the following four areas of research: (1) tritium handling system for an experimental fusion power reactor, (2) preparation for tests of cryosorption pumping for fusion reactors, (3) tritium sorption studies, and (4) tritium sorption in Li--Al and Li--Bi alloys. (MOW)

  14. Kazakhstan participation in International Experimental Reactor ITER Construction project. Work status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibayeva, I.L.; Tukhvatullin, Sh.T.; Shestakov, V.P.; Kuznetsov, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    Kazakhstan takes part in ITER project in partnership with Russian Federation since the year of 1994. At present the technical stage of the project is completed and ITER Council should take a decision on the site for international reactor. Four countries such as Canada, Japan, Spain and France have offered their territories for being used as site for launching ITER construction. ITER partners started preparing new international agreement that will cover activities on construction, operation and decommissioning of ITER. It will also include the list of research and experimental work that is conducted in support of ITER project. Kazakhstan has already made an important contribution into technical stage realization of ITER project due to scientific and technical researches conducted by National Nuclear Center, by Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics and by JSC 'Ulba Metallurgical plant' ('UMP'). Research activity carried out for the support of ITER project is performed in accordance with the following main trends: Tritium safety (permeability and retentin of hydrogen isotopes during in-pile irradiation in various structural materials, co-deposed layers and protective coatings); Verification of computer codes (LOCA type) loss of coolant accidents modeling in ITER reactor; Investigation of liquid metal blanket of thermonuclear reactor (tritium production in lithium containing eutectics Li17Pb83 and ceramics Li 2 TiO 3 , study of tritium permeability). At present the working group of ITER project participants started introducing proposals for cost distribution and for placing the orders on reactor construction. Further Kazakhstan participation in ITER project may be in manufacturing high-tech parts and assemblies from commercial grades of beryllium. They will be used for armouring the reactor first wall, for its thermal protection and for protection of superconductor's components for magnetic systems that are at JSC U MP'. Scientific and technical support of

  15. Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.; Pawlowicz, W.

    1992-02-01

    Department of Thermonuclear Research Annual Report 1991 presents a short review of theoretical, experimental, and technological studies carried out within the framework of two research programs: Plasma Physics and Development of Diagnostics Data Acquisition. Theoretical studies of a tokamak edge plasma, validity of inverse Abel transformation for strongly refracting objects, simulation of the pulse generators operation, and a numerical analysis of electron capture in p + H + collisions, are described. Experimental studies of corpuscular beams and X-rays from different plasma facilities, development of diagnostic techniques and of data acquisition systems, as well as experiments with the generation of cryogenic pellets for plasma research, are shortly summarized. Also presented are technological studies concerning the modernization of the PF- and RPI-type facilities and the application of the IONOTRON-type devices for the modification of semiconductor and metal surfaces. (author). 27 refs, 24 figs

  16. Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1991-03-01

    Department of Thermonuclear Research Annual Report 1990 presents the most important results of theoretical, experimental, and technological studies, carried out within a framework of two programs: Diagnostics of High-Temperature Plasma (CPBP 01.10) and Nuclear Technology (CPBR 5.8). Theoretical studies of tokamak edge plasmas, charged particle motions, strong refraction effects, current pulse generators, classical models of atomic collisions, and electron mechanisms of the Coulomb barrier tunneling, are shortly summarized. Experimental studies of X-ray, ion, and proton emission from the RPI-type devices, as well as optimization tests and electron beam measurements at the PF-type facilities, are described. Technological studies of opto-electronic transmission systems, modifications of diagnostic equipment, design and construction of new PF facilities, as well as applications of the IONOTRON-type devices, are also presented. (author). 56 refs, 20 figs

  17. 13th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Dudek, Gregory; Khatib, Oussama; Kumar, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    The International Symposium on Experimental Robotics (ISER) is a series of bi-annual meetings which are organized in a rotating fashion around North America, Europe and Asia/Oceania. The goal of  ISER is to provide a forum for research in robotics that focuses on novelty of theoretical contributions validated by experimental results. The meetings are conceived to bring together, in a small group setting, researchers from around the world who are in the forefront of experimental robotics research. This unique reference presents the latest advances across the various fields of robotics, with ideas that are not only conceived conceptually but also explored experimentally. It collects robotics contributions on the current developments and new directions in the field of experimental robotics, which are based on the papers presented at the 13th ISER held held in Québec City, Canada, at the Fairmont Le Château Frontenac, on June 18-21, 2012. This present thirteenth edition of Experimental Robotics edited by Jayd...

  18. 14th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Khatib, Oussama; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    The International Symposium on Experimental Robotics (ISER) is a series of bi-annual meetings which are organized in a rotating fashion around North America, Europe and Asia/Oceania. The goal of  ISER is to provide a forum for research in robotics that focuses on novelty of theoretical contributions validated by experimental results. The meetings are conceived to bring together, in a small group setting, researchers from around the world who are in the forefront of experimental robotics research. This unique reference presents the latest advances across the various fields of robotics, with ideas that are not only conceived conceptually but also explored experimentally. It collects robotics contributions on the current developments and new directions in the field of experimental robotics, which are based on the papers presented at the 14th ISER held on June 15-18, 2014 in Marrakech and Essaouira, Morocco.  This present fourteenth edition of Experimental Robotics edited by M. Ani Hsieh, Oussama Khatib, and Vi...

  19. 12th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Vijay; Sukhatme, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    The International Symposium on Experimental Robotics (ISER) is a series of bi-annual meetings which are organized in a rotating fashion around North America, Europe and Asia/Oceania. The goal of  ISER is to provide a forum for research in robotics that focuses on novelty of theoretical contributions validated by experimental results. The meetings are conceived to bring together, in a small group setting, researchers from around the world who are in the forefront of experimental robotics research. This unique reference presents the latest advances across the various fields of robotics, with ideas that are not only conceived conceptually but also explored experimentally. It collects robotics contributions on the current developments and new directions in the field of experimental robotics, which are based on the papers presented at the 12th ISER held on December 18-21, 2010 in New Delhi and Agra, India.This present twelfth edition of Experimental Robotics edited by Oussama Khatib, Vijay Kumar and Gaurav Sukha...

  20. First wall of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizawa, Makoto; Koizumi, Makoto; Nishihara, Yoshihiro.

    1990-01-01

    The first wall of a thermonuclear device is constituted with inner wall tiles, e.g. made of graphite and metal substrates for fixing them. However, since the heat expansion coefficient is different between the metal substrates and intermediate metal members, thermal stresses are caused to deteriorate the endurance of the inner wall tiles. In view of the above, low melting metals are disposed at the portion of contact between the inner wall tiles and the metal substrates and, further, a heat pipe structure is incorporated into the metal substrates. Under the thermal load, for example, during operation of the thermonuclear device, the low melting metals at the portion of contact are melted into liquid metals to enhance the state of contact between the inner wall tiles and the metal substrate to reduce the heat resistance and improve the heat conductivity. Even if there is a difference in the heat expansion coefficient between the inner wall tiles and the metal substrates, neither sharing stresses not thermal stresses are caused. Further, since the heat pipe structure is incorporated into the metal substrates, the lateral unevenness of the temperature in the metal substrates can be eliminated. Thus, the durability of the inner wall tiles can be improved. (N.H.)

  1. Reactor wall in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibui, Masanao.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To always monitor the life of armours in reactor walls and automatically shutdown the reactor if it should be operated in excess of the limit of use. Constitution: Monitoring material of lower melting point than armours (for example beryllium pellets) as one of the reactor wall constituents of a thermonuclear device are embedded in a region leaving the thickness corresponding to the allowable abrasion of the armour. In this structure, if the armours are abrased due to particle loads of a plasma and the abrasion exceeds a predetermined allowable level, the monitoring material is exposed to the plasma and melted and evaporated. Since this can be detected by impurity monitors disposed in the reactor, it is possible to recognize the limit for the working life of the armours. If the thermonuclear reactor should be operated accidentally exceeding the life of the armours, since a great amount of the monitoring materials have been evaporated, they flow into the plasma to increase the plasma radiation loss thereby automatically eliminate the plasma. (K.M.)

  2. Dynamics of data flows on the low-activated vanadium alloy for thermonuclear power engineering (analysis of four international data bases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepelev, A.G.; Kurilo, Yu.P.; Krivchenko, O.V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of scientometric analysis of data flows in the International Data Bases SCOPUS, INSPEC, INIS, MSCI over a period since 1971 to 2014 on low-activated vanadium alloys suitable for operation as structural materials under extremely hard conditions in the future fusion reactors. The data on the dynamics of publications and contributions in them from the scientists of different countries have been obtained. The types and languages of publications have been identified. The analysis shows that investigations on the low-activated vanadium alloys are of current importance

  3. Physics of Plasmas in Thermonuclear Regimes. Proceedings of the 1979 Workshop, International School of Plasma Physics, Varenna, Italy, 27 August - 8 September 1979. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppi, B.; Sadowski, W. [eds.

    1979-08-27

    The workshop was run concurrently with the International School of Plasma Physics and was organized as a sequence of afternoon meetings concerning a set of topics that correspond to the individual chapters of these proceedings. The workshop consisted of both individual presentations and moderated discussions among the participants. A selected group of topics that were found to deserve a more in-depth analysis, such as the question of anomalous particle transport and the theory of collective modes induced by alpha-particles were discussed in separate Working Groups.

  4. First wall of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Nobuharu.

    1992-01-01

    In a first wall of a thermonuclear device, armour tiles are metallurgically bonded to a support substrate only for the narrow area of the central portion thereof, while bonded by metallurgical bonding with cooling tubes of low mechanical toughness, separated from each other in other regions. Since the bonding area with the support substrate of great mechanical rigidity is limited to the narrow region at the central portion of the armour tiles, cracking are scarcely caused at the end portion of the bonding surface. In other regions, since cooling tubes of low mechanical rigidity are bonded metallurgically, they can be sufficiently withstand to high thermal load. That is, even if the armour tiles are deformed while undergoing thermal load from plasmas, since the cooling tubes absorb it, there is no worry of damaging the metallurgically bonded face. Since the cooling tubes are bonded directly to the armour tiles, they absorb the heat of the armour tiles efficiently. (N.H.)

  5. Thermonuclear generation program: risks and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, Alexandre Gromann de Araujo

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the fundamental concepts of risk and safety related to nuclear power generation. In the first chapter, a general evaluation of the various systems for energy generation and their environmental impacts is made. Some definitions for safety and risk are suggested, based on the already existing regulatory processes and also on the current tendencies of risk management. Aspects regarding the safety culture are commented. The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES), a coherent and clear mechanism of communication between nuclear specialists and the general public, is analyzed. The second chapter examines the thermonuclear generation program in Brazil and the role of the National Nuclear Energy Commission. The third chapter presents national and international scenarios in terms of safety and risks, available policies and the main obstacles for future development of nuclear energy and nuclear engineering, and strategies are proposed. In the last chapter, comments about possible trends and recommendations related to practical risk management procedures, taking into account rational criteria for resources distribution and risk reduction are made, envisaging a closer integration between nuclear specialists and the society as a whole, thus decreasing the conflicts in a democratic decision-making process

  6. Near-wall plasma in a tokamak thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistunovich, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    The development of thermonuclear reactor projects such as the national ones GTRT and OTR (USSR), UWMAK-NUMAK and TIBER (USA), NET (Euratom), FER (Japan), as well as the international ones INTOR and JET allows one to determine in detail the problems arising in the creation of a reactor. One of these problems is extracting heat and particles from the reactor and removing thermonuclear reaction ash, which in the case of a DT reactor is helium. The solution of this problem is connected with the investigation of interaction processes of the plasma with the materials from which the reactor is constructed. Progress in studying the interaction of plasma with a material surface has given rise to a new division of plasma physics, which includes not only reactor problems, but also plasma-physical processes occurring in the region between the hot plasma and the first wall. Experiments on tokamaks have shown that the phenomena occurring in the wall plasma and in the hot zone of the tokamak once strongly correlated. In and number of regimes the confinement of the hot plasma is determined by the conditions in the peripheral region. A survey of the near-well plasma problem in a tokamak thermonuclear reactor is given. The results of recent investigations are presented, and the status of the problem as applied to the ITER reactor project is described

  7. Shielding wall for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Takaho.

    1989-01-01

    This invention concerns shielding walls opposing to plasmas of a thermonuclear device and it is an object thereof to conduct reactor operation with no troubles even if a portion of shielding wall tiles should be damaged. That is, the shielding wall tiles are constituted as a dual layer structure in which the lower base tiles are connected by means of bolts to first walls. Further, the upper surface tiles are bolt-connected to the layer base tiles. In this structure, the plasma thermal loads are directly received by the surface layer tiles and heat is conducted by means of conduction and radiation to the underlying base tiles and the first walls. Even upon occurrence of destruction accidents to the surface layer tiles caused by incident heat or electromagnetic force upon elimination of plasmas, since the underlying base tiles remain as they are, the first walls constituted with stainless steels, etc. are not directly exposed to the plasmas. Accordingly, the integrity of the first walls having cooling channels can be maintained and sputtering intrusion of atoms of high atom number into the plasmas can be prevented. (I.S.)

  8. Baking method for thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shigetada.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the heat transmission property to the reactor core structures thereby shortening the baking time for the reactor core in thermonuclear reactors. Constitution: High temperature airs are supplied from a baking system to cooling pipeways disposed within reactor core structures and helium gas is supplied from a helium gas supply system through the reactor core structures to the inside of the reactor core for scavenging. The scavenging operation may be combined with vacuum suction. Further, the inside of the reactor is scavenged while maintaining at such a negative pressure as within a range not degrading the heat conduction property. Since the helium gas is chemically inert and poor in the depositing property, it shows no adsorbability even for the material heated to high temperature. Further, since the diffusion and heat conduction properties are high, the heat conduction property to the materials upon baking can be improved to shorten the baking time. No disadvantages are caused by the introduction of the helium gas upon baking. (Kawakami, Y.)

  9. First wall for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Yoji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the thermal stresses resulted to tiles and suppress the temperature rise for mounting jigs in first walls for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A support mounting rod as a tile mounting and fixing jig and a fixing support connected therewith are disposed to the inside of an armour tile composed of high melting material and, further, a spring is disposed between the lower portion of the tile and the base plate. The armour tile can easily be fixed to the base plate by means of the resilient member by rotating the support member and abutting the support member against the support member abutting portion of the base plate. Further, since the contact and fixing surface of the armour tile and the fixing jig is situated below the tile inside the cooled base plate, the temperature rise can be suppressed as compared with the usual case. Since screw or like other clamping portion is not used for fixing the tile, heat resistant ceramics can be used with no restriction only to metal members, to thereby moderate the restriction in view of the temperature. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Controlled thermonuclear fusion: research on magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.J.

    1988-12-01

    Recent progress in thermonuclear fusion research indicates that the scientists' schedule for the demonstration of the scientific feasibility will be kept and that break-even will be attained in the course of the next decade. To see the implementation of ignition, however, the generation of future experiments must be awaited. These projects are currently under study. With technological research going on in parallel, they should at the same time contribute to the design of a reactor. Fusion reactors will be quite different from the fission nuclear reactors we know, and the waste of the plants will also be of a different nature. It is still too early to define the precise design of a fusion reactor. On the basis of a toric machine concept like that of the tokamak, we can, however, envisage that the problems with which we are confronted will be solved one after the other. As we have just seen, these will be the objectives of the future experimental installations where ignition will be possible and where the flux of fast neutrons will be so strong that they will allow the study of low-activation materials which will be used in the structure of the reactor. But this is also a task in which from now onwards numerous laboratories in Europe and in the world participate. The works are in fact punctiform, and often the mutual incidences can only be determined by an approach simulated by numerical codes. (author) 19 figs., 6 tabs., 8 refs

  11. Screened Thermonuclear Reaction Rates on Magnetar Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Lin, Liu; Zhi-Quan, Luo; Jing-Jing, Liu; Xiang-Jun, Lai

    2008-01-01

    Improving Salpeter's method, we discuss the effect of superstrong magnetic fields (such as those of magnetars) on thermonuclear reaction rates. These most interesting reactions, including the hydrogen burning by the CNO cycle and the helium burning by the triple alpha reaction, are investigated as examples on the magnetar surfaces. The obtained result shows that the superstrong magnetic fields can increase the thermonuclear reaction rates by many orders of magnitude. The enhancement may have significant influence for further study research of the magnetars, especially for the x-ray luminosity observation and the evolution of magnetars. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  12. Polarized fuel for controlled thermonuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalucci, Sergio

    2017-07-01

    The use of polarized nuclei as a fuel for thermonuclear fusion reactors was suggested more than 30 years ago, providing evidence for a significant increase of the total cross section. In particular, an enhancement factor close to 1.5 is expected in the energy range below 100 keV for the dominant nuclear fusion reactions 2H + 3H → 4He + n + 17.58 MeV and 2H + 3He → 4He + p + 18.34 MeV. Furthermore, the use of polarized fuel allows one to control the ejectile trajectories, via an enhancement in the forward-backward cross section asymmetry due to polarization. This allows some control on the energy transfer from the plasma to the reactor wall or helps concentrate the neutron flux to defined wall areas. Nevertheless, this idea was received with skepticism by the relevant scientific community, due to some uncertainty in the physics of the process, the low efficiency in the production of polarized beams for injection into plasma and the apparent difficulty of preserving the ion polarization for a time long compared with nuclear burning time. But more recently, as a consequence of significant progress in the field of atomic beam sources and polarized targets, the interest in this matter has been refreshed for both inertially and magnetically confined plasmas. The possibility of implementing nuclear polarization in present and future fusion reactors is discussed in this paper. In particular, the interaction between polarized ions and magnetic fields, both static and RF, which are typically used in a Tokamak for plasma heating via ion cyclotron resonance (ICRH), is considered. Also, experimental issues for practically performing a feasibility test on a real fusion reactors are illustrated.

  13. Application to components for thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppola, R.

    1996-01-01

    Results on the stress characterization in various types of weldings, obtained by the neutron diffraction method, are presented; various analysis have been performed on steel welded or brazed joints with the view of application to the first wall and divertor of future thermonuclear fusion reactors such as NET/ITER

  14. Thermonuclear plasma physic: inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Ch.; Juraszek, D.

    2001-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an approach to thermonuclear fusion in which the fuel contained in a spherical capsule is strongly compressed and heated to achieve ignition and burn. The released thermonuclear energy can be much higher than the driver energy, making energetic applications attractive. Many complex physical phenomena are involved by the compression process, but it is possible to use simple analytical models to analyze the main critical points. We first determine the conditions to obtain fuel ignition. High thermonuclear gains are achieved if only a small fraction of the fuel called hot spot is used to trigger burn in the main fuel compressed on a low isentrope. A simple hot spot model will be described. The high pressure needed to drive the capsule compression are obtained by the ablation process. A simple Rocket model describe the main features of the implosion phase. Several parameters have to be controlled during the compression: irradiation symmetry, hydrodynamical stability and when the driver is a laser, the problems arising from interaction of the EM wave with the plasma. Two different schemes are examined: Indirect Drive which uses X-ray generated in a cavity to drive the implosion and the Fast Ignitor concept using a ultra intense laser beam to create the hot spot. At the end we present the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) project. LMJ is scaled to a thermonuclear gain of the order of ten. (authors)

  15. Analysis of induction phenomena in thermonuclear experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeds, W.E.; Dodd, C.V.

    1976-01-01

    Many of the problems involving transients induced by changing currents in the large coils of thermonuclear machines are identical to those arising in nondestructive testing by eddy currents. There are three chief methods used for calculating such induction phenomena: analytical boundary-value solutions, relaxation or iteration techniques, and model experiments. Some of the results obtained by each of these methods are described below

  16. First fusion neutrons from a thermonuclear weapon device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    An account of the first observation of thermonuclear neutrons from a hydrogen weapon, the George shot, is presented. A personal narrative by the researchers J. Allred and L. Rosen includes such topics as the formation of the experimental team, description of the experimental technique, testing the experimental apparatus, testing the effects of a blast, a description of the test area, and the observation of neutrons from fusion. Excerpts are presented from several chapters of the Scientific Director's report on the atomic weapons tests of 1951. Also included is a brief description of the basic design of the hydrogen bomb, a recounting of subsequent developments, and short scientific biographies of the researchers. 21 figures, 2 tables

  17. Rates of Thermonuclear Reactions in Dense Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.; Bornatici, M.

    2000-01-01

    The problem of plasma screening of thermonuclear reactions has attracted considerable scientific interest ever since Salpeter's seminal paper, but it is still faced with controversial statements and without any definite conclusion. It is of relevant importance to thermonuclear reactions in dense astrophysical plasmas, for which charge screening can substantially affect the reaction rates. Whereas Salpeter and a number of subsequent investigations have dealt with static screening, Carraro, Schafer, and Koonin have drawn attention to the fact that plasma screening of thermonuclear reactions is an essentially dynamic effect. In addressing the issue of collective plasma effects on the thermonuclear reaction rates, the first critical overview of most of the work carried out so far is presented and the validity of the test particle approach is assessed. In contrast to previous investigations, we base our description on the kinetic equation for nonequilibrium plasmas, which accounts for the effects on the rates of thermonuclear reactions of both plasma fluctuations and screening and allows one to analyze explicitly the effects of the fluctuations on the reaction rates. Such a kinetic formulation is more general than both Salpeter's approach and the recently developed statistical approaches and makes it possible to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the problem. A noticeable result of the fluctuation approach is that the static screening, which affects both the interaction and the self-energy of the reacting nuclei, does not affect the reaction rates, in contrast with the results obtained so far. Instead, a reduction of the thermonuclear reaction rates is obtained as a result of the effect of plasma fluctuations related to the free self-energy of the reacting nuclei. A simple physical explanation of the slowing down of the reaction rates is given, and the relation to the dynamically screened test particle approach is discussed. Corrections to the reaction rates

  18. Deuterides of light elements: low-temperature thermonuclear burn-up and applications to thermonuclear fusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, A.M.; Smith, V.H.; Smith, G.T.

    2002-01-01

    Thermonuclear burn-up and thermonuclear applications are discussed for a number of deuterides and DT hydrides of light elements. These deuterides and corresponding DT hydrides are often used as thermonuclear fuels or components of such fuels. In fact, only for these substances thermonuclear energy gain exceeds (at some densities and temperatures) the bremsstrahlung loss and other high-temperature losses, i.e., thermonuclear burn-up is possible. Herein, thermonuclear burn-up in these deuterides and DT hydrides is considered in detail. In particular, a simple method is proposed to determine the critical values of the burn-up parameter x c for these substances and their mixtures at different temperatures and densities. The results for equimolar DT mixtures coincide quite well with the results of previous calculations. Also, the natural or Z limit is determined for low-temperature thermonuclear burn-up in the deuterides of light elements. (author)

  19. Statistical methods for thermonuclear reaction rates and nucleosynthesis simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadis, Christian; Champagne, Art E; Longland, Richard; Coc, Alain; Timmes, F X

    2015-01-01

    Rigorous statistical methods for estimating thermonuclear reaction rates and nucleosynthesis are becoming increasingly established in nuclear astrophysics. The main challenge being faced is that experimental reaction rates are highly complex quantities derived from a multitude of different measured nuclear parameters (e.g., astrophysical S-factors, resonance energies and strengths, particle and γ-ray partial widths). We discuss the application of the Monte Carlo method to two distinct, but related, questions. First, given a set of measured nuclear parameters, how can one best estimate the resulting thermonuclear reaction rates and associated uncertainties? Second, given a set of appropriate reaction rates, how can one best estimate the abundances from nucleosynthesis (i.e., reaction network) calculations? The techniques described here provide probability density functions that can be used to derive statistically meaningful reaction rates and final abundances for any desired coverage probability. Examples are given for applications to s-process neutron sources, core-collapse supernovae, classical novae, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis. (paper)

  20. Atomic and molecular physics of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joachain, C.J.; Post, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    This book attempts to provide a comprehensive introduction to the atomic and molecular physics of controlled thermonuclear fusion, and also a self-contained source from which to start a systematic study of the field. Presents an overview of fusion energy research, general principles of magnetic confinement, and general principles of inertial confinement. Discusses the calculation and measurement of atomic and molecular processes relevant to fusion, and the atomic and molecular physics of controlled thermonuclear research devices. Topics include recent progress in theoretical methods for atomic collisions; current theoretical techniques for electron-atom and electronion scattering; experimental aspects of electron impact ionization and excitation of positive ions; the theory of charge exchange and ionization by heavy particles; experiments on electron capture and ionization by multiply charged ions; Rydberg states; atomic and molecular processes in high temperature, low-density magnetically confined plasmas; atomic processes in high-density plasmas; the plasma boundary region and the role of atomic and molecular processes; neutral particle beam production and injection; spectroscopic plasma diagnostics; and particle diagnostics for magnetic fusion experiments

  1. Thermonuclear microdetonation macron accelerator for impact ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, F.

    2008-03-01

    It is proposed to replace the expensive ~150 kJ petawatt laser as a means for the fast ignition of a highly compressed dense DT target by a small flyer plate propelled to high velocities by a thermonuclear microdetonation ignited at one end of a super-pinch. It appears that this can most efficiently be done with the previously proposed modification of the dense plasma focus device, adding a high voltage relativistic electron beam emitting diode inside the coaxial plasma focus discharge tube, igniting at the end of the plasma focus pinch column a thermonuclear detonation wave, propagating in the axial direction and accelerating at the end of the pinch a flyer plate to a velocity of 103 km s-1.

  2. A Game Theoretic Model of Thermonuclear Cyberwar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soper, Braden C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-23

    In this paper we propose a formal game theoretic model of thermonuclear cyberwar based on ideas found in [1] and [2]. Our intention is that such a game will act as a first step toward building more complete formal models of Cross-Domain Deterrence (CDD). We believe the proposed thermonuclear cyberwar game is an ideal place to start on such an endeavor because the game can be fashioned in a way that is closely related to the classical models of nuclear deterrence [4–6], but with obvious modifications that will help to elucidate the complexities introduced by a second domain. We start with the classical bimatrix nuclear deterrence game based on the game of chicken, but introduce uncertainty via a left-of-launch cyber capability that one or both players may possess.

  3. Classical Novae. The thermonuclear runaway model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truran, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The identification of classical nova explosions with thermonuclear runaway events is examined. It is shown that the detailed characteristics of the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycle hydrogen-burning reactions serve to impose severe restrictions on the energetics of the critical stages of these runaways and thereby afford a physical basis for distinguishing 'fast' and 'slow' novae. Subsequent to runaway, hydrogen burning by means of these same CNO cycles dictates the evolution of nova systems through outburst. (U.K.)

  4. Controlled thermonuclear fusion: the great illusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertaud, A.

    1985-01-01

    Is controlled thermonuclear fusion one day destined to become a source of power generation on an industrial scale. The author's answer to this basic question is an emphatic no. In an analysis of the difficulties, particularly those of a technological nature, which application and control of electricity generating based on fusion (deuterium-tritium) involve, the author is of the opinion that this source of energy is scarcely likely to provide commercial outlets [fr

  5. High gamma-rays irradiation tests of critical components for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) in-vessel remote handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Oka, Kiyoshi [Department of Fusion Engineering Research, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    1999-02-01

    In ITER, the in-vessel remote handling is inevitably required to assemble and maintain the activated in-vessel components due to deuterium and tritium operation. Since the in-vessel remote handling system has to be operated under the intense of gamma ray irradiation, the components of the remote handling system are required to have radiation hardness so as to allow maintenance operation for a sufficient length of time under the ITER in-vessel environments. For this, the Japan, European and Russian Home Teams have extensively conducted gamma ray irradiation tests and quality improvements including optimization of material composition through ITER R and D program in order to develop radiation hard components which satisfy the doses from 10 MGy to 100 MGy at a dose rate of 1 x 10{sup 6} R/h (ITER R and D Task: T252). This report describes the latest status of radiation hard component development which has been conducted by the Japan Home Team in the ITER R and D program. The number of remote handling components tested is about seventy and these are categorized into robotics (Subtask 1), viewing system (Subtask 2) and common components (Subtask 3). The irradiation tests, including commercial base products for screening, modified products and newly developed products to improve the radiation hardness, were carried out using the gamma ray irradiation cells in Takasaki Establishment, JAERI. As a result, the development of the radiation hard components which can be tolerable for high temperature and gamma radiation has been well progressed, and many components, such as AC servo motor with ceramics insulated wire, optical periscope and CCD camera, have been newly developed. (author)

  6. Minimum quench power dissipation and current non-uniformity in international thermonuclear experimental reactor type NbTi cable-in-conduit conductor samples under direct current conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolando, G.; van Lanen, E.P.A.; Nijhuis, Arend

    2012-01-01

    The level of current non-uniformity in NbTi cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) sections near the joints in combination with the magnetic field profile needs attention in view of proper joint design. The strand joule power and current distribution at quench under DC conditions of two samples of ITER

  7. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion - Synthesis report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werthmueller, A.

    2009-06-01

    Switzerland is associated to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project carried out in the framework of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The current stage includes on-site civil engineering works. The Variable Configuration Tokamak (TCV) of the 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL will remain an important recognized research facility until the start of the ITER operation foreseen in 2018. At the European level, the whole fusion research is coordinated and partly financed by the Joint Undertaking Fusion for Energy (JU F4E). The large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus allow the creation and control of plasmas of various shapes, what is a very useful option to verify the results of numerical simulations. Besides, the hyper-frequency power density injected into the plasma is the highest ever recorded in the world. Research topics studied with the TCV include the stationary regimes in the tokamaks; a plasma current of more than 70 kA could be maintained, what represents an improvement by a factor of 3 to 4 of the confinement quality. For the first time in the world a configuration of the 'snowflake' type could be created and the power density on the wall of the vacuum chamber could be reduced accordingly. Numerical models allowed the analysis of turbulence and heat transport, of the magneto-hydrodynamic stability of the tokamaks and stellarators as well as the optimization of the magnetic confinement. Results concerning the so-called 'saw teeth' instability were experimentally confirmed on the Joint European Torus (JET). Theoretical researches were carried out on the fluctuations, turbulence and transport phenomena in the magnetized toric plasmas. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) the effect of the fast neutrons emitted by the fusion reactions on the walls of the fusion reactors was investigated. Irradiation simulations were carried out by means of the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source

  8. Experimental verification of internal dosimetry calculations. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    During the past year a dosimetry research program has been established in the School of Nuclear Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The major objective of this program has been to provide research results upon which a useful internal dosimetry system could be based. The important application of this dosimetry system will be the experimental verification of internal dosimetry calculations such as those published by the MIRD Committee

  9. Project of law, adopted by the Senate, giving permission to the approval of the agreement between the French government and the international organization for thermonuclear fusion energy ITER, relative to the head office of ITER organization and to the privileges and immunities of ITER organization in the French territory; Projet de loi adopte par le Senat, autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique francaise et l'Organisation internationale ITER pour l'energie de fusion relatif au siege de l'Organisation ITER et aux privileges et immunites de l'Organisation ITER sur le territoire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The will of building up an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) gathers since several years the European community of atomic energy (Euratom), Japan, the USA, and Russia, next followed by China, South Korea and, since 2005, by India. The agreement signed in Paris between these seven parties on November 21, 2006 entrusted the international organization ITER with the realization of this project. The implications of the ITER project are enormous both in their scientific and in their economical aspects. France has a particular position in this project since the head office of ITER organisation is sited at Saint-Paul-lez-Durance and the tokamak will be built at Cadarache. Therefore, an agreement has been signed between ITER organization and the French government. The approval of this agreement is the object of this project of law made of a single article. The agreement between the French government and the international organization ITER is attached to the document. It defines the juridical status, the privileges and immunities of the organization itself and of its personnel inside the French territory. An appendix to the agreement precises the cooperation modalities between the French authorities and ITER organization. (J.S.)

  10. Experimental observation of internal water curing of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2007-01-01

    Internal water curing has a significant effect on concrete. In addition to affecting hydration and moisture distribution, it influences most concrete properties, such as strength, shrinkage, cracking, and durability. The following paper is an overview of experimental methods to study internal water...... curing of concrete and its consequences. The special techniques needed to study internal water curing are dealt with along with the consequences of this process. Examples of applications are given and new measuring techniques that may potentially be applied to this field are addressed....

  11. Transition to thermonuclear burn in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Hamnen, H.; Lisak, M.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical investigation is made of the time evolution of the 1-D temperature profile in a fusion reactor plasma where the nonlinear energy balance equation is dominated by alpha particle heating and thermal conduction losses. Special emphasis is given to the problem of establishing sufficient conditions for the transition to thermonuclear burn for given initial temperature profiles. In particular, it is demonstrated that for strongly nonlinear alpha particle heating, temperature profiles initially peaked on axis, are more easily ignited than profiles similar in form to the equilibrium profile of the energy balance equation. Simple analytical criteria for ignition are established and are shown to compare favourably with results of numerical calculations. (authors)

  12. Repairing method and device for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Akiko; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for repairing a first wall and a divertor disposed in a vacuum vessel of a thermonuclear device. Namely, an armour tile of the divertor secured, by a brazing material, in a vacuum vessel of the thermonuclear device in which high temperature plasmas of deuterium and tritium are confined to cause fusion reaction is induction-heated or heated by microwaves to melt the brazing material. Only the armour tile is thus exchanged by its attachment/detachment. This device comprises, in the vacuum vessel, an armour tile attaching/detaching manipulator and a repairing manipulator comprising a heating manipulator having induction heating coils at the top end thereof. Induction heating coils are connected to an AC power source. According to the present invention, the armour tile is exchanged without taking the divertor out of the vacuum vessel. Therefore, cutting of a divertor cooling tube for taking the divertor out of the vacuum vessel and re-welding of the divertor for attaching it to the vacuum vessel again are no more necessary. (I.S.)

  13. Transition to thermonuclear burn in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Hamnen, H.; Lisak, M.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical investigation is made of the time evolution of the 1-D temperature profile in a fusion reactor plasma where the nonlinear energy balance equation is dominated by alpha-particle heating and thermal conduction losses. Special emphasis is given to the problem of establishing sufficient conditions for the transition to thermonuclear burn for given initial temperature profiles. In particular, it is demonstrated that for strongly nonlinear alpha-particle heating, temperature profiles initially peaked on-axis are more easily ignited than profiles similar in form to the equilibrium profile of the energy balance equation. Simple analytical criteria for ignition are established and are shown to compare favourably with results of numerical calculations. (author)

  14. Transition to thermonuclear burn in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Hamnen, H.; Lisak, M.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical investigation is made of the time evolution of the 1-D temperature profile in a fusion reactor plasma where the nonlinear energy balance equation is dominated by alpha particle heating and thermal conduction losses. Special emphasis is given to the problem of establishing sufficient conditions for the transition to thermonuclear burn for given initial temperature profiles. In particular, it is demonstrated that for strongly nonlinear alpha particle heating, temperature profiles initially peaked on axis, are more easily ignited than profiles similar in form to the equilibrium profile of the energy balance equation. Simple analytical criteria for ignition are established and are shown to compare favourably with results of numerical calculations. (author). Figs

  15. Rail gun of thermonuclear pellet injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Ryuichi; Kuribayashi, Shizuma; Oda, Yasutsugu.

    1993-01-01

    A rail gun of a thermonuclear pellet injection device using Lorentz force comprises rails constituted with materials of high melting point/low work function and a gas supply system for supplying low ionization/voltage gases into the rails to convert the gases into plasma armature. The low ionization voltage gases are converted into the plasma armature to decrease the resistance of the plasmas and suppress temperature elevation as Joule's heat and lower plasma temperature. Further, on the surface of the rails on the side of the cathode, since the rails are damaged by collision of positive ions due to voltage lowering, the rails on the side of the cathode are constituted with materials of low work function, as the countermeasure therefore, which facilitates emission of heat electrons from the surface of the cathode. With such procedures, thermal damages to the rail can be reduced. (N.H.)

  16. Magnetic Reconnection Driven by Thermonuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, R.; Coppi, B.

    2017-10-01

    Considering that fusion reaction products (e.g. α-particles) deposit their energy on the electrons, the relevant thermal energy balance equation is characterized by a fusion source term, a relatively large longitudinal thermal conductivity and an appropriate transverse thermal conductivity. Then, looking for modes that are radially localized around rational surfaces, reconnected field configurations are found that can be sustained by the electron thermal energy source due to fusion reactions. Then this process can be included in the category of endogenous reconnection processes and may be viewed as a form of the thermonuclear instability that can develop in an ignited inhomogeneous plasma. A complete analysis of the equations supporting the relevant theory is reported. Sponsored in part by the U.S. DoE.

  17. Thermonuclear reactor materials composed of glassy carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazumata, Yukio.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the durability to plasma radiation by the use of glassy carbon as the structural materials for the first wall and the blanket in thermonuclear devices. Constitution: The glassy carbon (glass-like carbon) is obtained by forming specific organic substances into a predetermined configuration and carbonizing them by heat decomposition under special conditions. They are impermeable carbon material of 1.40 - 1.70 specific gravity, less graphitizable and being almost in isotropic crystal forms in which isotropic structure such as in graphite is scarcely observed. They have an extremely high hardness, are less likely to be damaged when exposed to radiation and have great strength and corrosion resistance. Accordingly, the service life of the reactor walls and the likes can remarkably be increased by using the materials. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Vacuum problems of thermonuclear reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paty, L.

    1981-01-01

    A thermonuclear reactor can be considered to be a vacuum system in which constant concentration should be maintained of reacting particles while permanently discharging the undesirable particles using a system of pumps. The discharging proceeds in two stages: in the former, the reactor is degassed using external pumps connected to the reactor chamber through a pumping pipe. The latter in which hydrogen is admitted, uses high pump-rate machines based on the principle of the binding of the gas to the pump surface and must not introduce molecules of higher atomic mass in the system. Turbomolecular pumps of diffusion oil pumps are most suitable for the former stage while condensation, cryosorption, titanium pumping machines and special pumping methods are most suitable for the latter stage. Examples are shown of the pump system design for Tokamak 10 and for facilities at the Euratom laboratory in Fontenay-aux-Roses. (M.D.)

  19. Research on the enhancement of the thermonuclear component of the neutron yield in pinch plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, L.; Silva, P.; Moreno, J.; Zambra, M.; Sylvester, G.; Pavez, C.; Castillo, F.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility to enhance the thermonuclear component against the beam target component of the neutron yield in plasma focus devices is being studied. At present, the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) has the experimental facilities and diagnostics in order to study plasma focus discharges in a wide range of energies (50J to 100kJ) and currents (40kA to MA). The devices at CCHEN are PF-50J, PF-400J, SPEED4 and SPEED2. As a part of our research program the possibility to study how to enhance the drive parameter (related with the plasma sheath velocity) and the plasma energy density and their role in the thermonuclear component of the neutron yield has been recently included. There are theoretical conjectures suggesting that increasing the drive parameter, it could be possible to increase the thermonuclear component of the neutron yield and to decrease the beam target component. Preliminary results of this research program are presented. (author)

  20. Thermonuclear model for γ-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of magnetized neutron stars with field strengths of approx. 10 12 gauss that are accreting mass onto kilometer-sized polar regions at a rate of approx. 13 M 0 yr -1 is examined. Based on the results of one-dimensional calculations, one finds that stable hydrogen burning, mediated by the hot CNO-cycle, will lead to a critical helium mass in the range 10 20 to 10 22 g km -2 . Owing to the extreme degeneracy of the electron gas providing pressure support, helium burning occurs as a violent thermonuclear runaway which may propagate either as a convective deflagration (Type I burst) or as a detonation wave (Type II burst). Complete combustion of helium into 56 Ni releases from 10 38 to 10 40 erg km -2 and pushes hot plasma with β > 1 above the surface of the neutron star. Rapid expansion of the plasma channels a substantial fraction of the explosion energy into magnetic field stress. Spectral properties are expected to be complex with emission from both thermal and non-thermal processes. The hard γ-outburst of several seconds softens as the event proceeds and is followed by a period, typically of several minutes duration, of softer x-ray emission as the subsurface ashes of the thermonuclear explosion cool. In this model, most γ-ray bursts currently being observed are located at a distance of several hundred parsecs and should recur on a timescale of months to centuries with convective deflagrations (Type I bursts) being the more common variety. An explanation for Jacobson-like transients is also offered

  1. Simplest AB-Thermonuclear Space Propulsion and Electric Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The author applies, develops and researches mini-sized Micro- AB Thermonuclear Reactors for space propulsion and space power systems. These small engines directly convert the high speed charged particles produced in the thermonuclear reactor into vehicle thrust or vehicle electricity with maximum efficiency. The simplest AB-thermonuclear propulsion offered allows spaceships to reach speeds of 20,000 50,000 km/s (1/6 of light speed) for fuel ratio 0.1 and produces a huge amount of useful elect...

  2. Brazilian programme for plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, A.C.L.; Reusch, M.F.; Nascimento, I.C.; Pantuso-Sudano, J.

    1992-01-01

    A proposal for a National Programme of Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion in Brazil is presented, aimimg the dissemination of the researchers thought in plasma physics for the national authorities and the scientific community. (E.O.)

  3. Vacuum pumping for controlled thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.S.; Fisher, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    Thermonuclear reactors impose unique vacuum pumping problems involving very high pumping speeds, handling of hazardous materials (tritium), extreme cleanliness requirements, and quantitative recovery of pumped materials. Two principal pumping systems are required for a fusion reactor, a main vacuum system for evacuating the torus and a vacuum system for removing unaccelerated deuterium from neutral beam injectors. The first system must pump hydrogen isotopes and helium while the neutral beam system can operate by pumping only hydrogen isotopes (perhaps only deuterium). The most promising pumping techniques for both systems appear to be cryopumps, but different cryopumping techniques can be considered for each system. The main vacuum system will have to include cryosorption pumps cooled to 4.2 0 K to pump helium, but the unburned deuterium-tritium and other impurities could be pumped with cryocondensation panels (4.2 0 K) or cryosorption panels at higher temperatures. Since pumping speeds will be limited by conductance through the ducts and thermal shields, the pumping performance for both systems will be similar, and other factors such as refrigeration costs are likely to determine the choice. The vacuum pumping system for neutral beam injectors probably will not need to pump helium, and either condensation or higher temperature sorption pumps can be used

  4. BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF THERMONUCLEAR REACTION RATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliadis, C.; Anderson, K. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Coc, A. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris–Saclay, Bâtiment 104, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France); Timmes, F. X.; Starrfield, S., E-mail: iliadis@unc.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The problem of estimating non-resonant astrophysical S -factors and thermonuclear reaction rates, based on measured nuclear cross sections, is of major interest for nuclear energy generation, neutrino physics, and element synthesis. Many different methods have been applied to this problem in the past, almost all of them based on traditional statistics. Bayesian methods, on the other hand, are now in widespread use in the physical sciences. In astronomy, for example, Bayesian statistics is applied to the observation of extrasolar planets, gravitational waves, and Type Ia supernovae. However, nuclear physics, in particular, has been slow to adopt Bayesian methods. We present astrophysical S -factors and reaction rates based on Bayesian statistics. We develop a framework that incorporates robust parameter estimation, systematic effects, and non-Gaussian uncertainties in a consistent manner. The method is applied to the reactions d(p, γ ){sup 3}He, {sup 3}He({sup 3}He,2p){sup 4}He, and {sup 3}He( α , γ ){sup 7}Be, important for deuterium burning, solar neutrinos, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

  5. Operating large controlled thermonuclear fusion research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Tarrh, J.M.; Post, R.S.; Thomas, P.

    1987-01-01

    The MIT Tara Tandem Mirror is a large, state of the art controlled thermonuclear fusion research facility. Over the six years of its design, implementation, and operation, every effort was made to minimize cost and maximize performance by using the best and latest hardware, software, and scientific and operational techniques. After reviewing all major DOE fusion facilities, an independent DOE review committee concluded that the Tara operation was the most automated and efficient of all DOE facilities. This paper includes a review of the key elements of the Tara design, construction, operation, management, physics milestones, and funding that led to this success. The authors emphasize a chronological description of how the system evolved from the proposal stage to a mature device with an emphasis on the basic philosophies behind the implementation process. This description can serve both as a qualitative and quantitative database for future large experiment planning. It includes actual final costs and manpower spent as well as actual run and maintenance schedules, number of data shots, major system failures, etc. The paper concludes with recommendations for the next generation of facilities

  6. Helical type thermonuclear device and control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    In a conventional helical type thermonuclear device, electric current flows in the toroidal direction under magnetic fields of helical coils and vertical magnetic coils, by which a circulating electric field is caused. Therefore, there is a problem that electrons as a seed are generated by cosmic rays, etc., the electrons are confined in a magnetic field boundary, are accelerated by the circulating electric field, to reach a high energy level, collide against structures in a vacuum vessel and emit a great amount of X-rays. Then, compensation coils for offsetting the magnetic fields generated upon energization and deenergization of the vertical magnetic coils and the power source therefor are disposed at the positions opposing to each other on both sides of the vertical magnetic coils for controlling the variation coefficient rate of electric current upon energization and deenergization of the vertical magnetic coils. Since the compensation coils also offset the magnetic field generated upon energization and deenergization of the vertical magnetic field coils by this control, the circulating magnetic field is not caused in the vacuum vessel to reduce the X-ray radiation by electrons at high energy level. (N.H.)

  7. High heat flux device of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides an equipments for high heat flux device (divertor) of a thermonuclear device, which absorbs thermal deformation during operation, has a high installation accuracy, and sufficiently withstands for thermal stresses. Namely, a heat sink member is joined to a structural base. Armour tiles are joined on the heat sink member. Cooling pipes are disposed between the heat sink member and the armour tiles. With such a constitution, the heat sink member using a highly heat conductive material having ductility, such as oxygen free copper, the cooling pipes using a material having excellent high temperature resistance and excellent elongation, such as aluminum-dispersed reinforced copper, and the armour tiles are completely joined on the structural base. Therefore, when thermal deformation tends to cause in the high heat flux device such as a divertor, cooling pipes cause no plastic deformation because of their high temperature resistance, but the heat sink member such as a oxygen free copper causes plastic deformation to absorb thermal deformation. As a result, the high heat flux device such as a divertor causes no deformation. (I.S.)

  8. Operating large controlled thermonuclear fusion research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Tarrh, J.M.; Post, R.S.; Thomas, P.

    1987-10-01

    The MIT Tara Tandem Mirror is a large, state of the art controlled thermonuclear fusion research facility. Over the six years of its design, implementation, and operation, every effort was made to minimize cost and maximize performance by using the best and latest hardware, software, and scientific and operational techniques. After reviewing all major DOE fusion facilities, an independent DOE review committee concluded that the Tara operation was the most automated and efficient of all DOE facilities. This paper includes a review of the key elements of the Tara design, construction, operation, management, physics milestones, and funding that led to this success. We emphasize a chronological description of how the system evolved from the proposal stage to a mature device with an emphasis on the basic philosophies behind the implementation process. This description can serve both as a qualitative and quantitative database for future large experiment planning. It includes actual final costs and manpower spent as well as actual run and maintenance schedules, number of data shots, major system failures, etc. The paper concludes with recommendations for the next generation of facilities. 13 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Synthetic report 2012. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaucher, C.; Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L.; Marot, L.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1961, Switzerland participates in the research on thermonuclear fusion thanks to the creation of the Research Centre in Plasma Physics. In 1979 it entered into partnership with the European programme on fusion through its adhesion to EURATOM. The thermonuclear fusion is an interesting energy source because the basic fuel is practically inexhaustible and its use does not release any significant CO 2 quantity and very little radioactive residues. But its working up faces enormous physical and technological difficulties. The International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER), presently in construction, has to demonstrate the technological feasibility of the controlled fusion. Il will be followed by DEMO, foreseen for 2040-2050, which must guarantee the economical rentability. At CRPP the research projects are partitioned onto several sites: at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, they concern the physics of the magnetic confinement with the Variable Geometry Tokamak (TCV), the development of theoretical models and the numerical simulation, the plasma heating and the generation of hyper frequency waves; the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) studies the superconductivity and the materials; the interactions between the plasma and the Tokamak walls are studied at the Basel University for the structures of ITER. Thanks to its large flexibility, TCV allows the creation and the control of plasmas of very different forms. The injection system of millimetric waves allows orienting the injected power according to specific profiles. By using the asymmetry of the flow in the toroidal sense, the plasma rotation could be measured with a much better accuracy than before. In TCV, by playing on the form of the plasma, it was possible to strongly reduce the energy quantity which is expelled by the Edge Localized Modes (ELM) onto the wall of the vacuum chamber. The ‘snowflake’ configuration created in TCV allows distributing the ELM energy onto several impact

  10. Direct experimental determination of the atomic structure at internal interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, N.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Pennycook, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    A crucial first step in understanding the effect that internal interfaces have on the properties of materials is the ability to determine the atomic structure at the interface. As interfaces can contain atomic disorder, dislocations, segregated impurities and interphases, sensitivity to all of these features is essential for complete experimental characterization. By combining Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), the ability to probe the structure, bonding and composition at interfaces with the necessary atomic resolution has been obtained. Experimental conditions can be controlled to provide, simultaneously, both incoherent imaging and spectroscopy. This enables interface structures observed in the image to be interpreted intuitively and the bonding in a specified atomic column to be probed directly by EELS. The bonding and structure information can then be correlated using bond-valence sum analysis to produce structural models. This technique is demonstrated for 25{degrees}, 36{degrees} and 67{degrees} symmetric and 45{degrees} and 25{degrees} asymmetric [001] tilt grain boundaries in SrTiO{sub 3} The structures of both types of boundary were found to contain partially occupied columns in the boundary plane. From these experimental results, a series of structural units were identified which could be combined, using continuity of gain boundary structure principles, to construct all [001] tilt boundaries in SrTiO{sub 3}. Using these models, the ability of this technique to address the issues of vacancies and dopant segregation at grain boundaries in electroceramics is discussed.

  11. Impact-driven shock waves and thermonuclear neutron generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gus' kov, S Yu; Demchenko, N N; Doskoch, I Ya; Rozanov, V B [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Azechi, H; Murakami, M; Sakaiya, T; Watari, T [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Zmitrenko, N V, E-mail: guskov@sci.lebedev.r [Institute for Mathematical Modeling of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-09-15

    Impact-driven shock waves, thermonuclear plasma and neutron yield were investigated. The results of 2D numerical simulations and Gekko/HIPER laser experiments on the collision of a laser-accelerated disk-projectile with a massive target, both containing (CD){sub n}-material, are discussed. A two-temperature model of the non-equilibrium plasma created by impact-driven shock waves due to the collision of a laser-accelerated planar projectile with a massive target was developed and used for analysis of the numerical and experimental results. The model defines the characteristics of shock waves and plasmas (including their lifetime) as well as neutron yields in both the colliding objects as functions of velocity, density and mass of the projectile-impactor just before collision. The neutron yield generated during the period of laser-driven acceleration of the impactor was also determined. Two effects were discovered that exert a substantial influence on the plasma parameters and neutron yield. The first of them relates to the formation of the pre-impact state of the impactor. It decreases the projectile density due to thermal expansion of its matter through a free boundary during the period of laser-driven acceleration. The other relates to the formation of impact-produced plasma. Predominant heating of the ion component of plasma leads to the existence of a non-equilibrium two-temperature plasma during the period of electron-ion relaxation.

  12. Cryogenic instrumentation needs in the controlled thermonuclear research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    The magnet development effort for the controlled thermonuclear research program will require extensive testing of superconducting coils at various sizes from small-scale models to full-size prototypes. Extensive use of diagnostic instrumentation will be required and to make detailed comparisons of predicted and actual performance in magnet tests and to monitor the test facility for incipient failure modes. At later stages of the program, cryogenic instrumentation will be required to monitor magnet system performance in fusion power reactors. Measured quantities may include temperature, strain, deflection, coil resistance, helium coolant pressure and flow, current, voltages, etc. The test environment, which includes high magnetic fields (up to 8-10 T) and low temperature, makes many commercial measuring devices inoperative or at least inaccurate. In order to ensure reliable measurements, careful screening of commercial devices for performance in the test environment will be required. A survey of potentially applicable instrumentation is presented along with available information on operation in the test environment based on experimental data or on analysis of the physical characteristics of the device. Areas where further development work is needed are delineated.

  13. Annual report of the Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research, JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Works performed in the Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research for the period of April 1974 to March 1975 are described. (1) In JFT-2, power-up work of the generator to increase the toroidal magnetic field from 10 kG to 18 kG was completed in October 1974, and the JFT-2 phase-II experiment started. (2) A JFT-2a tokamak of a tear-drop cross-section with axisymmetric divertor was put into operation in August 1974, as scheduled. Initial experiments confirmed that the plasma enclosed inside a separatrix magnetic surface was stably produced. (3) In the diagnostics, a data processing system and a multi-channel particle analyzer were fabricated and put into operation. (4) A test stand (ITS-1) for the development of neutral beam injectors was assembled, and the preliminary experiment on an ion source started in February 1975. (5) In design study of a large tokamak device JT-60, the preliminary design was completed under contract with the industry. Physical studies on the plasma confinement in JT-60 and refinement and improvement of the design continued. (6) Theoretical and computational works continued in neutral injection heating, impurity transport, relaxation of radial electric field and mhd stability. (7) The design of a 2000 MW fusion power reactor which started in the previous year was further improved. The concept and design criteria of an experimental power reactor were studied. (auth.)

  14. 1st International Conference on Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, RM

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the full papers presented at ICCEBS 2013 – the 1st International Conference on Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, which was organized in Azores, in October 2013. The included papers present and discuss new trends in those fields, using several methods and techniques, including active shape models, constitutive models, isogeometric elements, genetic algorithms, level sets, material models, neural networks, optimization, and the finite element method, in order to address more efficiently different and timely applications involving biofluids, computer simulation, computational biomechanics, image based diagnosis, image processing and analysis, image segmentation, image registration, scaffolds, simulation, and surgical planning. The main audience for this book consists of researchers, Ph.D students, and graduate students with multidisciplinary interests related to the areas of artificial intelligence, bioengineering, biology, biomechanics, computational fluid dynamics, comput...

  15. Tokamak nonmaxwellian plasma dynamics in thermonuclear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotsaftis, M.

    1987-01-01

    To reach ignition in a Tokamak plasma, large additional power P aux has to be injected in the device on top of the Joule heating P OH =VI r , V the plasma loop voltage, I r the resistive port of plasma current. Typi-cally JH ∼ 1 KeV, whereas ignition would requi- re IG ∼ 7-10 KeV. To gain this factor 7, one at least should inject additional power P aux ∼ 7P OH , supposing that nothing, especially the heat transport, is modified. This is by far not the case, with the so-called energy lifetime degradation, largely observed in oil experiments (but less dramatic with divertors), where energy lifetime tau E behaves like P tot -b with b∼1/2. In large machines where ignition temperature is the target to be imperiously reached, this implies to inject a very large power, typically P aux ∼ 50 to 100 MW, depending on size and parameters and on actual transport. So it is of importance with such figures, or even larger ones owing to uncertain ties, to optimize at best injected power by increasing its efficiency, both with respect to possible transport laws, and to physical phenomena governing heat flow in the system from the sources. This leads to the concept of scenarios, as time sequences of power input, where physical properties of the plasma system are used to build up ion temperature so that ignition is reached with minimum P tot = P OH + P aux and with fixed Q = Q o > 1. Elements for this study are given. The method is outlined. The resulting system of equations describing the evolution of a thermonuclear plasma is given

  16. Experimental results with hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, P. C. T.; Mclean, W. J.; Homan, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    The paper focuses on the most important experimental findings for hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines, with particular reference to the application of these findings to the assessment of the potential of hydrogen engines. Emphasis is on the various tradeoffs that can be made, such as between maximum efficiency, maximum power, and minimum NO emissions. The various possibilities for induction and ignition are described. Some projections are made about areas in which hydrogen engines may find their initial application and about optimum ways to design such engines. It is shown that hydrogen-fueled reciprocal internal combustion engines offer important advantages with respect to thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions. Problems arising from preignition can suitably be avoided by restricting the fuel-air equivalence ratio to values below about 0.5. The direct cylinder injection appears to be a very attractive way to operate the engine, because it combines a wide range of possible power outputs with a high thermal efficiency and very low NO emissions at part loads.

  17. 1982 annual status report: thermonuclear fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this programme is to study the technological problems related to ''Post Jet'' experimental machines and, in a longer range, to assess the engineering aspects of Fusion Power Reactor Plants. According to the decision taken by the Council of Ministers on the JRC multiannual programme (1980-1983), the work performed on 1982 concerns four projects, namely: The Project 1: ''Fusion Reactor Studies''concerns mainly the NET (Next European Torus) studies which have been continued in the framework of the European participation to INTOR (INternational TOkamak Reactor). This represents a collaborative effort to design a major fusion experiment beyond the-upcoming generation of large tokamaks. The Project 2: ''Blanket Technology'' has the aim to investigate the behaviour of blanket materials in fusion conditions. The Project 3: ''Materials Sorting and Development'' has the aim to assess the mechanical properties and radiation damage of standard and advanced materials suited for structures, in particular for application as first wall of the fusion reactors. The Project 4: ''Cyclotron Operation and Experiments''has the task to exploit a cyclotron to simulate radiation damages to materials in a fusion ambient

  18. Capacitor requirements for controlled thermonuclear experiments and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boicourt, G.P.; Hoffman, P.S.

    1975-01-01

    Future controlled thermonuclear experiments as well as controlled thermonuclear reactors will require substantial numbers of capacitors. The demands on these units are likely to be quite severe and quite different from the normal demands placed on either present energy storage capacitors or present power factor correction capacitors. It is unlikely that these two types will suffice for all necessary Controlled Thermonuclear Research (CTR) applications. The types of capacitors required for the various CTR operating conditions are enumerated. Factors that influence the life, cost and operating abilities of these types of capacitors are discussed. The problems of capacitors in a radiation environment are considered. Areas are defined where future research is needed. Some directions that this research should take are suggested. (U.S.)

  19. The ''Dolphin'' power laser installation for spherical thermonuclear target heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basov, N.G.; Bykovskij, N.E.; Danilov, A.E.

    1978-01-01

    12-channel laser installation the ''Dolphin'' for thermonuclear target heating in the radiation spheric geometry has been developed to carry out series of physical investigations of laser-thermonuclear plasma system, optimization of target heating conditions and obtaining a comparatively large value of thermonuclear output in ratio to the energy of absorbed light radiation in the target. The description of installation main elements, consisting of the following components, is given: 1)neodymium laser with the maximum permissible radiation energy of 10kJ, with light pulse duration of 10 -10 /10 -9 c and radiation divergence of approximately 5x10 -4 rad; 2)vacuum chamber, where laser radiation interaction with plasma takes place; 3)diagnostic means of laser and plasma parameters and 4)focus system. The focus system provides a high degree of target spherical radiation symmetry at current maximum density on its surface of approximately 10 15 W/cm 2

  20. Application of controlled thermonuclear reactor fusion energy for food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1975-06-01

    Food and energy shortages in many parts of the world in the past two years raise an immediate need for the evaluation of energy input in food production. The present paper investigates systematically (1) the energy requirement for food production, and (2) the provision of controlled thermonuclear fusion energy for major energy intensive sectors of food manufacturing. Among all the items of energy input to the ''food industry,'' fertilizers, water for irrigation, food processing industries, such as beet sugar refinery and dough making and single cell protein manufacturing, have been chosen for study in detail. A controlled thermonuclear power reactor was used to provide electrical and thermal energy for all these processes. Conceptual design of the application of controlled thermonuclear power, water and air for methanol and ammonia synthesis and single cell protein production is presented. Economic analysis shows that these processes can be competitive. (auth)

  1. Localization of thermonuclear burning in accreting millisecond pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutloukos, Stratos; Miller, Cole

    Nuclear-powered oscillations during Type-I X-ray bursts have so far revealed the spin of about twenty accreting millisecond pulsars in low-mass X-ray binaries. Constraining strong gravity through the emission from the hot spots on the neutron star surface requires understanding of the properties of such burst oscillations. We use adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamical numerical computations to model the ignition and spreading of thermonuclear flames. Our preliminary simulations suggest that confinement of fuel is important for the localization of thermonuclear burning, like that required for the observed burst oscillations. This is consistent with spectral analyses of RXTE observations that we also present here. The software used in this work was in part developed by the DOE-supported ASCI/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago. This work was supported by NSF Grant AST0708424.

  2. Recommendations on the Nature and Level of U.S. Participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Extension of the Experimental Reactor Extension of the Engineering Design Activities. Panel Report To Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The DOE Office of Energy Research chartered through the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) a panel to 'address the topic of U. S. participation in an ITER construction phase, assuming the ITER Parties decide to proceed with construction.' (Attachment 1: DOE Charge, September 1996). Given that there is expected to be a transition period of three to five years between the conclusion of the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) and the possible construction start, the DOE Office of Energy Research expanded the charge to 'include the U.S. role in an interim period between the EDA and construction.' (Attachment 2: DOE Expanded Charge, May 1997). This panel has heard presentations and received input from a wide cross-section of parties with an interest in the fusion program. The panel concluded it could best fulfill its responsibility under this charge by considering the fusion energy science and technology portion of the U.S. program in its entirety. Accordingly, the panel is making some recommendations for optimum use of the transition period considering the goals of the fusion program and budget pressures.

  3. Thermonuclear fusion in the UK: towards a new abundant and durable energy source; La fusion nucleaire au Royaume-Uni: vers une nouvelle source d'energie abondante et durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    The ITER treaty (International thermonuclear experimental reactor) was signed in Paris on November 21, 2006, by the European Union, China, the USA, Japan and Russia. This treaty is devoted to the construction and exploitation of the biggest thermonuclear facility ever, capable to generate 500 MW during a reaction of 10 minutes. ITER is a priori the last experimental step before the construction of a fusion power plant for power generation at the industrial scale. The goal of ITER is to obtain a quasi-unexhaustible and less polluting energy source by the mid-21. century. The British research work has largely contributed to the development of this technology through a large number of projects that have preceded ITER but also through its present day involvement in the creation of the future reactor of Cadarache. This document presents: the UK fusion program, the projects carried out at the Culham science centre (Compass-D, Joint European Torus (JET), Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak (START), Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST), EASY-2005 (European activation system)), the British involvement in ITER project and the transfer of technologies, and the nuclear fusion research in British universities (PPRG Imperial College London, CFSA Warwick university, Dalton nuclear institute (DNI), department of physics York university). (J.S.)

  4. Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs about the project of law, adopted by the Senate, giving permission to the approval of the agreement between the French government and the international organization for thermonuclear fusion energy ITER, relative to the head office of ITER organization and to the privileges and immunities of ITER organization in the French territory; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres sur le projet de loi, adopte par le senat, autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique francaise et l'Organisation internationale ITER pour l'energie de fusion relatif au siege de l'Organisation ITER et aux privileges et immunites de l'Organisation ITER sur le territoire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    The will of building up an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) gathers since several years the European community of atomic energy (Euratom), Japan, the USA, and Russia, next followed by China, South Korea and, since 2005, by India. The agreement signed in Paris between these seven parties on November 21, 2006 entrusted the international organization ITER with the realization of this project. The implications of the ITER project are enormous both in their scientific and in their economical aspects. France has a particular position in this project since the head office of ITER organisation is sited at Saint-Paul-lez-Durance and the tokamak will be built at Cadarache. Therefore, an agreement has been signed between ITER organization and the French government. The approval of this agreement is the object of this project of law. The document presents first the principle, challenge and stakes of the ITER project and the long negotiations that have led to chose France for the setting up of the research facility. Then, it presents the agreement of November 7, 2007, which fixes the general framework of the conditions necessary to the achievement of the project. The agreement comprises the classical rules, privileges and immunities of any international organization sited on the French ground, plus some more specific dispositions in particular in the domain of management of the wastes generated by the facility. (J.S.)

  5. The Application of Simulated Experimental Teaching in International Trade Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Chen, Wen

    2009-01-01

    International Trade Practice is a professional basic course for specialty of International Economy and Trade. As the core of International Trade Practice, it is extremely related to foreign affairs and needs much practical experience. This paper puts forward some suggestions on how to improve the performance of teaching in order to educate the…

  6. Faint Thermonuclear Supernovae from AM Canum Venaticorum Binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bildsten, L.; Shen, K.J.; Weinberg, N.N.; Nelemans, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Helium that accretes onto a carbon/oxygen white dwarf in double white dwarf AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn) binaries undergoes unstable thermonuclear flashes when the orbital period is in the 3.5-25 minute range. At the shortest orbital periods (and highest accretion rates, MË™>10-7

  7. The Effect of Screening Factors and Thermonuclear Reaction Rates ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 31; Issue 3. The Effect of Screening Factors and Thermonuclear Reaction Rates in the Pre-main Sequence Evolution of Low Mass Stars. İ. Küçük Ş. Çalışkan. Volume 31 Issue 3 September 2010 pp 135-145 ...

  8. The Effect of Screening Factors and Thermonuclear Reaction Rates ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to calculate the equation of state by inserting deviations from ideal gas under high ... ideal interactions must be taken into account in equation of state. ..... (30). The star's thermonuclear reaction rate and energy generation can be obtained from these relations. For example; 1H(p, e. + υ)2D and 3He(3He, 2p)4He reactions ...

  9. The LOFT perspective on neutron star thermonuclear bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in ’t Zand, J.J.M.; Altamirano, D.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    This is a White Paper in support of the mission concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT), proposed as a medium-sized ESA mission. We discuss the potential of LOFT for the study of thermonuclear X-ray bursts on accreting neutron stars. For a summary, we refer to the paper....

  10. The distinct effects of internalizing weight bias: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Puhl, Rebecca M

    2016-06-01

    Both experiencing and internalizing weight bias are associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes, but internalization may be a more potent predictor of these outcomes. The current study aimed to differentiate between causal effects of experiencing versus internalizing weight bias on emotional responses and psychological well-being. Adults with overweight/obesity (N=260) completed an online experiment in which they were randomly assigned to focus on either the experience or internalization of weight bias, and completed measures of affect, self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Results indicated that the Internalization condition led to more negative affect, less positive affect, and lower self-esteem than the Experience condition. The Internalization condition also led to heightened body dissatisfaction among men, but not women. These findings suggest that weight bias internalization may be a stronger predictor of poor mental and physical health than experiences alone, and carry implications for developing weight bias interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of Thermonuclear Alfven Instabilities in Next Step Burning Plasma Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.N. Gorelenkov; H.L. Berk; R. Budny; C.Z. Cheng; G.-Y. Fu; W.W. Heidbrink; G. Kramer; D. Meade; and R. Nazikian

    2002-07-02

    A study is presented for the stability of alpha-particle driven shear Alfven Eigenmodes (AE) for the normal parameters of the three major burning plasma proposals, ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), FIRE (Fusion Ignition Research Experiment), and IGNITOR (Ignited Torus). A study of the JET (Joint European Torus) plasma, where fusion alphas were generated in tritium experiments, is also included to attempt experimental validation of the numerical predictions. An analytic assessment of Toroidal AE (TAE) stability is first presented, where the alpha particle beta due to the fusion reaction rate and electron drag is simply and accurately estimated in 7-20 keV plasma temperature regime. In this assessment the hot particle drive is balanced against ion-Landau damping of the background deuterons and electron collision effects and stability boundaries are determined. Then two numerical studies of AE instability are presented. In one the High-n stability code HINST is used . This code is capable of predicting instabilities of low and moderately high frequency Alfven modes. HINST computes the non-perturbative solution of the Alfven eigenmodes including effects of ion finite Larmor radius, orbit width, trapped electrons etc. The stability calculations are repeated using the global code NOVAK. We show that for these tokamaks the spectrum of the least stable AE modes are TAE that appear at medium-/high-n numbers. In HINST TAEs are locally unstable due to the alphas pressure gradient in all the devices under the consideration except IGNITOR. However, NOVAK calculations show that the global mode structure enhances the damping mechanisms and produces stability in all configurations considered here. A serious question remains whether the perturbation theory used in NOVAK overestimates the stability predictions, so that it is premature to conclude that the nominal operation of all three proposals are stable to AEs. In addition NBI ions produce a strong

  12. Study on structural materials used in thermonuclear fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billa, R.; Amaral, D.

    1995-01-01

    The main problem related to the construction of a thermonuclear fusion reactor is the absence of suitable materials for the process, concerning to temperature limits, heat flux and life time. The first wall is the most critical part of the structure, being submitted to radiation effects, ionic corrosion and coolant, besides thermal fatigue and tension produced by cyclical burning. The AISI 316(17-12SPH) stainless steel is used as structural material, which has a wide known database. This work proposes an alternative material study to be used in the future thermonuclear fusion reactors. As a option a study on the utilization of Cr-Mn(Fe-17 Mn-10 Cr-0,1 C) steels and their alloy variations is presented

  13. Divertor, thermonuclear device and method of neutralizing high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Hideo.

    1995-01-01

    The thermonuclear device comprises a thermonuclear reactor for taking place fusion reactions to emit fusion plasmas, and a divertor made of a hydrogen occluding material, and the divertor is disposed at a position being in contact with the fusion plasmas after nuclear fusion reaction. The divertor is heated by fusion plasmas after nuclear fusion reaction, and hydrogen is released from the hydrogen occluding material as a constituent material. A gas blanket is formed by the released hydrogen to cool and neutralize the supplied high temperature nuclear fusion plasmas. This prevents the high temperature plasmas from hitting against the divertor, elimination of the divertor by melting and evaporation, and solve a problem of processing a divertor activated by neutrons. In addition, it is possible to utilize hydrogen isotopes of fuels effectively and remove unnecessary helium. Inflow of impurities from out of the system can also be prevented. (N.H.)

  14. 78 FR 41129 - Market Test of Experimental Product - International Merchandise Return Service-Non-Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Market Test of Experimental Product -- International Merchandise Return Service... hereby gives notice of a market test for International Merchandise Return Service--Non-Published Rates in... notice pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3641(c)(1) that it will begin a market test of its International Merchandise...

  15. Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1990-02-01

    The report presents a review of theoretical, experimental and technological studies performed within a framework of three research programs: Diagnostics of High-Temperature Plasma (CPBP 01.10), Cold Fusion (CPBP-CF) and Nuclear Technology (CPBR 5.8). Theoretical investigations of a tokamak edge plasma, filamentary current structures and cold-fusion processes, are shortly described. Experimental studies of discharges in the RPI- and PF-type facilities as well as investigations of the interaction of ion-plasma streams with gaseous targets are summarized. Development of plasma diagnostic equipment and search for neutrons from cold-fusion processes are described. Technological studies of opto-electronic and high-voltage systems as well as use of IONOTRON-type devices for the ion implantation of semiconductors and the surface modification of solids are also presented. (author)

  16. Coulomb dissociation studies for astrophysical thermonuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motobayashi, T. [Dept. of Physics, Rikkyo Univ., Toshima, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    The Coulomb dissociation method was applied to several radiative capture processes of astrophysical interest. The method has an advantage of high experimental efficiency, which allow measurements with radioactive nuclear beams. The reactions {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O and {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B are mainly discussed. They are the key reaction in the hot CNO cycle in massive stars and the one closely related to the solar neutrino problem, respectively. (orig.)

  17. What is the Plasma Focus Thermonuclear Pulsors Technology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, R.; Gonzalez, J.; Moreno, C.; Clausse, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we describe a type of neutron generators, called Plasma Focus, which is suitable to several applications, where traditional generators are non-applicable.The main characteristics are its transportability and to be non-contaminating, which would allow in-situ tests.The Plasma Focus, produces neutron pulses by thermonuclear fusion reactions, satisfy these requirements and it is comparatively non expensive.This last feature would assure competitivity in the neutron sources market

  18. Effect of excited states on thermonuclear reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargood, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    Values of the ratio of the thermonuclear reaction rate of a reaction, with target nuclei in a thermal distribution of energy states, to the reaction rate with all target nuclei in their ground states are tabulated for neutron, proton and α-particle induced reactions on the naturally occurring nuclei from 20 Ne to 70 Zn, at temperatures of 1, 2, 3.5 and 5x10 9 K. The ratios are determined from reaction rates based on statistical model cross sections

  19. Experimental Investigation of Piston Rings for Internal Combustion Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jens; Klit, Peder; Vølund, Anders

    2007-01-01

    conditions, but this is not the case in real life operation. These problems forms the basis for the experimental investigation. In large two-stroke engines the cylinder oil is supplied to the bearing at discrete locations on the cylinder liner at a specific rate at a certain time. The shifting in lubrication...

  20. 8th International School of Fusion Reactor Technology "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    Leotta, G G; Muon-catalyzed fusion and fusion with polarized nuclei

    1988-01-01

    The International School of Fusion Reactor Technology started its courses 15 years ago and since then has mantained a biennial pace. Generally, each course has developed the subject which was announced in advance at the closing of the previous course. The subject to which the present proceedings refer was chosen in violation of that rule so as to satisfy the recent and diffuse interest in cold fusion among the main European laboratories involved in controlled thermonuclear research (CTR). In the second half of 1986 we started to prepare a workshop aimed at assessing the state of the art and possibly of the perspectives of muon- catalyzed fusion. Research in this field has recently produced exciting experimental results open to important practical applications. We thought it worthwhile to consider also the beneficial effects and problems of the polarization ofthe nuclei in both cold and thermonuclear fusion. In preparing the 8th Course on Fusion Reactor Technology, it was necessary to abandon the tradi...

  1. GSETT-3: testing the experimental international seismic monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringdal, Frode

    1995-01-01

    Global seismic monitoring system has been developed by the Conference on Disarmaments (CDs) ad hoc group of scientific experts to consider international cooperative measures to detect and identify seismic events (the GSE), based in Geneva. In the course of its work, the GSE has conducted two large-scale global technical tests, Global Seismic Events Technical Test-1 (GSETT-1) in 1984 and GSETT-2 in 1991. The GSE has now embarked upon its third and most ambitious technical test, GSETT-3, which will encompass the development, testing and evaluation of a working prototype of the eventual Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) seismic monitoring system

  2. Overview of the PPPL International Experimental Stellarator Collaboration Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, David [Princeton University

    2012-03-28

    PPPL has initiated and strengthened collaborative experimental programs aimed at developing the required toolsets and scientific knowledge for advancing stellarators as a viable fusion energy source. In particular, activities at LHD and W7-X, the two large superconducting helical confinement systems in the world, have been expanded. The focus at LHD has been on diagnostic development and data analysis, since the device is a mature research facility with more than 20MW of heating power available. High beta stability experiments, ion and electron temperature measurements using a recently installed imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer, and 3D equilibrium reconstructions will be described. The focus on W7-X has been to develop hardware capabilities for divertor heat flux control, including plasma-facing components, error field correction coils, and power supplies. Progress on these and other activities will be presented.

  3. Abstracts of the International seminar 'Experimental possibilities of KTM tokamak and research programme'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The International seminar 'Experimental possibilities of KTM tokamak and research programme' was held in 10-12 October 2005 in Astana city (Kazakhstan). The seminar was dedicated to problems of KTM tokamak commissioning. The Collection of abstracts comprises 45 papers

  4. Updating and using the international non-neutron experimental nuclear data base in ''Generalized EXFOR'' format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravleva, G.M.; Chukreev, F.E.

    1985-10-01

    A software system for the automatic preparation of non-formalized textual information for the international exchange of nuclear data in the ''Generalized Exchange Format (EXFOR)'' is described. The ''Generalized EXFOR'' format is briefly outlined and data are given on the size of the international non-neutron experimental data base in this format. (author)

  5. Experimental Research in School Psychology Internationally: An Assessment of Journal Publications and Implications for Internationalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeny, John C.; Levy, Rebecca A.; Hida, Rahma; Norwalk, Kate

    2018-01-01

    Past studies have examined the contents of journal articles in school psychology, and more recently there has been increased interest in examining the frequency and characteristics of experimental studies appearing in school psychology journals. However, no prior studies have examined the international representation of experimental and…

  6. Integration of element technology and system supporting thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    A special committee for integrated system technology survey on thermonuclear fusion (TNF) was begun on June, 1999, under an aim to generally summarize whole of shapes on technology to realize TNF reactor to summarize present state of every technologies and their positioning in whole of their TNF technology. On a base of survey of these recent informations, this report is comprehensively summarized for an integrated system technology on TNF. It has outlines on magnetic field enclosing method, outlines on inertia enclosing method, element technology supporting TNF, new power generation techniques, and ripple effects on TNF technology. (G.K.)

  7. Approximating the r-process on earth with thermonuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    The astrophysical r-process can be approximately simulated in certain types of thermonuclear explosions. Between 1952 and 1969 twenty-three nuclear tests were fielded by the United States which had as one of their objectives the production of heavy transuranic elements. Of these tests, fifteen were at least partially successful. Some of these shots were conducted under the project Plowshare Peaceful Nuclear Explosion Program as scientific research experiments. A review of the program, target nuclei used, and heavy element yields achieved, will be presented as well as discussion of plans for a new experiment in a future nuclear test

  8. Thermonuclear reaction rates in a deuterium-tritium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, L.

    1978-12-01

    In a deuterium-tritium plasma six thermonuclear reactions take place between the deuterons, tritons and the 3 He-particles formed in about half of the d-d-reactions. The rate constants for these six reactions have been calculated from the latest evaluations of the reaction cross sections which were available. In some cases, notably the reactions t+t, t+ 3 He and 3 He+ 3 He, the number of published cross section measurements is small, and the uncertainty in the calculated rate constants consequently large. Analytical expressions for the rate constants as functions of the plasma temperature have been set up. (author)

  9. Zone-plate coded imaging of thermonuclear burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    The first high-resolution, direct images of the region of thermonuclear burn in laser fusion experiments have been produced using a novel, two-step imaging technique called zone-plate coded imaging. This technique is extremely versatile and well suited for the microscopy of laser fusion targets. It has a tomographic capability, which provides three-dimensional images of the source distribution. It is equally useful for imaging x-ray and particle emissions. Since this technique is much more sensitive than competing imaging techniques, it permits us to investigate low-intensity sources

  10. Focused study of thermonuclear bursts on neutron stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme

    X-ray bursters are a class of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries where accreted material from a donor star undergoes rapid thermonuclear burning in the surface layers of a neutron star. The flux released can temporarily exceed the Eddington limit and drive the photosphere to large radii. Such photospheric...... detection would thus probe the nuclear burning as well as the gravitational redshift from the neutron star. Moreover, likely observations of atomic X-ray spectral components reflected from the inner accretion disk have been reported. The high spectral resolution capabilities of Simbol X may therefore make...

  11. The application of computers to controlled thermonuclear research. A report to the USAEC Division of Controlled Thermonuclear Research; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report surveys the need for large computers in analyzing the properties of magnetically confined plasmas and simulating the characteristics of fusion reactors. The major conclusion of the report is that, to meet the program schedule developed by Magnetic Confinement Systems, it would be necessary to immediately scale up the CTR (controlled thermonuclear research) computerized effort to a level of two Class IV computers by FY 1975. Based on this report, and in an attempt to best meet this need, it was decided to establish the National CTR Computer Center at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

  12. The application of computers to controlled thermonuclear research. A report to the USAEC Division of Controlled Thermonuclear Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bennett; Dawson, John; Dory, Robert; Fernbach, Sidney; Goldstein, Max; Hogan, John; Killeen, John; Lazarus, Roger; Leith, Cecil; Nielson, Clair; Rose, Milton; Rutherford, Paul, Taylor, Clyde; Wakefield, Kenneth; Weitzner, Harold

    1973-07-01

    This report surveys the need for large computers in analyzing the properties of magnetically confined plasmas and simulating the characteristics of fusion reactors. The major conclusion of the report is that, to meet the program schedule developed by Magnetic Confinement Systems, it would be necessary to immediately scale up the CTR (controlled thermonuclear research) computerized effort to a level of two Class IV computers by FY 1975. Based on this report, and in an attempt to best meet this need, it was decided to establish the National CTR Computer Center at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.

  13. Flaw detection device for plasma facing wall in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Akira.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns plasma facing walls of a thermonuclear device and provides a device for detecting a thickness of amour tiles accurately and efficiently with no manual operation. Namely, the position of the plasma facing surface of the amour tile is measured using a structure to which the amour tiles are to be disposed as a reference. Also in a case of disposing new armor tiles, the position of the plasma facing surface of the armor tiles is measured to thereby measure the wearing amount of the amour tiles based on the difference between the reference and the measured value. If a measuring means capable of measuring a plurality of amour tiles at once is used efficiency of the measurement and the detection can be enhanced. Several ten thousands of amour tiles are disposed to the plasma facing wall in a large scaled thermonuclear device, and a plenty of time was required for the detection. However, the present invention can improve the accuracy for the measurement and detection and provide time and labors-saving. (I.S.)

  14. ''Del'fin'' high-power laser thermonuclear machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basov, N.G.; Krokhin, O.N.; Mikhailov, Yu.A.; Sklizkov, G.V.; Fedotov, S.I.

    The high-power 12-channel ''Del'fin'' laser device, designed for high-temperature heating of thermonuclear targets in a spherical irradiation geometry, is described. The device includes a neodymium laser with a maximum radiative energy of approximately 10 kJ, a light pulse lasting 10 -10 -- 10 -9 sec with an irradiation divergence of approximately 5.10 -4 rad, a vacuum chamber in which the laser radiation interacts with a plasma, and a set of devices for laser parameter and plasma diagnostics. The optical design and structural characteristics of the laser system are discussed. Designs for focusing the radiation on a target are analyzed, and the focusing system of the ''Del'fin'' device, permitting a high degree of symmetry of the spherical irradiation of the target with a maximum flux density of approximately 10 15 W/cm 2 on its surface, is described. Also discussed is the problem of realizing the maximum possibilities of heating of spherical thermonuclear targets with the radiation of high-power laser systems. The practically attainable laser radiation parameters are also considered. In the case of a laser system with a series-parallel arrangement of the amplification stages, relationships are obtained which make it possible to analyze the effect of the target and laser parameters on the magnitude of the maximum possible laser pulse energy in a spherical heating geometry. The results obtained were used in the design of the ''Del'fin'' high-power laser device

  15. Nuclear Physics Constraints on the Characteristics of Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truran, James W

    2012-01-01

    We review the nuclear physics that is associated with the outbursts of Type Ia (thermonuclear) supernova explosions and with the thermonuclear runaway events that define the outbursts of both classical novae and recurrent novae. We describe how distinguishing characteristics of these two classes of astrophysical explosion are strongly dependent both upon fuel ignition in degenerate matter and upon the rates of critical charged-particle reaction rates and weak interaction rates. In this centennial celebration of the important contributions of Rutherford and his collaborators to our understanding of the structure of the nucleus of an atom, it is quite interesting to note the evolution of the α-particle scattering experiments described in Rutherford's seminal paper (Rutherford 1911) to current studies of α-particle induced reactions and their defining roles in studies of stellar, nova, and supernova nucleosynthesis. We identify and discuss for example: (1) the manner in which (α, p) reactions in proximity to the Z = N line carry the major flows from 12 C and 16 O to 56 Ni in Type Ia supernovae; and (2) the critical role of the 15 O(α, γ) 19 Ne reaction in possibly effecting 'breakout' of the Hot CNO cycles at the highest temperatures achievable in Classical Novae. In this contribution, we first review the current status our understanding of Type Ia supernova events and then that of Classical Novae.

  16. Power supply for magnetic coils in thermonuclear devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Ryuichi; Tamura, Sanae; Kishimoto, Hiroshi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the load fluctuations in an external power supply, as well as to increase the operation efficiency capacity of thermonuclear devices. Constitution: Electrical power with the same frequency as that of a dynamo generator is supplied by a power supply-driving power source including a frequency converter and the like to DC converters for driving plasma-exciting and -controlling coils. At the same time, the electrical power from the frequency converter is supplied to the dynamo generator with flywheel to add accumulate energies to the EC converters. Accordingly, the energy for the great power pulses in a short time comprises the sum of the energy supplied from the dynamo generator with flywheel and the energy supplied continuously from the outside to eliminate the need of providing a stand-by period for the re-acceleration of the dynamo generator with flywheel even if the scale of the thermonuclear device is enlarged and energy consumed in one cycle is increased, whereby the decrease in the operation efficiency can be prevented and the capacity of the flywheel can be reduced. (Yoshino, Y.)

  17. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION Nanostructures in controlled thermonuclear fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauz, V. I.; Martynenko, Yurii V.; Svechnikov, N. Yu; Smirnov, Valentin P.; Stankevich, V. G.; Khimchenko, L. N.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the presence of nano-sized and nano-structured erosion products not only affects the operation of thermonuclear devices but also, to a large extent, determines the safety and economy of future thermonuclear reactors. The formation mechanisms and the characteristics and properties of deposited films and nano-sized dust that form in tokamaks are reviewed.

  18. The puzzling thermonuclear burst behaviour of IGR J17473-2721

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    We investigate the thermonuclear bursting behaviour of the X-ray transient source IGR J17473-2721, that in 2008 underwent a six month long outburst, starting (unusually) with an X-ray burst. We detected a total of 57 thermonuclear bursts throughout the outburst with AGILE, Swift, RXTE, and INTEGR...

  19. 28. Zvenigorod conference on the plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear synthesis. Theses of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Theses of reports, presented at the 28th Conference on the plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear synthesis (Zvenigorod, 19-23 February 2001) are published. 246 reports were heard at the following sections: magnetic confinement, theory and experiments; inertial thermonuclear synthesis; plasma processes and physics of gas-discharge plasma; physical bases of plasma technologies. 17 reports had the summarizing character [ru

  20. Establishing experimental model of human internal carotid artery siphon segment in canine common carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xuee; Li Minghua; Wang Yongli; Cheng Yingsheng; Li Wenbin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility of establishing experimental model of human internal carotid artery siphon segment in canine common carotid artery (CCA) by end-to-end anastomoses of one side common carotid artery segment with the other side common carotid artery. Methods: Surgical techniques were used to make siphon model in 8 canines. One side CCA was taken as the parent artery and anastomosing with the cut off contra-lateral CCA segment which has passed through within the S-shaped glass tube. Two weeks after the creation of models angiography showed the model siphons were patent. Results: Experimental models of human internal carotid artery siphon segment were successfully made in all 8 dogs. Conclusions: It is practically feasible to establish experimental canine common carotid artery models of siphon segment simulating human internal carotid artery. (authors)

  1. A fast neutron spectrum unfolding method using activation measurements and its application of restoration of a thermonuclear reactor blanket neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.M.; Shkurpelov, A.A.; Zagryadsky, V.A.; Chuvilin, D.Yu.; Shmonin, Yu.V.

    1982-01-01

    This article describes a fast neutron spectrum unfolding program. The program takes into account a priori information about the neutron spectrum, the experimental values of activation integrals errors and activation detector cross sections errors. The usefulness of the unfolding program was demonstrated by its application to the determination of neutron spectra from 1 to 14 MeV in the molten-salt blanket model of a thermonuclear reactor. (orig.)

  2. Instrumentation, computer software and experimental techniques used in low-frequency internal friction studies at WNRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprugmann, K.W.; Ritchie, I.G.

    1980-04-01

    A detailed and comprehensive account of the equipment, computer programs and experimental methods developed at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Estalbishment for the study of low-frequency internal friction is presented. Part 1 describes the mechanical apparatus, electronic instrumentation and computer software, while Part II describes in detail the laboratory techniques and various types of experiments performed together with data reduction and analysis. Experimental procedures for the study of internal friction as a function of temperature, strain amplitude or time are described. Computer control of these experiments using the free-decay technique is outlined. In addition, a pendulum constant-amplitude drive system is described. (auth)

  3. Laser induced sonofusion: A new road toward thermonuclear reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Sadighi-Bonabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Possibility of the laser assisted sonofusion is studied via single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL in Deuterated acetone (C3D6O using quasi-adiabatic and hydro-chemical simulations at the ambient temperatures of 0 and −28.5 °C. The interior temperature of the produced bubbles in Deuterated acetone is 1.6 × 106 K in hydro-chemical model and it is reached up to 1.9 × 106 K in the laser induced SBSL bubbles. Under these circumstances, temperature up to 107 K can be produced in the center of the bubble in which the thermonuclear D-D fusion reactions are promising under the controlled conditions.

  4. Experimental research on internal flow in impeller of a low specific speed centrifugal pump by PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. F.; Wang, Y. F.; Yuan, S. Q.

    2016-05-01

    For the purpose of investigating the influence of two different impellers, one is with splitter blades and the other one is without splitter blades, on a low-specific centrifugal pump. The experimental investigation in impellers was conducted at different conditions and phases by means of PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) to study the internal flow. Meanwhile, the absolute and relative velocity distributions in impellers were obtained. Experimental results show that the head value is higher in the impeller with splitter blades and both two head curves appear hump phenomena at small flow rate. The absolute velocity value increases with radius and from pressure side to suction side at the same radius gradually. The splitter blades can scour the wake, making outlet velocity distribution more uniform and improving the internal flow. The velocity distribution becomes less even in the process of closing to tongue due to reinforced interference of tongue on internal flow.

  5. Thermonuclear generation program: risks and safety; Programa de geracao termonuclear: seus riscos e segurancas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goes, Alexandre Gromann de Araujo

    1999-07-01

    This work deals with the fundamental concepts of risk and safety related to nuclear power generation. In the first chapter, a general evaluation of the various systems for energy generation and their environmental impacts is made. Some definitions for safety and risk are suggested, based on the already existing regulatory processes and also on the current tendencies of risk management. Aspects regarding the safety culture are commented. The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES), a coherent and clear mechanism of communication between nuclear specialists and the general public, is analyzed. The second chapter examines the thermonuclear generation program in Brazil and the role of the National Nuclear Energy Commission. The third chapter presents national and international scenarios in terms of safety and risks, available policies and the main obstacles for future development of nuclear energy and nuclear engineering, and strategies are proposed. In the last chapter, comments about possible trends and recommendations related to practical risk management procedures, taking into account rational criteria for resources distribution and risk reduction are made, envisaging a closer integration between nuclear specialists and the society as a whole, thus decreasing the conflicts in a democratic decision-making process.

  6. UK's Brexit battle casts shadow over funding for international fusion projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    The ramifications of Brexit - the UK's decision to leave the European Union - have continued to send shockwaves through the nuclear energy community, since I explained in this column recently that the move also means withdrawing from the Euratom Treaty. Now the UK's divorce from the EU is posing a threat that could deal a major blow to international efforts in fusion research. In fact, confusing signals from the UK have cast doubt on future funding and support for two key areas of world fusion cooperation: the Oxfordshire-based Joint European Torus (Jet) programme and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (Iter) project at Cadarache in France.

  7. UK's Brexit battle casts shadow over funding for international fusion projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, John

    2017-01-01

    The ramifications of Brexit - the UK's decision to leave the European Union - have continued to send shockwaves through the nuclear energy community, since I explained in this column recently that the move also means withdrawing from the Euratom Treaty. Now the UK's divorce from the EU is posing a threat that could deal a major blow to international efforts in fusion research. In fact, confusing signals from the UK have cast doubt on future funding and support for two key areas of world fusion cooperation: the Oxfordshire-based Joint European Torus (Jet) programme and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (Iter) project at Cadarache in France.

  8. Coupling and absorption of lower-hybrid waves in a thermonuclear plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, S.; Tutter, M.

    1975-01-01

    The three important aspects, namely 1) accessibility, 2) matching and 3) absorption of the lower-hybrid waves in a thermonuclear plasma are studied under idealized but physically pertinent conditions within the framework of linearized theory. (orig.) [de

  9. On the implementation of a chain nuclear reaction of thermonuclear fusion on the basis of the p+11B process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, V. S.; Krainov, V. P.; Zagreev, B. V.; Matafonov, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    Various theoretical and experimental schemes for implementing a thermonuclear reactor on the basis of the p+11B reaction are considered. They include beam collisions, fusion in degenerate plasmas, ignition upon plasma acceleration by ponderomotive forces, and the irradiation of a solid-state target from 11B with a proton beam under conditions of a Coulomb explosion of hydrogen microdrops. The possibility of employing ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses to initiate the p+11B reaction under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium is discussed. This and some other weakly radioactive thermonuclear reactions are promising owing to their ecological cleanness—there are virtually no neutrons among fusion products. Nuclear reactions that follow the p+11B reaction may generate high-energy protons, sustaining a chain reaction, and this is an advantage of the p+11B option. The approach used also makes it possible to study nuclear reactions under conditions close to those in the early Universe or in the interior of stars.

  10. International Conference on Recent Advances in Spectroscopy : Theoretical, Experimental, and Astrophysical Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Rajat K; Raveendran, A. V; Satya Narayanan, A; Recent Advances in Spectroscopy : Theoretical, Astrophysical and Experimental Perspectives

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there have been great advances in the fields of laboratory and astronomical spectroscopy. These have been equally matched by large-scale computations using state-of-the-art theoretical methods. The accurate atomic opacities that are available today play a great role in the field of biomedical research using nanotechnology. The proceedings of the "International Conference on Recent Advances in Spectroscopy: Theoretical, Experimental and Astrophysical Perspectives" contain both invited and contributory papers, which give the most recent results by the peers in the areas of theoretical and experimental atomic physics as well as observational astrophysics.

  11. Experimental Methodology for Determining Optimum Process Parameters for Production of Hydrous Metal Oxides by Internal Gelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.

    2005-10-28

    The objective of this report is to describe a simple but very useful experimental methodology that was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing several hydrous metal-oxide gel spheres by the internal gelation process. The method is inexpensive and very effective in collection of key gel-forming data that are needed to prepare the hydrous metal-oxide microspheres of the best quality for a number of elements.

  12. Ethical regulation or regulating ethics? The need for both internal and external governance of human experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomossy, George F

    2002-10-01

    Research regulation is a timely topic for discussions in bioethics and public health policy. This response to articles in the previous special issue of the Monash Bioethics Review emphasises the importance of having both internal and external controls on human experimentation. Unless both elements are incorporated into research ethics governance frameworks, they will ultimately fail to achieve what should be their primary goal: human subject protection.

  13. EVIDENCE OF SPREADING LAYER EMISSION IN A THERMONUCLEAR SUPERBURST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, K. I. I. [New York University Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 129188, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Kajava, J. J. E.; Kuulkers, E., E-mail: karri.koljonen@nyu.edu [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESA/ESAC), Science Operations Department, E-28691, Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    When a neutron star (NS) accretes matter from a companion star in a low-mass X-ray binary, the accreted gas settles onto the stellar surface through a boundary/spreading layer. On rare occasions the accumulated gas undergoes a powerful thermonuclear superburst powered by carbon burning deep below the NS atmosphere. In this paper, we apply the non-negative matrix factorization spectral decomposition technique to show that the spectral variations during a superburst from 4U 1636–536 can be explained by two distinct components: (1) the superburst emission characterized by a variable temperature blackbody radiation component and (2) a quasi-Planckian component with a constant, ∼2.5 keV, temperature varying by a factor of ∼15 in flux. The spectrum of the quasi-Planckian component is identical in shape and characteristics to the frequency-resolved spectra observed in the accretion/persistent spectrum of NS low-mass X-ray binaries and agrees well with the predictions of the spreading layer model by Inogamov and Sunyaev. Our results provide yet more observational evidence that superbursts—and possibly also normal X-ray bursts—induce changes in the disc–star boundary.

  14. Method for baking a liner in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Keiichi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To attain effective baking for liners in a tokamak device by connecting the narrow portions and the wide portions of the liners with dielectric materials and supplying a constant current to these portions. Method: Split type liners disposed in the vacuum vessel of a thermonuclear device are connected with dielectric materials at their wide portions and narrow portions and they are baked by supplying a constant current at a same density to the wide and narrow portions to rise their temperature uniformly. The wide portions are formed in such a way that the sum of their cross sectional areas is equal to the sum of the cross sectional areas of the narrow portions, and they form a parallel circuit. The parallel circuit consisting of the wide portions and the parallel circuit consisting of the narrow portions are connected in series to each other and connected to the constant current supply circuit, by which a constant current is supplied to the wide and the narrow portions. (Moriyama, K.)

  15. Thermonuclear fusion product diagnostics by nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehling, E.; Schumacher, U. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.)); Paretzke, H.G. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H. Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz)

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear track detector materials CR-39 and PM-355 are capable of proton and alpha particle track recording and thus well suited to charged particle diagnostics in thermonuclear fusion devices. In a study to determine the respective absolute recording efficiencies and energy resolutions for protons and alpha particles in real diagnostics situations, a series of experiments with monoenergetic particles of known energies and angles of incidence were performed. Alpha particles could be quantitatively detected for angles of incidence of up to 70 deg, and their etch pit depth rather than the diameter for defined etching conditions gave satisfying information on the alpha particle energy. Contrary to other investigators, however, we found a monotonically decreasing detection probability for protons already above 3 MeV and no proton track could be developed above incident energies of 7 to 8 MeV. The proton detection depends more strongly on the angle of incidence; only tracks of protons with angles of incidence smaller than 30 deg could be made visible by etching. The proton energy could be derived from track diameter measurements better than from etch pit depths.

  16. Ignition and burn control characteristics of thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaniotakis, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Achieving the long sought goal of fusion energy requires the attainment of an ignited and controlled thermonuclear plasma. Obtaining an ignited plasma in a tokamak device requires consideration of both the physics of the plasma and the engineering of the machine. With the aide of completely analytical procedure optimized and ignited tokamaks are obtained under various physics assumptions. These designs show the possible advantage of tokamaks characterized by high (∼4.5) aspect ratio, and high (∼15 T) toroidal magnetic field. The control of an ignited plasma is investigated by using auxiliary power modulation. With auxiliary power stable operating points can be created with Q ∼50. Recognizing the need for a fast 1 1/2-D transport model for studying profile effects the plasma transport equations are solved using variational methods. A computer model based on the variational method has been developed. This model solves the 1 1/2-D transport equation very fast with little loss of accuracy. 74 refs., 70 figs., 8 tabs

  17. Thermonuclear burst oscillations: where firestorms meet fundamental physics.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Neutron stars offer a unique environment in which to develop and test theories of the strong force. Densities in neutron star cores can reach up to ten times the density of a normal atomic nucleus, and the stabilising effect of gravitational confinement permits long-timescale weak interactions. This generates matter that is neutron-rich, and opens up the possibility of stable states of strange matter, something that can only exist in neutron stars. Strong force physics is encoded in the Equation of State (EOS), the pressure-density relation, which links to macroscopic observables such as mass M and radius R via the stellar structure equations. By measuring and inverting the M-R relation we can recover the EOS and diagnose the underlying dense matter physics. One very promising technique for simultaneous measurement of M and R exploits hotspots (burst oscillations) that form on the neutron star surface when material accreted from a companion star undergoes a thermonuclear explosion (a Type I X-ray burst). As ...

  18. Numerical-experimental study of internal fixation system "Dufoo" for vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Miranda, J Jesús; Faraón-Carbajal Romero, Manuel; Sánchez-Aguilar, Jons

    2012-01-01

    We describe a numerical experimental study of the stress generated by the internal fixation system "Dufoo" used in the treatment of vertebral fractures with the purpose of validating the numerical model of human lumbar vertebrae under the main physiological loads that the human body is exposed to in this area. The objective is to model and numerically simulate the elements of the musculoskeletal system to collect the stresses generated and other parameters that are difficult to measure experimentally in the thoracic lumbar vertebrae. We used an internal fixator "Dufoo" and vertebrae L2-L3-L4 specimens from pig and human. The system uses a total L3 corpectomy. The fixator acts as a mechanical bridge implant from L2 to L4. Numerical analysis was performed using the finite element method (FEM). For the experimental study, reflective photoelasticity and extensometry were used. Torsion and combined loads generate the main displacements and stresses in the study system, determining that the internal fixation carries out part of the function of the damaged organ structure when absorbing the stresses presented by applied loads. Numerical analysis allows great freedom in the management of the variables involved in the developed models using radiological images. Geometric models are obtained and are entered into FEM programs that allow testing using parameters that, under actual conditions, may not be easily carried out, allowing to comprehensively determine the biomechanical behavior of the coupled system of study.

  19. Conception of thermonuclear reactor with a shielding layer of the first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, S.V.

    1979-01-01

    Considered is the way of the shielding of the first wall of a thermonuclear reactor by the layer of ISSEC (Internal spectral shifter and Energy Converter). It is a constructive non-power element placed between a plasma and the first wall, and intended for the softening of the spectrum and intensity reduction of particle fluxes falling on the first wall. Results of neutron-physical calculations of the UWMAK-type reactor blanket (in the S 4 -P 3 approximation) are presented. While comparing five materials (C, Mo, Nb, V,W) by the rate of radiation damage formation, gas production, radioactivity level and energy output in the blanket with the 316 stainless steel first wall, it is obvious that the conception of ISSEC permits to prolong the service period of the first wall. Construction elements should be then in the same irradiation conditions as those in fast reactors. Molybdenum has been taken as the best ISSEC material. It reduces the number of displaced atoms of the first wall by 20% and decreases helium production by about 100%, increases energy output in the blanket by 15-18%. However, graphite is advantageous, while comparing it to molybdenum in values of residual energy output, radioactivity level, costs and manufacture simplicity. One problem stays unsolved, which is connected with chemical sputtering of graphite at the formation of C 2 H 2 in the high temperature range. So it is hard to prefer any material now

  20. Investigations in the area of thermonuclear structural material science in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibayeva, I.; Shestakov, V.; Cherepnin, Yu.S.

    2001-01-01

    The investigations in the area of structural materials for fusion program initiated within the framework of ITER project in the Republic of Kazakhstan are devoted basically in the following direction: to studying the behaviour of hydrogen isotopes in structural elements of the first wall and the divertor in conditions simulating real conditions of material operation, accident situations arising during steam interaction with the beryllium armour of the first wall during accidental coolant loss, to establish an experimental facility for study aspects of tritium safety of thermonuclear installations, for example, levels of tritium accumulation and release; efficiency of barrier layers and protective coating; influence of brazing and welding zones on tritium permeation. The work on determination of tritium release from lead/lithium eutectic alloy by mass-spectrometry method and the development of permeation barriers has begun. At present, work has begun to create Kazakhstan's own tokamak type reactor for investigation of the behaviour of various first wall materials and divertor plates during normal and accident conditions. The concept of spherical tokamak will be used in the construction of KTM reactor. (author)

  1. Reaction rate and composition dependence of the stability of thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keek, L.; Cyburt, R. H.; Heger, A.

    2014-01-01

    The stability of thermonuclear burning of hydrogen and helium accreted onto neutron stars is strongly dependent on the mass accretion rate. The burning behavior is observed to change from Type I X-ray bursts to stable burning, with oscillatory burning occurring at the transition. Simulations predict the transition at a 10 times higher mass accretion rate than observed. Using numerical models we investigate how the transition depends on the hydrogen, helium, and CNO mass fractions of the accreted material, as well as on the nuclear reaction rates of 3α and the hot-CNO breakout reactions 15 O(α, γ) 19 Ne and 18 Ne(α, p) 21 Na. For a lower hydrogen content the transition is at higher accretion rates. Furthermore, most experimentally allowed reaction rate variations change the transition accretion rate by at most 10%. A factor 10 decrease of the 15 O(α, γ) 19 Ne rate, however, produces an increase of the transition accretion rate of 35%. None of our models reproduce the transition at the observed rate, and depending on the true 15 O(α, γ) 19 Ne reaction rate, the actual discrepancy may be substantially larger. We find that the width of the interval of accretion rates with marginally stable burning depends strongly on both composition and reaction rates. Furthermore, close to the stability transition, our models predict that X-ray bursts have extended tails where freshly accreted fuel prolongs nuclear burning.

  2. 11. International conference on WWER fuel performance, modelling and experimental support. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolova, M.; Boneva, S.; Mitev, M.

    2015-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of the papers presented in 11th International Conference on WWER Fuel Performance, Modeling and Experimental Support, organized by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria, supported by the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP), the Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency, and TVEL Fuel Company, Russia. The Conference took place in hotel Bolero, Golden Sands Resort, Bulgaria, from 26 September 2015 to 3 October 2015. It was attended by 117 participants, among them more than 100 experts and specialists from 22 countries, including representatives of 3 international organizations, 16 Russian organizations and other 36 foreign institutes, nuclear fuel plants, nuclear power plants and organizations responsible for WWER and PWR fuel design, manufacturing and research, and 3 Bulgarian organizations, working for the Bulgarian nuclear industry. 70 papers have been presented in the Conference in 6 oral and 1 poster session, covering: (1) general overview lectures; (2) fuel performance and operational experience; (3) fuel modeling and experimental support; (4) fuel safety and QA; (5) spent fuel performance and management; (6) specific issues of WWER-1000 fuel reliability. The proceedings provide Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations of the Conference, together with the full text of the presentations. IAEA Technical Meeting (TM) “Achieving zero fuel failure rates: challenges and perspectives”, 1 – 2 October 2015 was organized in conjunction with the 11th International Conference on WWER Fuel Performance, Modelling and Experimental Support. The reports presented on TM sessions are included in the Conference Proceedings too

  3. Thermonuclear 19F(p, {{\\boldsymbol{\\alpha }}}_{0})16O reaction rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian-Jun; Lombardo, Ivano; Dell’Aquila, Daniele; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Li-Yong; Liu, Wei-Ping

    2018-01-01

    The thermonuclear 19F(p, {{{α }}}0)16O reaction rate in the temperature region 0.007–10 GK has been derived by re-evaluating the available experimental data, together with the low-energy theoretical R-matrix extrapolations. Our new rate deviates by up to about 30% compared to the previous results, although all rates are consistent within the uncertainties. At very low temperature (e.g. 0.01 GK) our reaction rate is about 20% lower than the most recently published rate, because of a difference in the low energy extrapolated S-factor and a more accurate estimate of the reduced mass used in the calculation of the reaction rate. At temperatures above ∼1 GK, our rate is lower, for instance, by about 20% around 1.75 GK, because we have re-evaluated the previous data (Isoya et al., Nucl. Phys. 7, 116 (1958)) in a meticulous way. The present interpretation is supported by the direct experimental data. The uncertainties of the present evaluated rate are estimated to be about 20% in the temperature region below 0.2 GK, and are mainly caused by the lack of low-energy experimental data and the large uncertainties in the existing data. Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars evolve at temperatures below 0.2 GK, where the 19F(p, {{α }})16O reaction may play a very important role. However, the current accuracy of the reaction rate is insufficient to help to describe, in a careful way, the fluorine over-abundances observed in AGB stars. Precise cross section (or S factor) data in the low energy region are therefore needed for astrophysical nucleosynthesis studies. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11490562, 11490560, 11675229) and National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFA0400503)

  4. Evaluation of innovative means of hydrogen risk mitigation in thermonuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruejouls, C.

    2003-01-01

    One of the main accidents in ITER-type thermonuclear fusion reactors is the loss of coolant leading to hydrogen production. Within the framework of the studies on the ITER fusion reactor, a mitigation strategy for this risk must be devised by focusing on a system, which can be placed near the hydrogen source. The uncertainty as to the air content during such a scenario forbids the use of classic methods based on the hydrogen/oxygen reaction such as passive catalytic recombiners. Former studies have proposed a process based on the reduction of metallic oxides and more particularly that of the manganese dioxide enhanced by silver oxide mixture. The reaction studied is H 2 + MnO 2 → MnO + H 2 O (reaction enhanced by Ag 2 O). The purpose is to study the kinetic. The method used consists in comparing the experimental results obtained on the pilot facility CIGNE with those provided by a model. The experimental results were obtained from tests made on a pilot facility with a solid/gas reaction in a fixed bed. These underlined the importance of favoring the solid/gas contact surface. The modeling used in the MITRHY simulation program, coupled to an optimizer helped determine the kinetic parameters and the data on the material and temperature transfers. The kinetic is of first order rate for hydrogen with an activation energy of 29428 J/mol and a kinetic coefficient of 142 m.s -1 . Integrated in the MITRHY program, the kinetic parameters were used to simulate the hydrogen elimination in the accident conditions on the ITER experimental reactor. This study achieved a pre-design basis of the device (bed of about 30 cm with grains of a diameter of less than 5 mm) to be implemented. It also underlined the need to favor the specific surface to improved process efficiency. (author)

  5. Experimental and theoretical investigation of internal two-stage evaporative cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alklaibi, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new type of evaporative cooler is introduced and given a distinctive name. • This type of system involves two stages with no external sources involved. • The saturation efficiency of this type cannot be higher than 1. • Relative Humidity of the supply air is higher than that of the direct evaporative cooler. - Abstract: The internal two-stage evaporative cooler is studied by experimentally comparing its performance with direct evaporative cooler and theoretically with direct and external two-stage evaporative coolers. The results show that the efficiency of the internal two-stage evaporative cooler is higher than that of direct evaporative cooler but it cannot be raised over 100%. It was also shown that the efficiency of the internal evaporative cooler type is less sensitive to air speed than direct type. The efficiency of the direct evaporative cooler increases by 12%, and the internal evaporative cooler increases only by 5% when fan speed switches from high to low value. The results also show that the supply air of the internal evaporative cooler has higher humidity content than direct evaporative cooler which makes it a good humidifier in cold storages where humidly close to saturation is required

  6. Effects of ion and electron screening on thermonuclear reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, L.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of screening by ions and electrons on thermonuclear reaction rates in stellar plasmas are considered. The enhancement of the reaction rate ranges from negligible to extremely large (on the order of 10 26 or greater). In order to calculate these effects, the potential about a given reacting nucleus is determined. First, Boltzmann-Vlasov and Poisson-Boltzmann equations are solved to yield a Yukawa potential. A suitable approximation to this potential is integrated in the action integral to give the barrier penetration. The screened reaction rate is then found by the saddle-point method. In developing a general formalism to calculate the screened reaction rate and the screening factor, effects due to the finite size of the nucleus are considered and found to be negligible. An expression for the screening factor for resonant reaction rates is also derived. A different and relatively simple approach, based on work of Stewart and Pyatt (1966), is used to find the barrier penetration from the action integral in two approximations: a modified Coulomb potential and a constant-shift potential. Screening factors are calculated for carbon burning at T 6 = 100 and T 6 = 400 for a wide range of densities and also for several examples in late stellar evolution. These screening factors are, for the most part, greater than those given by most others by a few percent at low density to 4 or more orders of magnitude at T 6 = 100 and rho = 10 10 g/cm 3 . Near the edge of the crystalline lattice region, however, they are significantly lower than those of some others. The increase in reaction rates for carbon burning indicates that carbon ignition may occur at lower densities than previously thought and may affect the density at which a supernova shock may occur

  7. Experimental study on local heat transfer characteristics of porous media with internal heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zan Yuanfeng; Wang Taotao; Xiao Zejun; Wang Fei; Huang Yanping

    2008-01-01

    Model of porous media with internal heat source is established. The model uses water as flowing media, and the stainless steel test section is packed with steel spheres in manner of regular triangle, respectively. The armoured resistance wire is inserted inside the steel sphere. On the basis of the experimental model, many parameters of the local heat transfer characteristics including current velocity and wall temperature of steel sphere are measured. The experimental results show that the coefficient of heat transfer scarcely changes with pressure. The coefficient of heat transfer increases with the surface heat flux of steel sphere. When raising the inlet temperature of the cooling water, the coefficient of heat transfer presents the descending trend. In addition, the influence of entrance effect on heat transfer is discovered in the experiment, which is much less than the liquid flow in the light tube. After experiment data are analyzed and processed, the relation model of heat transfer on local heat transfer characteristic of porous media with internal heat source was described with a power-law-equation. The deviations between calculation and experimental values are within ±10%. (authors)

  8. Short-term and medium-term health effects of thermonuclear weapons and war on individuals and health services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechat, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    In the aftermath of a thermonuclear attack a number of health problems would appear, related to the changed living conditions, lack of food, absence of sanitation, the environmental effects, and disruption of the health services. Internal irradiation by ingestion of radioactive isotopes deposited on the ground would constitute a major hazard from the fallout. In the first few weeks following the attack iodine-131 would present the greatest hazard. Its main entry into the body would be through milk from livestock grazing on pastures contaminated with fallout; milk from local cattle pasturing in open land would thus be unsuitable for consumption. There is much speculation about the possible outbreaks of communicable diseases following a nuclear attack. Infection could emerge as a major problem. It constitutes a leading cause of death in burns. In the Japanese experience acute radiation sickness was generally accompanied by infectious complications

  9. An experimental system for release simulation of internal stores in a supersonic wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic parameters obtained from separation experiments of internal stores in a wind tunnel are significant in aircraft designs. Accurate wind tunnel tests can help to improve the release stability of the stores and in-flight safety of the aircrafts in supersonic environments. A simulative system for free drop experiments of internal stores based on a practical project is provided in this paper. The system contains a store release mechanism, a control system and an attitude measurement system. The release mechanism adopts a six-bar linkage driven by a cylinder, which ensures the release stability. The structure and initial aerodynamic parameters of the stores are also designed and adjusted. A high speed vision measurement system for high speed rolling targets is utilized to measure the pose parameters of the internal store models and an optimizing method for the coordinates of markers is presented based on a priori model. The experimental results show excellent repeatability of the system, and indicate that the position measurement precision is less than 0.13 mm, and the attitude measurement precision for pitch and yaw angles is less than 0.126°, satisfying the requirements of practical wind tunnel tests. A separation experiment for the internal stores is also conducted in the FL-3 wind tunnel of China Aerodynamics Research Institute.

  10. Two-dimensional modelling of thermonuclear combustion wave propagation in a z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhrev, V.V.; Rozanova, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The development of sausage-type instabilities in initially homogeneous z-pinch plasma column lead to the appearance of dense plasma which temperature is substantially higher than the average plasma temperature in the column. This fact leads to the idea of using this high temperature areas for thermonuclear combustion wave initiation along a z-pinch axis. Calculate solution of MHD-equations was made for the case of large radiative energy losses and thermonuclear heat release. The influence of thermonuclear heat emission on the dynamics of sausage instability growth is seen most obviously in the slowing-down of α-particles in the plasma. In the calculations we assumed local emission of energy by the α-particles in the plasma. To fulfill the condition for thermonuclear combustion wave propagation in the axial direction, it is essential to have ρr>A in the pinch, where ρ is the density of the material compressed by the magnetic field and r is the characteristic transverse dimension of the region occupied by that material (for example the radius), and A is a constant determined by the type of thermonuclear fuel and the compression conditions. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs

  11. The International Experimental Thermal Hydraulic Systems database – TIETHYS: A new NEA validation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, Upendra S.

    2018-07-22

    Nuclear reactor codes require validation with appropriate data representing the plant for specific scenarios. The thermal-hydraulic data is scattered in different locations and in different formats. Some of the data is in danger of being lost. A relational database is being developed to organize the international thermal hydraulic test data for various reactor concepts and different scenarios. At the reactor system level, that data is organized to include separate effect tests and integral effect tests for specific scenarios and corresponding phenomena. The database relies on the phenomena identification sections of expert developed PIRTs. The database will provide a summary of appropriate data, review of facility information, test description, instrumentation, references for the experimental data and some examples of application of the data for validation. The current database platform includes scenarios for PWR, BWR, VVER, and specific benchmarks for CFD modelling data and is to be expanded to include references for molten salt reactors. There are place holders for high temperature gas cooled reactors, CANDU and liquid metal reactors. This relational database is called The International Experimental Thermal Hydraulic Systems (TIETHYS) database and currently resides at Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the OECD and is freely open to public access. Going forward the database will be extended to include additional links and data as they become available. https://www.oecd-nea.org/tiethysweb/

  12. Experimental investigation of internal short circuits in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poramapojana, Poowanart

    With outstanding performance of Lithium-ion batteries, they have been widely used in many applications. For hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles, customer concerns of battery safety have been raised as a number of car accidents were reported. To evaluate safety performance of these batteries, a nail penetration test is used to simulate and induce internal short circuits instantaneously. Efforts to explain failure mechanisms of the penetration using electrochemical-thermal coupled models have been proposed. However, there is no experimental validation because researchers lack of a diagnostic tool to acquire important cell characteristics at a shorting location, such as shorting current and temperature. In this present work, diagnostic nails have been developed to acquire nail center temperatures and shorting current flow through the nails during nail penetration tests. Two types of cylindrical wall structures are used to construct the nails: a double-layered stainless steel wall and a composite cylindrical wall. An inner hollow cylinder functions as a sensor holder where two wires and one thermocouple are installed. To study experimental reproducibility and repeatability of experimental results, two nail penetration tests are conducted using two diagnostic nails with the double-layered wall. Experimental data shows that the shorting resistance at the initial stage is a critical parameter to obtain repeatable results. The average shorting current for both tests is approximately 40 C-rate. The fluctuation of the shorting current is due to random sparks and fire caused loose contacts between the nail and the cell components. Moreover, comparative experimental results between the two wall structures reveal that the wall structure does not affect the cell characteristics and Ohmic heat generation of the nail. The wall structure effects to current measurements inside the nail. With the composite wall, the actual current redistribution into the inner wall is

  13. Experimental Study of the Effect of Internal Defects on Stress Waves during Automated Fiber Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Han

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection technique of component defects is currently only realized to detect offline defects and online surface defects during automated fiber placement (AFP. The characteristics of stress waves can be effectively applied to identify and detect internal defects in material structure. However, the correlation mechanism between stress waves and internal defects remains unclear during the AFP process. This paper proposes a novel experimental method to test stress waves, where continuous loading induced by process itself is used as an excitation source without other external excitation. Twenty-seven groups of thermosetting prepreg laminates under different processing parameters are manufactured to obtain different void content. In order to quantitatively estimate the void content in the prepreg structure, the relation model between the void content and ultrasonic attenuation coefficient is revealed using an A-scan ultrasonic flaw detector and photographic methods by optical microscope. Furthermore, the high-frequency noises of stress waves are removed using Haar wavelet transform. The peaks, the Manhattan distance and mean stress during the laying process are analyzed and evaluated. Partial conclusions in this paper could provide theoretical support for online real-time detection of internal defects based on stress wave characteristics.

  14. Experimental and numerical investigation on the performance of an internally cooled dehumidifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Oguz Emrah; Çoban, Mustafa Turhan

    2016-12-01

    Liquid desiccant based dehumidifiers are important components of the air conditioning applications. Internally cooled dehumidifiers with liquid desiccants are deemed to be superior to the adiabatic types, thanks to the cooling medium which takes away the latent heat of vaporization occured when moist air contacts with liquid desiccant. However, its utilization in industrial applications is restricted due to the inherent corrosive characteristics of the liquid desiccants. In this study, an experimental chamber is built for epoxy coated plate fin type dehumidifier which is used in order to diminish the corrosive effect of the lithium chloride aqueous solution. Dehumidification effectiveness and moisture removal rate, two parameter indices, are adopted to measure the performance of the air conditioning system. The effect of inlet operating parameters on moisture removal rates is extensively analyzed. Two dimensional numerical model adapted from the conservation principles is utilized for obtainment of output parameters. Experimental results are compared with the numerical model and comparisons show that numerical outputs agrees with the experimental results. And also, dehumidification performance of lithium chloride and lithium bromide aqueous solutions are evaluated and compared against each other.

  15. Epidemiology of a thermonuclear bomb-burst over Nashville, Tennessee: a theoretic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    A thermonuclear bomb explosion over any city in the world would have a devastating effect on the population and environment. For those who survive, with or without injuries, life would become primitive with little or no uncontaminated food or water, and with inadequate housing, fuel, and medical care, resulting in a breakdown of family and interpersonal relationships. This theoretic study of the potential outcome of a thermonuclear bomb-burst over Nashville, Tennessee, discusses epidemiologically the wide range of medical and psychologic effects from the direct trauma of blast and fire, widespread epidemics of otherwise controlled disease, long-term chronic illness, genetic damage, and catastrophic environmental havoc

  16. Investigation of the stationary-thermonuclear-reaction realization possibility in a tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Reznik, S.N.; Fursa, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    The stationary (quasistationary) selfsustaining thermonuclear D-T reaction is shown to be possible in a toroidal device such as 'Tokamak' with large enough plasma radius. The stationary temperature of the plasma can be quite high. Thus when the transport processes are assumed to be neoclassical the temperature of the central part of a plasma colomn of radius approximately 10-200 cm in the stationary state is 70 keV.The stationary temperature distribution is reached spontaneously as a result of the thermal instability development if plasma is preheated to 10 keV. The stationary thermonuclear burning is also possible at lower temperatures if plasma energy balance is controlled

  17. Modeling and control simulation of an electromechanical mm-wave launching system for thermonuclear fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsironis, Christos, E-mail: ctsiron@mail.ntua.gr [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 157 73 Athens (Greece); Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54 136 Thessaloniki (Greece); Giannopoulos, Iordanis K.; Vasileiadou, Soultana; Kakogiannos, Ioannis D.; Kalligeropoulos, Dimitrios [Department of Automation, Technological Education Institute of Piraeus, 122 44 Piraeus (Greece)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Open-loop modeling and control simulation of an electromechanical mm-wave launcher. • Simulations of the experiment without employing the real (hardware) system. • Launcher mirror dynamics correspond to a second-order weakly-nonlinear system. • Closed-loop control design in terms of cascade PIDs achieves required performance. - Abstract: Controlled thermonuclear fusion via magnetic confinement, still in experimental stage, has the potential to become a viable and environment-friendly solution to the energy problem, especially for the high-power needs of modern industry. In order to optimize the operation of devices based on the tokamak principle, automatic control systems are envisaged to fulfill the requirements for the magnetic equilibrium and plasma stability, with copper coils, neutral gas injectors and microwave sources used as actuators. In present-day experiments, the implemented control loops are simple and practical, however in future devices like ITER (presently under construction) more sophisticated control design will be required, based on realistic closed-loop simulations with efficient computational tools and real-time diagnosing. For magnetohydrodynamic instability control, the system should include physics/engineering models for the plasma dynamics, the wave actuation and the diagnostic sensors, as well as controllers based on classical or modern principles. In this work, we present a model for a specific design of a controlled electromechanical millimeter-wave launcher, which executes the major part of the wave actuation, and perform numerical simulations of its open-loop dynamics and closed-loop control for scenarios relevant to tearing mode stabilization in medium-sized tokamaks.

  18. Experimental performance of an internal resistance heater for Langley 6-inch expansion tube driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, T. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the heating characteristics of an internal resistance heating element was conducted in the driver of the Langley 6-inch expansion tube to obtain actual operating conditions, to compare these results to theory, and to determine whether any modification need be made to the heater element. The heater was operated in pressurized helium from 138. MN/sq m to 62.1 MN/sq m. This investigation revealed large temperature variations within the heater element caused primarily by area reductions at insulator locations. These large temperature variations were reduced by welding small tabs over all grooves. Previous predictions of heater element and driver gas temperature were unacceptable so new equations were derived. These equations predict element and gas temperature within 10 percent of the test data when either the constant power cycle or the interrupted power cycle is used. Visual observation of the heater element, when exposed to the atmosphere with power on, resulted in a decision to limit the heater element to 815 K. Experimental shock Mach numbers are in good agreement with theory.

  19. Complex workplace radiation fields at European high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; D'Errico, F; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernàndez, F; Fuchs, A; Golnik, N; Lacoste, V; Leuschner, A; Sandri, S; Silari, M; Spurny, F; Wiegel, B; Wright, P

    2006-01-01

    This report outlines the research needs and research activities within Europe to develop new and improved methods and techniques for the characterization of complex radiation fields at workplaces around high-energy accelerators and the next generation of thermonuclear fusion facilities under the auspices of the COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry (CONRAD) project funded by the European Commission.

  20. MINBAR: A comprehensive study of 6000+ thermonuclear shell flashes from neutron stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Duncan; in't Zand, J.J.M.; Chenevez, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Thermonuclear (type-I) X-ray bursts have been observed from accreting neutron stars since the early 1970s. These events serve as a valuable diagnostic tool to constrain the source distance; accretion rate; accreted fuel composition, and hence evolutionary status of the donor; and even the neutron...

  1. Thermonuclear plasma physic: inertial confinement fusion; Physique des plasmas thermonucleaires: la fusion par confinement inertiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Ch.; Juraszek, D

    2001-07-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an approach to thermonuclear fusion in which the fuel contained in a spherical capsule is strongly compressed and heated to achieve ignition and burn. The released thermonuclear energy can be much higher than the driver energy, making energetic applications attractive. Many complex physical phenomena are involved by the compression process, but it is possible to use simple analytical models to analyze the main critical points. We first determine the conditions to obtain fuel ignition. High thermonuclear gains are achieved if only a small fraction of the fuel called hot spot is used to trigger burn in the main fuel compressed on a low isentrope. A simple hot spot model will be described. The high pressure needed to drive the capsule compression are obtained by the ablation process. A simple Rocket model describe the main features of the implosion phase. Several parameters have to be controlled during the compression: irradiation symmetry, hydrodynamical stability and when the driver is a laser, the problems arising from interaction of the EM wave with the plasma. Two different schemes are examined: Indirect Drive which uses X-ray generated in a cavity to drive the implosion and the Fast Ignitor concept using a ultra intense laser beam to create the hot spot. At the end we present the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) project. LMJ is scaled to a thermonuclear gain of the order of ten. (authors)

  2. Millihertz Quasi-periodic Oscillations and Thermonuclear Bursts from Terzan 5: A Showcase of Burning Regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linares, M.; Altamirano, D.; Chakrabarty, D.; Cumming, A.; Keek, L.

    2012-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the thermonuclear bursts and millihertz quasi-periodic oscillations (mHz QPOs) from the neutron star (NS) transient and 11 Hz X-ray pulsar IGR J17480-2446, located in the globular cluster Terzan 5. The increase in burst rate that we found during its 2010 outburst,

  3. 5th International Symposium on Experimental Mechanics (5-ISEM) and 9th Symposium on Optics in Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Furlong, Cosme; Barrientos, Bernardino; Pryputniewicz, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    This book contains papers of the 5th International Symposium on Experimental Mechanics (5-ISEM) and the 9th Symposium on Optics in Industry (9-SOI), whose general theme is Emerging Challenges for Experimental Mechanics in Energy and Environmental Applications. These symposia are organized by Centro de Investigaciones en Optica (CIO) and Mexican Academy for Optics (AMO), under the sponsorship of the Society of Experimental Mechanics (SEM) and other national and international Organizations; Symposia are interdisciplinary forums for engineers, technicians, researchers and managers involved in all fields of Optics, Opto-mechatronics, Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering. · Addresses a broad readership including graduate and postgraduate students, researchers, and engineers working in experimental mechanics and in the application of optical methods · Covers a broad spectrum of topics highlighting the use of optical methods in experimental mechanics, energy, and in the environment.

  4. Response strategies in an international strategic alliance experimental context: Cross-countries differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjemkes, B.V.; Furrer, O.; Adolfs, K.; Ulgen Aydinlik, A.

    2012-01-01

    International strategic alliances have grown increasingly popular in recent decades, yet their failure rate is extremely high. Poor management of adverse situations contributes significantly to such high failure rates. Moreover, the international environments in which international strategic

  5. Study of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in fusion tokamak plasmas. Application to the modelling of steady state and fast burn termination scenarios for the international experimental fusion reactor ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar Colome, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee]|[Universitat Polytechnica de Catalunya (Spain)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give a global scope of the problem of energy transport within a thermonuclear plasma in the context of its power balance and the implications when modelling ITER operating scenarios. This is made in two phases. First, by furnishing new elements to the existing models of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in a thermonuclear plasma. Second, by applying the improved models to plasma engineering studies of ITER operating scenarios. The scenarios modelled are the steady state operating point and the transient that appears to have the biggest technological implications: the fast burn termination. The conduction-convection losses are modelled through the energy confinement time. This parameter is empirically obtained from the existing experimental data, since the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In chapter 2 an expression for the energy confinement time is semi-analytically deduced from the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins local transport model. The current estimates of the synchrotron radiation losses are made with expressions of the dimensionless transparency factor deduced from a 0-dimensional cylindrical model proposed by Trubnikov in 1979. In chapter 3 realistic hypothesis for the cases of cylindrical and toroidal geometry are included in the model to deduce compact explicit expressions for the fast numerical computation of the synchrotron radiation losses. Numerical applications are provided for the cylindrical case. The results are checked against the existing models. In chapter 4, the nominal operating point of ITER and its thermal stability is studied by means of a 0-dimensional burn model of the thermonuclear plasma in ignition. This model is deduced by the elements furnished by the plasma particle and power balance. Possible heat overloading on the plasma facing components may provoke severe structural damage, implying potential safety problems related to tritium inventory and metal activation. In chapter 5, the assessment

  6. Monte Carlo and experimental internal radionuclide dosimetry in RANDO head phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghahraman Asl, Ruhollah; Nasseri, Shahrokh; Parach, Ali Asghar; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Momennezhad Mehdi; Davenport, David

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo techniques are widely employed in internal dosimetry to obtain better estimates of absorbed dose distributions from irradiation sources in medicine. Accurate 3D absorbed dosimetry would be useful for risk assessment of inducing deterministic and stochastic biological effects for both therapeutic and diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. The goal of this study was to experimentally evaluate the use of Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) Monte Carlo package for 3D internal dosimetry using the head portion of the RANDO phantom. GATE package (version 6.1) was used to create a voxel model of a human head phantom from computed tomography (CT) images. Matrix dimensions consisted of 319 × 216 × 30 voxels (0.7871 × 0.7871 × 5 mm 3 ). Measurements were made using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100). One rod-shaped source with 94 MBq activity of 99m Tc was positioned in the brain tissue of the posterior part of the human head phantom in slice number 2. The results of the simulation were compared with measured mean absorbed dose per cumulative activity (S value). Absorbed dose was also calculated for each slice of the digital model of the head phantom and dose volume histograms (DVHs) were computed to analyze the absolute and relative doses in each slice from the simulation data. The S-values calculated by GATE and TLD methods showed a significant correlation (correlation coefficient, r 2 ≥ 0.99, p < 0.05) with each other. The maximum relative percentage differences were ≤14 % for most cases. DVHs demonstrated dose decrease along the direction of movement toward the lower slices of the head phantom. Based on the results obtained from GATE Monte Carlopackage it can be deduced that a complete dosimetry simulation study, from imaging to absorbed dose map calculation, is possible to execute in a single framework.

  7. An Experimental Infarct Targeting the Internal Capsule: Histopathological and Ultrastructural Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Woo Han

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Stroke involving the cerebral white matter (WM has increased in prevalence, but most experimental studies have focused on ischemic injury of the gray matter. This study was performed to investigate the WM in a unique rat model of photothrombotic infarct targeting the posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC, focusing on the identification of the most vulnerable structure in WM by ischemic injury, subsequent glial reaction to the injury, and the fundamental histopathologic feature causing different neurologic outcomes. Methods Light microscopy with immunohistochemical stains and electron microscopic examinations of the lesion were performed between 3 hours and 21 days post-ischemic injury. Results Initial pathological change develops in myelinated axon, concomitantly with reactive change of astrocytes. The first pathology to present is nodular loosening to separate the myelin sheath with axonal wrinkling. Subsequent pathologies include rupture of the myelin sheath with extrusion of axonal organelles, progressive necrosis, oligodendrocyte degeneration and death, and reactive gliosis. Increase of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP immunoreactivity is an early event in the ischemic lesion. WM pathologies result in motor dysfunction. Motor function recovery after the infarct was correlated to the extent of PLIC injury proper rather than the infarct volume. Conclusions Pathologic changes indicate that the cerebral WM, independent of cortical neurons, is highly vulnerable to the effects of focal ischemia, among which myelin sheath is first damaged. Early increase of GFAP immunoreactivity indicates that astrocyte response initially begins with myelinated axonal injury, and supports the biologic role related to WM injury or plasticity. The reaction of astrocytes in the experimental model might be important for the study of pathogenesis and treatment of the WM stroke.

  8. Analytical and experimental studies of leak location and environment characterization for the international space station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woronowicz, Michael; Blackmon, Rebecca; Brown, Martin [Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies, Inc, 7701 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); Abel, Joshua; Hawk, Doug [Alliant Techsystems, Inc, 5050 Powder Mill Road, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States); Autrey, David; Glenn, Jodie [Lockheed Martin, 1300 Hercules, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Bond, Tim; Buffington, Jesse [NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, 2101 NASA Pkwy, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Cheng, Edward; Ma, Jonathan; Rossetti, Dino [Conceptual Analytics, 8209 Woburn Abbey Rd, Glenn Dale, MD 20769 (United States); DeLatte, Danielle [ASRC Federal Space and Defense, 7000 Muirkirk Meadows Drive, Suite 100, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Garcia, Kelvin; Mohammed, Jelila; Montt de Garcia, Kristina; Perry, Radford [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Tull, Kimathi [Jackson and Tull, 7375 Executive Pl, Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Warren, Eric [Wyle STE Group, 1290 Hercules Ave, Houston, TX 77058-2769 (United States)

    2014-12-09

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to demonstrate the ability to detect NH{sub 3} coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations (“directionality”). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lb{sub m/}/yr. to about 1 lb{sub m}/day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Innovative Internal Trailing Edge Cooling Configurations with Pentagonal Arrangement and Elliptic Pin Fin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tarchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a heat transfer experimental study of four different internal trailing edge cooling configurations based on pin fin schemes. The aim of the study is the comparison between innovative configurations and standard ones. So, a circular pin fin configuration with an innovative pentagonal scheme is compared to a standard staggered scheme, while two elliptic pin fin configurations are compared to each other turning the ellipse from the streamwise to the spanwise direction. For each configuration, heat transfer and pressure loss measurements were made keeping the Mach number fixed at 0.3 and varying the Reynolds number from 9000 to 27000. In order to investigate the overall behavior of both endwall and pedestals, heat transfer measurements are performed using a combined transient technique. Over the endwall surface, the classic transient technique with thermochromic liquid crystals allows the measurement of a detailed heat transfer coefficient (HTC map. Pin fins are made of high thermal conductivity material, and an inverse data reduction method based on a finite element code allows to evaluate the mean HTC of each pin fin. Results show that the pentagonal arrangement generates a nonuniform HTC distribution over the endwall surface, while, in terms of average values, it is equivalent to the staggered configuration. On the contrary, the HTC map of the two elliptic configurations is similar, but the spanwise arrangement generates higher heat transfer coefficients and pressure losses.

  10. Analytical and Experimental Studies of Leak Location and Environment Characterization for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronowicz, Michael; Abel, Joshua; Autrey, David; Blackmon, Rebecca; Bond, Tim; Brown, Martin; Buffington, Jesse; Cheng, Edward; DeLatte, Danielle; Garcia, Kelvin; hide

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to detect NH3 coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations ("directionality"). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lb-mass/yr. to about 1 lb-mass/day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  11. Response of beryllium to severe thermal shocks -simulation of disruption and vertical displacement events in future thermonuclear devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, J.; Duwe, R.; Roedig, M.; Schuster, A. [Association Euratom-Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Merola, M.; Qian, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium will play an important role for plasma facing components in next step thermonuclear fusion devices such as ITER. In particular for the first wall beryllium will be used with an armor thickness of several millimeters. However, during plasma instabilities they will experience severe thermal shocks. Here plasma disruptions with deposited energy densities of several ten MJm{sup -2} are the most essential damaging mechanism. However, a signifant fraction of the incident energy will be absorbed by a dense cloud of ablation vapor, hence reducing the effective energy density at the beryllium surface to values in the order of 10 MJm{sup -2}. To investigate the material response to all these plasma instabilities thermal shock tests on small scale test coupons (disruption effects) and on actively cooled divertor modules (VDEs) have been performed in the electron beam test facility JUDITH at ITER relevant surface heat loads. These tests have been performed on different bulk beryllium grades and on plasma sprayed coatings; the influence of pulse duration, power density, and temperature effects has been investigated experimentally. Detailed in-situ diagnostics (for beam characterization, optical pyrometry etc.) and post mortem analyses (profilometry, metallography, optical and electron microscopy) have been applied to quantify the resulting material damage. 1D- and 2D models have developed to verify the experimental results obtained in the electron beam simulation experiments. (J.P.N.)

  12. International Conference in Memory of Stanley Milgram “Obedience to Authority: Experimental Obedience-Paradigm Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Y Voronov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the information about the international conference “Obedience to Authority: Experimental Obedience-Paradigm yesterday, today, tomorrow”, held in Moscow State Regional Institute of Humanities and Social Studies, the main directions of its work and the subject of scientific reports.

  13. Vienna International Summer School on Experimental and Clinical Oncology for Medical Students : An Austrian Cancer Education Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fromm-Haidenberger, Sabine; Pohl, Gudrun; Widder, Joachim; Kren, Gerhard; Fitzal, Florian; Bartsch, Rupert; de Vries, Jakob; Zielinski, Christoph; Poetter, Richard

    The "International Summer School on Experimental and Clinical Oncology for Medical Students" is organised at the Medical University of Vienna to teach a multidisciplinary approach to oncology to medical students in the final phase of their studies. The program includes biology, diagnosis, clinical

  14. Gamma-ray emission spectrum from thermonuclear fusion reactions without intrinsic broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nocente, M.; Källne, J.; Salewski, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    First principle calculations of the gamma-ray energy spectrum arising from thermonuclear reactions without intrinsic broadening in fusion plasmas are presented, extending the theoretical framework needed to interpret measurements up to the accuracy level enabled by modern high resolution instrume...... information that can be extracted from the gamma-ray emission spectrum of fusion reactions without intrinsic broadening and are of relevance for applications to high performance plasmas of present and next generation devices.......First principle calculations of the gamma-ray energy spectrum arising from thermonuclear reactions without intrinsic broadening in fusion plasmas are presented, extending the theoretical framework needed to interpret measurements up to the accuracy level enabled by modern high resolution...... instruments. An analytical formula for the spectrum from Maxwellian plasmas, which extends to higher temperatures than the results previously available in the literature, has been derived and used to discuss the assumptions and limitations of earlier models. In case of radio-frequency injection, numerical...

  15. A Simulation Tool for the Conceptual Design of Thermonuclear Pulsors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, R.; Gonzalez, J.; Clausse, A.

    2003-01-01

    We worked with an effective model that calculates the neutron production of Plasma Focus devices.From experimental data we obtained different fitting functions for the model lumped parameters.By this way, we obtained a simple tool for neutron yield calculation.This tool is very useful at a conceptual design stage, because it can predict easily if a given PF device would be suitable for a certain application

  16. Hydrodynamic simulations of a combined hydrogen, helium thermonuclear runaway on a 10-km neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.; Kenyon, S.; Truran, J.W.; Sparks, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    We have used a Lagrangian, hydrodynamic stellar-evolution computer code to evolve a thermonuclear runaway in the accreted hydrogen rich envelope of a 1.0M, 10-km neutron star. Our simulation produced an outburst which lasted about 2000 sec and peak effective temperature was 3 keV. The peak luminosity exceeded 2 x 10 5 L. A shock wave caused a precursor in the light curve which lasted 10 -5 sec

  17. Sensitivity study of explosive nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernovae: I. Modification of individual thermonuclear reaction rates

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Eduardo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Type Ia supernovae contribute significantly to the nucleosynthesis of many Fe-group and intermediate-mass elements. However, the robustness of nucleosynthesis obtained via models of this class of explosions has not been studied in depth until now. Purpose: We explore the sensitivity of the nucleosynthesis resulting from thermonuclear explosions of massive white dwarfs with respect to uncertainties in nuclear reaction rates. We put particular emphasis on indentifying ...

  18. Neutronics and mass transport in a chemical reactor associated with controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.; Lazareth, O.W.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-05-01

    The formation of ozone from oxygen and the dissociation carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and oxygen is studied in a gamma-neutron chemical process blanket associated with a controlled thermonuclear reactor. Materials used for reactor tube wall will affect the efficiency of the energy absorption by the reactants and consequently the yield of reaction products. Three kinds of materials, aluminum, stainless steel and fiber (Al 2 O 3 )-aluminium are investigated for the tube wall material in the study

  19. Charged-Particle Thermonuclear Reaction Rates: IV. Comparison to Previous Work

    OpenAIRE

    Iliadis, Christian; Longland, Richard; Champagne, Art; Coc, Alain

    2010-01-01

    We compare our Monte Carlo reaction rates (see Paper II of this series) to previous results that were obtained by using the classical method of computing thermonuclear reaction rates. For each reaction, the comparison is presented using two types of graphs: the first shows the change in reaction rate uncertainties, while the second displays our new results normalized to the previously recommended reaction rate. We find that the rates have changed significantly for almost all reactions conside...

  20. Frontiers in propulsion research: Laser, matter-antimatter, excited helium, energy exchange thermonuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papailiou, D. D. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Concepts are described that presently appear to have the potential for propulsion applications in the post-1990 era of space technology. The studies are still in progress, and only the current status of investigation is presented. The topics for possible propulsion application are lasers, nuclear fusion, matter-antimatter annihilation, electronically excited helium, energy exchange through the interaction of various fields, laser propagation, and thermonuclear fusion technology.

  1. Thermonuclear propaganda: presentations of nuclear strategy in the early atomic age

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited As the image of the thermonuclear apocalypse loomed over the early years of the Cold War and technological advancements brought the possibility of such a fate closer to reality, the U.S.-Soviet conflict became increasingly a battle for hearts and minds—on the home front as well as among allied populations. However, public diplomacy in a democracy is more complicated than a public relations campaign, for actions often trump words, parti...

  2. Eye-in-Hand Manipulation for Remote Handling: Experimental Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Longchuan; Suominen, Olli; Aref, Mohammad M.; Mattila, Jouni; Ruiz, Emilio; Esque, Salvador

    2018-03-01

    A prototype for eye-in-hand manipulation in the context of remote handling in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)1 is presented in this paper. The setup consists of an industrial robot manipulator with a modified open control architecture and equipped with a pair of stereoscopic cameras, a force/torque sensor, and pneumatic tools. It is controlled through a haptic device in a mock-up environment. The industrial robot controller has been replaced by a single industrial PC running Xenomai that has a real-time connection to both the robot controller and another Linux PC running as the controller for the haptic device. The new remote handling control environment enables further development of advanced control schemes for autonomous and semi-autonomous manipulation tasks. This setup benefits from a stereovision system for accurate tracking of the target objects with irregular shapes. The overall environmental setup successfully demonstrates the required robustness and precision that remote handling tasks need.

  3. Annual report of the Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research, JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-02-01

    The JFT-2 operating regime was extended to higher toroidal field of 18 kG. Plasma confinements were studied on impurities, instabilities, plasma-wall interaction. Properties of a plasma with a separatrix magnetic surface and plasma behaviour in the scrape-off layer were studied in JFT-2a. In the diagnostics, a grazing-incidence vacuum ultra-violet spectrometer for studies on impurities was completed and put into operation. Several minor improvement and remodelling on the JFT-2 and JFT-2a tokamaks were carried out for the convenience of operation. In the plasma heating, constructions of the JFT-2 neutral injection system and the injector test stand ITS-2 for development of the higher energy ion source were started. The design of 200 kW RF power source for the plasma heating in JFT-2 was also made. Research in surface effects in fusion devices started at April 1, 1975. Experimental apparatus was designed and constructed in this fiscal year. A group for superconducting magnet development for fusion device was set up in January, 1976. Theoretical works continued in the analyses on transport processes, plasma heating, and mhd stabilities with an increasing effort on computational studies. A preliminary design of the 100 MW sub(t) tokamak experimental fusion reactor has been started in April, 1975. At the same time a conceptual design of the 2000 MW sub(t) power reactor was further improved. In the development of large tokamak device of next generation, programs on JT-60 and JT-4 are being carried out. Research and development works and detailed design studies on JT-60 are started based on the preliminary design studies made in the previous year. Preliminary design studies on JT-4 are completed. (auth.)

  4. Experimental Investigation of 2:1 and 3:1 Internal Resonances in Nonlinear MEMS Arch Resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Ramini, Abdallah

    2016-12-05

    We demonstrate experimentally internal resonances in MEMS resonators. The investigation is conducted on in-plane MEMS arch resonators fabricated with a highly doped silicon. The resonators are actuated electrostatically and their stiffness are tuned by electrothermal loading by passing an electrical current though the microstructures. We show that through this tuning, the ratio of the various resonance frequencies can be varied and set at certain ratios. Particularly, we adjust the resonance frequencies of two different vibrational modes to 2:1 and 3:1. Finally, we validate the internal resonances at these ratios through frequency-response curves and FFTs.

  5. Thermonuclear Power Engineering: 60 Years of Research. What Comes Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, V. S.

    2017-12-01

    This paper summarizes results of more than half a century of research of high-temperature plasmas heated to a temperature of more than 100 million degrees (104 eV) and magnetically insulated from the walls. The energy of light-element fusion can be used for electric power generation or as a source of fissionable fuel production (development of a fusion neutron source—FNS). The main results of studies of tokamak plasmas which were obtained in the Soviet Union with the greatest degree of thermal plasma isolation among all other types of devices are presented. As a result, research programs of other countries were redirected to tokamaks. Later, on the basis of the analysis of numerous experiments, the international fusion community gradually came to an opinion that it is possible to build a tokamak (ITER) with Q > 1 (where Q is the ratio of the fusion power to the external power injected into the plasma). The ITER program objective is to achieve Q = 1-10 for a discharge time of up to 1000 s. The implementation of this goal does not solve the problem of a steadystate operation. The solution to this problem is a reliable first wall and current generation. This is a task of the next fusion power plant construction stage, called DEMO. Comparison of DEMO and FNS parameters shows that, at this development stage, the operating parameters and conditions of these devices are identical.

  6. Charged particle induced thermonuclear reaction rates: a compilation for astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grama, C.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the results of the European network NACRE (Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of REaction rates). The principal reason for setting up the NACRE network has been the necessity of building up a well-documented and detailed compilation of rates for charged-particle induced reactions on stable targets up to Si and on unstable nuclei of special significance in astrophysics. This work is meant to supersede the only existing compilation of reaction rates issued by Fowler and collaborators. The main goal of NACRE network was the transparency in the procedure of calculating the rates. More specifically this compilation aims at: 1. updating the experimental and theoretical data; 2. distinctly identifying the sources of the data used in rate calculation; 3. evaluating the uncertainties and errors; 4. providing numerically integrated reaction rates; 5. providing reverse reaction rates and analytical approximations of the adopted rates. The cross section data and/or resonance parameters for a total of 86 charged-particle induced reactions are given and the corresponding reaction rates are calculated and given in tabular form. Uncertainties are analyzed and realistic upper and lower bounds of the rates are determined. The compilation is concerned with the reaction rates that are large enough for the target lifetimes shorter than the age of the Universe, taken equal to 15 x 10 9 y. The reaction rates are provided for temperatures lower than T = 10 10 K. In parallel with the rate compilation a cross section data base has been created and located at the site http://pntpm.ulb.ac.be/nacre..htm. (authors)

  7. Experimental fracture studies on carbon steel elbows with and without internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, P.; Saravanan, M.; Vishnuvardhan, S.; Pukazhendhi, D.M.; Raghava, G.; Sahu, M.K.; Chattopadhyay, J.; Dutta, B.K.; Vaze, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    Pipe bends or elbows are commonly used components for nuclear power plant piping system. In service, these piping components are subjected to internal pressure in addition to bending loads and the internal pressure is known to have a significant effect on the load carrying capacity of these components. Hence, a systematic study was carried out to investigate and quantify the effect of internal pressure on the fracture behaviour of elbows used in nuclear power plant piping system. Fracture studies were conducted on five 219 mm diameter carbon steel elbows with and without internal pressure under in-plane opening moment. The investigations have shown that the presence of a circumferential notch at the intrados has a more detrimental effect on the fracture behaviour of the elbow, when compared with the presence of an axial notch at the intrados. It is also found that internal pressure plays a significant role in reducing the ovalization. -- Highlights: • Fracture studies were conducted on elbows with and without internal pressure. • Effect of internal pressure on load carrying capacity of the elbows was studied. • Various data acquired during the study include load, LLD, CMOD, ovality of the elbow. • Circumferential notch at intrados significantly affects elbow load carrying capacity

  8. Definition of acceptance criteria for the ITER divertor plasma-facing components through systematic experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escourbiac, F; Richou, M; Guigon, R; Durocher, A; Schlosser, J; Grosman, A [CEA/IRFM, F-13108, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Constans, S [AREVA-NP, Le Creusot (France); Merola, M [ITER Organization, Cadarache (France); Riccardi, B [Fusion For Energy, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: frederic.escourbiac@cea.fr

    2009-12-15

    Experience has shown that a critical part of the high-heat flux (HHF) plasma-facing component (PFC) is the armour to heat sink bond. An experimental study was performed in order to define acceptance criteria with regards to thermal hydraulics and fatigue performance of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor PFCs. This study, which includes the manufacturing of samples with calibrated artificial defects relevant to the divertor design, is reported in this paper. In particular, it was concluded that defects detectable with non-destructive examination (NDE) techniques appeared to be acceptable during HHF experiments relevant to heat fluxes expected in the ITER divertor. On the basis of these results, a set of acceptance criteria was proposed and applied to the European vertical target medium-size qualification prototype: 98% of the inspected carbon fibre composite (CFC) monoblocks and 100% of tungsten (W) monoblock and flat tiles elements (i.e. 80% of the full units) were declared acceptable.

  9. Definition of acceptance criteria for the ITER divertor plasma-facing components through systematic experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escourbiac, F.; Richou, M.; Guigon, R.; Constans, S.; Durocher, A.; Merola, M.; Schlosser, J.; Riccardi, B.; Grosman, A.

    2009-12-01

    Experience has shown that a critical part of the high-heat flux (HHF) plasma-facing component (PFC) is the armour to heat sink bond. An experimental study was performed in order to define acceptance criteria with regards to thermal hydraulics and fatigue performance of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor PFCs. This study, which includes the manufacturing of samples with calibrated artificial defects relevant to the divertor design, is reported in this paper. In particular, it was concluded that defects detectable with non-destructive examination (NDE) techniques appeared to be acceptable during HHF experiments relevant to heat fluxes expected in the ITER divertor. On the basis of these results, a set of acceptance criteria was proposed and applied to the European vertical target medium-size qualification prototype: 98% of the inspected carbon fibre composite (CFC) monoblocks and 100% of tungsten (W) monoblock and flat tiles elements (i.e. 80% of the full units) were declared acceptable.

  10. Definition of acceptance criteria for the ITER divertor plasma-facing components through systematic experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escourbiac, F; Richou, M; Guigon, R; Durocher, A; Schlosser, J; Grosman, A; Constans, S; Merola, M; Riccardi, B

    2009-01-01

    Experience has shown that a critical part of the high-heat flux (HHF) plasma-facing component (PFC) is the armour to heat sink bond. An experimental study was performed in order to define acceptance criteria with regards to thermal hydraulics and fatigue performance of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor PFCs. This study, which includes the manufacturing of samples with calibrated artificial defects relevant to the divertor design, is reported in this paper. In particular, it was concluded that defects detectable with non-destructive examination (NDE) techniques appeared to be acceptable during HHF experiments relevant to heat fluxes expected in the ITER divertor. On the basis of these results, a set of acceptance criteria was proposed and applied to the European vertical target medium-size qualification prototype: 98% of the inspected carbon fibre composite (CFC) monoblocks and 100% of tungsten (W) monoblock and flat tiles elements (i.e. 80% of the full units) were declared acceptable.

  11. Evaluation of the cross-sections of threshold reactions leading to the production of long-lived radionuclides during irradiation of steels by thermonuclear spectrum neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.I.; Buleeva, N.N.; Manokhin, V.N.; Mikhajlyukova, M.V.; Nasyrova, S.M.; Skripova, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    The present paper analyses and evaluates the cross-sections of threshold reactions leading to the production of long-lived radionuclides during the irradiation, by thermonuclear spectrum neutrons, of steels containing V, Ti, Cr, Fe and Ni. On the basis of empirical systematics. a new evaluation of the (n,2n), (n,p), (n,np), (n,α) and (n,nα) excitation functions is made for all isotopes of V, Ti, Cr, Fe and Ni and for intermediate isotopes produced in the chain from irradiated isotopes up to production of the long-lived radionuclides 39 Ar, 42 Ar, 41 Ca, 53 Mn, 60 Fe, 60 Co, 59 Ni and 63 Ni. A comparison is made with the experimental and other evaluated data. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the cross-sections of threshold reactions leading to the production of long-lived radionuclides during irradiation of steels by thermonuclear spectrum neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Blokhin, A I; Manokhin, V N; Mikhajlyukova, M V; Nasyrova, S M; Skripova, M V

    2001-01-01

    The present paper analyses and evaluates the cross-sections of threshold reactions leading to the production of long-lived radionuclides during the irradiation, by thermonuclear spectrum neutrons, of steels containing V, Ti, Cr, Fe and Ni. On the basis of empirical systematics. a new evaluation of the (n,2n), (n,p), (n,np), (n,alpha) and (n,n alpha) excitation functions is made for all isotopes of V, Ti, Cr, Fe and Ni and for intermediate isotopes produced in the chain from irradiated isotopes up to production of the long-lived radionuclides sup 3 sup 9 Ar, sup 4 sup 2 Ar, sup 4 sup 1 Ca, sup 5 sup 3 Mn, sup 6 sup 0 Fe, sup 6 sup 0 Co, sup 5 sup 9 Ni and sup 6 sup 3 Ni. A comparison is made with the experimental and other evaluated data.

  13. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of internal heat exchanger influence on CO{sub 2} trans-critical cycle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigola, Joaquim; Ablanque, Nicolas; Perez-Segarra, Carlos D.; Oliva, Assensi [Centre Tecnologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), ETSEIAT, C. Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    The present paper is a numerical and experimental comparative study of the whole vapour compression refrigerating cycle in general, and reciprocating compressors in particular, with the aim of showing the possibilities that CO{sub 2} offers for commercial refrigeration, considering a single-stage trans-critical cycle using semi-hermetic reciprocating compressors under small cooling capacity systems. The present work is focussed on the influence of using an internal heat exchanger (IHX) in order to improve the cycle performance under real working conditions. In order to validate the numerical results, an experimental unit specially designed and built to analyze trans-critical refrigerating equipments considering IHX has been built. Both numerical results and experimental data show reasonable good agreement, while the comparative global values conclude the improvement of cooling capacity and COP when IHX is considered in the CO{sub 2} trans-critical cycle. (author)

  14. Experimental study of hydrogen as a fuel additive in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saanum, Inge

    2008-07-01

    Combustion of hydrocarbons in internal combustion engines results in emissions that can be harmful both to human health and to the environment. Although the engine technology is improving, the emissions of NO{sub x}, PM and UHC are still challenging. Besides, the overall consumption of fossil fuel and hence the emissions of CO{sub 2} are increasing because of the increasing number of vehicles. This has lead to a focus on finding alternative fuels and alternative technologies that may result in lower emissions of harmful gases and lower CO{sub 2} emissions. This thesis treats various topics that are relevant when using blends of fuels in different internal combustion engine technologies, with a particular focus on using hydrogen as a fuel additive. The topics addressed are especially the ones that impact the environment, such as emissions of harmful gases and thermal efficiency (fuel consumption). The thesis is based on experimental work performed at four different test rigs: 1. A dynamic combustion rig with optical access to the combustion chamber where spark ignited premixed combustion could be studied by means of a Schlieren optical setup and a high speed video camera. 2. A spark ignition natural gas engine rig with an optional exhaust gas recycling system. 3. A 1-cylinder diesel engine prepared for homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. 4. A 6-cylinder standard diesel engine The engine rigs were equipped with cylinder pressure sensors, engine dynamometers, exhaust gas analyzers etc. to enable analyses of the effects of different fuels. The effect of hydrogen blended with methane and natural gas in spark ignited premixed combustion was investigated in the dynamic combustion rig and in a natural gas engine. In the dynamic combustion rig, the effect of hydrogen added to methane on the flame speed and the flame structure was investigated at elevated pressure and temperature. A considerable increase in the flame speed was observed when adding 30 vol

  15. Nuclear fusion and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Taijiro

    1987-01-01

    Work for design, research and development is expected to start in 1988 for a new nuclear fusion reactor called ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor), which is to be constructed and operated through cooperation among Japan, U.S., Soviet Union and EC. Many talks and discussions concerning the work have been made on various occasions, including the Reagan-Gorbachev talks at Geneva in November 1985, 5th Fusion Working Group meeting in Germany in January 1986, extraordinary FWG meeting at Tokyo in February-March 1986, 11th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Control held under IAEA at Kyoto in November 1986, and first formal four-party (Japan, U.S., Soviet Union, EC) meeting at the IAEA headquarters in March this year. The ITER Technical Working Group was established and its first meeting was held on May 21 - 23, 1987. It was concluded in the meeting that the operation of ITER will be performed in two phases intended for nuclear combustion plasma physics studies and stationary operation, respectively. Major research and development activities carried out in the U.S., Europe, the Soviet Union, Japan and IAEA in connection with the development of ITER are outlined. (Nogami, K.)

  16. Thermal challenges for ITER and for the thermonuclear fusion by magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosman, A.; Magaud, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    In the heart of the sun and other stars, light nuclei combine together to make heavier nuclei. This fusion process releases an enormous amount of energy at the origin of the heat and light received on the Earth. Mastering such reactions for energy generation would open the way to practically inexhaustible resources. This is the objective of researches started by the main industrial nations. After a recall of the main principles of thermonuclear fusion and plasma confinement, this article focusses on the components of a reactor submitted to strong thermal stresses: the plasma facing components and the tritium generating blanket. (J.S.)

  17. Charged-particle thermonuclear reaction rates: IV. Comparison to previous work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadis, C.; Longland, R.; Champagne, A.E.; Coc, A.

    2010-01-01

    We compare our Monte Carlo reaction rates (see Paper II of this issue) to previous results that were obtained by using the classical method of computing thermonuclear reaction rates. For each reaction, the comparison is presented using two types of graphs: the first shows the change in reaction rate uncertainties, while the second displays our new results normalized to the previously recommended reaction rate. We find that the rates have changed significantly for almost all reactions considered here. The changes are caused by (i) our new Monte Carlo method of computing reaction rates (see Paper I of this issue), and (ii) newly available nuclear physics information (see Paper III of this issue).

  18. Effect of plasma physics on choices of first wall materials and structures for a thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Impurity ions adversely affect the behavior of present-day tokamaks, and control of impurities is expected to be a key element in determining the feasibility of thermonuclear fusion reactors. The plasma-surface interactions for tokamaks and several techniques for controlling impurities are described. The plasma-surface problem of next generation devices PLT, PDX, DIII and TFTR is expected to be similar to those encountered in a reactor. For these devices calculations indicate that most of the particle energy efflux will be in the 1 keV region. Ironically this energy region has not yet been investigated thoroughly by the surface physicists

  19. A Remarkable Three Hour Thermonuclear Burst From 4U 1820-30

    OpenAIRE

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Brown, Edward F.

    2001-01-01

    We present a detailed observational and theoretical study of a ~3 hr long X-ray burst (the ``super burst'') observed by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) from the low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) 4U 1820-30. This is the longest X-ray burst ever observed from this source, and perhaps one of the longest ever observed in great detail from any source. We show that the super burst is thermonuclear in origin. The level of the accretion driven flux as well as the total energy release of ~1.5 x 10^{...

  20. Thermal problems in thermonuclear fusion; Les problemes thermiques dans la fusion thermonucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebut, P.H. [Academie des Sciences, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    This article makes a status of the recent advances in thermonuclear fusion research: deuterium-tritium fusion reaction; production of tritium; energy status of the fusion reaction; the two ways of plasma confinement: inertial and magnetic; Tokamaks; present day situation: JET and ITER; magnetic confinement losses; radiation losses of the plasma; plasma-divertor plates interactions; 14 MeV neutrons and blanket; liquid metal blankets; water-cooled or helium-cooled blankets; other future possible solutions: fluidized beds, fusion reactors and hybrid fusion-fission reactors. (J.S.)

  1. Experimental study of humidity distribution inside electronic enclosure and effect of internal heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion reliability of electronic products is a key factor for electronics industry, and today there is a large demand for performance reliability in a wide range of temperature and humidity during day and night time periods. Corrosion failures are still a challenge due to the combined effects...... of temperature, humidity and corrosion accelerating species in the atmosphere. Moreover the surface region of printed circuit board assemblies is often contaminated by various aggressive chemical species.This study describes the overall effect of the exposure to severe climate conditions and internal heat cycles...... on the humidity and temperature profile inside typical electronic enclosures. Defined parameters include external temperature and humidity conditions, temperature and time of the internal heat cycle, thermal mass, and ports/openings size. The effect of the internal humidity on electronic reliability has been...

  2. Experimental performance investigation of glazing system combined with internal roller blinds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Iversen, Tore Dahl

    2016-01-01

    Modern low-energy buildings are often associated with efficient shading devices, as an inevitable component to reduce the peak heat gain in the building and to improve visual comfort. Internal shading devices may have inferior performance compared to external shading, but these are still the most...... used in practice due to lower cost, simplicity and better acceptance between architects and users. The interplay between glazing systems and internal shading devices has been studied and in everyday practice this interplay is described by the solar shading coefficient and the total g......-value of the system (window + roller blind). Solar shading coefficient in such practice is assumed to be independent of the window properties and solar incidence angle. This paper is aimed to illustrate the deviation between the actual and assumed performance of the window system with internal roller blind. This task...

  3. Giersch International Symposion 2016 : Week 1 : Experimental Search for Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Experimental Search for Quantum Gravity

    2018-01-01

    This book summarizes recent developments in the research area of quantum gravity phenomenology. A series of short and nontechnical essays lays out the prospects of various experimental possibilities and their current status. Finding observational evidence for the quantization of space-time was long thought impossible. In the last decade however, new experimental design and technological advances have changed the research landscape and opened new perspectives on quantum gravity. Formerly dominated by purely theoretical constructions, quantum gravity now has a lively phenomenology to offer. From high precision measurements using macroscopic quantum oscillators to new analysis methods of the cosmic microwave background, no stone is being left unturned in the experimental search for quantum gravity. This book sheds new light on the connection of astroparticle physics with the quantum gravity problem. Gravitational waves and their detection are covered. It illustrates findings from the interconnection between gene...

  4. Experimental and numerical investigation of the internal kinetics of a surf-zone plunging breaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emarat, Narumon; Forehand, David I.M.; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    . In the hybrid numerical scheme, the main model solves the Navier–Stokes equations using a Finite Volume method and the free-surface is simulated using a Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. An important feature of this work is that, unlike in most other comparisons between numerical and experimental results, the exact...

  5. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To uniformly bake the bellows provided for thermal expansion absorption in a toroidal vacuum vessel with no hinderance to the bellows' deformation. Constitution: The outer circumference of bellows is covered with a flexible heat insulation material that does not hinder the bellows from deformation and a heater for supplementing heat radiated from the bellows upon baking is provided in the heat insulating material. The heat insulation material employed is a cotton like material such as asbestos, or glass wool. Baking for the bellows is conducted by way of heat conduction from a heater provided other than in the bellows and the heater provided in the bellows is utilized for supplementing the amount of heat dissipated from the bellows. (Ikeda, J.)

  6. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON A VAPOR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION CYCLE BY ADDING INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asmail Eleiwi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thispaper presents practical study to improve the indication COP of a vaporcompression refrigeration cycle in instrumented automobile air conditioner bydesigning internal heat exchanger and installing it in the vapor compressionrefrigeration cycle.  Two cases of  vapor compression refrigeration cycle were takenin this paper:  the first case is thatthe vapor compression refrigeration cycle without internal heat exchanger andin  the second case the vapor compressionrefrigeration cycle with heat exchanger ; in these two cases, the temperatureat each point of  a vapor compressionrefrigeration cycle, the low and the high pressure ,the indoor temperature andthe outdoor temperature were measured at each time at compressor speed 1450 rpmand 2900 rpm for each blower speed 1, blower speed 2 and blower speed 3.Therefrigerant fluid was used in the vapor compression refrigeration cycle withoutIHE and with IHE is R134a..

  7. Dependence of ΔE effect on internal stresses in nickel: Experimental results by laser interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicharro, J.M.; Bayon, A.; Salazar, F.

    2006-01-01

    The speckle heterodyne interferometry is applied to the study of the dependence of Young's modulus on both the magnetic field and the internal stresses in a soft ferromagnetic material. Young's modulus is determined from the first natural longitudinal frequency of a slender magnetic rod positioned within a solenoid. Vibration of the sample is detected by an optical heterodyne system with a wide bandwidth. The samples are heated to above the Curie point and then cooled at several rates in order to induce different internal stresses. The study refers to nickel rods 10mm in diameter and 110mm in length. The grain sizes of the samples are also determined and related to changes in ΔE

  8. Experimental Investigation on the Internal Resistance of Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Cells during Calendar Ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    on the obtained laboratory results, an empirical ageing model was developed; the model is able to predict with accurately the increase of the internal resistance of Lithium-ion batteries during calendar (storage) ageing. Based on the proposed ageing model, it was found out that the internal resistance......Lithium-ion batteries are increasingly considered for a wide area of applications because of their superior characteristics in comparisons to other energy storage technologies. However, at present, Lithium-ion batteries are expensive storage devices and consequently their ageing behavior must...... be known in order to estimate their economic viability in different application. The ageing behavior of Lithium-ion batteries is described by the fade of their discharge capacity and by the decrease of their power capability. The capability of a Lithium-ion battery to deliver or to absorb a certain power...

  9. Experimentation de la thermique interne d'une case en geobeton en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pour appréhender le comportement in situ du "géobéton" ; une étude expérimentale des transferts thermiques est effectuée dans une case ronde toute en "géobéton". ... thermiques pour la mise en évidence des convections internes et l'analyse énergétique des flux convectifs et radiatifs dans la case ; les flux de conduction ...

  10. Experimental Internal Conversion Coefficients (ICC) of high multipole transitions in some odd-A nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijaya Sai, K.; Bharadwaj, P.S.J.; Gowrishankar, R.; Venkataramaniah, K.; Deepa, S.; Rao, Dwaraka Rani

    2016-01-01

    The atomic nucleus is one of the most interesting quantum systems found in nature. It is a unique quantum system of interacting hadrons, may be regarded as an isolated micro-laboratory for spectroscopic studies of fundamental, strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions. Internal conversion (IC) electrons provide useful data, which are complementary to the γ- ray data in many cases and even provide crucial additional information in some cases

  11. Thermonuclear Explosions from Hybrid C/O/Ne White Dwarf Progenitors Ignited Centrally After Interior Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Carlyn

    2018-01-01

    Type Ia Supernovae are thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf (WD) stars. Past studies predict the existence of "hybrid" white dwarfs, made of a C/O/Ne core with a O/Ne shell, and that these are viable progenitors for supernovae. More recent work found that the C/O core is mixed with the surrounding O/Ne while the WD cools. Inspired by this scenario, we performed simulations of thermonuclear supernovae in the single degenerate paradigm from these hybrid progenitors. Our investigation began by constructing a hybrid white dwarf model with the one-dimensional stellar evolution code MESA. The model was allowed to go through unstable interior mixing ignite carbon burning centrally. The MESA model was then mapped to a two-dimensional initial condition and an explosion simulated from that with FLASH. For comparison, a similar simulation of an explosion was performed from a traditional C/O progenitor WD. Comparing the yields produced by explosion simulations allows us to determine which model produces more 56Ni, and therefore brighter events, and how explosions from these models differ from explosions from previous models without the mixing during the WD cooling.

  12. Nuclear-reaction rates in the thermonuclear runaway phase of accreting neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiescher, M.; Barnard, V.; Goerres, J.; Fisker, J.L.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Langanke, K.; Rembges, F.; Thielemann, F.K.; Schatz, H.

    2002-01-01

    The rp-process has been suggested as the dominant nucleosynthesis process in explosive hydrogen burning at high temperature and density conditions. The process is characterized by a sequence of fast proton capture reactions and subsequent β-decays. The reaction path of the rp-process runs along the drip line up to Z∼50. Most of the charged-particle reaction rates for the reaction path are presently based on statistical Hauser-Feshbach calculations. While these rates are supposed to be reliable within a factor of two for conditions of high density in the compound nuclei, discrepancies may occur for nuclei near closed shells or near the proton drip line where the Q-values of proton capture processes are typically very small. It has been argued that the thermonuclear runaway is less sensitive to the reaction rates because of the rapid time-scale of the event. However, since these processes may operate at the same time-scale as fast mixing and convection processes, a change in reaction rates indeed may have a significant impact. In this paper we present two examples, the break-out from the hot CNO cycles, and the thermonuclear runaway in X-ray bursts itself, where changes in reaction rates have a direct impact on time-scale, energy generation and nucleosynthesis predictions for the explosive event. (orig.)

  13. Thermonuclear reactions probed at stellar-core conditions with laser-based inertial-confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, D. T.; Sayre, D. B.; Brune, C. R.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R.; Tipton, R. E.; Pino, J. E.; Grim, G. P.; Remington, B. A.; Dearborn, D.; Benedetti, L. R.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Hatarik, R.; Izumi, N.; McNaney, J. M.; Ma, T.; Kyrala, G. A.; MacLaren, S.; Salmonson, J.; Khan, S. F.; Pak, A.; Hopkins, L. Berzak; Lepape, S.; Spears, B. K.; Meezan, N. B.; Divol, L.; Yeamans, C. B.; Caggiano, J. A.; McNabb, D. P.; Holunga, D. M.; Chiarappa-Zucca, M.; Kohut, T. R.; Parham, T. G.

    2017-12-01

    Stars are giant thermonuclear plasma furnaces that slowly fuse the lighter elements in the universe into heavier elements, releasing energy, and generating the pressure required to prevent collapse. To understand stars, we must rely on nuclear reaction rate data obtained, up to now, under conditions very different from those of stellar cores. Here we show thermonuclear measurements of the 2H(d, n)3He and 3H(t,2n)4He S-factors at a range of densities (1.2-16 g cm-3) and temperatures (2.1-5.4 keV) that allow us to test the conditions of the hydrogen-burning phase of main-sequence stars. The relevant conditions are created using inertial-confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility. Our data agree within uncertainty with previous accelerator-based measurements and establish this approach for future experiments to measure other reactions and to test plasma-nuclear effects present in stellar interiors, such as plasma electron screening, directly in the environments where they occur.

  14. Experimental Equipment for Damping Capacity Analyze of High or Low Internal Friction Metallic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gârnet, I. A.; Stanciu, S.; Hopulele, I.; Zaharia, M. G.; Cimpoesu, N.; Chicet, D. L.; Crăciun, R. C.

    2017-06-01

    An experimental equipment, type torsion pendulum was made in laboratory in order to analyze the damping capacity of metallic materials. The scheme of the equipment is presented, 2D and 3D visions at real scale. The equipment functioning (mechanical and electrical part) and principles are presented. In this article we present some preliminary experimental results obtained on different materials (aluminium, steel etc.) using two different methods for registration the outputs (one based on optoelectronic device with Arduino acquisition board and second on video analyze (cinematic review: video to jpeg) of the damped motion of the lead pendulum). Steel materials were with shoot penning surface modification with and without heat treatment in order to establish the heat treatment influence on the damping capacity property.

  15. 15th International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    ICALEPCS is a biennial series of conferences that is intended to: * Provide a forum for the interchange of ideas and information between control system specialists working on large experimental physics facilities around the world (accelerators, particle detectors, fusion reactors, telescopes, etc.); * Create an archival literature of developments and progress in this rapidly changing discipline; * Promote, where practical, standardization in both hardware and software; Promote collaboration between laboratories, institutes and industry.

  16. Physics of thermo-nuclear fusion and the ITER project; La physique de la fusion thermonucleaire et le projet ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garin, P. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee - DRFC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2003-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the 6 contributions to the workshop 'the physics of thermo-nuclear fusion and the ITER project': 1) the feasibility of magnetic confinement and the issue of heat recovery, 2) heating and current generation in tokamaks, 3) the physics of wall-plasma interaction, 4) recent results at JET, 5) inertial confinement and fast ignition, and 6) the technology of fusion machines based on magnetic confinement. This document presents the principles of thermo-nuclear fusion machines and gives a lot of technical information about JET, Tore-Supra and ITER.

  17. Experimental study of curved guide tubes for pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Baylor, L.R.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.; Milora, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    The use of curved guide tubes for transporting frozen hydrogen pellets offers great flexibility for pellet injection into plasma devices. While this technique has been previously employed, an increased interest in its applicability has been generated with the recent ASDEX Upgrade experimental data for magnetic high-field side (HFS) pellet injection. In these innovative experiments, the pellet penetration appeared to be significantly deeper than for the standard magnetic low-field side injection scheme, along with corresponding greater fueling efficiencies. Thus, some of the major experimental fusion devices are planning experiments with HFS pellet injection. Because of the complex geometries of experimental fusion devices, installations with multiple curved guide tube sections will be required for HFS pellet injection. To more thoroughly understand and document the capability of curved guide tubes, an experimental study is under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In particular, configurations and pellet parameters applicable for the DIII-D tokamak and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were simulated in laboratory experiments. Initial test results with nominal 2.7- and 10-mm-diam deuterium pellets are presented and discussed

  18. Mechanisms of endothelium and internal organs dysfunction associated with exposure to cobalt chloride (experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Gigolaeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt administration in the human body is a risk factor for developing pulmonary and cardiovascular health problems. In this paper we report the results of functional studies and biochemical mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and pathology of internal organs in cobalt intoxication in experiment. System-organ nature of the activation of oxidative processes is identified according to the increase of MDA secondary product in erythrocytes and homogenates of internal organs as well as the participation of AOC imbalance in the development of lipid peroxidation, the peculiarities of the violations of NO release endothelial function and participation in this process of L-arginine and an analogue of endogenous inhibitor of expression eNOS -L–NC - arginine methyl ester (L-NAME or L-nitro-arginine-methilester with cobalt intoxication in conditions of activation of oxidative processes. Chronic cobalt intoxication in rats leads to the activation of oxidative processes, thus there is inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity and the concentration of catalase and ceruloplasmin increased. Cholesterol metabolism is disturbed, as well as impaired nitric oxide production and its bioavailability, which is accompanied by the change of the microcirculatory hemodynamics of the visceral organs. The evaluation of the internal organs’ functional state according to the activity of the Na+,K+-ATPase in homogenates is performed, as well as due to the activity of organ-specific and excretory enzymes in blood serum on the background of cobalt toxicity. The role of changes of cholesterol metabolism is established – as a risk factor of atherogenesis in violation of the bioavailability of nitric oxide. For the pathogenetic correction of violations we applied the method using the endogenous antioxidant coenzyme Q10 and regulators of the expression eNOS L-arginine, L-NAME and their combination with coenzyme Q10.

  19. Fluctuation model of organic superconductivity: Internal inconsistencies and contradictory experimental evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Internal inconsistencies in the scheme of large superconducting fluctuations, as applied to the superconducting (TMTSF) 2 X compounds (ditetramethyltetraselenafulvalenium salts), are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the assumption of very small interchain coupling is self-contradictory. These materials are actually best regarded as (anisotropic) three-dimensional superconductors. The fluctuation scheme does not provide a consistent interpretation of the data, but is in fact contradicted by many key measurements, including the thermal conductivity, heat capacity, conductivity anisotropy, and critical-field anisotropy

  20. Biomass downdraft gasifier with internal cyclonic combustion chamber: design, construction, and experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Krushna; Bhoi, Prakash; Huhnke, Raymond; Bellmer, Danielle

    2011-05-01

    An exploratory downdraft gasifier design with unique biomass pyrolysis and tar cracking mechanism is evolved at Oklahoma State University. This design has an internal separate combustion section where turbulent, swirling high-temperature combustion flows are generated. A series of research trials were conducted using wood shavings as the gasifier feedstock. Maximum tar cracking temperatures were above 1100°C. Average volumetric concentration levels of major combustible components in the product gas were 22% CO and 11% H(2). Hot and cold gas efficiencies were 72% and 66%, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental strength evaluation of cylinders with a flat head subjected to internal pressure at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuru; Makino, Yutaka

    1978-01-01

    The experiments using component test models such as a cylinder with a flat head and F.E.M. elastic analyses to investigate the secondary stress, peak stress and creep-fatigue interaction effect are described. The comparison of uniaxial stress with multiaxial stress about deformation and strength at elevated temperatures are also described here. The results of experiments and analysis are summarized as follows: (1) The maximum stress as the equivalent stress is the most suitable for the prediction of the creep failure life of cylinders subjected to internal pressure using the uniaxial creep test results. And the Mises's equivalent stress is the suitable for this prediction using the data of the onset of the uniaxial tertiary creep. (2) In the creep characteristics of the cylinder there, is no tertiary creep stage, and the rupture elongation of the cylinder accords with the elongation of the onset of the uniaxial tertiary creep. (3) It was recognized that the secondary stress occurred at the corner of the cylinder with a flat head has a little effect on creep and creep-fatigue life. (4) The life reduction effect due to the creep-fatigue interaction around the corner was recognized by the linear damage rule and compared with the value of Code Case 1592. (5) A difference of failure modes by imposed conditions for vessel with the size-discontinuity section was recognized by the cyclic internal pressure tests with hold time. (author)

  2. Remote maintenance for fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Koichi; Takeda, Nobukazu

    2000-01-01

    Here was introduced on maintenance of reactor core portion operated by remote control among maintenance of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) begun on its design since 1988 under international cooperation of U.S.A., Europe, Russia and Japan. Every appliances constructing the reactor core portion is necessary to carry out all of their inspection and maintenance by using remote controlled apparatus because of their radiation due to neutron generated by DT combustion of plasma. For engineering design activity (EDA) in ITER, not only design and development of the remote control appliances but also design under consideration of remote maintenance for from structural design of maintained objective appliances to access method to appliances, transportation and preservation method of radiated matters, and out-reactor maintenance in a hot cell, is now under progress. Here were also reported on basic concept on maintenance and conservation of ITER, maintenance design of diverter and blanket with high maintenance frequency and present state on development of maintenance appliances. (G.K.)

  3. Outline of the reactor core and internal structure design of the experimental VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Akira; Saitoh, Yoshihiro; Miki, Toshiya; Takigawa, Noboru; Nakata, Tetsuo.

    1986-01-01

    This paper outlines the reactor design of the experimental VHTR in ''The Design of Main Equipment of the Second Stage Detailed Design''. The design, being carried out between April 1985 and February 1986 under a contract with JAERI, were the summarizing one of the experimental reactor design using the pin-in-block fuel element, which was started in 1969. The basic plant design of the rationalized reactor with the thermal output of 50MW and the core outlet gas temperature of 950 deg C (initially 850 deg C) was carried out and, in this report, the reactor design and its performances are described. It became clear that the mean core power density of 2.5 W/cc and the mean fuel burn-up of 15 GWD/T will be attained using the up-graded fuel element, the sophisticated control rod layout, and so on. These figures are greater by about 70 % compared with those in the previous design. (author)

  4. Experimental study on internal cooling system in hard turning of HCWCI using CBN tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, A. M.; Murigendrappa, S. M.

    2018-04-01

    In recent times, hard turning became most emerging technique in manufacturing processes, especially to cut high hard materials like high chrome white cast iron (HCWCI). Use of Cubic boron nitride (CBN), pCBN and Carbide tools are most appropriate to shear the metals but are uneconomical. Since hard turning carried out in dry condition, lowering the tool wear by minimizing tool temperature is the only solution. Study reveals, no effective cooling systems are available so for in order to enhance the tool life of the cutting tools and to improve machinability characteristics. The detrimental effect of cutting parameters on cutting temperature is generally controlled by proper selections. The objective of this paper is to develop a new cooling system to control tool tip temperature, thereby minimizing the cutting forces and the tool wear rates. The materials chosen for this work was HCWCI and cutting tools are CBN inserts. Intricate cavities were made on the periphery of the tool holder for easy flow of cold water. Taguchi techniques were adopted to carry out the experimentations. The experimental results confirm considerable reduction in the cutting forces and tool wear rates.

  5. Potential early predictors for outcomes of experimental hemorrhagic shock induced by uncontrolled internal bleeding in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A Abassi

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled hemorrhage, resulting from traumatic injuries, continues to be the leading cause of death in civilian and military environments. Hemorrhagic deaths usually occur within the first 6 hours of admission to hospital; therefore, early prehospital identification of patients who are at risk for developing shock may improve survival. The aims of the current study were: 1. To establish and characterize a unique model of uncontrolled internal hemorrhage induced by massive renal injury (MRI, of different degrees (20-35% unilateral nephrectomy in rats, 2. To identify early biomarkers those best predict the outcome of severe internal hemorrhage. For this purpose, male Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized and cannulas were inserted into the trachea and carotid artery. After abdominal laparotomy, the lower pole of the kidney was excised. During 120 minutes, hematocrit, pO2, pCO2, base excess, potassium, lactate and glucose were measured from blood samples, and mean arterial pressure (MAP was measured through arterial tracing. After 120 minutes, blood loss was determined. Statistical prediction models of mortality and amount of blood loss were performed. In this model, the lowest blood loss and mortality rate were observed in the group with 20% nephrectomy. Escalation of the extent of nephrectomy to 25% and 30% significantly increased blood loss and mortality rate. Two phases of hemodynamic and biochemical response to MRI were noticed: the primary phase, occurring during the first 15 minutes after injury, and the secondary phase, beginning 30 minutes after the induction of bleeding. A Significant correlation between early blood loss and mean arterial pressure (MAP decrements and survival were noted. Our data also indicate that prediction of outcome was attainable in the very early stages of blood loss, over the first 15 minutes after the injury, and that blood loss and MAP were the strongest predictors of mortality.

  6. Experimental tests on buckling of ellipsoidal vessel heads subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.; Alix, M.

    1980-05-01

    Tests were performed on 17 ellipsoidal vessel heads of three different materials and different geometries. The results include the following: 1) Accurate definition of the geometry and particularly a direct measurement of the thickness along the meridian. 2) The properties of the material of each head, obtained from test specimens cut from the head itself after the test. 3) The recording of deflection/pressure curves with indication of the pressure at which buckling occurred. These results can be used for validation and qualification of methods for calculating the buckling load when plasticity occurs before buckling. It was possible to develop an empirical equation representing the experimental results obtained with satisfactory accuracy. This equation may be useful in pressure vessel design

  7. An analysis of the impact of the thermonuclear pilot project ITER on industry and research in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hangel, G.

    2007-03-01

    An analysis of the influence of the thermonuclear pilot project ITER on Austrian research and industrial activities is presented in terms of the following subjects: fusion research history, ITER technique, security, nuclear fusion, ITER (reactor, project specifications for quotations), possibilities for Austrian companies and fusion research in Austria. (nevyjel)

  8. 2001 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2002-01-01

    The year 2001 activities of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research line of the Plasma Associated Laboratory at the National Institute for Space Research - Brazil are reported. The report approaches the staff, participation in congresses, goals for the year 2002 and papers on Tokamak plasmas, plasma diagnostic, bootstraps, plasma equilibrium and diagnostic

  9. 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2004-01-01

    This document represents the 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory - Brazil, approaching the areas of toroidal systems for magnetic confinement, plasma heating, current generation and high temperature plasma diagnostic

  10. Review of the international symposium, sister chromatid exchanges: twenty-five years of experimental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tice, R.R.; Lambert, B.; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Hollaender, A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium was to honor initial research at Brookhaven by bringing internationally recognized leaders in the fields of genetics, cytogenetics, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, radiation biology, toxicology, and environmental health together into an open forum to present and discuss: (1) current knowledge of the induction and formation of SCEs and their relationship to other biological endpoints, including carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, transformation, clastogenesis, DNA damage and repair, and cellular toxicity; (2) the optimal strategies for the utilization of SCEs in genetic toxicology testing schemes involving in vitro and in vivo exposure situations; (3) the most valid statistical methods for analyzing SCE data obtained from cells in culture, from cells in intact organisms, and from cells in humans; (4) the relevance of SCEs as an indicator of human disease states, both inherited and acquired, and of progress in disease treatment; and (5) the use of SCEs as an indicator of human exposure to genotoxic agents and their relevance as a prognosticator of future adverse health outcomes. This report summarizes the presentations. 7 references

  11. Review of the international symposium, sister chromatid exchanges: twenty-five years of experimental research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, R.R.; Lambert, B.; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Hollaender, A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium was to honor initial research at Brookhaven by bringing internationally recognized leaders in the fields of genetics, cytogenetics, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, radiation biology, toxicology, and environmental health together into an open forum to present and discuss: (1) current knowledge of the induction and formation of SCEs and their relationship to other biological endpoints, including carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, transformation, clastogenesis, DNA damage and repair, and cellular toxicity; (2) the optimal strategies for the utilization of SCEs in genetic toxicology testing schemes involving in vitro and in vivo exposure situations; (3) the most valid statistical methods for analyzing SCE data obtained from cells in culture, from cells in intact organisms, and from cells in humans; (4) the relevance of SCEs as an indicator of human disease states, both inherited and acquired, and of progress in disease treatment; and (5) the use of SCEs as an indicator of human exposure to genotoxic agents and their relevance as a prognosticator of future adverse health outcomes. This report summarizes the presentations. 7 references. (ACR)

  12. Experimental and numerical studies of a lean-burn internally-staged combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Zhenbo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A lean-burn internally-staged combustor for low emissions that can be used in civil aviation gas turbines is introduced in this paper. The main stage is designed and optimized in terms of fuel evaporation ratio, fuel/air pre-mixture uniformity, and particle residence time using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD software. A single-module rectangular combustor is adopted in performance tests including lean ignition, lean blowout, combustion efficiency, emissions, and combustion oscillation using aviation kerosene. Furthermore, nitrogen oxides (NOx emission is also predicted using CFD simulation to compare with test results. Under normal inlet temperature, this combustor can be ignited easily with normal and negative inlet pressures. The lean blowout fuel/air ratio (LBO FAR at the idle condition is 0.0049. The fuel split proportions between the pilot and main stages are determined through balancing emissions, combustion efficiency, and combustion oscillation. Within the landing and take-off (LTO cycle, this combustor enables 42% NOx reduction of the standard set by the 6th Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP/6 with high combustion efficiency. The maximum board-band pressure oscillations of inlet air and fuel are below 1% of total pressure during steady-state operations at the LTO cycle specific conditions.

  13. Experimental Research on Internal Behaviors of Caved Rocks under the Uniaxial Confined Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-jiang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As main composition of longwall gob, caved rocks’ behaviors and their impacts under compression crucially influence strata control, subsidence, associated resources extraction, and many other aspects. However, current researches are based on a whole sample, due to looseness of caved rocks and limitation of observation technology. In this paper, an experiment system was built to investigate internal behaviors of caved rocks’ sample, under the uniaxial confined compression, including movement and breakage behavior by the digital image processing technologies. The results show that the compression process of caved rocks could be divided into two stages by relative density. Boundary effect and changes of voids and contact pressure among caved rocks lead to different movement law in different position in sample’s interior. A stratification phenomenon of breakage was discovered, which presents breakage concentration in the middle of the sample. The nonlinear movement and shear dislocation induced by shifts among caved rocks are the reason of the breakage stratification phenomenon. This phenomenon would have an effect on the permeability and seepage research of similar medium.

  14. The art of collecting experimental data internationally: EXFOR, CINDA and the NRDC network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksson, H.; Schwerer, O.; Rochman, D.; Mikhaylyukova, M.V.; Otuka, N.

    2008-01-01

    The world-wide network of nuclear reaction data centres (NRDC) has, for about 40 years, provided data services to the scientific community. This network covers all types of nuclear reaction data, including neutron-induced, charged-particle-induced, and photonuclear data, used in a wide range of applications, such as fission reactors, accelerator driven systems, fusion facilities, nuclear medicine, materials analysis, environmental monitoring, and basic research. The now 13 nuclear data centres included in the NRDC are dividing the efforts of compilation and distribution for particular types of reactions and/or geographic regions all over the world. A central activity of the network is the collection and compilation of experimental nuclear reaction data and the related bibliographic information in the EXFOR and CINDA databases. Many of the individual data centres also distribute other types of nuclear data information, including evaluated data libraries, nuclear structure and decay data, and nuclear data reports. The network today ensures the world-wide transfer of information and coordinated evolution of an important source of nuclear data for current and future nuclear applications. (authors)

  15. THE ART OF COLLECTING EXPERIMENTAL DATA INTERNATIONALLY: EXFOR, CINDA AND THE NRDC NETWORK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HENRIKSSON, H.; SCHWERER, O.; ROCHMAN, D.; MIKHAYLYUKOVA, M.V.; OTUKA, N.

    2007-01-01

    The world-wide network of nuclear reaction data centers (NRDC) has, for about 40 years, provided data services to the scientific community. This network covers all types of nuclear reaction data, including neutron-induced, charged-particle-induced, and photonuclear data, used in a wide range of applications, such as fission reactors, accelerator driven systems, fusion facilities, nuclear medicine, materials analysis, environmental monitoring, and basic research. The now 13 nuclear data centers included in the NRDC are dividing the efforts of compilation and distribution for particular types of reactions and/or geographic regions all over the world. A central activity of the network is the collection and compilation of experimental nuclear reaction data and the related bibliographic information in the EXFOR and CINDA databases. Many of the individual data centers also distribute other types of nuclear data information, including evaluated data libraries, nuclear structure and decay data, and nuclear data reports. The network today ensures the world-wide transfer of information and coordinated evolution of an important source of nuclear data for current and future nuclear applications

  16. Experimental Evaluation of a Method for Turbocharging Four-Stroke, Single Cylinder, Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Michael; Winter, Amos

    2015-11-01

    Turbocharging an engine increases specific power, improves fuel economy, reduces emissions, and lowers cost compared to a naturally aspirated engine of the same power output. These advantages make turbocharging commonplace for multi-cylinder engines. Single cylinder engineers are not commonly turbocharged due to the phase lag between the exhaust stroke, which powers the turbocharger, and the intake stroke, when air is pumped into the engine. Our proposed method of turbocharging single cylinder engines is to add an ``air capacitor'' to the intake manifold, an additional volume that acts as a buffer to store compressed air between the exhaust and intake strokes, and smooth out the pressure pulses from the turbocharger. This talk presents experimental results from a single cylinder, turbocharged diesel engine fit with various sized air capacitors. Power output from the engine was measured using a dynamometer made from a generator, with the electrical power dissipated with resistive heating elements. We found that intake air density increases with capacitor size as theoretically predicted, ranging from 40 to 60 percent depending on heat transfer. Our experiment was able to produce 29 percent more power compared to using natural aspiration. These results validated that an air capacitor and turbocharger may be a simple, cost effective means of increasing the power density of single cylinder engines.

  17. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Ejector Internal Flow Structure and Geometry Modification for Maximized Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsafioon, Mehdi; Aidoun, Zine; Poirier, Michel

    2017-12-01

    A wide range of industrial refrigeration systems are good candidates to benefit from the cooling and refrigeration potential of supersonic ejectors. These are thermally activated and can use waste heat recovery from industrial processes where it is abundantly generated and rejected to the environment. In other circumstances low cost heat from biomass or solar energy may also be used in order to produce a cooling effect. Ejector performance is however typically modest and needs to be maximized in order to take full advantage of the simplicity and low cost of the technology. In the present work, the behavior of ejectors with different nozzle exit positions has been investigated using a prototype as well as a CFD model. The prototype was used in order to measure the performance advantages of refrigerant (R-134a) flowing inside the ejector. For the CFD model, it is assumed that the ejectors are axi-symmetric along x-axis, thus the generated model is in 2D. The preliminary CFD results are validated with experimental data over a wide range of conditions and are in good accordance in terms of entrainment and compression ratios. Next, the flow patterns of four different topologies are studied in order to discuss the optimum geometry in term of ejector entrainment improvement. Finally, The numerical simulations were used to find an optimum value corresponding to maximized entrainment ratio for fixed operating conditions.

  18. Experimental Verification of Integrity of Low-Pressure Injection Piles Structure - Pile Internal Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachla, Henryk

    2017-12-01

    The idea of strengthening the foundation using injection piles lies in transferring loads from the foundation to the piles anchorage in existing structure and formed in the soil. Such a system has to be able to transfer loads from the foundation to the pile and from the pile onto the soil. Pile structure often reinforced with steel element has to also be able to transfer such a loading. According to the rules of continuum mechanics, the bearing capacity of such a system and a deformation of its individual elements can be determined by way of an analysis of the contact problem of three interfaces. Each of these surfaces is determined by different couples of materials. Those surfaces create: pile-foundation anchorage, bonding between reinforcement and material from which the pile is formed and pilesoil interface. What is essential is that on the contact surfaces the deformation of materials which adhere to each other can vary and depends on the mechanical properties and geometry of these surfaces. Engineering practice and experimental research point out that the failure in such structures occurs at interfaces. The paper is concentrating on presenting the experiments on interaction between cement grout and various types of steel reinforcement. The tests were conducted on the special low pressure injection piles widely used to strengthen foundations of already existing structures of historical buildings due to the technology of formation and injection pressure.

  19. Experimental Verification of Integrity of Low-Pressure Injection Piles Structure – Pile Internal Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachla Henryk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of strengthening the foundation using injection piles lies in transferring loads from the foundation to the piles anchorage in existing structure and formed in the soil. Such a system has to be able to transfer loads from the foundation to the pile and from the pile onto the soil. Pile structure often reinforced with steel element has to also be able to transfer such a loading. According to the rules of continuum mechanics, the bearing capacity of such a system and a deformation of its individual elements can be determined by way of an analysis of the contact problem of three interfaces. Each of these surfaces is determined by different couples of materials. Those surfaces create: pile-foundation anchorage, bonding between reinforcement and material from which the pile is formed and pilesoil interface. What is essential is that on the contact surfaces the deformation of materials which adhere to each other can vary and depends on the mechanical properties and geometry of these surfaces. Engineering practice and experimental research point out that the failure in such structures occurs at interfaces. The paper is concentrating on presenting the experiments on interaction between cement grout and various types of steel reinforcement. The tests were conducted on the special low pressure injection piles widely used to strengthen foundations of already existing structures of historical buildings due to the technology of formation and injection pressure.

  20. Experimental studies of the interactions between a hydrogen plasma and a carbon or tungsten wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouaras, K.; Colina Delacqua, L.; Quirós, C.; Lombardi, G.; Redolfi, M.; Vrel, D.; Hassouni, K.; Bonnin, X.

    2015-03-01

    We present work done at LSPM (Laboratory of Sciences of Processes and Material Sciences), using the CASIMIR ECR plasma reactor device, aimed at answering questions about hydrogen isotope fuel retention and dust production in the context of the plasma-facing components (PFCs) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The plasma is characterized by means of optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and electrostatic probe; furthermore the dust density and size distribution will be measured by a laser diagnostic system. We present some early results obtained from hydrogen plasma exposure of pure tungsten samples, as well as samples of ITER-relevant tungsten-rich powders, produced inhouse by the ball-milling technique, which are likely to be a by-product of material erosion and migration during tokamak operation. In particular, we have performed measurements of the specific surface area of these powders as a proxy to their capacity to absorb hydrogen.

  1. SPIRAL INSTABILITY CAN DRIVE THERMONUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS IN BINARY WHITE DWARF MERGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, Rahul; Fisher, Robert [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 285 Old Westport Road, North Dartmouth, MA 02740 (United States); García-Berro, Enrique; Aznar-Siguán, Gabriela [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, c/Esteve Terrades, 5, E-08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Ji, Suoqing [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106–9530 (United States); Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-10

    Thermonuclear, or Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), originate from the explosion of carbon–oxygen white dwarfs, and serve as standardizable cosmological candles. However, despite their importance, the nature of the progenitor systems that give rise to SNe Ia has not been hitherto elucidated. Observational evidence favors the double-degenerate channel in which merging white dwarf binaries lead to SNe Ia. Furthermore, significant discrepancies exist between observations and theory, and to date, there has been no self-consistent merger model that yields a SNe Ia. Here we show that a spiral mode instability in the accretion disk formed during a binary white dwarf merger leads to a detonation on a dynamical timescale. This mechanism sheds light on how white dwarf mergers may frequently yield SNe Ia.

  2. Stellar dynamics. The fastest unbound star in our Galaxy ejected by a thermonuclear supernova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, S; Fürst, F; Ziegerer, E; Kupfer, T; Heber, U; Irrgang, A; Wang, B; Liu, Z; Han, Z; Sesar, B; Levitan, D; Kotak, R; Magnier, E; Smith, K; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K; Flewelling, H; Kaiser, N; Wainscoat, R; Waters, C

    2015-03-06

    Hypervelocity stars (HVSs) travel with velocities so high that they exceed the escape velocity of the Galaxy. Several acceleration mechanisms have been discussed. Only one HVS (US 708, HVS 2) is a compact helium star. Here we present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of US 708. Traveling with a velocity of ~1200 kilometers per second, it is the fastest unbound star in our Galaxy. In reconstructing its trajectory, the Galactic center becomes very unlikely as an origin, which is hardly consistent with the most favored ejection mechanism for the other HVSs. Furthermore, we detected that US 708 is a fast rotator. According to our binary evolution model, it was spun-up by tidal interaction in a close binary and is likely to be the ejected donor remnant of a thermonuclear supernova. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion [Fusion Working Group (FWG)] was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project

  4. Use of liquid metals in nuclear and thermonuclear engineering, and in other innovative technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Arnol'dov, M. N.; Efanov, A. D.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kozlov, F. A.; Loginov, N. I.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    By now, a good deal of experience has been gained with using liquid metals as coolants in nuclear power installations; extensive knowledge has been gained about the physical, thermophysical, and physicochemical properties of these coolants; and the scientific principles and a set of methods and means for handling liquid metals as coolants for nuclear power installations have been elaborated. Prototype and commercialgrade sodium-cooled NPP power units have been developed, including the BOR-60, BN-350, and BN-600 power units (the Soviet Union); the Rapsodie, Phenix, and Superphenix power units (France), the EBR-II power unit (the United States); and the PFR power unit (the United Kingdom). In Russia, dedicated nuclear power installations have been constructed, including those with a lead-bismuth coolant for nuclear submarines and with sodium-potassium alloy for spacecraft (the Buk and Topol installations), which have no analogs around the world. Liquid metals (primarily lithium and its alloy with lead) hold promise for use in thermonuclear power engineering, where they can serve not only as a coolant, but also as tritium-producing medium. In this article, the physicochemical properties of liquid metal coolants, as well as practical experience gained from using them in nuclear and thermonuclear power engineering and in innovative technologies are considered, and the lines of further research works are formulated. New results obtained from investigations carried out on the Pb-Bi and Pb for the SVBR and BREST fast-neutron reactors (referred to henceforth as fast reactors) and for controlled accelerator systems are described.

  5. First implosion experiments with cryogenic thermonuclear fuel on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenzer, Siegfried H; Spears, Brian K; Edwards, M John; Berger, Richard L; Bleuel, Darren L; Bradley, David K; Caggiano, Joseph A; Callahan, Debra A; Castro, Carlos; Choate, Christine; Clark, Daniel S; Cerjan, Charles J; Collins, Gilbert W; Dewald, Eduard L; Di Nicola, Jean-Michel G; Di Nicola, Pascale; Divol, Laurent; Dixit, Shamasundar N; Alger, Ethan T; Casey, Daniel T

    2012-01-01

    Non-burning thermonuclear fuel implosion experiments have been fielded on the National Ignition Facility to assess progress toward ignition by indirect drive inertial confinement fusion. These experiments use cryogenic fuel ice layers, consisting of mixtures of tritium and deuterium with large amounts of hydrogen to control the neutron yield and to allow fielding of an extensive suite of optical, x-ray and nuclear diagnostics. The thermonuclear fuel layer is contained in a spherical plastic capsule that is fielded in the center of a cylindrical gold hohlraum. Heating the hohlraum with 1.3 MJ of energy delivered by 192 laser beams produces a soft x-ray drive spectrum with a radiation temperature of 300 eV. The radiation field produces an ablation pressure of 100 Mbar which compresses the capsule to a spherical dense fuel shell that contains a hot plasma core 80 µm in diameter. The implosion core is observed with x-ray imaging diagnostics that provide size, shape, the absolute x-ray emission along with bangtime and hot plasma lifetime. Nuclear measurements provide the 14.1 MeV neutron yield from fusion of deuterium and tritium nuclei along with down-scattered neutrons at energies of 10–12 MeV due to energy loss by scattering in the dense fuel that surrounds the central hot-spot plasma. Neutron time-of-flight spectra allow the inference of the ion temperature while gamma-ray measurements provide the duration of nuclear activity. The fusion yield from deuterium–tritium reactions scales with ion temperature, which is in agreement with modeling over more than one order of magnitude to a neutron yield in excess of 10 14 neutrons, indicating large confinement parameters on these first experiments. (paper)

  6. Vienna international summer school on experimental and clinical oncology for medical students: an Austrian cancer education project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm-Haidenberger, Sabine; Pohl, Gudrun; Widder, Joachim; Kren, Gerhard; Fitzal, Florian; Bartsch, Rupert; de Vries, Jakob; Zielinski, Christoph; Pötter, Richard

    2010-03-01

    The "International Summer School on Experimental and Clinical Oncology for Medical Students" is organised at the Medical University of Vienna to teach a multidisciplinary approach to oncology to medical students in the final phase of their studies. The program includes biology, diagnosis, clinical and psycho-oncology. Lectures are given by medical, radiation and surgical oncologists. Teaching includes case reports, poster presentations and role-play. As part of the organising committee, Austrian students organise a social program. Since 1999, six courses have been held (147 students from 19 countries). Students recorded high satisfaction with organisation, scientific content and topic range. Case presentations, poster presentations and role-play were very useful. Early criticism that the program was too intense (long lectures and little interaction) has been answered. The summer school has a high degree of acceptance and is a very useful tool to teach medical students about oncology and approaching a cancer patient.

  7. Robust RT-qPCR data normalization: validation and selection of internal reference genes during post-experimental data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijun Ling

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription and real-time PCR (RT-qPCR has been widely used for rapid quantification of relative gene expression. To offset technical confounding variations, stably-expressed internal reference genes are measured simultaneously along with target genes for data normalization. Statistic methods have been developed for reference validation; however normalization of RT-qPCR data still remains arbitrary due to pre-experimental determination of particular reference genes. To establish a method for determination of the most stable normalizing factor (NF across samples for robust data normalization, we measured the expression of 20 candidate reference genes and 7 target genes in 15 Drosophila head cDNA samples using RT-qPCR. The 20 reference genes exhibit sample-specific variation in their expression stability. Unexpectedly the NF variation across samples does not exhibit a continuous decrease with pairwise inclusion of more reference genes, suggesting that either too few or too many reference genes may detriment the robustness of data normalization. The optimal number of reference genes predicted by the minimal and most stable NF variation differs greatly from 1 to more than 10 based on particular sample sets. We also found that GstD1, InR and Hsp70 expression exhibits an age-dependent increase in fly heads; however their relative expression levels are significantly affected by NF using different numbers of reference genes. Due to highly dependent on actual data, RT-qPCR reference genes thus have to be validated and selected at post-experimental data analysis stage rather than by pre-experimental determination.

  8. The effects of variations in nuclear interactions on nucleosynthesis in thermonuclear supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, A.; José, J.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Röpke, F. K.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Type Ia supernova explosions are violent stellar events important for their contribution to the cosmic abundance of iron peak elements and for their role as cosmological distance indicators. Aims: The impact of nuclear physics uncertainties on nucleosynthesis in thermonuclear supernovae has not been fully explored using comprehensive and systematic studies with multiple models. To better constrain predictions of yields from these phenomena, we investigate thermonuclear reaction rates and weak interaction rates that significantly affect yields in our underlying models. Methods: We have performed a sensitivity study by postprocessing thermodynamic histories from two different hydrodynamic, Chandrasekhar-mass explosion models. We have individually varied all input reaction and, for the first time, weak interaction rates by a factor of ten (up and down) and compared the yields in each case to yields using standard rates. Results: Of the 2305 nuclear reactions in our network, we find that in either model the rates of only 53 reactions affect the yield of any species with an abundance of at least 10-8 M⊙ by at least a factor of two. The rates of the 12C(α,γ), 12C+12C, 20Ne(α,p), 20Ne(α,γ), and 30Si(p,γ) reactions are among those that modify the most yields when varied by a factor of ten. From the individual variation of 658 weak interaction rates in our network by a factor of ten, only the stellar 28Si(β+)28Al, 32S(β+)32P, and 36Ar(β+)36Cl rates significantly affect the yields of species in a model. Additional tests reveal that reaction rate changes over temperatures T > 1.5 GK have the greatest impact and that ratios of radionuclides that may be used as explosion diagnostics change by a factor of ≲2 from the variation of individual rates by a factor of ten. Conclusions: Nucleosynthesis in the two adopted models is relatively robust to variations in individual nuclear reaction and weak interaction rates. Laboratory measurements of a limited number

  9. Igniting the Light Elements: The Los Alamos Thermonuclear Weapon Project, 1942-1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, Anne C. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The American system of nuclear weapons research and development was conceived and developed not as a result of technological determinism, but by a number of individual architects who promoted the growth of this large technologically-based complex. While some of the technological artifacts of this system, such as the fission weapons used in World War II, have been the subject of many historical studies, their technical successors--fusion (or hydrogen) devices--are representative of the largely unstudied highly secret realms of nuclear weapons science and engineering. In the postwar period a small number of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's staff and affiliates were responsible for theoretical work on fusion weapons, yet the program was subject to both the provisions and constraints of the US Atomic Energy Commission, of which Los Alamos was a part. The Commission leadership's struggle to establish a mission for its network of laboratories, least of all to keep them operating, affected Los Alamos's leaders' decisions as to the course of weapons design and development projects. Adapting Thomas P. Hughes's ''large technological systems'' thesis, I focus on the technical, social, political, and human problems that nuclear weapons scientists faced while pursuing the thermonuclear project, demonstrating why the early American thermonuclear bomb project was an immensely complicated scientific and technological undertaking. I concentrate mainly on Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Theoretical, or T, Division, and its members' attempts to complete an accurate mathematical treatment of the ''Super''--the most difficult problem in physics in the postwar period--and other fusion weapon theories. Although tackling a theoretical problem, theoreticians had to address technical and engineering issues as well. I demonstrate the relative value and importance of H-bomb research over time in the postwar era to

  10. Study on structural materials used in thermonuclear fusion technology; Estudo de materiais estruturais na tecnolgia da fusao termonuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billa, R. [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Amaral, D. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica

    1995-12-31

    The main problem related to the construction of a thermonuclear fusion reactor is the absence of suitable materials for the process, concerning to temperature limits, heat flux and life time. The first wall is the most critical part of the structure, being submitted to radiation effects, ionic corrosion and coolant, besides thermal fatigue and tension produced by cyclical burning. The AISI 316(17-12SPH) stainless steel is used as structural material, which has a wide known database. This work proposes an alternative material study to be used in the future thermonuclear fusion reactors. As a option a study on the utilization of Cr-Mn(Fe-17 Mn-10 Cr-0,1 C) steels and their alloy variations is presented 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. 0n a possible anisotropy of the angular distribution of charge-es on a thermonuclear reactorxchange fast neutral wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, M.A.; Zhdanov, S.K.; Kurnaev, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Angular distribution of neutrals is analytically investigated for estimation of the effects accompanying the interaction of charge-exchange fast neutrals with the first wall of thermonuclear devices. The results of calculations of angular distri-- butions of fast charge-exchange neutrals at the plasma boUndary for different conditions characteristic of large tokamaks are presented. The applied model gives an isotropic angular distribution with a most probable angle of incidence differing from the normal one

  12. High power 1 MeV neutral beam system and its application plan for the international tokamak experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemsworth, R.S. [ITER Joint Central Team, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the Neutral Beam Injection system which is presently being designed for the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor, ITER, in Europe Japan and Russia, with co-ordination by the Joint Central Team of ITER at Naka, Japan. The proposed system consists of three negative ion based neutral injectors, delivering a total of 50 MW of 1 MeV D{sup 0} to the ITER plasma for a pulse length of >1000 s. Each injectors uses a single caesiated volume arc discharge negative ion source, and a multi-grid, multi-aperture accelerator, to produce about 40 A of 1 MeV D{sup -}. This will be neutralized by collisions with D{sub 2} in a sub-divided gas neutralizer, which has a conversion efficiency of about 60%. The charged fraction of the beam emerging from the neutralizer is dumped in an electrostatic residual ion dump. A water cooled calorimeter can be moved into the beam path to intercept the neutral beam, allowing commissioning of the injector independent of ITER. ITER is scheduled to produce its first plasma at the beginning of 2008, and the planning of the R and D, construction and installation foresees the neutral injection system being available from the start of ITER operations. (author)

  13. Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, C.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Johnson, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation`s activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and, neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication (C) bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,{gamma}/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

  14. Dust processing device for inside of vacuum vessel of thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Atsushi; Tsujimura, Seiichi; Takahashi, Kenji; Ueda, Yasutoshi; Kuwata, Masayasu; Onozuka, Masaki.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention can occasionally recover dusts in a vacuum vessel of a thermonuclear reactor. In addition, fine powdery dusts are never scattered to the vacuum vessel. Namely, a processing device main body comprises a locally sealed space in the vacuum vessel. A blow-up device blows up and floats dusts accumulated in the vacuum vessel to the processing device main body. A discharge plate electrically charges the floating dusts by discharge. An electrode collects the charged dusts. Collected dusts are recovered together with a pressurized gas through a dust recovering port to the outside of the processing device. With such a constitution, it is not necessary to release the vacuum vessel to the atmosphere and evacuate after the completion of the collection of the dusts on every time when the dusts are generated as in the prior art. It is no more necessary for an operator to enter into the vacuum vessel and recover the dusts. Since fine powdery dusts are never scattered in the vacuum vessel, no undesired effects are given to exhaustion facilities and instruments of the vacuum vessel. (I.S.)

  15. Thermonuclear fusion: from fundamental research to energy production? Science and technology report No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, Guy; Blanzat, Bernard; Aspect, Alain; Aymar, Robert; Bielak, Bogdan; Decroisette, Michel; Martin, Georges; Andre, Michel; Schirmann, Daniel; Garbet, Xavier; Jacquinot, Jean; Laviron, Clement; Migus, Arnold; Moreau, Rene; Pironneau, Olivier; Quere, Yves; Vallee, Alain; Dercourt, Jean; Bayer, Charles; Juraszek, Denis; Deutsch, Claude; Le Garrec, Bruno; Hennequin, Pascale; Peysson, Yves; Rax, Jean-Marcel; Pesme, Denis; Bauche, Jacques; Monier-Garbet, Pascale; Stamm, Roland; Zerah, Gilles; Ghendrih, Philippe; Layet, Roland; Grosman, Andre; Alamo, Ana; Giancarli, Luciano; Poitevin, Yves; Rigal, Emmanuel; Chieze, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This work has been commissioned by the French ministry of Education, Sciences and Research, its aim is to provide a reliable account of the state of development of thermonuclear fusion. This report makes a point on the scientific knowledge accumulated on the topic and highlights the research programs that are necessary to overcome the technological difficulties and draws the necessary steps before an industrial application to electricity production. This report is divided into 10 chapters: 1) tokamak technology and ITER, 2) inertial fusion, 3) magnetized hot plasmas, 4) laser-plasma interaction and peta-watt lasers, 5) atomic physics and fusion, 6) computer simulation, 7) plasma-wall interaction, 8) materials for fusion reactors, 9) safety analysis, and 10) inertial fusion and astrophysics. This report has been written by a large panel of experts gathered by the French Academy of Sciences. The comments on the issue by the 3 French organizations: Cea, Cnrs and SFP (French Society of Physics) follow the last chapter

  16. A review of the thermonuclear runaway model of a nova outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, W.M.; Truran, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers the hydrogen-rich material that settles onto the white dwarf. Kraft (1963) proposed that this material eventually becomes degenerate. This degenerate hydrogen-rich matter heats up as more material is accreted on top of it and eventually reaches ignition temperatures. Now degenerate material has the property that to the first order the pressure is not a function of the temperature. Thus, the energy generation is not limited by expansion until degeneracy is lifted. This leads to a thermonuclear runaway which was proposed by Kraft as the cause of the nova outburst. Later models, including hydrodynamics, are reviewed and the effects of excess energy in a stellar envelope with subsequent shock ejection are considered. Developments from Krafts' model using an implicit hydrodynamics lagrangian computer code are presented and the importance of the fast CNO cycle is shown. The nova outburst is triggered by the explosive CNO burning in the outer regions of the prenova at temperatures greater than 10 8 K and densities between 10 3 and 10 5 g cm -3 . (M.J.C.)

  17. Tridimensional Thermonuclear Instability in Subignited Plasmas and on the Surface of the Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali, A.; Coppi, B.

    2017-10-01

    Tridimensional modes involving an increase of the electron temperature can be excited as a result of alpha-particle heating in subignited D-T fusion burning plasmas when a nearly time- independent external source of heating is applied. The analyzed modes are shown to emerge from an axisymmetric toroidal configurations and are radially localized around rational magnetic surfaces corresponding to q(r =r0) =m0 /n0 where m0 and n0 are the relevant poloidal and toroidal mode numbers. The radial width of the mode is of the order of the thermal scale distance. The mode has a rather severe damping rate, that has to be overcome by the relevant heating rate. Thus the temperature range to be considered is that where the D-T plasma reactivity undergoes a relatively large increase as a function of temperature. This kind of theory has been applied to the plasmas that are envisioned to be associated with surface of pulsar and be subjects to (spatially) inhomogenous thermonuclear burning. Sponsored in part by the U.S. DoE.

  18. Manufacturing device for vacuum vessel of thermonuclear reactor and manufacturing method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagi, Hiroshi; Shibui, Masanao; Uchida, Takaho

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of manufacturing a vacuum vessel of a thermonuclear reactor with no welding deformation. Namely, there are disposed a manufacturing device comprises a welding machine equipped with a plurality of welding torches which can conduct synchronizing welding and a torch positioning mechanism for positioning the plurality of welding torches each at an optional distance. Then, both ends of a splice plate can be welded by the plurality of welding torches under synchronization. Accordingly, joining portions of sectors of a vacuum vessel can be welded in the site with no deviation of beveling at joining portions between an outer wall and an inner wall with the splice plate due to welding deformation. In addition, the welding machine is mounted on a travelling type clamping mechanism stand or a travelling type clamping mechanism. With such a constitution, since the peripheries of the joining portions on the inner wall are clamped with each other by the travelling type clamping mechanism, no angular distortion is caused in any welded portion of the outer wall. (I.S.)

  19. Thermonuclear process and accretion onto neutron star envelopes: x-ray burst and transient sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.; Kenyon, S.; Sparks, W.M.; Truran, J.W.; Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory)

    1982-01-01

    We have used a Lagrangian, fully implicit, one-dimensional, hydrodynamic computer code to investigate the evolution of thermonuclear runaways in the thick, accreted, hydrogen-rich envelopes of 1.0 M/sub sun/ neutron stars with radii of 10 km and 20 km. Our simulations produce outbursts which range in time scale from about 2000 seconds to longer than 1 day. Peak effective temperature was 3.3 x 10 7 K (kTapprox.2.91 keV), and peak luminosity was 2 x 10 5 L/sub sun/ for the 10 km study. The 20 km neutron star produced a peak effective temperature and luminosity of 5.3 x 10 6 K and 5.9 x 10 2 L/sub sun/, respectively. We also investigated the effects of changes in the rates of the 14 O(α,p) and 15 O(α,ν) reactions on the evolution. Hydrodynamic expansion on the 10 km neutron star produced a precursor lasting about 10 - 6 seconds

  20. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  1. NEW TECHNIQUE FOR OBESITY SURGERY: INTERNAL GASTRIC PLICATION TECHNIQUE USING INTRAGASTRIC SINGLE-PORT (IGS-IGP) IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Verena; Fikatas, Panagiotis; Gül, Safak; Noesser, Maximilian; Fuehrer, Kirs Ten; Sauer, Igor; Pratschke, Johann; Zorron, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective method to ameliorate co-morbidities as consequence of morbidly obese patients with BMI over 35 kg/m2. Endoscopic techniques have been developed to treat patients with mild obesity and ameliorate comorbidities, but endoscopic skills are needed, beside the costs of the devices. To report a new technique for internal gastric plication using an intragastric single port device in an experimental swine model. Twenty experiments using fresh pig cadaver stomachs in a laparoscopic trainer were performed. The procedure was performed as follow in ten pigs: 1) volume measure; 2) insufflation of the stomach with CO2; 3) extroversion of the stomach through the simulator and installation of the single port device (Gelpoint Applied Mini) through a gastrotomy close to the pylorus; 4) performance of four intragastric handsewn 4-point sutures with Prolene 2-0, from the gastric fundus to the antrum; 5) after the performance, the residual volume was measured. Sleeve gastrectomy was also performed in further ten pigs and pre- and post-procedure gastric volume were measured. The internal gastric plication technique was performed successfully in the ten swine experiments. The mean procedure time was 27±4 min. It produced a reduction of gastric volume of a mean of 51%, and sleeve gastrectomy, a mean of 90% in this swine model. The internal gastric plication technique using an intragastric single port device required few skills to perform, had low operative time and achieved good reduction (51%) of gastric volume in an in vitro experimental model. A cirurgia bariátrica é atualmente o método mais efetivo para melhorar as co-morbidades decorrentes da obesidade mórbida com IMC acima de 35 kg/m2. Técnicas endoscópicas foram desenvolvidas para tratar pacientes com obesidade leve e melhorar as comorbidades, mas habilidades endoscópicas são necessárias, além dos custos. Relatar uma nova técnica para a plicatura gástrica interna

  2. Sensitivity study of explosive nucleosynthesis in type Ia supernovae: Modification of individual thermonuclear reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Eduardo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2012-05-01

    Background: Type Ia supernovae contribute significantly to the nucleosynthesis of many Fe-group and intermediate-mass elements. However, the robustness of nucleosynthesis obtained via models of this class of explosions has not been studied in depth until now.Purpose: We explore the sensitivity of the nucleosynthesis resulting from thermonuclear explosions of massive white dwarfs with respect to uncertainties in nuclear reaction rates. We put particular emphasis on indentifying the individual reactions rates that most strongly affect the isotopic products of these supernovae.Method: We have adopted a standard one-dimensional delayed detonation model of the explosion of a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf and have postprocessed the thermodynamic trajectories of every mass shell with a nucleosynthetic code to obtain the chemical composition of the ejected matter. We have considered increases (decreases) by a factor of 10 on the rates of 1196 nuclear reactions (simultaneously with their inverse reactions), repeating the nucleosynthesis calculations after modification of each reaction rate pair. We have computed as well hydrodynamic models for different rates of the fusion reactions of 12C and of 16O. From the calculations we have selected the reactions that have the largest impact on the supernova yields, and we have computed again the nucleosynthesis using two or three alternative prescriptions for their rates, taken from the JINA REACLIB database. For the three reactions with the largest sensitivity we have analyzed as well the temperature ranges where a modification of their rates has the strongest effect on nucleosynthesis.Results: The nucleosynthesis resulting from the type Ia supernova models is quite robust with respect to variations of nuclear reaction rates, with the exception of the reaction of fusion of two 12C nuclei. The energy of the explosion changes by less than ˜4% when the rates of the reactions 12C+12C or 16O+16O are multiplied by a factor of ×10 or

  3. Charged-particle thermonuclear reaction rates: I. Monte Carlo method and statistical distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longland, R.; Iliadis, C.; Champagne, A.E.; Newton, J.R.; Ugalde, C.; Coc, A.; Fitzgerald, R.

    2010-01-01

    A method based on Monte Carlo techniques is presented for evaluating thermonuclear reaction rates. We begin by reviewing commonly applied procedures and point out that reaction rates that have been reported up to now in the literature have no rigorous statistical meaning. Subsequently, we associate each nuclear physics quantity entering in the calculation of reaction rates with a specific probability density function, including Gaussian, lognormal and chi-squared distributions. Based on these probability density functions the total reaction rate is randomly sampled many times until the required statistical precision is achieved. This procedure results in a median (Monte Carlo) rate which agrees under certain conditions with the commonly reported recommended 'classical' rate. In addition, we present at each temperature a low rate and a high rate, corresponding to the 0.16 and 0.84 quantiles of the cumulative reaction rate distribution. These quantities are in general different from the statistically meaningless 'minimum' (or 'lower limit') and 'maximum' (or 'upper limit') reaction rates which are commonly reported. Furthermore, we approximate the output reaction rate probability density function by a lognormal distribution and present, at each temperature, the lognormal parameters μ and σ. The values of these quantities will be crucial for future Monte Carlo nucleosynthesis studies. Our new reaction rates, appropriate for bare nuclei in the laboratory, are tabulated in the second paper of this issue (Paper II). The nuclear physics input used to derive our reaction rates is presented in the third paper of this issue (Paper III). In the fourth paper of this issue (Paper IV) we compare our new reaction rates to previous results.

  4. Influence of design variations on controlled thermonuclear reactor blanket neutronic performance using variational techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, E.T.; Conn, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of design variations, such as the percentage of structural material in a tritium breeding zone or the enrichment of lithium in 6 Li, on such important controlled thermonuclear reactor parameters as the tritium breeding ratio and the total nuclear energy produced has been studied using variational techniques for two different but general blanket designs. The first design uses liquid lithium as both coolant and breeding material, while the second uses a helium coolant and a solid-lithium-bearing compound as the tritium breeder. A variational technique based on variational interpolation is the primary computational tool, and it is shown that for linear perturbations in the transport operator and for a fixed source, only forward flux calculations are required to implement the variational interpolation approach. No adjoint functions are required to implement the variational interpolation approach. No adjoint functions are required, while any number of response functionals can be investigated. For both blanket designs, the influence of the choice of structural material, such as stainless-steel, molybdenum, niobium, vanadium, and aluminum structures, has been studied. The role of beryllium as a neutron multiplier with a solid breeder blanket is studied, and an optimum beryllium thickness is found that maximizes the breeding ratio. The influence of using graphite or the structural material as a neutron reflector and the effect of lithium burnup are also studied. It is found that for a given percentage of structural material in the tritium breeding zones, vanadium-structured systems achieve the highest breeding ratios, while molybdenum-structured systems produce the highest value of total nuclear heating. The effects of lithium burnup are small

  5. Uncertainties in the production of p nuclides in thermonuclear supernovae determined by Monte Carlo variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, N.; Rauscher, T.; Hirschi, R.; Murphy, A. St J.; Cescutti, G.; Travaglio, C.

    2018-03-01

    Thermonuclear supernovae originating from the explosion of a white dwarf accreting mass from a companion star have been suggested as a site for the production of p nuclides. Such nuclei are produced during the explosion, in layers enriched with seed nuclei coming from prior strong s processing. These seeds are transformed into proton-richer isotopes mainly by photodisintegration reactions. Several thousand trajectories from a 2D explosion model were used in a Monte Carlo approach. Temperature-dependent uncertainties were assigned individually to thousands of rates varied simultaneously in post-processing in an extended nuclear reaction network. The uncertainties in the final nuclear abundances originating from uncertainties in the astrophysical reaction rates were determined. In addition to the 35 classical p nuclides, abundance uncertainties were also determined for the radioactive nuclides 92Nb, 97, 98Tc, 146Sm, and for the abundance ratios Y(92Mo)/Y(94Mo), Y(92Nb)/Y(92Mo), Y(97Tc)/Y(98Ru), Y(98Tc)/Y(98Ru), and Y(146Sm)/Y(144Sm), important for Galactic Chemical Evolution studies. Uncertainties found were generally lower than a factor of 2, although most nucleosynthesis flows mainly involve predicted rates with larger uncertainties. The main contribution to the total uncertainties comes from a group of trajectories with high peak density originating from the interior of the exploding white dwarf. The distinction between low-density and high-density trajectories allows more general conclusions to be drawn, also applicable to other simulations of white dwarf explosions.

  6. Numerical evaluation of experimental models to investigate the dynamic behavior of the ITER tokamak assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Takeda, N.; Nakahira, M.; Shimizu, K.; Nakamura, T.

    2003-01-01

    The most recent assessment method to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak assembly is outlined. Three experimental models, including a 1/5.8-scale tokamak model, have been considered to validate the numerical analysis methods for dynamic events, particularly seismic ones. The experimental model has been evaluated by numerical calculations and the results are presented. In the calculations, equivalent linearization has been applied for the non-linear characteristics of the support flange connection, caused by the effects of the bolt-fastening and the friction between the flanges. The detailed connecting conditions for the support flanges have been developed and validated for the analysis. Using the conditions, the eigen-mode analysis has shown that the first and second eigen-mode are horizontal vibration modes with the natural frequency of 39 Hz, while the vertical vibration mode is the fourth mode with the natural frequency of 86 Hz. Dynamic analysis for seismic events has shown the maximum acceleration of approximately twofold larger than that of the applied acceleration, and the maximum stress of 104 MPa found in the flange connecting bolt. These values will be examined comparing with experimental results in order to validate the analysis methods

  7. Annual report of the Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research and the Division of Large Tokamak Development for the period of April 1, 1977 to March 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    Research and development works in fiscal year 1977 of the Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research and the Division of Large Tokamak Development are described. 1) Theoretical studies on tokamak confinement have continued with more emphasis on computations. A task was started of developing a computer code system for mhd behavior of tokamak plasmas. 2) Experimental studies of lower hybrid heating up to 140 kW were made in JFT-2. The ion temperature was increased by 50% -- 60% near the plasma center. Plasma-wall interactions (particle and thermal fluxes to the wall, and titanium gettering) were studied. In JFT-2a (DIVA) ion sputtering, arcing and evaporation were identified, and the impurity ion sputtering was found to be a dominant origin of metal impurities in the present tokamaks. High temperature and high-density plasma divertor actions were demonstrated; i.e. the divertor decreases the radiation power loss by a factor of 3 and increases the energy confinement time by a factor of 2.5. Various diagnostic instruments operated sufficiently to provide useful information for the research with JFT-2 and JFT-2a(DIVA). 3) JFT-2 and JFT-2a(DIVA) operated as scheduled. Technological improvements were made such as titanium coating of the chamber wall, discharge cleaning and pre-ionization. 4) Detailed design of the prototype JT-60 neutral beam injector was made. A 200 kW, 650 MHz radiofrequency heating system for JFT-2 was completed; a lower hybrid heating experiment in JFT-2 was successful 5) In particle-surface interactions, the sputtering and surface erosion were studied. 6) Improvement designs of a superconducting cluster test facility and a test module coil were made in the toroidal coil development. 7) Second preliminary design of the tokamak experimental fusion reactor JXFR started in April 1977. Safety analyses were made of the main components and system of JXFR on the basis of the first preliminary design. (J.P.N.)

  8. Estimation of a noise level using coarse-grained entropy of experimental time series of internal pressure in a combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litak, Grzegorz; Taccani, Rodolfo; Radu, Robert; Urbanowicz, Krzysztof; HoIyst, Janusz A.; Wendeker, MirosIaw; Giadrossi, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    We report our results on non-periodic experimental time series of pressure in a single cylinder spark ignition engine. The experiments were performed for different levels of loading. We estimate the noise level in internal pressure calculating the coarse-grained entropy from variations of maximal pressures in successive cycles. The results show that the dynamics of the combustion is a non-linear multidimensional process mediated by noise. Our results show that so defined level of noise in internal pressure is not monotonous function of loading

  9. Production of synthetic methanol from air and water using controlled thermonuclear reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1977-01-01

    Energy requirement and process development of methanol production from air and water using controlled thermonuclear fusion power was discussed in Part 1 (Steinberg et al., Energy conversion;17:97(1977)). This second part presents an economic analysis of the nine processes presented for obtaining carbon dioxide recovery from the atmosphere or the sea for methanol production. It is found that the most economical process of obtaining carbon dioxide is by stripping from sea water. The process of absorption/stripping by dilute potassium carbonate solution is found to be the most economical for the extraction of carbon dioxide from air at atmospheric pressure. The total energy required for methanol synthesis from these sources of carbon dioxide is 3.90 kWh(e)/lb methanol of which 90% is used for generation of hydrogen. The process which consumes the greatest amount of energy is the absorption/stripping of air by water at high pressure and amounts to 13.2 kWh(e)/lb methanol. With nuclear fusion power plants of 1000to 9000 MW(e), it is found that the cost of methanol using the extraction of carbon dioxide from air with dilute potassium carbonate solution is estimated to be in the range between Pound1.73 and Pound2.90/MMB.t.u. (energy equivalent - 1974 cost) for plant capacities of 21 400 to 193 000 bbl/day methanol. This methanol cost is competitive with gasoline in the range of 19 approximately equal to 33c/gallon. For the process of stripping of carbon dioxide from sea water, the cost is found to lie in the range of Pound1.65 to Pound2.71/MMB.t.u. (energy equivalent) for plant capacities of 21 700 to 195 000 bbl/day methanol which is competitive with gasoline in the range of 18 approximately equal to 30 c/gallon. Projection of methanol demand in the year 2020 is presented based on both its conventional use as chemicals and as a liquid fuel substituting for oil and gas. (author)

  10. Proposal for a decision of the EC Council concerning the planning of a research- and education-program (1982-1986) on the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The thermonuclear fusion is in a early development state and has, however, in principle possible advantages which could be especially valuable for Europe: the primary fusion fuels (D, Li) are plentiful existent, wide spread and cheap (1 g natural Lithium could generate 15 MWh); both fuels and the end product of the reactions - Helium - are stable. From the nuclear-technological point of view a thermonuclear reactor could be built with high safety; the doubling time for breeding of new fuels in principle could be very short. These potential advantages, however, are balanced by certain disadvantages, e.g. high costs for the construction of a thermonuclear reactor etc. The research program, other possibilities and the costs are outlined. (orig./HT) [de

  11. Proposal for a decision of the Council concerning the planning of a research- and education-program (1982-1986) on the field of thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermonuclear fusion is in an early development state and has however in principle possible advantages which could be especially valuable for Europe. The primary fusion fuels (D, Li) are plentiful existent, wide spread and cheap (1 g natural Lithium could generate 15 MHW); both fuels and the end product of the reactions - Helium - are stable. From the nuclear-technological point of view a thermonuclear reactor could be built with high safety; the doubling time for breeding of new fuels in principle could be very short. These potential advantages however are balanced by certain disadvantages, e.g. high costs for the construction of a thermonuclear reactor etc. The research program, other possibilities and the costs are outlined. (orig./HT) [de

  12. Remote experimental site concept development, LDRD final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casper, T.A.; Meyer, W.; Butner, D.

    1995-01-01

    Scientific research is now often conducted on large and expensive experiments that utilize collaborative efforts on a national or international scale to explore physics and engineering issues. This is particularly true for the current US magnetic fusion energy program where collaboration on existing facilities has increased in importance and will form the basis for future efforts. As fusion energy research approaches reactor conditions, the trend is towards fewer large and expensive experimental facilities, leaving many major institutions without local experiments. Since the expertise of various groups is a valuable resource, it is important to integrate these teams into an overall scientific program. To sustain continued involvement in experiments, scientists are now often required to travel frequently, or to move their families, to the new large facilities. This problem is common to many other different fields of scientific research. The next-generation tokamaks, such as the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) or the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will operate in steady-state or long pulse mode and produce fluxes of fusion reaction products sufficient to activate the surrounding structures. As a direct consequence, remote operation requiring robotics and video monitoring will become necessary, with only brief and limited access to the vessel area allowed. Even the on-site control room, data acquisition facilities, and work areas will be remotely located from the experiment, isolated by large biological barriers, and connected with fiber-optics. Current planning for the ITER experiment includes a network of control room facilities to be located in the countries of the four major international partners; USA, Russian Federation, Japan, and the European Community

  13. Development and evaluation of plasma facing materials for future thermonuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Roedig, M.; Schmidt, A.; Thomser, C.

    2010-01-01

    More and more attention is directed towards thermonuclear fusion as a possible future energy source. Major advantages of this energy conversion technology are the almost inexhaustible resources and the option to produce energy without CO 2 -emissions. However, in the most advanced field of magnetic plasma confinement a number of technological challenges have to be met. In particular high-temperature resistant and plasma compatible meterials have to be developed and qualified which are able to withstand the extreme environments in a commercial thermonuclear power reactor. The plasma facing materials (PEMs) and components (PFCs) in such fusion devices, i.e. the first wall (FW), the limiters and the divertor, are strongly affected by the plasma wall interaction processes and the applied intense thermal loads during plasma operation. On the one hand, these mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; on the other hand, they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour. Materials for plasma facing components have to fulfill a number of requirements. First of all the materials have to be plasma compatible, i.e. they should exhibit a low atomic number to avoid radiative losses whenever atoms from the wall material will be ionized in the plasma. In addition, the materials must have a high melting point, a high thermal conductivity, and adequate mechanical properties. To select the most suitable material candidates, a comprehensive data base is required which includes all thermo-physical and mechanical properties. In present-day and next step devices the resulting thermal steady state heat loads to the first wall remain below 1 MWm -2 , meanwhile the limiters and the divertor are expected to be exposed to power densities being at least one order of magnitude above the FW-level, i.e. up to 20 MWm -2 for next step tokamaks such as ITER or DEMO. These requirements are responsible for high demands on the selection of qualified PFMs and heat

  14. Development and evaluation of plasma facing materials for future thermonuclear fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Roedig, M.; Schmidt, A.; Thomser, C. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Juelich (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    More and more attention is directed towards thermonuclear fusion as a possible future energy source. Major advantages of this energy conversion technology are the almost inexhaustible resources and the option to produce energy without CO{sub 2}-emissions. However, in the most advanced field of magnetic plasma confinement a number of technological challenges have to be met. In particular high-temperature resistant and plasma compatible meterials have to be developed and qualified which are able to withstand the extreme environments in a commercial thermonuclear power reactor. The plasma facing materials (PEMs) and components (PFCs) in such fusion devices, i.e. the first wall (FW), the limiters and the divertor, are strongly affected by the plasma wall interaction processes and the applied intense thermal loads during plasma operation. On the one hand, these mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; on the other hand, they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour. Materials for plasma facing components have to fulfill a number of requirements. First of all the materials have to be plasma compatible, i.e. they should exhibit a low atomic number to avoid radiative losses whenever atoms from the wall material will be ionized in the plasma. In addition, the materials must have a high melting point, a high thermal conductivity, and adequate mechanical properties. To select the most suitable material candidates, a comprehensive data base is required which includes all thermo-physical and mechanical properties. In present-day and next step devices the resulting thermal steady state heat loads to the first wall remain below 1 MWm{sup -2}, meanwhile the limiters and the divertor are expected to be exposed to power densities being at least one order of magnitude above the FW-level, i.e. up to 20 MWm{sup -2} for next step tokamaks such as ITER or DEMO. These requirements are responsible for high demands on the selection of qualified PFMs

  15. Overview of the TIBER II [Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor] design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    The TIBER II Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor design is the result of efforts by numerous people and institutions, including many fusion laboratories, universities, and industries. While subsystems will be covered extensively in other reports, this overview will attempt to place the work in perspective. Major features of the design are compact size, low cost, and steady-state operation. These are achieved through plasma shaping and innovative features such as radiation tolerant magnets and optimized shielding. While TIBER II can operate in a pulsed mode, steady-state is preferred for nuclear testing. Current drive is achieved by a combination of lower hybrid and neutral beams. In addition, 10 MW of ECR is added for disruption control and current drive profiling. The TIBER II design has been the US option in preparation for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Other equivalent national designs are the NET in Europe, the FER in Japan and the OTR in the USSR. These designs will help set the basis for the new international design effort. 9 refs

  16. Trend of nuclear fusion research and development that are entering the stage of experimental reactor and its charm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    By having attained the plasma characteristics that almost satisfy the aimed-at critical plasma conditions by JT-60 of Japan, TFTR of USA and JET of EU, the research and development of nuclear fusion in the world advanced to the stage of materializing the construction and operation of a fusion experimental reactor. At present, the design of the international thermo-nuclear fusion experimental reactor (ITER) reached the final stage by the international cooperation of Japan, USA, EU and Russia. In July, 1996, the informal international preparatory consultation aiming at its construction was begun by four partners. This report was made by summarizing the various technical informations which were obtained as the results of the investigation activities of the committee. In this book, the ITER project which aims at the first step for the practical use with advanced technologies, the development of core plasma research, the development of fusion reactor engineering, fusion reactor systems, the safety of fusion reactors, plasma-wall interaction by irradiation and discharge mode, the recent research and development of superconducting coils, the theoretical elucidation of plasma, electric power generation technology, the new concepts of low aspect ratio tokamak, free boundary plasma and DREAM reactor, and the development strategy are described. (K.I.)

  17. The library of evaluated and experimental data on charged particles for fusion application (SaBa). Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvenigorodskij, A.G.; Zherebtsov, V.A.; Lazarev, L.M.; Dunaeva, S.A.; Generalov, L.N.; Taova, S.M.; Kamskaya, E.V.; Marshalkina, R.I.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic version of the evaluated and experimental data on charged particles for thermonuclear applications (SaBa) was prepared on the base of handbook 'Nuclear Physics Constants for Thermonuclear Fusion', INDC(CCP)-326/L+F, Vienna, 1991. Data on 100 channels for 52 reactions are presented in the Library. Program code was performed using the object-oriented programming environment Borland C ++ Builder for Microsoft Windows 95 and Windows NT operating systems. Optimal set of data processing procedures and friendly interface provide remarkable possibilities for the active use of this program for various applications in the field of thermonuclear fusion. It is available online (http:/www-nds.iaea.or.at/reports/data/saba/disk1.zip, ../disk2.zip, ../disk3.zip, on CD-ROM or on a set of PC diskettes from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree, upon request. (author)

  18. Investigating the Neutral-Gas Manometers in the Wendelstein 7-X Experimental Fusion Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisano-Brown, Jeannette; Wenzel, Uwe; Sunn-Pederson, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The neutral-gas manometer is a powerful diagnostic tool used in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, a magnetized fusion experiment located in Germany. The Wendelstein, produced at a cost of 1.2 billion euros, and 20 years in the making, had its first experimental results in Winter 2016. Initial findings exceeded expectations but further study is still necessary. The particular instrument we examined was a hot-cathode ionization gauge, critical for attaining a quality in-vessel environment and a stable plasma. However, after the winter operation of Wendelstein, we found that some of the gauges had failed the six-second (maximum) plasma runs. Wendelstein is on track for 30-minute operations within three years, so it has become of utmost importance to scrutinize gauge design claims. We therefore subjected the devices to high magnetic field, input current, and temperature, as well as to long operational periods. Our results confirmed that the manometer cannot survive a 30-minute run. Though our findings did motivate promising recommendations for design improvement and for further experimentation so that the gauge can be ready for upcoming operations in Summer 2017 and eventual installment in ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, currently under construction. This research was graciously supported by the Max Planck Institute and the MIT-Germany Initiative.

  19. Experimental results showing the internal three-component velocity field and outlet temperature contours for a model gas turbine combustor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyers, BC

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A three-component flow field inside a can-type, forward flow experimental combustor was measured under non-reacting conditions. The combustor was run at atmospheric conditions with the air flow supplied from a fan and the outlet was straight...

  20. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF METHODS OF TEACHING FUTURE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS SPECIALISTS PROFESSIONALLY ORIENTED ENGLISH LISTENING COMPREHENSION IN SELF-STUDY WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiya Hupka-Makohin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of the experiment that prove the effectiveness of the suggested methods of teaching future international economics specialists professionally oriented English listening comprehension self-study work have been analysed. The methods are based on the principles of personal, reflective and professionally oriented approaches; presupposes simultaneous development of learning and strategic competence as the basis of learner autonomy; stage-by-stage professionally oriented English listening competence forming; providing students with more independence and encouraging their reflection. The estimation criteria of the future international economics specialists’ professionally oriented English listening competence have been grounded (general comprehension of the text, detailed comprehension of the text, identifying specific information, the ability to analyse the information presented.

  1. A 2015 International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) candidate model based on Swarm’s experimental absolute magnetometer vector mode data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigneron, Pierre; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    to epoch 2015.0 and truncated at degree and order 13. The resulting ASM-only 2015.0 IGRF candidate model is compared to analogous models derived from the mission’s nominal data and to the now-published final 2015.0 IGRF model. Differences among models mainly highlight uncertainties enhanced by the limited...... data. Here, we report on how ASM-only scalar and vector data from the Alpha and Bravo satellites between November 29, 2013 (a week after launch) and September 25, 2014 (for on-time delivery of the model on October 1, 2014) could be used to build a very valuable candidate model for the 2015.......0 International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). A parent model was first computed, describing the geomagnetic field of internal origin up to degree and order 40 in a spherical harmonic representation and including a constant secular variation up to degree and order 8. This model was next simply forwarded...

  2. Improvement of electromechanical properties of an ITER internal tin Nb3Sn wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondonico, G.; Seeber, B.; Senatore, C.; Flükiger, R.; Corato, V.; De Marzi, G.; Muzzi, L.

    2010-11-01

    The critical current of an internal tin Nb3Sn wire developed by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) (OST type-I, billet No. 7567) has been studied under axial strain at fields between 12 and 19 T at 4.2 K. Simulating the situation in a cable in conduit, where thermally induced compressive strain is important, a single wire (strand) was jacketed with AISI 316L stainless steel. The reinforced wire shows an important increase in ɛm, the applied strain where Ic reaches its maximum, from 0.25% to 0.57%. In addition the irreversibility limit, ɛirr, is improved from 0.50% applied strain to >1.10%. It could also be shown that the Ic at zero intrinsic strain is almost identical. This demonstrates that jacketing does not influence the physical parameters of the original wire. Experimental data of the bare wire has been well fitted by different strain functions. However, it was not possible to model the data of the jacketed wire. There are indications that only models which take into account the multidimensional character of strain are able to describe the behavior but further development is required.

  3. Experimental study of the cyclic behaviour of a 316 L stainless steel under complex multiaxial loadings in tension-torsion-internal and external pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocher, L.; Delobelle, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the experimental determination of the behaviour of a 316 L austenitic stainless steel at room temperature and under non proportional cyclic strainings in tension-torsion-internal and external pressures. The two or three sinusoidal strains were applied both in and out-of-phase and the main investigations deal with the additional hardening due to multiaxiality of the loadings. Typical stabilized hysteresis loops are presented. With respect to the maximum additional hardening the different tests can be classified as follows: in phase tests, out-of-phase internal-external pressures tests, out-of-phase tension-torsion tests and finally tension-torsion-pressure with significant phase angles. (orig.)

  4. Experimental and numerical studies of the scattering of light from a two-dimensional randomly rough interface in the presence of total internal reflection: optical Yoneda peaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcalde, Alma K; Banon, Jean-Philippe; Hetland, Øyvind S; Maradudin, Alexei A; Méndez, Eugenio R; Nordam, Tor; Simonsen, Ingve

    2016-11-14

    The scattering of polarized light from a dielectric film sandwiched between two different semi-infinite dielectric media is studied experimentally and theoretically. The illuminated interface is planar, while the back interface is a two-dimensional randomly rough interface. We consider here only the case in which the medium of incidence is optically more dense than the substrate, in which case effects due to the presence of a critical angle for total internal reflection occur. A reduced Rayleigh equation for the scattering amplitudes is solved by a rigorous, purely numerical, nonperturbative approach. The solutions are used to calculate the reflectivity of the structure and the mean differential reflection coefficient. Optical analogues of Yoneda peaks are present in the results obtained. The computational results are compared with experimental data for the in-plane mean differential reflection coefficient, and good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  5. FY2017 Final Report: Power of the People: A technical ethical and experimental examination of the use of crowdsourcing to support international nuclear safeguards verification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, Zoe Nellie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sentz, Kari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Swanson, Meili Claire [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rinaudo, Cristina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Recent advances in information technology have led to an expansion of crowdsourcing activities that utilize the “power of the people” harnessed via online games, communities of interest, and other platforms to collect, analyze, verify, and provide technological solutions for challenges from a multitude of domains. To related this surge in popularity, the research team developed a taxonomy of crowdsourcing activities as they relate to international nuclear safeguards, evaluated the potential legal and ethical issues surrounding the use of crowdsourcing to support safeguards, and proposed experimental designs to test the capabilities and prospect for the use of crowdsourcing to support nuclear safeguards verification.

  6. Requirements for design of accelerator, beam transport, and target in a study of thermonuclear reaction cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itahashi, T.; Takahisa, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Toki, H.; Ejiri, H. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Ohsumi, H.; Komori, M.

    1997-03-01

    A compact accelerator with high current ion source, low energy beam transport elements and windowless gas target was designed to investigate the thermonuclear reaction cross section. The idea of this project focused on the cross section measurement of the fusion reaction data {sup 3}He+{sup 3}He-{sup 4}He+p+p at 25keV. The system will be installed in Otoh Cosmo Observatory (1270m.w.e.) to get rid of the huge cosmic and environmental background. It consists of NANOGUN ECR ion source, focusing elements made of permanent magnets window less {sup 3}He gas target and/or He{sup 3} plasma target and detector telescopes with low noise and low background. Requirements for these were discussed technically and various ideas were proposed. (author)

  7. Attainment of Gigavolt Potentials by Fluid Dynamic Suppression of the Stepped Leader—Its Significance for Thermonuclear Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, F.

    2009-06-01

    It is proposed to levitate a conducting sphere in a high pressure Taylor flow and to charge it up to gigavolt potentials, either mechanically as in a Van de Graaff electrostatic generator, or inductively by a rising magnetic field. If the Taylor flow is sufficiently fast, it should overcome the electric pressure and breakdown by stepped leader formation, leading to the maximum attainable voltage by the Paschen law. Discharging the electro-statically stored energy can be done by controlled breakdown. With gigajoule energies stored and released in about 10-8 s, this implies and electric pulse power of the order 1017 W, opening the prospect of large driver energies for thermonuclear ignition.

  8. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusion Working Group (FWG)) was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project.

  9. Good practices in health care "management experimentation models": insights from an international public-private partnership on transplantation and advanced specialized therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The research analyzes good practices in health care "management experimentation models," which fall within the broader range of the integrative public-private partnerships (PPPs). Introduced by the Italian National Healthcare System in 1991, the "management experimentation models" are based on a public governance system mixed with a private management approach, a patient-centric orientation, a shared financial risk, and payment mechanisms correlated with clinical outcomes, quality, and cost-savings. This model makes public hospitals more competitive and efficient without affecting the principles of universal coverage, solidarity, and equity of access, but requires higher financial responsibility for managers and more flexibility in operations. In Italy the experience of such experimental models is limited but successful. The study adopts the case study methodology and refers to the international collaboration started in 1997 between two Italian hospitals and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC - Pennsylvania, USA) in the field of organ transplants and biomedical advanced therapies. The research allows identifying what constitutes good management practices and factors associated with higher clinical performance. Thus, it allows to understand whether and how the management experimentation model can be implemented on a broader basis, both nationwide and internationally. However, the implementation of integrative PPPs requires strategic, cultural, and managerial changes in the way in which a hospital operates; these transformations are not always sustainable. The recognition of ISMETT's good management practices is useful for competitive benchmarking among hospitals specialized in organ transplants and for its insights on the strategies concerning the governance reorganization in the hospital setting. Findings can be used in the future for analyzing the cross-country differences in productivity among well-managed public hospitals.

  10. Experimental Studies of Coaxial Plasma Gun Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    insertion into experimental systems (117-133), fueling for proposed thermonuclear reactors (134-138], breeding fissionable material [139, 140] and...Center Top Level Linear Exponential Yield Current Current Extrap . Extrap . (MA) (MA) Current Current (MA) (MA) 02901 2.8106 0.18 0.05 D3001 1.2x107...Exponential Yield Current Current Extrap . Extrap . (MA) (MA) Current Current (MA) (MA) 30703 1.610 8 1.57 0.64 0.54 0.59 J0706 4.040O 1.46 0.85 0.80 0.82 J

  11. CFD Simulation and Experimental Measurement of Gas Holdup and Liquid Interstitial Velocity in Internal Loop Airlift Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimčík, Miroslav; Mota, A.; Růžička, Marek; Vicente, A.; Teixeira, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 14 (2011), s. 3268-3279 ISSN 0009-2509. [International Conference on Gas–Liquid and Gas–Liquid–Solid Reactor Engineering /10./. Braga, 26.06.2011-29.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1110 Grant - others:FCT(PT) SFRH/BD/37082/2007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : cfd * airlift * hydrodynamics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.431, year: 2011

  12. Experimental and ab initio study on structures and internal barriers to rotation in α-stannyl, germanium, and silicon carbamates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadidi, Khosrow; Khaligh, Nader Ghaffari; Islami, Parisa; Aryan, Reza; Arvin-Nezhad, Hamid

    2009-02-01

    A detailed study of structural parameters and internal rotational barriers in α-stannyl, germanium and silicon carbamates 1 [H 3 CX-CH 2-N(Me)CO 2Me X dbnd C, Si, Ge, Sn] were calculated at HF/6-311G, HF/3-21G and B3LYP/3-21G//HF/3-21G levels and compared with DNMR data of synthesized molecules and a literature X-ray data. Two minimum-energy conformers, namely A and B, with almost similar energies were found for these molecules. Effect of heteroatom on structure and relative energies ( Erel) between the participants in the conformational equilibrium (A ↔ B) of these carbamates has been investigated.

  13. The effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behaviors: international evidence from correlational, longitudinal, and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A; Anderson, Craig A; Yukawa, Shintaro; Ihori, Nobuko; Saleem, Muniba; Ming, Lim Kam; Shibuya, Akiko; Liau, Albert K; Khoo, Angeline; Bushman, Brad J; Rowell Huesmann, L; Sakamoto, Akira

    2009-06-01

    Although dozens of studies have documented a relationship between violent video games and aggressive behaviors, very little attention has been paid to potential effects of prosocial games. Theoretically, games in which game characters help and support each other in nonviolent ways should increase both short-term and long-term prosocial behaviors. We report three studies conducted in three countries with three age groups to test this hypothesis. In the correlational study, Singaporean middle-school students who played more prosocial games behaved more prosocially. In the two longitudinal samples of Japanese children and adolescents, prosocial game play predicted later increases in prosocial behavior. In the experimental study, U.S. undergraduates randomly assigned to play prosocial games behaved more prosocially toward another student. These similar results across different methodologies, ages, and cultures provide robust evidence of a prosocial game content effect, and they provide support for the General Learning Model.

  14. The Effects of Prosocial Video Games on Prosocial Behaviors: International Evidence from Correlational, Longitudinal, and Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Anderson, Craig A.; Yukawa, Shintaro; Ihori, Nobuko; Saleem, Muniba; Ming, Lim Kam; Shibuya, Akiko; Liau, Albert K.; Khoo, Angeline; Bushman, Brad J.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Sakamoto, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Although dozens of studies have documented a relation between violent video games and aggressive behaviors, very little attention has been paid to potential effects of prosocial games. Theoretically, games in which game characters help and support each other in nonviolent ways should increase both short-term and long-term prosocial behaviors. We report three studies conducted in three countries with three age groups to test this hypothesis. In the correlational study, Singaporean middle-school students who played more prosocial games behaved more prosocially. In the two longitudinal samples of Japanese children and adolescents, prosocial game play predicted later increases in prosocial behavior. In the experimental study, U.S. undergraduates randomly assigned to play prosocial games behaved more prosocially toward another student. These similar results across different methodologies, ages, and cultures provide robust evidence a prosocial game content effect, and provide support for the General Learning Model. PMID:19321812

  15. 09 September 2013 - Japanese Members of Internal Affairs and Communications Committee House of Representatives visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Spokesperson D. Charlton. T. Kondo and K. Yoshida present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    09 September 2013 - Japanese Members of Internal Affairs and Communications Committee House of Representatives visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Spokesperson D. Charlton. T. Kondo and K. Yoshida present.

  16. 17 April 2008 - Head of Internal Audit Network meeting visiting the ATLAS experimental area with CERN ATLAS Team Leader P. Fassnacht, ATLAS Technical Coordinator M. Nessi and ATLAS Resources Manager M. Nordberg.

    CERN Multimedia

    Mona Schweizer

    2008-01-01

    17 April 2008 - Head of Internal Audit Network meeting visiting the ATLAS experimental area with CERN ATLAS Team Leader P. Fassnacht, ATLAS Technical Coordinator M. Nessi and ATLAS Resources Manager M. Nordberg.

  17. 19 September 2012 - Indonesian Members of Parliament visiting the CMS control room and experimental cavern at Point 5 with Former Deputy Spokesperson A. De Roeck and International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    19 September 2012 - Indonesian Members of Parliament visiting the CMS control room and experimental cavern at Point 5 with Former Deputy Spokesperson A. De Roeck and International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis.

  18. 16 February 2012 - Chinese Taipei Ambassador to Switzerland F. Hsieh in the ATLAS visitor centre, ATLAS experimental area and LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Collaboration Deputy Sookesperson A. Lankford, throughout accompanied by International Relations Adviser R. Voss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    16 February 2012 - Chinese Taipei Ambassador to Switzerland F. Hsieh in the ATLAS visitor centre, ATLAS experimental area and LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Collaboration Deputy Sookesperson A. Lankford, throughout accompanied by International Relations Adviser R. Voss.

  19. 27 September 2013 -Lithuanian Minister of Culture Š. Birutis in the LHC tunnel with International Relations Adviser T. Kurtyka and visiting CMS experimental area with Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi. Also present: V. Rapsevicius, CMS Collaboration.

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Egli

    2013-01-01

    27 September 2013 -Lithuanian Minister of Culture Š. Birutis in the LHC tunnel with International Relations Adviser T. Kurtyka and visiting CMS experimental area with Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi. Also present: V. Rapsevicius, CMS Collaboration.

  20. 17 May 2013 - Honourable Minister of Communications, Science and Technology of the Kingdom of Lesotho T. Mokhosi visiting the ATLAS experimental area with CERN International Adviser for Turkey R. Voss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    17 May 2013 - Honourable Minister of Communications, Science and Technology of the Kingdom of Lesotho T. Mokhosi visiting the ATLAS experimental area with CERN International Adviser for Turkey R. Voss.

  1. Preliminary design of lithium lead test blanket module for the Chinese Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Songlin; Bai Yunqing; Zheng Shanliang; Chen Hongli; Wang Weihua; Long Pengcheng; Wu Yican

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) has been successfully constructed and has produced a discharge of plasma in x2006. It aims to achieve static-state operation of high performance D-D plasma with a long pulse of up to 1000 s and may be severed as a valuable pre-testing platform for Test Blanket Module (TBM) prior to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Based on the Chinese Dual Function Lithium Lead TBM (DFLL-TBM) design and its testing plan for ITER and EAST, a lithium lead test blanket module concept for the EAST (EAST-TBM) has been proposed as an important R and D activity and is expected to be tested in EAST focusing on electro-magnetics and thermo-mechanics performances of the TBM, including the influence of TBM made of ferromagnetic steel on tokamak plasma. This paper presents the status of EAST-TBM design, including design guideline, main features, instrumentation configuration, and installation in EAST port. The feasibility of the EAST-TBM has been validated with the preliminary performance analyses

  2. Neutron spectrometer for DD/DT burning ratio measurement in fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Keisuke; Naoi, Norihiro; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Kenichi; Kawarabayashi, Jun; Nishitani, Takeo

    2006-01-01

    The most feasible fuels for a fusion reactor are D (Deuterium) and T (Tritium). DD and/or DT fusion reaction or nuclear burning reaction provides two kinds of neutrons, DD neutron and DT neutron, respectively. DD/DT burning ratio, which can be estimated by DD/DT neutron ratio in the burning plasma, is essential for burn control, alpha particle emission rate monitoring and tritium fuel cycle estimation. Here we propose a new neutron spectrometer for the absolute DD/DT burning ratio measurement. The system consists of a Proton Recoil Telescope (PRT) and a Time-of-Flight (TOF) technique. We have conducted preliminary experiments with a prototype detector and a DT neutron beam (φ20 mm) at the Fusion Neutronics Source, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), to assess its basic performance. The detection efficiency obtained by the experiment is consistent with the calculation results in PRT, and sufficient energy resolution for the DD/DT neutron discrimination has been achieved in PRT and TOF. The validity of the Monte Carlo calculation has also been confirmed by comparing the experimental results with the calculation results. The design consideration of this system for use in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) has shown that this system is capable of monitoring the line-integrated DD/DT burning ratio for the plasma core line of sight with the required measurement accuracy of 20% in the upper 4 decades of the ITER operation (fusion power: 100 kW-700 MW). (author)

  3. Crown-ether functionalized carbon nanotubes for purification of lithium compounds: computational and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha Deb, A.K.; Arora, S.K.; Joshi, J.M.; Ali, Sk. M.; Shenoy, K.T.; Goyal, Aiana

    2015-01-01

    Lithium compounds finds several applications in nuclear science and technology, viz, lithium fluoride/hydroxide/alloys are used as dosimetric materials in luminescence devices, molten-salt breeder reactor, international thermonuclear experimental reactor, single crystal based neutron detectors etc. The lithium compounds should be in a proper state of purity; especially it should not contain other alkali metal cations which can downgrade the performance. Hence, there is a need to develop a process for purification of the lithium salt to achieve the desired quality. Therefore an attempt has been made to develop advanced nanomaterials for purification of the lithium salts. In this work, benzo-15-crown-5(B15C5) functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs), owing to the good adsorption properties of CNT and alkali metal encapsulation behaviour of B15C5, were showed to bind preferentially with sodium and potassium ions compared to lithium ions. DFT based computation calculations have shown that the free energy of complexation of Na + and K + by B15C5-CNT is higher than that of Li + , implying that B15C5-CNT selectively binds Na + and K + . The experimental batch solid-liquid extraction has also revealed the same trend as in the calculations. The crown-ethers functionalized CNTs have the potentiality for use in purifying lithium compounds. (author)

  4. Experimental study on heat transfer characteristics of internal heat exchangers for CO{sub 2} system under cooling condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young Chul [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Hoon; Lee, Jae Heon [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jun Young [Korea Testing Laboratory, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Jae [Korea Institute of Industral Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents the heat transfer characteristics of the internal heat exchanger (IHX) for CO{sub 2} heat pump system. The influence on the IHX length, the mass flow rate, the shape of IHX, the operating condition, and the oil concentration was investigated under a cooling condition. Four kinds of IHX with a coaxial type and a micro-channel type, a mass flow meter, a pump, and a measurement system. With increasing of the IHX length, the capacity, the effectiveness, and the pressure drop increased. For the mass flow rate, the capacity of micro-channel IHX are higher about 2 times than those of coaxial IHX. The pressure drop was larger at cold-side than at hot-side. In the transcritical CO{sub 2} cycle, system performance is very sensitive to the IHX design. Design parameters are closely related with the capacity and the pressure drop of CO{sub 2} heat pump system. Along the operating condition, the performance of CO{sub 2} IHXs is different remarkably. For oil concentration 1, 3, 5%, the capacity decreases and the pressure drop increased, as compared with oil concentration 0%

  5. Progress in animal experimentation ethics: a case study from a Brazilian medical school and from the international medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalli, Edvaldo Luiz; Ho, Wanli; Alves, Mônica; Rocha, Eduardo Melani

    2012-09-01

    This study describes in Brazil and in the global biomedical community the time course of the development of animal research welfare guidelines. The database of the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto (EC/FMRP-USP), Brazil, was surveyed since its inception in 2002 as the regulations became more stringent to provide better protection of animal research welfare at this institution. Medline database was evaluated to identify the number of publications in the period between 1968 and 2008 that used research animals and were in compliance with established ethics guidelines. The EC/FMRP-USP evaluated 979 projects up until 2009. Most of the applications came from Department of Physiology and the most frequently requested species was the rat. In 2004, national research funding agencies started to request prior approval from institutional review ethics committees prior to application review and this requirement became federal law in Brazil in 2008. The analysis of international publications revealed a relative reduction in studies involving research animals (18% in 1968 to 7.5% in 2008). The present work showed that in the last four decades major changes occurred in the guidelines dictating use of research animals occurred and they are being adopted by developing countries. Moreover, animal welfare concern in the scientific community preceded the introduction of journal guidelines for this purpose. Furthermore, in Brazil it was anticipated that laws were needed to protect animal research welfare from being not upheld.

  6. The International intraval project. Phase 1, test case 13: Experimental study of brine transport in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasbergen, P.

    1992-01-01

    INTRAVAL is an international coordinated research program for predicting the potential radionuclide migration in the geosphere with the use of mathematical models. Such models are used to help assess the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal systems. This report describes the findings of the project teams involved in test case 13 of INTRAVAL Phase 1. The test case is based on laboratory experiments dealing with flow and dispersion of brine in a porous medium. The purpose of these experiments was twofold : (i) to investigate some of the relevant processes in brine transport in porous media, and (ii) to provide sets of data to be used for (partial) validation of transport models. The experiments were carried out in a column packed with glass beads of diameter 0.40 to 0.52 mm. Salt water was injected through nine holes at the bottom and withdrawn through nine holes at the top. Initially a low salt concentration was used which was then displaced with higher concentrated salt water. The salt mass-fraction was detected using an array of electrodes such that breakthrough curves were obtained at five different levels in the column. The report reviews a number of conceptual models and the corresponding numerical codes employed by different modelling teams. The experiments on one- and two-dimensional flow and transport were simulated by various groups. The question underlying the experiments, namely the applicability of Fick's laws over the whole range of salt concentration, could be addressed satisfactorily. All models could simulate low-concentration experiment using a dispersivity value of 0.8 mm to 1.00 mm. However, using the same dispersivity value, it was not possible to simulate high concentration experiments. Another question intended to be studied by the experiments was the validity of Darcy's law at high concentrations. Two-dimensional experiments were carried out for this purpose. In practice, calculations were hampered by extremely high demand on

  7. Multipolar radiofrequency ablation with internally cooled electrodes: experimental study in ex vivo bovine liver with mathematic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Stephan; Schmidt, Diethard; Boss, Andreas; Dietz, Klaus; Kröber, Stefan M; Claussen, Claus D; Pereira, Philippe L

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate the size and geometry of thermally induced coagulation by using multipolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation and to determine a mathematic model to predict coagulation volume. Multipolar RF ablations (n = 80) were performed in ex vivo bovine livers by using three internally cooled bipolar applicators with two electrodes on the same shaft. Applicators were placed in a triangular array (spacing, 2-5 cm) and were activated in multipolar mode (power output, 75-225 W). The size and geometry of the coagulation zone, together with ablation time, were assessed. Mathematic functions were fitted, and the goodness of fit was assessed by using r(2). Coagulation volume, short-axis diameter, and ablation time were dependent on power output and applicator distance. The maximum zone of coagulation (volume, 324 cm(3); short-axis diameter, 8.4 cm; ablation time, 193 min) was induced with a power output of 75 W at an applicator distance of 5 cm. Coagulation volume and ablation time decreased as power output increased. Power outputs of 100-125 W at applicator distances of 2-4 cm led to a reasonable compromise between coagulation volume and ablation time. At 2 cm (100 W), coagulation volume, short-axis diameter, and ablation time were 66 cm(3), 4.5 cm, and 19 min, respectively; at 3 cm (100 W), 90 cm(3), 5.2 cm, and 22 min, respectively; at 4 cm (100 W), 132 cm(3), 6.1 cm, and 27 min, respectively; at 2 cm (125 W), 56 cm(3), 4.2 cm, and 9 min, respectively; at 3 cm (125 W), 73 cm(3), 4.9 cm, and 12 min, respectively; and at 4 cm (125 W), 103 cm(3), 5.5 cm, and 16 min, respectively. At applicator distances of 4 cm (>125 W) and 5 cm (>100 W), the zones of coagulation were not confluent. Coagulation volume (r(2) = 0.80) and RF ablation time (r(2) = 0.93) were determined by using the mathematic model. Multipolar RF ablation with three bipolar applicators may produce large volumes of confluent coagulation ex vivo. A compromise is necessary between prolonged RF ablations at lower

  8. Experimental investigation of certain internal condensing and boiling flows: Their sensitivity to pressure fluctuations and heat transfer enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisalu, Michael Toomas

    Space-based (satellite, scientific probe, space station, etc.) and millimeter -- to -- micro-scale (such as are used in high power electronics cooling, weapons cooling in aircraft, etc.) condensers and boilers are shear/pressure driven. They are of increasing interest to system engineers for thermal management because flow boilers and flow condensers offer both high fluid flow-rate-specific heat transfer capacity and very low thermal resistance between the fluid and the heat exchange surface, so large amounts of heat may be removed using reasonably-sized devices without the need for excessive temperature differences. However, flow stability issues and degredation of performance of shear/pressure driven condensers and boilers due to non-desireable flow morphology over large portions of their lengths have mostly prevented their use in these applications. This research is part of an ongoing investigation seeking to close the gap between science and engineering by analyzing two key innovations which could help address these problems. First, it is recommended that the condenser and boiler be operated in an innovative flow configuration which provides a non-participating core vapor stream to stabilize the annular flow regime throughout the device length, accomplished in an energy-efficient manner by means of ducted vapor re-circulation. This is demonstrated experimentally.. Second, suitable pulsations applied to the vapor entering the condenser or boiler (from the re-circulating vapor stream) greatly reduce the thermal resistance of the already effective annular flow regime. For experiments reported here, application of pulsations increased time-averaged heat-flux up to 900 % at a location within the flow condenser and up to 200 % at a location within the flow boiler, measured at the heat-exchange surface. Traditional fully condensing flows, reported here for comparison purposes, show similar heat-flux enhancements due to imposed pulsations over a range of frequencies

  9. Results from MARBLE DT Experiments on the National Ignition Facility: Implosion of Foam-Filled Capsules for Studying Thermonuclear Burn in the Presence of Heterogeneous Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, T. J.; Douglas, M. R.; Cardenas, T.; Cooley, J. H.; Gunderson, M. A.; Haines, B. M.; Hamilton, C. E.; Kim, Y.; Lee, M. N.; Oertel, J. A.; Olson, R. E.; Randolph, R. B.; Shah, R. C.; Smidt, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    The MARBLE campaign on NIF investigates the effect of heterogeneous mix on thermonuclear burn for comparison to a probability distribution function (PDF) burn model. MARBLE utilizes plastic capsules filled with deuterated plastic foam and tritium gas. The ratio of DT to DD neutron yield is indicative of the degree to which the foam and the gas atomically mix. Platform development experiments have been performed to understand the behavior of the foam and of the gas separately using two types of capsule. The first experiments using deuterated foam and tritium gas have been performed. Results of these experiments, and the implications for our understanding of thermonuclear burn in heterogeneously mixed separated reactant experiments will be discussed. This work is supported by US DOE/NNSA, performed at LANL, operated by LANS LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  10. Measuring channels for data transmission for on-line control systems of tokamak type thermonuclear devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsen'ev, V.A.; Bondarenko, I.M.; Gerasimov, V.P.; Repin, S.S.; Turkin, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental results are given of studying the measuring channel accuracy of automated control systems, automatic adjustment systems, interlocking and signalling control apparatus on tokamak-type devices. The diagram of the whole measuring channel is presented. It includes a measuring amplifier, a primary converter, a receiver-transmitter, secondary converters. Measurements of metrological characteristics of the measuring channels have shown that the design principles of the channels meet the measurement requarements of a tokamak device

  11. Fusion materials studies and technological experiments in test thermonuclear reactor-tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altovskij, I.V.; Gornostaev, B.D.; Blinov, I.A.; Gur'ev, V.V.; Zujkov, G.A.; Osadchij, N.A.; Tochenyj, L.V.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive studies of materials (strength, radiation resistance, reliability and safety) should be made to substantiate designs during the initial stage of R and D and the choice of the final version for the design of the blanket and energy conversion system. It is evident that those experimental devices which are available or planned are not capable of simulating effects on the OTR blanket units (high neutron flux, strong electromagnetic fields, stresses due to coolant pressure at operating temperature and own weight, plasma effects, etc.). Therefore, in OTR design, constructive decisions should be taken on the use of the tokamak OTR as a unique experimental device for real full-scale tests of construction, uranium, lithium and protective materials (antidiffusion coatings for radiation safety, etc.) intended for long term reliable and safe operation in future commercial fusion reactors. In the paper, consideration is given to some experimental devices intended for the study of the physical and mechanical properties of materials under loads typical of blanket operation; research into the mutual compatibility of construction materials, with coolant and operating materials; the study of the efficiency and reliability of material coatings; and the determination of optimal operating temperature ranges for materials, etc. (author). 2 refs, 5 figs

  12. The problems associated with the monitoring of complex workplace radiation fields at European high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilski, P.; Blomgren, J.; d´Errico, F.; Esposito, A.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Fernández, F.; Fuchs, A.; Golnik, N.; Lacoste, V.; Leuschner, A.; Sandri, S.; Silari, M.; Spurný, František; Wiegel, B.; Wright, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 126, 1-4 (2007), s. 491-496 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC032 Grant - others:ES(XE) Contract no FI6R-012684 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiation fields * european high-energy accelerators * thermonuclear fusion facilities Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2007

  13. Experimental investigation of the influence of internal and external EGR on the combustion characteristics of a controlled auto-ignition two-stroke cycle engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andwari, Amin Mahmoudzadeh; Aziz, Azhar Abdul; Said, Mohd Farid Muhamad; Latiff, Zulkarnain Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigate the effect of In-EGR, Ex-EGR and octane number on a CAI 2-stroke engine. • Effect of In-EGR, Ex-EGR and octane number on combustion phasing of the engine. • Effect of In-EGR, Ex-EGR and octane number on cyclic variability of the engine. • Identify the CAI combustion upper and lower boundary for operating regions. - Abstract: A two-stroke cycle engine incorporated with a controlled auto-ignition combustion approach presents a high thermodynamic efficiency, ultra-low exhaust emissions and high power-to-weight ratio features for future demand of prime movers. The start of auto-ignition, control of the auto-ignition and its cyclic variability, are major concerns that should be addressed in the combustion timing control of controlled auto-ignition engines. Several studies have been performed to examine the effect of internal exhaust gas recirculation utilization on auto-ignited two-stroke cycle engines. However, far too little attention has been devoted to study on the influence of external exhaust gas recirculation on the cyclic variation and the combustion characteristics of controlled auto-ignition two-stroke cycle engines. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of external exhaust gas recirculation in combination with internal exhaust gas recirculation on the combustion characteristics and the cyclic variability of a controlled auto-ignition two-stroke engine using fuel with different octane numbers. In a detailed experimental investigation, the combustion-related and pressure-related parameters of the engine are examined and statistically associated with the coefficient of variation and the standard deviation. The outcomes of the investigation indicates that the most influential controlled auto-ignition combustion phasing parameters can be managed appropriately via regulating the internal and external exhaust gas recirculation and fuel octane number. In general, start of auto-ignition and its cyclic variability are

  14. Performance optimization of internal tin process multifilamentary Nb{sub 3}Sn strands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ke, E-mail: zhangke@c-wst.com [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Western Superconducting Technologies Co. Ltd, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710018 (China); State Engineering Lab. of Superconducting Material Preparation, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710018 (China); Zhang, Pingxiang [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Western Superconducting Technologies Co. Ltd, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710018 (China); State Engineering Lab. of Superconducting Material Preparation, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710018 (China); Northwest Institute for Non-ferrous Metal Research, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710016 (China); Shi, Yigong; Liu, Jianwei; Gao, Huixian; Li, Jianfeng; Liu, Xianghong; Feng, Yong [Western Superconducting Technologies Co. Ltd, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710018 (China); State Engineering Lab. of Superconducting Material Preparation, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710018 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • J{sub c} increases by adding Sn cores in the interspaces, hysteresis loss increases at the same time. • Enlarger the number of filaments with the same Sn proportion will increase J{sub c} and hysteresis loss. • Cu split adopted in each sub-element leads to a low hysteresis loss. - Abstract: In this study, internal tin process Nb{sub 3}Sn strands for the International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor are developed in Western Superconducting Technologies. Short cable-in-conduit conductors manufactured with these strands have been qualified. Mass production is accomplished, and all the performances of the strands meet the requirement of ITER project. Besides, more researches on the effect of strand design on critical current density and hysteresis loss for Nb{sub 3}Sn strands are carried out. It is found that critical current density can be enhanced by reducing filament diameter and increasing Sn content, and hysteresis loss of the strands can be significantly reduced through Cu split adopted in sub-element.

  15. Modeling and Experimental Validation of a Volumetric Expander Suitable for Waste Heat Recovery from an Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Using an Organic Rankine Cycle with Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Galindo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste heat recovery (WHR in exhaust gas flow of automotive engines has proved to be a useful path to increase the overall efficiency of internal combustion engines (ICE. Recovery potentials of up to 7% are shown in several works in the literature. However, most of them are theoretical estimations. Some present results from prototypes fed by steady flows generated in an auxiliary gas tank and not with actual engine exhaust gases. This paper deals with the modeling and experimental validation of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC with a swash-plate expander integrated in a 2 L turbocharged petrol engine using ethanol as working fluid. A global simulation model of the ORC was developed with a maximum difference of 5%, validated with experimental results. Considering the swash-plate as the main limiting factor, an additional specific submodel was implemented to model the physical phenomena in this element. This model allows simulating the fluid dynamic behavior of the swash-plate expander using a 0D model (Amesim. Differences up to 10.5% between tests and model results were found.

  16. Alternative energy source II; Proceedings of the Second Miami International Conference, Miami Beach, Fla., December 10-13, 1979. Volume 6 - Nuclear energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    This volume examines conventional nuclear energy, breeder reactors, and thermonuclear energy. The particular papers presented consider current developments in nuclear breeder technology, fusion-driven fissile fuel breeder systems, and the fusion fission hybrid reactor. The implications of nuclear energy utilization in the Phillipines and the internationally safeguarded atomic fuel exchanger center for the Asian-Pacific basin are also discussed.

  17. Thermonuclear reaction rates for proton induced reactions on 41K and neutron induced reactions on 41Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevior, M.E.; Anderson, M.R.; Mitchell, L.W.; Kennett, S.R.; Sargood, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The yield of γ-rays from the reaction 41 K(p,γ) 42 Ca has been measured as a function of bombarding energy over the range 0.68-2.48 MeV and from the reaction 41 K(p,αγ) 38 Ar over the range 1.20-2.48 MeV, and the yield of neutrons from the reaction 41 K(p,n) 41 Ca has been measured from threshold to a bombarding energy of 2.48 MeV. The energy dependence of the cross sections is compared with statistical-model calculations with global optical model parameters in all particle channels. The calculations seriously overestimate the cross section for the neutron channel and underestimate those for the other channels. A reduction in the imaginary well depth in the neutron channel leads to good agreement with all the data. Statistical-model calculations with this modified set of parameters are then carried out to provide cross sections for the astrophysically interesting reactions 41 Ca(n,p) 41 K, 41 Ca(n,α) 38 Ar, and 41 Ca(n,γ) 42 Ca. Thermonuclear reaction rates are calculated for all six reactions over the temperature range 5 x 10 8 - 10 1 0K which includes the range of temperatures of interest in nucleosynthesis calculations

  18. A conceptual composite blanket design for the Tokamak type of thermonuclear reactor incorporating thermoelectric pumping of liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta Gupta, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    The conceptual liquid lithium blanket design for the tokamak type of thermonuclear reactor put forward is a modification of the initial simple but novel design concept enunciated earlier that exploits the availability of suitably oriented magnetic fields and temperature gradients within the blanket to pump the liquid as has been shown feasible by laboratory model experiments. The modular construction of the blanket cells is retained but the earlier simple back to back double spiralling channel module is replaced by a composite unit of three radially nested layer-structures to optimise heat and tritium extraction from the blanket. The layer-structure at the first wall generates liquid lithium circulation by thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic forces and the segregated double spiralling channels serve as inlet-outlet driving devices. The outermost layer-structure is cooled by helium. Liquid lithium in the intermediate layer-structure is pumped at a very slow rate. The choice of the relative dimensional proportions of the three layer-structure and the channel cross-section, material property and the spiralling contour is of critical importance for the design. This paper presents the design data for a conceptual design of such a blanket with a 5000 MW (th) rating. (author)

  19. Tidal double detonation: a new mechanism for the thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf induced by a tidal disruption event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Ataru

    2018-03-01

    We suggest tidal double detonation as a new mechanism for the thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf (WD) induced by a tidal disruption event (TDE). Tidal detonation is also a WD explosion induced by a TDE. In this case, helium (He) and carbon-oxygen (CO) detonation waves incinerate He WDs and CO WDs, respectively. On the other hand, for tidal double detonation, He detonation is first excited in the He shell of a CO WD, which then drives CO detonation in the CO core. We name this mechanism after the double detonation scenario in the context of type Ia supernovae. In this paper, by performing numerical simulations for CO WDs of mass 0.60 M⊙ with and without a He shell, we show that tidal double detonation occurs in the shallower encounter of a CO WD with an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) compared to simple tidal detonation. We expect tidal double detonation will increase the possibility of the occurrence of WD TDEs, which can help us to understand IMBHs.

  20. LASL Controlled Thermonuclear Research Program. Progress report, January--December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.S. (comp.)

    1978-03-01

    This annual progress report is divided into the following sections: (1) Scyllac feedback sector experiments, (2) staged theta-pinch program, (3) toroidal reverse-field pinch, (4) Scylla IV-P linear theta-pinch experiments, (5) gun injection experiment, (6) Scylla I-C, laser-plasma interaction studies, (7) field reversal theta pinch, (8) Implosion Heating Experiment, (9) experimental plasma physics, (10) plasma diagnostics, (11) high-beta tokamak, (12) theory, (13) computers, (14) engineering, (15) magnetic energy transfer and storage, (16) magnetic confinement systems studies, and (17) intense neutron source facility. (MOW)

  1. LASL: controlled thermonuclear research program. Progress report, January--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.S.; Sawyer, G.A.

    1979-02-01

    Information is included for each of the following sections: (1) reversed-field pinch program, (2) Scyllac feedback stabilization experiments, (3) Scylla IV-P linear theta pinch experiments, (4) staged theta pinch, (5) field-reversal experiment, (6) implosion heating experiment, (7) fast liner experiment, (8) gun injection experiment, (9) experimental plasma physics, (10) high-density z-pinch, (11) plasma diagnostics, (12) theory, (13) computers, (14) magnetic energy transfer and storage, (15) systems studies, (16) engineering, and (17) tritium systems test assembly. (MOW)

  2. LASL: controlled thermonuclear research program. Progress report, January--December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.S.; Sawyer, G.A.

    1979-02-01

    Information is included for each of the following sections: (1) reversed-field pinch program, (2) Scyllac feedback stabilization experiments, (3) Scylla IV-P linear theta pinch experiments, (4) staged theta pinch, (5) field-reversal experiment, (6) implosion heating experiment, (7) fast liner experiment, (8) gun injection experiment, (9) experimental plasma physics, (10) high-density z-pinch, (11) plasma diagnostics, (12) theory, (13) computers, (14) magnetic energy transfer and storage, (15) systems studies, (16) engineering, and (17) tritium systems test assembly

  3. 30 January 2012 - Danish National Research Foundation Chairman of board K. Bock and University of Copenhagen Rector R. Hemmingsen visiting ATLAS underground experimental area, CERN Control Centre and ALICE underground experimental area, throughout accompanied by J. Dines Hansen and B. Svane Nielsen; signing the guest book with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci and Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

    CERN Document Server

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    30 January 2012 - Danish National Research Foundation Chairman of board K. Bock and University of Copenhagen Rector R. Hemmingsen visiting ATLAS underground experimental area, CERN Control Centre and ALICE underground experimental area, throughout accompanied by J. Dines Hansen and B. Svane Nielsen; signing the guest book with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci and Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

  4. Bayesian Estimation of Thermonuclear Reaction Rates for Deuterium+Deuterium Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Iñesta, Á.; Iliadis, C.; Coc, A.

    2017-11-01

    The study of d+d reactions is of major interest since their reaction rates affect the predicted abundances of D, 3He, and 7Li. In particular, recent measurements of primordial D/H ratios call for reduced uncertainties in the theoretical abundances predicted by Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Different authors have studied reactions involved in BBN by incorporating new experimental data and a careful treatment of systematic and probabilistic uncertainties. To analyze the experimental data, Coc et al. used results of ab initio models for the theoretical calculation of the energy dependence of S-factors in conjunction with traditional statistical methods based on χ 2 minimization. Bayesian methods have now spread to many scientific fields and provide numerous advantages in data analysis. Astrophysical S-factors and reaction rates using Bayesian statistics were calculated by Iliadis et al. Here we present a similar analysis for two d+d reactions, d(d, n)3He and d(d, p)3H, that has been translated into a total decrease of the predicted D/H value by 0.16%.

  5. 9th January 2012 - Indonesian Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador Triansyah Djani to to the United Nations, WTO and other International Organisations in Geneva signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Adviser E. Tsesmelis, visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS underground experimental area with Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela.

    CERN Document Server

    Estelle Spirig

    2012-01-01

    9th January 2012 - Indonesian Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador Triansyah Djani to to the United Nations, WTO and other International Organisations in Geneva signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Adviser E. Tsesmelis, visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS underground experimental area with Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela.

  6. 30 January 2012 - Ecuadorian Ambassador Gallegos Chiriboga, Permanent Representative to the United Nations Office and other International Organisations at Geneva and San Francisco de Quito University Vice Chancellor C. Montùfar visiting CMS surface facilities and underground experimental area with CMS Collaboration L. Sulak and Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi, throughout accompanied by Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Michael Hoch

    2012-01-01

    30 January 2012 - Ecuadorian Ambassador Gallegos Chiriboga, Permanent Representative to the United Nations Office and other International Organisations at Geneva and San Francisco de Quito University Vice Chancellor C. Montùfar visiting CMS surface facilities and underground experimental area with CMS Collaboration L. Sulak and Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi, throughout accompanied by Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

  7. 30 August 2011 - Médecins sans frontières International President U. K Karunakara signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Adviser for Life Sciences M. Dosanjh; visiting CMS underground experimental area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    30 August 2011 - Médecins sans frontières International President U. K Karunakara signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Adviser for Life Sciences M. Dosanjh; visiting CMS underground experimental area with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli.

  8. Prediction for disruption erosion of ITER plasma facing components; a comparison of experimental and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, J.G. van der; Akiba, M.; Seki, M.; Hassanein, A.; Tanchuk, V.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is given for the prediction for disruption erosion in the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER). At first, a description is given of the relation between plasma operating paramters and system dimensions to the predictions of loading parameters of Plasma Facing Components (PFC) in off-normal events. Numerical results from ITER parties on the prediction of disruption erosion are compared for a few typical cases and discussed. Apart from some differences in the codes, the observed discrepancies can be ascribed to different input data of material properties and boundary conditions. Some physical models for vapour shielding and their effects on numerical results are mentioned. Experimental results from ITER parties, obtained with electron and laser beams, are also compared. Erosion rates for the candidate ITER PFC materials are shown to depend very strongly on the energy deposition parameters, which are based on plasma physics considerations, and on the assumed material loss mechanisms. Lifetimes estimates for divertor plate and first wall armour are given for carbon, tungsten and beryllium, based on the erosion in the thermal quench phase. (orig.)

  9. Destruction of highly toxic chemical materials by using the energy of underground thermonuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trutnev, Y.

    1991-01-01

    One of the main problems of modern technogenic civilisation is the evergrowing ecological crisis caused by the growth of industrial wastes harmful for biosphere. Among them the radioactive wastes of atomic energetics, worked out nuclear energy facilities and toxic wastes from various chemical plants begin to play a specific role. Traditional technologies of destruction and disposal of these wastes demand great investments up to many billions of dollars, enormous maintenance expenditures, occupation of substantial territories by new productions and security zones as well as many qualified specialists. On the other hand potential accidents during the conventional processes of waste reprocessing are fraught with the possibility of large ecological disasters, that are the reason of strong oppositions of population and 'green movement' to the foundation of such installations. So, rather progressive seem to be the technologies based on the utilisation of underground nuclear explosion energy for annihilations and disposal of high-level wastes of atomic energetics and nuclear facilities as well as for thermal decomposition of chemically toxic substances at extremely high temperatures. These technologies will be rather cheap, they will allow to process big amounts of materials in ecologically safe form far from the populated regions and will need a commercially beneficial if used for international purposes. The application of these technologies may be of great significance for realisation of disarmament process- destruction of chemical weapons and in future the nuclear warheads and some production components. (au)

  10. Development of precise measurement method of neutron energy for plasma temperature diagnostics in thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Chizuo; Gotoh, Junichi; Uritani, Akira; Miyahara, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yuichiro; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Kaneko, Junichi

    1998-01-01

    There are many types of fast neutron spectrometers for plasma temperature diagnostics, 28 Si(n,α) 25 Mg reaction giving the energy resolution of 2.2% for 14 MeV neutrons, the 12 C(n,α) 9 Be reaction giving the resolution of 2.15%. These detectors, however suffer from radiation damage, which demands to exchange the detector to a new one in every a few month depending on the usage. Recoil proton method has also been developed by using liquid scintillator or plastic scintillator, as a neutron-to-proton converter in front of a Si-detector, which is called counter telescope type, giving a resolution of 4.0%. This type of spectrometer can reduce radiation damage by placing Si-detector at outside Neutron beam. The scintillator can measure the lost energy of protons in the converter (i.e. the scintillator) and the measured energy loss can be used for improving the energy resolution. However, the energy resolution of organic scintillator itself is generally not so good. We proposed to use a proportional counter with CH 4 as counting gas and also as a neutron-proton converter, which has far better energy resolution than plastic scintillators, although the time resolution of counting in proportional counters is generally inferior to that in organic scintillation counters. The characteristics of the new spectrometer were experimentally studied and also were simulated with analytical calculation. (author)

  11. Bubble Chamber : A novel technique for measuring thermonuclear rates at low energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, R.; Benesh, J.; Digiovine, B.; Grames, J.; Holt, R. J.; Kharashvili, G.; Meekins, D.; Moser, D.; Poelkar, M.; Rehm, K. E.; Robinson, A.; Sonnenschein, A.; Stutzman, M.; Suleiman, R.; Tennant, C.; Ugalde, C.

    2016-03-01

    Adopting ideas from dark matter search experiments, we have found that a superheated liquid in a bubble detector is sensitive to recoils produced by γ-ray beams impinging on the nuclei in the liquid. Such a target-detector system has a density factor of four orders of magnitude higher than conventional gas targets and is practically insensitive to the γ-ray beam itself. Also, since photodisintegration reactions have approximately two orders of magnitude higher cross-sections than direct particle capture reactions, such a technique can pave the way towards measuring these reactions within the stellar Gamow window. In an effort to study the 16O(γ , α)12C system using the bubble chamber technique, the first test of the superheated N2O liquid with a low-energy bremsstrahlung beam at JLab has been completed. This test has been performed to understand the background contributions from 17O and 18O nuclei in N2O. The experimental technique, results and future plans will be presented. This work has been supported by US DOE (DE-AC02-06CH11357) and Jefferson Science Associations, LLC (DE-AC05-06OR23177).

  12. p-process nucleosynthesis via proton-capture reactions in thermonuclear supernovae explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endres Anne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Model calculations within the framework of the so-called γ process show an underproduction of the p nucleus with the highest isotopic abundace 92Mo. This discrepancy can be narrowed by taking into account the alternative production site of a type Ia supernova explosion. Here, the nucleus 92Mo can be produced by a sequence of proton-capture reactions. The amount of 92Mo nuclei produced via this reaction chain is most sensitive to the reactions 90Zr(p,γ and 91Nb(p,γ. Both rates have to be investigated experimentally to study the impact of this nucleosynthesis aspect on the long-standing 92Mo-problem. We have already measured the proton-capture reaction on 90Zr using high-resolution in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy. In this contribution, we will present our preliminary results of the total cross sections as well as the partial cross sections. Furthermore, we plan to measure the 91Nb(p,γ reaction soon. Due to the radioactive target material, the 91Nb nuclei have to be produced prior to the experiment. The current status of this production will be presented in this contribution.

  13. Influence of the Shape of Tube break on the Aerosol retention during severe accident SGTR secuences: An experimental investigation under the International Artist2 Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L. E.; Delgado Tardaguila, R.

    2010-07-01

    The potential radioactive release to the environment in case of meltdown sequences with steam generator tube ruptures, turns this type of by-pass sequences into an indispensable scenario to model when assessing PWR risk. Despite the recent investigation effort conducted through international projects, like EU-SGTR (Auvinen et al, 2005) and ARTIST (Guntay et al, 2004), the existing data are still scarce and need to be extended to build up a sound database on which to develop further understanding and modelling capabilities. In the case of the lack of water in the secondary side, some radioactive retention is still feasible given the huge amount of structural surfaces available on the particles pathway through towards the environment (tube surfaces, dryers, separators, etc.). Beyond any doubt, the break stage is highly relevant not just because of its own retention capability but also because of its capability of affecting properties of aerosols as important as their size distribution. Nonetheless, the amount of aerosols scrubbed in a dry break stage is a function of some boundary conditions, like the particle size and nature, the gas flow rate and the form of the tube breach. CIEMAT, in collaboration with other ARTIST2 partners and under the sponsorship of the Spanish Nuclear Council (CSN), has launched an experimental program to address some of these issues. The expected final outcome will be a more thorough CIEMAT SGTR database, which supplements the one under construction at PSI, who is actually running the ARTIST projects. This paper presents the experimental Ciemat Artist2 Aerosol Test (CAAT2) campaign with particular emphasis on the effect of breach shape on aerosol retention. In addition, the update of the SGTR-PECA facility of the LASS (Laboratory of Analysis of Safety Systems) at CIEMAT, will be shortly described. In order to illustrate the type of information expected from this second experimental phase at CIEMAT, the results from the first fish-mouth test

  14. Experimentally Studied Thermal Piston-head State of the Internal-Combustion Engine with a Thermal Layer Formed by Micro-Arc Oxidation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Dudareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental study to show the efficiency of reducing thermal tension of internal combustion engine (ICE pistons through forming a thermal barrier coating on the piston-head. During the engine operation the piston is under the most thermal stress. High temperatures in the combustion chamber may lead to the piston-head burnout and destruction and engine failure.Micro-arc oxidation (MAO method was selected as the technology to create a thermal barrier coating. MAO technology allows us to form the ceramic coating with a thickness of 400μm on the surface of aluminum alloy, which have high heat resistance, and have good adhesion to the substrate even under thermal cycling stresses.Deliverables of MAO method used to protect pistons described in the scientific literature are insufficient, as they are either calculated or experimentally obtained at the special plants (units, which do not reproduce piston operation in a real engine. This work aims to fill this gap. The aim of the work is an experimental study of the thermal protective ability of MAO-layer formed on the piston-head with simulation of thermal processes of the real engine.The tests were performed on a specially designed and manufactured stand free of motor, which reproduces operation conditions maximum close to those of the real engine. The piston is heated by a fire source - gas burner with isobutene balloon, cooling is carried out by the water circulation system through the water-cooling jacket.Tests have been conducted to compare the thermal state of the regular engine piston without thermal protection and the piston with a heat layer formed on the piston-head by MAO method. The study findings show that the thermal protective MAO-layer with thickness of 100μm allows us to reduce thermal tension of piston on average by 8,5 %. Thus at high temperatures there is the most pronounced effect that is important for the uprated engines.The obtained findings can

  15. XI International conference Problems of solvation and complex formation in solutions, and VI Conference of young scientists Theoretical and experimental chemistry of liquid-phase systems (Krestovsky readings). Summary of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The collection contains materials of plenary, sectional and poster sessions, presented at the XI International conference Problems of solvation and complex formation in solutions, and VI Conference of young scientists Theoretical and experimental chemistry of liquid-phase systems (Krestovsky readings). Theoretical questions and new experimental methods of chemistry of solutions, structure and dynamics of molecular and ion-molecular systems in solution and at the phase boundary; modern aspects of applied chemistry of solutions are discussed [ru

  16. Recycling, inventory and permeation of hydrogen isotopes and helium in the first wall of a thermonuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervasini, G.; Reiter, F.

    1989-01-01

    The work was divided into three parts. The first part, which is theoretical, examines the behaviour of hydrogen in metals. After an introduction on the presence of hydrogen isotopes in fusion reactors, the main phenomena connected with hydrogen-metal interaction are summarised: solubility, diffusivity and trapping in material defects. The metal temperature is highlighted as the main parameter in the description of the phenomena. The second part of the work, also theoretical, concerns the interaction between helium and metals. We have tried as much as possible to show analogies and differences in the comparisons of the behaviour of hydrogen. The main types of damage caused by helium in metallic structures, which are the most important consequence of helium-metal interaction, were summarised. The characteristics of helium were treated in greater depth than those of hydrogen, because the latter are very well known. Also, there is a vast literature on the hydrogen-metal interaction. In the third and last part of the work a model was identified which allows the simulation of the evolution of a system formed from a metal in which hydrogen and helium isotopes have been introduced. A system of algebraic-differential equations was used to study the temporal evolution of the concentrations, the recycling, the inventory and the permeation of tritium and helium considering that these atoms diffuse in the metallic lattice and remain trapped in the vacancies created inside the metal by the bombardment of the neutrons from the fusion reactions. For the numerical simulation a series of data intended to represent the situation inside a thermonuclear reactor as precisely as possible were used for the numerical simulation. Analysis of the system was preceded by the analytical resolution of the steady state equations so that they could be compared with the simulation results

  17. XPS, SIMS and FTIR-ATR characterization of boronized graphite from the thermonuclear plasma device RFX-mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezzi, F.; Laguardia, L.; Caniello, R.; Canton, A.; Dal Bello, S.; Rais, B.; Anderle, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • XPS, ATR and SIMS characterization of samples from the first wall of RFX-mod device. • Amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide plus other carbon type bonds. • Results suggest to increase the number of electrode used for boronization. - Abstract: In this paper the characterization of a thin (tens of nanometers) boron layer on fine grain polycrystalline graphite substrate is presented. The boron film is used as conditioning technique for the full graphite wall of the Reversed Field eXperiment–modified (RFX-mod) experiment, a device for the magnetic confinement of plasmas of thermonuclear interest. Aim of the present analysis is to enlighten the chemical structure of the film, the trapping mechanism that makes it a getter for oxygen and hydrogen and the reason of its loss of effectiveness after exposure to about 100 s of hydrogen plasma. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy in combination with the Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) were used to obtain the structure and the chemical composition of graphitic samples as coated or coated and subsequently exposed to hydrogen plasma after boron deposition. The boron layers on the only coated samples were found to be amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide plus a variety of bonds like B-B, B-H, B-O, B-OH, C-C, C-H, C-O, C-OH. Both the thickness and the homogeneity of the layers were found to depend on the distance of the sample from the anode during the deposition. The samples contained oxygen along the layer thickness, at level of 5%, bound to boron. The gettering action of the boron is therefore already active during the deposition itself. The exposure to plasma caused erosion of the boron film and higher content of H and O bound to boron throughout the whole thickness. The interaction of the B layer with plasma is therefore a bulk phenomenon.

  18. Charged-particle thermonuclear reaction rates: II. Tables and graphs of reaction rates and probability density functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadis, C.; Longland, R.; Champagne, A.E.; Coc, A.; Fitzgerald, R.

    2010-01-01

    Numerical values of charged-particle thermonuclear reaction rates for nuclei in the A=14 to 40 region are tabulated. The results are obtained using a method, based on Monte Carlo techniques, that has been described in the preceding paper of this issue (Paper I). We present a low rate, median rate and high rate which correspond to the 0.16, 0.50 and 0.84 quantiles, respectively, of the cumulative reaction rate distribution. The meaning of these quantities is in general different from the commonly reported, but statistically meaningless expressions, 'lower limit', 'nominal value' and 'upper limit' of the total reaction rate. In addition, we approximate the Monte Carlo probability density function of the total reaction rate by a lognormal distribution and tabulate the lognormal parameters μ and σ at each temperature. We also provide a quantitative measure (Anderson-Darling test statistic) for the reliability of the lognormal approximation. The user can implement the approximate lognormal reaction rate probability density functions directly in a stellar model code for studies of stellar energy generation and nucleosynthesis. For each reaction, the Monte Carlo reaction rate probability density functions, together with their lognormal approximations, are displayed graphically for selected temperatures in order to provide a visual impression. Our new reaction rates are appropriate for bare nuclei in the laboratory. The nuclear physics input used to derive our reaction rates is presented in the subsequent paper of this issue (Paper III). In the fourth paper of this issue (Paper IV) we compare our new reaction rates to previous results.

  19. International ENEA/ISMES/ENS specialist meeting on 'On-site experimental verification of the seismic behaviour of nuclear reactor structures and components'. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The seismic verification of nuclear plants is a subject of increasing interest in all the industrial countries, with respect to both the safety aspects and the impact of the seismic event on the design and the costs of a nuclear reactor. This topic is especially of great interest for a country like Italy, whose territory is unfortunately characterized by non - negligible seismicity: we remember, not too many years ago, the catastrophic earthquakes of Frioul and Irpinia, that caused thousands of dead people. The meeting aimed at establishing the state-of-the-art on on-site testing of nuclear reactors structures and components, with particular attention to experiences and research programmes concerning: methodologies of on-site tests and interpretation of the experimental data; seismic monitoring systems, recorded data, their use and interpretation; calibration and validation of numerical analyses. Six technical sessions were held, during which 23 high papers were presented and discussed, and six panel discussions were held (the importance of discussion was emphasized in the meeting). The technical contributions consisted of: an introduction paper, summarizing the seismic studies performed in Italy for PEC reactor and explaining the reasons why on-site tests had been performed on this reactor; 6 invited lectures, one for each of the countries that are more deeply involved in seismic analysis, providing the state-of-the-art on the topics of interest for the meeting; 16 contributed papers dealing with more specific technical items, related to the various countries and international organizations

  20. Cryogenic structures of superconducting coils for fusion experimental reactor 'ITER'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hideo; Iguchi, Masahide; Hamada, Kazuya; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Shimamoto, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes both structural materials and structural design of the Toroidal Field (TF) coil and Central Solenoid (CS) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). All the structural materials used in the superconducting coil system of the ITER are austenitic stainless steels. Although 316LN is used in the most parts of the superconducting coil system, the cryogenic stainless steels, JJ1 and JK2LB, which were newly developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Japanese steel companies, are used in the highest stress area of the TF coil case and the whole CS conductor jackets, respectively. These two materials became commercially available based on demonstration of productivity and weldability of materials, and evaluations of 4 K mechanical properties of trial products including welded parts. Structural materials are classified into five grades depending on stress distribution in the TF coil case. JAEA made an industrial specification for mass production based on the ITER requirements. In order to simplify quality control in mass production, JAEA has used materials specified in the material section of 'Codes for Fusion Facilities - Rules on Superconducting Magnet Structure (2008)' issued by the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME) in October 2008, which was established using an extrapolation method of 4 K material strengths from room temperature strength and chemical compositions developed by JAEA. It enables steel suppliers to easily control the quality of products at room temperature. JAEA has already started actual production with several manufacturing companies. The first JJ1 product to be used in the TF coil case and the first JK2LB jackets for CS were completed in October and September 2013, respectively. (author)

  1. Proceedings of the 4. International Conference on Lasers and their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    400 scientists from 19 countries participated in the 4. international conference on lasers and their applications, held at Leipzig, GDR, in October 1981. The conference focused on problems of gas lasers, high-power lasers for materials working, and laser spectroscopy, on optoelectronics considering communications systems, and on laser-controlled thermonuclear fusion with special regard to the laser plant 'Delphin 1'. 186 summaries are included

  2. EVALUATION OF INTERNALLY STAGED COAL BURNERS AND SORBENT JET AERODYNAMICS FOR COMBINED SO2/NOX CONTROL IN UTILITY BOILERS, VOLUME 1, TESTING IN A 10 MILLION BTU/HR EXPERIMENTAL FURNACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document gives results of tests conducted in a 2 MWt experimental furnace to: (1) investigate ways to reduce NOx emissions from utility coal burners without external air ports (i.e., with internal fuel/air staging); and (2) improve the performance of calcium-based sorbents fo...

  3. Design of a Fast Neutral He Beam System for Feasibility Study of Charge-Exchange Alpha-Particle Diagnostics in a Thermonuclear Fusion Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Shinto, Katsuhiro; Kitajima, Sumio; Kiyama, Satoru; Nishiura, Masaki; Sasao, Mamiko; Sugawara, Hiroshi; Takenaga, Mahoko; Takeuchi, Shu; Wada, Motoi

    2005-01-01

    For alpha-particle diagnostics in a thermonuclear fusion reactor, neutralization using a fast (~2 MeV) neutral He beam produced by the spontaneous electron detachment of a He- is considered most promising. However, the beam transport of produced fast neutral He has not been studied, because of difficulty for producing high-brightness He- beam. Double-charge-exchange He- sources and simple beam transport systems were developed and their results were reported in the PAC99* and other papers.** To accelerate an intense He- beam and verify the production of the fast neutral He beam, a new test stand has been designed. It consists of a multi-cusp He+

  4. Physics design of a 100 keV acceleration grid system for the diagnostic neutral beam for international tokamak experimental reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M. J.; De Esch, H. P. L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the physics design of a 100 keV, 60 A H- accelerator for the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) for international tokamak experimental reactor (ITER). The accelerator is a three grid system comprising of 1280 apertures, grouped in 16 groups with 80 apertures per beam group. Several computer codes have been used to optimize the design which follows the same philosophy as the ITER Design Description Document (DDD) 5.3 and the 1 MeV heating and current drive beam line [R. Hemsworth, H. Decamps, J. Graceffa, B. Schunke, M. Tanaka, M. Dremel, A. Tanga, H. P. L. De Esch, F. Geli, J. Milnes, T. Inoue, D. Marcuzzi, P. Sonato, and P. Zaccaria, Nucl. Fusion 49, 045006 (2009)]. The aperture shapes, intergrid distances, and the extractor voltage have been optimized to minimize the beamlet divergence. To suppress the acceleration of coextracted electrons, permanent magnets have been incorporated in the extraction grid, downstream of the cooling water channels. The electron power loads on the extractor and the grounded grids have been calculated assuming 1 coextracted electron per ion. The beamlet divergence is calculated to be 4 mrad. At present the design for the filter field of the RF based ion sources for ITER is not fixed, therefore a few configurations of the same have been considered. Their effect on the transmission of the electrons and beams through the accelerator has been studied. The OPERA-3D code has been used to estimate the aperture offset steering constant of the grounded grid and the extraction grid, the space charge interaction between the beamlets and the kerb design required to compensate for this interaction. All beamlets in the DNB must be focused to a single point in the duct, 20.665 m from the grounded grid, and the required geometrical aimings and aperture offsets have been calculated.

  5. International fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear energy of the light elements deuterium and lithium can be released if the 100 MK degree temperature required for deuterium-tritium thermonuclear fusion reactions can be achieved together with sufficient thermal insulation for a net energy yield. Progress of world-wide research shows good prospect for these physical conditions being achieved by the use of magnetic field confinement and of rapidly developing heating methods. Tokamak systems, alternative magnetic systems and inertial confinement progress are described. International co-operation features a number of bilateral agreements between countries: the Euratom collaboration which includes the Joint European Torus, a joint undertaking of eleven Western European nations of Euratom, established to build and operate a major confinement experiment; the development of co-operative projects within the OECD/IEA framework; the INTOR workshop, a world-wide study under IAEA auspices of the next major step in fusion research which might be built co-operatively; and assessments of the potential of nuclear fusion by the IAEA and the International Fusion Research Council. The INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) studies have outlined a major plant of the tokamak type to study the engineering and technology of fusion reactor systems, which might be constructed on a world-wide basis to tackle and share the investment risks of the developments which lie ahead. This paper summarizes the recent progress of research on controlled nuclear fusion, featuring those areas where international co-operation has played an important part, and describes the various arrangements by which this international co-operation is facilitated. (author)

  6. An experimental investigation of the post-CHF enhancement factor for a prototypical ITER divertor plate with water coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, T.D.; Watson, R.D.; McDonald, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    In an off-normal event, water-cooled copper divertor plates in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) may either experience heat loads beyond their design basis, or the normal heat loads may be accompanied by low coolant pressure and velocity. The purpose of this experiment was to illustrate that during one-sided heating, as in ITER, a copper divertor plate with the proper side wall thickness, at low system pressure and velocity can absorb without failing an incident heat flux, q i , that significantly exceed the value, q i CHF , which is associated with local CHF at the wall of the coolant channel. The experiment was performed using a 30 kW electron beam test system for heating of a square cross-section divertor heat sink with a smooth circular channel of 7.63 mm diameter. The heated width, length, and wall thickness were 16, 40, and 3 mm, respectively. Stable surface temperatures were observed at incident heat fluxes greater than the local CHF point, presumably due to circumferential conduction around the thick tube walls when q i CHF was exceeded. The Post-CHF enhancement factor, η, is defined as the ratio of the incident burnout heat flux, q i BO , to q i CHF . For this experiment with water at inlet conditions of 70 degrees C, 1 m/s, and 1 MPa, q i CHF and q i BO were 600 and 1100 W/cm 2 , respectively, which gave an η of 1.8

  7. Torus type thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, Yasuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To attain supporting effect against electromagnetic force and moderate the inner stress applied to toroidal coils due to thermal expansion by intervening a stress relaxation member between the outer circumferential side of a torus and a support device in toroidal coils. Constitution: Toroidal coils for confining a plasma within a torus vacuum container is supported on a support secured to upper and lower bases. A thermoplastic stress relaxation material of a low young's modulus is put between the outer circumferential side of the torus container and the torus outer circumferential side of the support in the toroidal coil. Thermoplastic resin is best suited to the stress relaxation substance, although tetrafluoro resin may be used as the stress relaxation substance while packing non-woven tetron fabric or non-woven glass fabric impregnated with varnish in a gap between the stress relaxation substance and the support or the toroidal coils. (Seki, T.)

  8. Controlled thermonuclear processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Brief discussions are given on research progress during this report period for the following two topics: (1) conceptual design of a tritium handling system for Ormak F/BX, and (2) design of, and preparation for, tests of cryosorption pumping for fusion reactors. The status of the program is outlined. (MOW)

  9. Torus type thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Hakaru; Saito, Ryusei.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain toroidal coil supports structures capable of coping with the changes in the elasticity distribution due to thermal expansion and performing elastic support function corresponding to the distribution of stresses exerted on the toroidal coils, by providing elastic function to the inner circumference side of the coil support structures. Constitution: Support structures for supporting toroidal coils from above and below are formed at the torus inner circumference side thereof with ribs in contact with a central block and having elasticity coefficient corresponding to the distribution of stresses exerted on the toroidal coils, and the stresses exerted on the toroidal coils are elastically supported on the ribs. Accordingly, if the stress distribution varies due to the thermal expansion or the like, adequate supporting function can be obtained well-corresponding to such changes, whereby effective plasma confinement can be attained. (Moriyama, K.)

  10. Echography by Thermonuclear Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Ruben; Moreno, Carlos; Gonzalez, Jose; Florido, Pablo; Clausse, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    A technique to substances detection in the neighbourhood of a compact Plasma Focus (PF) is presented. The method is based on the same principle of the sonar or the echographs.The measuring system is composed by two neutron detectors operated simultaneously on every shot.The first detector is used to register the PF neutron yield in each shot; whereas the other one was designed for detecting neutrons scattered by the blanket.The complete detecting system is very simple and inexpensive. The study consisted in measuring the reflection of neutrons emitted by a Deuterium pinch. The correlation of the counts recorded by the detectors located at different positions was mapped with the water distribution around the neutron source. Moreover, we obtained the maps of the substance positions coordinates in function of measurement variables. Also we used the MCNP code in order to simulate the experiments

  11. Controlled thermonuclear research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The Plasma Physics and Controlled-Fusion Research Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is divided into five projects: Plasma Production and Heating Experiments, Plasma Theory, Atomic Physics Studies, the Tormac Project, and Neutral-Beam Development and Technology listed in order of increasing magnitude, as regards manpower and budget. Some cross sections and yields are shown in atomic physics

  12. On Thermonuclear Reaction Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Haubold, H. J.; Mathai, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution of galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the cases of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are als...

  13. The LOFT perspective on neutron star thermonuclear bursts: White paper in support of the mission concept of the large observatory for X-ray timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    in' t Zand, J. J.M. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht (The Netherlands); Malone, Christopher M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Altamirano, D. [Univ. of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Ballantyne, D. R. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Bhattacharyya, S. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Brown, E. F. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Cavecchi, Y. [Univ. of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (The Netherlands); Chakrabarty, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Chenevez, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Cumming, A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Degenaar, N. [Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Falanga, M. [International Space Science Institute, Bern (Switzerland); Galloway, D. K. [Monash Univ., VIC (Australia); Heger, A. [Monash Univ., VIC (Australia); Jose, J. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Keek, L. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Linares, M. [Univ. de La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Mahmoodifar, S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Mendez, M. [Univ. of Groningen, Groningen (The Netherlands); Miller, M. C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Paerels, F. B. S. [Columbia Astrophysics Lab., New York, NY (United States); Poutanen, J. [Univ. of Turku, Piikkio (Finland); Rozanska, A. [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center PAS, Warsaw (Poland); Schatz, H. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University; Serino, M. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN); Strohmayer, T. E. [NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Suleimanov, V. F. [Univ. Tubingen, Tubingen (Germany); Thielemann, F. -K. [Univ. Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Watts, A. L. [Univ. of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (The Netherlands); Weinberg, N. N. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Woosley, S. E. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Yu, W. [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai (China); Zhang, S. [Institute of High-Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Zingale, M. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2015-01-14

    The Large Area Detector (LAD) on the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing ( LOFT ), with a 8.5 m 2 photon- collecting area in the 2–30 keV bandpass at CCD-class spectral resolving power (λ/Δλ = 10 – 100), is designed for optimum performance on bright X-ray sources. Thus, it is well-suited to study thermonuclear X-ray bursts from Galactic neutron stars. These bursts will typically yield 2 x 105 photon detections per second in the LAD, which is at least 15 times more than with any other instrument past, current or anticipated. The Wide Field Monitor (WFM) foreseen for LOFT uniquely combines 2–50 keV imaging with large (30%) prompt sky coverage. This will enable the detection of tens of thousands of thermonuclear X-ray bursts during a 3-yr mission, including tens of superbursts. Both numbers are similar or more than the current database gathered in 50 years of X-ray astronomy.

  14. International co-operative program on assessment and monitoring of air pollution effects on forests: The Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris Poff; Daniel G. Neary

    2008-01-01

    At the end of the 2007 Fiscal Year, the Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFR) Synthesis Network Committee awarded funds to 18 sites to establish a strategic ICP Level II (described below) synthesis network in the United States. Eleven Experimental Forest were selected to be included in the network, as well as seven Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites. This will...

  15. An experimental study of hypervapotron structure in external reactor vessel cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Zhang, Ming [State Nuclear Power Technology R& D Center (Beijing), Beijing (China); Hou, Fangxin [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Gao, Tianfang [State Nuclear Power Technology R& D Center (Beijing), Beijing (China); Chen, Peipei, E-mail: chenpeipei@snptc.com.cn [State Power Investment Group Corporation, Beijing (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Experiments are performed to study the application of hypervapotron in ERVC design. • CHF experiments on two surfaces are conducted under different flow conditions. • Hypervapotron improves CHF performance by 40–60% compared with smooth surface. • Visualization shows fin structure removes vapor mushroom for better liquid supply. - Abstract: In vessel retention (IVR) is one of the key strategies for many advanced LWR designs to mitigate postulated severe accidents. The success of IVR substantially relies on external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) by which the decay heat is removed from the melt core in the reactor vessel lower head. The main challenge of IVR is to provide an adequate safety margin of ERVC against critical heat flux (CHF) of subcooled flow boiling in the reactor lower head flow channel. Due to uncertainties in corium melt pool configuration, large CHF margin of ERVC is usually required by regulatory authorities to demonstrate reliability of severe accident mitigation methods. Various CHF enhancement designs have been proposed and studied in literature. In this paper, an experimental study of hypervapotron structure as a novel design to improve CHF performance of ERVC is conducted. Hypervapotron is chosen as one of the potential engineering options for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program as a divertor structure to remove highly intense heat from fusion chamber. This study is to conduct CHF experiments at typical PWR ERVC working conditions. The CHF experiments are performed in a 30 mm by 61 mm rectangular flow channel with a 200 mm long heated surface along the flow direction. Both smooth and hypervapotron surface are tested at various inclination angles of the test section to simulate various positions of the reactor lower head. The hypervapotron is found to have a 40–60% CHF improvement compared with the smooth surface. The high speed visualization indicates that hypervapotron is able to

  16. The Effects of Thermonuclear Reaction Rate Variations on 26Al Production in Massive Stars: A Sensitivity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, Christian; Champagne, Art; Chieffi, Alessandro; Limongi, Marco

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the effects of thermonuclear reaction rate variations on 26Al production in massive stars. The dominant production sites in such events were recently investigated by using stellar model calculations: explosive neon-carbon burning, convective shell carbon burning, and convective core hydrogen burning. Post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations are performed for each of these sites by adopting temperature-density-time profiles from recent stellar evolution models. For each profile, we individually multiplied the rates of all relevant reactions by factors of 10, 2, 0.5, and 0.1, and analyzed the resulting abundance changes of 26Al. In total, we performed ≈900 nuclear reaction network calculations. Our simulations are based on a next-generation nuclear physics library, called STARLIB, which contains a recent evaluation of Monte Carlo reaction rates. Particular attention is paid to quantifying the rate uncertainties of those reactions that most sensitively influence 26Al production. For stellar modelers our results indicate to what degree predictions of 26Al nucleosynthesis depend on currently uncertain nuclear physics input, while for nuclear experimentalists our results represent a guide for future measurements. We also investigate equilibration effects of 26Al. In all previous massive star investigations, either a single species or two species of 26Al were taken into account, depending on whether thermal equilibrium was achieved or not. These are two extreme assumptions, and in a hot stellar plasma the ground and isomeric states may communicate via γ-ray transitions involving higher-lying 26Al levels. We tabulate the results of our reaction rate sensitivity study for each of the three distinct massive star sites referred to above. It is found that several current reaction rate uncertainties influence the production of 26Al. Particularly important reactions are 26Al(n,p)26Mg, 25Mg(α,n)28Si, 24Mg(n,γ)25Mg, and 23Na(α,p)26Mg. These reactions

  17. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Edward B.

    With an emphasis on the problems of control of extraneous variables and threats to internal and external validity, the arrangement or design of experiments is discussed. The purpose of experimentation in an educational institution, and the principles governing true experimentation (randomization, replication, and control) are presented, as are…

  18. Results of Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Atmospheric Turbulence, Internal Gravity Waves and Sporadic-E Layers by Resonant Scattering of Radio Waves on Artificial Periodic Irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Grigoriev; Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.

    Artificial periodic irregularities (API) formed by the powerful standing radio waves in the ionospheric plasma give the good chance for the lower ionosphere comprehensive studies. In this paper we present some applications of the API technique for experimental studies of sporadic E-layers (E _{s}), internal gravity waves and turbulent events in the lower ionosphere. API are formed in the field of the standing radio wave produced by interference of the incident wave and reflected one from the ionosphere (in more details about the API technique one can see in the book Belikovich et al., Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities - Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. 2002. Copernicus GmbH. ISBN 3-936586-03-9). The spatial period of the irregular structure is equal to the standing wavelength Lambda or one-half the powerful wavelength lambda/2. API diagnostics are carried out at the API relaxation or decay stage by their sounding of probing radio pulses. Based on the measurement of an amplitude and a phase of the API scattered signal their relaxation time and regular vertical plasma velocity are measured. In the E-region of the ionosphere API are formed as a result of the diffusion redistribution of the non-uniformly heated plasma. The relaxation of the periodic structure is specified by the ambipolar diffusion process. The diffusion time is tau=(K (2) D _{a}) (-1) where K=2pi/Lambda and D _{a} is the ambipolar diffusion rate. The atmospheric turbulence causes reduction of the API relaxation time in comparison the diffusion time. Determination of the turbulent velocity is based on this fact. The vertical plasma velocity is determined by measuring the phase of the scattered signal. Atmospheric waves having the periods from 5-10 minutes to 5-6 hours give the contribution to temporal variations of the velocity. Parameters and effects of atmospheric waves and the turbulence on the API relaxation process are presented. Determination of the masses of the

  19. 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory; Relatorio de atividades de 2003 da linha de pesquisa e desenvolvimento em fusao termonuclear controlada - fusao. Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2004-07-01

    This document represents the 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory - Brazil, approaching the areas of toroidal systems for magnetic confinement, plasma heating, current generation and high temperature plasma diagnostic.

  20. 2001 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory; Relatorio de atividades de 2001 da linha de pesquisa e desenvolvimento em fusao termonuclear controlada (fusao), do Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2002-07-01

    The year 2001 activities of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research line of the Plasma Associated Laboratory at the National Institute for Space Research - Brazil are reported. The report approaches the staff, participation in congresses, goals for the year 2002 and papers on Tokamak plasmas, plasma diagnostic, bootstraps, plasma equilibrium and diagnostic.

  1. Proceedings of the second United Nations international conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy. V. 31. Theoretical and experimental aspects of controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    The main topics covered by the Conference are: possibility of controlled fusion and status of the research programmes in different countries (USSR, Germany, USA, UK); theoretical aspects of plasma physics; experimental aspects of plasma physics

  2. The effect of government internal auditors moral reasoning and situational pressure on the tendency to commit fraud when auditing: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Puspasari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of government internal auditors moral levels and situational pressures on the tendency to commit fraud when conducting audit. Based on the hypothesis, despite the situational pressures, the government internal auditors who have a high moral level will not commit fraud at the time of auditing. Meanwhile, the government internal auditors who have a low moral level will com-mit fraud at the time of auditing when there is situational pressure. To test the hypothesis, a 22 factorial experiment is conducted involving 68 students of STAR-BPKP of Jenderal Soedirman University. The results indicate that the government internal auditors who have a high moral level will not commit fraud in the time of auditing despite some situational pressures. Meanwhile, the government internal auditors who have a low moral level will commit fraud at the time of auditing either there is a situational pressure or not. The implications of this study are to streng-then the supervisory system for the internal auditors at the time of auditing, to provide protection for whistle- blowers who report the presence of fraud committed by auditors, and to be consistent in giving reward to professional auditors and pu-nishment to auditors who are convicted of fraud at the time of auditing.

  3. Experimental studies of materials migration in magnetic confinement fusion devices : Novel methods for measurement of macro particle migration, transport of atomic impurities and characterization of exposed surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bykov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    During several decades of research and development in the field of Magnetically Confined Fusion (MCF) the preferred selection of materials for Plasma Facing Components (PFC) has changed repeatedly. Without doubt, endurance of the first wall will decide research availability and lifespan of the first International Thermonuclear Research Reactor (ITER). Materials erosion, redeposition and mixing in the reactor are the critical processes responsible for modification of materials properties under...

  4. The NIF: An international high energy density science and inertial fusion user facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E. I.; Storm, E.

    2013-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 1.8-MJ/500-TW Nd:Glass laser facility designed to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density science (HEDS), is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A primary goal of NIF is to create the conditions necessary to demonstrate laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and burn. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began late in FY2009 as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), an international effort to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. To date, all of the capabilities to conduct implosion experiments are in place with the goal of demonstrating ignition and developing a predictable fusion experimental platform in 2012. The results from experiments completed are encouraging for the near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.6 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 15%. Important national security and basic science experiments have also been conducted on NIF. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). This paper will describe the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the beginning of fundamental science experiments and the plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to HEDS and fusion energy researchers around the world.

  5. The NIF: An international high energy density science and inertial fusion user facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses E.I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The National Ignition Facility (NIF, a 1.8-MJ/500-TW Nd:Glass laser facility designed to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF and high-energy-density science (HEDS, is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL. A primary goal of NIF is to create the conditions necessary to demonstrate laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and burn. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began late in FY2009 as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC, an international effort to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. To date, all of the capabilities to conduct implosion experiments are in place with the goal of demonstrating ignition and developing a predictable fusion experimental platform in 2012. The results from experiments completed are encouraging for the near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.6 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 15%. Important national security and basic science experiments have also been conducted on NIF. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE. This paper will describe the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the beginning of fundamental science experiments and the plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to HEDS and fusion energy researchers around the world.

  6. Experimental verification of segregation of carbon and precipitation of carbides due to deep cryogenic treatment for tool steel by internal friction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shaohong; Min, Na; Li, Junwan; Wu, Xiaochun; Li, Chenhui; Tang, Leilei

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an internal frictional behavior of cold work tool steel subjected to different heat treatment schedules to get insight related to segregation of carbon and refinement of carbide particles due to deep cryogenic treatment. The temperature dependence of internal friction was used to describe the variation of carbon concentration in solid solution of the martensite matrix in successive tempering steps. The results indicate that the carbon atoms segregated to nearby defects forming atomic clusters producing strong interactions, including interstitial carbon atoms themselves and between the interstitial carbon atoms with time-dependent strain field of dislocations because of lattice shrinking and thermodynamic instability of martensite during the deep cryogenic treatment. The clusters act as and grow into nuclei for the formation of fine carbide particle on subsequent tempering that was verified by analyses of TEM micrographs

  7. Effects of Low-Dose Microwave on Healing of Fractures with Titanium Alloy Internal Fixation: An Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Fu, Tengfei; Jiang, Lan; Bai, Yuehong

    2013-01-01

    Background Microwave is a method for improving fracture repair. However, one of the contraindications for microwave treatment listed in the literature is surgically implanted metal plates in the treatment field. The reason is that the reflection of electromagnetic waves and the eddy current stimulated by microwave would increase the temperature of magnetic implants and cause heat damage in tissues. Comparing with traditional medical stainless steel, titanium alloy is a kind of medical implants with low magnetic permeability and electric conductivity. But the effects of microwave treatment on fracture with titanium alloy internal fixation in vivo were not reported. The aim of this article was to evaluate the security and effects of microwave on healing of a fracture with titanium alloy internal fixation. Methods Titanium alloy internal fixation systems were implanted in New Zealand rabbits with a 3.0 mm bone defect in the middle of femur. We applied a 30-day microwave treatment (2,450MHz, 25W, 10 min per day) to the fracture 3 days after operation. Temperature changes of muscle tissues around implants were measured during the irradiation. Normalized radiographic density of the fracture gap was measured on the 10th day and 30th day of the microwave treatment. All of the animals were killed after 10 and 30 days microwave treatment with histologic and histomorphometric examinations performed on the harvested tissues. Findings The temperatures did not increase significantly in animals with titanium alloy implants. The security of microwave treatment was also supported by histology of muscles, nerve and bone around the implants. Radiographic assessment, histologic and histomorphometric examinations revealed significant improvement in the healing bone. Conclusion Our results suggest that, in the healing of fracture with titanium alloy internal fixation, a low dose of microwave treatment may be a promising method. PMID:24086626

  8. Experimental verification of the program of improvement of physical training of officers-instructors at higher educational establishment of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bezpaliy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grounded, developed and tested efficiency of the program of officers-teachers’ improvement in physical training. Borne change in organization of physical training, correlation of volumes of general and special physical training is changed, entered readings with a prophylactic and training orientation. The level of physical preparedness of teaching staff of higher institutes is investigational. In research took part 62 officers-teacher under the age of 40 years. The level of physical preparedness was determined on results at run on 100 meters, undercuttings on a cross-beam and runs on 1000 meters. It is set that employments on the experimental program were instrumental in more expressed growth of level of physical preparedness of teachers. A difference between the indexes of officers of experimental and control groups in speed qualities makes 0,12 seconds, in power qualities - 1,8 times, in endurance - 40,5 seconds.

  9. COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE STUDY OF GASKETED AND NON-GASKETED FLANGE JOINTS UNDER COMBINED INTERNAL PRESSURE, AXIAL AND BENDING LOADING – AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Abid

    2010-01-01

    In this paper result of an extensive comparative experimental study of a gasketed and non-gasketed flange joint with different assemblies with different combined load combinations is carried out to investigate joint performance i.e. joint strength and sealing capability. Actual joint load capacities are determined under both the design and proof test pressure with maximum additional external loading (axial and bending) that can be applied for safe joint performance. In addition, application o...

  10. Experimental pseudo-symmetric trap EPSILON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovoroda, A.A.; Arsenin, V.V.; Dlougach, E.D.; Kulygin, V.M.; Kuyanov, A.Yu.; Timofeev, A.V.; Zhil'tsov, V.A.; Zvonkov, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of the conceptual project 'Adaptive Plasma EXperiment' a trap with the closed magnetic field lines 'Experimental Pseudo-Symmetric trap' is examined. The project APEX is directed at the theoretical and experimental development of physical foundations for stationary thermonuclear reactor on the basis of an alternative magnetic trap with tokamak-level confinement of high β plasma. The fundamental principle of magnetic field pseudosymmetry that should be satisfied for plasma to have tokamak-like confinement is discussed. The calculated in paraxial approximation examples of pseudosymmetric curvilinear elements with poloidal direction of B isolines are adduced. The EPSILON trap consisting of two straight axisymmetric mirrors linked by two curvilinear pseudosymmetric elements is considered. The plasma currents are short-circuited within the curvilinear element what increases the equilibrium β. The untraditional scheme of MHD stabilization of a trap with the closed field lines by the use of divertor inserted into axisymmetric mirror is analyzed. The experimental installation EPSILON-OME that is under construction for experimental check of divertor stabilization is discussed. The possibility of ECR plasma production in EPSILON-OME under conditions of high density and small magnetic field is examined. (author)

  11. Experimental and modeling researches of dust particles in the HL-2A tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Hui; Yan, Long-Wen; Tomita, Yukihiro; Feng, Zhen; Cheng, Jun; Hong, Wen-Yu; Pan, Yu-Dong; Yang, Qing-Wei; Duan, Xu-Ru

    2015-02-01

    The investigation of dust particle characteristics in fusion devices has become more and more imperative. In the HL-2A tokamak, the morphologies and compositions of dust particles are analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) with mapping. The results indicate that the sizes of dust particles are in a range from 1 μm to 1 mm. Surprisingly, stainless steel spheres with a diameter of 2.5 μm-30 μm are obtained. The production mechanisms of dust particles include flaking, disintegration, agglomeration, and arcing. In addition, dynamic characteristics of the flaking dust particles are observed by a CMOS fast framing camera and simulated by a computer program. Both of the results display that the ion friction force is dominant in the toroidal direction, while the centrifugal force is crucial in the radial direction. Therefore, the visible dust particles are accelerated toriodally by the ion friction force and migrated radially by the centrifugal force. The averaged velocity of the grain is on the order of ˜ 100 m/s. These results provide an additional supplement for one of critical plasma-wall interaction (PWI) issues in the framework of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) programme. Project supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Grant Nos. 2014GB107000 and 2013GB112008), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11320101005, 11175060, 11375054, and 11075046), and the China-Korean Joint Foundation (Grant No. 2012DFG02230).

  12. The current status of immunotoxins: an overview of experimental and clinical studies as presented at the Third International Symposium on Immunotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckun, F M; Frankel, A

    1993-02-01

    The Third International Symposium on Immunotoxins was held on June 19-21, 1992 in Orlando, Florida. This symposium was sponsored by NATO, NIH, Pierce Chemical Company, Walt Disney Cancer Institute at Florida Hospital, Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center, Xoma, Immunogen, Seragen, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Chiron, Ortho Biotech, Upjohn, Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, Abbot Laboratories, Lilly Research Laboratories, and Evans & Sutherland. The Pierce Immunotoxin Award which recognizes outstanding contributions to immunotoxin research and development, was presented to Drs David FitzGerald, Fatih Uckun, David Eisenberg, and Ira Wool, for their contributions to the immunotoxin field.

  13. Minimal experimental requirements for definition of extracellular vesicles and their functions: a position statement from the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötvall, Jan; Hill, Andrew F; Hochberg, Fred; Buzás, Edit I; Di Vizio, Dolores; Gardiner, Christopher; Gho, Yong Song; Kurochkin, Igor V; Mathivanan, Suresh; Quesenberry, Peter; Sahoo, Susmita; Tahara, Hidetoshi; Wauben, Marca H; Witwer, Kenneth W; Théry, Clotilde

    2014-01-01

    Secreted membrane-enclosed vesicles, collectively called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which include exosomes, ectosomes, microvesicles, microparticles, apoptotic bodies and other EV subsets, encompass a very rapidly growing scientific field in biology and medicine. Importantly, it is currently technically challenging to obtain a totally pure EV fraction free from non-vesicular components for functional studies, and therefore there is a need to establish guidelines for analyses of these vesicles and reporting of scientific studies on EV biology. Here, the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) provides researchers with a minimal set of biochemical, biophysical and functional standards that should be used to attribute any specific biological cargo or functions to EVs.

  14. Minimal experimental requirements for definition of extracellular vesicles and their functions: a position statement from the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew F.; Hochberg, Fred; Buzás, Edit I.; Di Vizio, Dolores; Gardiner, Christopher; Gho, Yong Song; Kurochkin, Igor V.; Mathivanan, Suresh; Quesenberry, Peter; Sahoo, Susmita; Tahara, Hidetoshi; Wauben, Marca H.; Witwer, Kenneth W.; Théry, Clotilde

    2014-01-01

    Secreted membrane-enclosed vesicles, collectively called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which include exosomes, ectosomes, microvesicles, microparticles, apoptotic bodies and other EV subsets, encompass a very rapidly growing scientific field in biology and medicine. Importantly, it is currently technically challenging to obtain a totally pure EV fraction free from non-vesicular components for functional studies, and therefore there is a need to establish guidelines for analyses of these vesicles and reporting of scientific studies on EV biology. Here, the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) provides researchers with a minimal set of biochemical, biophysical and functional standards that should be used to attribute any specific biological cargo or functions to EVs. PMID:25536934

  15. COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE STUDY OF GASKETED AND NON-GASKETED FLANGE JOINTS UNDER COMBINED INTERNAL PRESSURE, AXIAL AND BENDING LOADING – AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper result of an extensive comparative experimental study of a gasketed and non-gasketed flange joint with different assemblies with different combined load combinations is carried out to investigate joint performance i.e. joint strength and sealing capability. Actual joint load capacities are determined under both the design and proof test pressure with maximum additional external loading (axial and bending that can be applied for safe joint performance. In addition, application of combined load is also discussed in the light of equivalent pressure approach.

  16. Experimental demonstration of an OpenFlow based software-defined optical network employing packet, fixed and flexible DWDM grid technologies on an international multi-domain testbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channegowda, M; Nejabati, R; Rashidi Fard, M; Peng, S; Amaya, N; Zervas, G; Simeonidou, D; Vilalta, R; Casellas, R; Martínez, R; Muñoz, R; Liu, L; Tsuritani, T; Morita, I; Autenrieth, A; Elbers, J P; Kostecki, P; Kaczmarek, P

    2013-03-11

    Software defined networking (SDN) and flexible grid optical transport technology are two key technologies that allow network operators to customize their infrastructure based on application requirements and therefore minimizing the extra capital and operational costs required for hosting new applications. In this paper, for the first time we report on design, implementation & demonstration of a novel OpenFlow based SDN unified control plane allowing seamless operation across heterogeneous state-of-the-art optical and packet transport domains. We verify and experimentally evaluate OpenFlow protocol extensions for flexible DWDM grid transport technology along with its integration with fixed DWDM grid and layer-2 packet switching.

  17. Experimental study on cascaded attitude angle control of a multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle with the simple internal model control method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jun Beom [Dept. of Aviation Maintenance, Dongwon Institute of Science and Technology, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Young Seop; Jeong, Jin Seok; Kim, Jeong; Kang, Beom Soo [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    This paper proposes a cascaded control structure and a method of practical application for attitude control of a multi-rotor Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The cascade control, which has tighter control capability than a single-loop control, is rarely used in attitude control of a multi-rotor UAV due to the input-output relation, which is no longer simply a set-point to Euler angle response transfer function of a single-loop PID control, but there are multiply measured signals and interactive control loops that increase the complexity of evaluation in conventional way of design. However, it is proposed in this research a method that can optimize a cascade control with a primary and secondary loops and a PID controller for each loop. An investigation of currently available PID-tuning methods lead to selection of the Simple internal model control (SIMC) method, which is based on the Internal model control (IMC) and direct-synthesis method. Through the analysis and experiments, this research proposes a systematic procedure to implement a cascaded attitude controller, which includes the flight test, system identification and SIMC-based PID-tuning. The proposed method was validated successfully from multiple applications where the application to roll axis lead to a PID-PID cascade control, but the application to yaw axis lead to that of PID-PI.

  18. Experimental study on cascaded attitude angle control of a multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle with the simple internal model control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jun Beom; Byun, Young Seop; Jeong, Jin Seok; Kim, Jeong; Kang, Beom Soo

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a cascaded control structure and a method of practical application for attitude control of a multi-rotor Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The cascade control, which has tighter control capability than a single-loop control, is rarely used in attitude control of a multi-rotor UAV due to the input-output relation, which is no longer simply a set-point to Euler angle response transfer function of a single-loop PID control, but there are multiply measured signals and interactive control loops that increase the complexity of evaluation in conventional way of design. However, it is proposed in this research a method that can optimize a cascade control with a primary and secondary loops and a PID controller for each loop. An investigation of currently available PID-tuning methods lead to selection of the Simple internal model control (SIMC) method, which is based on the Internal model control (IMC) and direct-synthesis method. Through the analysis and experiments, this research proposes a systematic procedure to implement a cascaded attitude controller, which includes the flight test, system identification and SIMC-based PID-tuning. The proposed method was validated successfully from multiple applications where the application to roll axis lead to a PID-PID cascade control, but the application to yaw axis lead to that of PID-PI

  19. Experimental and numerical investigations of internal heat transfer in an innovative trailing edge blade cooling system: stationary and rotation effects, part 2: numerical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniaiche, Ahmed; Ghenaiet, Adel; Carcasci, Carlo; Facchini, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a numerical validation of the aero-thermal study of a 30:1 scaled model reproducing an innovative trailing edge with one row of enlarged pedestals under stationary and rotating conditions. A CFD analysis was performed by means of commercial ANSYS-Fluent modeling the isothermal air flow and using k- ω SST turbulence model and an isothermal air flow for both static and rotating conditions (Ro up to 0.23). The used numerical model is validated first by comparing the numerical velocity profiles distribution results to those obtained experimentally by means of PIV technique for Re = 20,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. The second validation is based on the comparison of the numerical results of the 2D HTC maps over the heated plate to those of TLC experimental data, for a smooth surface for a Reynolds number = 20,000 and 40,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. Two-tip conditions were considered: open tip and closed tip conditions. Results of the average Nusselt number inside the pedestal ducts region are presented too. The obtained results help to predict the flow field visualization and the evaluation of the aero-thermal performance of the studied blade cooling system during the design step.

  20. General meeting. Technical reunion: the numerical and experimental simulation applied to the Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    The SFEN (French Society on Nuclear Energy), organized the 18 october 2001 at Paris, a technical day on the numerical and experimental simulation, applied to the reactor Physics. Nine aspects were discussed, giving a state of the art in the domain:the french nuclear park; the future technology; the controlled thermonuclear fusion; the new organizations and their implications on the research and development programs; Framatome-ANP markets and industrial code packages; reactor core simulation at high temperature; software architecture; SALOME; DESCARTES. (A.L.B.)

  1. The 65 keV resonance in the O-17(p,alpha)N-14 thermonuclear reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sergi, M. L.; Spitaleri, C.; Coc, A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Burjan, Václav; Gulino, M.; Hammache, F.; Hons, Zdeněk; Irgaziev, B.; Kiss, G.G.; Kroha, Václav; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; de Sereville, N.; Somorjai, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 834, 1-4 (2010), 676C-678C ISSN 0375-9474. [10th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2009). Beijing, 16.08.2009-21.08.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : REACTION-RATES * ENERGIES Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2010

  2. Minimal experimental requirements for definition of extracellular vesicles and their functions: a position statement from the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lötvall

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Secreted membrane-enclosed vesicles, collectively called extracellular vesicles (EVs, which include exosomes, ectosomes, microvesicles, microparticles, apoptotic bodies and other EV subsets, encompass a very rapidly growing scientific field in biology and medicine. Importantly, it is currently technically challenging to obtain a totally pure EV fraction free from non-vesicular components for functional studies, and therefore there is a need to establish guidelines for analyses of these vesicles and reporting of scientific studies on EV biology. Here, the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV provides researchers with a minimal set of biochemical, biophysical and functional standards that should be used to attribute any specific biological cargo or functions to EVs.

  3. Experimental verification of effects of barrier dopings on the internal electric fields and the band structure in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Soo; Park, Ki-Nam; Lee, Jin-Gyu [Department of Physics, Kongju National University, Kongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Ku, E-mail: soonku@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Royng; Lee, Seogwoo; Whan Cho, Meoung [Wasvesquare Co., Inc., Yongin, Gyeonggi 449-863 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-24

    We experimentally clarify the effects of barrier dopings on the polarization induced electric fields and the band structure in InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes. Both effects were independently verified by using electric field modulated reflectance and capacitance-voltage measurement. It is shown that the Si barrier doping does reduce the polarization induced electric field in the quantum wells. But the benefit of Si-doping is nullified by modification of the band structure and depletion process. With increased number of doped barriers, smaller number of quantum wells remains in the depletion region at the onset of the diffusion process, which can reduce the effective active volume and enhance the electron overflow.

  4. Experimental development, 1D CFD simulation and energetic analysis of a 15 kw micro-CHP unit based on reciprocating internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, M.; Gimelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cogeneration is commonly recognized as one of the most effective solutions to achieve the increasingly stringent reduction in primary energy consumption and greenhouse emissions. This characteristic led to the adoption of specific directives promoting this technique. In addition, a strategic role in power reliability is recognized to distributed generation. The study and prototyping of cogeneration plants, therefore, has involved many research centres. This paper deals with energetic aspects of CHP referring to the study of a 15 kW micro-CHP plant based on a LPG reciprocating engine designed, built and grid connected. The plant consists of a heat recovery system characterized by a single water circuit recovering heat from exhaust gases, from engine coolant and from the energy radiated by the engine within the shell hosting the plant. Some tests were carried out at whole open throttle and the experimental data were collected. However it was needed to perform a 1D thermo-fluid dynamics simulation of the engine to completely characterize the micro-CHP. As the heat actually recovered depends on the user's thermal load, particularly from the required temperature's level, a comparison of the results for six types of users were performed: residential, hospital, office, commercial, sports, hotel. Both Italian legislative indexes IRE and LT were evaluated, as defined by A.E.E.G resolution n. 42/02 and subsequent updates, as well as the plant's total Primary Energy Saving. - Highlights: • This paper deals with energetic aspects of CHP referring to the study of a 15 kW micro-CHP plant. • The 15 kW micro-CHP plant is based on a GPL reciprocating engine designed, built and grid connected. • Some tests were carried out at whole open throttle and the experimental data were collected. • It was needed to perform a 1D thermo-fluid dynamics simulation of the engine to completely characterize the micro-CHP. • The analysed solution is particularly suited for

  5. Determination of astrophysical thermonuclear rates with a bubble chamber: The 12C(αγ)16O reaction case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGiovine, B.; Henderson, D.; Holt, R. J.; Rehm, K. E.; Grames, J.; Meekins, D.; Poelker, M.; Suleiman, R.; Robinson, A.; Ugalde, C.; Sonnenschein, A.

    2013-01-01

    The 12 C(αγ) 16 O reaction rate is considered one of the most important unknown parameters in the physics of structure and evolution of massive stars. While extensive experimental campaigns have been performed trying to improve the quality of the measurements, the rate still holds very large uncertainties. Here we discuss a new experimantal scheme to measure the cross section of this reaction with a bubble chamber and a bremsstrahlung beam. The main advantage of the technique is a gain in the luminosity of several orders of magnitude when compared to other ongoing experiments

  6. Internal wave interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Manikandan; Peacock, Thomas

    2010-03-19

    Internal waves are a ubiquitous and significant means of momentum and energy transport in the oceans, atmosphere, and astrophysical bodies. Here, we show that internal wave propagation in nonuniform density stratifications, which are prevalent throughout nature, has a direct mathematical analogy with the classical optical problem of a Fabry-Perot multiple-beam light interferometer. We rigorously establish this correspondence, and furthermore provide the first experimental demonstration of an internal wave interferometer, based on the theory of resonant transmission of internal waves.

  7. Effects of Casting Size on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Spheroidal and Compacted Graphite Cast Irons: Experimental Results and Comparison with International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschini, L.; Morri, Alessandro; Morri, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of casting size (10-210 mm) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of spheroidal (SGI) and compacted (CGI) graphite cast irons. A comparison of the experimental mechanical data with those specified by ISO standards is presented and discussed. The study highlighted that the microstructure and mechanical properties of SGI (also known as ductile or nodular cast iron) are more sensitive to casting size than CGI (also known as vermicular graphite cast irons). In particular, in both types of cast iron, hardness, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength decreased, with increasing casting size, by 27% in SGI and 17% in CGI. Elongation to failure showed, instead, an opposite trend, decreasing from 5 to 3% in CGI, while increasing from 5 to 11% in SGI. These results were related to different microstructures, the ferritic fraction being more sensitive to the casting size in SGI than CGI. Degeneration of spheroidal graphite was observed at casting size above 120 mm. The microstructural similarities between degenerated SGI and CGI suggested the proposal of a unified empirical constitutional law relating the most important microstructural parameters to the ultimate tensile strength. An outstanding result was also the finding that standard specifications underestimated the mechanical properties of both cast irons (in particular SGI) and, moreover, did not take into account their variation with casting size, at thicknesses over 60 mm.

  8. Posterior hyaloid detachment and internal limiting membrane peeling assisted by anthocyanins from acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea) and 10 other natural vital dyes: experimental study in cadaveric eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jane; Ferreira, Magno Antonio; Farah, Michel Eid; de Carvalho, André Maia; Alves Ferreira, Raquel Eustaquio; de Moraes Filho, Milton Nunes; Souza Lima-Filho, Acácio Alves; Lago, João Henrique G; Sartorelli, Patricia; Rodrigues, Eduardo Buchele; Ferreira, Eber; Peris, Cristiane; Maia, Maurício

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether natural dyes facilitate posterior hyaloid detachment (posterior vitreous detachment [PVD]) and retinal internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in human eyes. Open-sky vitrectomy with posterior hyaloid and ILM removal was performed in 86 human cadaveric eyes. After core vitrectomy, 11 different dyes were injected into the vitreous cavity to aid hyaloid detachment and ILM removal. The dyes were allowed to settle on the macula for 5 minutes after PVD and were removed by mechanical aspiration. Intraocular forceps were used for ILM peeling, which was confirmed by light microscopy of the peeled tissue. Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea) extract and 10 additional dyes from plants or animal sources were tested: pomegranate (Punica granatum), logwood (Haematoxylum campechianum), chlorophyll extract from alfalfa (Medicago sativa), cochineal (Dactylopius coccus), hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), indigo (Indigofera tinctoria), paprika (Capiscum annuum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), old fustic (Maclura tinctoria), and grape (Vitis vinifera). The dyes facilitated PVD and ILM peeling. Acai fruit (E. oleracea) extract, logwood (H. campechianum), cochineal (D. coccus), and old fustic (M. tinctoria) facilitated PVD in all cases; dye-assisted PVD was compared with triamcinolone-assisted PVD performed previously in a comparative model. Acai fruit (E. oleracea) extract, cochineal (D. coccus), and chlorophyll extract from alfalfa (M. sativa) showed the best capability for ILM staining; dye-assisted ILM removal was compared with the ILM peeling guided by indocyanine green staining performed previously in a comparative model. Light microscopy confirmed the ILM removal in all cases. Anthocyanin dye of the acai fruit (E. oleracea) and the dyes from cochineal (D. coccus) and chlorophyll extract from alfalfa (M. sativa) resulted in the best capability for posterior hyaloid and ILM staining in human cadaveric eyes and may be a useful tool for

  9. Proceedings of the international symposium on application of a closed experimental system to modeling of 14C transfer in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tako, Yasuhiro; Tani, Takashi; Arai, Ryuji; Nozoe, Susumu; Nakamura, Yuji

    2008-03-01

    The Institute for Environmental Sciences (IES) has developed the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) to achieve advanced technologies for a closed and strictly controlled experiment system, which will bring the life support system in an extremely limited environment into reality. The development of the CEEF has also had another objective to be used for researches on the transfer of gaseous radioactive nuclides released from nuclear facilities. IES, using the CEEF, started researching the site-specific transfer problem of 14 C, which is the most effective radionuclide for assessing the exposure dose around a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The simplified model and parameters with ample margins, so far, have been used for the assessment of the dose derived from 14 C. Realistic dose estimate of 14 C with more realistic and site-specific parameters and models is necessary for the safety of the people in the surrounding area and for the public acceptance of nuclear facilities. The CEEF just concluded the initially planned stage of development with the completion of closed circulation experiments for air, water and wastes at the end of 2007. In addition, the beginning of commercial operation of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is planned for 2008 and there is increasing public concern on operation safety. Thus, it was a good time to hold a symposium in Rokkasho to discuss recent progress in 14 C transfer modeling in the environment and in animal and human bodies, together with relevant experimental technologies. The purpose of the symposium was to exchange up-to-date information on modeling of 14 C environmental transfer and relevant technology to realize 14 C experiments in a closed system. Through 25 oral presentations, including 2 special lectures, and 7 poster paper presentations in the symposium, exciting information exchanges and intense discussions on present researches were realized, leading to recognition of potential issues for further studies. The

  10. Structural design of the superconducting toroidal field coils for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, F.M.G.; Sborchia, C.; Thome, R.J.; Malkov, A.; Titus, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Structural design issues and features of the superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will be discussed. Selected analyses of the structural and mechanical behavior of the ITER TF coils will also be presented. (orig.)

  11. Experimental validation of models for Plasma Focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Palomino, Luis; Gonzalez, Jose; Clausse, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Plasma Focus(PF) Devices are thermonuclear pulsators that produce short pulsed radiation (X-ray, charged particles and neutrons). Since Filippov and Mather, investigations have been used to study plasma properties. Nowadays the interest about PF is focused in technology applications, related to the use of these devices as pulsed neutron sources. In the numerical calculus the Inter institutional PLADEMA (PLAsmas DEnsos MAgnetizados) network is developing three models. Each one is useful in different engineering stages of the Plasma Focus design. One of the main objectives in this work is a comparative study on the influence of the different parameters involved in each models. To validate these results, several experimental measurements under different geometry and initial conditions were performed. (author)

  12. 8 March 2012 - Extraordinary and plenipotentiary Ambassador R. van Schreven, Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations Office and other international organisations at Geneva, signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss; in the ATLAS experimental area with Deputy Spokesperson Y. Schutz; throughout accompanied by Former Deputy Department Head and Senior Physicist L. Linssen.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    8 March 2012 - Extraordinary and plenipotentiary Ambassador R. van Schreven, Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations Office and other international organisations at Geneva, signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss; in the ATLAS experimental area with Deputy Spokesperson Y. Schutz; throughout accompanied by Former Deputy Department Head and Senior Physicist L. Linssen.

  13. An experimental investigation of the post-CHF enhancement factor for a prototypical ITER divertor plate with water coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, T.D. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Watson, R.D.; McDonald, J.M. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    In an off-normal event, water-cooled copper divertor plates in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) may either experience heat loads beyond their design basis, or the normal heat loads may be accompanied by low coolant pressure and velocity. The purpose of this experiment was to illustrate that during one-sided heating, as in ITER, a copper divertor plate with the proper side wall thickness, at low system pressure and velocity can absorb without failing an incident heat flux, q{sub i}, that significantly exceed the value, q{sub i}{sup CHF}, which is associated with local CHF at the wall of the coolant channel. The experiment was performed using a 30 kW electron beam test system for heating of a square cross-section divertor heat sink with a smooth circular channel of 7.63 mm diameter. The heated width, length, and wall thickness were 16, 40, and 3 mm, respectively. Stable surface temperatures were observed at incident heat fluxes greater than the local CHF point, presumably due to circumferential conduction around the thick tube walls when q{sub i}{sup CHF} was exceeded. The Post-CHF enhancement factor, {eta}, is defined as the ratio of the incident burnout heat flux, q{sub i}{sup BO}, to q{sub i}{sup CHF}. For this experiment with water at inlet conditions of 70{degrees}C, 1 m/s, and 1 MPa, q{sub i}{sup CHF} and q{sub i}{sup BO} were 600 and 1100 W/cm{sup 2}, respectively, which gave an {eta} of 1.8.

  14. Development and trial manufacturing of 1/2-scale partial mock-up of blanket box structure for fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Toshiyuki; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Sato, Satoshi

    1994-07-01

    Conceptual design of breeding blanket has been discussed during the CDA (Conceptual Design Activities) of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). Structural concept of breeding blanket is based on box structure integrated with first wall and shield, which consists of three coolant manifolds for first wall, breeding and shield regions. The first wall must have cooling channels to remove surface heat flux and nuclear heating. The box structure includes plates to form the manifolds and stiffening ribs to withstand enormous electromagnetic load, coolant pressure and blanket internal (purge gas) pressure. A 1/2-scale partial model of the blanket box structure for the outboard side module near midplane is manufactured to estimate the fabrication technology, i.e. diffusion bonding by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) and EBW (Electron Beam Welding) procedure. Fabrication accuracy is a key issue to manufacture first wall panel because bending deformation during HIP may not be small for a large size structure. Data on bending deformation during HIP was obtained by preliminary manufacturing of HIP elements. For the shield structure, it is necessary to reduce the welding strain and residual stress of the weldment to establish the fabrication procedure. Optimal shape of the parts forming the manifolds, welding locations and welding sequence have been investigated. In addition, preliminary EBW tests have been performed in order to select the EBW conditions, and fundamental data on built-up shield have been obtained. Especially, welding deformation by joining the first wall panel to the shield has been measured, and total deformation to build-up shield by EBW has been found to be smaller than 2 mm. Consequently, the feasibility of fabrication technologies has been successfully demonstrated for a 1m-scaled box structure including the first wall with cooling channels by means of HIP, EBW and TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas arc)-welding. (author)

  15. Estimating spillover benefits of large R and D projects: Application of real options modelling approach to the case of thermonuclear fusion R and D programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednyagin, Denis; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the analysis of spillover benefits of the ongoing R and D programme on thermonuclear fusion technology. The spillover effects are understood here as positive externalities of publicly funded R and D, demonstration and deployment (RDDD) activities that may be revealed at the companies' level in the form of newly created knowledge stock; development of innovative products/processes with broader market applications; strengthening of R and D, manufacturing and marketing capabilities; etc. An integrated compound real options model is proposed that allows to estimate the strategic net social present value of fusion RDDD programme taking into account the different types of spillover benefits along with the hidden real options value arising due to uncertainty and managerial flexibility. It was found that the value of spillover effects, modelled as “expansion option”, could represent a significant proportion of the overall socio-economic value of fusion RDDD programme (nearly 20%). This paper clearly demonstrates that, besides a high-level mission to assure sustainable energy supply, fusion RDDD programme may yield substantial net socio-economic benefits that may be at least two times higher compared to the expected RD and D costs, and hence the pursuit of even more ambitious programme is economically justified. - Highlights: ► Evaluate the strategic net social present value of fusion RDDD programme. ► Consider different types of spillover effects. ► Economic value of spillovers is estimated with a compound real options model. ► Spillover benefits could represent up to 20% of the value of fusion RDDD programme.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamics: Parallel computation of the dynamics of thermonuclear and astrophysical plasmas. 1. Annual report of massively parallel computing pilot project 93MPR05

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This is the first annual report of the MPP pilot project 93MPR05. In this pilot project four research groups with different, complementary backgrounds collaborate with the aim to develop new algorithms and codes to simulate the magnetohydrodynamics of thermonuclear and astrophysical plasmas on massively parallel machines. The expected speed-up is required to simulate the dynamics of the hot plasmas of interest which are characterized by very large magnetic Reynolds numbers and, hence, require high spatial and temporal resolutions (for details see section 1). The four research groups that collaborated to produce the results reported here are: The MHD group of Prof. Dr. J.P. Goedbloed at the FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics 'Rijnhuizen' in Nieuwegein, the group of Prof. Dr. H. van der Vorst at the Mathematics Institute of Utrecht University, the group of Prof. Dr. A.G. Hearn at the Astronomical Institute of Utrecht University, and the group of Dr. Ir. H.J.J. te Riele at the CWI in Amsterdam. The full project team met frequently during this first project year to discuss progress reports, current problems, etc. (see section 2). The main results of the first project year are: - Proof of the scalability of typical linear and nonlinear MHD codes - development and testing of a parallel version of the Arnoldi algorithm - development and testing of alternative methods for solving large non-Hermitian eigenvalue problems - porting of the 3D nonlinear semi-implicit time evolution code HERA to an MPP system. The steps that were scheduled to reach these intended results are given in section 3. (orig./WL)

  17. CALCULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATION OF RESULTS OF ELECTRO-THERMAL ACTION OF RATIONED BY THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD IEC 62305-1-2010 IMPULSE CURRENT OF SHORT BLOW OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTNING ON THE THIN-WALLED COVERAGE FROM STAINLESS STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Baranov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Calculation and experimental researches of electro-thermal resistibility of the pre-production thin-walled sheet models of outward roof of height technical buildings from stainless steel are easily soiled 12Х18Н10Т to direct action on them rationed by the International Standard IEC 62305-1-2010 aperiodic impulse of current of short bow of artificial lightning of temporal form 10/350 μs with the proper admittances on his peak-temporal parameters (PTP. Methodology. Electrophysics bases of technique of high voltage and large impulsive currents (LIC, and also scientific and technical bases of planning of high-voltage impulsive devices and measuring methods in them LIC with followings below extreme PTP: amplitude of impulse of current of ImL=200 кА (with admittance ±10 %; integral of action of impulse of current of JL=10·106 A2·s (with admittance ±35 %; %; duration of wavefront current of T1=10 μs (with admittance ±20 %; time, proper amplitude of impulse of current of ImL, tmL≤24 μs (with admittance ±20 %; duration of flowing of impulse of current of T2=350 μs (with admittance ±10 %. Results. The results of evaluation calculation and experimental researches of electro-thermal resistibility of the indicated pre-production sheet models are resulted measuring in the plan of 0,5 x 0,5 m from stainless steel are easily soiled the 12Х18Н10Т thickness of 1 mm to action on them of aperiodic impulse of current of short blow of artificial lightning with rationed PTP on the requirements of the International Standard IEC 62305-1-2010. In high current experiments amplitude of ImL of the aperiodic rationed impulse of current of artificial lightning of temporal form of T1/T2=15 μs/315 μs changed in the range of (100-184 кА. The integral of action of JL of impulse of current for I-IV of levels of protection of lightning of technical objects (TO numeral made from 2,32·106 А2·s to 7,88·106 А2·s, and the flowing through the

  18. The National Ignition Facility: an experimental platform for studying behavior of matter under extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Edward

    2011-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 192-beam Nd-glass laser facility capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). As the world's largest and most energetic laser system, NIF serves as the national center for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration to achieve thermonuclear burn in the laboratory and to explore the behavior of matter at extreme temperatures and energy densities. By concentrating the energy from all of its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm3-sized target, NIF can reach the conditions required to initiate fusion reactions. NIF can also provide access to extreme scientific environments: temperatures about 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm3, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure. These conditions have never been created before in a laboratory and exist naturally only in interiors of the planetary and stellar environments as well as in nuclear weapons. Since August 2009, the NIF team has been conducting experiments in support of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC)—a partnership among LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, General Atomics, the University of Rochester, Sandia National Laboratories, as well as a number of universities and international collaborators. The results from these initial experiments show promise for the relatively near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.2 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 10%. Cryogenic target capability and additional diagnostics are being installed in preparation for layered target deuterium-tritium implosions to be conducted later in 2010. Important national security and basic science experiments have

  19. Effect of Various Inoculum Levels of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg (2011 Ground Turkey Outbreak Isolate on Cecal Colonization, Dissemination to Internal Organs, and Deposition in Skeletal Muscles of Commercial Turkeys after Experimental Oral Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divek V. T. Nair

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg is a major foodborne pathogen colonizing poultry. The pathogen is associated with a significant number of foodborne outbreaks through contaminated poultry meat, including turkeys. Recently, multidrug-resistant (MDR strains of S. Heidelberg have emerged as a threat to human public health in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine the cecal colonization, dissemination to internal organs, and the potential for skeletal muscle deposition of an MDR S. Heidelberg isolate from the 2011 ground turkey outbreak in the United States after the experimental oral challenge of poults (young turkeys and adult turkey hens. In the poult study, two separate experiments using day-old, straight-run, commercial hybrid converter poults were randomly assigned to five challenge groups (0, 10∧2, 10∧4, 10∧6, 10∧8 CFU groups; 12 poults/group; N = 60/experiment and a week after, treatment groups were challenged separately with 0-, 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8- log10 CFU of S. Heidelberg orally. After 14 days post-challenge, the poults were euthanized, and samples were collected to determine MDR S. Heidelberg colonization in the cecum, dissemination to liver and spleen, and deposition in the thigh, drumstick, and breast muscles. A similar experimental design was followed for the adult turkey hens. In two separate experiments, 11-week-old commercial Hybrid Converter turkey hens (4 hens/group; N = 20/experiment were challenged with MDR S. Heidelberg and on day 16 post-challenge, birds were euthanized and samples were collected to determine Salmonella populations in the samples. The results indicated that, in turkey poults, the recovery of MDR S. Heidelberg was highest in the cecum followed by spleen, liver, thigh, drumstick, and breast. All tested inoculum levels resulted in more than 3.5 log10 CFU/g colonization in the poult cecum. The cecal colonization, dissemination to internal organs, and tissue

  20. Modelo experimental estável de aneurisma sacular em artéria carótida de suínos utilizando veia jugular interna Stable experimental model of carotid artery saccular aneurysm in swine using the internal jugular vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Lourenço da Silva Júnior

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo experimental estável de aneurisma sacular em carótida de suínos utilizando veia jugular interna. MÉTODOS: Em 12 suínos sadios, com peso variando entre 25 e 50kg, cinco machos e sete fêmeas, foi confeccionado aneurisma na artéria carótida comum direita. Após arteriotomia elíptica, foi realizada anastomose terminolateral com coto distal de veia jugular interna. O volume do aneurisma era calculado de maneira que o valor não excedesse em 27 vezes o valor da área da arteriotomia. Após seis dias, era realizada angiografia e análise microscópica do aneurisma para avaliar perviedade e trombose parcial ou total. RESULTADOS: Houve ganho de peso significante dos suínos no intervalo de tempo entre a confecção do aneurisma e a angiografia (p = 0,04. Foi observada perviedade aneurismática em dez suínos (83%. Ocorreram infecções de feridas operatórias em dois animais (16,6%, ambas com início de aparecimento em três dias após a confecção do aneurisma. Análise histológica dos aneurismas mostrou trombos ocluindo parcialmente a luz em nove suínos (75%. Nesses animais, observou-se que, em média, 9% da luz aneurismática estava preenchida por trombos. CONCLUSÃO: Pôde ser desenvolvido um modelo experimental estável de aneurisma sacular em carótida de suínos utilizando veia jugular interna.OBJECTIVE: To develop an experimental model of stable saccular aneurysm in carotid of pigs using the internal jugular vein. METHODS: In 12 healthy pigs, weighing between 25 and 50kg, five males and seven females, we made a right common carotid artery aneurysm. After elliptical arteriotomy, we carried out a terminolateral anastomosis with the distal stump of the internal jugular vein. Aneurysm volume was calculated so that the value did not exceed 27 times the area of the arteriotomy. After six days angiography and microscopic examination were performed to assess patency of the aneurysm and the presence of total or

  1. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation, industrial applications, plasma physics and nuclear fusion 1986-1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques, and Instrumentation, Industrial Applications, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1986-1996. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. Contents cover the three main areas of (i) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactor and Particle Accelerator Applications, and Nuclear Data), (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, and Tracers), and (iii) Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion

  2. Introduction to controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, A.S. de; Rapozo, C.C.

    1988-07-01

    During many centuries the origin of the enormous power output of the sun remained as a mistery. However, in this century, the physicists have discovered that stars get their energy from the fusion of light nuclei (such as deuterons and tritons), and the Einstein's equation, AE = (Am)c 2 , was the way to explain this physical process. (author)

  3. Physical effects of thermonuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1984-01-01

    The detonation of nuclear weapons gives rise to the following: blast wave; thermal wave; initial radiation (neutrons and gamma-rays); local radioactive fallout; global radioactive fallout; electromagnetic pulse; atmospheric disturbances. Some of these phenomena became known only as a result of the use or testing of bombs and are not as yet fully understood. They produce physical or biological effects or both, almost all of which are directly detrimental to human health. Some are likely to damage the environment

  4. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Koji; Imura, Yasuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide constituted method for easily performing baking of vacuum vessel, using short-circuiting segments. Constitution: At the time of baking, one turn circuit is formed by the vacuum vessel and short-circuiting segments, and current transformer converting the one turn circuit into a secondary circuit by the primary coil and iron core is formed, and the vacuum vessel is Joule heated by an induction current from the primary coil. After completion of baking, the short-circuiting segments are removed. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Method of assembling thermonuclear devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Katsumasa; Ishizuka, Tatsuro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the assembling work and improve the reliability thereby obtain an economical advantage. Method: A substantially doughnut-like vacuum vessel containing plasmas and having an insulating dividing portions for dividing along the torus circumference direction is further disposed with dividing poritons with no insulation. Upon assembling, insulating dividing poritons are previously assembled to leave the not-insulated dividing portions as the final couplings while leaving such gaps as incorporating toroidal coils. Then, the toroidal coils are assembled through the gaps to the vacuum vessel and, finally not-insulated final dividing portions are assembled. Since the function is divided into the dividing portion applied with insulation for vacuum seal and dividing portions absorbing the dimensional errors for vacuum seal, assembling work in view of mechanical procedure and vacuum can be facilitated. (Sekiya, K.)

  6. First wall of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kazunori.

    1993-01-01

    A hole having a semi-circular cross sectional shape is formed to joining surface between an armour block and a supporting base plate at the central portion on each side of them. The armour block and the support base plate are fixed to the hole while interposing a cooling pipe, and the contact surfaces of these three materials are joined metallurgically such as by brazing. With such procedures, thermal stresses on the joining surface is decreased by the effect of the circular arc shape and stress concentration at the end of the joining portion is also decreased. Further, when it is fabricated, since the support base plate, the cooling pipe and the armour block are arranged, fixed and joined in this order from one direction, they can be manufactured easily. Further, upon diassembling and repair of the failed armour block, remaining failed armour block can be removed by heating applied from a position above the armour block, and an armour block for exchange can be attached from one direction. (I.N.)

  7. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Nagashima, Keisuke; Suzuki, Masaru; Onozuka, Masaki.

    1997-01-01

    A vacuum vessel main body and structural members at the inside and the outside of the vacuum vessel main body are constituted by structural materials activated by irradiation of neutrons from plasmas such as stainless steels. Shielding members comprising tungsten or molybdenum are disposed on the surface of the vacuum vessel main body and the structural members of the inside and the outside of the main body. The shielding members have a function also as first walls or a seat member for the first walls. Armor tiles may be disposed to the shielding members. The shielding members and the armor tiles are secured to a securing seat member disposed, for example, to an inner plate of the vacuum vessel main body by bolts. Since the shielding members are disposed, it is not necessary to constitute the vacuum vessel main body and the structural members at the inside and the outside thereof by using a low activation material which is less activated, such as a titanium alloy. (I.N.)

  8. Breeding blankets for thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocaboy, Alain.

    1982-06-01

    Materials with structures suitable for this purpose are studied. A bibliographic review of the main solid and liquid lithiated compounds is then presented. Erosion, dimensioning and maintenance problems associated with the limiter and the first wall of the reactor are studied from the point of view of the constraints they impose on the design of the blankets. Detailed studies of the main solid and liquid blanket concepts enable the best technological compromises to be determined for the indispensable functions of the blanket to be assured under acceptable conditions. Our analysis leads to four classes of solution, which cannot at this stage be considered as final recommendations, but which indicate what sort of solutions it is worthwhile exploring and comparing in order to be in a position to suggest a realistic blanket at the time when plasma control is sufficiently good for power reactors to be envisaged. Some considerations on the general architecture of the reactor are indicated. Energy storage with pulsed reactors is discussed in the appendix, and a first approach made to minimizing the total tritium recovery [fr

  9. Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Experimental designs are distinguished as the best method to respond to questions involving causality. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate the logic of experimental design and why it is so vital to questions that demand causal conclusions. In addition, types of internal and external validity threats are discussed. To emphasize the…

  10. Nuclear Weapon Testing Limitations and International Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corden, Pierce S.

    2017-01-01

    For over 50 years stopping nuclear weapon tests has been sought to support achieving international security without nuclear weapons. Testing is the critical path beyond primitive fission devices, e.g. to develop thermonuclear weapons, reduce weight and volume and increase yield. The 1958 Geneva Conference of Experts considered ways to verify a test ban. With then-limitations on seismology, and lack of in-country monitoring and on-site inspections, the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty prohibits testing only in the atmosphere, outer space and under water, and is verified by National Technical Means. The US and USSR agreed to a limit of 150 kilotons on underground explosions in the 1970s-80s. The 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosions. Its International Monitoring System - seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide sensors - is being used, and has easily detected testing by the DPRK. On-site inspections will be available under an in-force Treaty. A 2012 National Academy report concludes that cheating attempts would not undermine U.S. security, and the program for monitoring and extending the life of US weapons has succeeded since US testing ceased in 1992.

  11. Experimental study of high current negative ion sources D- / H-. Analysis based on the simulation of the negative ion transport in the plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riz, D.

    1996-01-01

    In the frame of the development of a neutral beam injection system able to work the ITER tokamak (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), two negative ion sources, Dragon and Kamaboko, have been installed on the MANTIS test bed in Cadarache, and studies in order to extract 20 mA/cm 2 of D - . The two production modes of negative ions have been investigated: volume production; surface production after cesium injection in the discharge. Experiments have shown that cesium seeding is necessary in order to reach the requested performances for ITER. 20 mA/cm 2 have been extracted from the Kamaboko source for an arc power density of 2.5 kW/liter. Simultaneously, a code called NIETZSCHE has been developed to simulate the negative ions transport in the source plasma, from their birth place to the extraction holes. The ion trajectory is calculated by numerically solving the 3D motion equation, while the atomic processes of destruction, of elastic collisions H - /H + and of charge exchange H - /H 0 are handled at each time step by a Monte Carlo procedure. The code allows to obtain the extraction probability of a negative ion produced at a given location. The calculations performed with NIETZSCHE have allowed to explain several phenomena observed on negative ion sources, such as the isotopic effect H - /D - and the influence of the polarisation of the plasma grid and of the magnetic filter on the negative ions current. The code has also shown that, in the type of sources contemplated for ITER, working with large arc power densities (> 1 kW/liter), only negative ions produced in volume at a distance lower that 2 cm from the plasma grid and those produced at the grid surface have a chance of being extracted. (author)

  12. Internal friction in enzyme reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Anna; Derényi, Imre; Gráf, László; Málnási-Csizmadia, András

    2013-01-01

    The empirical concept of internal friction was introduced 20 years ago. This review summarizes the results of experimental and theoretical studies that help to uncover the nature of internal friction. After the history of the concept, we describe the experimental challenges in measuring and interpreting internal friction based on the viscosity dependence of enzyme reactions. We also present speculations about the structural background of this viscosity dependence. Finally, some models about the relationship between the energy landscape and internal friction are outlined. Alternative concepts regarding the viscosity dependence of enzyme reactions are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. 1 October 2013 - British Minister of State for Trade and Investment Lord Green of Hurstpierpoint signing the guest book with Head of Internationals Relations R. Voss; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 and the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Members K. Behr and J. Catmore.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    1 October 2013 - British Minister of State for Trade and Investment Lord Green of Hurstpierpoint signing the guest book with Head of Internationals Relations R. Voss; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 and the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Members K. Behr and J. Catmore.

  14. 23 July - Italian Director-General for Prevention G. Ruocco and Director-General for European and International Relations Ministry of Health D. Roderigo visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Deputy Spokesperson B. Heinemann. Life Sciences Section M. Cirilli and Life Sciences Adviser M. Dosanjh present.

    CERN Document Server

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    23 July - Italian Director-General for Prevention G. Ruocco and Director-General for European and International Relations Ministry of Health D. Roderigo visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Deputy Spokesperson B. Heinemann. Life Sciences Section M. Cirilli and Life Sciences Adviser M. Dosanjh present.

  15. 13 February 2012 - World Economic Forum Founder and Executive Chairman K. Schwab and Chairperson and Co-Founder Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship H. Schwab (Mrs)in the ATLAS experimental area at LHC Point 1 with Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni; signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    13 February 2012 - World Economic Forum Founder and Executive Chairman K. Schwab and Chairperson and Co-Founder Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship H. Schwab (Mrs)in the ATLAS experimental area at LHC Point 1 with Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni; signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

  16. 27 February 2012 - German Secretary General, Volkswagen Foundation, W. Krull signing the guest book with Director for Administration and general infrastructure S. Lettow and International Relations Adviser R. Voss; in the ATLAS visitor centre and ATLAS underground experimental area with Collaboration Member T. Wengler.

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent Egli

    2012-01-01

    27 February 2012 - German Secretary General, Volkswagen Foundation, W. Krull signing the guest book with Director for Administration and general infrastructure S. Lettow and International Relations Adviser R. Voss; in the ATLAS visitor centre and ATLAS underground experimental area with Collaboration Member T. Wengler.

  17. 25 January 2012 - Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador R. Jansons, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Latvia to the United Nations Office at Geneva, signing the guest book with CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi.

    CERN Document Server

    Estelle Spirig

    2012-01-01

    25 January 2012 - Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador R. Jansons, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Latvia to the United Nations Office at Geneva, signing the guest book with CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi.

  18. 12 December 2013 - Sir Konstantin Novoselov, Nobel Prize in Physics 2010, signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis; visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Spokesperson D. Charlton; in the LHC tunnel with Technology Department Head F. Bordry. I. Antoniadis, CERN Theory Group Leader, accompanies throughout.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    12 December 2013 - Sir Konstantin Novoselov, Nobel Prize in Physics 2010, signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis; visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Spokesperson D. Charlton; in the LHC tunnel with Technology Department Head F. Bordry. I. Antoniadis, CERN Theory Group Leader, accompanies throughout.

  19. 6 November 2013 - Permanent Representative of Chile to the United Nations Office and Other international organizations in Geneva Ambassador J. Balmaceda Serigos signing the guest book with Adviser for Latin America J. Salicio Diez; visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Spokesperson D. Charlton (Spouse, Son and First Secretary present).

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    6 November 2013 - Permanent Representative of Chile to the United Nations Office and Other international organizations in Geneva Ambassador J. Balmaceda Serigos signing the guest book with Adviser for Latin America J. Salicio Diez; visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Spokesperson D. Charlton (Spouse, Son and First Secretary present).

  20. 28 June 2012 - Ambassador I. Piperkov, Permanent Representative of Bulgaria to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva and Spouse visiting CMS experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi and CERN Control Centre with M. Benedikt.Senior physicist L. Litov accompanies the delegation throughout.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    28 June 2012 - Ambassador I. Piperkov, Permanent Representative of Bulgaria to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva and Spouse visiting CMS experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi and CERN Control Centre with M. Benedikt.Senior physicist L. Litov accompanies the delegation throughout.