WorldWideScience

Sample records for international standard organization

  1. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15189.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Frank; Maurer, Caroline; Friedberg, Richard C

    2017-09-01

    The College of American Pathologists (CAP) offers a suite of laboratory accreditation programs, including one specific to accreditation to the international organization for standardization (ISO) 15189 standard for quality management specific to medical laboratories. CAP leaders offer an overview of ISO 15189 including its components, internal audits, occurrence management, document control, and risk management. The authors provide a comparison of its own ISO 15189 program, CAP 15189, to the CAP Laboratory Accreditation Program. The authors conclude with why laboratories should use ISO 15189. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine.

  2. National and International Standardization (International Organization for Standardization and European Committee for Standardization Relevant for Sustainability in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Morbiducci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability in construction has a short history in terms of principles, standardizations and applications. From the Brundtland Report “Our Common Future”, a new vision of the resource deficits, climate impacts and the social responsibility gave growth to the idea of sustainability also in design and construction. Consequently, in around 2000, the international and national organizations for standardization started to develop standards for the application of sustainable principles. This paper gives an overview of existing and planned standards, and examples on how to use them as a framework for the development of methods and tools for assessment.

  3. Current situation of International Organization for Standardization/Technical Committee 249 international standards of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Qi; Wang, Yue-Xi; Shi, Nan-Nan; Han, Xue-Jie; Lu, Ai-Ping

    2017-05-01

    To review the current situation and progress of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) international standards, standard projects and proposals in International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/ technical committee (TC) 249. ISO/TC 249 standards and standard projects on the ISO website were searched and new standard proposals information were collected from ISO/TC 249 National Mirror Committee in China. Then all the available data were summarized in 5 closely related items, including proposed time, proposed country, assigned working group (WG), current stage and classifification. In ISO/TC 249, there were 2 international standards, 18 standard projects and 24 new standard proposals proposed in 2014. These 44 standard subjects increased year by year since 2011. Twenty-nine of them were proposed by China, 15 were assigned to WG 4, 36 were in preliminary and preparatory stage and 8 were categorized into 4 fifields, 7 groups and sub-groups based on International Classifification Standards. A rapid and steady development of international standardization in TCM can be observed in ISO/TC 249.

  4. Experience with nuclear safety standards development in non-governmental international organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1985-01-01

    Besides the IAEA as a 'governmental' organization dealing with basic safety recommendations addressed primarily to the national regulatory bodies in developing countries, two closely related non-governmental international standards organizations have gained extensive experience in the field of nuclear standardization. Over more than 25 years since their formation, both (a) the International Organization for Standardization's (ISO) Technical Committee 85 'Nuclear Energy', in particular in its Sub-Committee 3 'Reactor Technology and Safety' and (b) the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) Technical Committee 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' have published numerous standards. A brief review is given of these, draft standards, and other documents planned to become international standards. Many of them deal with rather specialized topics typical for 'industrial' standards such as standardized procedures, instruments, methods, materials, test methods, terminology, and signs and symbols, but others are directly related to more basic safety issues. In some areas such as quality assurance, seismic aspects of siting and terminology, there has been in the past occasional overlap in the activities of the NUSS programme, IEC and ISO. Letters of Understanding have since 1981 contributed to clarifying the borderlines and to avoiding redundant efforts. Also, some experiences and problems are described arising, for example, from the harmonization of different national safety philosophies and traditions into universally accepted international standards, and the transfer of international standards into national standards systems. Finally, based on a recent comprehensive compilation of some 3300 nuclear standards and standards projects, an attempt is made to present a cost/benefit analysis and an outlook on future developments. (author)

  5. The legitimacy of transnational private governance arrangements related to nanotechnologies: the case of international organization for standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa

    2015-01-01

    The core of this thesis consists of developing a comprehensive empirical assessment on the legitimacy of nanotechnology related transnational private governance arrangements (TPGAs), explored through the case study of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee on

  6. International standards - vector for good practices in broadcasting organizations in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    GHERGHEL Monica

    2009-01-01

    Joining the professional standards (financial audit, evaluation etc.) – required – with the ISO management standards (quality, environment, occupational safety and health, etc.) – considered voluntary – support organizations in meeting mandatory requirements and market penetration. Fulfilling the standards, the organizations can develop an effective strategy to reduce costs and enhance business reputation.

  7. Persian Agricultural Journals and Standard: Degree of Compatibility of Persian Scientific Agricultural Journals with International Standard Organization (ISO Publishing standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Gilvari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Standard is a collection of recipes, guidelines or recommendations which use in production, creating or making of goods, products, documents or special resources. Extent of adaptation of Persian Agricultural scientific journals which are publishing in Iran with ISO publishing standards was evaluated in this research. The information items which were necessary to be presented in different sections of Agricultural scientific journals were examined. Items which were needed to be present in cover page, content, title page, running title, and endnote, abstract, first page of an article, references and its structure were among the information items. 47 Agricultural scientific journals were publishing until February 2009 consisted of the research population. Descriptive survey method is used. Results showed the adaption rate with ISO standards in research population was 53.47 percent. There was no private publisher which publishes agricultural scientific journals. The extent of adaptation with ISO standards was high in journal sections such as abstracts and keywords.

  8. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations. Books Trade Associations, United States and Canada; International and Foreign Book Trade Associations; National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Standards; Calendar, 2003-2012; Acronyms; Index of Organizations; Subject Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes two lists: one of book trade associations in the United States and Canada, and one of international and foreign book trade associations. Concludes with National Information Standards Organization (NISO) standards; calendar, 2003-2012; acronyms; index of organizations; and subject index. (LRW)

  9. Radiation safety: New international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    This article highlights an important result of this work for the international harmonization of radiation safety: specifically, it present an overview of the forthcoming International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - the so-called BSS. They have been jointly developed by six organizations - the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

  10. Organizational leadership: A study on the affects of certification to International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowart, Jewel S.

    Compliance to requirements of ISO is an important leadership problem for the International Aerospace Quality Group (IAQG) and the Aviation, Space and Defense (AS&D) companies. Furthermore, the IAQG seeks to understand the valuation of ISO/AS9100 requirements (2009), audit practices, management functions, business performance, customer satisfaction, and potential future concepts for the standard to assure quality. Since the release of the AS9100C total certification growth surpassed 1,100,000 organizations in 2010 with ISO 9001 series adoption and implementation governing business operations (ASQ, 2012b; ISO, 2011; Bernardo, Llach, & Marimon, 2011). Historians such as Crosby, Juran, Deming, and others established the foundation for quality assurance. Several researchers explored the issues which complicate overall benefits of ISO certification (Iwaro & Mwasha, 2012; Karthi et al., 2012; Sampaio et al., 2009). This study examined the effects on AS&D industries from ISO compliance to identify the implications (of ever-changing requirements) through an online survey of 15,000 practitioners. The research illuminated how ISO affects AS&D industries with current and future requirements for certification. The data showed that 75% of survey respondents report implementation of the AS9100C requirements still has benefits that outweigh the cost. Findings suggest that AS&D industries perceive significant value in the AS9100C document as part of the overall ISO 9000 series. In general, the comments from the survey can provide insight into the affects of ISO certification. The study concludes by recommending continued research to learn of further impacts from ISO certification within AS&D industries to improve the AS9100 document requirements for quality management systems.

  11. International Construction Measurement Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The International Construction Measurement Standard Coalition (the Coalition) was formed on 17 June 2015 after meeting at the International Monetary Fund in Washington DC, USA. The Coalition, comprising the organisations listed below at the date of publication, aims to bring about consistency in construction cost reporting standards internationally. This is achieved by the creation and adoption of this ICMS, an agreed international standard for the structuring and presentation of cost reports...

  12. International radiofrequency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lincoln, J.

    2001-01-01

    Of the various radiofrequency standards in use around the world, many are based on or similar to the Guidelines published by ICNIRP (The International Commission on Non-ionising Radiation Protection). This organisation is a working group operating in co-operation with the Environmental Health division of the World Health Organisation (WHO). This paper presents a very brief overview of current international standards, beginning with a summary of the salient points of the ICNIRP Guidelines. It should be remembered that these are guidelines only and do not exist as a separate standard. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  13. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...

  14. Standards and criteria of international organizations concerning agricultural aspects of radiological emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.I.; Hance, R.J.; Crick, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear facilities are not generally located in densely populated zones, but usually in rural rather agricultural environment. The Chernobyl accident has shown that farming activities may be affected over hundreds if not thousands kilometers from the accident site. Emergency plans must be implemented in order to trigger countermeasures aiming at reducing agricultural product contamination even in countries having not nuclear facilities or programmes of their own. In Introduction the paper presents the principal objectives to be taken into account by the governmental authorities (at central and local level) after an agricultural countermeasure strategy has been elaborated. The second section deals with the development of criteria and intervening levels. On the basis of the new Recommendations of International Commission on Radiological Protection and the Guidelines concerning the Intervention Levels for Protecting the Public in the Event of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency issued by an IAEA Consultative Group, IAEA and FAO have published in 1994 common directives concerning the measures to be taken at agricultural level in case of an accidental release of radioactivity. The section 3 presents the concepts and criteria for selecting efficient and appropriate countermeasures. It discusses the importance of planning and intervention preparations, the management of accidents and the proper protection measures. The generic activity levels requiring intervention for withdraw from market of alimentary products are presented in the Section 4. The paper discusses also specific level s of intervention (for milk and meat for instance adopted in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia) as well as future prospects

  15. International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Cambridge Filter Test (CFT) Smoking Regimen Data Comparisons in Tobacco Product Marketing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Changyu; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the differences in TNCO (tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide) smoke yields generated under the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Cambridge Filter Test (CFT) smoking regimens. Twenty-nine commercial cigarette products from the US marketplace were acquired in 2015 and tested by measuring the TNCO smoke yields generated under these 2 nonintense smoking regimens. Data obtained demonstrated a linear relationship between the TNCO yields produced under the 2 smoking regimens (R 2 > 0.99). TNCO yields produced by each product were higher under the CFT smoking regimen than the ISO smoking regimen. We found that tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields were consistently 10% to 13% higher under the CFT smoking regimen than under the ISO smoking regimen. This strong correlation indicates that the 2 smoking regimens can be used to apply a correlation correction to CFT TNCO data and allow its comparison to ISO TNCO data in tobacco product marketing applications.

  16. Evaluating the transmitted vibration to operator′s hands hand and effect of protective gloves in real condition, based on International Standard Organization 5349 standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of this research was an evaluation of hand-held tools vibration acceleration such as circular saw and drill transmitted to operator′s and also to determine the role of glove in vibration reduction of those tools. Materials and Methods: In this study, Bruel and Kjaer Vibration meter with a model of 2231 and its analyzer, 2522, along three types of gloves have been used. Accelerometer transducer installed according to International Standard Organization (ISO 5349:1-2 standards in the case of the operator handles the hand-held tool. In next step, the transducer was placed inside the glove. Results: The results show the most accelerated vibration in axis Y for circular saw while working on Plexiglas. All of the used gloves show a reduction of vibration transmission from tools to hands. Glove of C grouped had a reduction of vibration less than two other groups. Conclusion: Based on ISO 5349-1, 10% of workers who are working with circular saw and drill without using glove will be affiliated to white finger after about 7-12 years. As a whole, the results showed that the anti-vibration gloves should be tested in real conditions before using them.

  17. International standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.

    2011-01-01

    International standards for radiation protection are issued by many bodies. These bodies differ to a large extent in their organisation, in the way the members are designated and in the way the international standards are authorised by the issuing body. Large differences also exist in the relevance of the international standards. One extreme is that the international standards are mandatory in the sense that no conflicting national standard may exist, the other extreme is that national and international standards conflict and there is no need to resolve that conflict. Between these extremes there are some standards or documents of relevance, which are not binding by any formal law or contract but are de facto binding due to the scientific reputation of the issuing body. This paper gives, for radiation protection, an overview of the main standards issuing bodies, the international standards or documents of relevance issued by them and the relevance of these documents. (authors)

  18. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  19. Neurology and international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J

    2013-07-23

    A growing number of international stakeholders are engaged with neurologic diseases. This article provides a brief overview of important international stakeholders in the practice of neurology, including global disease-specific programs, United Nations agencies, governmental agencies with international influence, nongovernmental organizations, international professional organizations, large private donors, private-public partnerships, commercial interests, armed forces, and universities and colleges. The continued engagement of neurologists is essential for the growing number of international organizations that can and should incorporate neurologic disease into their global agendas.

  20. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

  1. Spillover effects of international standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Most studies focus on trade effects and organizational outcomes of international standards, neglecting the effect of standards on employees. Using a two-year matched firm–employee panel dataset, this paper finds that the application of standards improves work conditions in small and medium....... The study reveals unexpected benefits from certification, calling for higher investment in standards....

  2. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics...

  3. International standardization in the field of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, K.

    1991-01-01

    The ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is an international federation of national standards bodies. Its activities increasingly take health and environmental effects into account; in the future, standardization will also focus on identification systems that could facilitate recycling and proper disposal. Three technical committees in particular are concerned with standardization as it relates to air, water and soil quality. Other ISO work concerns product-oriented standardization, e.g. in the fields of fire protection equipment, refrigeration, thermal insulation, fibre-reinforced cement, and material and equipment used in the petroleum and natural gas industries. (author)

  4. Standards: An international framework for nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versteeg, J.

    2000-01-01

    The IAEA, uniquely among international organizations concerned with the use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy, has statutory functions to establish safety standards and to provide for their application in Member States. The IAEA also contributes towards another major element of the 'global safety culture', namely the establishment of legally binding international agreements on safety related issues. (author)

  5. China and IEC international standardization activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Zhongmin; Guo Chenguang

    2006-01-01

    @@ International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), one of the currently worlswide largest and most authoritative international standardization organizations,is specialized in developing and promulgating international standards for the electric and electronic fields, which are widespread adopted through out the world and play an important role in the international trade of electric and electronic products. Moreover, according to the 2005 statistics by the World Bank, the population of countries participating in the IEC activities accounts for 92% of the world total and their trade volume accounts for 95% of the global total.

  6. International Organizations and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Antras, Pol

    2010-01-01

    The three central primitives of international trade theory are consumer preferences, factor endowments, and the production technologies that allow firms to transform factors of production into consumer goods. A limitation of traditional trade theory, however, is that the specification of technology treats the mapping between factors of production and final goods as a black box. In practice, the decisions of agents in organizations determine this mapping. Recently, international trade economis...

  7. Importance of international standards on hydrogen technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, T.K.; Gingras, S.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation provided some basic information regarding standards and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It also explained the importance of standardization activities, particularly ISO/TC 197 which applies to hydrogen technologies. Standards are established by consensus. They define the minimum requirements that will ensure that products and services are reliable and effective. Standards contribute to the elimination of technical barriers to trade (TBT). The harmonization of standards around the world is desirable in a free trade environment. The influence of the TBT on international standardization was discussed with particular reference to the objectives of ISO/TC 197 hydrogen technologies. One of the priorities for ISO/TC 197 is a hydrogen fuel infrastructure which includes refuelling stations, fuelling connectors, and storage technologies for gaseous and liquid hydrogen. Other priorities include an agreement between the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the ISO, in particular the IEC/TC 105 and ISO/TC 197 for the development of fuel cell standards. The international standards that have been published thus far include ISO 13984:1999 for liquid hydrogen, land vehicle fuelling system interface, and ISO 14687:1999 for hydrogen fuel product specification. Standards are currently under development for: liquid hydrogen; airport hydrogen fuelling facilities; gaseous hydrogen blends; basic considerations for the safety of hydrogen systems; gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and gaseous hydrogen for land vehicle filling connectors. It was concluded that the widespread use of hydrogen is dependent on international standardization

  8. INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    across borders led many economies to adopt the. International ... Keywords: Reporting Standards, Value, Relevance, Earnings, Management ..... nal of Applied Economics and Business Re- search ... accounting in emerging markets: Evidence.

  9. Digital forensic standards: international progress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the explosion of digital crime, digital forensics is more often applied. The digital forensic discipline developed rather rapidly, but up to date very little international standardization with regard to processes, procedures or management has...

  10. International Labor Organization's 75th Anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansenne, Michel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This special issue contains eight articles that examine the following: social justice, global employment issues, International Labor Organization (ILO) standards, social security, training, tripartism, the 1994 ILO conference, and labor standards--all from a global perspective. (JOW)

  11. Towards an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available in a better user experience. Standards compliance allows for the separation of concerns: HTML for content, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) for presentation and JavaScript for dynamic behaviour. Standards compliant documents are also...) and cascading style sheets through CSS (CSS n.d.), whilst the JavaScript specification has been standardised by Ecma International (another standards organisation for information and communication systems), in the form of EcmaScript (Ecma...

  12. Multiple internal standard normalization for improving HS-SPME-GC-MS quantitation in virgin olive oil volatile organic compounds (VOO-VOCs) profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Martina; Migliorini, Marzia; Cherubini, Chiara; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Calamai, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The commercial value of virgin olive oils (VOOs) strongly depends on their classification, also based on the aroma of the oils, usually evaluated by a panel test. Nowadays, a reliable analytical method is still needed to evaluate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and support the standard panel test method. To date, the use of HS-SPME sampling coupled to GC-MS is generally accepted for the analysis of VOCs in VOOs. However, VOO is a challenging matrix due to the simultaneous presence of: i) compounds at ppm and ppb concentrations; ii) molecules belonging to different chemical classes and iii) analytes with a wide range of molecular mass. Therefore, HS-SPME-GC-MS quantitation based upon the use of external standard method or of only a single internal standard (ISTD) for data normalization in an internal standard method, may be troublesome. In this work a multiple internal standard normalization is proposed to overcome these problems and improving quantitation of VOO-VOCs. As many as 11 ISTDs were used for quantitation of 71 VOCs. For each of them the most suitable ISTD was selected and a good linearity in a wide range of calibration was obtained. Except for E-2-hexenal, without ISTD or with an unsuitable ISTD, the linear range of calibration was narrower with respect to that obtained by a suitable ISTD, confirming the usefulness of multiple internal standard normalization for the correct quantitation of VOCs profile in VOOs. The method was validated for 71 VOCs, and then applied to a series of lampante virgin olive oils and extra virgin olive oils. In light of our results, we propose the application of this analytical approach for routine quantitative analyses and to support sensorial analysis for the evaluation of positive and negative VOOs attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. International organizations as orchestrators

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Kenneth W

    2015-01-01

    International Organizations as Orchestrators reveals how IOs leverage their limited authority and resources to increase their effectiveness, power, and autonomy from states. By 'orchestrating' intermediaries - including NGOs - IOs can shape and steer global governance without engaging in hard, direct regulation. This volume is organized around a theoretical model that emphasizes voluntary collaboration and support. An outstanding group of scholars investigate the significance of orchestration across key issue areas, including trade, finance, environment and labor, and in leading organizations, including the GEF, G20, WTO, EU, Kimberley Process, UNEP and ILO. The empirical studies find that orchestration is pervasive. They broadly confirm the theoretical hypotheses while providing important new insights, especially that states often welcome IO orchestration as achieving governance without creating strong institutions. This volume changes our understanding of the relationships among IOs, nonstate actors and sta...

  14. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide

  15. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international

  16. International standards in mitigating trade risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A B

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards.

  17. A Universal Standard for the Validation of Blood Pressure Measuring Devices: Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation/European Society of Hypertension/International Organization for Standardization (AAMI/ESH/ISO) Collaboration Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Alpert, Bruce; Mieke, Stephan; Asmar, Roland; Atkins, Neil; Eckert, Siegfried; Frick, Gerhard; Friedman, Bruce; Graßl, Thomas; Ichikawa, Tsutomu; Ioannidis, John P; Lacy, Peter; McManus, Richard; Murray, Alan; Myers, Martin; Palatini, Paolo; Parati, Gianfranco; Quinn, David; Sarkis, Josh; Shennan, Andrew; Usuda, Takashi; Wang, Jiguang; Wu, Colin O; O'Brien, Eoin

    2018-03-01

    In the past 30 years, several organizations, such as the US Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), the British Hypertension Society, the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) Working Group on Blood Pressure (BP) Monitoring, and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), have developed protocols for clinical validation of BP measuring devices. However, it is recognized that science, as well as patients, consumers, and manufacturers, would be best served if all BP measuring devices were assessed for accuracy according to an agreed single validation protocol that had global acceptance. Therefore, an international initiative was taken by the AAMI, ESH, and ISO experts who agreed to develop a universal standard for device validation. This statement presents the key aspects of a validation procedure, which were agreed by the AAMI, ESH, and ISO representatives as the basis for a single universal validation protocol. As soon as the AAMI/ESH/ISO standard is fully developed, this will be regarded as the single universal standard and will replace all other previous standards/protocols. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc., and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

  18. Arrangement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization concerning the establishment and operation of a network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO), recognizing that they have been co-operating in the operation of a network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (the Network), established pursuant to a Working Arrangement, dated 5 April 1976; and desiring to continue this co-operation in accordance with Article V of the relationship agreement concluded by IAEA and WHO in 1959; hereby enter a new arrangement to guide their work in operating the Network and providing assistance, when needed, to individual Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs). The purpose of this Arrangement is to set forth responsibilities of IAEA and WHO in the operation and support of the Network and to establish criteria for SSDLs

  19. on International Financial Reporting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Łazarowicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses and assesses proposals for changes concerning the objective of financial reportingbased on International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, presented in comments on the exposuredraft of the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting (2015. The majority of respondents thinkthat the objective of financial reporting should give more prominence to the importance of providinginformation about management’s stewardship. Moreover, some respondents suggest introducing thedefinition of stewardship into the Conceptual Framework and presenting implications of shifts in theobjective of financial reporting for the future standard setting and for preparing financial statements.Based on the analysis of comment letters and the review of accounting literature, the conclusion is thatthe objective of financial reporting should be changed. It is, however, disputable, if stewardship should bea separate object. There is too little research on the relation between the stewardship and decisionusefulnessobjectives. The findings of this research could show accounting standard-setters the potentialtrade-offs and conflicts between these objectives.

  20. ISO: international standards development for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1981-01-01

    The importance of internationally recognized standards for nuclear technology and safety is rapidly increasing for technical as well as economical and political reasons such as public acceptance and nuclear technology transfer to developing countries. The need for such standards is also evident because of the large number of nuclear installations sited close to international borders, and the export of nuclear installations from relatively few supplier countries to a large number of user countries. It is the purpose of this report to describe briefly the history, organizational structures and procedures, goals, accomplishments, problems, and future needs of the relevant activities of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO is composed of the partly governmental, partly non-governmental national standards bodies of 86 countries including China. The work of its Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' is mostly concerned with industrial applications, contractual aspects and international communication, for the benefit of both developed and developing countries. It works in close liaison with IAEA, which develops Codes and Guides addressed mainly to the regulatory aspects of nuclear power plants in developing countries. ISO/TC 85 has four sub-committees dealing with: (a) Terminology, Definitions, Units and Symbols (Secretariat USA, four working groups (WGs)); (b) Radiation Protection (Secretariat France, ten WGs); (c) Power Reactor Technology (Secretariat Sweden, nine WGs); (d) Nuclear Fuel Technology (Secretariat F.R. Germany, seven WGs). (author)

  1. Chromogenic media for the detection and/or enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes - results of trials performed by a working group of the International Organization for Standardization - ISO/TC 34/SC 9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, R.R.; Hazeleger, W.C.

    2007-01-01

    The solid selective media PALCAM and Oxford agar originally described in the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) Standard 11290 part 1 and part 2 "Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - Horizontal method for the detection and enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes", suffer

  2. Internal Control Organization Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Dorin Lenghel

    2013-01-01

    Internal control represents the totality of policies and procedures adopted by management, which contribute: to the fulfilment of managerial objectives, to the prevention and detection of frauds or errors, to the accuracy and exhaustiveness of accounting entries, as well as to the preparation in due course of financial accounting information. Internal control represents a managerial instrument which assures the fulfilment of objectives of the entity, being an ongoing process in which administ...

  3. International organization at war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    number of practices for their power advantage to take its full effect. The article also illustrates how looking at practices helps to explain policy decisions, such as NATO’s decision to engage in Afghanistan, the establishment of an International Security and Assistance Force (ISAF) strategy...... and the wording of policy papers. By studying a case of military diplomacy, the article contributes to the emerging scholarship aimed at bridging the gap between diplomatic studies and practice-based approaches to International Relations....

  4. International and national organizations within nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, S.

    1975-03-01

    A survey is given of the organization, objective and action of international and national organizations working with nuclear energy. Five types of organizations are treated: international governmental organizations, international non-governmental organizations, international organizations dealing with ionizing radiation, nordic organizations, and Swedish organizations. Special attention is payed to the Swedish participation in the different organizations. (K.K)

  5. ITDB Cooperation With International Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    IAEA illicit trafficking database cooperates with many international organizations. Among these organizations are Interpol, Universal Postal Union,and World Customs Organization. Other organizations are Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN-Department of Disarmament Affairs and UN office for Drug and Crime. The cooperation with Interpol involves consultations on issues of training and technical assistance and other matters of common interest.

  6. Working towards accreditation by the International Standards Organization 15189 Standard: how to validate an in-house developed method an example of lead determination in whole blood by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Hejl, Carine; Ramirez, Jose Manuel; Vest, Philippe; Chianea, Denis; Renard, Christophe

    2014-09-01

    Laboratories working towards accreditation by the International Standards Organization (ISO) 15189 standard are required to demonstrate the validity of their analytical methods. The different guidelines set by various accreditation organizations make it difficult to provide objective evidence that an in-house method is fit for the intended purpose. Besides, the required performance characteristics tests and acceptance criteria are not always detailed. The laboratory must choose the most suitable validation protocol and set the acceptance criteria. Therefore, we propose a validation protocol to evaluate the performance of an in-house method. As an example, we validated the process for the detection and quantification of lead in whole blood by electrothermal absorption spectrometry. The fundamental parameters tested were, selectivity, calibration model, precision, accuracy (and uncertainty of measurement), contamination, stability of the sample, reference interval, and analytical interference. We have developed a protocol that has been applied successfully to quantify lead in whole blood by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). In particular, our method is selective, linear, accurate, and precise, making it suitable for use in routine diagnostics.

  7. The international dimensions of nuclear safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reviews the activities of the major international organisations in the field of nuclear safety standards; the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Commission of the European Communities. Each organisation encourages the concept of international nuclear safety standards. After Chernobyl, there were calls for some form of binding international nuclear safety standards. Many Member States of IAEA accepted these Codes as a suitable basis for formulating their national safety standards, but the prevailing view was that voluntary compliance with the Codes was the preferred path. With few reactor vendors in a limited international market, the time may be approaching when an internationally licensable nuclear reactor is needed. Commonly accepted safety standards would be a prerequisite. The paper discusses the issues involved and the complexities of standards making in the international arena. (author)

  8. International Organizations and Environmental Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik; Kaiser, Wolfram

    . This volume is the first to comprehensively explore the environmental activities of professional communities, NGOs, regional bodies, the United Nations, and other international organizations during the twentieth century. It follows their efforts to shape debates about environmental degradation, develop...

  9. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement...

  10. International energy: Research organizations, 1986--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, P.; Jordan, S. (eds.) (USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The International Energy: Research Organizations publication contains the standardized names of energy research organizations used in energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). This publication identifies current organizations doing research in all energy fields, standardizes the format for recording these organization names in bibliographic citations, assigns a numeric code to facilitate data entry, and identifies report number prefixes assigned by these organizations. These research organization names may be used in searching the databases Energy Science Technology'' on DIALOG and Energy'' on STN International. These organization names are also used in USDOE databases on the Integrated Technical Information System. Research organizations active in the past five years, as indicated by database records, were identified to form this publication. This directory includes approximately 34,000 organizations that reported energy-related literature from 1986 to 1990 and updates the DOE Energy Data Base: Corporate Author Entries.

  11. International Financial Reporting Standards and differential reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Robin; Collis, Jill

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the international development of financial reporting standards for smaller entities from a UK perspective. It examines the three elements of differential reporting: abbreviated accounts, the Financial Reporting Standard for Smaller Entities and exemption from the statutory audit.

  12. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT INTERNAL STANDARDS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    internal standard addition method was evaluated with the variation in solution ... background emissions involved in generating accurate and reliable .... The most suitable atomic and ionic wavelengths (λ) for the internal standards and precious ..... spectral interferences occur and using validation parameters is currently ...

  13. The political economy of international accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perry, J.; Nolke, A.

    2006-01-01

    On 1 January 2005, all stock exchange listed companies in the European Union (EU) began using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) written by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). This article argues that the IASB's introduction of fair value accounting reflects and

  14. INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    (IFRS) on the quality of financial reporting in Nigeria. The study utilises a ... cial reporting by public interest entities world- wide. In Nigeria ... Keywords: Reporting Standards, Value, Relevance, Earnings, Management ... of the. IFRS, the adoption is wrought with challenges. ... and transitional economies still have ineffective.

  15. Simultaneous validation of the SunTech CT40 automated blood pressure measurement device by the 1993 British Hypertension Society protocol and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation/International Organization for Standardization 81060-2: 2013 standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo Friz, Hernan; Punzi, Veronica; Petri, Francesco; Orlandi, Riccardo; Maggiolini, Daniele; Polo Friz, Melisa; Primitz, Laura; Vighi, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to perform a simultaneous, third-party, independent validation of the oscillometric SunTech CT40 device for blood pressure (BP) measurement, according to the 1993 protocol of the British Hypertension Society and the standard of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI)/the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 81060-2:2013. Patient recruitment, study procedures, and data analysis followed the recommendations stated by the protocols. The study was approved by the institutional review board. A total of 94 participants were included, 52 (55.3%) women, mean±SD age: 63.1±18.0 years, mean±SD arm circumference: 35.0±9.0 cm. The average of observers' entry BPs was 146.9±37.2 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 82.2±22.1 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Differences between the standard measurement and the test device within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, for the better observer, were 79.4, 96.5, and 100.0% for SBP and 82.6, 97.5, and 100.0% for DBP, respectively. The mean±SD differences between the readings obtained using the test device and those obtained by the observers (AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 standard criterion 1) were 0.3±5.0 mmHg (SBP) and -0.8±4.3 mmHg (DBP), and the mean±SD differences between average of reference readings and average of test device readings in each patient (criterion 2) were 0.3±3.9 and -0.8±3.5 mmHg for SBP and DBP, respectively. The CT40 BP device achieved A/A grade of the British Hypertension Society protocol and fulfilled the requirements (criteria 1 and 2) of the AAMI/ISO standard. CT40 can be recommended for BP measurement in adults.

  16. The International harmonisation process of Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Susanne; Lämmle, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Background: Growth in international trade and capital flows has triggered a rising economic integration. Because of these developments there has been an international homogenising effect upon many customs, practices and institutions. In business life it led among other things to a desire to harmonise Accounting Standards among countries. Purpose: Our purpose is to answer the question: What is the international harmonisation process of Accounting Standards, what is its status quo and how impo...

  17. Observations on International Labor Standards and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Alan B. Krueger

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical arguments for and against linking international labor standards to trade. Based on theory alone it is difficult to generalize about the effect of labor standards on efficiency and equity. Some economists have argued that international labor standards are merely disguised protectionism. An evaluation of determinants of support for legislation that would ban imports to the United States of goods made with child labor provides little support for the prevailing ...

  18. Nuclear energy and international organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemann, B.

    1975-01-01

    The historical perspectives of the international organizations' role concerning the development and spreading of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, taking into account the national interests within and towards these organizations, are portrayed. The difference in political status between the so-called nuclear and non-nuclear States, lodged in Articles I and II of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is an important factor. The effects so far of these differences in status on the interest of nuclear States to participate in organizations and on factors which might possibly lead to conflict between these two groups are presented. The author skirts the cooperation between organizations (international bureaucracies, group-formation of states). (HP/LN) [de

  19. International Standards on stability of digital prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, Peter Z

    2010-01-01

    The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide recognized standardizing body which has responsibility for standards on permanence of digital prints. This paper is an update on the progress made to date by ISO in writing test methods in this area. Three technologies are involved, namely ink jet, dye diffusion thermal transfer (dye-sublimation) and electrophotography. Two types of test methods are possible, namely comparative tests and predictive tests. To date a comparative test on water fastness has been published and final balloting is underway on a comparative test on humidity fastness. Predictive tests are being finalized on thermal stability and pollution susceptibility. The test method on thermal stability is intended to predict the print life during normal aging. One of the testing concerns is that some prints do not show significant image change in practical testing times. The test method on pollution susceptibility only deals with ozone and assumes that the reciprocity law applies. This law assumes that a long time under a low pollutant concentration is equivalent to a short time under the high concentration used in the test procedure. Longer term studies include a predictive test for light stability and the preparation of a material specification. The latter requires a decision about the proper colour target to be used and what constitutes an unacceptable colour change. Moreover, a specification which gives a predictive life is very dependent upon the conditions the print encounters and will only apply to specific levels of temperature, ozone and light.

  20. Thirty years of international nuclear standards in ISO and IEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1991-01-01

    Of over 4700 nuclear and radiation protection standards, laws, regulations, recommendations, etc., which have been issued by 52 countries and several governmental international organizations such as IAEA, or non-government organizations such as ICRP, ICRU, ISO and IEC, more than 90% are national, and more than half of those of a non-regulatory nature. Both number and importance of international standards are, however, increasing. The two most important non-governmental international standards organizations are the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which founded a Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' with several Sub-Committees in 1957, and the closely associated International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) with its TC 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' formed in 1960. There are over 20 member countries actively participating in the work in each of them, with additional observer countries and liaison to the relevant other international organizations. A brief review is given on some of the experience which has been gained by ISO/TC 85 and IEC/TC 45, and its work program and accomplishments, considering in particular recent developments. It covers nuclear safety and instrumentation, radiation protection, and the nuclear fuel cycle, as well as interface issues including definitions and terminology, interaction of the activities with the work of other national and international bodies, etc. Some problem areas are also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  1. National treatment in international trade: National law and international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the principle of national treatment, namely one of the basic principles of international trade. The objective is to determine its outreach and contents set in the forms of international trade organising, primarily in the World Trade Organization, from a legal perspective, naturally, all in the context of the Serbian law. The analysis that has been carried out indicates that there is an obvious intention of our legislators to harmonise in principle our legislation with the WTO requirements and standards, which are incomplete themselves and cause disputes that are not resolved in the practice of dispute resolving either entirely or consistently. In our law, a step forward has been made in relation to the situation from the previous relevant legislation, because the application of this principle is extended not only to trade with goods but also to trade with services, and to industrial property rights. However, in the most significant, basic field, namely trade with goods, it is still being done in a general way, by simplifying the entire topic and bringing it down only to protection against discrimination and neglecting the sphere of protectionism. Such acting does not include all the complexity of this matter and it is not entirely harmonised with the WTO requirements. However, a good side of such an approach is that it gives the state more freedom for acting in this sphere, which may be acceptable in the transition period until full membership of Serbia in this organization.

  2. International Electrotechnical Commission standards and French material control standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furet, J.; Weill, J.

    1978-01-01

    There are reported the international standards incorporated into the IEC Subcommitee 45 A (Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation) and the national standards elaborated by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA, Group of normalized control equipment, the degree of application of those being reported on the base design, call of bids and exploitation of nuclear power plants. (J.E. de C)

  3. International organizations and crisis management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsson, E.-K.; Verbeek, J.A.; Reinalda, B.

    2013-01-01

    In times of crisis, international organizations (IOs) are often called upon for help. Such crises may have both domestic and transnational features. In 2012 the domestic revolt in Syria, which had started the previous year, escalated and the United Nations (UN) was asked to help work towards a

  4. International Organizations and Organizational Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetterlein, Antje; Moschella, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to account for varieties of organizational change. In particular, we contend that in order to explain change in international organizations (IOs) we cannot simply dichotomize between change and the lack thereof. Rather, change is best conceptualized as made up of two...... in the field helps to account for the speed of change (slow vs. rapid), whereas the openness of the organization to the inputs coming from the field helps to explain the scope of change (incremental vs. radical). We illustrate our argument by comparing the changes in the International Monetary Fund's policies...... dimensions: speed and scope. The combination of the two dimensions leads to a taxonomy with four distinct types of policy change. The paper evaluates the emergence of different types of change by focusing on the relationship between IOs and their fields. Specifically, the position of the organization...

  5. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  6. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B. [Industrial and Biological Section. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Science. P.O. Box 31. Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  7. The international development of forensic science standards - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Wilde, Linzi

    2018-04-16

    Standards establish specifications and procedures designed to ensure products, services and systems are safe, reliable and consistently perform as intended. Standards can be used in the accreditation of forensic laboratories or facilities and in the certification of products and services. In recent years there have been various international activities aiming at developing forensic science standards and guidelines. The most significant initiative currently underway within the global forensic community is the development of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. This paper reviews the main bodies working on standards for forensic science, the processes used and the implications for accreditation. This paper specifically discusses the work of ISO Technical Committee TC272, the future TC272 work program for the development of forensic science standards and associated timelines. Also discussed, are the lessons learnt to date in navigating the complex environment of multi-country stakeholder deliberations in standards development. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. International Standardization of Library and Documentation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation for Documentation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This comparative study of the national and international standards, rules and regulations on library and documentation techniques adopted in various countries was conducted as a preliminary step in determining the minimal bases for facilitating national and international cooperation between documentalists and librarians. The study compares and…

  9. Adoption of International Financial Accounting Reporting Standards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the International Financial Accounting Reporting Standards adoption practices around the world and the way these practices are reflected in the financial statements of companies in different countries. It also examines the incentives/ motivations for the variations in the type of International Financial ...

  10. New Zealand; Financial Sector Assessment Program—Detailed Assessments of Observance of Standards and Codes—International Organization of Securities Commission (IOSCO)—Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates the Observance of Standards and Codes on the International Organization of Securities Commission (IOSCO) Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation for New Zealand. New Zealand equity markets are comparatively small with market capitalization of about 44 percent of GDP. Reflecting a preference for property investment, ownership of New Zealand-listed equities remains mostly in the hands of offshore investors and domestic institutional investors, with only about one...

  11. Internal emitter research and standard setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    The history of the use of data from internal emitter research in the derivation of safety standards is reviewed. At first, observed biological effects were correlated with body burdens or exposure levels. This direct approach is illustrated by detailed accounts of the cases of uranium and plutonium. In the 1950's, when it was decided to provide standards for over 200 isotopes, the direct approach was replaced by a system of calculations. This necessitated changes in internal emitter research programs to provide metabolic data, and the development of models such as Reference Man and the Lung and Gastrointestinal Tract models. The continuing contribution of internal emitter research to standard setting can be seen in the references quoted in the metabolic data section of the new ICRP report (ICRP Publication 30). Present trends suggest a possible return to the direct use of internal emitter effects data for obtaining risk estimates. (U.K.)

  12. European and International Standards on health and safety in welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, A

    2009-01-01

    A number of European and International Standards on health and safety in welding have been published in recent years and work on several more is nearing completion. These standards have been prepared jointly by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The standards development work has mostly been led by CEN/TC 121/SC 9, with excellent technical input from experts within Europe; but work on the revision of published standards, which has recently gathered pace, is now being carried out by ISO/TC 44/SC 9, with greater international involvement. This paper gives an overview of the various standards that have been published, are being revised or are under development in this field of health and safety in welding, seeking to (i) increase international awareness of published standards, (ii) encourage wider participation in health and safety in welding standards work and (iii) obtain feedback and solicit comments on standards that are currently under development or revision. Such an initiative is particularly timely because work is currently in progress on the revision of one of the more important standards in this field, namely EN ISO 10882:2001 Health and safety in welding and allied processes- Sampling of airborne particles and gases in the operator's breathing zone - Part 1: Sampling of airborne particles.

  13. Rapid Ascent From Zero Quality to International Organization for Standardization Accreditation: A Case Study of Hai Duong Preventive Medicine Center in Vietnam, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Cuong Ngoc; Bond, Kyle B; Carvalho, Humberto; Thi Thu, Hien Bui; Nguyen, Thuong; Rush, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    In 2012, the Vietnam Ministry of Health sought to improve the quality of health laboratories by introducing international quality standards. Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA), a year-long, structured, quality improvement curriculum (including projects and mentorship) was piloted in 12 laboratories. Progress was measured using a standardized audit tool (Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation). All 12 pilot laboratories (a mix of hospital and public health) demonstrated improvement; median scores rose from 44% to 78% compliance. The public health laboratory in Hai Duong Province entered the program with the lowest score of the group (28%) yet concluded with the highest score (86%). Five months after the completion of the program, without any additional external support, they were accredited. Laboratory management/staff describe factors key to their success: support from the facility senior management, how-to guidance provided by SLMTA, support from the site mentor, and strong commitment of laboratory staff. Hai Duong preventive medical center is one of only a handful of laboratories to reach accreditation after participation in SLMTA and the only laboratory to do so without additional support. Due to the success seen in Hai Duong and other pilot laboratories, Vietnam has expanded the use of SLMTA. American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Travel to France as Chief US Delegate at a meeting of International Standards Organization ISO/TC-85, ``Nuclear Technology``. Foreign trip report, March 17--March 26, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, R.M.

    1994-04-11

    As overall US Advisor for ISO/TC-85, SC-5, Dr. Westfall met with (1) Work Group 1, ``Measurement Techniques for the Chemical and Physical Characterization of UF{sub 6}, UO{sub 2}, and Mixed Oxide,`` on Monday, March 21, (2) Work Group 5, ``Standardization of Measurement Methods for the Characterization of Solid and Solidified Waste Forms, and for the Corrosion of their Primary Containers,`` on Tuesday, March 22; and (3) the full Subcommittee-5 on Wednesday, March 23. The status of work by all seven work groups in SC-5 was reported. Those having to do with nuclear fuel transportation (WG-4: UF, Containers, WG-9: Cask Trunnions, and WG-10: Cask Confinement) either have approved standards or drafts at an advanced stage of development. These work group convenors were asked to maintain their membership and establish new work areas in the field of nuclear fuel packaging. Definition of scope for new work is to be done in coordination with the interested staff members of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria. On Thursday, March 24, the Cogema-Marcoule Plant staff hosted the SC-5 members to technical tours of their nuclear fuel reprocessing and waste vitrification and storage facilities.

  15. Organization of internal contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badreddine, A.

    1986-07-01

    The nuclear energy takes a big part in the world's energy production. The nuclear techniques are used in most fields of life. Nevertheless the use of radioactive materials may cause prejudice to human beings by radiation contamination. The International Commission on Radiological Protection gives the general rules and regulations to avoid this danger. In the publication No. 30, the ICRP gives a metabolic model for the respiratory system and values of Annual Limit of Intake. The ALI for inhalation supposes a standard AMAD (Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter) of 1 um. We have measured the AMAD in a laboratory under different conditions of functioning in order to show its variation. Then we have analysed the effect of this variation on the internal contamination monitoring. Thus we have calculated the Effective Committed Dose (ECD), the ALI, then the Derived Investigation Level (DIL) for different values of AMAD for Whole-Body Counting (WBC)

  16. Minimum quality standards and international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of a non-discriminating minimum quality standard (MQS) on trade and welfare when the market is characterized by imperfect competition and asymmetric information. A simple partial equilibrium model of an international Cournot duopoly is presented in which a domes...... prefer different levels of regulation. As a result, international trade disputes are likely to arise even when regulation is non-discriminating....

  17. Implementation of International Standards in Russia's Foreign Trade Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia E. Grigoruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the basic documents of international organizations in recent years, which have become the global standard for the development and improvement of statistics of foreign economic relations of most countries, including the Russian Federation. The article describes the key features of the theory and practice of modern foreign trade statistics in Russia and abroad, with an emphasis on the methodological problems of its main parts - the external trade statistics. It shows their interpretation in the most recent recommendations by UN statistical apparatus and other international organizations; considers a range of problems associated with the implementation of the national statistical practices of countries, including Russia and the countries of the Customs Union, the main international standard of foreign trade statistics - UN document "International Merchandise Trade Statistics". The main attention is paid to methodological issues such as: the criteria for selecting the objects of statistical accounting in accordance with international standards, quantitative and cost parameters of foreign trade statistics, statistical methods and estimates of commodity exports and imports, the problems of comparability of data; to a comparison of international standards in 2010 with documents on key precursor methodology of foreign trade statistics, characterized by the practice of introducing these standards in the foreign trade statistics of Russia and the countries of the Customs Union. The article analyzes the content given in the official statistical manuals of Russia foreign trade and foreign countries, covers the main methodological problems of World Trade in conjunction with the major current international statistical standards - System of National Accounts, Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services and other documents; provides specific data describing the current structure of Russian foreign trade and especially its

  18. The CMMI Product Suite and International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    standards: “2.3 Reference Documents 2.3.1 Applicable ISO /IEC documents, including ISO /IEC 12207 and ISO /IEC 15504.” “3.1 Development User Requirements...related international standards such as ISO 9001:2000, 12207 , 15288 © 2006 by Carnegie Mellon University Page 12 Key Supplements Needed...the Measurement Framework in ISO /IEC 15504; and • the Process Reference Model included in ISO /IEC 12207 . A possible approach has been developed for

  19. International Safety Regulation and Standards for Space Travel and Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, J. N.; Jakhu, R.

    The evolution of air travel has led to the adoption of the 1944 Chicago Convention that created the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), headquartered in Montreal, Canada, and the propagation of aviation safety standards. Today, ICAO standardizes and harmonizes commercial air safety worldwide. Space travel and space safety are still at an early stage of development, and the adoption of international space safety standards and regulation still remains largely at the national level. This paper explores the international treaties and conventions that govern space travel, applications and exploration today and analyzes current efforts to create space safety standards and regulations at the national, regional and global level. Recent efforts to create a commercial space travel industry and to license commercial space ports are foreseen as means to hasten a space safety regulatory process.

  20. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Energy Conservation Code. International Existing Building Code. International Fire Code. International... Code. International Property Maintenance Code. International Residential Code. International Swimming Pool and Spa Code International Wildland-Urban Interface Code. International Zoning Code. ICC Standards...

  1. Data standards for the international virtual observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J Hanisch

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance, which brings together Virtual Observatory Projects from 16 national and international development projects, is to develop, evaluate, test, and agree upon standards for astronomical data formatting, data discovery, and data delivery. In the three years that the IVOA has been in existence, substantial progress has been made on standards for tabular data, imaging data, spectroscopic data, and large-scale databases and on managing the metadata that describe data collections and data access services. In this paper, I describe how the IVOA operates and give my views as to why such a broadly based international collaboration has been able to make such rapid progress.

  2. The Development of Customary International Law by International Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odermatt, Jed

    2017-01-01

    In his Fourth Report on the Identification of Customary International Law (2016), Special Rapporteur Michael Wood confirmed that ‘[i]n certain cases, the practice of international organizations also contributes to the expression, or creation, of rules of customary international law.......’ That the practice of international organizations can be relevant when identifying customary international law is relatively uncontroversial. The practice of states within international organizations such as the UN General Assembly, for example, may contribute to the development of custom. Yet, there is little...... discussion about whether and how the practice of international organizations as such may contribute to the development of customary international law. This contribution discusses the organization that is the most capable of contributing to the development of customary international law in its own right...

  3. International Financial Reporting Standards for SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicilia IONESCU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available • IFRS for SMEs give the response to an international requirement of the developed and emerging economies in the process of globalization to have a rigorous and common set of international accounting provisions (standard, rule, regulation specifically for SMEs, to be much more simplified than the complete IFRSs. The area where are applicable the IFRS for SMEs includes all the profit-oriented entities that prepare the general financial statements and do not have the public accountability and there are excluded the entities whose securities are publicly traded and the financial institutions like banks and the insurance companies.

  4. Domestic and International Nuclear Energy Voluntary Consensus Standards Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    This report introduces the reader to the domestic and international standards development organizations (SDOs) and their structures and operations. It also identifies some of the support and subject matter needs for the development of standards on the subject of nuclear energy. The support needs are described with regard to organizational structure and subject-matter-expert (SME) participation that is required for producing voluntary consensus standards. The subject matter needs are described with regard to growing technologies and objectives that approach the boundaries of existing standards; implementation of knowledge; and safety of people, facilities, and the environment. Standards are proposed, developed, and produced by SMEs with the support of industry and government organizations. The voluntary consensus standards development process is, as its name implies, a voluntary effort. The problem in today's competitive market, impacted by global economic uncertainty, is that the voluntary participation is shifting from a collaborative industry and SME effort to a nearly SME-only one. This shift places a financial and/or time burden on the SMEs to the point that they are purposely withdrawing from the standards development process, both domestically and internationally. The standards development process desperately needs participation from more and younger SMEs. The report includes several suggestions on how this can be addressed.

  5. Standard methods for sampling freshwater fishes: Opportunities for international collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Hubert, Wayne A.; Beard, Douglas; Dave, Göran; Kubečka, Jan; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Lester, Nigel P.; Porath, Mark T.; Winfield, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    With publication of Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes in 2009, the American Fisheries Society (AFS) recommended standard procedures for North America. To explore interest in standardizing at intercontinental scales, a symposium attended by international specialists in freshwater fish sampling was convened at the 145th Annual AFS Meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August 2015. Participants represented all continents except Australia and Antarctica and were employed by state and federal agencies, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and consulting businesses. Currently, standardization is practiced mostly in North America and Europe. Participants described how standardization has been important for management of long-term data sets, promoting fundamental scientific understanding, and assessing efficacy of large spatial scale management strategies. Academics indicated that standardization has been useful in fisheries education because time previously used to teach how sampling methods are developed is now more devoted to diagnosis and treatment of problem fish communities. Researchers reported that standardization allowed increased sample size for method validation and calibration. Group consensus was to retain continental standards where they currently exist but to further explore international and intercontinental standardization, specifically identifying where synergies and bridges exist, and identify means to collaborate with scientists where standardization is limited but interest and need occur.

  6. International physical protection standards: support for development and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo Hoo, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Since 1972, the IAEA has been a recognized organization in promoting the development of international standards on the physical protection of nuclear materials. This responsibility has continued through the present in the 1999 publication of the fourth revision of INFCIRC/225, the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities and in being the repository for the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material which was originally published in 1980 as INFCIRC/274. The IAEA has also published other reference documents in support these two standards. With changing world events and greater concern for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities, IAEA member states have increased IAEA physical protection responsibilities. Currently, the IAEA is serving as the secretariat for drafting revisions to the physical protection convention. The proposed revisions will strengthen international physical protection standards through the incorporation of physical protection fundamentals that should apply to all nuclear materials in international or domestic use, storage and transport. Furthermore, the physical protection fundamentals would also extend to include nuclear facilities. Presently, the physical protection convention applies only to nuclear materials that are in international transport. To complement efforts to develop and promote international physical protection standards, the IAEA is actively involved in assisting member states with the implementation of the standards. This is accomplished through the delivery of training courses, workshops and hosting other international forums for the exchange of information. Through review services such as the international physical protection advisory service (IPPAS), the IAEA provides advice to member states on the application of international standards at national and facility-specific levels. These services can be followed up with technical support to implement the

  7. Internationally Standardized Cost Item Definitions for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucien Teunckens; Kurt Pflugrad; Candace Chan-Sands; Ted Lazo

    2000-01-01

    The European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) have agreed to jointly prepare and publish a standardized list of cost items and related definitions for decommissioning projects. Such a standardized list would facilitate communication, promote uniformity, and avoid inconsistency or contradiction of results or conclusions of cost evaluations for decommissioning projects carried out for specific purposes by different groups. Additionally, a standardized structure would also be a useful tool for more effective cost management. This paper describes actual work and result thus far

  8. Study of International Standards of Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykan Volodymyr L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management, are of general character and differ with the degree of detailing. Their undoubted value in development of risk management in Ukraine is identification of a general direction of building corporate systems of risk management in practice. The said approaches at the national and corporate levels of standardisation in Ukraine within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management would allow improvement of risk management in corporations and enterprises. The prospect of further studies of domestic specialists in the field of risk management is development of the domestic standard of risk management with consideration of modern domestic specific features of development of risk management in Ukraine and leading foreign experience.

  9. Problems with the implementation of international standards for financial reporting and international audit standards

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Janka

    2012-01-01

    The International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are designed for application in the financial reports with general purpose and the other financial reporting in all profit-oriented entities. The International Auditing Standards (IAS) are setting out the framework for carrying out the review process of financial reporting from entities referred to audit in order to verify the authenticity of the information and raising up the credibility of financial statements. Quality implementation...

  10. A Metadata Standard for Hydroinformatic Data Conforming to International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notay, Vikram; Carstens, Georg; Lehfeldt, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    The affordable availability of computing power and digital storage has been a boon for the scientific community. The hydroinformatics community has also benefitted from the so-called digital revolution, which has enabled the tackling of more and more complex physical phenomena using hydroinformatic models, instruments, sensors, etc. With models getting more and more complex, computational domains getting larger and the resolution of computational grids and measurement data getting finer, a large amount of data is generated and consumed in any hydroinformatics related project. The ubiquitous availability of internet also contributes to this phenomenon with data being collected through sensor networks connected to telecommunications networks and the internet long before the term Internet of Things existed. Although generally good, this exponential increase in the number of available datasets gives rise to the need to describe this data in a standardised way to not only be able to get a quick overview about the data but to also facilitate interoperability of data from different sources. The Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute (BAW) is a federal authority of the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. BAW acts as a consultant for the safe and efficient operation of the German waterways. As part of its consultation role, BAW operates a number of physical and numerical models for sections of inland and marine waterways. In order to uniformly describe the data produced and consumed by these models throughout BAW and to ensure interoperability with other federal and state institutes on the one hand and with EU countries on the other, a metadata profile for hydroinformatic data has been developed at BAW. The metadata profile is composed in its entirety using the ISO 19115 international standard for metadata related to geographic information. Due to the widespread use of the ISO 19115 standard in the existing geodata infrastructure

  11. EPR meeting international safety standards with margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurkiewicz, S.M.; Brauns, J.; Blombach, J.

    2005-01-01

    The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

  12. EPR meeting international safety standards with margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurkiewicz, S.M.; Brauns, J.; Blombach, J.

    2005-01-01

    The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification in with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

  13. International Standards for Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    2007-01-01

    For a terminally sterilized medical device to be designated '' STERILE '', probability of finding the viable micro-organisms in the device shall be equal to or less than 1 x 10 -6 (EN 556-1:2001: Sterilization of medical devices - Requirements for medical devices to be designated '' STERILE '' - Part 1: Requirements for terminally sterilized medical devices). Author presents the main legal aspects of the international standards for radiation sterilization of medical devices

  14. Developing and enforcing internal information systems standards: InduMaker’s Standards Management Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Loebbecke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely agreed that standards provide numerous benefits when available and enforced. Company-internal Information Systems (IS management procedures and solutions, in the following coined IS ‘standards’, allow for harmonizing operations between company units, locations and even different service providers. However, many companies lack an organized process for defining and managing internal IS standards, which causes uncertainties and delays in decision making, planning, and design processes. In this case study of the globally operating InduMaker (anonymized company name, an established manufacturing supplier, we look into the company-internal management of IS standards. Theoretically grounded in the organizational and IS-focused literature on business process modelling and business process commoditization, we describe and investigate InduMaker’s newly developed Standard Management Process (SMP for defining and managing company-internal business and IS standards, with which the multinational pursues offering clear answers to business and IT departments about existing IS standards, their degree of obligation, applicability, and scope at any time.

  15. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy introduced into the International Standard Organization (ISO) regulations as an alternative method for detection and identification of pathogens in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Evelin; Korsak, Dorota; Kowalska, Aneta; Księżopolska-Gocalska, Monika; Niedziółka-Jönsson, Joanna; Roźniecka, Ewa; Michałowicz, Weronika; Albrycht, Paweł; Podrażka, Marta; Hołyst, Robert; Waluk, Jacek; Kamińska, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    We show that surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) can serve as a fast, reliable, and easy method for detection and identification of food-borne bacteria, namely Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Cronobacter spp., in different types of food matrices (salmon, eggs, powdered infant formula milk, mixed herbs, respectively). The main aim of this work was to introduce the SERS technique into three ISO (6579:2002; 11290-1:1996/A1:2004; 22964:2006) standard procedures required for detection of these bacteria in food. Our study demonstrates that the SERS technique is effective in distinguishing very closely related bacteria within a genus grown on solid and liquid media. The advantages of the proposed ISO-SERS method for bacteria identification include simplicity and reduced time of analysis, from almost 144 h required by standard methods to 48 h for the SERS-based approach. Additionally, PCA allows one to perform statistical classification of studied bacteria and to identify the spectrum of an unknown sample. Calculated first and second principal components (PC-1, PC-2) account for 96, 98, and 90% of total variance in the spectra and enable one to identify the Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, and Cronobacter spp., respectively. Moreover, the presented study demonstrates the excellent possibility for simultaneous detection of analyzed food-borne bacteria in one sample test (98% of PC-1 and PC-2) with a goal of splitting the data set into three separated clusters corresponding to the three studied bacteria species. The studies described in this paper suggest that SERS represents an alternative to standard microorganism diagnostic procedures. Graphical Abstract New approach of the SERS strategy for detection and identification of food-borne bacteria, namely S. enterica, L. monocytogenes, and C. sakazakii in selected food matrices.

  16. Development Internal Problems of Shanghay Cooperation Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Y. Kolegova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main internal problems of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Particular attention is paid to the conflict of interests of the participating countries, as well as identifying obstacles to strengthen the organization and increase its influence in the international arena. The international organizations are created by the states to meet mutual problems in the course of interstate relations requiring regular cooperation mechanism. Given the background of the Organization, it is important to emphasize that the main reason for the establishment of the Shanghai organization was the need for the united front against the strengthening of the region at the turn of centuries against dangerous trends of terrorism, extremism, separatism, the growth of organized crime. Despite the conflict of interests and the internal and external development challenges thirteen-year history of evolution of the SCO, to some extent proves its effectiveness, moreover, there are the preconditions for its consistent transition to a more comprehensive organization.

  17. International implications of nuclear Q.A. standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    The work of the International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) in the field of Quality Assurance is aimed at preparing a Code of Practice covering recommendations on safety aspects only which is designed to be usable by all nations. This Code is followed up by a series of Safety Guides as aids to developing nations faced with the need to regulate and assure safety, reliability and quality. The I.A.E.A. Code is not written as a mandatory document and it can only recommend and therefore the term 'should' is used throughout. The International Organization for Standardization (I.S.O.) is concerned with producing standards and as such the proposed I.S.O. draft standard on 'Quality Assurance for Nuclear Power Plants' is written in mandatory language, it uses the word 'shall'. The I.S.O. standard will also cover not only safety aspects but also those of a successfully operating nuclear power plant. The I.S.O. Working Group is charged with producing standards on quality assurance covering the design, procurement, fabrication, construction, operation, maintenance and decommissioning of structure, systems and components of nuclear power plants. The work of both organizations is discussed briefly. (author)

  18. The IOC as an international organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFTHALIA CHATZIGIANNI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the role of the International Olympic Committee as an International Organization in the field of interdependent world politics. Contemporary international community is organized on the basis of international organizations that contribute to the cooperation and understanding of the people especially in areas that enjoy human recognition worldwide. These organizations may function as agents of world solidarity and aim directly or indirectly at the promotion of understanding between people and consequently at the establishment of peace. They also carry out activities that aim at influencing national and international politics relevant to their respective goals. In this field, the IOC, as the most important International Non-Governmental Organization in the field of sport, plays a significant role. With an activity spanning more than a century, the IOC has been able to unify nations under the notion of Olympic ideals. This article aims at contributing partly to the theoretical discussion concerning the ability of the IOC to act as an International Non Governmental Organization and fit in the pieces of world governance in terms of structure and activities. More specifically, it examines this ability in relation to the following facts: a the IOC enjoys international recognition and has a well-established international network, b it has a dynamic character and c it has the authority and financial capacity to function on international and national level as the representative of its 202 members, the National Olympic Committees (NOCs.

  19. International energy: Research organizations, 1988--1992. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, P.; Jordan, S. [eds.] [USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-06-01

    This publication contains the standardized names of energy research organizations used in energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the US DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear organization names recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries are also included in the ETDE Energy Database. Therefore, these organization names are cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This publication identifies current organizations doing research in all energy fields, standardizes the format for recording these organization names in bibliographic citations, assigns a numeric code to facilitate data entry, and identifies report number prefixes assigned by these organizations. These research organization names may be used in searching the databases ``Energy Science & Technology`` on DIALOG and ``Energy`` on STN International. These organization names are also used in USDOE databases on the Integrated Technical Information System. Research organizations active in the past five years, as indicated by database records, were identified to form this publication. This directory includes approximately 31,000 organizations that reported energy-related literature from 1988 to 1992 and updates the DOE Energy Data Base: Corporate Author Entries.

  20. Free viewpoint TV and its international standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2009-05-01

    We have developed a new type of television named FTV (Free-viewpoint TV). FTV is an innovative visual media that enables us to view a 3D scene by freely changing our viewpoints. We proposed the concept of FTV and constructed the world's first real-time system including the complete chain of operation from image capture to display. We also realized FTV on a single PC and FTV with free listening-point audio. FTV is based on the ray-space method that represents one ray in real space with one point in the ray-space. We have also developed new type of ray capture and display technologies such as a 360-degree mirror-scan ray capturing system and a 360 degree ray-reproducing display. MPEG regarded FTV as the most challenging 3D media and started the international standardization activities of FTV. The first phase of FTV is MVC (Multi-view Video Coding) and the second phase is 3DV (3D Video). MVC was completed in March 2009. 3DV is a standard that targets serving a variety of 3D displays. It will be completed within the next two years.

  1. The new international standard ISO 14001: 2004 environmental management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oheba, Jamal Basher

    2006-01-01

    ISO 14001 is one standard in the ISO 14000 series of standards developed by International Organization of Standardization (ISO). Since it was published in 19096, it has rapidly become the most important environmental standard in the world. ISO 14001 is an environmental management system (EMS) that can be classified into environmental technologies provides a systematic procedure to all kind of organizations to prevent pollutions, protect environment and to improve their overall environmental performance. This new standard ISO 14001 2004 was published on November 15, 2004. It cancels and replaced the old ISO 14001-1996. Because the important of the previous standard for our local industries, firms, ...etc, this paper presents ISO 14001 concepts, issues, benefits and focuses on the stages of implementation to achieve ISO 14001-2004 certification which includes general requirements environmental policy, planning (objectives, targets ..), implementation and operations, checking and management review ...etc and presents how to apply isotop time saver software to design records, and to save time to implement ISO 14001 2004 and finally a conclusion is provided.(Author)

  2. Standardized computer-based organized reporting of EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Aurlien, Harald; Brøgger, Jan C.

    2017-01-01

    Standardized terminology for computer-based assessment and reporting of EEG has been previously developed in Europe. The International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology established a taskforce in 2013 to develop this further, and to reach international consensus. This work resulted in the se......Standardized terminology for computer-based assessment and reporting of EEG has been previously developed in Europe. The International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology established a taskforce in 2013 to develop this further, and to reach international consensus. This work resulted...... in the second, revised version of SCORE (Standardized Computer-based Organized Reporting of EEG), which is presented in this paper. The revised terminology was implemented in a software package (SCORE EEG), which was tested in clinical practice on 12,160 EEG recordings. Standardized terms implemented in SCORE....... In the end, the diagnostic significance is scored, using a standardized list of terms. SCORE has specific modules for scoring seizures (including seizure semiology and ictal EEG patterns), neonatal recordings (including features specific for this age group), and for Critical Care EEG Terminology. SCORE...

  3. Validation of the G.LAB MD2200 wrist blood pressure monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension, the British Hypertension Society, and the International Organization for Standardization Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Yu; Zhang, Qing-Han; Ye, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Da-Peng; Cheng, Kang; Zhang, Chun-Hai; Wan, Yi

    2017-04-01

    To validate the G.LAB MD2200 automated wrist blood pressure (BP) monitors according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol (ESH-IP) revision 2010, the British Hypertension Society (BHS), and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 81060-2:2013 protocols. The device was assessed on 33 participants according to the ESH requirements and was then tested on 85 participants according to the BHS and ISO 81060-2:2013 criteria. The validation procedures and data analysis followed the protocols precisely. The G.LAB MD2200 devices passed all parts of ESH-IP revision 2010 for both systolic and diastolic BP, with a device-observer difference of 2.15±5.51 and 1.51±5.16 mmHg, respectively. The device achieved A/A grading for the BHS protocol and it also fulfilled the criteria of ISO 81060-2:2013, with mean differences of systolic and diastolic BP between the device and the observer of 2.19±5.21 and 2.11±4.70 mmHg, respectively. The G.LAB MD2200 automated wrist BP monitor passed the ESH-IP revision 2010 and the ISO 81060-2:2013 protocol, and achieved the A/A grade of the BHS protocol, which can be recommended for self-measurement in the general population.

  4. Russian seismic standards and demands for equipment and their conformity with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaznovsky, S.; Ostretsov, I.

    1993-01-01

    The principle regulations of standard documents concerning seismic safety of NPPs and demands for reactor equipment conformity with international standards are presented in this report. General state of NPP safety standards is reviewed, with a special emphasis on the state of seismic design standards for NPP equipment and piping. Russian standards documents on seismic resistance of NPPs and requirements are compared to international ones

  5. Organic or Conventional Palm Oil. Mainstream sustainability standards vs. organic standards

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo, Jessenia

    2014-01-01

    Consumers are requesting more information about the nutritious characteristics, social and, environmental responsibility around the products they are purchasing; but instead of facing an organic mainstream movement, new conventional standards are in the market. This document presents the main differences in the field implementation between the RSPO and the organic certification.

  6. MULTIVARIATE ACCOUNTING IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. IEVDOKYMOV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the research on the basis of the positivist model of scientific knowledge is proved. The value of the conceptual framework in the process of bookkeeping selection is analyzed. The differences of the accounting selection adjustment procedure in US GAAP and IFRS are considered. The role and importance of the qualitative characteristics of financial reporting in the implementation of accounting selection are substantiated. The structure of the qualitative characteristics of financial reporting and their limitations under the Conceptual Framework for the preparation and presentation of financial statements are examined. The correlation between the accounting rules and alternatives adopted in US GAAP and IAS / IFRS is analyzed. The necessity to discuss the issue of the feasibility of «rule-oriented» or «principle-oriented» accounting model in the context of multivariate concept is studied. The authors prove the necessity of the application of institutional theory to solve the problems of accounting opportunism that arises when using the concept of multivariate accounting in International Financial Reporting Standards.

  7. Standardized computer-based organized reporting of EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Aurlien, Harald; Brøgger, Jan C.

    2017-01-01

    Standardized terminology for computer-based assessment and reporting of EEG has been previously developed in Europe. The International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology established a taskforce in 2013 to develop this further, and to reach international consensus. This work resulted in the se......Standardized terminology for computer-based assessment and reporting of EEG has been previously developed in Europe. The International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology established a taskforce in 2013 to develop this further, and to reach international consensus. This work resulted...... in the second, revised version of SCORE (Standardized Computer-based Organized Reporting of EEG), which is presented in this paper. The revised terminology was implemented in a software package (SCORE EEG), which was tested in clinical practice on 12,160 EEG recordings. Standardized terms implemented in SCORE...... are used to report the features of clinical relevance, extracted while assessing the EEGs. Selection of the terms is context sensitive: initial choices determine the subsequently presented sets of additional choices. This process automatically generates a report and feeds these features into a database...

  8. International organizations and migrant health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentikelenis, Alexander E; Shriwise, Amanda

    International organizations have defined and managed different aspects of migrant health issues for decades, yet we lack a systematic understanding of how they reach decisions and what they do on the ground. The present article seeks to clarify the state of knowledge on the relationship between international organizations and migrant health in Europe. To do so, we review the operations of six organizations widely recognized as key actors in the field of migrant health: the European Commission, the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization, the International Organization on Migration, Médecins du Monde, Médecins Sans Frontières, and the Open Society Foundation. We find that international organizations operate in a complementary fashion, with each taking on a unique role in migrant health provision. States often rely on international organizations as policy advisors or sub-contractors for interventions, especially in the case of emergencies. These linkages yield a complex web of relationships, which can vary depending on the country under consideration or the health policy issue in question.

  9. Fairness : A Dire International Tax Standard with No Meaning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, I.J.J.; Mosquera, Valderrama I.J.

    2017-01-01

    In their discussions on corporate income tax systems the International Organizations (IOs) OECD, UN, IMF and World Bank, Supranational Organizations (SOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), associations of practitioners and Governments often refer to the concept of fairness without proper

  10. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  11. The organization of the International Electrotechnical Commission and present condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    This book contains seven character with the introduction of the IEC, organization of the IEC and functions, proposal of the international standard of IEC, the procedures for the program of work and target dates, certification system of IECEE, IECQ and IECEX scheme, the recent trends of IEC and how to use of publication of the IEC.

  12. TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME. AN (INTERNATIONAL SECURITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Stoica

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For the past two decades organized crime has become a transnational phenomenon, and its impact is still far from being fully known and understood by common people. Its forms of manifestation, whether explicit, or subtle, are permanently evolving and adapting. As a result, its interference with the activities from the legal area makes it difficult to identify and counteract. After a long period of time when it was more a peripheral phenomenon, current transnational organized crime tends to become a major danger to the political, social and economic stability of the states. Through its nature and goals, as well as through the complexity of its forms of manifestation, transnational organized crime represents a major challenge for the state and nonstate organizations that deal with national and international security This paper focuses on the phenomenon starting from some of the most influent theories in international relations, presents the current features of transnational organized criminal groups and analyzes the causes and the favoring factors of the phenomenon, as well as the impact of the phenomenon upon national and international security at political, economic-financial and military level. The approach is an interdisciplinary one and also covers the nexus between transnational organized crime and international terrorism.

  13. Simultaneous validation of the Grandway MD2301 digital automatic blood pressure monitor by the British Hypertension Society and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation/the International Organization for Standardization protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhua; Wang, Yun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Yuling

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Grandway MD2301 digital automatic blood pressure monitor by the British Hypertension Society (BHS) and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI)/the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocols. A total of 85 participants were included for evaluation based on the requirements of the BHS and the AAMI/ISO protocols. The validation procedure and data analysis followed the protocols precisely. The device achieved A/A grading for the BHS protocol and maintained A/A grading throughout the low, medium and high blood pressure ranges. The device also fulfilled the requirement of the AAMI/ISO protocol with device-observer differences of -0.9±5.6 and 0.8±5.2 mmHg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, for criterion 1, and -0.9±4.7 and 0.8±4.2 mmHg, respectively, for criterion 2. The Grandway MD2301 digital automatic blood pressure monitor achieved A/A grade of the BHS protocol and passed the requirements of the AAMI/ISO protocol in adults.

  14. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-Sorensen, F; Betz, R

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Associat......The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury...

  15. Asset Accounting According to National and International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Utenkova

    2014-01-01

    The Article overviews the issues of complying National Accounting Standards at the enterprises of Ukraine with International Financial Reporting Standards. Key provisions of national and international standards governing the accounting of fixed assets (NP(S)A 7 'Property, Plant, Equipment', IFRS 16 'Fixed Assets') have been analyzed. It has been found that the list of PPE regulated by both accounting standard frameworks is not identical. Specifics of fixed assets recognition, their classifica...

  16. International Standardization of the Clinical Dosimetry of Beta Radiation Brachytherapy Sources: Progress of an ISO Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    In 2004 a new work item proposal (NWIP) was accepted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 85 (TC85 -- Nuclear Energy), Subcommittee 2 (Radiation Protection) for the development of a standard for the clinical dosimetry of beta radiation sources used for brachytherapy. To develop this standard, a new Working Group (WG 22 - Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry and Protocols in Medical Applications) was formed. The standard is based on the work of an ad-hoc working group initiated by the Dosimetry task group of the Deutsches Insitiut für Normung (DIN). Initially the work was geared mainly towards the needs of intravascular brachytherapy, but with the decline of this application, more focus has been placed on the challenges of accurate dosimetry for the concave eye plaques used to treat ocular melanoma. Guidance is given for dosimetry formalisms, reference data to be used, calibrations, measurement methods, modeling, uncertainty determinations, treatment planning and reporting, and clinical quality control. The document is currently undergoing review by the ISO member bodies for acceptance as a Committee Draft (CD) with publication of the final standard expected by 2007. There are opportunities for other ISO standards for medical dosimetry within the framework of WG22.

  17. Identities of states in international organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ramses A.; Dekker, I.F.; Dekker, Ige F.

    2015-01-01

    In academic debates on the responsibility of international organizations and their member States the different identities of States play a crucial role. However, apart from the difficulty to clearly separate ‘State’ and ‘member State’ identities, it is even more complex to distinguish between the

  18. Streamlining the Bankability Process using International Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, George [Sunset Technology, Mount Airy, MD; Ramu, Govind [SunPower, San Jose, California; Heinz, Matthias [TUV Rheinland, Cologne, Germany; Chen, Yingnan [CGC (China General Certification Center), Beijing; Wohlgemuth, John [PowerMark, Union Hall, VA; Lokanath, Sumanth [First Solar, Tempe, Arizona; Daniels, Eric [Suncycle USA, Frederick MD; Hsi, Edward [Swiss RE, Zurich, Switzerland; Yamamichi, Masaaki [RTS, Trumbull, CT

    2017-09-27

    NREL has supported the international efforts to create a streamlined process for documenting bankability and/or completion of each step of a PV project plan. IECRE was created for this purpose in 2014. This poster describes the goals, current status of this effort, and how individuals and companies can become involved.

  19. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Betz, R

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association...

  20. AUDIT OF FINANCIAL REPORTS, BASED ON INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Islom Kuziev

    2011-01-01

    In this article are given main notion about international standard of financial reporting, order of the auditing on the base of IFRS, scheduling the report of the auditor, auditor conclusions and are given analysis of reporting based on the auditor procedures. At the audit of financial reporting are taken into account international standard to financial reporting 29 "Financial reporting in hyperinflationary economies".

  1. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B of...

  2. 46 CFR 108.503 - Relationship to international standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 108.503 Section 108.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.503 Relationship to international standards. For...

  3. International survey on gas technology organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The International Survey on Gas Technology Organizations has been prepared by the IEA International Centre for Gas Technology Information. 172 companies and R and D Institutions from 41 countries have contributed to the survey. The objective of the Survey is to develop an overview of identified organizations active in the development of new gas technology. As a quick reference guide the survey offers you short descriptions of a number of the most important organizations within gas technology on a world wide basis. Many R and D institutions around the world are working with topics of relevance to the gas industry. New gas technology draws on many different scientific and technical disciplines. This first issue of the survey includes only a part of the numerous organizations and institutions active within the development of new technology of relevance to the gas industry. The preparation of this survey has been a first step in the development of the information activities of the Centre. The information regarding organizations with R and D activities of relevance to the gas industry will continuously be expanded and updated for internal use in the Centre and will also be available to external users. The Centre plans to establish on-line access to these update versions during 1995. (EG)

  4. CSNI International standard problems (ISP). Brief descriptions (1975-1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    analytical working communities on an international level. Moreover, they enable code users to improve their ability, gain experience and demonstrate their competence. Technical proposals originating from laboratories in 13 countries were submitted and adopted serving as experimental background for the international activity. An activity complementary to the ISP programme but not directly related to it is the establishment of comprehensive sets of experimental data for use in validating proper code application by experts other than code developers. Known as a Code Validation Matrix, the results of such an extensive list of experiments are collected and stored in the NEA Data Bank for the purpose that they be made available to Member countries wishing to validate relevant codes. ISP tests are important elements of validation matrices for thermal-hydraulic codes. In the field of containment behaviour it has been recommended to preferably base a general code validation matrix on containment-related ISPs as well. The way of organizing ISP exercises has been described in CSNI Report No. 17, CSNI Standard Problem Procedures, revised for the third time in November 1989. The following report in some detail summarises the main objectives, the underlying experimental background and the main findings and conclusions of the ISPs to provide interested groups an overview on the accumulated experience in this matter. The document, which has been reviewed by members of CSNI's Principal Working on Coolant System Behaviour (PWG2) and Principal Working on Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases (PWG4), summarises systematically the main features of all International Standard Problem exercises organised so far, from ISP-1 to ISP-43, namely: - Objectives of the ISP; - Brief Description of the Facility; - Scaling Information; - Parameters Offered for Comparison; - Dominating Experimental Uncertainties; - Findings; - Recommendations; - Total Duration of the ISP exercise; - Participation

  5. 78 FR 63873 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...--though less stringent than--the drop and count process for player interfaces and card tables. By removing... count standards for player interfaces and card games, and intends to address the issue comprehensively... surveillance of kiosks and for the collection and count of their contents. The Commission published a proposed...

  6. 77 FR 58707 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ..., if any), counted, inventoried, and secured by an authorized agent. (ii) Bingo card inventory records... comprehensive standards for the entire Class II gaming environment. The new sections include, for example: Card games; drop and count; surveillance; and gaming promotions and player tracking. The amendments also...

  7. Immunity and privilege of international organizations in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Riza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To speak for the Diplomatic Law (Immunities and Privileges in International Organizations, first, this topic briefly describes the international organizations, what are they, as established, as extinct, and finally, as a shared international organizations. They are not subject of this paper, but Immunity and Privileges in International Organizations are. This paper gives an overview of the history of the immunity and privileges in international organizations, conventions, laws of the country regarding Immunities and Privileges, where the seat of the International Organization, Immunities and privileges of diplomatic representatives in international organizations, Immunities and privileges of representatives of international organizations in the state where the seat of the Organization, immunity and privileges of members of the family, diplomatic representatives International Organizations, Immunities and Privileges in the European Union, the difference between the immunity and privileges of international organizations, and Immunity and Privileges between states. This paper analyzes also the immunity and inviolability of buildings of International Organizations, immunity and inviolability of the archives of international organizations, the immunity and privileges of goods to international organizations, the release from the obligation of tax payments, the release from the provision of the diplomatic staff of International Organizations, etc. However, the paper includes charts, respectively, some official data from countries where the headquarters of international organizations are situated and gives an overview of the number of international governmental and nongovernmental organizations.

  8. 77 FR 32444 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... definitions, add and amend existing definitions; amend the term ``variance'' as it applies to establishing an... and audit and accounting procedures into their respective sections. DATES: Submit comments on or... Commission agrees that it does not intend to limit the definition of charitable organizations to those with a...

  9. Trade and the distributional politics of international labour standards

    OpenAIRE

    Oslington, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This paper constructs a simple general equilibrium model of the trade and distributional effects of spreading advanced country international labour standards to developing countries. Labour standards (including minimum safety requirements, prohibition of prison and child labour, and rights to unionise) are represented as a floor to the cost of employing labour. The model shows how the spread of standards affects the terms of trade and pattern of international specialisation, and can shift ...

  10. International Standardization of Pure Beta Emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, Jose Maria; Rodriguez, Leonor

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the traditional methods of standardization of Pure Beta Emitters, their principal characteristics, advantage and drawbacks. It does comparisons between two metrological LSC methods: Triple to double coincidence ratio (TDCR) method and the CIEMAT/NIST method and presents the result obtained with several Key Comparisons serving as practical test of both methods. Both of them represent the siferrit of methods of standardization of pure (and mixed decay) radionuclides. ESIR WG of CCRI(II) is to implement a reference exchange system for the permanent equivalence of β, α and electron capture nuclides, similar to traditional SIR gamma. ESIR project is currently testing a new XAN scintillator and operational tests of the whole system at BIPM are expected by the end of 2006 (test restricted to ESIR NMI members)

  11. On the regulatory potential of regional organic standards: Towards harmonization, equivalence, and trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pekdemir, Ceren

    The growing demand for organic produce has augmented the international trade for organic products. At the same time, the label ‘organic’ has increasingly become legally protected as standards specify the exact requirements for organic production and labelling. While private labels were the first to

  12. The protection of migrant workers and international labour standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohning, W R

    1988-06-01

    International labor standards take the form of Conventions and Recommendations that embody the agreements reached by a 2/3 majority of the representatives of Governments, Employers, and Workers of International Labour Office (ILO) member states. Originally designed to guard against the danger that 1 country or other would keep down wages and working conditions to gain competitive advantage and thereby undermine advances elsewhere, international labor standards have also been inspired by humanitarian concerns--the visible plight of workers and the physical dangers of industrialization and by the notion of social justice, which embraces wellbeing and dignity, security, and equality as well as a measure of participation in economic and social matters. ILO standards apply to workers generally and therefore also to migrant workers, irrespective of the fact that the general standards are complemented by standards especially for migrant workers. The social security protection of migrant workers has been dealt with in ILO instruments primarily from the angle of equality of treatment but also from that of the maintenance of acquired rights and rights in course of acquisition, including the payment of benefits to entitled persons resident abroad. The ILO Conventions on migrant workers and the Recommendations which supplement them deal with practically all aspects of the work and life of non-nationals such as recruitment matters, information to be made available, contract conditions, medical examination and attention, customs, exemption for personal effects, assistance in settling into their new environment, vocational training, promotion at work, job security and alternative employment, liberty of movement, participation in the cultural life of the state as well as maintenance of their own culture, transfer of earnings and savings, family reunification and visits, appeal against unjustified termination of employment or expulsion, and return assistance. ILO's supervisory

  13. 5 CFR 352.304 - International organizations covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Detail and Transfer of Federal Employees to International Organizations § 352.304... public international organization or international organization preparatory commission only when the... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International organizations covered. 352...

  14. Globalization quickly increased need for moving from local to international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Cataldo

    2005-07-01

    'Standardization' quickly changed in the past few years, due to the market's globalization that needs international standards as important instruments in eliminating technical barriers to trade. The 'Petroleum Sector' chose moving to international standards jointly processed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) that played the role of historical reference. Taking into account that oil industry wants only one Standard worldwide used, also Europe decided for adopting these ISO Standards as European Standards. The result is much better considering that also Russia and China seem to adopt these ISO documents as their national standards. It is so becoming much more significant the 'motto' that ISO TC 67 'Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries' adopted for its standardization activities: 'Do it once, do it right, do it internationally'. Examples of such international Standards worldwide used as National Standards are: ISO 11960:2004 - 'Steel pipes for use as casing or tubing for wells' and; ISO/DIS 3183 - 'Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems' (under preparation). Standardization has so grown from technical to management tool and countries are also moving, including standards in more areas of its legislations. (author)

  15. Globalization quickly increased need for moving from local to international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Cataldo

    2005-07-01

    'Standardization' quickly changed in the past few years, due to the market's globalization that needs international standards as important instruments in eliminating technical barriers to trade. The 'Petroleum Sector' chose moving to international standards jointly processed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) that played the role of historical reference. Taking into account that oil industry wants only one Standard worldwide used, also Europe decided for adopting these ISO Standards as European Standards. The result is much better considering that also Russia and China seem to adopt these ISO documents as their national standards. It is so becoming much more significant the 'motto' that ISO TC 67 'Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries' adopted for its standardization activities: 'Do it once, do it right, do it internationally'. Examples of such international Standards worldwide used as National Standards are: ISO 11960:2004 - 'Steel pipes for use as casing or tubing for wells' and; ISO/DIS 3183 - 'Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems' (under preparation). Standardization has so grown from technical to management tool and countries are also moving, including standards in more areas of its legislations. (author)

  16. Standards: The Keys to Domestic and International Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates the importance of standards for the competitiveness of U.S. companies and for international trade. The value of standards in research and development, marketing, design, purchasing, manufacturing, installation, and service is explained. Examples of specific standards and their application to the computer industry are included. (10…

  17. Nuclear Data Center International Standard Towards TSO Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja Murzaferi Raja Moktar; Mohd Fauzi Haris; Siti Nurbahyah Hamdan

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Data Center is the main facility for Nuclear Malaysia Agency IT infrastructure comprising of main critical servers, research and operational data storage, HPC-clusters system and vital network core equipment. In recent years, international body such as TIA-Telecommunication Industry Association and Up time Institute have came out with proper international data center standards in order to ensure data center operation on achieving maximum operational up time and minimal downtime. The standard are currently being rated as tier level ranging from Data Center tier I up to tier IV, differentiate by facility standard and up time/ downtime percentage ratio. This paper will discuss Nuclear Data Center adopting international standards in supporting Nuclear Malaysia TSO initiative thus ensuring the critical core component of agency IT services availability and further more International standard recognitions. (author)

  18. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  19. International Accreditation of ASME Codes and Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Mervin R.

    1989-01-01

    ASME established a Boiler Code Committee to develop rules for the design, fabrication and inspection of boilers. This year we recognize 75 years of that Code and will publish a history of that 75 years. The first Code and subsequent editions provided for a Code Symbol Stamp or mark which could be affixed by a manufacturer to a newly constructed product to certify that the manufacturer had designed, fabricated and had inspected it in accordance with Code requirements. The purpose of the ASME Mark is to identify those boilers that meet ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements. Through thousands of updates over the years, the Code has been revised to reflect technological advances and changing safety needs. Its scope has been broadened from boilers to include pressure vessels, nuclear components and systems. Proposed revisions to the Code are published for public review and comment four times per year and revisions and interpretations are published annually; it's a living and constantly evolving Code. You and your organizations are a vital part of the feedback system that keeps the Code alive. Because of this dynamic Code, we no longer have columns in newspapers listing boiler explosions. Nevertheless, it has been argued recently that ASME should go further in internationalizing its Code. Specifically, representatives of several countries, have suggested that ASME delegate to them responsibility for Code implementation within their national boundaries. The question is, thus, posed: Has the time come to franchise responsibility for administration of ASME's Code accreditation programs to foreign entities or, perhaps, 'institutes.' And if so, how should this be accomplished?

  20. The developments of international hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards and the response strategies in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso, C.

    2009-01-01

    The application of hydrogen and fuel cells has expanded as the technology in international markets has improved. Leading countries have focused on establishing hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards. Both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) continuously release new hydrogen and fuel cell related standards. Although the government of Taiwan is promoting the development of a hydrogen and fuel cell industry, it may delay the commercialized schedule if there are no hydrogen and fuel cell related standards and regulations in place. Standards and regulations must be established as quickly as possible in order to accelerate the progress of the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. This presentation reviewed the international progress in hydrogen and fuel cell development and explained Taiwan's response strategies regarding the adoption of hydrogen and fuel cell products in niche Taiwanese markets

  1. Using PISA as an International Benchmark in Standard Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gary W; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    This study describes how the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) can be used to internationally benchmark state performance standards. The process is accomplished in three steps. First, PISA items are embedded in the administration of the state assessment and calibrated on the state scale. Second, the international item calibrations are then used to link the state scale to the PISA scale through common item linking. Third, the statistical linking results are used as part of the state standard setting process to help standard setting panelists determine how high their state standards need to be in order to be internationally competitive. This process was carried out in Delaware, Hawaii, and Oregon, in three subjects-science, mathematics and reading with initial results reported by Phillips and Jiang (2011). An in depth discussion of methods and results are reported in this article for one subject (mathematics) and one state (Hawaii).

  2. Housekeeping genes as internal standards: use and limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellin, O; Zorzi, W; Lakaye, B; De Borman, B; Coumans, B; Hennen, G; Grisar, T; Igout, A; Heinen, E

    1999-10-08

    Quantitative studies are commonly realised in the biomedical research to compare RNA expression in different experimental or clinical conditions. These quantifications are performed through their comparison to the expression of the housekeeping gene transcripts like glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), albumin, actins, tubulins, cyclophilin, hypoxantine phsophoribosyltransferase (HRPT), L32. 28S, and 18S rRNAs are also used as internal standards. In this paper, it is recalled that the commonly used internal standards can quantitatively vary in response to various factors. Possible variations are illustrated using three experimental examples. Preferred types of internal standards are then proposed for each of these samples and thereafter the general procedure concerning the choice of an internal standard and the way to manage its uses are discussed.

  3. Critical Dose of Internal Organs Internal Exposure - 13471

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoryan, G.; Amirjanyan, A. [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Centre (Armenia); Grigoryan, N. [Yerevan State Medical University 4Tigran Mets,375010 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2013-07-01

    The health threat posed by radionuclides has stimulated increased efforts to developed characterization on the biological behavior of radionuclides in humans in all ages. In an effort motivated largely by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is assembling a set of age specific biokinetic models for environmentally important radioelements. Radioactive substances in the air, mainly through the respiratory system and digestive tract, is inside the body. Radioactive substances are unevenly distributed in various organs and tissues. Therefore, the degree of damage will depend not only on the dose of radiation have but also on the critical organ, which is the most accumulation of radioactive substances, which leads to the defeat of the entire human body. The main objective of radiation protection, to avoid exceeding the maximum permissible doses of external and internal exposure of a person to prevent the physical and genetic damage people. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of radiation is called a dose of radiation a person in uniform getting her for 50 years does not cause changes in the health of the exposed individual and his progeny. The following classification of critical organs, depending on the category of exposure on their degree of sensitivity to radiation: First group: the whole body, gonads and red bone marrow; Second group: muscle, fat, liver, kidney, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, lungs and lens of the eye; The third group: bone, thyroid and skin; Fourth group: the hands, forearms, feet. MTD exposure whole body, gonads and bone marrow represent the maximum exposures (5 rem per year) experienced by people in their normal activities. The purpose of this article is intended dose received from various internal organs of the radionuclides that may enter the body by inhalation, and gastrointestinal tract. The biokinetic model describes the time dependent distribution and excretion of different

  4. International developments. Research and standardization; Internationale Entwicklungen. Forschung und Standardisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breustedt, Bastian [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenforschung

    2017-08-01

    The methods and models for the determination of incorporated doses are developed and published by the international radiation protection commission ICRP. The ICRP recommendations were adopted into the international basic safety standards of IAEA and the European Commission The implementation of the safety standards into the national radiation protection regulations yield the legal basis for incorporation surveillance. In Germany this is the Strahlenschutzverordnung and the guideline for the physical radiation protection control for the determination of body doses.

  5. An Approach to Establishing International Quality Standards for Medical Travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej eKácha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traveling abroad to receive a non-elective treatment is expanding each year. Such rising popularity of medical travel and the absence of clear minimum quality requirements in this area urgently calls for setting international standards to ensure good practice and patient safety. The aim of this study is to identify the key domains in medical travel where such quality standards should be established. Drawing from the evidence-based OECD framework and an extensive literature review, this study proposes three critical areas for international quality standards in medical travel: minimum standards of health care facilities and third-party agencies, financial responsibility and patient-centeredness. Several cultural challenges are subsequently introduced that may pose a barrier to the development of the guidelines and should be additionally taken into consideration. Establishing international quality standards in medical travel enhances the benefits to patients and providers, which is urgently needed given the rapid growth in this industry.

  6. International trade with peat and peat products - a challenge to international standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmilewski, G; Guenther, J [Institut fuer Torf- und Humusforschung GmbH (ITH), Bad Zwischenahn (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-01-01

    On a worldwide scale raised bog peat is the most important basic material for the production of growing media. Peat has greatly contributed to the realization of modern, standardized and even computer-controlled growing techniques in commercial horticulture. No other material can truly compete with the outstanding physical, chemical and biological properties of peat. All present and future substitutes will have to stand comparison with peat. Nonetheless, many other organic, mineral and synthetic materials are use in horticulture mainly to adjust the physical properties of growing media to new growing methods. As a direct or indirect consequence thereof, the spared raw material peat is a fact which is considered progressive in industrial countries strongly characterized by nature conservational ideas also. Some peat consuming countries do not have any indigenous peat resources and meet their demands with imports. Other countries, such as the Fed. Rep. of Germany, the Scandinavian countries and the USSR export considerable amounts of peat and peat products. International transactions have not only increased for big industries, but also for the peat industry. For the grower and for the producer of growing media alike, the knowledge of growing media properties are of fundamental importance. Various standard methods for the analysis of peat and growing media have been developed by national organizations and are being used just as manifold. In some cases national standards have derived from these.

  7. Enabling conformity to international standards within SeaDataNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Boldrini, Enrico; de Korte, Arjen; Santoro, Mattia; Manzella, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    SeaDataNet objective is to construct a standardized system for managing the large and diverse data sets collected by the oceanographic fleets and the new automatic observation systems. The aim is to network and enhance the currently existing infrastructures, which are the national oceanographic data centres and satellite data centres of 36 countries, active in data collection. The networking of these professional data centres, in a unique virtual data management system will provide integrated data sets of standardized quality on-line. The Common Data Index (CDI) is the middleware service adopted by SeaDataNet for discovery and access of the available data. In order to develop an interoperable and effective system, the use of international de facto and de jure standards is required. In particular the new goal object of this presentation is to introduce and discuss the solutions for making SeaDataNet compliant with the European Union (EU) INSPIRE directive and in particular with its Implementing Rules (IR). The European INSPIRE directive aims to rule the creation of an European Spatial Data Infrastructure (ESDI). This will enable the sharing of environmental spatial information among public sector organisations and better facilitate public access to spatial information across Europe. To ensure that the spatial data infrastructures of the European Member States are compatible and usable in a community and transboundary context, the directive requires that common IRs are adopted in a number of specific areas (Metadata, Data Specifications, Network Services, Data and Service Sharing and Monitoring and Reporting). Often the use of already approved digital geographic information standards is mandated, drawing from international organizations like the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the latter by means of its Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211). In the context of geographic data discovery a set of mandatory

  8. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section 199.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to international...

  9. International accounting standards and their effect on mergers and acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca I. Vega Castro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate whether the international accounting harmonization has favored the globalization process. This investigation examined the relationship between international accounting standards and the international merger and acquisition activities in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, México, Peru and Venezuela from 1995 to 2004. This research tested four hypotheses and used analytics such as panel data analysis, correlation, nonparametric tests and logistic regression.

  10. Determinants of Effective Information Transfer in International Regulatory Standards Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    The role of international regulatory standards within the current global environment has become of the most importance. The age of the global system and free market capitalism carried us into the unprecedented age of regulations, and standard setting. Regulations are now becoming the emerging mode of global governance. This study focuses on…

  11. The main requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The main requirements of the new international basic safety standards are discussed, including such topics as health effects of ionizing radiations, the revision of basic safety standards, the requirements for radiation protection practices, the requirements for intervention,and the field of regulatory infrastructures. (A.K.)

  12. Human Rights and Values Education: Using the International Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty A.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, in teaching about human rights, the international standards should be the fundamental core of the content and values to be communicated. Recommends that teachers should use the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the standard by which the actions of individuals and governments should be compared. (CFR)

  13. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  14. Review international standards for grid connected photovoltaic systems in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhilef, S.; Rahim, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    Grid connected PV is being applied on variety application including large centralised stations, commercial building and individual houses. There is a need for specific standard to address distinctive new issue created by grid connected PV power system. Internationally many countries are attempting to develop standards for building integration, Dc side issues and grid connection issues. This paper surveys the current development state of the major countries standards in this area, comparing and contrasting, standards and guideline under development, also addressing the need of standards for grid connected in Malaysia

  15. Standard methods for sampling freshwater fishes: opportunities for international collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Hubert, Wayne A.; Beard, T. Douglas; Dave, Göran; Kubečka, Jan; Graeb, Brian D.S.; Lester, Nigel P.; Porath, Mark; Winfield, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    With publication of Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes in 2009, the American Fisheries Society (AFS) recommended standard procedures for North America. To explore interest in standardizing at intercontinental scales, a symposium attended by international specialists in freshwater fish sampling was convened at the 145th Annual AFS Meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August 2015. Participants represented all continents except Australia and Antarctica and were employed by...

  16. [Gradient of serotonergic innervation of internal organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychkova, A E

    2004-01-01

    The unidirectional synergistic effect of the vegetative nervous system departments was studied at the regulation of the activity of internal organs. It was shown that the sympathetic nerve intensification of the vagal stimulation of EMA of stomach, urinary bladder, ureters, uteruss, fallopian tubes and deferent duct is realized by means of activation of serotonergic fibrae preganglionares that transmit the activation to 5-NTS,4 serotonin receptors of intramural ganglia that, in their turn, activate 5-NT1,2 serotonin receptors of effector cells.

  17. Human resource management in international organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Treven

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the author first presents various approaches to the management and recruitment of employees in subsidiaries that the company has established in different countries. Then, she turns her attention to the basic functions of international human resource management, among them recruitment and selection of new employees, development and training of employees, assessment of work efficiency, as well as remuneration of employees. As the expatriates are often given special attention by their work organizations, she concludes the paper with the description of the additional challanges occurring in the management of these employees.

  18. Global Value Chains, Labor Organization and Private Social Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain a...... at production sites. However, labor organizations' ability to seriously challenge the prevailing governance structure of the cut flower value chain appears extremely limited.......This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain...... analysis and reveals how retailer-driven chains offer more room for labor organizations to exercise their agency than the traditional cut flower value chains. Labor organizations have been able to influence social standard setting and implementation, and to use standards to further labor representation...

  19. INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF ORGANIZING SCHOOL NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Kuchma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of organizing school nutrition in Europe and usais analyzed. It is noted that long term programs aimed at optimizing schoolchildren nutrition have a beneficial effect on the children's health, culture of their nutrition and quality of life. The importance of carrying out similar programs in Russia is beyond any doubt: according to population research, the basic principles of good nutrition are often not observed, and school breakfasts and lunches do not correspond to the age physiological needs of children and teenagers for nutrient materials and energy. In this situation, the available experience of using vitaminbenriched products as well as vitamin and mineral complexes in children will permit to quickly resolve the existing problems of the improper, and sometimes, insufficient, nutrition.Key words: school nutrition, organization, international experience.

  20. A New International Standard for "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørum, Alf; Burcharth, Hans F.; Goda, Yoshimi

    2007-01-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is going to issue a new standard concerning "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures," which becomes the first international standard in coastal engineering. It is composed of a normative part (29 pages), an informative part (80...... pages) and Bibliography ( 17 pages). The normative part describes what is considered as the norm of the matters in concern, while the informative part provides the information on recommended practice. The paper introduces the main points of the normative part and discusses the influence of the new...

  1. International organizations and their exercise of sovereign powers

    CERN Document Server

    Sarooshi, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This book considers the exercise of sovereign powers by international organizations that include the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, and the European Union in order to answer fundamental questions about the relationship between an international organization and its member states. In their membership of international organizations, states must confer some of their sovereign powers upon those organizations. This book develops a three-tiered typology of conferrals which ranges from agency relationships, to delegations of authority, to full transfers of power. The legal aspects of these conferrals are examined, and their implications for the growing importance of international organizations in international relations are assessed.

  2. South African address standard and initiatives towards an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available ; visiting friends; and providing a reference context for presenting other information. The benefits of an international address standards include: enabling address interoperability across boundaries; reducing service delivery costs; enabling development...

  3. Internationally Comparable Measures of Occupational Status for the 1988 International Standard Classification of Occupations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeboom, H.B.G.; Treiman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides operational procedures for coding internationally comparable measures of occupational status from the recently published International Standard Classification of Occupation 1988 (ISCO88) of the International Labor Office (ILO, 1990). We first discuss the nature of the ISCO88

  4. Manual of engineering drawing to British and international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Colin H; Maguire, Dennis E

    2004-01-01

    The Manual of Engineering Drawing has long been recognised as the student and practising engineer's guide to producing engineering drawings that comply with ISO and British Standards. The information in this book is equally applicable to any CAD application or manual drawing. The second edition is fully in line with the requirements of the new British Standard BS8888: 2002, and will help engineers, lecturers and students with the transition to the new standards.BS8888 is fully based on the relevant ISO standards, so this book is also ideal for an international readership. The comprehen

  5. Aspects regarding the implementation of information security standards in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Bârsan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Information security is one of the major challenges of the information and knowledge based society. The preoccupation of organizations to ensure the security of information in the digital environment has led to the emergence of specific standards in the field. Thus, ISO 27000 brings together reference standards in the field. Starting from ISO 27001, which summarizes policies and procedures on physical, legal and technological security risks, this paper looks at the steps the organization must undertake to implement the standards.

  6. 40 CFR 60.542 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry § 60.542 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test, required by § 60.8, is completed, but no later than...

  7. International standards for monoclonal antibodies to support pre- and post-marketing product consistency: Evaluation of a candidate international standard for the bioactivities of rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Sandra; Hufton, Simon E; Fox, Bernard; Dougall, Thomas; Rigsby, Peter; Bristow, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    The intrinsic complexity and heterogeneity of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is built into the biosimilarity paradigm where critical quality attributes are controlled in exhaustive comparability studies with the reference medicinal product. The long-term success of biosimilars will depend on reassuring healthcare professionals and patients of consistent product quality, safety and efficacy. With this aim, the World Health Organization has endorsed the need for public bioactivity standards for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in support of current controls. We have developed a candidate international potency standard for rituximab that was evaluated in a multi-center collaborative study using participants' own qualified Fc-effector function and cell-based binding bioassays. Dose-response curve model parameters were shown to reflect similar behavior amongst rituximab preparations, albeit with some differences in potency. In the absence of a common reference standard, potency estimates were in poor agreement amongst laboratories, but the use of the candidate preparation significantly reduced this variability. Our results suggest that the candidate rituximab standard can support bioassay performance and improve data harmonization, which when implemented will promote consistency of rituximab products over their life-cycles. This data provides the first scientific evidence that a classical standardization exercise allowing traceability of bioassay data to an international standard is also applicable to rituximab. However, we submit that this new type of international standard needs to be used appropriately and its role not to be mistaken with that of the reference medicinal product.

  8. 22 CFR 41.24 - International organization aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false International organization aliens. 41.24... aliens. (a) Definition of international organization. “International organization” means: (1) Any public...)(27)(I), INTELSAT or any successor or separated entity thereof. (b) Aliens coming to international...

  9. Advancements in internationally accepted standards for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV; Derr, D.D.; Vehar, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    Subcommittees of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) are developing standards on various aspects of radiation processing. Nine standards on how to select and calibrate dosimeters, where to put them, how many to use, and how to use individual types of dosimeter systems have been published. The group is also developing standards on how to use gamma, electron beam, and X-ray facilities for radiation processing, and a standard on how to treat dose uncertainties. Efforts are underway to promote inclusion of these standards into procedures now being developed by government agencies and by international groups such as the United Nations' International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in order to harmonize regulations and help avoid trade barriers. Standards on good irradiation practices for meat and poultry and for fresh fruits, and for the irradiation of seafood and spices have been developed. These food-related standards are based on practices previously published by ICGFI. Standards for determining doses for radiation hardness testing of electronics have been developed. Standards on the Fricke and TLD dosimetry systems are equally useful in other radiation processing applications. (Author)

  10. CONVERGENCE OF INTERNATIONAL AUDIT STANDARDS AND AMERICAN AUDIT STANDARDS REGARDING SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chis Anca Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Sampling is widely used in market research, scientific analysis, market analysis, opinion polls and not least in the financial statement audit. We wonder what is actually sampling and how did it appear? Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Nowadays the technique is indispensable, the economic entities operating with sophisticated computer systems and large amounts of data. Economic globalization and complexity of capital markets has made possible not only the harmonization of international accounting standards with the national ones, but also the convergence of international accounting and auditing standards with the American regulations. International Standard on Auditing 530 and Statement on Auditing Standard 39 are the two main international and American normalized referentials referring to audit sampling. This article discusses the origin of audit sampling, mentioning a brief history of the method and different definitions from literature review. The two standards are studied using Jaccard indicators in terms of the degree of similarity and dissimilarity concerning different issues. The Jaccard coefficient measures the degree of convergence of international auditing standards (ISA 530 and U.S. auditing standards (SAS 39. International auditing standards and American auditing standards, study the sampling problem, both regulations presenting common points with regard to accepted sampling techniques, factors influencing the audit sample, treatment of identified misstatements and the circumstances in which sampling is appropriate. The study shows that both standards agree on application of statistical and non-statistical sampling in auditing, that sampling is appropriate for tests of details and controls, the factors affecting audit sampling being audit risk, audit objectives and population\\'s characteristics.

  11. LEASE AGREEMENTS FINANCIAL REPORTING ISSUES ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina MAISURADZE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available On January 13th 2016, the Board for International Accounting Standards  published the  new International Standard 16 of Financial Reporting,   named as “Lease”, which will substitute the International Accounting Standard 17 of financial reporting “Lease”. ISFR 16 ensures reflection of practically all lease agreements in the financial reporting, which, in is part, meets the requirements of investors regarding reliability and transparency of the information related to a financial state of an enterprise. The Article considers the changes caused by ISFR 16, which relate to recognition of the lease agreements as the asset, their accounting and, impact on the financial reporting. Relevant conclusions are provided regarding the above mentioned issues.

  12. Organizations And Services In The System Of International Aviation Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I. Travnikov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author reveals the order of creation, structure, aims and objectives of national and international intergovernmental aeronautical organizations, governing procedure for flight operations and providing direct air traffic control over sovereign territory and abroad. In this article, author notes that in the world there are three main organizational and legal forms of air traffic control systems to ensure coordination between civil and military air navigation services (agencies. In the Russian Federation, author notes that air navigation services on behalf of the State are made by the State Corporation for Air Traffic Management that has the legal status of the commercial organization - the Federal State Unitary Enterprise. Author analyzes the work of the Organization for the Civil Air Navigation Services (CANSO, the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers (IFATCA. During the study author also concludes that in the past decade, there is the steady trend of transferring functions of air navigation from the State to commercial organizations (joint stock companies and limited liability companies, which are financed from the funds received as payment for air traffic services. The responsibility for the improper maintenance of international air navigation, of course, is borne by the State. Author notes that regional and international intergovernmental aeronautical organizations operate in respect of all aircraft (public, civil, experimental, i.e., perform general air navigation, unlike ICAO, which takes standards and recommended practices, rules and procedures for safety and air traffic services only to civil aircraft, that does not ensure the creation of a regulatory framework for the global unification of aeronautical processes.

  13. International collaborative study for the calibration of proposed International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain, and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, A M H P; Chantarangkul, V; Angeloni, F; Binder, N B; Byrne, M; Dauer, R; Gudmundsdottir, B R; Jespersen, J; Kitchen, S; Legnani, C; Lindahl, T L; Manning, R A; Martinuzzo, M; Panes, O; Pengo, V; Riddell, A; Subramanian, S; Szederjesi, A; Tantanate, C; Herbel, P; Tripodi, A

    2018-01-01

    Essentials Two candidate International Standards for thromboplastin (coded RBT/16 and rTF/16) are proposed. International Sensitivity Index (ISI) of proposed standards was assessed in a 20-centre study. The mean ISI for RBT/16 was 1.21 with a between-centre coefficient of variation of 4.6%. The mean ISI for rTF/16 was 1.11 with a between-centre coefficient of variation of 5.7%. Background The availability of International Standards for thromboplastin is essential for the calibration of routine reagents and hence the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Stocks of the current Fourth International Standards are running low. Candidate replacement materials have been prepared. This article describes the calibration of the proposed Fifth International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain (coded RBT/16) and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain (coded rTF/16). Methods An international collaborative study was carried out for the assignment of International Sensitivity Indexes (ISIs) to the candidate materials, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for thromboplastins and plasma used to control oral anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists. Results Results were obtained from 20 laboratories. In several cases, deviations from the ISI calibration model were observed, but the average INR deviation attributabled to the model was not greater than 10%. Only valid ISI assessments were used to calculate the mean ISI for each candidate. The mean ISI for RBT/16 was 1.21 (between-laboratory coefficient of variation [CV]: 4.6%), and the mean ISI for rTF/16 was 1.11 (between-laboratory CV: 5.7%). Conclusions The between-laboratory variation of the ISI for candidate material RBT/16 was similar to that of the Fourth International Standard (RBT/05), and the between-laboratory variation of the ISI for candidate material rTF/16 was slightly higher than that of the Fourth International Standard (rTF/09). The candidate materials

  14. The Future Path of Organic Farming - Values, Standards and Controversy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted by the ...

  15. EPA STANDARDS NETWORK FACT SHEET: ISO 14000: INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This flyer provides an overview of the ISO 14000 series of International standards, supplying a brief history, structure of the Technical Committee (TC) 207, structure of the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to ISO TC-207, status of the Standards development as of June 1997, w...

  16. Monitoring the International Standardization Process Theoretical Choices and Methodological Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Juanals

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations are in charge of global security management. This paper outlines and argues for the construction of a theoretical and methodological framework in order to critically assess the new technopolitics currently being developed in the field of global security and which are materialized in standards. The main purpose is to design both a methodology and specific text mining tools to investigate these standards. These tools will be implemented in a platform designed to provide cartographic representations of standards and to assist the navigation of an end-user through a corpus of standards.

  17. International standards for the indoor environment. Where are we and do they apply to Asian countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2003-01-01

    On the international level, ISO (International Organization for Standardization), CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers) are writing and reviewing standards relating to the indoor environment on a regular...... basis. This presentation will focus on the development of standards for the indoor thermal environment and indoor air quality (ventilation). In the future, recommendations for acceptable indoor environments will be specified as classes. This allows for national differences in the requirements as well...... as for designing buildings for different quality levels. Several of these standards have been developed mainly by experts from Europe, North America and Japan. Are there, however, special considerations relating to South-East Asia (lifestyle, outdoor climate, economy) that are not dealt with in these standards...

  18. International Banking Standards, Private Law, and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wouters, Jan; Odermatt, Jed

    2016-01-01

    This chapter seeks to provide an insight into the dynamics that take place between the EU and international standard-setting bodies, by first examining some of the features of global financial regulation which make it a unique area of global governance, then by investigating the wide variety of n...... the crisis. These reforms have been highly influenced by non-binding commitments made in informal bodies at the international level....

  19. International standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM), publication No. 15

    CERN Multimedia

    Tom Wegelius

    2006-01-01

    GUIDELINES FOR REGULATING WOOD PACKAGING MATERIAL IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE SCOPE This standard describes phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk of introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests associated with wood packaging material (including dunnage), made of coniferous and non-coniferous raw wood, in use in international trade. For more information, contact the Shipping Service (FI-LS-SH) at 79947. Table of guidelines

  20. Effect of standards on new equipment design by new international standards and industry restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endelman, Lincoln L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of international standards to further trade is one of the objectives of creating a standard. By having form fit and function compatible the free interchange of manufactured goods can be handled without hindrance. Unfortunately by setting up standards that are peculiar to a particular country or district it is possible to exclude competition from a group of manufacturers. A major effort is now underway to develop international laser standards. In the May I 990 issue of Laser Focus World Donald R. Johnson the director of industrial technology services for the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST formerly the National Bureau of Standards) is quoted as follows: " The common means of protectionism has been through certification for the market place. " The article goes on to say " Mr. Johnson expects this tradition to continue and that the new European Community (EC) will demand not just safety standards but performance standards as well. . . . the American laser industry must move very quickly on this issue or risk being left behind the European standards bandwagon. " The article continues laser companies must get involved in the actual standards negotiating process if they are to have a say in future policy. A single set of standards would reduce the need to repeatedly recalibrate products for different national markets. " As a member of ISO TC-72 SC9 I am

  1. Guidelines for drafting national and international seismic standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podrouzek, J.

    1989-01-01

    The main principles of engineering reliability are discussed in relation to the formation of seismic standards. The basic recommendations of the International Association of Earthquake Engineering in the field of inspection and earthquake resistance evaluation of engineering structures and systems are characterized. Attention is also paid to efforts aimed at a unification of standards and regulations, based on the fact that quasistatic and response spectra methods are largely common to the standards amd regulations. However, as the potential of computer techniques increases, more complex computer programs appear and the amount of tenuous input data increases, and this can affect the quality of seismic inspections. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 1 ref

  2. Problems of introduction of international standards of conscientious state financial management in Ukrainian practice

    OpenAIRE

    Anhelina, I.

    2014-01-01

    The m aintenance of the INTOSAI GOV standardssystem, which show by itself guidance from a conscientious state financial management in the field of internal control and standards of record-keeping, is generalized. The directions of the use of risk and control model COSO are determinated for the financial management of state sector in part of authentication of sources of risk, aims and duties of organization. The measures are worked out on introduction of standards of INTOSAI GOVand models of C...

  3. International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

    2010-02-15

    {center_dot} Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials {center_dot} Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

  4. International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

    2010-02-01

    · Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials · Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

  5. 77 FR 33811 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...

  6. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance...

  7. International financial reporting standards and foreign ownership in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous literature suggests that the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) can facilitate cross-border capital flows, as it results in an increase in market liquidity and comparability benefits. Using foreign ownership levels in South African listed companies during the period 2003 to 2007, we test ...

  8. How to Integrate International Financial Reporting Standards into Accounting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    It is expected the SEC will require U.S. domestic companies to prepare and file their annual 10Ks in accordance with international financial reporting standards (IFRS) by 2016. Given the probability that the FASB-IASB convergence project (i.e., Norwalk Agreement) will continue subsequent to mandatory adoption, US accounting programs will be…

  9. Effects of national accounting standards convergence to international accounting standards on foreign direct investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Farazandehnia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors on attracting foreign investors to invest on Tehran Stock Exchange is to have transparent accounting rules and regulations. When there are some consistency between national accounting standards and international accounting standards, we may, at least, expect foreign investors to have better understanding on financial statements. In 2006, there were some changes on Iranian national accounting standards in an attempt to make them closer to international accounting standards. In this study, we select the information of 153 firms five years before and after this regulation and study the effect of convergence from national accounting standards to international accounting standards on foreign direct investment. Using some statistical tests, the study has determined that there was no meaningful relationship between foreign direct investment before and after change on accounting standards. In addition, there was no difference on the information quality before and after change on accounting standards. However, there was some meaningful relationship between the information quality and foreign direct investment.

  10. ASTM International Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carl G.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The “Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds” was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active “guide” documents for educational purposes, but that few standard “test methods” or “practices” have been published. Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions also highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Finally, dialogue emphasized the needs to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization and to assess the use and impact of standards in the TEMPs community. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus should now turn to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs. PMID:25220952

  11. Recommendations for the Technical Infrastructure for Standardized International Rights Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Valentine; Cowles, Esmé; Estlund, Karen; Isaac, Antoine; Johnson, Tom; Matienzo, Mark A.; Peiffer, Patrick; Urban, Richard J.; Zeinstra, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This white paper is the product of a joint Digital Public Library of America (DPLA)-Europeana working group organized to develop minimum rights statement metadata standards for organizations that contribute to DPLA and Europeana. This white paper deals specifically with the technical infrastructure of a common namespace (rightsstatements.org) that hosts the rights statements to be used by (at minimum) the DPLA and Europeana. These recommendations for a common technical infrastructure for righ...

  12. An overview of prisons, prisoners and international human rights standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Coyle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the principal international human rights standards that exist for the treatment of prisoners. Given the increase in the use of  imprisonment in many countries, the administration of prisons poses certain challenges. The author addresses this issue by first examining the purposes of imprisonment, which is the only way to evaluate if the penitentiary system is achieving the goals that have been set for it. The author then analyzes five elements that must be taken into account when complying with international standards regarding the treatment of prisoners: living conditions for prisoners; the contact that prisoners have with their families and other persons; special conditions that apply to incarcerated persons according to specific situations (gender, nationality, age, illness, etc.; prison personnel and independent oversight of prisons. In the end, what all of these  standards have in common is the importance of upholding human dignity when dealing with incarcerated persons.

  13. Organization and standards of screening and diagnostic mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderbraten, L.D.; Chikirdin, Eh.G.; Rozhkova, N.I.

    1999-01-01

    Problem of organizing and standards of the reference and diagnostic mammography in our country is discussed. Attention is paid to the terminology, accreditation of mammographic establishments and specialists, specifications of equipment, image quality, mammography results processing, radiation doses [ru

  14. Trend of the bioceramics (for the international standardization); Baioseramikkusu no doko. Kokusai hyojunka nimukete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, Manabu

    1999-11-01

    The Ministry of International Trade and Industry Agency of Industrial Science and Technology would carry out development research of the standardization of test evaluation method of fine ceramics for the organism as research and development business of the international standardization promotion plan since this fiscal year. The fine ceramics becomes not possible material of lacking as alternative material of the organism. The public standard which appropriately evaluates the quality material in the other has not been established. JIS in the home of the result which there is Japan Fine Ceramics Association standard (test methods such as porosity and specific gravity, grain size, pore distribution, specific surface, Vickers hardness, crystal structure, bending strength, compressive strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, effluent of the bioceramics) JIS has not been instituted. It is present state that it becomes the Europe and America initiative artificial joint artificial bone expert committee TC-150 surgical internal burying agent ISO (ISO) and takes the one step delay. And, security of the reliability is necessary in order to fulfil the popularization in the market. The standardization must be hurried up. Research and development of test evaluation method of fine ceramics for the organism was carried out in order to attempt market expansion taking the reliability of fine ceramics material performance for the organism in our country as a sure thing, and standardizing into JIS and international standardization would be systematically advanced. Efforts would be made in fiscal 99 for research and development of evaluation method on abrasion resistance of artificial bone member subject, mechanical property such as strength degradation and biocompatibility. The technical committee of the industry-government-university from the specialist which consists in this inside is founded, and the deliberation for plan execution of this study development is got and will be

  15. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation's (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs

  16. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume V. International organization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. WENDS has acquired and organized information on the following energy-related organizations: Asian Development Bank; European Economic Community; Inter-American Development Bank; International Atomic Energy Agency; International Energy Agency; Nuclear Energy Agency; United Nations; and World Bank. Within each organizational grouping most of the following topics are addressed: organization background, government background, energy background (energy policy and objectives), energy research and development activities, and international activities.

  17. International standardization of nuclear reactor designs - the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The concept of 'International Standardization of Nuclear Reactor Designs' means that vendors could build their designs in every country without having to adapt it specifically to national safety requirements. Such standardization would have two main effects. It would greatly facilitate nuclear new build worldwide by giving greater efficiency and certainty to the national licensing procedures; by taking into account the fact that vendors, and nowadays also utilities, are active across borders; by helping developing countries to establish their nuclear new build programmes; and by reducing the strain on human resources on both the regulators' and the industry's side. The second valuable effect of standardization would be to further enhance safety by improving the exchange of construction and operating experience among a number of reactors belonging to fleets of the same design. The World Nuclear Association's CORDEL (Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing) Group has developed a concept for implementation of international standardization of reactor designs. It has defined a number of steps to be taken by industry. At the same time, possibilities offered by national and international regulatory mechanisms would have to be fully made use of, and some changes in regulatory frameworks might be necessary. Some steps especially towards greater cooperation of regulators have already been taken; however, much still remains to be done. The concept of deploying standardized reactor designs across a number of countries supposes an alignment and, if possible, harmonization of national safety standards; a streamlining of national licensing procedures, making them more efficient and predictable; and the willingness of national regulators to take into account licensing done in other countries. In the end, this should lead to a mutual acceptance of design approvals or, in a more distant future, even to a multinational design approval process. All in all, the concept

  18. 42 CFR 422.2268 - Standards for MA organization marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for MA organization marketing. 422.2268 Section 422.2268 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Medicare Advantage Marketing Requirements § 422.2268 Standards for MA organizatio...

  19. International Reserves Crises, Monetary Integration and the Payments System during the International Gold Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Hernandez-Verme

    2009-01-01

    I model an international payments system with a financial center and periphery to reproduce various aspects of the International Gold Standard. This period was characterized by frequent crises associated with scarce stocks of reserves, high short-term interest rates with subsequent gold inflows and transmission of output contractions across countries. I find that a common international currency and no legal restrictions on exchange help the periphery share reserves with the financial center, ...

  20. International protocol on volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.-P.

    1992-01-01

    In August 1991, negotiations between Canada, the USA, and 33 European countries led to an international protocol on reducing the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are responsible for serious ozone pollution problems. This was the third transborder pollution agreement developed under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Certain aspects of negotiations related to an earlier protocol developed for SO 2 and nitrogen oxide emissions had reappeared during the VOC negotiations, and these aspects are discussed. The VOC protocol proposes three approaches to satisfy basic obligations: reducing VOC emissions of a country by 30%, reducing VOC emissions by 30% in certain regions, and ensuring a freeze in VOC emissions in a country starting on a specified date. The protocol also introduces a new concept, that of zones of tropospheric ozone management. In Canada, plans for management of nitrogen oxides and VOC have been adapted to the ozone problem, and the management plan has been developed by a consultation process involving all sectors of society including industry, environmental groups, and governments. In Canada, it will be sufficient to reduce total VOC emissions by 16% during a first phase and to increase these reductions slightly in the second phase. Special ozone management zones in the Quebec City/Windsor corridor and the Fraser River valley have been established

  1. Using Standardized Patients to Educate Medical Students about Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Anker, Ashley E.; Soriano, Rainier; Friedman, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Medical students at Mount Sinai School of Medicine participated in an intervention designed to promote knowledge and improved communication skills related to cadaveric organ donation. The intervention required students to interact with a standardized patient for approximately 10 minutes and respond to questions posed about organ donation in a…

  2. INTERDEPENDENCIES OF THE INTERNAL / MANAGERIAL CONTROL STANDARD NO. 6 - ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut-Cosmin BĂLOI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our initiative of analyzing the internal control standard which deals with the organizational structure comes from the observations on the significance of these essential aspects of modern management and on the sensitivity with which this standard is treated in most of the public institutions considered representative for the Oltenia region. Although the administrators of public institutions strive to optimize the systems of internal/managerial control, they frequently face many issues concerning the misunderstanding of these standards, vaguely explained, for example throughout some guidelines or other documents. The hypothesis of our study is that most of public institutions face gaps in understanding, interpreting, adapting and implementing an effective model of organizational structure, and the causes are due to the lack of an interdependent, correlated approach of the pillars that support the internal/managerial control system: the 25 standards required by the Romanian legislation. Our study critically describes the superficial approach founded in the self-evaluation reports of the public institutions, if we refer only to the conformity of the organizational structure and the four standards that we consider inextricably related with this internal/managerial control standard. From the methodological point of view, our study tests the correlation between the level of compliance of these standards and the functionality of the system composed by them in the public organizations that we have investigated.

  3. EU-US standards harmonization task group report : feedback to standards development organizations - security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-12

    Harmonization Task Groups 1 and 3 (HTG1 and 3) were established by the EU-US International Standards Harmonization Working Group to attempt to harmonize standards (including ISO, CEN, ETSI, IEEE) on security (HTG1) and communications protocols (HTG3)...

  4. EU-US standards harmonization task group report : feedback to ITS standards development organizations communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Harmonization Task Groups 1 and 3 (HTG1 and 3) were established by the EU-US International Standards Harmonization Working Group to attempt to harmonize standards (including ISO, CEN, ETSI, IEEE) on security (HTG1) and communications protocols (HTG3)...

  5. The Principles of Organization of Internal Control of Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panteleiev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The question to give a convincing assessment of the Rules of the internal controls and present them in the form of principles of organization of internal control. Since the final decision in the form of an exhaustive list and universal principles of internal control is no scientific research continues these principles. It is necessary to examine the logic of the main provisions of the organization's internal control due consideration of the requirements of international practice controls and propose principles of internal control. For this purpose, conducted a critical analysis of the main provisions of internal controls contained in the publications and in the regulations on internal control proceedings. Synthesis of articles of authors of lead scientific and practical journal Ukraine "Accounting and Auditing" for the 1994-2015 biennium pointed out that despite the coverage of current journal articles provisions, principles, requirements, rules and other modern techniques. On internal control and comprehensive set of reasonable response to the organization and classification of internal control is absent. This leads to continue the search key components of the organization's internal control. The above basic concepts in publications on the organization of internal control were used in the formation of a set of principles of control. According to the requirements of the OECD field of internal control includes risk management, cost control, change in control, complete information to guarantee the effectiveness of internal control systems, providing the ability to make decisions and so on. COSO model contains an exhaustive list of five components. The results of the questionnaire trainees have provided compelling arguments for classifying and establishing relevant principles of organization and internal controls were rejected. A list of the basic principles of the organization of internal control, which consists of 25 elements that are shaped

  6. KUALITAS INFORMASI AKUNTANSI PADA TAHAP KONVERGENSI INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Fery Karyada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Accounting Information Quality in Convergence International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS. This study aims to examine the differences of accounting information quality in the IFRS convergence. The method used in this research is multiple regression analysis in non banking and finance companies in 2012-2014. The research shows that overall application of IFRS tended to reduce the quality of accounting information. This research finds that overall application of IFRS tends to reduce the quality of accounting information. This occurs because the differences of IFRS with existing standards, weak law enforcement, and a lack of manager incentives. This result can be an input for various parties in making policy.

  7. How Do Firms Comply with International Sustainability Standards?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigneau, Laurence; Humphreys, Michael; Moon, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the influence of global governance institutions, particularly international sustainability standards, on a firm’s intra-organizational practices. More precisely, we provide an exploratory empirical view of the impact of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI......, the relationships between subsidiaries, the temporal dimension of CSR management and the interpretation of CSR performance. We also highlight the need to look at the relationship dynamics (or lack of) between standards. Finally, we illustrate and discuss the role of reporting and its influence on management...

  8. FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Comprehensive study for promotion of the international standardization; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru hokatsuteki chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project studies the schemes for the international standardization, trends of the international standardization by the international standardization organizations and related organizations, and activities for the international standardization by the enterprises in the advanced countries, among others, in order to promote the international standardization for the 8 research and development themes. These themes are SMIL (synchronized multimedia integration language) tag standard of the three-dimensional image data, based on MXL; systems for detecting gene recombination products; methods for testing mileage of gas-fueled automobiles; measurement of multi-colors; testing/evaluation methods for highly coherent lasers; methods of evaluating optical performance of microlenses for optical information processing; recycled CFRPs; and devices for measuring marine environments. The study results indicate that progress of the development of the international standardization of the advanced technologies can be followed by investigating the characteristics of the ISO publications; ISO is studying the business plans being developed by each TC, in order to improve market adaptability of the international standards; and the European countries add conditions for standardization when the research and development themes are contracted. (NEDO)

  9. To recognize the use of international standards for making harmonized regulation of medical devices in Asia-pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, K; Saini, Ks; Chopra, Y; Binod, Sk

    2010-07-01

    'Medical Devices' include everything from highly sophisticated, computerized, medical equipment, right down to simple wooden tongue depressors. Regulations embody the public expectations for how buildings and facilities are expected to perform and as such represent public policy. Regulators, who develop and enforce regulations, are empowered to act in the public's interest to set this policy and are ultimately responsible to the public in this regard. Standardization contributes to the basic infrastructure that underpins society including health and environment, while promoting sustainability and good regulatory practice. The international organizations that produce International Standards are the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). With the increasing globalization of markets, International Standards (as opposed to regional or national standards) have become critical to the trading process, ensuring a level playing field for exports, and ensuring that imports meet the internationally recognized levels of performance and safety. The development of standards is done in response to sectors and stakeholders that express a clearly established need for them. An industry sector or other stakeholder group typically communicates its requirement for standards to one of the national members. To be accepted for development, a proposed work item must receive a majority support of the participating members, who verify the global relevance of the proposed item. The regulatory authority (RA) should provide a method for the recognition of international voluntary standards and for public notification of such recognition. The process of recognition may vary from country to country. Recognition may occur by periodic publication of lists of standards that a regulatory authority has found will meet the Essential Principles. In conclusion, International standards

  10. The Effect of Standardized Interviews on Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman Dincer, Pelin; Birtan, Deniz; Arslantas, Mustafa Kemal; Tore Altun, Gulbin; Ayanoglu, Hilmi Omer

    2018-03-01

    Organ donation is the most important stage for organ transplant. Studies reveal that attitudes of families of brain-dead patients toward donation play a significant role in their decision. We hypothesized that supporting family awareness about the meaning of organ donation, including saving lives while losing a loved one, combined with being informed about brain death and the donation process must be maintained by intensive care unit physicians through standardized interviews and questionnaires to increase the donation rate. We retrospectively evaluated the final decisions of families of 52 brain-dead donors treated at our institution between 2014 and 2017. Data underwent descriptive analyses. The standard interview content was generated after literature search results were reviewed by the authors. Previously, we examined the impact of standardized interviews done by intensive care unit physicians with relatives of potential brain-dead donors regarding decisions to donate or reasons for refusing organ donation. After termination of that study, interviews were done according to the intensivist's orientation, resulting in significantly decreased donation rates. Standardized interviews were then started again, resulting in increased donation rates. Of 17 families who participated in standardized interviews, 5 families (29.4%) agreed to donate organs of their brain-dead relatives. In the other group of families, intensivists governed informing the families of donation without standardized interviews. In this group of 35 families, 5 families (14.3%) approved organ donation. The decision regarding whether to agree to organ donation was statistically different between the 2 family groups (P donation process resulted in an increased rate of organ donation compared with routine protocols.

  11. Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-01-01

    In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL's analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described

  12. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR FINANCIAL REPORTING: HARMONIZATION IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasho Kozuharov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A continuous flow of reliable, relevant and financially important information is necessary for making economically justified and strategic investment decisions. Economic globalization has contributed to the need of creating a unified language for communication, a single set of international financial reporting standards with the sole purpose of enhancing transparency for investors and reducing the cost of capital. Harmonization of financial reporting provides more efficient use of global resources, easier consolidation of multinational companies foreign subsidiaries, alleviation of accounting staff mobility and reducing of audit costs. The research is based on the benefits that the national economy can gain if the international financial reporting standards are successfully implemented. Special attention in the paper is devoted to the factors that determine the harmonization of financial reporting. The analysis of the results show the managers' perception of financial reporting, and emphasize the effects of the implementation of IFRS in Republic of Macedonia.

  13. Regulatory practices and standards: the international scene and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.; Essler, W.; Maurer, H.A.; Reijen, G. van.

    1978-01-01

    At national level, codification of standards governing the licensing and operation of nuclear installations is very different, ranging from criteria to regulations, according to the degree of the obligation imposed by national authorities; it also reflects the variety of national situations and the peculiarities of the legal and political systems. The need to agree upon a level of nuclear safety which is generally recognised as satisfactory and to exchange scientific and technological information in this field has greatly stimulated international co-operation, in particular within the framework of specialized international organisations such as IAEA, ISO, Euratom and OECD/NEA. Harmonization of such standards is particularly important from the viewpoint of public opinion in the countries concerned. In addition, the intrinsic safety of nuclear power plants, assurances as to the duration of plant life should increasingly be highlighted in future. (NEA) [fr

  14. 77 FR 31680 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Qualification Standards for Market Makers To Receive a Rebate May 22, 2012...-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on May 15, 2012, the International Securities Exchange...

  15. Analysing public relations education through international standards: The Portuguese case

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Gisela Marques Pereira; Spínola, Susana de Carvalho; Padamo, Celma

    2013-01-01

    By using international reports on PR education as a benchmark we analyse the status of PR higher education in Portugal. Despite differences among the study programs, the findings reveal that the standard five courses recommendation by the Commission on Public Relations Education (CPRE) are a part of Portuguese undergraduate curriculum. This includes 12 of the 14 content field guidelines needed to achieve the ideal master's program. Data shows, however, the difficulty of positioning public rel...

  16. International standards for financial reporting: Harmonization in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kozuharov, Sasho; Ristovska, Natasha; Blazeska, Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    A continuous flow of reliable, relevant and financially important information is necessary for making economically justified and strategic investment decisions. Economic globalization has contributed to the need of creating a unified language for communication, a single set of international financial reporting standards with the sole purpose of enhancing transparency for investors and reducing the cost of capital. Harmonization of financial reporting provides more efficient use of...

  17. International standardization of instruments for neutron irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Masataka; Shibata, Akira; Nakamura, Jinichi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Cho, M.; Lee, C.; Park, S.; Choo, K.

    2012-01-01

    The JMTR in JAEA and HANARO in KAERI are the foremost testing/research reactors in the world and these are expected to contribute to many nuclear fields. As a part of instrument development in irradiation field, information exchange of instruments started from 2010 under the cooperation agreements between KAERI and JAEA. The instruments developed in JMTR and HANARO are introduced and cooperation experiments as future plan are discussed for international standardization. (author)

  18. Housekeeping Genes as Internal Standards: Use and Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Thellin, Olivier; Zorzi, Willy; Lakaye, Bernard; De Borman, B.; Coumans, Bernard; Hennen, Georges; Grisar, Thierry; Igout, Ahmed; Heinen, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative studies are commonly realised in the biomedical research to compare RNA expression in different experimental or clinical conditions. These quantifications are performed through their comparison to the expression of the housekeeping gene transcripts like glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), albumin, actins, tubulins, cyclophilin, hypoxantine phsophoribosyltransferase (HRPT), L32. 28S, and 18S rRNAs are also used as internal standards. In this paper, it is recalled tha...

  19. International collaborative study for the calibration of proposed International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Besselaar, A M H P; Chantarangkul, V; Angeloni, F

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of International Standards for thromboplastin is essential for the calibration of routine reagents and hence the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Stocks of the current 4(th) International Standards are running low. Candidate replacement materia......) international standard (rTF/09). The candidate materials have been accepted by WHO as the 5(th) International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit plain, and thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......BACKGROUND: The availability of International Standards for thromboplastin is essential for the calibration of routine reagents and hence the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Stocks of the current 4(th) International Standards are running low. Candidate replacement materials...... have been prepared. This report describes the calibration of the proposed 5(th) International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain (coded RBT/16) and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain (coded rTF/16). METHODS: An international collaborative study was carried out for the assignment...

  20. The Inclusion of Standard Terms in International Sales Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Eiselen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solution to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international trade law. It is generally recognised that in order to achieve harmonisation it isnecessary that courts should interpret and apply the convention in a consistent and harmonious manner. Unfortunately a number of approaches have emerged from courts around the world in regard to the inclusion of standard terms. German courts have developed a strict approach which requires that the standard terms be madeavailable to the addressee at the time of the conclusion of the contract. They also require that the standard terms be couched in the language of the main contract. In stark contrast an American court has used an approach which is very lax in regard to incorporation, even allowing incorporation after the conclusion of the contract. There is, however a more moderate approach set out in decisions of the Austrian Supreme Court where the court adopted an approach which is more akin to that found in most legal systems, namely that a clear incorporation clause in the contract is sufficient for the effective incorporation of standard terms. The author critically examines the case law, the various approaches and the underlying arguments on which they are based, before reaching the conclusion that the two extreme approaches should be rejected in favour of the more moderate approach. This approach is founded on aproper interpretation of the provisions of the CISG as well as being in step with international trade practice.

  1. Nuclear data standards - International Evaluation Co-operation volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.D.; Shibata, K.; Vonach, H.; Hambsch, F.J.; Chen, Z.; Hofmann, H.M.; Oh, S.Y.; Badikov, S.A.; Gai, E.V.; Pronyaev, V.G.; Smith, D.L.; Hale, G.M.; Kawano, T.; Larson, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The working party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The parties to the project are: ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank member countries) and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries is organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report was issued by Subgroup 7, which was in charge of producing new evaluated neutron cross-section standards. When starting the project, there was a general consensus on the need to update these standards, as significant improvements had been made to the experimental database since 1991 when the last evaluation of these standards was performed. The present work was accomplished through efficient collaboration between a task force of the US Cross-section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Subgroup 7 of the Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee. Work is reported on the results of an international effort to evaluate the neutron cross-section standards. The evaluations include the H(n,n), 6 Li(n,t), 10 B(n,α), 10 B(n,α1γ), 197 Au(n,γ), 235 U(n,f) and 238 U(n,f) standard reactions. Evaluations were also produced for the non-standard 238 U(n,γ) and 239 Pu

  2. CURRENT FEATURES OF THE INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    ЯНІКІН, С.В.; ДВНЗ «КНЕУ імені Вадима Гетьмана», кафедра міжнародних фінансів

    2011-01-01

     This article describes a number of ways, which may facilitate the improvement of activities of international financial institutions at the present level of the global financial system development. Particular attention is paid to the problem of international public goods and their delivery by international financial institutions. Further, an approach of financial dedollarisation of IFIs is discussed as one of highly effective mechanisms. In addition, the article raised and examined in detail ...

  3. Profiling health-care accreditation organizations: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Charles D; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Moldovan, Max; Nicklin, Wendy; Grgic, Ileana; Fortune, Triona; Whittaker, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    To describe global patterns among health-care accreditation organizations (AOs) and to identify determinants of sustainability and opportunities for improvement. Web-based questionnaire survey. Organizations offering accreditation services nationally or internationally to health-care provider institutions or networks at primary, secondary or tertiary level in 2010. s) External relationships, scope and activity public information. Forty-four AOs submitted data, compared with 33 in a survey 10 years earlier. Of the 30 AOs that reported survey activity in 2000 and 2010, 16 are still active and stable or growing. New and old programmes are increasingly linked to public funding and regulation. While the number of health-care AOs continues to grow, many fail to thrive. Successful organizations tend to complement mechanisms of regulation, health-care funding or governmental commitment to quality and health-care improvement that offer a supportive environment. Principal challenges include unstable business (e.g. limited market, low uptake) and unstable politics. Many organizations make only limited information available to patients and the public about standards, procedures or results.

  4. Development of international standards for surface analysis by ISO technical committee 201 on surface chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established Technical Committee 201 on Surface Chemical Analysis in 1991 to develop documentary standards for surface analysis. ISO/TC 201 met first in 1992 and has met annually since. This committee now has eight subcommittees (Terminology, General Procedures, Data Management and Treatment, Depth Profiling, AES, SIMS, XPS, and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS)) and one working group (Total X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Each subcommittee has one or more working groups to develop standards on particular topics. Australia has observer-member status on ISO/TC 201 and on all ISO/TC 201 subcommittees except GDS where it has participator-member status. I will outline the organization of ISO/TC 201 and summarize the standards that have been or are being developed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  5. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, Harry IV

    1990-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms and applications of radiation processing. To date, the group has completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment. This set will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies or other standards-setting organizations for their procedures and protocols. (author)

  6. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to solicit comment on specific issues...

  7. 78 FR 54606 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY... hazardous air pollutants for stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines and the standards of performance for stationary internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the EPA received three petitions for...

  8. Investigations on international standardization of environmental management systems. 3; Kankyo kanri system no kokusai hyojunka ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Japan as an ISO member country identifies the state of discussions in the environmental management standard deliberation committee at ISO. Investigations were performed on international standardization of environmental management systems for the purpose of participating and cooperating in preparing and establishing international standards related to environmental management, and playing part in working, solving and improving environmental problems. Under the circumstances that environmental problems are drawing worldwide interest, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has been carrying out since 1993 deliberations on environmental management standards to institutionalize environmental management rules to check effects of business activities on the environment. The International Organization for Standardization/Environmental Management Technical Committee (ISO/TC207) was installed, at which series number of 1400 order was allotted for environmental management related standards, and major standards have come to a final stage of standard formulation at the TC207 Oslo conference in June 1995. In Japan, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry has established an environmental management standard deliberation committee composed of people of experience or academic standing to advance discussions on how the environmental management should be in business entities through deliberations on ISO standards.

  9. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIEKHOVA L. L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the presented research is to explore the potential of international energy management standards to increase competitiveness of industrial enterprises under conditions of Ukrainian transitional economy. The study had the following objectives: to trace the evolution of fundamental energy efficiency standards; to discuss experience in their use in various countries; to identify factors that are key to achieving competitive advantage under the implementation ISO 50001. Methodology. This article presents a historical overview of the standardisation of principles and approaches for the purpose of the energy-efficient management. The research was carried out by studying the international documents, voluntary standards and national practices in the field of energy efficiency. Conclusions. The study examines the experiences of different countries in the field of energy management systems. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of the ISO 50001 with the other basic standards for the organisation of management. The system approach enables to identify the main factors and their impact on capacity to achieve competitive advantages, which are possible to obtain after certification to ISO 50001. Originality. The study reviewed and analysed the energy management penetration within its dynamics at time and country level. After analysing the statistical data and the results of the interviews, the authors identified 20 key factors affecting the competitiveness of enterprises that are certified to ISO 50001. All of these factors were divided into four groups, two groups represent external environment – opportunities and threats, and two groups – internal capacity – strengths and weaknesses of enterprises. Practical value. The proposed system of factors may be useful for the planning of actions towards strengthening the capacity of energy management systems in the context of the formation competitive advantages on the industrial

  10. Newly developed standard reference materials for organic contaminant analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poster, D.; Kucklick, J.; Schantz, M.; Porter, B.; Wise, S. [National Inst. of Stand. and Technol., Gaithersburg, MD (USA). Center for Anal. Chem.

    2004-09-15

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has issued a number of Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for specified analytes. The SRMs are biota and biological related materials, sediments and particle related SRMs. The certified compounds for analysis are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitro-analogues, chlorinated pesticides, methylmercury, organic tin compounds, fatty acids, polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDE). The authors report on origin of materials and analytic methods. (uke)

  11. Importance of Internal Audit and Internal Control in an organization - Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bubilek, Olga

    2017-01-01

    This research is a descriptive case study of a company. It presents concepts of the internal audit and internal control based on an example of a Finnish company. The research examines the role and importance that internal audit and internal controls have in an organization. The main research question is “What is the role and importance of internal audit and internal control in an organization” Additional sub-questions relating to the case company that will allow for better understanding of...

  12. Curricula and Organization of Primary Care Residencies in Internal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, John M.

    1980-01-01

    The organization and curricula of internal medicine residencies programs that emphasize primary care are described and compared with traditional residencies in internal medicine. It is noted that primary care residents spend more time in ambulatory care and are allowed more electives in specialties outside of internal medicine. Out-of-hospital…

  13. A change of course: The importance to DoD of international standards for electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Judith E.

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is committed to using electronic commerce in the future with the over 300,000 vendors interested in doing business with DoD. Electronic commerce will move DoD from a paper-based world to one based on electronic transactions enabled by the exchange of formatted, electronic messages referred to as electronic data interchange (EDI). With electronic commerce, DoD plans to reduce costs, increase effectiveness, and make it easier for vendors to deal with DoD. Benefits from electronic commerce are enhanced when many businesses use the same standards for EDI messages themselves and their transmission. The fewer standards used, the less time and resources must be spent translating messages and agreeing on how to use different standards. To enhance benefits and smooth the transition to electronic commerce for itself and its vendors, DoD has chosen to use the widely accepted American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X12 standards for EDI messages, coupled with international standards for delivering messages and organizing addresses. In the past 18 months, EDI standards sponsored by a United Nations body and serving the same purpose as ANSI X12 message standards have begun to gain wider acceptance internationally.

  14. 5th international conference on certification and standardization in NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains 30 lectures (in form of manuscripts or abstracts) and 6 posters with the following topics: 1. Some Critical Remarks from German Chemical Industry on Certification and Accreditation in NDT. 2. Global Impact of International Standard ISO 9712. 3. Maintaining Concurrent Compliance with Multiple NDT Personnel Certification Standards. 4. The Revision of the New Approach. 5. Comparison between prEN 473 Currently Submitted to Formal Vote and ISO 9712:2005. 6. Accreditation and Certification - a Contradiction?. 7. The Way We Were. 8. EFNDT-Question-Data-Bank (QDB). 9. NDT Certification in Turkey as an European Country- How It Couldn't Work as the Only Example?. 10. Validation of Practical Examination Specimens. 11. Examination Bank Structure for Radiographic Testing (RT) - An Example. 12. About the New Classification of NDT Methods Based on Positions of Risks and Equipment Life Assessment. 13. Olympus NDT Training Academy. 14. Harmonisation of Personnel Certification Schemes for Non-destructive Testing in the Asia-Pacific Region. 15. How EFNDT Can Help in Accreditation or Recognition/Approval of NDT Certification Bodies? 16. SNT-TC-1A - 40 Years of Employer Certification for NDT Personnel. 17. The Same NDT Certification Scheme for Everybody: a Dream or a Need. 18. 19. Personnel Certification for Thermographers - Status and Trends. 20. Guided Wave Training and Certification. 21. Examination Radiographs and Master Reports for the Industrial Sectors 6 and 7. 22. New Standards ISO 24497 on the Metal Magnetic Memory Method. The Program of Personnel Training and Certification. 23. The Use of the Psychometrics in NDT Certification Programs. 24. EFNDT Guidelines ''Overall NDT Quality System''. 25. The Role of the Forum for National Aerospace NDT Boards. 26. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 27. Don't Forget, We Are Supposed to Be Representing Industry. 28. The Need for Standardization in NDT Personnel Certification. 29. NDT

  15. Updating the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care. Entering the era of molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Philip C; Fair, Elizabeth L; Uplekar, Mukund

    2014-03-01

    The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care, first published in 2006 (Lancet Infect Dis 2006;6:710-725.) with a second edition in 2009 ( www.currytbcenter.ucsf.edu/international/istc_report ), was produced by an international coalition of organizations funded by the United States Agency for International Development. Development of the document was led jointly by the World Health Organization and the American Thoracic Society, with the aim of promoting engagement of all care providers, especially those in the private sector in low- and middle-income countries, in delivering high-quality services for tuberculosis. In keeping with World Health Organization recommendations regarding rapid molecular testing, as well as other pertinent new recommendations, the third edition of the Standards has been developed. After decades of dormancy, the technology available for tuberculosis care and control is now rapidly evolving. In particular, rapid molecular testing, using devices with excellent performance characteristics for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance, and that are practical and affordable for use in decentralized facilities in low-resource settings, is being widely deployed globally. Used appropriately, both within tuberculosis control programs and in private laboratories, these devices have the potential to revolutionize tuberculosis care and control, providing a confirmed diagnosis and a determination of rifampin resistance within a few hours, enabling appropriate treatment to be initiated promptly. Major changes have been made in the standards for diagnosis. Additional important changes include: emphasis on the recognition of groups at increased risk of tuberculosis; updating the standard on antiretroviral treatment in persons with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection; and revising the standard on treating multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  16. Child organ trafficking: global reality and inadequate international response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    In organ transplantation, the demand for human organs has grown far faster than the supply of organs. This has opened the door for illegal organ trade and trafficking including from children. Organized crime groups and individual organ brokers exploit the situation and, as a result, black markets are becoming more numerous and organized organ trafficking is expanding worldwide. While underprivileged and vulnerable men and women in developing countries are a major source of trafficked organs, and may themselves be trafficked for the purpose of illegal organ removal and trade, children are at especial risk of exploitation. With the confirmed cases of children being trafficked for their organs, child organ trafficking, which once called a "modern urban legend", is a sad reality in today's world. By presenting a global picture of child organ trafficking, this paper emphasizes that child organ trafficking is no longer a myth but a reality which has to be addressed. It argues that the international efforts against organ trafficking and trafficking in human beings for organ removal have failed to address child organ trafficking adequately. This chapter suggests that more orchestrated international collaboration as well as development of preventive measure and legally binding documents are needed to fight child organ trafficking and to support its victims.

  17. Non-governmental organizations internal communication in reputation management

    OpenAIRE

    Vaicekauskaitė, Renata

    2010-01-01

    The object of this study is non-governmental organization’s internal communication and its role in reputation management. The aim of this study is to analyse the context of non-governmental organization reputation management and according to it find out the significance of the internal communication factors in non-governmental organization reputation management. The tasks of the study: to analyse the factors which have settled the need of non-governmental organization reputation management; t...

  18. Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations. Date Effective: 1 January 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Plan is to describe the inter-agency framework for preparedness for and response to a radiation5 incident or emergency irrespective of its cause. In particular, its objectives are: 1. To provide a common understanding of the emergency preparedness and response roles and responsibilities, objectives, authorities, capabilities and arrangements of each participating international organization, and any relevant inter-agency arrangements; 2. To provide an overall concept of operations between the international organizations based on the emergency response objectives, responsibilities, authorities, capabilities and arrangements of each participating international organization, and any existing inter-agency arrangements, in order to facilitate a timely, effective and co-ordinated response; 3. To facilitate development of agreements among the participating international organizations on practical issues, if appropriate; 4. To provide a common understanding of the process for improving and changing the inter-agency response arrangements; 5. To provide a common understanding of roles and responsibilities of the participating international organizations with respect to: international standards, supporting national capabilities through provision of guidance and training, relevant research, emergency exercises and other preparedness considerations; 6. To guide the managers in each participating organization who need to ensure that all appropriate arrangements are given the necessary support within their organization; 7. To facilitate the well founded development, maintenance and training of plans and procedures for each organization; 8. To draw the attention of personnel in States and international organizations6 to these arrangements and to facilitate the development of compatible arrangements, if appropriate. The Joint Plan describes the arrangements of the participating international organizations7 for responding to a radiation incident or emergency

  19. CSNI International Standard Problems (ISP). Brief descriptions (1975-1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    Between 1975 and 1994 the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored some forty International Standard Problems (ISPs) in the fields of in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulics. ISPs are comparative exercises in which predictions of different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other or with the results of a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP exercises is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of tools which are used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. Moreover, they enable code users to gain experience and demonstrate their competence. ISPs are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. In an open Standard Problem the results of the experiment are available to the participants before performing the calculations, while in a blind Standard Problem the results are locked until the calculational results are made available for comparison. Experiments selected to support ISP exercises are exceptionally well documented; they provide the framework for several code validation matrices. This report briefly describes 36 ISPs and 3 containment analysis standard problems (CASP)

  20. Primary standardization of cesium-137 for international intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.K.

    1977-01-01

    Primary standards of cesium-137 are of great importance for precise radiation measurements because, due to its simple decay-scheme and long half-life, it is widely used for the calibration of radiation detectors. Also 137 Cs is used for the measurement of fission-yield and uranium burn-up in reactor engineering studies. In view of these, an international intercomparison was organised on a limited scale to correlate the standards established at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay(India) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), West Germany. The ''efficiency tracing technique'' was developed at BARC for the primary standardization of 137 Cs for this intercomparison. Two tracers, namely 82 Br and 60 Co, were employed to trace the beta efficiency of the 4 πβ-γ coincidence counting system. It is shown that this technique offers high accuracy and inherent reliability. The ''tracing-technique'' for 137 Cs standardization is briefly described. The gravimetric method of dilution and preparation of mixed sources of 137 Cs - 82 Br and 137 Cs - 60 Co are given. The various counting parameters and settings are included. Data reduction and the estimation of systematic and statistical errors are discussed. The results of the intercomparison, which are also included, show that the agreement between the measurments of BARC and PTB is within 0.5%. (author)

  1. The Role Of Soft Law Acts In The Mechanism Of Functioning Of International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga N. Shpakovych

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Present article focuses on the norms of soft law in the framework of international organizations. Today majority of scientists become an interesting phenomenon decision of international organizations which are increasingly sound as a category of "soft law" and its influence on the development of international law in general. International organizations cease to be the "second" subject of international law, and if you have not won the first place, it is only a matter of time. In the article the role of soft law in the mechanism of international organizations functioning are shown, the legal nature and impact of these acts on the member states. In our opinion, norms of "soft law", as a rule, contained in resolutions of international organizations are non-binding and do not formally bind member states. Norms of "soft law" are often adheres by the states and moreover are implemented into the national legal systems by incorporating similar in content standards into the national legislation. This is due to the fact that norms of "soft law" has a weight of moral and political significance and, as a rule, are created by organizations that have a considerable authority. Jurists generally distinguish two kinds of acts of recommendatory force: model acts (laws and recommended acts which are not model, adopted in the framework of international organizations. In this connection the question of each mentioned method influence on the legislation of state. In our opinion, one of distinguishing features of the model recommendatory acts has is quite limited influence on the law of states and a narrow scope. At the same time, recommendatory acts of some specialized international organizations have a more complex effect on the development of national legislation, contain the highest level of standards, and as well develop international treaty provisions.

  2. International and national radiation protection standards and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    The recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and their basis are discussed with particular emphasis on the extensive review of its earlier recommendations undertaken by the ICRP during the 1970s. The new recommendations issued in 1977 after this review are described. The dose limits for various organs and tissues before and after 1977 are compared. The optimization principle contained in the 1977 recommendations is assessed. The implementation of the 1977 recommendations, the subsequent changes to them and the ICRP's 1987 statement on cancer risk assessments are discussed. The National Radiological Protection Board's October 1987 radiation protection recommendations are outlined. 8 refs., 1 fig

  3. Effect of International Standards Certification on Firm-Level Exports: An Application of the Control Function Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tsunehiro Otsuki

    2011-01-01

    Growing number of firms in developing countries have earned certifications such as International Standards Organization (ISO) as it enhances reputation of their company or brand and attract buyers particularly in export market. This study evaluates the effect of international standards certification on firm's export performance in Europe and Central Asia by applying the control function approach with endogenous treatment effect to firm-level data. Certification is found to increase export sha...

  4. 25 CFR 542.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for the... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.14 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this...

  5. 25 CFR 542.8 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for pull... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.8 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this...

  6. Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarwinski, R.; Crick, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO-as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS-the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as record keeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR. (authors)

  7. Electromagnetic field standards in Central and Eastern European countries: current state and stipulations for international harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajsek, P; Pakhomov, A G; Klauenberg, B J

    2002-04-01

    Electromagnetic field standards in the West are based on well-established acute biological effects that could be considered as signaling a potentially adverse health effect. The specific absorption rate, which is proportional to the tissue heating (thermal effects), represents the basic restriction of exposure to Radio-Frequency (RF) fields. On the other hand, Eastern European standards are designed to protect from potential non-thermal effects that might be caused by chronic exposure to very low intensities, where a so-called "power load" (a product of field intensity and duration of exposure) represents the basic limitation. Thus, electromagnetic field standards in Eastern European countries differ considerably from those which are proposed by the International Commission of Non-ionizing Radiation Protection and the Standards Coordinating Committee 28 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. In the present paper, the strategies for development of exposure limit values in electromagnetic fields standards currently in force in Eastern and Central European countries are discussed. Some differences as well as similarities of the national health and safety standards and the main obstacles to harmonization of these standards with those being established by Western national and international organizations and agencies are presented.

  8. Organizing socially constructed internal and external resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorge, A

    The analysis of economic institutions stands to gain from a consideration of the interactionist theory of institutions, a resource-based view of organizations to develop business and economic perspectives, and a linkage between the two and any theory of economic institutions. A resource-based view

  9. Adopting the international financial reporting standards: a positive impact on 2004 income and consolidated equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallet, O.

    2005-03-01

    This document provides preliminary information on the quantitative impact of transition to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on AREVA 2004 financial position, in accordance with AMF recommendations regarding financial communications during the transition period.The basis for preparing 2004 information on transition to the IFRS comes from: the International Accounting Standards (IAS)/IFRS, as approved by the European Union. The impact of IAS 32/39 and IFRS 4 will not be recognized in shareholders equity until January 1, 2005; AREVA anticipation of the resolution of technical issues and ongoing projects under discussion by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). Uncertainty factors on practical methods for applying certain standards and ongoing interpretations by IFRIC and regulatory organizations could impact the exactness of restatements identified at this stage. For all of these reasons, it is conceivable that the opening balance sheet at January 1, 2004, as presented in this document, will not be the balance sheet actually used to establish the consolidated financial statements for 2005. (author)

  10. Concrete blocks. Analysis of UNE, ISO en standards and comparison with other international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Alonso, Marina

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to describe the recently approved UNE standards through a systematic analysis of the main specifications therein contained and the values considered for each of them, as well as the drafts for ISO and EN concrete block standards. Furthermore, the study tries to place the set of ISO standards in the international environment through a comparative analysis against a representative sample of the standards prevailing in various geographical regions of the globe to determine the analogies and differences among them. PALABRAS CLAVE: albañilería, análisis de sistemas, bloque de hormigón, muros de fábrica, normativa KEY WORDS: masonry, system analysis, concrete blocks, masonry walls, standards

    En este trabajo se pretende describir la reciente aprobada normativa UNE, analizando sistemáticamente las principales prescripciones contempladas y los valores considerados para cada una de ellas, así como los proyectos de Norma ISO, y EN sobre bloques de hormigón. Asimismo se intenta situar la normativa UNE en al ámbito internacional, haciendo un análisis comparativo con una representación de Normas de distintas regiones geográficas del mundo, determinando sus analogías y diferencias.

  11. Professional radiation protection societies and the international organizations – exploiting the synergies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, Phil

    2013-07-01

    Radiation protection covers many disciplines from science through philosophy to law, and interacts with many human activities and endeavors. Professional societies for radiation protection were established and evolved throughout the second half of the twentieth century in many countries, and presently represent more than twenty thousand professionals working in more than fifty countries. During the same period a number of international organizations were established, some devoted to radiation safety, others with a role to play in radiation safety; such organizations being either independent non-governmental organizations or intergovernmental organizations of both regional and international dimensions. The national, regional and international radiation protection societies and associations have become the vehicle to provide this conduit from the profession to the international organizations. This is achieved by IRPA having representation within the relevant committees of the various international bodies, such as the Radiation Safety Standards Committee (RASSC) of the IAEA. At a national level radiation protection professionals can gain access to all international developments in radiation protection through the national societies and their interactions with IRPA and also as individual members of IRPA. The possibility to provide consolidated comment and feedback to the international organizations through national societies provides excellent opportunities for societies to organize national workshops and discussion platforms on all important areas of radiation protection.

  12. Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Ralph H B; Amato, Maria Pia; Boringa, Jan; Brochet, Bruno; Foley, Fred; Fredrikson, Stan; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hartung, Hans; Krupp, Lauren; Penner, Iris; Reder, Anthony T; Langdon, Dawn

    2012-07-16

    An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different languages and countries were discussed. Five steps to achieve optimal psychometric validation were proposed. In Step 1, test stimuli should be standardized for the target culture or language under consideration. In Step 2, examiner instructions must be standardized and translated, including all information from manuals necessary for administration and interpretation. In Step 3, samples of at least 65 healthy persons should be studied for normalization, matched to patients on demographics such as age, gender and education. The objective of Step 4 is test-retest reliability, which can be investigated in a small sample of MS and/or healthy volunteers over 1-3 weeks. Finally, in Step 5, criterion validity should be established by comparing MS and healthy controls. At this time, preliminary studies are underway in a number of countries as we move forward with this international assessment tool for cognition in MS.

  13. INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF ORGANIZING SCHOOL NUTRITION

    OpenAIRE

    V.R. Kuchma; Zh.Yu. Gorelova

    2008-01-01

    The experience of organizing school nutrition in Europe and usais analyzed. It is noted that long term programs aimed at optimizing schoolchildren nutrition have a beneficial effect on the children's health, culture of their nutrition and quality of life. The importance of carrying out similar programs in Russia is beyond any doubt: according to population research, the basic principles of good nutrition are often not observed, and school breakfasts and lunches do not correspond to the age ph...

  14. Radiology trainer. Torso, internal organs and vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, A.; Ertl-Wagner, B.

    2006-01-01

    This book enables students to simulate examinations. The Radiology Trainer series comprises the whole knowledge of radiology in the form of case studies for self-testing. It is based on the best-sorted German-language collection of radiological examinations of all organ regions. Step by step, radiological knowledge is trained in order to make diagnoses more efficient. The book series ensures optimal preparation for the final medical examinations and is also a valuable tool for practical training. (orig.)

  15. International Longitudinal Paediatric Reference Standards for Bone Mineral Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Jones, Adam DG; McKay, Heather; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don

    2014-01-01

    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women’s Health Study (n=112) and Stanford’s Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement in predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (P accrual; Hispanic 75.4 (28.2) g less BMC accrual; Blacks 82.8 (26.3) g more BMC accrual with confounders of age, height and weight controlled. Similar findings were found for PF and FN. Female models for all sites were similar with age, height and weight all independent significant predictors of BMC accrual (P accounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in paediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific. PMID:19854308

  16. International longitudinal pediatric reference standards for bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don; McKay, Heather

    2010-01-01

    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site-specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women's Health Study (n=112) and Stanford's Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement between predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (Paccrual; Hispanic 75.4 (28.2) g less BMC accrual; Blacks 82.8 (26.3) g more BMC accrual with confounders of age, height and weight controlled. We report similar findings for the PF and FN. Models for females for all sites were similar with age, height and weight as independent significant predictors of BMC accrual (Paccounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in pediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in 60 Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and satisfies

  18. International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in {sup 60}Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and

  19. Prospects of implementation of "Basel III" international standards for domestic banks based on international experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baha Oksana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the main requirements of the "Basel III" new standards in the context of banks capital regulation and identifies prospects for implementation of domestic banks based on analysis of international experience. The urgency of the problem is formulated in the need to restore the stability of the banking system of Ukraine with the new standards, which purpose is to increase the stability of banks and to protect the rights of financial services consumers. The main threats faced by the banking systems of developed countries and possible for the Ukrainian financial system were determined. The ways of achieving maximum benefits of new banking reform introduction were proposed.

  20. The privileges and immunities of international organizations in domestic courts

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    International organizations are increasingly operating across borders and engaging in legal transactions in virtually all jurisdictions. This makes, familiarity with the applicable law and practice imperative for both international organizations and those who engage in legal relations with them. Furthermore, the issue of whether, how, and to what extent domestic courts take into account decisions of foreign and international courts and tribunals in their own decision-making has become increasingly important in recent years. This book provides a comprehensive empirical study of this transnational judicial dialogue, focusing on the law and practice of domestic jurisdictions concerning the legal personality, privileges, and immunities of international organizations. It presents a selection of detailed country-by-country studies, examining the manner of judicial dialogue across domestic jurisdictions, and between national and international courts. The approach taken in this book intersects with three highly topi...

  1. CANDIED PUMPKIN; TECHNOLOGY FOR ITS PREPARATION AND STANDARD FOR ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Pavlov; N. A. Golubkina; L. M. Shilo; E. V. Baranova; G. A. Khimich

    2017-01-01

    Standard for organization for candied pumpkin has been developed. Industrial raw material. The following ‘Technical Specifications’ included: definitions, terms, abbreviations, technical requirements, orders of reception, trial methods, transportation and storage, labor protection, fire security and reference list. The product is pumpkin pulp cut to pieces of different shapes and sizes boiled in sugar syrup, dried and coated with granulated sugar. Fruits of pumpkin that need for production ar...

  2. Contribution from twenty two years of CSNI International Standard Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This report provides a brief overview on the contribution of some CSNI International Standard Problems (ISPs) to nuclear reactor safety issues (41 ISPs performed over the last 22 years). This CSNI activity on ISPs has been one of the major activities of the Principal Working Group no.2 on Coolant System Behaviour. Its domain extended from thermal-hydraulics to several other accident domains following the main concerns of nuclear reactor safety, e.g., LOCA predictions fuel behaviour, operator procedures, containment thermal-hydraulics severe accidents, VVERs, etc. ISPs are providing unique material and benefits for some safety related issues. Clearly, all the technical findings and benefits provided by ISPs are still needed and contribute to advancement of nuclear safety. The report provides some overview on the general objectives of ISPs, content and types of ISPs, and technical domains covered by ISPs, followed by a synthesis of technical findings and benefits to the scientific community

  3. International Standards to Reduce Emissions from Marine Diesel Engines and Their Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of EPA coordination with International Maritime Organization including a list of all international regulations and materials related to emissions from marine compression-ignition (diesel) engines.

  4. International standard for the charging of electric vehicles; Internationaler Standard fuer das Laden von Elektrofahrzeugen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathoy, A.

    2001-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the situation regarding the standardisation of battery charging systems for electric vehicles. The advantages of an international standard both for users and manufacturers of electrically-powered vehicles are discussed. The work done in the IEC and CENELEC technical committees is reviewed. Developments achieved since 1999 are reviewed and further developments and work to be done are examined. The most important points in the IEC standard 61851 are looked at and various connector interfaces are described. Direct and inductive charging systems according to IEC 61980 are examined and the special situation in Italy, where power available in homes for the charging of electrical vehicles is more limited, is reviewed.

  5. International organizations as corporate actors: Agency and emergence in theories of international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Maier-Rigaud, Remi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the implicit and explicit conceptualizations of international organizations found in the three major theories of international relations are outlined and compared. It turns out that in a neorealist framework, international organizations can be explained; however, they exhibit no autonomy and cannot therefore be conceptualized as a corporate actor. Principally, the same applies to rational choice institutionalism, although limited autonomy is conceivable. Both theories are reduc...

  6. Standardized computer-based organized reporting of EEG SCORE - Second version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Aurlien, Harald; Brøgger, Jan C

    2017-01-01

    Standardized terminology for computer-based assessment and reporting of EEG has been previously developed in Europe. The International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology established a taskforce in 2013 to develop this further, and to reach international consensus. This work resulted in the se......Standardized terminology for computer-based assessment and reporting of EEG has been previously developed in Europe. The International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology established a taskforce in 2013 to develop this further, and to reach international consensus. This work resulted...... in the second, revised version of SCORE (Standardized Computer-based Organized Reporting of EEG), which is presented in this paper. The revised terminology was implemented in a software package (SCORE EEG), which was tested in clinical practice on 12,160 EEG recordings. Standardized terms implemented in SCORE....... In the end, the diagnostic significance is scored, using a standardized list of terms. SCORE has specific modules for scoring seizures (including seizure semiology and ictal EEG patterns), neonatal recordings (including features specific for this age group), and for Critical Care EEG Terminology. SCORE...

  7. [The revised Dutch College of General Practitioners' standard on COPD and the first international WHO standard: differences and similarities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schayck, C P

    2002-02-23

    Two standards on COPD have recently been published: the revised national standard from the Dutch College of General Practitioners and the first international standard published by the World Health Organization and the US National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. The reduced emphasis on the role of spirometry in the monitoring and evaluation of treatment is an important change in these new standards compared to previous ones. Cessation of smoking is considered to be central to the prevention and treatment of COPD. Doctors should strongly support this approach and, more than before, are urged to view COPD as a disease caused by addiction. Bronchodilators are the cornerstone of symptomatic treatment of COPD, particularly the long-acting ones due to their ease of administration and effective treatment of morning dyspnoea. Inhalation corticosteroids should only be administered as a trial treatment and only under certain conditions. Continuation of treatment with these agents is only justified if there is a demonstrated improvement in lung function, exacerbations or symptoms, although the precise area of indication is not yet clear.

  8. The European Union CREATE project: a model for international standardization of allergy diagnostics and vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, Martin D.; Ferreira, Fatima; Villalba, Mayte; Cromwell, Oliver; Bryan, Donna; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Durham, Stephen; Vieths, Stefan; van Ree, Ronald; Aalbers, M.; Notten, S.; Ooievaar-de Heer, P.; Ferreira, F.; Gademaier, G.; Wallner, M.; Villalba, M.; Rodriguez, R.; Becker, W.-M.; Eberhardt, F.; Lepp, U.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Valenta, R.; Focke, M.; Bryan, D.; Dolman, C.; Das, R. G.; Vieths, S.; Fötisch, K.; Di Felice, G.; Pini, C.; Cromwell, O.; Fiebig, H.; Weber, B.; van Schijndel, H.; Dorpema, J. W.; Marco, F. M.; Monsalve, R.; Barber, D.; Caldas, E. Fernandez; Moingeon, P.; Didierlaurent, A.; André, C.; Kroon, A.; Neubauer, A.; Chapman, M.; Vailes, L.; Tsay, A.; Durham, S.; Custovic, A.; Simpson, B.; Knulst, A.; Rivas, M. Fernández; Mancebo, E. Gonzalez; Bahima, A. Cistero; Moncin, M. M. San Miguel; Mari, A.; Kinaciyan, T.; Quiralte, J.; Pauli, G.; de Blay, F.; Purohit, A.; Rak, S.

    2008-01-01

    Allergen measurements are used extensively in the formulation of allergy diagnostics and vaccines, yet no purified international allergen standards are available for calibration purposes. The aims of the European Union CREATE project were to develop international standards with verifiable allergen

  9. International Review of Standards and Labeling Programs for Distribution Transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scholand, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carreño, Ana María [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hernandez, Carolina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-20

    Transmission and distribution (T&D) losses in electricity networks represent 8.5% of final energy consumption in the world. In Latin America, T&D losses range between 6% and 20% of final energy consumption, and represent 7% in Chile. Because approximately one-third of T&D losses take place in distribution transformers alone, there is significant potential to save energy and reduce costs and carbon emissions through policy intervention to increase distribution transformer efficiency. A large number of economies around the world have recognized the significant impact of addressing distribution losses and have implemented policies to support market transformation towards more efficient distribution transformers. As a result, there is considerable international experience to be shared and leveraged to inform countries interested in reducing distribution losses through policy intervention. The report builds upon past international studies of standards and labeling (S&L) programs for distribution transformers to present the current energy efficiency programs for distribution transformers around the world.

  10. International Financial Reporting Standards and Earnings Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Augusto Timm Rathke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the level of earnings management in Latin America after the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and analyzes the role of cross-listing in the United States. The literature on earnings management in less developed countries is still under construction, and few studies focus on this issue, especially with respect to Latin America, despite its relevant role in the global economy. This paper fills this gap in the literature as it analyzes the level of IFRS earnings management regarding the first and main Latin American countries applying IFRS (Brazil and Chile, when compared to the main Anglo-Saxon countries with IFRS tradition (United Kingdom and Australia, and with the main Continental European economies (France and Germany. The results show that Latin American firms present a higher level of earnings management than Continental European and Anglo-Saxon firms, and this opportunistic behavior remains significant when only global players with cross-listing in the United States are analyzed. Thus, even with a unique set of high quality accounting standards (IFRS and strong reporting incentives, countries’ specific characteristics still play an important role in the way IFRS is implemented in each country.

  11. CSNI International standard problems (ISP): brief descriptions (1975-1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    Over the last twenty years (1975-1999) the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored more than forty International Standard Problems (ISPs) in the fields of in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulic, and iodine behaviour in the containment. ISPs are comparative exercises in which predictions of different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other or with the results of a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP exercises is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools or testing procedures which are needed in warranting the safety of nuclear installations, and to demonstrate the competence of involved institutions. ISP exercises are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. The main characteristics of 41 ISPs completed between 1975 and 1999, and 3 containment analysis standard problems (CASPs) are briefly presented

  12. Approaches to the international standards application in healthcare and public health in different countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Sarancha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of consequent development, and guided by an increasing demand of different types of the organizations regarding structured management, the system of standardization has been established. The idea behind standardization is adjusting the characteristics of a product, process or a production cycle to make them consistent and in line with the rules regarding what is proper and acceptable. The “standard” is a document that specifies such established set of criteria covering a broad range of topics and applicable to commissioners of health, specialists in primary care, public health staff, and social care providers, as well as the local authorities and service users. Health products, ranging from medical devices and health informatics to traditional medicines and unconventional healing tools are all in the focus of standards’ application. Different countries have their own quality management traditions based on their history, mentality, socio-economic environment and the local regulations. Taking into consideration that community social system organization and the quality of social infrastructure are the main foundations of social relations and future prosperity, here we review the existing standardization environment in the health sector in different countries, both developed and those on a convergence path. We focused on standardization environment in the United States of America, Great Britain, Germany, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Croatia and Albania. In order to simplify comprehension, we also demonstrate the algorithm of standardization, as well as the opportunities for application of the international standards in healthcare and public health.

  13. International standards for tuberculosis care: Relevance and implications for laboratory professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On World Tuberculosis (TB Day 2006, the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC was officially released and widely endorsed by several agencies and organizations. The ISTC release was the culmination of a year long global effort to develop and set internationally acceptable, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care. The ISTC describes a widely endorsed level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing individuals who have or are suspected of having, TB and is intended to facilitate the effective engagement of all healthcare providers in delivering high quality care for patients of all ages, including those with smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB, TB caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TB/HIV coinfection. In this article, we present the ISTC, with a special focus on the diagnostic standards and describe their implications and relevance for laboratory professionals in India and worldwide. Laboratory professionals play a critical role in ensuring that all the standards are actually met by providing high quality laboratory services for smear microscopy, culture and drug susceptibility testing and other services such as testing for HIV infection. In fact, if the ISTC is widely followed, it can be expected that there will be a greater need and demand for quality assured laboratory services and this will have obvious implications for all laboratories in terms of work load, requirement for resources and trained personnel and organization of quality assurance systems.

  14. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  15. ASTEC participation in the international standard problem on KAEVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, P.; Van Dorsselaere, J.P.; Schwinges, B.; Schwarz, S.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the International Standard Problem no 44 was aerosol depletion behaviour under severe accident conditions in a LWR containment examined in the KAEVER test facility of Battelle (Germany). Nine organisations participated with 5 different codes in the ISP44, including a joint participation of GRS and IPSN with the integral code ASTEC (and in particular the CPA module) they have commonly developed. Five tests were selected from the KAEVER test matrix: K123, K148, K186 and K188 as open standard problems and the three-component test K187 as blind standard problem. All these tests were performed in supersaturated conditions and with slight fog formation, which are the most ambitious conditions for the coupled problem of thermal hydraulics and aerosol processes. The comparison between calculation and test showed a good agreement for all the tests with respect to the thermal-hydraulic conditions in the vessel, i.e. total pressure, atmosphere temperature, sump water and nitrogen mass, etc.... As for aerosol depletion, the ASTEC results were in a good overall agreement with the measured data. The code in particular predicted well the fast depletion of the hygroscopic and mixed aerosols and the slow depletion of insoluble silver aerosol. The important effects of bulk condensation, solubility and the Kelvin effect on the aerosol depletion were well predicted. However the code overestimation of steam condensation on hygroscopic aerosols in supersaturated conditions indicates that some slight improvements of the appropriate ASTEC models are needed in the future. In the final ISP44 workshop, the deviations of the ASTEC results with respect to the experiments were considered to be small compared to those of most other codes. (authors)

  16. Radiology trainer. Torso, internal organs and vessels. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, Axel; Erlt-Wagner, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    The radiology training textbook is based on case studies of the clinical experience, including radiological imaging and differential diagnostic discussion. The scope of this volume covers the torso, internal organs and vessels. The following issues are discussed: lungs, pleura, mediastinum; heart and vascular system; upper abdomen organs; gastrointestinal tract; urogenital system.

  17. 25 CFR 542.7 - What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.7 What are the minimum internal control standards for... utilized, alternate documentation and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by...

  18. 78 FR 40740 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the... on the Green Book Advisory Council and the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government.... SUMMARY: The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) is preparing to revise the Standards for Internal...

  19. 78 FR 68447 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal... revisions to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government, known as the ``Green Book,'' to... proposed changes contained in the 2013 Exposure Draft update to the Standards for Internal Control in the...

  20. 78 FR 22263 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the... Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) is initiating efforts to revise the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal...

  1. 75 FR 75937 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the Administrator received two petitions for reconsideration... Any industry using a stationary 2211 Electric power reciprocating internal generation, combustion...

  2. 76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. The final rule... reciprocating internal combustion generation, engine. transmission, or distribution. 622110 Medical and surgical...

  3. THE PARTICIPATION OF INTERNATIONAL ENTITIES ON THE PUBLIC CONSULTATION PROCESS OF PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD ABOUT INTANGIBLE ASSETS

    OpenAIRE

    Salaroli, Abner Ribeiro; de Almeida, José Elias Feres; Gama, Janyluce Rezende

    2015-01-01

    The public accounting follows the same direction of financial accounting on the search for convergence to international standards, where IFAC is the body responsible for issuing international standards of public accounting. In this context, this study aims to analyze the process of development of the international public accounting standard about public intangible assets. The analysis was performed based on the suggestions available in comment letters sent to the consultation process. As a th...

  4. The International Macro-Environment of an Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana (Badulescu Anastase

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The international macro-environment (supranational macro-environment brings together allthe uncontrollable factors with a global impact, and it is related to the organization’s indirectrelationships on international markets. Romania’s globalization and the EU integration increasedthe importance of the macro-environment for all organizations, regardless of their degree ofinternationalization. In marketing, we must master the main agreements between countries and theregulations emanating from general international bodies, reflecting on their business, on differentforeign markets. Knowledge of the international environment is possible only through an analysisof its components (Anastase, I., 2012, p.41.

  5. 77 FR 52679 - Notice of Meeting of the National Organic Standards Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... the organic program. The subcommittees are: Compliance, Accreditation, and Certification; Crops...-12] Notice of Meeting of the National Organic Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB). Written public comments are invited in advance of the...

  6. International comparison of AC-DC current transfer standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, G.; Garcocz, M.; Waldmann, W.

    2017-01-01

    The measurements of the international comparison of ac-dc current transfer standards identified as EURAMET.EM-K12 started in June 2012 and were completed in December 2014. Twenty NMIs in the EURAMET region and one NMI in the AFRIMET region took part: BEV (Austria), CMI (Czech Republic), PTB (Germany), METAS (Switzerland), JV (Norway), UME (Turkey), GUM (Poland), IPQ (Portugal), CEM (Spain), INRIM (Italy), SP (Sweden), DANIAmet-MI-Trescal (Denmark), BIM (Bulgaria), MKEH (Hungary), SIQ (Slovenia), LNE (France), NSAI NML (Ireland), VSL (The Netherlands), NPL (United Kingdom), Metrosert (Estonia), NIS (Egypt). The comparison was proposed to link the National Metrology Institutes organised in EURAMET to the key comparison CCEM-K12. The ac-dc current transfer difference of each travelling standard had been measured at its nominal current 10 mA and 5 A at the following frequencies: 10 Hz, 55 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz, 20 kHz, 50 kHz, 100 kHz. The test points were selected to link the results with the equivalent CCEM Key Comparison (CCEM-K12), through five NMIs participating in both EURAMET and CCEM key comparisons (PTB, JV, NPL, SP and BEV). The report shows the degree of equivalence in the EURAMET region and also the degree of equivalence with the corresponding CCEM reference value. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations of the International Organizations. Date Effective: 1 March 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This Joint Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations (Joint Plan) describes the interagency framework of preparedness for and response to an actual, potential or perceived nuclear or radiological emergency independent of whether it arises from an accident, natural disaster, negligence, nuclear security event or any other cause. The IAEA is the main coordinating body for development and maintenance of the Joint Plan. The Joint Plan is intended to support and underpin the efforts of national governments and seeks to ensure a coordinated and harmonized international response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. It is not intended to interfere with or replace the emergency preparedness and response arrangements of international organizations (or States).

  8. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... documents from ICC's Chicago District Office: International Code Council, 4051 W Flossmoor Road, Country... Energy Conservation Code. International Existing Building Code. International Fire Code. International...

  9. ENABLING USE OF STANDARD COSTING IN LEAN ORGANIZATIONS AS DETERMINANT OF GOAL CONGRUENT BEHAVIOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Using the enabling formalization framework in two longitudinal case studies combined with a survey in the companies, we find that a standard costing model can be perceived as a form of enabling formalization in Lean organizations. Hence, standard costing cannot be characterized as coercive...... formalization per se. This contradicts conventional wisdom. Repair is a feature of enabling formalization through the use of standard costing. Applying a structural equation model, we present evidence that this repair feature has a direct effect on behavior that is congruent with Lean objectives. Internal...... and global transparency together with flexibility are three other features of enabling formalization through use of standard costing, but these have an indirect effect on Lean-goal-congruent behavior through the repair feature. Thus, these three features are antecedents of the repair feature, and we also...

  10. Learning organizations, internal marketing, and organizational commitment in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yafang

    2014-04-04

    Knowledge capital is becoming more important to healthcare establishments, especially for hospitals that are facing changing societal and industrial patterns. Hospital staff must engage in a process of continual learning to improve their healthcare skills and provide a superior service to their patients. Internal marketing helps hospital administrators to improve the quality of service provided by nursing staff to their patients and allows hospitals to build a learning culture and enhance the organizational commitment of its nursing staff. Our empirical study provides nursing managers with a tool to allow them to initiate a change in the attitudes of nurses towards work, by constructing a new 'learning organization' and using effective internal marketing. A cross-sectional design was employed. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to nurses working in either a medical centre or a regional hospital in Taichung City, Taiwan, and 114 valid questionnaires were returned (response rate: 57%). The entire process of distribution and returns was completed between 1 October and 31 October 2009. Hypothesis testing was conducted using structural equation modelling. A significant positive correlation was found between the existence of a 'learning organization', internal marketing, and organizational commitment. Internal marketing was a mediator between creating a learning organization and organizational commitment. Nursing managers may be able to apply the creation of a learning organization to strategies that can strengthen employee organizational commitment. Further, when promoting the creation of a learning organization, managers can coordinate their internal marketing practices to enhance the organizational commitment of nurses.

  11. International comparison of calibration standards for exposure and absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horakova, I.; Wagner, R.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison was performed of the primary calibration standards for 60 Co gamma radiation dose from Czechoslovakia (UDZ CSAV, Prague), Austria (OEFZS/BEV Seibersdorf) and Hungary (OMH Budapest) using ND 1005 (absolute measurement) and V-415 (by means of N x ) graphite ionization chambers. BEV achieved agreement better than 0.1%, OMH 0.35%. Good agreement was also achieved for the values of exposure obtained in absolute values and those obtained via N x , this for the ND 1005/8105 chamber. The first ever international comparison involving Czechoslovakia was also performed of the unit of absorbed gamma radiation in a water and/or graphite phantom. The participants included Czechoslovakia (UDZ CSAV Prague), the USSR (VNIIFTRI Moscow) and Austria (OEFZS/BEV Seibersdorf). In all measurements, the agreement was better than 1%, which, in view of the differences in methodologies (VNIIFTRI, BEV: calorimetry, UDZ, UVVVR: ionometry) and the overall inaccuracies in determining the absorbed dose values, is a good result. (author)

  12. International standardization of safety requirements for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is conducting the FaCT (Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development) project in cooperation with Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) and Mitsubishi FBR systems inc. (MFBR), where an advanced loop-type fast reactor named JSFR (Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is being developed. It is important to develop software technologies (a safety guideline, safety design criteria, safety design standards etc.) of FBRs as well as hardware ones (a reactor plant itself) in order to address prospective worldwide utilization of FBR technology. Therefore, it is expected to establish a rational safety guideline applicable to the JSFR and harmonized with national nuclear-safety regulations as well, including Japan, the United States and the European Union. This report presents domestic and international status of safety guideline development for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs), results of comparative study for safety requirements provided in existing documents and a proposal for safety requirements of future SFRs with a roadmap for their refinement and worldwide utilization. (author)

  13. Harmonization of the Ukrainian civil service with international and EU standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Prudyus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article the issue on harmonization of the civil service with the international and EU standards as one of the key direction of implementation of the Reform Strategy of civil service and service in local self­government bodies for the period up to 2017 was researched. It was established that examples of the most effective management practice can be considered as a standard on which could be oriented states that seek to move to a more efficient and effective public administration. It was approached the issue «European standards of the public administration» as the complex of principles and standards of the establishing and implementation of politics, requirements to the management system. These concepts create will­free and subsequent application to harmonize with the model on building and realization of the modern people oriented public power; «European standards of the civil service» as the requirements to the organization, functionality, structure and management of the civil service system of the EU countries, which established by the legislation and informal cooperation for the ensuring the mission, aim and tasks of the EU and were established by founding treaties. It was summarized that good governance became in the EU as the paradigm for ensuring of the real effect to the democracy values and standards, human rights protection, rule of law, obligatory public administration in all levels. It was implemented according to 12 principles: 1 fair elections, representation and participation; 2 sensitivity to the citizens needs and expectations; 3 efficiency and effectiveness; 4 openness and transparency; 5 the rule of law; 6 ethical behavior; 7 the ability and competence; 8 innovation and openness to change; 9 sustainability and focus on long­term results; 10 sound financial management; 11 human rights, cultural diversity and social cohesion; 12 accountability. It was proven that civil service harmonization with the international and

  14. International Scientific Data, Standards, and Digital Libraries: An NSF NSDL (U.S. and CODATA Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Bartolo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little debate that recent advances in information technology (IT are revolutionizing the practice of science and expanding its impact on global society. It is still debatable whether the transformation can take full advantage of these advances without open, international standards, embraced by the scientific community. Accompanying the increases in computing power and bandwidth, considerable discussion has surfaced about the availability and exchange of scientific data. Common themes in the dialogue underscore the need for new visions of data organization, storage, and dissemination (Nature Editorial, 2005.

  15. Organizational aspects of integrated reporting preparation according to international standard «Integrated reporting»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Maksymchuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Reporting is an innovative reporting for business entities, therefore the issue of the organization the preparation of this reporting is an actual. The absence of legislative regulation of integrated reporting at national level of legal documents has greatly affected the issue, because the only document, that specifies the requirements for integrated reporting is the international standard «integrated reporting». The article considers the organizational principles of integrated reporting preparation. Taking into account the requirements of the international standard «integrated reporting», the authors make the attempts to define the basic organizational stages of such reporting, that allows to introduce the integrated reporting in a structured way and logically. It is proposed on the enterprises preparing the integrated reporting to constitute the schedule of the formation of the integrated reporting. In addition, the important thing is to develop the internal policy for determining materiality by the use of the professional judgment. The appropriate internal policy is assigned to disclose the materiality process in an integrated reporting for decision-making on the inclusion or exclusion issues to be understandable for users.

  16. Standardized Computer-based Organized Reporting of EEG: SCORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Aurlien, Harald; Brøgger, Jan C; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Martins-da-Silva, António; Trinka, Eugen; Visser, Gerhard; Rubboli, Guido; Hjalgrim, Helle; Stefan, Hermann; Rosén, Ingmar; Zarubova, Jana; Dobesberger, Judith; Alving, Jørgen; Andersen, Kjeld V; Fabricius, Martin; Atkins, Mary D; Neufeld, Miri; Plouin, Perrine; Marusic, Petr; Pressler, Ronit; Mameniskiene, Ruta; Hopfengärtner, Rüdiger; Emde Boas, Walter; Wolf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The electroencephalography (EEG) signal has a high complexity, and the process of extracting clinically relevant features is achieved by visual analysis of the recordings. The interobserver agreement in EEG interpretation is only moderate. This is partly due to the method of reporting the findings in free-text format. The purpose of our endeavor was to create a computer-based system for EEG assessment and reporting, where the physicians would construct the reports by choosing from predefined elements for each relevant EEG feature, as well as the clinical phenomena (for video-EEG recordings). A working group of EEG experts took part in consensus workshops in Dianalund, Denmark, in 2010 and 2011. The faculty was approved by the Commission on European Affairs of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The working group produced a consensus proposal that went through a pan-European review process, organized by the European Chapter of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. The Standardised Computer-based Organised Reporting of EEG (SCORE) software was constructed based on the terms and features of the consensus statement and it was tested in the clinical practice. The main elements of SCORE are the following: personal data of the patient, referral data, recording conditions, modulators, background activity, drowsiness and sleep, interictal findings, “episodes” (clinical or subclinical events), physiologic patterns, patterns of uncertain significance, artifacts, polygraphic channels, and diagnostic significance. The following specific aspects of the neonatal EEGs are scored: alertness, temporal organization, and spatial organization. For each EEG finding, relevant features are scored using predefined terms. Definitions are provided for all EEG terms and features. SCORE can potentially improve the quality of EEG assessment and reporting; it will help incorporate the results of computer-assisted analysis into the report, it will make

  17. INMARSAT - The International Maritime Satellite Organization: Origins and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The third session of the International Conference on the Establishment of an International Maritime Satellite System established the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) in 1976. Its main functions are to improve maritime communications via satellite, thereby facilitating more efficient emergency communications, ship management, and maritime public correspondence services. INMARSAT's aims are similar to those of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), the main United Nations organization dealing with maritime affairs. The specific functions of INMARSAT have been established by an Intersessional Working Group (IWG) which met three times between general conference meetings. Initial investment shares for the creation of INMARSAT were shared by the United States (17%), the United Kingdom (12%), the U.S.S.R. (11%), Norway (9.50%), Japan (8.45%), Italy (4.37%), and France (3.50%).

  18. Multiculturalism and international law : discussing universal standards / Alexandra Xanthaki

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Xanthaki, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Multikultuurilisuse tõlgendamisest rahvusvahelistes lepingutes (ICESCR - International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; ICERD -International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination ; CESCR - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights)

  19. The international growth standard for preadolescent and adolescent children: statistical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, T J

    2006-12-01

    This article discusses statistical considerations for the design of a new study intended to provide an International Growth Standard for Preadolescent and Adolescent Children, including issues such as cross-sectional, longitudinal, and mixed designs; sample-size derivation for the number of populations and number of children per population; modeling of growth centiles of height, weight, and other measurements; and modeling of the adolescent growth spurt. The conclusions are that a mixed longitudinal design will provide information on both growth distance and velocity; samples of children from 5 to 10 sites should be suitable for an international standard (based on political rather than statistical arguments); the samples should be broadly uniform across age but oversampled during puberty, and should include data into adulthood. The LMS method is recommended for constructing measurement centiles, and parametric or semiparametric approaches are available to estimate the timing of the adolescent growth spurt in individuals. If the new standard is to be grafted onto the 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) reference, caution is needed at the join point of 5 years, where children from the new standard are likely to be appreciably more obese than those from the WHO reference, due to the rising trends in obesity and the time gap in data collection between the two surveys.

  20. What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkvens, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in…

  1. [The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC): what is the importance for Japan?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Paula I

    2008-07-01

    In 2005, the World Health Assembly resolved that all Member States should ensure that all persons with tuberculosis (TB) "have access to the universal standard of care based on proper diagnosis, treatment and reporting consistent with the DOTS strategy..." The purpose of the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC) is to define the widely accepted level of care of persons either suspected of, or diagnosed with, TB by all health practitioners, especially those in the private sector, who often lack guidance and systematic evaluation of outcomes provided by government programs. Since their publication in 2006 on World TB Day, the standards have been endorsed by the major international health organizations as well as many country-level professional societies. The intention is to complement local and national control polices consistent with those of the World Health Organization: they are not intended to replace local guidelines, but are written to accommodate local differences in practice. The ISTC comprise seventeen evidence-based standards on tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment, as well as the responsibility of the public health sector. These are based on the basic principles of TB care: prompt and accurate diagnosis, standardized treatment regimens of proven efficacy, appropriate treatment support and supervision, monitoring of response to treatment and the carrying out of essential public health responsibilities. The relevance of the ISTC to the Japanese context is highlighted, in terms of when persons should be suspected of TB; the appropriate diagnostic modalities, including the use of chest radiographs; the advantages of fixed dose combinations; the importance of follow-up laboratory tests to document response to treatment, the importance of recordkeeping and reporting to public health authorities, the value of HIV testing of TB patients and the use of anti-retrovirals for those dually infected; and the assessment of drug resistance and the

  2. The International Macro-Environment of an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Ileana (Badulescu) Anastase; Cornel Grigorut

    2016-01-01

    The international macro-environment (supranational macro-environment) brings together allthe uncontrollable factors with a global impact, and it is related to the organization’s indirectrelationships on international markets. Romania’s globalization and the EU integration increasedthe importance of the macro-environment for all organizations, regardless of their degree ofinternationalization. In marketing, we must master the main agreements between countries and theregulations emanating from ...

  3. Principles of the institutional law of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Amerasinghe-Chittharanjan, Felix

    1996-01-01

    Dr Amerasinghe starts with a brief history of international organizations. In fourteen substantive chapters, he then deals with subjects such as interpretation, membership and representation, the doctrine of "ultra vires", responsibility, liability of members to third parties, internal law and employment relations, privileges and immunities, dispute settlement, and, finally, dissolution and succession. There is a full and detailed examination of the problems connected with each of these subjects. The primary object of the book is to discuss principles, but Dr Amerasinghe also studies the law and practice of different organizations, using a rigourous analysis of the material alongside his functional examination of the law.

  4. Solid organ transplantation: the Italian experience in the international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni Costa, A; De Cillia, C; Di Ciaccio, P; Rizzato, L; Venettoni, S

    2011-01-01

    The Italian experience in the organization of transplantation procedures could represent a relevant example of an internal development at a national level, combined with a strengthening of international collaborations. These results can be attributed first to the creation of the Italian National Transplant Centre (Centro Nazionale Trapianti [CNT]), and then to an ongoing European process that is leading to a greater awareness of the importance of closer collaboration between the organizations already existing and operating in the field of transplantation. This article summarizes the role and the most significant achievements of the CNT. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Internal standard method for determination of gallium and some trace elements in bauxite by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.G.; Tsai, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of gallium and other trace elements such as Ce, Cr, Hf, Lu and Th in bauxite by the technique of neutron activation analysis using gold as internal standard. Isopropyl ether was used as organic extractant radioactive gallium from the sample. This method yields very good accuracy with a relative error of +-3%. (author)

  6. 78 FR 50259 - Derivatives Clearing Organizations and International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... managerial resources, as determined by the Commission, to discharge each responsibility of the [DCO].'' \\27... wide range of potential stress scenarios, which include, but are not limited to, the default of the... clearing members through margin requirements and other risk control mechanisms, to ensure that the DCO's...

  7. 78 FR 72475 - Derivatives Clearing Organizations and International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... and 39.29; Core Principle D (Risk Management) and regulation 39.13; Core Principle G (Default Rules... principles which address the risk management and efficiency of a financial market infrastructure's (``FMI... comprehensive management of risks); Principle 4 (Credit risk); Principle 6 (Margin); Principle 7 (Liquidity risk...

  8. Internal Communication and Social Dialogue in Knowledge-Based Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Diana-Maria CISMARU; Cristina LEOVARIDIS

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of...

  9. 76 FR 18148 - Nominations for Members of the National Organic Standards Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Secretary to establish an organic certification program for producers and handlers of agricultural products... such factors as: Demonstrated experience and interest in organic production; organic certification...] Nominations for Members of the National Organic Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA...

  10. Standardized computer-based organized reporting of EEG:SCORE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sandor; H, Aurlien,; JC, Brøgger,

    2013-01-01

    process, organized by the European Chapter of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. The Standardised Computer-based Organised Reporting of EEG (SCORE) software was constructed based on the terms and features of the consensus statement and it was tested in the clinical practice...... in free-text format. The purpose of our endeavor was to create a computer-based system for EEG assessment and reporting, where the physicians would construct the reports by choosing from predefined elements for each relevant EEG feature, as well as the clinical phenomena (for video-EEG recordings....... SCORE can potentially improve the quality of EEG assessment and reporting; it will help incorporate the results of computer-assisted analysis into the report, it will make possible the build-up of a multinational database, and it will help in training young neurophysiologists....

  11. The quantitative analysis of Bowen's kale by PIXE using the internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, V.R.; Izawa, G.; Shiokawa, T.; Kamiya, M.; Morita, S.

    1978-01-01

    The internal standard method was used for non-destructive quantitative determination of trace elements by PIXE. The uniform distribution of the internal standard element in the Bowen's kale powder sample was obtained by using homogenization technique. Eleven elements are determined quantitatively for the sample prepared into self-supporting targets having lower relative standard deviations than non-self-supporting targets. (author)

  12. Assessing Summit Engagement with Other International Organizations in Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Larionova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed dramatic changes all over the world. One major trend is the proliferation and diversification of actors, forums and their arrangements to address global governance challenges, which has led to fragmentation in global governance. However, such contested multilateralism has a positive dimension, as the emergence of informal multilateral institutions claiming a major role in defining the global governance agenda creates alternatives for providing common goods. New arrangements acquire their own actorness and place in the system of global governance. In certain policy areas, there is a clear trend for the new summit institutions’ leadership. The most visible recent cases include the Group of 20 (G20, the BRICS group of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC forum, with APEC gaining importance regionally and globally. These new informal groupings work on their own agenda. They also engage with established international organizations to steer global governance processes. Taken together, the transformative trends in international relations, the emergence of new actors, tensions between exclusive and inclusive clubs, and demands for the legitimacy and effectiveness of the international institutions define the relevance of the study, systematization and comparative analysis of the effectiveness of this model of cooperation among international institutions. This article builds an analytical framework by undertaking three tasks. It first reviews the key concepts. Second, it argues for a rational choice institutionalist approach. Third, it puts forward a hypothesis for research: to compensate for their inefficiencies, summit institutions engage with other international organizations in a mode they regard most efficient for attainment of their goals. The modes of those institutions’ engagement with other international organizations as reflected in the leaders

  13. Towards Participation and Equality: The UN's International Labour Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, A.

    1990-01-01

    The role of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in vocational rehabilitation and employment for people with disabilities is examined. The ILO's recent emphasis on community-based training and employment programs, social reintegration of disabled citizens through self-employment and union-generating activities, and special programs for…

  14. Carcass and internal organ characteristics of brioler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and forty-four (144) broiler chickens were used to evaluate the carcass and internal organ characteristics of broiler chickens fed soybean diet partially replaced with variable levels of raw jackfruit seed meal (RJFSM). The study lasted for 7 weeks. The inclusion levels of RJFSM were 10, 20 and 30% respectively ...

  15. Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations. Date Effective: 1 July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    European Commission) are party to legally binding treaties and have directives and regulations which have a bearing on the emergency response arrangements in their Member States. There are also bilateral agreements between some international organizations that also have relevance to preparedness and response arrangements. In 2002, the IAEA issued Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2), jointly sponsored by the FAO, the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the United Nations Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and WHO. The requirements established therein imply additional expectations with regard to operational emergency preparedness and response arrangements. It is recognized by the participating organizations, and reflected in the above requirements, that good planning in advance of an emergency can substantially improve the response. With this in mind, international organizations that participate in the IACRNE develop, maintain and co-sponsor this Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations (the 'Joint Plan'). The IAEA is the main coordinating body for the development and maintenance of the Joint Plan. The Joint Plan does not prescribe arrangements between the participating organizations, but describes a common understanding of how each organization acts during a response and in making preparedness arrangements. Nothing in the Joint Plan should be construed as superseding the arrangements in place in the international organizations (or States). However, all international organizations (and States), irrespective of whether they are members of IACRNE, are invited to consider these arrangements in their own emergency management plans. This publication is the sixth edition of the Joint Plan. It includes new arrangements/initiatives which were introduced after

  16. Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations. Date Effective: 1 July 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    European Commission) are party to legally binding treaties and have directives and regulations which have a bearing on the emergency response arrangements in their Member States. There are also bilateral agreements between some international organizations that also have relevance to preparedness and response arrangements. In 2002, the IAEA issued Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2), jointly sponsored by the FAO, the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the United Nations Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and WHO. The requirements established therein imply additional expectations with regard to operational emergency preparedness and response arrangements. It is recognized by the participating organizations, and reflected in the above requirements, that good planning in advance of an emergency can substantially improve the response. With this in mind, international organizations that participate in the IACRNE develop, maintain and co-sponsor this Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations (the 'Joint Plan'). The IAEA is the main coordinating body for the development and maintenance of the Joint Plan. The Joint Plan does not prescribe arrangements between the participating organizations, but describes a common understanding of how each organization acts during a response and in making preparedness arrangements. Nothing in the Joint Plan should be construed as superseding the arrangements in place in the international organizations (or States). However, all international organizations (and States), irrespective of whether they are members of IACRNE, are invited to consider these arrangements in their own emergency management plans. This publication is the sixth edition of the Joint Plan. It includes new arrangements/initiatives which were introduced after

  17. English with Flying Colors: The Aviation English and the International Civil Aviation Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraśnicka Izabela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several reasons for the English language to become lingua franca of aviation including some historical turning points for the world aviation and some specific linguistic features of the language itself. This paper aims to firstly present a short, yet interesting history of implementation of English as standardized language for aviation. It will provide introductory historical background, establishment of arguments necessary for standardization and leading to the implementation of the Language Proficiency Requirements (LPRs within the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. It will then provide an overview of the ICAO’s actions to support its members states in implementation of the English language standards for aviation and try to evaluate the effects based on the powers granted to the Organization. Such evaluation will be presented in the comparative perspective with the powers and instruments used within the European Union to achieve the same goal - standardization of the aviation English.

  18. Social Innovations vs international Trade? Core labour standards and exports

    OpenAIRE

    Siroën, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Labour standards defined by the ILO in 1998 are universal but applied very differently in countries. They are much better respected in high income countries. However, the causality between labour standards and growth remains a controversial issue. The strategies of export-led growth might encourage developing countries to contain the rising process of standards, first to increase their unskilled labour endowments for strengthening their comparative advantage relative to complying countries, a...

  19. How to Brand an International Organization. NATO Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigi Mihaita

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Branding products and companies has always been associated with private enterprises and less, if ever, with international intergovernmental organizations. International organizations now have a long history behind them, a history often marked by contradictory events. In the last decade the international organizations developed their own public relations department in an attempt to communicate promptly and transmit the general audience their version of reality. Having this in mind we will try to briefly present in the current work the main reasons why we believe that the international organizations, NATO in particular, have started to see themselves as brand and to create a so called “commercial identity” by becoming a brand. By applying the conceptual and analytical framework used in analyzing the marketing strategies of the private companies we will try to see whether NATO is about to become a brand. Our starting point will be a 2008 statement of Jean-François Bureau, deputy general secretary responsible with NATO’s public diplomacy: “We have the green light to think about a branding policy for NATO”. Nowadays global society, perceptions tend to become more important than reality itself, and thus positive perceptions tend to become crucial. NATO has suffered an image decline in the last decade, therefore some new communication measures tend to impose themselves. The distinction between soft power and propaganda must be carefully analyzed when we speak about branding NATO. Thus we hope to bring some necessary clarifications in the area of NATO branding. Is there a brand? Is a brand going to be constructed? How does it differ from a commercial society? Does NATO need its own TV channel? Raising questions and offering a new perspective is, in the end, our primary goal, as a debate on this subject is a must that offers a new perspective in the area of theory of international organizations.

  20. Evolving minimum standards in responsible international sperm donor offspring quota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Pim M. W.; Thorn, Petra; Castilla, Jose A.; Frith, Lucy; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Mochtar, Monique; Bjorndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson C.

    2015-01-01

    An international working group was established with the aim of making recommendations on the number of offspring for a sperm donor that should be allowable in cases of international use of his sperm. Considerations from genetic, psychosocial, operational and ethical points of view were debated. For

  1. 75 FR 37732 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary compression ignition reciprocating internal combustion... combustion engines. 40 CFR 63.6590 was amended by revising paragraphs (b)(1) and (3). Inadvertently...

  2. Certifying a university ENT clinic using the ISO 9001:2000 international standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Matthias; Helbig, Silke; Kahla-Witzsch, Heike A; Kroll, Tobias; May, Angelika

    2010-01-01

    Against statutory duties to introduce quality management systems, the increased importance of this subject has led to numerous activities in various public health institutions. Following the International Standardization Organization (ISO 9001:2000) prerequisites, Frankfurt Goethe University Hospital ENT clinic staff introduced a quality management system. This paper aims to investigate this process. Designing, planning and implementing the quality management system is described. Under the supervision of an executive quality management board, clinic quality goals were defined. Thereafter, several quality management teams performed an actual state analysis as well as developing and realising improvement proposals. Finally a quality management manual containing binding standards and working instructions concerning all patient care, research and teaching aspects was written. Successful certification by a neutral body ascertained that the clinic's quality management system conformed to current national and international standards while restructuring and reform improved procedural efficiency. The paper shows that mplementing the quality management system requires considerable effort but patients as well as staff profit considerably from the innovation. On the whole, the positive impact on structure and workflow in a specialist clinic predominates. Therefore, implementing a quality management system in all the clinic's wards and departments is recommended.

  3. International laser safety standardization. From the European perspective with an emphasis on materials processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulmeister, K [Div. of Life Sciences, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1997-08-01

    This report reviews international standards relevant to the safety of laser products and laser installations, with an emphasis on the safety of laser materials processing from the European perspective. In the first paragraphs an overview of the international standards organisations, their relative roles and ways of developing new standards is given. In the second part of the report, work currently underway in the respective standards committees is summarised and specific standards dealing with different aspects of laser safety are discussed. An appendix contains a list of standards organised in standards organisations (IEC, ISO and EN). (author)

  4. International laser safety standardization. From the European perspective with an emphasis on materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulmeister, K.

    1997-08-01

    This report reviews international standards relevant to the safety of laser products and laser installations, with an emphasis on the safety of laser materials processing from the European perspective. In the first paragraphs an overview of the international standards organisations, their relative roles and ways of developing new standards is given. In the second part of the report, work currently underway in the respective standards committees is summarised and specific standards dealing with different aspects of laser safety are discussed. An appendix contains a list of standards organised in standards organisations IEC, ISO and EN). (author)

  5. Presence in International Organisms: A Policy for a Collective Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Montobbio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available What does the presence of Spaniards in international organisations signify and entail? Why, for what, and how should this be promoted? In order to answer such questions, the author analyses the meaning and implications of this presence in a globalised world in which a commitment to effective multilateralism entails a commitment to the international organisms as forums for and actors in global governance, and their presence in our societies and lives. This means both the promoting of Spanish presence in the administrations inwhich the proposals are formed which embody the general interest of the international organisations, like the multilateralisation of Spanish society. For this reason, in the framework of its multilateral policy, Spain is currently developing a policy of promoting the presence of Spaniards in international organisations in the areas of information, training, promotion and incentives, the outlines and results of which are described in this article.

  6. 78 FR 41339 - Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ...] Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal... Reliability Standards identified by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), the Commission-certified Electric Reliability Organization. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kevin Ryan (Legal Information...

  7. Cultural impact on the harmonisation of Russian Accounting Standards with the International Financial Reporting Standards: A practitioner's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Combs, A; Samy, M; Myachina, A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose\\ud – The purpose of this paper is to explore cultural impact on the harmonisation of Russian Accounting Standards with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud – A theoretical review established that differences still exist between the two sets of accounting standards. For decades, Russia was a socialist state of planned economy. Accounting was a tool of centralised control, and accountants had a job of gathering information for statist...

  8. [Volunteer satisfaction: Internal structure and relationship with permanence in organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecina Jiménez, M L; Chacón Fuertes, Fernando; Sueiro Abad, Manuel J

    2009-02-01

    Volunteer satisfaction: Internal structure and relationship with permanence in organizations. The concept of satisfaction is considered theoretically relevant in practically all the studies that have investigated the factors that influence the permanence of volunteer participation in organizations. However, the practical results are not conclusive, perhaps due to the wide range of ways in which the concept is understood and measured. The object of this study is: to analyse the internal structure of satisfaction and to verify its relationship with volunteer duration in organizations. The results of the factor analysis yield a three-factor structure: Satisfaction with the management of the organization, Satisfaction with the tasks, Satisfaction of motivations. The three factors allow us to differentiate between individuals who remain in the organization for a period of 12 consecutive months, and those who leave earlier. The results of structural equation model analysis show that the relationship between satisfaction and the length of time that volunteers stay with the organization is affected by the intention to remain.

  9. International Financial Reporting Standards Convergence and Quality of Accounting Information: Evidence from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Yusrina, Hasyyati; Mukhtaruddin, Mukhtaruddin; Fuadah, Luk Luk; Sulong, Zunaidah

    2017-01-01

    The International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) initiated by International Accounting Standard Board (IASB) are principle-based standard that require extensive disclosure of financial statements and accounting information as compared to prior standard that is the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to better reflect the overall quality of company’s performance. Therefore, the IFRS convergence is expected to improve the reliability of financial reporting by limiting opportun...

  10. Survey of environment related monitoring programmes of international organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report is a summary of environment-related monitoring programmes of international governmental organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes. it presents the situation as of November 1986: This survey has been prepared by a consultant for the Secretariat as a background document for the second meeting of the Environment Experts, Economic Summit in Munich, November 1986. It serves information purposes only. No claim for completeness is intended. This report may also prove to be helpful for administrators and the scientific community as regards gaining knowledge on present arrangements, approaches and environmental activities in the framework of international organizations. In this light, the present report could facilitate communication and progress in solving pressing environmental problems on the international level. (orig.)

  11. Self-organized Criticality Model for Ocean Internal Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gang; Hou Yijun; Lin Min; Qiao Fangli

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple spring-block model for ocean internal waves based on the self-organized criticality (SOC). The oscillations of the water blocks in the model display power-law behavior with an exponent of -2 in the frequency domain, which is similar to the current and sea water temperature spectra in the actual ocean and the universal Garrett and Munk deep ocean internal wave model [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics 2 (1972) 225; J. Geophys. Res. 80 (1975) 291]. The influence of the ratio of the driving force to the spring coefficient to SOC behaviors in the model is also discussed. (general)

  12. Organization of the internal dosimetry in the Spanish nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchena, P.; Soliet, E.

    1998-01-01

    From the beginning of the exploitation of the nuclear energy of Espanna, the nuclear facilities have had Services of Personal Dosimetry with the appropriate means to determine the dose. so much internal as external, of the personnel that mentioned facilities works. All the nuclear power stations use advanced systems of teams with object of detecting the radionuclides incorporation in the organism and calculation programs based on the recent recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the determination of the derived doses

  13. New worldwide horizons for the International Organization of Psychophysiology (IOP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangina, C A

    2000-12-01

    This Presidential Address deals with the new challenges and horizons of the International Organization of Psychophysiology (IOP) as we are marching towards the 21st century. The importance of Clinical Psychophysiology to humanity is emphasized. The special contribution of the International Journal of Psychophysiology to the future of Psychophysiology as a world forum is underlined. The status of Psychophysiology as a leading neuroscientific discipline is described and the role and major contributions of the late Dr Herbert Jasper as Co-Founding Honorary Fellow of IOP is highlighted.

  14. Efficiency of Management Systems, Based on International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Gafforova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers major trends of management systems standardization development and efficiency. The authors determine possible structure of effects in the process of integrated management systems implementation.

  15. G20: Engaging with International Organizations to Generate Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Larionova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Born in response to economic and financial crises which existing institutions were unable to address adequately, the G20 transformed from a crisis management group into the premier forum for international economic cooperation. Like its predecessor, the G7 (which was set up in 1975, and BRICS (established in 2009, G20 is an informal club or summit institution. To ensure continuity, legitimacy and efficiency in fulfilling their global governance functions of deliberation, direction-setting, decision-making, delivery and the development of global governance, the G20 members engage other international organizations. It is hypothesized that to maximize benefits from its engagement with international organizations, the G20 resorts to a combination of the “catalyst”, “core group” and “parallel treatment” approaches exercised by summit institutions. These include exerting an influence in promoting changes to international organizations through endorsement or stimulus, compelling them to reform, imparting a new direction by giving a lead that the other organizations would follow, and creating original mechanisms, working in parallel with existing institutions. The article tests this assumption. To trace the dynamics of G20 engagement with multilateral organizations and identify preferred models across the presidencies and policy areas, the analysis is carried out within the rational choice institutionalist paradigm, drawing on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of documents adopted by the G20. Findings from the study indicate that the intensity of the G20 engagement with the IOs is very high and G20 mostly resorts to a combination of the catalyst and core group approaches, though the pattern depends on the policy area, the IOs and the presidency agenda. The intensity of G20 engagement with the IMF, Financial Stability Board, World Bank, and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development by far exceeds the intensity of its

  16. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 3 (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  17. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International basic safety standards. General safety requirements. Pt. 3 (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  18. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 3 (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  19. The International Association for Promoting Geoethics: Mission, Organization, and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.; Peppoloni, S.; Di Capua, G.

    2017-12-01

    The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG) was founded in 2012, during the 34th IGC in Brisbane (Australia), to provide a multidisciplinary platform for widening the discussion and creating awareness about principles and problems of ethics as applied to the geosciences. It is a scientific, non-governmental, non-political, non-profit, non-party institution, headquartered at the Italian Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Rome, Italy. IAPG focuses on behaviors and practices where human activities interact with the Earth system, and deals with the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience knowledge, education, research, practice and communication. Its goal is to enhance awareness of the social role and responsibility of geoscientists in conducting their activities such as geoeducation, sustainability, and risk prevention. IAPG is a legally recognized non-profit association with members in 115 countries on 5 continents, and currently has 26 national sections. As of the date of this abstract, IAPG has been involved with approximately 70 international meetings (scientific conferences, symposia, seminars, workshops, expositions, etc.). Other activities range from exchanging information with newsletters, blogs, social networks and publications; promoting the creation of working groups and encouraging the participation of geoscientists within universities and professional associations for the development of geoethics themes; and cooperating with national and international organizations whose aims are complementary, e.g., International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), American Geosciences Institute (AGI), Geological Society of America (GSA), Geological Society of London (GSL), Geoscience Information in Africa - Network (GIRAF), American Geophysical Union (AGU), International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG), International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), Association of Environmental & Engineering

  20. Protocol for Usability Testing and Validation of the ISO Draft International Standard 19223 for Lung Ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Clinicians, such as respiratory therapists and physicians, are often required to set up pieces of medical equipment that use inconsistent terminology. Current lung ventilator terminology that is used by different manufacturers contributes to the risk of usage errors, and in turn the risk of ventilator-associated lung injuries and other conditions. Human factors and communication issues are often associated with ventilator-related sentinel events, and inconsistent ventilator terminology compounds these issues. This paper describes our proposed protocol, which will be implemented at the University of Waterloo, Canada when this project is externally funded. Objective We propose to determine whether a standardized vocabulary improves the ease of use, safety, and utility as it relates to the usability of medical devices, compared to legacy medical devices from multiple manufacturers, which use different terms. Methods We hypothesize that usage errors by clinicians will be lower when standardization is consistently applied by all manufacturers. The proposed study will experimentally examine the impact of standardized nomenclature on performance declines in the use of an unfamiliar ventilator product in clinically relevant scenarios. Participants will be respiratory therapy practitioners and trainees, and we propose studying approximately 60 participants. Results The work reported here is in the proposal phase. Once the protocol is implemented, we will report the results in a follow-up paper. Conclusions The proposed study will help us better understand the effects of standardization on medical device usability. The study will also help identify any terms in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Draft International Standard (DIS) 19223 that may be associated with recurrent errors. Amendments to the standard will be proposed if recurrent errors are identified. This report contributes a protocol that can be used to assess the effect of

  1. The International Standards for Solar Thermal Collectors and Components as a Medium of Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkishriwi, Nouri; Schorn, Christian A.; Theis, Danjana

    2014-01-01

    Within this publication a detailed overview about the national and international solal't1lel1nai standards is made. The various tests are described and a cross reference list for comparing the different standards is given. Moreover a certification model is presented and the advantage of third party assessment is carried out. The requirement for a solar thermal test laboratory to conduct independent third party assessment by means of an ISO/IEC17065 accreditation is given. Finally the concept of a quality system for solar thermal markets is explained and major advantages are outlined. Solar thermal systems and their components are described in various national and international standards. In Europe the standard EN12975 defines the regulations and requirements for solar thermal collectors. The standard EN12976 is established for the evaluation of factory made solar thermal systems. The EN12977 is the state of the art standard for the evaluation of custom build systems. Nowadays in Libya the standard ISO9806 for solar collectors and the standard ISO9459 for domestic water heating systems define the regulations and requirements for solar thermal collectors and systems. In the meanwhile, empowered Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Certification Body is under construction. This body is working now to set the minimum requirements of the testing facilities of solar thermal systems. The international standard for collector testing is the ISO9806 and the standard ISO9459 Part 2, 4, 5 for domestic water heating systems. Within the year 2013 a revision of the ISO9806 will be published and, for the first time, a consistent harmonized standard for the main solar thermal markets will be set in force. Besides the various standards for solar thermal products a meaningful element for the quality assurance and the customer protection is third party certification. Third party certification involves an independent assessment, declaring that specified requirements

  2. CANDIED PUMPKIN; TECHNOLOGY FOR ITS PREPARATION AND STANDARD FOR ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Pavlov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard for organization for candied pumpkin has been developed. Industrial raw material. The following ‘Technical Specifications’ included: definitions, terms, abbreviations, technical requirements, orders of reception, trial methods, transportation and storage, labor protection, fire security and reference list. The product is pumpkin pulp cut to pieces of different shapes and sizes boiled in sugar syrup, dried and coated with granulated sugar. Fruits of pumpkin that need for production are obliged to be in the phase of biologically freshness and maturity, healthy, without soiling. The cultivars for table use with smooth peel, thick and dense, not fibrous pulp with thickness over 3 cm. and deepyellow or bright-orange color are taken. The finished products are packed according to GOST. The candied pumpkin is well preserved up to six month for retail sale and up to 12 month for further industrial processing. The candied pumpkin is stored in dried and well ventilated room with relative air humidity below 75% and temperature from 0° to 20°C.

  3. International standard problem (ISP) no. 41 follow up exercise: Containment iodine computer code exercise: parametric studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.; Glowa, G.; Wren, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Ewig, F. [GRS Koln (Germany); Dickenson, S. [AEAT, (United Kingdom); Billarand, Y.; Cantrel, L. [IPSN (France); Rydl, A. [NRIR (Czech Republic); Royen, J. [OECD/NEA (France)

    2001-11-01

    This report describes the results of the second phase of International Standard Problem (ISP) 41, an iodine behaviour code comparison exercise. The first phase of the study, which was based on a simple Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) experiment, demonstrated that all of the iodine behaviour codes had the capability to reproduce iodine behaviour for a narrow range of conditions (single temperature, no organic impurities, controlled pH steps). The current phase, a parametric study, was designed to evaluate the sensitivity of iodine behaviour codes to boundary conditions such as pH, dose rate, temperature and initial I{sup -} concentration. The codes used in this exercise were IODE(IPSN), IODE(NRIR), IMPAIR(GRS), INSPECT(AEAT), IMOD(AECL) and LIRIC(AECL). The parametric study described in this report identified several areas of discrepancy between the various codes. In general, the codes agree regarding qualitative trends, but their predictions regarding the actual amount of volatile iodine varied considerably. The largest source of the discrepancies between code predictions appears to be their different approaches to modelling the formation and destruction of organic iodides. A recommendation arising from this exercise is that an additional code comparison exercise be performed on organic iodide formation, against data obtained front intermediate-scale studies (two RTF (AECL, Canada) and two CAIMAN facility, (IPSN, France) experiments have been chosen). This comparison will allow each of the code users to realistically evaluate and improve the organic iodide behaviour sub-models within their codes. (author)

  4. International standard problem (ISP) no. 41 follow up exercise: Containment iodine computer code exercise: parametric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.; Glowa, G.; Wren, J.; Ewig, F.; Dickenson, S.; Billarand, Y.; Cantrel, L.; Rydl, A.; Royen, J.

    2001-11-01

    This report describes the results of the second phase of International Standard Problem (ISP) 41, an iodine behaviour code comparison exercise. The first phase of the study, which was based on a simple Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) experiment, demonstrated that all of the iodine behaviour codes had the capability to reproduce iodine behaviour for a narrow range of conditions (single temperature, no organic impurities, controlled pH steps). The current phase, a parametric study, was designed to evaluate the sensitivity of iodine behaviour codes to boundary conditions such as pH, dose rate, temperature and initial I - concentration. The codes used in this exercise were IODE(IPSN), IODE(NRIR), IMPAIR(GRS), INSPECT(AEAT), IMOD(AECL) and LIRIC(AECL). The parametric study described in this report identified several areas of discrepancy between the various codes. In general, the codes agree regarding qualitative trends, but their predictions regarding the actual amount of volatile iodine varied considerably. The largest source of the discrepancies between code predictions appears to be their different approaches to modelling the formation and destruction of organic iodides. A recommendation arising from this exercise is that an additional code comparison exercise be performed on organic iodide formation, against data obtained front intermediate-scale studies (two RTF (AECL, Canada) and two CAIMAN facility, (IPSN, France) experiments have been chosen). This comparison will allow each of the code users to realistically evaluate and improve the organic iodide behaviour sub-models within their codes. (author)

  5. International Organizations Involved in Cancer Radiotherapy. Chapter 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietman, A.; Valentini, V.; Jimenez, P.; Luciani, S.; Gospodarowicz, M.

    2017-01-01

    , ESTRO will seek to ensure that every cancer patient in Europe will have access to state of the art radiotherapy as part of a multidisciplinary approach where treatment is individualized for the specific patient’s cancer, taking account of the patient’s personal circumstances. Union for International Cancer Control (UICC): Over 75 years ago, cancer researchers, recognizing the value of knowledge sharing and collaboration, created the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). Currently, UICC brings together cancer professionals and volunteers in a unified mission to eliminate cancer as a life threatening disease for future generations. The UICC membership includes over 700 organizations from more than 130 countries, all united by a mandate to control cancer. UICC aims to raise awareness about the global cancer problem, focusing on education, standard setting, support for global networks of influence and actions in support of the fight against cancer. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the Americas, with an estimated 2.5 million people newly diagnosed and 1.2 million deaths per year. The most common cancers are lung, prostate and stomach cancer in men and breast, cervical and stomach cancer in women. This cancer burden is expected to nearly double in the next 10–15 years with the demographic changes in the region. National cancer control programmes, including prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment and palliative care, have long been promoted by WHO and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) as the most efficient and effective way to manage this significant public health problem. Despite this, cancer control remains largely underappreciated within public health programmes in the region and is often left to be managed solely by tertiary level care providers. In many cases, these providers have limited capabilities to provide curative or palliative treatment to patients with advanced disease. Pan American Health Organization (PAHO): As a

  6. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab

  7. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    compared to other Allied 17Walter McDougall , Promised Land, Crusader State: The American Encounter with the World Since 1776 (Boston: Mariner Books, 1998...Russia–Georgia War was carried out largely under EU, Organization for Security and Cooperation, and United States leadership. Bush assisted...Operation Unified Protector provided a means for the international community to carry out R2P in order to protect the Libyan population from the

  8. International Review of Frameworks for Standard Setting & Labeling Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina Zheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    As appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs reach a broader geographic and product scope, a series of sophisticated and complex technical and economic analyses have been adopted by different countries in the world to support and enhance these growing S&L programs. The initial supporting techno-economic and impact analyses for S&L development make up a defined framework and process for setting and developing appropriate appliance efficiency standards and labeling programs. This report reviews in-depth the existing framework for standards setting and label development in the well-established programs of the U.S., Australia and the EU to identify and evaluate major trends in how and why key analyses are undertaken and to understand major similarities and differences between each of the frameworks.

  9. Self-organized internal architectures of chiral micro-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, Clementina; Mazzulla, Alfredo; Desiderio, Giovanni; Pagliusi, Pasquale; De Santo, Maria P.; Cipparrone, Gabriella; Perrotta, Ida

    2014-01-01

    The internal architecture of polymeric self-assembled chiral micro-particles is studied by exploring the effect of the chirality, of the particle sizes, and of the interface/surface properties in the ordering of the helicoidal planes. The experimental investigations, performed by means of different microscopy techniques, show that the polymeric beads, resulting from light induced polymerization of cholesteric liquid crystal droplets, preserve both the spherical shape and the internal self-organized structures. The method used to create the micro-particles with controlled internal chiral architectures presents great flexibility providing several advantages connected to the acquired optical and photonics capabilities and allowing to envisage novel strategies for the development of chiral colloidal systems and materials

  10. AGRARIAN ACCOUNTANCY IN THE VISUAL CONE OF INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela SIMTION

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available After a long period during which agriculture did not have a standard of its own and applied for that matter the IAS 2 rules regarding inventories; IAS 16 regarding property, plant and equipment and IAS 18 regarding revenues, one last standard is being born – IAS 41. The late appearance of this standard is compensated by the great attention granted from the IASC, as agriculture is very important for those countries in course of development. IAS 41 is operative for those financial statements starting with the 1 of January 2003. The current standard is applied to account those elements regarding agricultural activities. IAS 41 is does not deal: with genuine exploiting activities, with harvested agricultural products, which are non biological products, or with the agricultural production, which is incorporated in the processing process. The activity will follow the financial reporting guidelines imposed by IAS 41 if: (athe plants or animals, that represent the object of the activities, are living and suitable for transformation; (b the change must be controlled, a fact which implies a range of activities like ground fertilizing and crop cultivation, feeding and medical assistance while breeding animals;(cthere have to exist fundamentals for evaluating changes like: the degree at which plants ripen, the animals weight, the trees circumference. The most important feature of this standard is the request for evaluating the biological assets at each balance sheet date at its fair value. Taking into consideration the limited framework of the current standard, beside of the explicit exceptions, all IAS must also be applied in agriculture.

  11. Convergence Of US-GAAP And International Standards: The Critical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steven W. Smalt; John P. McAllister

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides readers with: 1)An update on an institutional change that will focus the attention of worldwide accounting and financial reporting standard setters on the convergence of international and national standards, and 2)An analysis of in-process issues in the international accounting arena that will be critical to the success / failure of this convergence effort.

  12. Discourse Surrounding the International Education Standards for Professional Accountants (IES): A Content Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Satoshi; Wilson, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The development and implementation of the International Education Standards (IES) for professional accountants is currently an important issue in accounting education and for educators interested in a shift toward international education standards more broadly. The purpose of this study is to investigate professional and research discourse…

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS BY COUNTRIES WITH ECONOMIES IN TRANSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zasadnyi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with experience of application of international financial reporting standards in different countries with economies in transition. The main advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of international financial reporting standards for financial reporting for Ukrainian companies are based on this experience.

  14. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Donovan, William

    2012-01-01

    This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including the ...

  15. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0708, FRL-9756-4] RIN 2060-AQ58 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines Correction In rule...

  16. 76 FR 12863 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... combustion engines. The final rule was published on August 20, 2010. This direct final action amends certain... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines...

  17. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Overall survey; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Sogo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the survey of tackling with the international standardization by enterprises and organizations involved in the standardization in the U.S., Europe and Japan, the results of the R and D on 20 themes for the international standardization, and the development toward the international standardization. As the R and D themes, the following were selected: the development of chemical method to analyze/evaluate metallic coatings of surface treated steel coating sheets, R and D of the basic evaluation method of functional composite particles, international standards for computer/manikins, basic technology of color image management, study on optimizing design/evaluation technology using quality engineering, study of the international standardization by economic evaluation of environmental impacts, R and D of the standardization of a method to test acceleration life of phosphorous acid fuel cells, development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards, standard measuring methods of hormone effects of chemical substances, quantification of the sensory evaluation and international standardization in the paint field, experimental study on the international standardization for immunochemical measurement of chemical substances, etc. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation.

    OpenAIRE

    Benedict, R; Amato, Mp; Boringa, J; Brochet, B; Foley, F; Fredrikson, S; Hamalainen, P; Hartung, H; Krupp, L; Penner, I; Reder, A; Langdon, D.

    2012-01-01

    An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different langu...

  19. Fiscal 1999 technical research report. Development project on prompt-effect international standards for developing new industry (Comprehensive survey and research concerning promotion of international standardization); 1999 nendo shinki sangyo ikusei sokkogata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru sogo chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For encouraging the promotion of international standardization involving the six subjects of advanced technology taken up under the above-named project, wide-range investigations are conducted into measures for international standardization, the activities of international standardizing agencies and organizations, and the approaches of European and American business corporations to this issue. Technical literature and material are studied in Japan, and interviews are held overseas with responsible persons at organizations and corporations engaged in this task. At Standards Development Organization (SDO) of America, verification tests are under way for early development into international standards of technical standards it has so far developed independently. For the strategical utilization of intellectual property incorporated into its technical standards, SDO accepts that the best policy is to win approvals from patent proprietors at the early stage of standardization process by presenting them with conditions about patent implementation. In Europe and America, for the enhancement of their competitive power in the international theater, governments and civil sectors cooperate with each other for the establishment of international standards and, in business corporations, the management takes the initiative in coping with the issue with an understanding that there are business opportunities in international standardization. (NEDO)

  20. Improving the efficiency of quantitative (1)H NMR: an innovative external standard-internal reference approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yande; Su, Bao-Ning; Ye, Qingmei; Palaniswamy, Venkatapuram A; Bolgar, Mark S; Raglione, Thomas V

    2014-01-01

    The classical internal standard quantitative NMR (qNMR) method determines the purity of an analyte by the determination of a solution containing the analyte and a standard. Therefore, the standard must meet the requirements of chemical compatibility and lack of resonance interference with the analyte as well as a known purity. The identification of such a standard can be time consuming and must be repeated for each analyte. In contrast, the external standard qNMR method utilizes a standard with a known purity to calibrate the NMR instrument. The external standard and the analyte are measured separately, thereby eliminating the matter of chemical compatibility and resonance interference between the standard and the analyte. However, the instrumental factors, including the quality of NMR tubes, must be kept the same. Any deviations will compromise the accuracy of the results. An innovative qNMR method reported herein utilizes an internal reference substance along with an external standard to assume the role of the standard used in the traditional internal standard qNMR method. In this new method, the internal reference substance must only be chemically compatible and be free of resonance-interference with the analyte or external standard whereas the external standard must only be of a known purity. The exact purity or concentration of the internal reference substance is not required as long as the same quantity is added to the external standard and the analyte. The new method reduces the burden of searching for an appropriate standard for each analyte significantly. Therefore the efficiency of the qNMR purity assay increases while the precision of the internal standard method is retained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. New International Reference Standards of Voltage and Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvastava, V. P.

    1991-01-01

    The introduction of the quantum standards of resistance and voltage, based on the Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) and the Josephson Effect, can be used to establish highly reproducible and uniform representations of the ohm and volt worldwide. Discussed are the QHE and the Josephson Effect. (KR)

  2. Teacher Assessment Literacy: A Review of International Standards and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Christopher; LaPointe-McEwan, Danielle; Luhanga, Ulemu

    2016-01-01

    Assessment literacy is a core professional requirement across educational systems. Hence, measuring and supporting teachers' assessment literacy have been a primary focus over the past two decades. At present, there are a multitude of assessment standards across the world and numerous assessment literacy measures that represent different…

  3. PROPOSAL METHODOLOGY OF THE SUBSYSTEM - INTERNAL STANDARDIZATION AS PART OF TQM SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Mitreva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Standardization in the management system becomes a key task of the managers and a priority issue for survival of every organization of this century. Besides the company's owner which is mostly concerned with the profit and fast multiplication of its invested capital, many other parties such as consumers, community, employees, deliverers and the society make a pressure in demanding. As of those demands the organization is to adapt its management system according the standards in order to be safe t hat the expectations will be fulfilled. However, to fulfill the standards in Europe and worldwide it is necessary to approach towards huge - radical changes in problem solving i.e. reengineering, new manner of consideration of causes and not as the so far known way - thinking over the consequences. Implementing this new TQM strategy means designing solidly documented quality system that covers every working process in a company and appears as a necessary base for successful usage of statistical process contr ol (SPC and efficient teamwork which otherwise in case of bad quality system will not be able to be set. In this manner it is guaranteed that the attitude of the top management is conducted; this attitude is consisted within the quality policy that create s a climate and information base whe re team work can be developed. This paper offers a proposal methodology for designing and implementation of internal standardization of TQM system in companies. This methodology is applicable in factory for reconstructio n of wagons and in a factory for confectionary production and has shown its efficiency and usage. In order to design the processes in line with the consumers/ clients content and at the same time to achieve profitability, it is necessary to reengineer the working processes

  4. Role of the IAEA in establishment of the international standards of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinak, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the presentation is to highlight the existing challenges in radiation protection, and provide insight into the role of the IAEA in establishment of the radiation safety standards. It will, inter alia, cover from the following areas: 1. global outreach of safety principles in radiation protection and safety; 2. IAEA and establishment of Safety Standards; 3. IAEA Standards and national regulations; 4. IAEA members states role in drafting and review of IAEA Safety Standards; 5. existing, novel issues and challenges. The role of the IAEA is to establish fundamental safety objectives in radiation protection and safety following fundamental safety objectives, safety principles and concepts. The main aim of Safety Standards is to provide for the establishment of a system for protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The requirements as included in the Safety Standards aim to assess, manage and control exposure to radiation so that radiation risks, including risks of health effects and risks to the environment, are reduced to the extent reasonably achievable.One of the novel feature adopted in the revised Basic Safety Standards (BSS) is the classification of exposures - planned, emergency and existing - each of them including several categories of exposure (occupational, public and medical), where appropriate.The revised BSS also addresses areas like exemption and clearance being particularly important in international trade and transport; significantly increases the number of requirements in medicine, in response to novel and/or expanding techniques in medicine using ionizing radiation; incorporates new regulatory limits for exposure to radon, and in protection of the lens of the eyes, as recommended by WHO and ICRP; newly introduces requirements for specific practices like, for example, airport security screenings; and addresses many other areas.While the principal approach to regulatory aspects in emergency exposure

  5. Economic consequences of the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards: evidences in the research literature

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Doina Pãºcan; Ramona Neag

    2015-01-01

    Along with the economic globalization, the international accounting regulation bodies faced the need to issue internationally accepted global accounting standards. The effect was the issuance and the widespread of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). At European level, the IFRS gained legitimacy in 2002, when the European Parliament and Council have decided that all European publicly traded entities must prepare their consolidated financial statements in accordance with IFR...

  6. Development of Proliferation Resistance Assessment Methodology Based on International Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Deok; Lee, Jung Won; Lee, Kwang Seok

    2009-03-01

    Proliferation resistance is one of the requirement to be met in GEN IV and INPRO for next generation nuclear energy system. Internationally, the evaluation methodology on PR had been already initiated from 1980, but the systematic development was started at 2000s. In Korea, for the export of nuclear energy system and the increase of international credibility and transparence of domestic nuclear system and fuel cycle development, the independent development of PR evaluation methodology was started in 2007 as a nuclear long term R and D project and the development is being performed for the model of PR evaluation methodology. In 1st year, comparative study of GEN-IV/INPRO, PR indicator development, quantification of indicator and evaluation model development, analysis of technology system and international technology development trend had been performed. In 2nd year, feasibility study of indicator, allowable limit of indicator, review of technical requirement of indicator were done. The results of PR evaluation must be applied in the beginning of conceptual design of nuclear system. Through the technology development of PR evaluation methodology, the methodology will be applied in the regulatory requirement for authorization and permission to be developed

  7. Kandungan Prinsip Konservatisme dalam Standar Akuntansi Keuangan Berbasis IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standard)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Juanda

    2012-01-01

    Kandungan Prinsip Konservatisme DalamStandar Akuntansi Keuangan Berbasis IFRS(International Financial Reporting Standard)Ahmad JuandaStaf Pengajar Jurusan Akutansi, Fakultas Ekonomi dan BisnisUniversitas Muhammadiyah This study aims to reveal the content of the principle of conservatism contained in financial accounting standards (GAAP) results of the convergence of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The use of the principle of conservatism still...

  8. CAMAC-an international standard for data machine instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Johnsen, P J

    1973-01-01

    CAMAC is a standard for on-line computer instrumentation and control. Owing to the world-wide acceptance of CAMAC, standardized and mutually compatible equipment is now offered by a great number of manufacturers. CAMAC systems are modular, and with the range of modules commercially available, it is possible to build up flexible and complex data processing systems. Use of CAMAC requires a CAMAC- compatible entrance (interface) to the computer. Once established, users are later on completely independent of the type of computer used. General aspects, CAMAC systems for NORD-1 and NORD-10 are presented. The former is developed at Physics Institute, Oslo, and the latter is developed as a result of the CERN-contract gained by NORSK DATAELEKTRONIKK.

  9. New international and national standards concerning quality systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrick, K.; Reihlen, H.

    1987-01-01

    The history and contents of the latest standards DIN ISO 9000 through DIN ISO 9004 concerning quality systems are outlined. Information is given referring to the establishment of an in-house quality system, and to quality assurance requirements put down in a three-step quality assurance system for contractual purposes. The services available for certification of quality systems by the 'DQS' and legal aspects are mentioned. (HP)

  10. The First International Records Management Standard: A Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrettin Özdemirci

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, The First Internatonal Records Management Standart ISO 15489 for the use of records management is examined in regard to its preparatory stu­dies, its content, and its relation and contribution to archive management. In adi- tion to these, the provisions of the standard that can contribute to handling of Turkish records are mentioned and recommendations are offered for steps to be taken.

  11. The International Accounting Standards Board’s Progress in Promoting Judgement Through Objectives-Oriented Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Lakovic; Jayne Fuglister

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes how the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) promotes professional judgement by issuing objectives-oriented accounting standards and exposure drafts.  We focus on the the role of judgement as outlined in Phase I of the IASB Conceptual Framework (CF), Chapter 1, “Objective of General Purpose Financial Statements” and Chapter 3, “Qualitative Characteristics of Useful Financial Information” (IASB 2010). We discuss how the framework, when viewed through the prism of...

  12. Legislative/regulatory drivers the international maritime organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    I am pleased and honored to be here representing the International Maritime Organization (IMO), which is the cosponsor of this R ampersand D Forum with the Coast Guard. This is truly an international Forum - and it needs to be. I should like to turn now to the subject of IMO and, for the benefit of many here who do not know the Organization, describe very briefly what IMO is and what it does. IMO is the specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with shipping matters. The Organization has 136 member-states and its headquarters is located in London on the bank of the Thames River. It has a permanent secretariat numbering about 300 international civil servants, headed by the Secretary-General. IMO is a technical organization, and it conducts its work through committees of the whole, with the help of standing subcommittees, working groups, and other groups or bodies formed as the need arises. We have with us today a representative of MED in the person of Commander David Pascoe, whom the U.S. Coast Guard has seconded to IMO for a two-year tour of duty. The purposes of IMO are, in short, to improve safety at sea and to prevent pollution from ships; i.e., IMO continuously strives for safer ships and cleaner oceans. IMO also promotes technical cooperation and assistance, particularly among developing countries, to help satisfy these purposes globally. The work product of IMO includes more than 30 multilateral treaties and 600 codes and sets of recommendations on maritime safety, marine environment protection, and other legal and technical issues involving worldwide shipping

  13. The international standard for protection from ionizing radiation and safety of radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, T [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1995-06-01

    This document is a review in hebrew of the new 1994 international standard of the IAEA. The new standard title is `Basic safety standards for radiation protection and for the safety of radiation sources`, which were published in the ICRP Pub. 9.

  14. The protection of the accused in international criminal law according to the Human Rights Law Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kremens

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper discusses the influence of international human rights law on international criminal law. It tries to give an answer to the question of whether rules protecting the accused in international criminal proceedings meet the human rights law standard provided by international declarations and covenants. Meaning, if the proceedings before the International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia (ICTY, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR and International Criminal Court (ICC meet the standard provided by international human rights law, in particular the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The paper proves that international human rights law has affected international criminal law tremendously. Moreover, it is argued that the protection of the accused in the law of the international courts and tribunals with regard to his rights has improved when compared to the international human rights law standard. In particular the Rome Statute of the ICC provides the accused with the most comprehensive protection. This is especially visible in the case of such rights as the presumption of innocence, right to an interpreter and right to remain silent. Nevertheless, some shortcomings in the law of the ad hoc tribunals and ICC can be observed, in particular when it comes to identifying the commencement of protection of the accused.

  15. International Organizations: the Main Factors of Emergence and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev S. Voronkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author argues that the emergence of the first permanent intergovernmental (IIGO and non-governmental (INGO organizationsin the second half of the XIX-th century was due to common causes. He tries to justify the need to consider them not as independent objects of study, but as the phenomenon, caused by the high level of internationalization of economic life of states and of socio-economic consequences of the industrial revolution, reached in this period. The emergence of IIGOs, based on international treaty, was accompanied by establishment of a large number of INGOs operating in similar fields of human activity, which performed supplementary functions and regulated areas of cooperation and public needs, not covered by interstate agreements. The article presents the main factors that in later stages of internationalization and development of contemporary international relations gave the impetus to emergence and development of international organizations, including the military-technological revolution, that gave birth to mass destruction weapons and avalanche-like growth of the number of human and material losses during wars and military conflicts, the Cold War between world communism and world capitalism, the collapse of the colonial system and formation ofa new main contradiction of the world politics between the "Club of rich countries" and states of the "global periphery", beginning of development of regional integration processes and, finally, the emergence of global problems. The article emphasizes that both IIGOs and INGOs evolved from the supportive tools in implementation of multilateral interaction of sovereign states towards becoming an integral part of contemporary international relations, fulfilling many vital functions of modern human society and its citizens. Given the involvement of the overwhelming majority of modern sovereign states and tens of thousands of civil society organizations in activity of numerical IIGOs and INGOs

  16. The upstream oil and gas industry's initiative in the development of international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.A.N.; Thorp, G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the international work of the oil industry to formalize as International Standards many of the industry standards used world-wide. It also describes how matters have been developing in Europe. E and P Forum, representing the international exploration and production oil and gas industry, provides a forum for coordinating industry standardization, to ensure that the necessary standards are maintained by the appropriate technical body. The paper discusses the development of the standardization program in ISO/TC67, the Technical Committee directing the transformation of some 70 API Standards into ISO Standards and the relationship to CEN (the European standardization body). The objective of the upstream industry is to operate worldwide to consistent international standards. Company standards can then concentrate on functional and performance requirements. This will facilitate international trade and communication, open competition and the global market. For a practical realization of this objective the oil industry must foster a special relationship between the relevant US bodies, ISO and CEN. The sustained support of all sides of industry is required

  17. Recently aspects regarding International Auditing Standard 200 „Overall Objectives of the Independent Auditor and the Conduct of an Audit in Accordance with International Standards on Auditing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Botez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of an audit is to enhance the degree of confidence of intended users in the financial statements. This is achieved by the expression of an opinion by the auditor on whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with an applicable financial reporting framework. The International Standard on Auditing 200 (ISA 200 deals with the independent auditor’s overall responsibilities when conducting an audit of financial statements in accordance with International Standards on Auditing (ISAs.

  18. Conservation and human rights: the need for international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oviedo, Gonzalo [International Union for the Conservation of Nature (International organizations without location); Pabon, Luis [The Nature Conservancy (United States); Painter, Michael; Redford, Kent [The Wildlife Conservation Society (United States); Siegele, Linda [Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (United Kingdom); Springer, Jenny [WWF-US (United States); Thomas, David [Birdlife International (International organizations without location); Painemilla, Kristen Walker [Conservation International (United States); Roe, Dilys

    2010-05-15

    Conservation doesn't happen in a vacuum. In recent years, awareness has grown of the relationship of international conservation practice to indigenous peoples and local communities, and especially the links between conservation and human rights. The impacts protected areas can have on rural communities – such as evictions and lost access to natural resources – are now under particular scrutiny. Concern is meanwhile rising over the human rights implications of some climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. But awareness is also growing of the positive contributions of nature conservation to the rights of people to secure their livelihoods, enjoy healthy and productive environments, and live with dignity. International NGOs can play a central role in supporting and promoting conservation actions that respect the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, and help sustain their livelihoods. Many conservation organisations have long worked towards this. It is vital that they hold to consistent principles and implement measures that ensure their application, so their action on conservation remains accountable, transparent and sustainable.

  19. Archival-grade optical disc design and international standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toru; Kojyo, Shinichi; Endo, Akihisa; Kodaira, Takuo; Mori, Fumi; Shimizu, Atsuo

    2015-09-01

    Optical discs currently on the market exhibit large variations in life span among discs, making them unsuitable for certain business applications. To assess and potentially mitigate this problem, we performed accelerated degradation testing under standard ISO conditions, determined the probable disc failure mechanisms, and identified the essential criteria necessary for a stable disc composition. With these criteria as necessary conditions, we analyzed the physical and chemical changes that occur in the disc components, on the basis of which we determined technological measures to reduce these degradation processes. By applying these measures to disc fabrication, we were able to develop highly stable optical discs.

  20. From organized internal traffic to collective navigation of bacterial swarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariel, Gil; Shklarsh, Adi; Kalisman, Oren; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Ingham, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial swarming resulting in collective navigation over surfaces provides a valuable example of cooperative colonization of new territories. The social bacterium Paenibacillus vortex exhibits successful and diverse swarming strategies. When grown on hard agar surfaces with peptone, P. vortex develops complex colonies of vortices (rotating bacterial aggregates). In contrast, during growth on Mueller–Hinton broth gelled into a soft agar surface, a new strategy of multi-level organization is revealed: the colonies are organized into a special network of swarms (or ‘snakes’ of a fraction of millimeter in width) with intricate internal traffic. More specifically, cell movement is organized in two or three lanes of bacteria traveling between the back and the front of the swarm. This special form of cellular logistics suggests new methods in which bacteria can share resources and risk while searching for food or migrating into new territories. While the vortices-based organization on hard agar surfaces has been modeled before, here, we introduce a new multi-agent bacterial swarming model devised to capture the swarms-based organization on soft surfaces. We test two putative generic mechanisms that may underlie the observed swarming logistics: (i) chemo-activated taxis in response to chemical cues and (ii) special align-and-push interactions between the bacteria and the boundary of the layer of lubricant collectively generated by the swarming bacteria. Using realistic parameters, the model captures the observed phenomena with semi-quantitative agreement in terms of the velocity as well as the dynamics of the swarm and its envelope. This agreement implies that the bacteria interactions with the swarm boundary play a crucial role in mediating the interplay between the collective movement of the swarm and the internal traffic dynamics. (paper)

  1. Comparative study of Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures on radiation and nuclear safety with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayabo, Lynette B.

    2013-06-01

    This study presents the results of the critical reviews, analysis, and comparison of the regulatory infrastructures for radiation and nuclear safety of Malaysis and the Philippines usi ng the IAEA safety requirements, GSR Part 1, G overnment, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety'' as the main basis and in part, the GSR Part 3, R adiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards . The scope of the comparison includes the elements of the relevant legislations, the regulatory system and processes including the core functions of the regulatory body (authorization, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, development of regulations and guides); and the staffing and training of regulatory body. The respective availabe data of the Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures and current practices were gathered and analyzed. Recommendations to fill the gaps and strengthen the existing regulatory infrastructure of each country was given using as bases relevant IAEA safety guides. Based on the analysis made, the main findings are: the legislations of both countries do not contain al the elements of teh national policy and strategy for safety as well as those of teh framework for safety in GR Part I. Among the provision that need to be included in the legislations are: emergency planning and response; decommissioning of facilities safe management of radioactive wastes and spent fuel; competence for safety; and technical sevices. Provisions on coordination of different authorities with safety responsibilities within the regulatory framework for safety as well as liaison with advisory bodies and support organizations need to be enhanced. The Philippines needs to establish an independent regulatory body, ie. separate from organizations charged with promotion of nuclear technologies and responsible for facilitiesand activities. Graded approach on the system of notification and authorization by registration and

  2. Internal Communication and Social Dialogue in Knowledge-Based Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria CISMARU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of Eurofound shows that knowledge-based organizations have a low number of trade unions, while professional associations are more relevant for them. There is no tradition to defend through negotiation the working conditions of employees, thus it is important for managers to use the best practices, in order to increase the employees’ loyalty. We conducted a qualitative research concerning the quality of professional life of employees in five sectors of knowledge-based services: advertising-marketing, IT, banking and finance, research and development, and higher education; 15-20 employees from each sector were interviewed. Some of the questions referred directly to trade unions and affiliation, and also to internal communication. Although the results showed a different situation in each of the five sectors, there are few common characteristics: descendant communication is more frequent than ascendant communication, trade unions were reported as missing, unrepresentative or not very active, and the greatest part of employees in this sector are not affiliated, facts that limits the possibility of maintaining employees’ motivation on long term.

  3. 26 CFR 1.893-1 - Compensation of employees of foreign governments or international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thereunder. (c) Tax conventions, consular conventions, and international agreements—(1) Exemption dependent... government or international organization to its employees is exempt from Federal income tax, and the... or international organizations. 1.893-1 Section 1.893-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...

  4. International cooperative analysis of standard substance, IAEA-0390

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Keizo; Takada, Jitsuya; Moriyama, Hirotake; Akaboshi, Mitsuhiko

    1999-01-01

    Three kinds of algae (IAEA-0391, IAEA-0392 and IAEA-0393) were defined as the biological standard substance to monitor environmental pollution by Analytical Quality Control Service of IAEA (IAEA-AQCS). In this study, analysis of these standard substances were made using ICP-MS to compare with the results of simultaneously conducted radioactivation analysis (INAA). The respective cultures of the three algae were cooperatively prepared by IAEA-AQCS and microbial Institute of Czechoslovakia. After drying and sterilizing by Co-60 exposure, these samples were sent to KURRI. When the results from the experiment in KURRI were compared with the values recommended through statistical treatment of the data obtained by IAEA, these values of 5 elements, Fe, Cr, Mg, Mn and Na were well coincident for either of IAEA-0391, IAEA-0392 and IAEA-0393 and the values of As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, K and Zn were nearly coincident between them. Regarding Hg and La, the data from INAA and ICP-MS were very different from the recommended values of IAEA for either of samples. (M.N.)

  5. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of the... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance...

  6. 78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...] Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development Facility... The STDF is a unique global partnership established by the Food and Agriculture Organization, World... cooperative agreement in fiscal year 2013 (FY 2013) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards and...

  7. 40 CFR 63.686 - Standards: Oil-water and organic-water separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Oil-water and organic-water... Operations § 63.686 Standards: Oil-water and organic-water separators. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air emissions from oil-water separators and organic-water separators for which...

  8. Developing an Implementation Guideline to International Standard School for Schools under Secondary Educational Service Area Office 25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawut Poltree

    2017-09-01

    planning had managed the preparation of the strategic objectives and the action plan of the school, 3 the focus on learners and stakeholders had managed to build strong ties with students and stakeholders, 4 measurement, analysis and knowledge management had managed to collect, analyze, manage, improve information, knowledge assets, and Information technology management 5 the focus on personnel had managed about the bunch, the development, and personnel management, 6 process management had managed to define core competencies and systems, design management and improve critical processes, and 7 the results had managed available to management on how to assess the performance of schools and improvements in important aspects. In summary, the results of research on developing an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25 ; educational institutions, government organizations and the private sector can bring research results to be used effectively.

  9. International language management and diversity climate in multicultural organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Increasing globalization has made the use and management of language a vital element of engaging in international business activities. Despite this fact, empirical surveys with many respondents examining language management are extremely rare. Another equally important issue related to internatio......Increasing globalization has made the use and management of language a vital element of engaging in international business activities. Despite this fact, empirical surveys with many respondents examining language management are extremely rare. Another equally important issue related...... to internationalization is how to develop and support an environment that is tolerant of the diversity which exists in multicultural organizations. Based on questionnaire responses from 489 members of academic multicultural departments, we examined the relation between the management of a common language and a positive...... diversity climate. Results showed that consistency in English management communication had strong positive relationships with all of the four investigated diversity climate variables; openness to linguistic, visible, value, and informational diversity. English communication consistency had a positive...

  10. 7th International Conference on Knowledge Management in Organizations (KMO)

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, Francisco; Pérez, Javier; Rodríguez, Juan; 7th International Conference on Knowledge Management in Organizations: Service and Cloud Computing

    2013-01-01

    The seventh International Conference on Knowledge Management in Organizations (KMO) brings together researchers and developers from industry and the academic world to report on the latest scientific and technical advances on knowledge management in organisations.   KMO 2012 provides an international forum for authors to present and discuss research focused on the role of knowledge management for innovative services in industries, to shed light on recent advances in cloud computing for KM as well as to identify future directions for researching the role of knowledge management in service innovation and how cloud computing can be used to address many of the issues currently facing KM in academia and industrial sectors. The conference took place at Salamanca in Spain on the 11th-13th July in 2012.

  11. Progress in organizing national and international comparisons for nuclear medicine measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, Maria; Waetjen, Anamaria C.; Ivan, Constantin

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the progress registered by the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (RML) from IFIN-HH, in improvement of the quality of radiopharmaceuticals activity measurement, and assurance of the whole traceability chain from international level to the national users. The progress in organization of comparisons for radiopharmaceuticals activity measurement is analyzed. A detailed description of two recent national comparisons, and an international one, regarding 131 I solutions, within the frame of the IAEA's CRP E2.10.05 'Harmonization of quality practices for nuclear medicine radioactivity measurements' is done, with the analysis of the strong and week points in measurements. The most important outcome of the paper is the analysis of the evolution in quality of comparisons since a previously reported one. At the RML level, the improvements are: demonstration of the international equivalence of primary Romanian activity standard, improvement of the secondary standard, relevance of the comparison within the IAEA frame, implementation of a quality system in standardization and in comparisons, and implication of the RML in calibrations and metrological checks. The participants' reported improvements refer to growing of the awareness in quality of measurement and improvement of the measurement equipment. Reasons for future comparisons organization are presented. (author)

  12. LIMITS IN APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS TO INNOVATIVE CERAMIC SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gres Porcelain stoneware is a ceramic with a compact, hard, coloured and non-porous body. It is largely used as building materials, for a quality architecture, offering high resistance to impact, stress, wear, scratching, frost, chemical attach and stains. It is produced in flat tiles, billions of tons per year. A very prominent technology, based on a pyroclastic deformation, permits to obtain bended porcelain tiles as innovative solutions for a modern architecture. This technology is grounded on a proper combination of heavy machining by cutting tools and secondary firing in a kiln. This new element, the bended tile, can be used in several innovative applications (as steps, shelves, benches, radiators.... But, new functions require a better and in-depth knowledge of these materials, especially referring to the mechanical proprieties. This paper investigates the limits of applicability of ISO standards for the quality classification of ceramics and experimental measures of their mechanical proprieties.

  13. Building physics from physical principles to international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Pinterić, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides thorough coverage of the most important building physics phenomena: heat transfer, moisture, sound/acoustics, and illumination. Since the book is primarily aimed at engineers, it addresses professional issues with due pragmatism, and by including many practical examples and related ISO standards. Nevertheless, in order to guarantee full comprehension, it also explains the underlying physical principles and relates them to practical aspects in a simple and clear way. This is achieved with the aid of more than 100 figures and consistent cross-referencing of formulas and ideas. In addition, interrelationships between the different building physics phenomena are elucidated in a way that will enable readers to develop performance specifications that inform the design process. The book will primarily appeal to students of civil engineering and architecture, as well as to all practitioners in these areas who wish to broaden their fundamental understanding of topics in building physics.

  14. The development of international safety standards on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCartin, T.

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA is developing a set of safety requirements for geologic disposal to be used by both developers and regulators for planning, designing, operating, and closing a geologic disposal facility. Safety requirements would include quantitative criteria for assessing safety of geologic disposal facilities as well as requirements for development of the facility and the safety strategy including the safety case. Geologic disposal facilities are anticipated to be developed over a period of at least a few decades. Key decisions, e.g., on the disposal concept, siting, design, operational management and closure, are expected to be made in a series of steps. Decisions will be made based on the information available at each step and the confidence that may be placed in that information. A safety strategy is important for ensuring that at each step during the development of the disposal facility, an adequate understanding of the safety implications of the available options is developed such that the ultimate goal of providing an acceptable level of operational and post closure safety will be met. A safety case for a geologic disposal facility would present all the safety relevant aspects of the site, the facility design and the managerial and regulatory controls. The safety case and its supporting assessments illustrates the level of protection provided and shall give reasonable assurance that safety standards will be met. Overall, the safety case provides confidence in the feasibility of implementing the disposal system as designed, convincing estimates of the performance of the disposal system and a reasonable assurance that safety standards will be met. (author)

  15. NON-STANDARD FORMS OF EMPLOYMENT IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Chekanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the emergence and development of non-standard forms of employment and flexible working. The causes of their use reflects the results of research conducted in the workplace. Non-standard forms of employment and attractive today as they allow to expand the circle of the workforce.

  16. Standard test method for determination of low concentrations of uranium in oils and organic liquids by X-ray fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the steps necessary for the preparation and analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) of oils and organic solutions containing uranium. Two different preparation techniques are described. 1.2 The procedure is valid for those solutions containing 20 to 2000 μg uranium per mL as presented to the spectrometer for the solution technique and 200 to 50 000 μg uranium per g for the pellet technique. 1.3 This test method requires the use of an appropriate internal standard. Care must be taken to ascertain that samples analyzed by this test method do not contain the internal standard or that this contamination, whenever present, has been corrected for mathematically. Such corrections are not addressed in this procedure. Care must be taken that the internal standard and sample medium are compatible; that is, samples must be miscible with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and must not remove the internal standard from solution. Alternatively, a scatter line may be used as the internal standard. 1....

  17. Study on a Threat-Countermeasure Model Based on International Standard Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Horacio Ramirez Caceres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Many international standards exist in the field of IT security. This research is based on the ISO/IEC 15408, 15446, 19791, 13335 and 17799 standards. In this paper, we propose a knowledge base comprising a threat countermeasure model based on international standards for identifying and specifying threats which affect IT environments. In addition, the proposed knowledge base system aims at fusing similar security control policies and objectives in order to create effective security guidelines for specific IT environments. As a result, a knowledge base of security objectives was developed on the basis of the relationships inside the standards as well as the relationships between different standards. In addition, a web application was developed which displays details about the most common threats to information systems, and for each threat presents a set of related security control policies from different international standards, including ISO/IEC 27002.

  18. Development of proliferation resistance assessment methodology based on international standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W. I.; Chang, H. L.; Lee, Y. D.; Lee, J. W.; Park, J. H.; Kim, Y. I.; Ryu, J. S.; Ko, H. S.; Lee, K. W.

    2012-04-01

    Nonproliferation is one of the main requirements to be satisfied by the advanced future nuclear energy systems that have been developed in the Generation IV and INPRO studies. The methodologies to evaluate proliferation resistance has been developed since 1980s, however, the systematic evaluation approach has begun from around 2000. Domestically a study to develop national method to evaluate proliferation resistance (PR) of advanced future nuclear energy systems has started in 2007 as one of the long-term nuclear R and D subjects in order to promote export and international credibility and transparency of national nuclear energy systems and nuclear fuel cycle technology development program. In the first phase (2007-2010) development and improvement of intrinsic evaluation parameters for the evaluation of proliferation resistance, quantification of evaluation parameters, development of evaluation models, and development of permissible ranges of evaluation parameters have been carried out. In the second phase (2010-2012) generic principle of to evaluate PR was established, and techincal guidelines, nuclear material diversion pathway analysis method, and a method to integrate evaluation parameters have been developed. which were applied to 5 alternative nuclear fuel cycles to estimate their appicability and objectivity. In addition, measures to enhance PR of advanced future nuclear energy systems and technical guidelines of PR assessment using intrinsic PR evaluation parameters were developed. Lastly, requlatory requirements to secure nonproliferation requirements of nuclear energy systems from the early design stage, operation and to decommissioning which will support the export of newly developed advanced future nuclear energy system

  19. 40 CFR 82.38 - Approved independent standards testing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Recycling Program Manager, Stratospheric Protection Division (6205J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency... following: (1) That the organization has the capacity to accurately test whether refrigerant recycling... procedures are appropriate for that purpose. (2) That the organization has no conflict of interest and will...

  20. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2: International Standards for Language Codes. ISO 15924: International Standard for Names of Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, John D.

    This paper describes two international standards for the representation of the names of languages. The first (ISO 639-1), published in 1988, provides two-letter codes for 136 languages and was produced primarily to meet terminological needs. The second (ISO 639-2) appeared in late 1998 and includes three-letter codes for 460 languages. This list…

  1. (No) Limits to Anglo-American Accounting? Reconstructing the History of the International Accounting Standards Committee ; A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Botzem, S.; Quack, S.

    2009-01-01

    The development of the current International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) from the earlier International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) provides insight into many issues of international financial reporting, among them the characteristics of international accounting standards themselves. This article reviews Camfferman and Zeff’s [Camfferman, K., & Zeff, S. A. (2007). Financial reporting and global capital markets. A history of the international accounting standards committee 1973...

  2. Immunities of International Organizations before Domestic Courts : Reflections on the Collective Labour Case against the European Patent Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryngaert, C.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The Netherlands is home to a substantial number of international organizations, which on the basis of international agreements are entitled to immunity from jurisdiction and enforcement before Dutch courts. This immunity grant has not stopped claimants from suing international organizations in The

  3. [From manual workshop to international standard maker: exploration on production standard of acupuncture needle by Chengjiang acupuncture school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Cao, Yang; Xia, Youbing

    2015-02-01

    ABSTRACT The exploration course on production standard of acupuncture needle by Chengjiang acupuncture school is reviewed in this paper. After new China was established, acupuncture needle standard was unified by Mr. CHENG Dan-an, which guided Suzhou Hua Erfang (predecessor of Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory) to make the quality standards and testing methods of acupuncture needle and improved the production process to make the modern acupuncture needle. Based on this, Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory followed the time development pace, ac tively introduced new technology, carried out technological innovation, and constantly improved the level of production technology, as a result, it gradually developed into one of the world's largest acupuncture needle production suppliers. Meanwhile, after establishing China's first national standard on acupuncture needle (GB 2024-1980), the Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory took the lead to draft "ISO) 17218:2014 the disposable use asepsis acupuncture needle", which was officially published as an international standard. The Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory developed from a manual workshop to an international standard maker.

  4. The International Accounting Standards Board’s Progress in Promoting Judgement Through Objectives-Oriented Accounting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Lakovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes how the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB promotes professional judgement by issuing objectives-oriented accounting standards and exposure drafts.  We focus on the the role of judgement as outlined in Phase I of the IASB Conceptual Framework (CF, Chapter 1, “Objective of General Purpose Financial Statements” and Chapter 3, “Qualitative Characteristics of Useful Financial Information” (IASB 2010. We discuss how the framework, when viewed through the prism of 'objectives-oriented accounting standards' as recommended by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC Report in its “Study Pursuant to Section 108(d of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 on the Adoption by the United States Financial Reporting System of a Principles-Based Accounting System” (July 2003, encourages professional judgement. We analyze International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and Exposure Drafts (ED issued by the IASB since its inception in 2002 to determine if those documents are consistent with objectives-oriented accounting standards. Our analysis is useful for gaining insights into how the IASB integrates the CF with the SEC’s recommended objectives-oriented accounting approach to promote judgement in the interest of IASB/FASB convergence of accounting standards.

  5. The internal consistency of the standard gamble: tests after adjusting for prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Adam

    2003-07-01

    This article reports a study that tests whether the internal consistency of the standard gamble can be improved upon by incorporating loss weighting and probability transformation parameters in the standard gamble valuation procedure. Five alternatives to the standard EU formulation are considered: (1) probability transformation within an EU framework; and, within a prospect theory framework, (2) loss weighting and full probability transformation, (3) no loss weighting and full probability transformation, (4) loss weighting and no probability transformation, and (5) loss weighting and partial probability transformation. Of the five alternatives, only the prospect theory formulation with loss weighting and no probability transformation offers an improvement in internal consistency over the standard EU valuation procedure.

  6. Decree 149/013. It dictate norms standards for pollution prevention in the oil loading terminals, repairing ports and other ports where ships have hidrocarbon waste, to discharge in accordance with existing international agreements concluded with the international maritime organization ratification and ratified by our country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This decree is about the standards concerning to the pollution prevention in the oil loading terminals.The countries involved in the agreement are committed to ensure that the oil loading terminals and ports have appropriate facilities for the reception of waste and oily mixtures.

  7. Existing and future international standards for the safety of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the essential features of the current international safety standards are summarised and the issues being raised for inclusion in future standards are discussed. The safety standards of the IAEA are used as the basis for the review and discussion. The IAEA has established a process for establishing international standards of safety for radioactive waste management through its Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme. The RADWASS documents are approved by a comprehensive process involving regulatory and other experts from all concerned IAEA Member States. A system of committees for approving the IAEAs safety standards has been established. For radioactive waste safety the committee for review and approval is the Waste Safety Standards Advisory Committee (WASSAC). In 1995 the IAEA published 'The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management' as the top level document in the RADWASS programme. The report sets out the basis principles which most experts believe are fundamental to the safe management of radioactive wastes

  8. International standards for optical wireless communications: state-of-the-art and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Marian

    2017-10-01

    As the number of active OWC installations is growing fast, the standards for compatibility of co-existing neighbouring systems are being developed. The paper addresses the Laser Safety (IEC standards), ITU-T Study Group 15 standards (G.640 Co-location longitudinally compatible interfaces for free space optical systems), ITU-Radiocommunication Sector standards (P.1817-1 Propagation data required for the design of terrestrial free-space optical links), and the IEEE Work in Progress - standardization activity on Visible Light Communications. International standards of FSO communications have been reviewed and discussed. ITU, IEC, and IEEE International standards for Free-Space Optical links have been reviewed. The system reliability and availability as well as security issues will be addressed as well in the talk.

  9. 76 FR 58101 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ....C. Cir. 2009). \\4\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, Order No. 693, FERC... for maintaining real and reactive power balance. \\14\\ Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation...; Order No. 753] Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability...

  10. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  11. Direct optical imaging of nanoscale internal organization of polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suran, Swathi; Varma, Manoj

    2018-02-01

    Owing to its sensitivity and precise control at the nanoscale, polyelectrolytes have been immensely used to modify surfaces. Polyelectrolyte multilayers are generally water made and are easy to fabricate on any surface by the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly process due to electrostatic interactions. Polyelectrolyte multilayers or PEMs can be assembled to form ultrathin membranes which can have potential applications in water filtration and desalination [1-3]. Hydration in PEMs is a consequence of both the bulk and surface phenomenon [4-7]. Bulk behavior of polymer membranes are well understood. Several techniques including reflectivity and contact angle measurements were used to measure the hydration in the bulk of polymer membranes [4, 8]. On the other hand their internal organization at the molecular level which can have a profound contribution in the transport mechanism, are not understood well. Previously, we engineered a technique, which we refer to as Bright-field Nanoscopy, which allows nanoscale optical imaging using local heterogeneities in a water-soluble germanium (Ge) thin film ( 25 nm thick) deposited on gold [8]. We use this technique to study the water transport in PEMs. It is understood that the surface charge and outer layers of the PEMs play a significant role in water transport through polymers [9-11]. This well-known `odd-even' effect arising on having different surface termination of the PEMs was optically observed with a spatial resolution unlike any other reported previously [12]. In this communication, we report that on increasing the etchant's concentration, one can control the lateral etching of the Ge film. This allowed the visualization of the nanoscale internal organization in the PEMs. Knowledge of the internal structure would allow one to engineer polymer membranes specific to applications such as drug delivering capsules, ion transport membranes and barriers etc. We also demonstrate a mathematical model involving a surface

  12. The importance of international ISO standards application for enterprise management and ensuring customer satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Jasna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ISO standards contain requirements for quality management, environmental management, food safety management, information security systems management, risks management, social responsibility management, etc. The organizations, whose employees at all organizational levels understand the importance of correct use of standards and effects of their use, make efforts for continuous improvement of management systems. The improvements are realized through the application of requirements of certificated standardized quality systems and similar non certified standards and through application of different business excellence models.

  13. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CONTENT ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENCE BETWEEN UKRAINIAN GAAP AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kuzina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective conditions of Ukraine’s integration into the global business environment the need to strengthen the accounting and financial re-porting. At the stage of attracting investment in the country there is a need in the preparation of financial statements generally accepted basic prin-ciples of which are based on common international financial reporting standards (IFRS . Relevant is the assessment of convergence of national standards and International Financial Reporting Standards. However, before you conduct content analysis necessary to determine compliance with standards of methodological approaches to the selection of key indicators for the assessment of convergence. The article is to define the methodo-logical approaches to the selection and development of indicators IFRSs list of key elements for further evaluation convergence of national and international standards. To assess the convergence was allocated 187 basic key elements measuring the level of convergence to IFRS. Sampling was carried out based on the professional judgment of the author, the key indicators of the standard, based on the evaluation of the usefulness of accounting information. These figures make it possible to calculate the specific level of convergence of international and national standards and determine how statements prepared by domestic standards corresponding to IFRS. In other words, can with some certainty assert that Ukraine has made (“good practices in IFRS implementation” or not? This calculation will assess the regulatory efforts of government agencies (Ministry of Finance on the approximation of Ukrainian standards and IFRS.

  14. Photon and proton activation analysis of iron and steel standards using the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Hara, M.; Hasegawa, D.; Iino, E.; Yagi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method has been applied to photon activation analysis and proton activation analysis of minor elements and trace impurities in various types of iron and steel samples issued by the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ). Samples and standard addition samples were once dissolved to mix homogeneously, an internal standard and elements to be determined and solidified as a silica-gel to make a similar matrix composition and geometry. Cerium and yttrium were used as an internal standard in photon and proton activation, respectively. In photon activation, 20 MeV electron beam was used for bremsstrahlung irradiation to reduce matrix activity and nuclear interference reactions, and the results were compared with those of 30 MeV irradiation. In proton activation, iron was removed by the MIBK extraction method after dissolving samples to reduce the radioactivity of 56 Co from iron via 56 Fe(p, n) 56 Co reaction. The results of proton and photon activation analysis were in good agreement with the standard values of ISIJ. (author)

  15. International Standards: Past Free Trade Agreements and the Prospects in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasson Leif Johan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership represents a strategic vision of transatlantic relations, including job creation, global leadership, and establishing high international standards. This paper discusses how three recent bi-lateral and regional agreements, along with positions adopted in transatlantic negotiations, convey respective side's acceptable parameters, and how international standards are emerging from and disseminated through agreements involving the European Union and the United States

  16. Selecting International Standards for Accrual-Based Accounting in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the definition of a government business enterprise (GBE), as provided in the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), as a determinant for applying IPSAS or the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for a public sector entity. The work...... of the IPSASB is focused on the accounting and financial reporting needs of national, regional and local governments, and related governmental agencies, while the IFRS serves the private sector....

  17. 75 FR 13484 - Nominations for Members of the National Organic Standards Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... seq.), requires the Secretary to establish an organic certification program for producers and handlers... experience and interest in organic production; organic certification; support of consumer and public interest...] Nominations for Members of the National Organic Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA...

  18. 77 FR 37374 - Nominations for Members of the National Organic Standards Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ....), requires the Secretary to establish an organic certification program for producers and handlers of... production; organic certification; support of consumer and public interest organizations; demonstrated... Service [Doc. No. AMS-NOP-12-0020; NOP-12-08] Nominations for Members of the National Organic Standards...

  19. Succeeding in process standardization: Explaining the fit with international management strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Møller, Charles; Hvam, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the fit between process standardization and international management strategy of multinational corporations (MNCs) by assessing the compatibility between process standardization and corporate structural characteristics in terms of asset configuration...... and headquarters-subsidiary relationships. Design/methodology/approach: First, after a literature review on MNCs’ strategy and process standardization, the study suggests two propositions on the fit between corporate international management strategy and process standardization. Second, to empirically examine....../value: The study provides in-depth understanding of how the international management strategy and consequent structural characteristics of MNCs affects process standardization in the course of a global enterprise resource planning implementation. The study proposes conditions of fit for aligning process...

  20. Language standardization in sociolinguistics and international business: Theory and practice across the table

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linn, Andrew; Sanden, Guro Refsum; Piekkari, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Haugen to explain the history of modern Norwegian. The table is then turned and a model from international business by Piekkari, Welch and Welch is used to illuminate recent Norwegian language planning. It is found that the Grundfos case works well with the Haugen model, and the international business......This chapter addresses the issue of language standardization from two perspectives, bringing together a theoretical perspective offered by the discipline of sociolinguistics with a practical example from international business. We introduce the broad concept of standardization and embed the study...... of language standardization in the wider discussion of standards as a means of control across society. We analyze the language policy and practice of the Danish multinational, Grundfos, and use it as a “sociolinguistic laboratory” to “test” the theory of language standardization initially elaborated by Einar...

  1. Simple method for the determination of rosiglitazone in human plasma using a commercially available internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidi, Rao N V S; Benjamin, Biju; Ramesh, Mullangi; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2003-09-01

    To the best of our knowledge, bioanalytical methods to determine rosiglitazone in human plasma reported in literature use internal standards that are not commercially available. Our purpose was to develop a simple method for the determination of rosiglitazone in plasma employing a commercially available internal standard (IS). After the addition of celecoxib (IS), plasma (0.25 mL) samples were extracted into ethyl acetate. The residue after evaporation of the organic layer was dissolved in 750 microL of mobile phase and 50 microL was injected on to HPLC. The separation was achieved using a Hichrom KR 100, 250 x 4.6 mm C(18) with a mobile phase composition potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (0.01 m, pH 6.5):acetonitrile:methanol (40:50:10, v/v/v). The flow-rate of the mobile phase was set at 1 mL/min. The column eluate was monitored by fluorescence detector set at an excitation wavelength of 247 nm and emission wavelength of 367 nm. Linear relationships (r(2) > 0.99) were observed between the peak area ratio rosiglitazone to IS vs rosiglitazone concentrations across the concentration range 5-1000 ng/mL. The intra-run precision (%RSD) and accuracy (%Dev) in the measurement of rosiglitazone were 80% for both rosiglitazone and IS from human plasma. The lower limit of quantitation of the assay was 5 ng/mL. In summary, the methodology for rosiglitazone measurement in plasma was simple, sensitive and employed a commercially available IS. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Internal standardization in atomic-emission spectrometry using inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The principle of internal standardization has been used in quantitative analytical emission spectroscopy since 1925 to minimize the errors arising from fluctuations in sample preparation, excitation-source conditions, and detection parameters. Although modern spectroscopic excitation sources are far more stable and electronic detection methods are more precise than before, the system for the introduction of the sample in spectrometric analysis using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) introduces significant errors, and internal standardization can still play a useful role in improving the overall precision of the analytical results. The criteria for the selection of the elements to be used as internal standards in arc and spark spectrographic analysis apply to a much lesser extent in ICP-spectrometric analysis. Internal standardization is recommended for use in routine ICP-simultaneous spectrometric analysis to improve its accuracy and precision and to provide a monitor for the reassurance of the analyst. However, the selection of an unsuitable reference element can result in misuse of the principle of internal standardization and, although internal standardization can be applied when a sequential monochromator is used, the main sources of error will not be minimized

  3. The development of international standards for the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Carol

    2004-01-01

    There has been an increasing awareness over recent years of the need to develop an approach that specifically addresses the protection of non-human species from the effects of ionizing radiation, largely in response to national and international environmental legal instruments. The IAEA has a long history of involvement in assessing the impact of ionizing radiation on non-human species and has, in recent years, established a programme of work to address the development of safety standards on this issue, in co-operation with other relevant international organizations. This paper provides an overview of the status of international work in this regard, paying particular attention to the work of the IAEA, and the relevant task groups of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). It includes a discussion of the ethics and principles of environmental protection, and issues related to the development of a practical framework for environmental assessment and decision-making. The future development of international safety standards for the control of releases of radionuclides to the environment will depend upon the findings and recommendations of the International Conference on Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Ionizing Radiation, held in Stockholm, Sweden, 6-10 October 2003. The main issues arising at that conference are summarised. (author)

  4. Relationship between internal medicine program board examination pass rates, accreditation standards, and program size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, John L; Gonzalo, Jed D

    2014-01-19

    To determine Internal Medicine residency program compliance with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education 80% pass-rate standard and the correlation between residency program size and performance on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination. Using a cross-sectional study design from 2010-2012 American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination data of all Internal Medicine residency pro-grams, comparisons were made between program pass rates to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standard. To assess the correlation between program size and performance, a Spearman's rho was calculated. To evaluate program size and its relationship to the pass-rate standard, receiver operative characteristic curves were calculated. Of 372 Internal Medicine residency programs, 276 programs (74%) achieved a pass rate of =80%, surpassing the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education minimum standard. A weak correlation was found between residency program size and pass rate for the three-year period (p=0.19, pInternal Medicine residency programs complied with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standards, a quarter of the programs failed to meet this requirement. Program size is positively but weakly associated with American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination performance, suggesting other unidentified variables significantly contribute to program performance.

  5. Some uncertainties associated with preparation of standards in organic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholewa, M.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; McNally, W.P.; Fand, I.

    1986-01-01

    Until recently no techniques which have multielement detection capability, high sensitivity and good spatial resolution in relatively thick tissue sections have existed. The use of proton induced x-ray emission /PIXE/ and synchrotron radiation induced x-ray emission /SRIXE/ using proton and x-ray microbeams changed this situation. However there are some difficulties with the existing standards for quantitatively calibrating the trace elements concentration in biological materials. For the purpose of our experiments a special technique of standard production was applied. 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  6. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  7. Software database creature for investment property measurement according to international standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, S. V.; Merzliakova, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article deals with investment property measurement and accounting problems at the international, national and enterprise levels. The need to create the software for investment property measurement according to International Accounting Standards was substantiated. The necessary software functions and the processes were described.

  8. Comparison report for CSNI International Standard Problem 12 (ROSA-III Run 912)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Kanji; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideo; Iriko, Masanori; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1982-09-01

    ROSA-III Run 912 was identified as International Standard Problem 12 by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations. Run 912 simulated a 5% split break LOCA condition in a BWR at the pump suction in the recirculation line with the HPCS failure. Comparisons between the test data and the calculations by eight international participants were made and discussed. (author)

  9. Applying international standards and guidelines on corporate social responsibility: An action plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    How can a company start the process of corporate social responsibility in an international context, thereby makinge use of diverse standards and guidelines? This question immediately came to the fore emerged after the start of the programme ‘Corporate social responsibility in international context’

  10. Review of international standards related to the design for control rooms on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Fujita, Yushi

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) has been accomplished world wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standardized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards as international standard. However, technological update is required due to the increased use of computerized control and monitoring equipment and systems in control rooms on NPP in recent years. Standards are becoming more important for computerized control rooms because there is more freedom to design than conventional hardware based system. For computerized control rooms, standards for hardware and software of HMI systems should be also considered. Standards and guidelines for computerized control rooms on NPP have been developed recently in each body such as IEC, ISO, and IEEE etc. Therefore, reviewing these standards and guidelines related to control rooms design of NPP can be useful not only for revision of the international standards such as IEC60964, but also for users of the standards and guidelines. In this paper, we reviewed the international standards related to the design for control rooms, in the two aspects of HMI design and hardware and software design, considering the undergoing revision work and their application. (author)

  11. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.104...) of this section, a boiler or industrial furnace burning hazardous waste must achieve a destruction...

  12. The emergence of international food safety standards and guidelines: understanding the current landscape through a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsingh, Brigit

    2014-07-01

    Following the Second World War, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) teamed up to construct an International Codex Alimentarius (or 'food code') which emerged in 1963. The Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) was charged with the task of developing microbial hygiene standards, although it found itself embroiled in debate with the WHO over the nature these standards should take. The WHO was increasingly relying upon the input of biometricians and especially the International Commission on Microbial Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) which had developed statistical sampling plans for determining the microbial counts in the final end products. The CCFH, however, was initially more focused on a qualitative approach which looked at the entire food production system and developed codes of practice as well as more descriptive end-product specifications which the WHO argued were 'not scientifically correct'. Drawing upon historical archival material (correspondence and reports) from the WHO and FAO, this article examines this debate over microbial hygiene standards and suggests that there are many lessons from history which could shed light upon current debates and efforts in international food safety management systems and approaches.

  13. International Financial Reporting standard for Small and Medium-sized entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Koppeschaar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sized entities (IFRS for SMEs was published as a standard by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB during July 2009. During 2007 South Africa became one of the first countries and the first country in Africa to early accept the proposed accounting standard (exposure draft of an IFRS for SMEs. The accounting standard will probably also be accepted by numerous other countries. The aim of this article is to investigate the applicability of this accounting standard. The results indicated that the IFRS for SMEs remains too comprehensive for the majority of small companies. The IFRS for SMEs does not satisfy the needs of South African users of small company financial statements, and as a result the accounting requirements should be simplified. KEYWORDS: Financial accounting; Financial reporting requirements; IFRS for SMEs; Small companies; Users of financial statements; Small company financial statements.

  14. THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS IN CREATING STANDARDS IN INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Maria HANCIU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The participation and influence of non-governmental actors in areas of international environmental governance has increased tremendously over the last decades. Some of these non-governmental organization (NGOs, like International Union for Conservation of Nature, World Wide Fund for Nature or Greenpeace, have a global character and an intense activity in promoting environmental protection. Of great importance is the fact that some NGOs have gained a consultative status in international and regional organizations influencing the process of drafting and adopting norms of international environmental law. The study analyses the contribution of NGOs in international environmental field and their essential role as ,,guardians of the environment” in promoting and respecting the provisions of international environmental agreements, in particular of Aarhus Convention.

  15. Animal Welfare in Relation to Standards in Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammarberg Karl-Erik

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The new EU-regulations on organic farming (1804/1999 are also influencing the animal welfare. A lot of positive regulations is to find, but also regulations that seen to mind more about the general public and customer and their view on organic farming, than the health and welfare of the animals. The paper specially focus on the impact of the regulations and the recommendations that phytotherapeutic essences and homeopathic products take precedence over the so called chemically-synthesised allopatic veterinary medical products, and that the use of the same is prohibited for preventive treatments. Key questions here are the lack of scientific evidence concerning homeopathy in animals, and that Swedish veterinarians are not allowed to work with homeopathy. Differences in interpretation of the regulations between animal owners and veterinarians will also be discussed. What is a disease that needs treatment? Who is to decide about the treatment? Parasitic infections are discussed as an illustrative example. Other consequences of the regulations concerning the animal welfare are problems in certain geographical zones, for instance subarctic areas where necessary crops are impossible to grow. Animal transports and splitting mother-offspring are briefly discussed as future problems to be handled in the regulations, and the paper ends by presenting the need of regulated herd health control programs in organic husbandry, which can detect and focus on welfare and production problems. The organic movement is not static, and must not be so.

  16. Development of an international standard on instruments setpoints based on ISA S67.04 - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    This is a summary of the application for and development of an international standard on instrument setpoints, based on the Instrument Society of America (ISA) Standard S67.04 - 1994. The forum this new standard was proposed in is the International Electrotechnique Commission (IEC), based in Geneva, Switzerland, which is the international commission which oversees electrical and instrumentation standards for all applications around the world. The Instrument Society of America (ISA) is a United States based Society for the advancement of instrumentation and controls related science and technology and has 30,000 members. A division within the ISA is the Standard and Practices board which has over 5000 members actively involved in standards development and approval. In 1994, the ISA SP67, Nuclear Power Plant Standards Committee authorized that the IEC be approached to develop and issue an IEC standard on Instrument Setpoints. This application was formally submitted in January, 1995 to the IEC and approved for ballot to member countries in June, 1995. Approval for standard development by IEC was received in October, 1995 and the first draft vas issued in February, 1996, and is currently under review by the IEC working group. It is very important to focus on the approach that the U.S. and other countries are taking toward development of IEC standards that can apply to all nuclear instrumentation applications around the world. By referencing IEC standards in design specification, vendors can be solicited from many different countries, thereby ensuring that the highest quality products can be used. This also offsets the need to specify individual standards in the specification, based on the country that each vendor solicited, represents. In summary, this standard development process, with support from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) will assist U.S. suppliers in competing in the global market for products and services into the next century. (author)

  17. Toward standardizing and reporting colorectal cancer screening indicators on an international level: The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, Victoria S.; Atkin, Wendy S.; Green, Jane; Nadel, Marion R.; Patnick, Julietta; Smith, Robert A.; Villain, Patricia; Patnick, J.; Atkin, W. S.; Altenhofen, L.; Ancelle-Park, R.; Benson, V. S.; Green, J.; Levin, T. R.; Moss, S. M.; Nadel, M.; Ransohoff, D.; Segnan, N.; Smith, R. A.; Villain, P.; Weller, D.; Koukari, A.; Young, G.; López-Kostner, F.; Antoljak, N.; Suchánek, S.; Zavoral, M.; Holten, I.; Malila, N.; Salines, E.; Brenner, G.; Herszényi, L.; Tulassay, Z.; Rennert, G.; Senore, C.; Zappa, M.; Zorzi, M.; Saito, H.; Leja, M.; Dekker, E.; Jansen, J.; Hol, L.; Kuipers, E.; Kaminski, M. F.; Regula, J.; Sfarti, C.; Trifan, A.; Tang, C.-L.; Hrcka, R.; Binefa, G.; Espinàs, J. A.; Peris, M.; Chen, T. H.; Steele, R.; Pou, G.; Bisges, D.; Dwyer, D.; Groves, C.; Courteau, S.; Kramer, R.; Siegenthaler, K.; Lane, D.; Herrera, C.; Rogers, J.; Rojewski, M.; Wolf, Holly; Sung, J. J.; Ling, K.; Bryant, H.; Rabeneck, L.; Dale, J.; Sware, L.; Yang, H.; Viguier, J.; Von Karsa, L.; Kupcinskas, L.; Deutekom, M.; Törnberg, S.; Austoker, J.; Beral, V.; Monk, C.; Valori, R.; Watson, J.; Kobrin, S.; Pignone, M.; Taplin, S.

    2012-01-01

    The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network was established in 2003 to promote best practice in the delivery of organized colorectal cancer screening programs. To facilitate evaluation of such programs, we defined a set of universally applicable colorectal cancer screening measures and

  18. Water quality - Determination of tritium activity concentration - Liquid scintillation counting method (International Standard Publication ISO 9698:1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    1999-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of tritiated water ([ 3 H]H 2 O) activity concentration in water by liquid scintillation counting. The method is applicable to all types of water including seawater with tritium activity concentrations of up to 10 6 Bq/m 3 when using 20 ml counting vials. Below tritium activity concentrations of about 5 x 10 4 Bq/m 3[ 8], a prior enrichment step and/or the measurement of larger sample volumes can significantly improve the accuracy of the determination and lower the limit of detection. Tritium activity concentrations higher than 10 6 Bq/m 3 may be determined after appropriate dilution with distilled water of proven low tritium content. An alternative method for the determination of these higher activities involves increasing the tritium activity concentrations of the internal standard solution. The method is not applicable to the analysis of organically bound tritium; its determination requires an oxidative digestion

  19. Standardization Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Specifications and Standards; Guide Specifications; CIDs; and NGSs . Learn. Perform. Succeed. STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENTS Federal Specifications Commercial...national or international standardization document developed by a private sector association, organization, or technical society that plans ...Maintain lessons learned • Examples: Guidance for application of a technology; Lists of options Learn. Perform. Succeed. DEFENSE HANDBOOK

  20. Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voytchev, M.; Chiaro, P.; Radev, R.

    2006-01-01

    Subcommittee 45 B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (I.E.C.) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three I.E.C. standards are in advanced stages of development. They are expected to be approved and published in 2006-2007. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: I.E.C. 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', I.E.C. 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and I.E.C. 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'

  1. An international comparison of regulatory organizations and licensing procedures for new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredimas, Alexandre; Nuttall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers measures needed to license new nuclear power plants efficiently. We base our analysis on international standards and a comparison of the national regulatory and licensing framework in seven countries (Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, the UK and the USA). We split the review into the organization of regulatory responsibilities and the licensing process. We propose a set of considerations that should be incorporated into national solutions. While conscious of the different cultural fundamentals of each region, we hope this paper will help fuel an emerging debate on this highly topical issue

  2. 25 CFR 542.17 - What are the minimum internal control standards for complimentary services or items?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.17 What are the minimum internal control standards for complimentary services or items? (a) Each Tribal gaming regulatory authority or...

  3. 25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for pari... INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.11 What are the minimum internal control... documentation and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this...

  4. Prison Library Services in Croatia Need Improvement to Meet International Standards of Universal Rights to Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2016-09-01

    . While use of the libraries was high, most responses reflected severely limited educational, rehabilitative or cultural programming and access to the internet, and lack of space for collections and reading purposes. Conclusion – Libraries in Croatia fail to meet international standards for staffing, collections, and services. Recommendations for immediate improvement are made, including legislative advocacy and funding, improved public library involvement, and the creation of national standards aligned with international standards.

  5. 40 CFR 60.542a - Alternate standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry § 60.542a Alternate standard for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test, required by § 60.8, is completed, but no...

  6. [International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC)--comments from the German point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, S; Bauer, T; Diel, R; Hedrich, A; Magdorf, K; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Schaberg, T; Loddenkemper, R

    2012-04-01

    The "International Standards for Tuberculosis Care" (ISTC) were developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and others to provide internationally agreed and, if possible, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care including the care by private providers who are not part of national tuberculosis programmes or health-care systems. Hence, the ISTC primarily address resource-restrained countries with high tuberculosis prevalence. In this article, the German translation of the 21 standards from 2009 is presented - addressing diagnostic and therapeutic standards, co-infection (especially with HIV) and public-health issues. The accompanying comments show how these standards have to be modified for Germany due to the medical resources available here and country-specific characteristics respectively. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. World Health Organization's International Radon Project 2005-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, Zhanat; Shannoun, Ferid; Zielinski, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies of people exposed to indoor radon have confirmed that radon in homes is a serious health hazard that can be easily mitigated. To address the issue at an international level, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the International Radon Project (IRP). The project was launched in January 2005 with its first meeting attended by 36 experts representing 17 countries. The project's scope and the key objectives were outlined at this meeting and later refined: 1-) To identify effective strategies for reducing the health impact of radon; 2-) To promote sound policy options, prevention and mitigation programs (including monitoring and evaluation of programs; 3-) To raise public, political and economical awareness about the consequences of exposure to radon (including financial institutions as target group); 4-) To estimate the global health impact of exposure to residential radon using available data on radon worldwide. WHO and its member states strive through the WHO-IRP to succeed in putting indoor radon on the environmental health agenda in countries with lower awareness of radon as a health problem and in strengthening local and national radon-related activities in countries with ongoing radon programs. Two subsequent working meetings were held: in March, 2006 in Geneva with 63 participants from 25 countries, along with representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and European Commission (EC); and in March 2007 in Munich with 61 participants from 27 countries. Both meetings reviewed the IRP progress and focused on the two main outputs: 'The WHO Report on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) due to Radon' and 'The WHO Radon Handbook'. The former applies the WHO methodology for GBD assessment and considers ways to graphically map residential radon concentrations

  8. 77 FR 21067 - Notice of Meeting of the National Organic Standards Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... advance of the meeting, and the meeting will include scheduled time for oral comments from the public... prohibited in organic production or handling, to assist in the development of standards for organic production, and to advise the Secretary on other aspects of the implementation of the Organic Foods...

  9. EXPERIENCE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LABOR PROTECTION CONTROL SYSTEM AT RUP «BMZ» IN ACCORDANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS OHSAS 180001 AND STATE STANDARD STB 18001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zhuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience of introduction of the control system by labour protection at RUP «BMZ» in accordance with international standard OHSAS 18001 and State standard STB 18001 is described.

  10. Autopsy standards of body parameters and fresh organ weights in nonmacerated and macerated human fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroun, Lisa Leth; Graem, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Standards for body parameters and organ weights are important tools in fetal and perinatal pathology. Previously there has been only a weak emphasis on the effect of maceration on dimensions and weights. This study provides autopsy standards for body weight, body dimensions, and fresh organ weigh...... increased slightly with maceration, whereas body weight and head circumference were unaffected. User-friendly charts and tables of mean values and standard deviations for nonmacerated and macerated fetuses are provided.......Standards for body parameters and organ weights are important tools in fetal and perinatal pathology. Previously there has been only a weak emphasis on the effect of maceration on dimensions and weights. This study provides autopsy standards for body weight, body dimensions, and fresh organ weights...

  11. Monitoring internal organ motion with continuous wave radar in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfanner, Florian; Maier, Joscha; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To avoid motion artifacts in medical imaging or to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues in radiation therapy, medical devices are often synchronized with the patient's respiratory motion. Today's respiratory motion monitors require additional effort to prepare the patients, e.g., mounting a motion belt or placing an optical reflector on the patient's breast. Furthermore, they are not able to measure internal organ motion without implanting markers. An interesting alternative to assess the patient's organ motion is continuous wave radar. The aim of this work is to design, implement, and evaluate such a radar system focusing on application in CT.Methods: The authors designed a radar system operating in the 860 MHz band to monitor the patient motion. In the intended application of the radar system, the antennas are located close to the patient's body inside the table of a CT system. One receive and four transmitting antennas are used to avoid the requirement of exact patient positioning. The radar waves propagate into the patient's body and are reflected at tissue boundaries, for example at the borderline between muscle and adipose tissue, or at the boundaries of organs. At present, the authors focus on the detection of respiratory motion. The radar system consists of the hardware mentioned above as well as of dedicated signal processing software to extract the desired information from the radar signal. The system was evaluated using simulations and measurements. To simulate the radar system, a simulation model based on radar and wave field equations was designed and 4D respiratory-gated CT data sets were used as input. The simulated radar signals and the measured data were processed in the same way. The radar system hardware and the signal processing algorithms were tested with data from ten volunteers. As a reference, the respiratory motion signal was recorded using a breast belt simultaneously with the radar measurements.Results: Concerning the

  12. Convergence Between Kazakhstan’S Financial Systemand International Standards: Overcoming Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarova Natalya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the convergence of the Kazakh financial system with international standards in light of the new, enhanced agreement with the European Union on partnership and cooperation (January 19, 2015. Based on this research, the approaches used by the Kazakh financial system to converge with the European Union (EU and the mechanism of implementing international standards in the national regulatory framework are determined. In practice, the study provides justification for the necessity of arranging the systematization of existing rules and regulations covering financial activity in the Republic, eliminating discrepancies between the national regulatory framework and international standards, and determining clear security guarantees for foreign investors’ financial activity in the Republic. The research results are primarily focused on the development of public finance management theory. Theories and conclusions present in the study can be used in the educational processes of economic and legal institutions and in the policymaking activity of public finance management bodies.

  13. Amendments to the Audit Report for the Review of International Standards on Auditing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortură Laura-Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the last economic and financial crisis, the auditors' impact on its triggering wasquestioned, as the opinion expressed by the auditors directly influenced, the decisions taken by theusers of the financial and accounting information, namely the investors. The sign of question on theauditors 'work was also due to a lack of knowledge of the auditors' responsibility by the users. Theopinion issued by the auditor provides reasonable, but not absolute, assurance on the informationprovided by the financial statements, in which case the auditor's responsibility is limited. Tomitigate these discrepancies, the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASBhas developed projects that have generated solutions to improve International Standards onAuditing. Thus, in 2015, the IAASB issued a new edition of the International Auditing Standards,which made changes in the drafting of the audit report.

  14. Language standardization in sociolinguistics and international business: Theory and practice across the table

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linn, Andrew; Sanden, Guro Refsum; Piekkari, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Haugen to explain the history of modern Norwegian. The table is then turned and a model from international business by Piekkari, Welch and Welch is used to illuminate recent Norwegian language planning. It is found that the Grundfos case works well with the Haugen model, and the international business...... model provides a valuable practical lesson for national language planners, both showing that a “comparative standardology” is a valuable undertaking. More voices “at the table” will allow both theory and practice to be further refined and for the role of standards across society to be better understood.......This chapter addresses the issue of language standardization from two perspectives, bringing together a theoretical perspective offered by the discipline of sociolinguistics with a practical example from international business. We introduce the broad concept of standardization and embed the study...

  15. Development of international organizations in the context of evolution of global political system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Kaverin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses general regularities of development of international organizations. Dynamics of international organizations is described with the equation of biological populations’ growth and is related to the evolution of international multilateral law and world development parameters. As the result of the research, the evolution of global political system is represented with the system of international governance based on the multilateral mechanisms and the model of social structures’ types. The transformations in the system of international organizations partially confirm the hypothesis of emerging World-organism.

  16. Results of international standard problem No. 36 severe fuel damage experiment of a VVER fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firnhaber, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany); Yegorova, L. [Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brockmeier, U. [Ruhr-Univ. of Bochum (Germany)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    International Standard Problems (ISP) organized by the OECD are defined as comparative exercises in which predictions with different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other and with a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. In addition, it enables the code user to gain experience and to improve his competence. This paper presents the results and assessment of ISP No. 36, which deals with the early core degradation phase during an unmitigated severe LWR accident in a Russian type VVER. Representatives of 17 organizations participated in the ISP using the codes ATHLET-CD, ICARE2, KESS-III, MELCOR, SCDAP/RELAP5 and RAPTA. Some participants performed several calculations with different codes. As experimental basis the severe fuel damage experiment CORA-W2 was selected. The main phenomena investigated are thermal behavior of fuel rods, onset of temperature escalation, material behavior and hydrogen generation. In general, the calculations give the right tendency of the experimental results for the thermal behavior, the hydrogen generation and, partly, for the material behavior. However, some calculations deviate in important quantities - e.g. some material behavior data - showing remarkable discrepancies between each other and from the experiments. The temperature history of the bundle up to the beginning of significant oxidation was calculated quite well. Deviations seem to be related to the overall heat balance. Since the material behavior of the bundle is to a great extent influenced by the cladding failure criteria a more realistic cladding failure model should be developed at least for the detailed, mechanistic codes. Regarding the material behavior and flow blockage some models for the material interaction as well as for relocation and refreezing requires further improvement.

  17. Review and Outlook of China Electronic and IT Industry Footprints in IEC International Standardization Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jingping

    2006-01-01

    @@ Year 2006 is the year marking the 100th anniversary of the founding of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). IEC is mainly engaged in the international standardization for electrical and electronic technology field aiming at promoting international trade and technology cooperation and exchange, improving product and service quality, upgrading productivity and protecting the environment as well as human health and safety. Most countries worldwide adopt standards developed and promulgated by IEC, providing a platform to international trade and technical exchange. China has being a member since 1957. Electronic and IT are the most developed and energetic filed in recent decades. Number of IEC TC/SC specialized in electronic and IT amounts up to 52.

  18. Determination of avermectins by the internal standard recovery correction - high performance liquid chromatography - quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Ting; Li, Hongmei; Dai, Xinhua; Quan, Can; He, Yajuan

    2017-09-01

    Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (qNMR) is widely used to determine the purity of organic compounds. For the compounds with lower purity especially molecular weight more than 500, qNMR is at risk of error for the purity, because the impurity peaks are likely to be incompletely separated from the peak of major component. In this study, an offline ISRC-HPLC-qNMR (internal standard recovery correction - high performance liquid chromatography - qNMR) was developed to overcome this problem. It is accurate by excluding the influence of impurity; it is low-cost by using common mobile phase; and it extends the applicable scope of qNMR. In this method, a mix solution of the sample and an internal standard was separated by HPLC with common mobile phases, and only the eluents of the analyte and the internal standard were collected in the same tube. After evaporation and re-dissolution, it was determined by qNMR. A recovery correction factor was determined by comparison of the solutions before and after these procedures. After correction, the mass fraction of analyte was constant and it was accurate and precise, even though the sample loss varied during these procedures, or even in bad resolution of HPLC. Avermectin B 1 a with the purity of ~93% and the molecular weight of 873 was analyzed. Moreover, the homologues of avermectin B 1 a were determined based on the identification and quantitative analysis by tandem mass spectrometry and HPLC, and the results were consistent with the results of traditional mass balance method. The result showed that the method could be widely used for the organic compounds, and could further promote qNMR to become a primary method in the international metrological systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 26 CFR 1.892-6T - Income of international organizations (temporary regulations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.892-6T Income of international organizations (temporary regulations). (a) Exempt from tax. Subject to the provisions of section 1 of the... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income of international organizations (temporary...

  20. Implementing standardized, inter-unit communication in an international setting: handoff of patients from emergency medicine to internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balhara, Kamna S; Peterson, Susan M; Elabd, Mohamed Moheb; Regan, Linda; Anton, Xavier; Al-Natour, Basil Ali; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Scheulen, James; Stewart de Ramirez, Sarah A

    2018-04-01

    Standardized handoffs may reduce communication errors, but research on handoff in community and international settings is lacking. Our study at a community hospital in the United Arab Emirates characterizes existing handoff practices for admitted patients from emergency medicine (EM) to internal medicine (IM), develops a standardized handoff tool, and assesses its impact on communication and physician perceptions. EM physicians completed a survey regarding handoff practices and expectations. Trained observers utilized a checklist based on the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model to observe 40 handoffs. EM and IM physicians collaboratively developed a written tool encouraging bedside handoff of admitted patients. After the intervention, surveys of EM physicians and 40 observations were subsequently repeated. 77.5% of initial observed handoffs occurred face-to-face, with 42.5% at bedside, and in four different languages. Most survey respondents considered face-to-face handoff ideal. Respondents noted 9-13 patients suffering harm due to handoff in the prior month. After handoff tool implementation, 97.5% of observed handoffs occurred face-to-face (versus 77.5%, p = 0.014), with 82.5% at bedside (versus 42.5%, p face-to-face and bedside handoff, positively impacted workflow, and increased perceptions of safety by EM physicians in an international, non-academic setting. Our three-step approach can be applied towards developing standardized, context-specific inter-specialty handoff in a variety of settings.

  1. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  2. Analysis And Comments On The Consultative Document: International Framework For Liquidity Risk Measurement, Standards And Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Prefontaine; Jean Desrochers; Lise Godbout

    2010-01-01

    The market turmoil that began in mid-2007 re-emphasized the importance of liquidity to the functioning of financial markets and the banking sector. In December 2009, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) released a consultative document entitled: “International Framework for Liquidity Risk Measurement, Standards and Monitoring”. Interested parties were invited to provide written comments by April 16th 2010. Given our interest in prom...

  3. Certification and accreditation performed by national standardization organizations : Does it reinforce or damage the traditional work of NSOs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. de Vries (Henk)

    1999-01-01

    markdownabstractMany national standards organizations (NSOs) have become involved in metrology, product testing, certification and/or accreditation in addition to their core activites of standars development, selling standards, providing information on standards and standardization, and maintaining

  4. Mass fragmentographic analysis of total cholesterol in serum using a heptadeuterated internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolthers, B.G.; Hindriks, F.R.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Groen, A.

    1980-01-01

    A mass fragmentographic method for the determination of total cholesterol in serum using heptadeuterated [25,26,26,26,27,27,27- 2 H] cholesterol as internal standard is presented. The results obtained are compared with a colorimetric and gas chromatographic method which were previously proposed as reference methods. Criteria for the development of absolute measurement by means of mass fragmentography and stable isotopically labelled internal standards are given. The conclusion is drawn that, at present, mass fragmentographic methods for the determination of total cholesterol in serum do not fulfil the criteria required for absolute methods. (Auth.)

  5. Standardized computer-based organized reporting of EEG SCORE - Second version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Aurlien, Harald; Brøgger, Jan C

    2017-01-01

    Standardized terminology for computer-based assessment and reporting of EEG has been previously developed in Europe. The International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology established a taskforce in 2013 to develop this further, and to reach international consensus. This work resulted in the se...

  6. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Chronic Pain in Internal Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Holistic medicine seems to be efficient in the treatment of chronic pain in internal organs, especially when the pain has no known cause. It is quite surprising that while chronic pain can be one of the toughest challenges in the biomedical clinic, it is often one of the simplest things to alleviate in the holistic clinic. These pains are regarded as being caused by repressed emotions and are explained as psychosomatic reactions. Using holistic medicine, the patients can often be cured of their suffering when they assume responsibility for the repressed feelings. The holistic process theory of healing states that the return to the natural (pain free state of being is possible whenever the person obtains the resources needed for existential healing. This shift is explained by the related quality of life and life mission theories. The resources needed are “holding” or genuine care in the dimensions of awareness, respect, care, acknowledgment, and acceptance with support and processing in the dimensions of feeling, understanding, and letting go of negative attitudes and beliefs. The preconditions for the holistic healing to take place are “love” and trust. Obtaining the full trust of the patient, therefore, seems to be the biggest challenge of holistic medicine, especially when dealing with a patient in pain.

  7. Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) bottoming with Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaja, Iacopo; Gambarotta, Agostino

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a specific thermodynamic analysis in order to efficiently match a vapour cycle to that of a stationary Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Three different working fluids are considered to represent the main classes of fluids, with reference to the shape of the vapour lines in the T-s diagram: overhanging, nearly isoentropic and bell shaped. First a parametric analysis is conducted in order to determine optimal evaporating pressures for each fluid. After which three different cycles setups are considered: a simple cycle with the use of only engine exhaust gases as a thermal source, a simple cycle with the use of exhaust gases and engine cooling water and a regenerated cycle. A second law analysis of the cycles is performed, with reference to the available heat sources. This is done in order to determine the best fluid and cycle configuration to be employed, the main parameters of the thermodynamic cycles and the overall efficiency of the combined power system. The analysis demonstrates that a 12% increase in the overall efficiency can be achieved with respect to the engine with no bottoming; nevertheless it has been observed that the Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) can recover only a small fraction of the heat released by the engine through the cooling water.

  8. Biomimetic mineral-organic composite scaffolds with controlled internal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjubala, I; Woesz, Alexander; Pilz, Christine; Rumpler, Monika; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Roschger, Paul; Stampfl, Juergen; Fratzl, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Bone and cartilage generation by three-dimensional scaffolds is one of the promising techniques in tissue engineering. One approach is to generate histologically and functionally normal tissue by delivering healthy cells in biocompatible scaffolds. These scaffolds provide the necessary support for cells to proliferate and maintain their differentiated function, and their architecture defines the ultimate shape. Rapid prototyping (RP) is a technology by which a complex 3-dimensional (3D) structure can be produced indirectly from computer aided design (CAD). The present study aims at developing a 3D organic-inorganic composite scaffold with defined internal architecture by a RP method utilizing a 3D printer to produce wax molds. The composite scaffolds consisting of chitosan and hydroxyapatite were prepared using soluble wax molds. The behaviour and response of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells on the scaffolds was studied. During a culture period of two and three weeks, cell proliferation and in-growth were observed by phase contrast light microscopy, histological staining and electron microscopy. The Giemsa and Gömöri staining of the cells cultured on scaffolds showed that the cells proliferated not only on the surface, but also filled the micro pores of the scaffolds and produced extracellular matrix within the pores. The electron micrographs showed that the cells covering the surface of the struts were flattened and grew from the periphery into the middle region of the pores.

  9. Bismuth as a general internal standard for lead in atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechlin, Marcos A.; Fortunato, Felipe M.; Ferreira, Edilene C.; Neto, José A. Gomes; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Donati, George L.; Jones, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Single internal standard is commonly proposed for definite application in AAS. • Internal standard for general use in AAS techniques is original. • Bi showed efficiency as internal standard for Pb determinations by FAAS and GFAAS. • Assorted samples were analyzed and accurate results were found. - Abstract: Bismuth was evaluated as internal standard for Pb determination by line source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (LS FAAS), high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS) and line source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (LS GFAAS). Analysis of samples containing different matrices indicated close relationship between Pb and Bi absorbances. Correlation coefficients of calibration curves built up by plotting A Pb /A Bi versus Pb concentration were higher than 0.9953 (FAAS) and higher than 0.9993 (GFAAS). Recoveries of Pb improved from 52–118% (without IS) to 97–109% (IS, LS FAAS); 74–231% (without IS) to 96–109% (IS, HR-CS FAAS); and 36–125% (without IS) to 96–110% (IS, LS GFAAS). The relative standard deviations (n = 12) were reduced from 0.6–9.2% (without IS) to 0.3–4.3% (IS, LS FAAS); 0.7–7.7% (without IS) to 0.1–4.0% (IS, HR-CS FAAS); and 2.1–13% (without IS) to 0.4–5.9% (IS, LS GFAAS)

  10. The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  11. IMPROVEMENT OF THE METHODS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OF INVENTORIES IN AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasenko A. N.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the necessity of inventories for any organization. The fate of the organization depends on its management effectiveness and its financial position. The organizational peculiarities of internal control in the agricultural sphere have been studied and the ways of improvement of the organizational and methodological mechanisms have been offered for the internal control of inventories in agricultural organizations

  12. Accountants’ Perceptions on the Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Absy, Mujeeb Saif Mohsen; Ismail, Ku Nor Izah Ku; Al-Dubai, Shehabaddin Abdullah A.

    2016-01-01

    Developments in the global capital market have made the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRSs) more significant than ever before. The purpose of this study is to examine the accountants’ perception of IFRSs adoption in Yemen. We also seek the accountants’ view on whether Yemen should adopt the IFRSs or not, and on the expected time taken to adopt the accounting standards. We also examine the difference in opinion between academicians and practitioners regarding the ado...

  13. Model Manajemen Laba Akrual Dan Riil Berbasis Implementasi International Financial Reporting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmar, Nurmala; Rokhmania, Nuraini; Samekto, Agus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of inplementasi International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on accrual earnings management and real earnings management. Adoption of accounting standards have an impact on the way of assessment, measurement and presentation. Samples are manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. Accrual earnings measurement method using five measurement approach, and three approaches to the measurement of real earnings management. The...

  14. Norms and international standards related to reduce risk management: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Fuentes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The current work aims to develop a revision of the literature within the main concepts in the international rules and standards related to risk management in companies. By this way, there will be an analysis of issues such as the COSO - ERM model, an introduction to the ISO 27000 and 31000 standards; and the Project Management according to PMI targeted at risk management

  15. Mengukur Tingkat Kesesuaian antara Standar Akuntansi Keuangan dengan International Financial Reporting Standards per 1 Januari 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosinta Ria Panggabean

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available International accounting topic was rare to adress between accounting practices, especially International Accounting Standard. It occured due to the restrictive source and difficulty in finding the source. However, recently the standard has been an addressed issue since Indonesia Chartered of Accountant (IAI plans to comply the Indonesia Accounting Standard (SAK with the International Financialreporting(IFRSon1stJanuary2012.The purpose of the research is to measure the compliance of the (SAK per 1st January 2008 with the IFRS per 1st January 2008 and attain the association between those two standards. Hence, the difference between the two standards and the neccessary steps to be taken for complying can be obtained. The methodology will be used in the paper are Jaccard’s Coefficients, Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient,Euclidean Distances.The sample for the paper will be 43 accounting issues adressed on both standards that have been chosen and investigated. The paper concludes that there are significant equalities (75% between SAK per 1st January 2008 and IFRS 1st January 2008. (using Jaccard’s Coefficients. Due to several problems that have been found in the research, the author wish that the further researchers could widen the research’s samples, so the result will be more accurate and comprehensive. 

  16. Developing international safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.

    2001-01-01

    In the context of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme to create a corpus of internationally accepted Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS), focus is currently being placed on establishing standards for the 'geological disposal of radioactive waste'. This is a challenging task and to help the standards development process there is a need to stimulate discussion of some of the associated scientific and technical issues. A number of position papers developed in recent years by a subgroup of the Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal, address many of the relevant issues. These include a common safety based framework for radioactive waste disposal, appropriate time frames for safety assessment, different possible indicators of long-term safety, the safety implications of reversibility and retrievability, the assessment of possible human intrusion into the repository, the role and limitations of institutional control, establishing reference critical groups and biospheres for long-term assessment, and what is meant by 'compliance' with the standards. These papers will be discussed at a Specialists Meeting to be held at the IAEA in June 2001 as a means of establishing the extent to which they enjoy the general support of experts. In order to broaden that consensus, the conclusions reached at the Specialists Meeting on the issues listed above will be presented and discussed with participants at a number of international meetings. Later this year, a draft safety standard on the geological disposal of radioactive waste which takes account of the consensus positions reached through the various consultations will be submitted for the consideration of Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the officially approved body within the IAEA for the review and approval of waste safety standards. The Committee is made up of government appointed radioactive waste regulators

  17. Correlation study among the International Atomic Energy Agency standards and market standards on management system applicable to a UF6 conversion plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Dirceu Paulo de

    2008-01-01

    The Agency - International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), following the market trend of the management system integration, has decided to revise the quality assurance standards - IAEA 50-C/SG-Q publishing, in 2006, the standard on Management System (MS). IAEA GS-R-3 and its IAEA GS-G-3.1 guide. Also, the IAEA is about to publish a supplementary guide - IAEA DS349, which consider the integration of several functions involved in management of nuclear facilities, such as: safety, health, environmental and quality, ensuring that nuclear safety is not compromised. Conversion plants of 'Yellowcake' in UF 6 use and process radioactive materials, as well as other substances normally found in the chemical conventional industry, inserting themselves in the organization profile that require a high pattern of definition, implementation and continuous improvement of their MS and, therefore, should consider an approach of management integrated system (MIS). Taking a UF 6 conversion plant as focus, the correlation was performed among the Agency MS standards and those of the market - ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001, as well as with the Agency drafts standards on safety (DS316 and DS344), concluding that, in structuring an MIS, in compliance with the Agency MS standards, except for some adjustments, the ISO 9001, ISO 14001, and OHSAS 18001 are going to be met. On the other hand, the structuring of MIS should identify other requirements on safety, health and environmental, which also consider the conventional chemical and industrial characteristics that are out of the scope (ionizing radiation) of the safety standards of the Agency. The research proposes a documental procedure for a MIS applicable to this plant, providing elements for rationalization and contents of the identified documentation, for the promotion of the integration of the considered MS functions. (author)

  18. 26 CFR 1.1441-8 - Exemption from withholding for payments to foreign governments, international organizations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... foreign governments, international organizations, foreign central banks of issue, and the Bank for International Settlements. 1.1441-8 Section 1.1441-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens...

  19. Rare earths analysis of rock samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis, internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silachyov, I.

    2016-01-01

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of long-lived rare earth elements (REE) in rock samples is considered in this work. Two different methods are statistically compared: the well established external standard method carried out using standard reference materials, and the internal standard method (ISM), using Fe, determined through X-ray fluorescence analysis, as an element-comparator. The ISM proved to be the more precise method for a wide range of REE contents and can be recommended for routine practice. (author)

  20. [Criteria for the assessment of the noise-induced occupational hearing loss: international and national standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmerov, N F; Denisov, É I; Adeninskaia, E E; Gorblianskiĭ, Iu Iu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to review international and national standards for the criteria of assessment of the noise-induced occupational loss of hearing. The importance of healthy hearing for the occupational safety is emphasized which implies the necessity of the more rigorous criteria for hearing conservation in the workers engaged in the noisy technological environment compared with those for the general population. A rationale for the development of the standard program of hearing conservation in the workers engaged in the noisy technological environment is proposed including hygienic norms and rules or national state standards.

  1. 75 FR 32977 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed... Permit Opening Transactions by Market Makers To Accommodate Closing Transactions of Other Market... International Securities Exchange, LLC (``Exchange'' or ``ISE'') filed with the Securities and Exchange...

  2. Chinese green product standards: international experience and pathway for a unified system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Fu; Ling, Lin; Dongfeng, Gao; Shuo, Yang

    2017-11-01

    The establishment of a unified green product standard system is of great importance regarding the effective supply of green products and meeting trend of the consumption upgrade. It also is helpful to reduce the cost of green information disclosure of enterprises, and facilitate the supply-side structural reform. Based on the experience of developing and implementing green product standards in the EU, Germany, America, Japan and so on, combined with current Chinese standard systems including environmental protection, energy conservation, water conservation, low carbon, recycling, regeneration and organic, with the adoption of the life cycle thinking, this paper brings forward basic requirements on organizations including pollutant emissions, establishment of management system, energy conservation and emission reduction technology and green supply chain management, and proposes indicator requirements on product including resource attributes, energy attributes, environmental attributes and quality attributes, so as to guide the establishment of green product evaluation standards in the context of China.

  3. Development Of International Non-Governmental Organizations And Legal Traditions Of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra A. Dorskaya

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the role of international non-governmental organizations in the maintenance and creation of a positive attitude to national legal traditions. The basic stages of development of international non-governmental organizations. Analyzed their advantages and disadvantages. Considered as the legal traditions of the Russian society are reflected in the activities of legal entities and individuals - members of international non-governmental organizations.

  4. Development Of International Non-Governmental Organizations And Legal Traditions Of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A. Dorskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of international non-governmental organizations in the maintenance and creation of a positive attitude to national legal traditions. The basic stages of development of international non-governmental organizations. Analyzed their advantages and disadvantages. Considered as the legal traditions of the Russian society are reflected in the activities of legal entities and individuals - members of international non-governmental organizations.

  5. An International Standard Set of Patient-Centered Outcome Measures After Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salinas, J. (Joel); Sprinkhuizen, S.M. (Sara M.); Ackerson, T. (Teri); Bernhardt, J. (Julie); Davie, C. (Charlie); George, M.G. (Mary G.); Gething, S. (Stephanie); Kelly, A.G. (Adam G.); Lindsay, P. (Patrice); Liu, L. (Liping); Martins, S.C.O. (Sheila C.O.); Morgan, L. (Louise); B. Norrving (Bo); Ribbers, G.M. (Gerard M.); Silver, F.L. (Frank L.); Smith, E.E. (Eric E.); Williams, L.S. (Linda S.); Schwamm, L.H. (Lee H.)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:__ Value-based health care aims to bring together patients and health systems to maximize the ratio of quality over cost. To enable assessment of healthcare value in stroke management, an international standard set of patient-centered stroke outcome measures

  6. National tax regulation, voluntary international standards and the GATS : Argentina – financial services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis; Hoekman, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Can a WTO Member discriminate against foreign suppliers of services located in jurisdictions that refuse to share information with a government to permit it to determine if its nationals engage in tax evasion? Does it matter if the Member uses standards developed by an international body as the

  7. Media Representations of National and International Standardized Testing in the Israeli Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemini, Miri; Gordon, Noa

    2017-01-01

    This study applies discourse analysis to Israeli media coverage of national and international standardized examinations within Israel's public education system. Through systematic analysis of the topic in the two main Israeli financial publications between the years 2000 and 2013, we explore the nature and narrative of the media and compare the…

  8. The unstable core of global finance: contingent valuation and governance of international accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, D.; Stellinga, B.

    2015-01-01

    Accounting standards are the foundations of the financial regulatory edifice, and global financial governance is no more stable than the asset valuations that feed it. Yet for two decades and up to this day, no international accounting rule for financial instruments - the bulk of banks' balance

  9. A new internal standard for HPLC assay of conjugated linoleic acid in animal tissues and milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan; Michalski, J. P.; Rozbicka-Wieczorek, A. J.; Krajewska, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2011), s. 23-29 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : sorbic acid * internal standard * CLA isomers Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2011

  10. 75 FR 55269 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Delay of effective date of final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The National Indian Gaming...

  11. 76 FR 53817 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Interior. ACTION: Final rule; delay of effective date and request for comments. SUMMARY: The National Indian Gaming...

  12. 77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Final rule; delay of effective date; suspension. SUMMARY: The National Indian Gaming Commission...

  13. Processes in the development of international specialist competencies and standards: the Sports Physiotherapy for All Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulley, Catherine; Donaghy, Marie

    2008-01-01

    In a world of rapidly developing knowledge it is important that professions describe their roles and capabilities. The need for a thorough description of sports physiotherapy was addressed through collaboration between the International Federation of Sports Physiotherapy (IFSP) and five European higher education institutions. This resulted in the Sports Physiotherapy for All Project, which has been successful in developing internationally accepted competencies and standards for sports physiotherapists. This article describes and reflects on the process to communicate useful lessons. A competency model was chosen to facilitate differentiation and communication of aspects of sports physiotherapy practice. Documentation relating to sports physiotherapy practice was collected from 16 countries and analysed thematically. A cut and paste method was used by a panel of experts to allocate themes to areas of practice within the competency model. Theme groups were used to select areas of practice for description in competency form. Standards were derived from competencies following in depth discussion with the expert panel, and triangulation with themes derived from international documentation. A rigorous process of international review and revision led to the final list of 11 competencies and related standards, both accepted by the IFSP. This work provides a foundation for the development of an audit toolkit to guide demonstration and evaluation of competencies and standards. This provides a foundation for targeted career development activities, appropriate provision of training opportunities, and quality enhancement. The experiences gained during this project can inform other health professions and their specialisms when embarking on a similar journey.

  14. INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE MANAGEMENT OF A COMPANY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA - MARIA MĂLĂESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The accounting standardization process is in progress at international and regional level, more and more countries have reached the same conclusion of enforcing high quality accounting standards like IAS / IFRS. There are various reasons for Romania adopting the international accounting referential most of them subordinated to its central aim, respectively EU accession. In our country the accounting system is subordinated to the taxation system, financing still comes prevalent from banks and very few Romanian companies are listed on foreign capital markets. Romania is an ex-communist emergent country in wich changes in the economic and political environment merely started only after the end of the communist regime in the early 1990s. Many European companies already observed that by enforcing IFRS standards they have access to international capital markets, they could reduce expenses and unroll international transactions easier. It is improbable that a financial reporting, which is not easy understood by all its users, would offer new business opportunities or additional capital.Therefore, a significant number of companies, either voluntarily enforce IFRS standards, or they are pledged by the government to do this.

  15. A Principles-Based Approach to Teaching International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Obeua

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the principles-based approach that emphasizes a "why" question by using the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) "Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting" to question and understand the basis for specific differences between IFRS and U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S.…

  16. The Effect of International Financial Reporting Standards Convergence on U. S. Accounting Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Homer L.; Waldrup, Bobby E.; Shea, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Major changes are coming to U.S. financial accounting and accounting education as U. S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and international financial reporting standards (IFRS) converge within the next few years. In 2008, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) published a proposed "road map" for the potential…

  17. The Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards on Accounting Curriculum in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallapragada, RamMohan R.; Toma, Alfred G.; Roe, C. William

    2011-01-01

    According to the time line presently specified by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), business firms in the United States (US) should switch from the existing US accounting reporting guidelines of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by the year 2014. The US business…

  18. Basic safety standards for radiation protection and their application to internal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, M.

    Following a summary of the basic concepts on radiation protection units, the safety standards now in effect in France and those recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP Publication 9, 1965) to be used as a basis to the next Euratom regulations are developed [fr

  19. International Comparisons of Foundation Phase Number Domain Mathematics Knowledge and Practice Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Anja; van der Walt, Marthie; Posthuma, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Poor mathematics performance in schools is both a national and an international concern. Teachers ought to be equipped with relevant subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge as one way to address this problem. However, no mathematics knowledge and practice standards have as yet been defined for the preparation of Foundation Phase…

  20. International standard on auditing 800 the auditor`s report on special purpose audit engagements

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanova, Blagica

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to show the main characteristics of the international standard on auditing 800. ISA 800 explains requirements by making a report on financial statements prepared in accordance with another comprehensive basis of accounting, on a component of financial statements, on compliance with contractual agreements or reports on summarized financial statements.