WorldWideScience

Sample records for international sensitivity index

  1. Guam, 2006 Environmental Sensitivity Index Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  2. Index of international publications in aerospace medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The 5th edition of the Index of International Publications in Aerospace Medicine is a comprehensive : listing of international publications in clinical aerospace medicine, operational aerospace medicine, : aerospace physiology, environmental medicine...

  3. Index of international publications in aerospace medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    The Index of International Publications in Aerospace Medicine is a comprehensive listing of international publications in clinical aerospace medicine, operational aerospace medicine, aerospace physiology, environmental medicine/physiology, diving med...

  4. Phase sensitive diffraction sensor for high sensitivity refractive index measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Nityanand; Varma, Manoj; Kumar, Sunil

    2018-02-01

    In this study a diffraction based sensor has been developed for bio molecular sensing applications and performing assays in real time. A diffraction grating fabricated on a glass substrate produced diffraction patterns both in transmission and reflection when illuminated by a laser diode. We used zeroth order I(0,0) as reference and first order I(0,1) as signal channel and conducted ratiometric measurements that reduced noise by more than 50 times. The ratiometric approach resulted in a very simple instrumentation with very high sensitivity. In the past, we have shown refractive index measurements both for bulk and surface adsorption using the diffractive self-referencing approach. In the current work we extend the same concept to higher diffraction orders. We have considered order I(0,1) and I(1,1) and performed ratiometric measurements I(0,1)/I(1,1) to eliminate the common mode fluctuations. Since orders I(0,1) and I(1,1) behaved opposite to each other, the resulting ratio signal amplitude increased more than twice compared to our previous results. As a proof of concept we used different salt concentrations in DI water. Increased signal amplitude and improved fluid injection system resulted in more than 4 times improvement in detection limit, giving limit of detection 1.3×10-7 refractive index unit (RIU) compared to our previous results. The improved refractive index sensitivity will help significantly for high sensitivity label free bio sensing application in a very cost-effective and simple experimental set-up.

  5. Puerto Rico ESI and RSI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types) / RSI (Reach Sensitivity Index River and Stream Types)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  6. West Peninsular Florida I 1996 Environmental Sensitivity Index Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  7. East Florida, 1993 - 1995 Environmental Sensitivity Index Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  8. West Florida, 1993-1995 Environmental Sensitivity Index Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  9. South Florida, 1993-1995 Environmental Sensitivity Index Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  10. Prediction of the insulin sensitivity index using Bayesian networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bøttcher, Susanne Gammelgaard; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The insulin sensitivity index () can be used in assessing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. An intravenous study is used to determine using Bergmans minimal model. However, an intravenous study is time consuming and expensive and therefore not suitable for large scale epidemiological studies. In this paper we learn the parameters and structure of several Bayesian networks relating measurements from an oral glucose tolerance test to the insulin sensitivity index determined from an intrav...

  11. Sensitive Index to Assess Risk of Morbidity in Undernutrition | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Most of the studies exploring the association between undernutrition and infection have used weight for age as the index of assessment. ... Journal articles. Assessment of nutritional status in Indian preschool children using WHO 2006 Growth Standards. Download PDF. Reports. Sensitive index to assess risk of morbidity in ...

  12. International regulatory requirements for skin sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Amber B; Strickland, Judy; Allen, David; Casati, Silvia; Zuang, Valérie; Barroso, João; Whelan, Maurice; Régimbald-Krnel, M J; Kojima, Hajime; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Park, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Jong Kwon; Kim, Tae Sung; Delgado, Isabella; Rios, Ludmila; Yang, Ying; Wang, Gangli; Kleinstreuer, Nicole

    2018-03-05

    Skin sensitization test data are required or considered by chemical regulation authorities around the world. These data are used to develop product hazard labeling for the protection of consumers or workers and to assess risks from exposure to skin-sensitizing chemicals. To identify opportunities for regulatory uses of non-animal replacements for skin sensitization tests, the needs and uses for skin sensitization test data must first be clarified. Thus, we reviewed skin sensitization testing requirements for seven countries or regions that are represented in the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods (ICATM). We noted the type of skin sensitization data required for each chemical sector and whether these data were used in a hazard classification, potency classification, or risk assessment context; the preferred tests; and whether alternative non-animal tests were acceptable. An understanding of national and regional regulatory requirements for skin sensitization testing will inform the development of ICATM's international strategy for the acceptance and implementation of non-animal alternatives to assess the health hazards and risks associated with potential skin sensitizers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  19. Sensitive Index to Assess Risk of Morbidity in Undernutrition | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Nutrition Foundation of India (NFI) has put forward a new hypotheses: in Indian children, among whom stunting is common, body mass index (BMI) for age is a more sensitive index than stunting and underweight for ... Mise au point d'un indice précis pour évaluer le risque de morbidité associé à la sous-alimentation.

  20. Prediction of the insulin sensitivity index using Bayesian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Susanne Gammelgaard; Dethlefsen, Claus

    The insulin sensitivity index () can be used in assessing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. An intravenous study is used to determine using Bergmans minimal model. However, an intravenous study is time consuming and expensive and therefore not suitable for large scale epidemiological studies....... In this paper we learn the parameters and structure of several Bayesian networks relating measurements from an oral glucose tolerance test to the insulin sensitivity index determined from an intravenous study on the same individuals. The networks can then be used in prediction of from an oral glucose tolerance...

  1. Predicting pavement condition index using international roughness index in Washington DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A number of pavement condition indices are used to conduct pavement management assessments, two of which are the : International Roughness Index (IRI) and Pavement Condition Index (PCI). The IRI is typically measured using specialized : equipment tha...

  2. Sensitivity analysis of the Ohio phosphorus risk index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Phosphorus (P) Index is a widely used tool for assessing the vulnerability of agricultural fields to P loss; yet, few of the P Indices developed in the U.S. have been evaluated for their accuracy. Sensitivity analysis is one approach that can be used prior to calibration and field-scale testing ...

  3. Prediction of clamp-derived insulin sensitivity from the oral glucose insulin sensitivity index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tura, Andrea; Chemello, Gaetano; Szendroedi, Julia

    2018-01-01

    that underwent both a clamp and an OGTT or meal test, thereby allowing calculation of both the M value and OGIS. The population was divided into a training and a validation cohort (n = 359 and n = 154, respectively). After a stepwise selection approach, the best model for M value prediction was applied......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp is the gold-standard method for measuring insulin sensitivity, but is less suitable for large clinical trials. Thus, several indices have been developed for evaluating insulin sensitivity from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). However......, most of them yield values different from those obtained by the clamp method. The aim of this study was to develop a new index to predict clamp-derived insulin sensitivity (M value) from the OGTT-derived oral glucose insulin sensitivity index (OGIS). METHODS: We analysed datasets of people...

  4. Establishment of a new marginal plaque index with high sensitivity for changes in oral hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinzer, Renate; Jahns, Stephan; Harnacke, Daniela

    2014-12-01

    Although several plaque indices exist, they rarely assess in detail the plaque adjacent to the gingival margin, an area most important for periodontal health. This study aims to develop a new marginal plaque index (MPI) and to assess its validity and treatment sensitivity compared to the internationally accepted Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein Index (TQHI). Data from two studies with n = 64 and n = 67 participants, respectively, are reported here. Convergence of MPI with TQHI and concurrent and predictive validity with papillary bleeding index were assessed, as was treatment sensitivity to a treatment of proximal hygiene (study 1) or toothbrushing (study 2), respectively. Convergent validity with TQHI is very good. Concurrent and predictive validity parameters of the MPI are similar to the TQHI. The treatment sensitivity of MPI exceeds TQHI by far. This results in a reduction by >70% of the sample size needed to discover significant treatment effects. As expected, the largest treatment sensitivity was observed for proximal MPI measures in study 1, whereas study 2 showed largest effects for cervical measures. MPI appears to be a valid plaque-scoring system that assesses plaque at the gingival margin. It responds with high sensitivity to treatments aimed at plaque reduction at the gingival margin. Its treatment sensitivity and capacity to differentiate between proximal and cervical plaque make it a promising tool for periodontal research.

  5. Lipid-anthropometric index optimization for insulin sensitivity estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, J.; Wong, S.; Encalada, L.; Herrera, H.; Severeyn, E.

    2015-12-01

    Insulin sensitivity (IS) is the ability of cells to react due to insulińs presence; when this ability is diminished, low insulin sensitivity or insulin resistance (IR) is considered. IR had been related to other metabolic disorders as metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity, dyslipidemia and diabetes. IS can be determined using direct or indirect methods. The indirect methods are less accurate and invasive than direct and they use glucose and insulin values from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The accuracy is established by comparison using spearman rank correlation coefficient between direct and indirect method. This paper aims to propose a lipid-anthropometric index which offers acceptable correlation to insulin sensitivity index for different populations (DB1=MS subjects, DB2=sedentary without MS subjects and DB3=marathoners subjects) without to use OGTT glucose and insulin values. The proposed method is parametrically optimized through a random cross-validation, using the spearman rank correlation as comparator with CAUMO method. CAUMO is an indirect method designed from a simplification of the minimal model intravenous glucose tolerance test direct method (MINMOD-IGTT) and with acceptable correlation (0.89). The results show that the proposed optimized method got a better correlation with CAUMO in all populations compared to non-optimized. On the other hand, it was observed that the optimized method has better correlation with CAUMO in DB2 and DB3 groups than HOMA-IR method, which is the most widely used for diagnosing insulin resistance. The optimized propose method could detect incipient insulin resistance, when classify as insulin resistant subjects that present impaired postprandial insulin and glucose values.

  6. Prediction of clamp-derived insulin sensitivity from the oral glucose insulin sensitivity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tura, Andrea; Chemello, Gaetano; Szendroedi, Julia; Göbl, Christian; Færch, Kristine; Vrbíková, Jana; Pacini, Giovanni; Ferrannini, Ele; Roden, Michael

    2018-05-01

    The euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp is the gold-standard method for measuring insulin sensitivity, but is less suitable for large clinical trials. Thus, several indices have been developed for evaluating insulin sensitivity from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). However, most of them yield values different from those obtained by the clamp method. The aim of this study was to develop a new index to predict clamp-derived insulin sensitivity (M value) from the OGTT-derived oral glucose insulin sensitivity index (OGIS). We analysed datasets of people that underwent both a clamp and an OGTT or meal test, thereby allowing calculation of both the M value and OGIS. The population was divided into a training and a validation cohort (n = 359 and n = 154, respectively). After a stepwise selection approach, the best model for M value prediction was applied to the validation cohort. This cohort was also divided into subgroups according to glucose tolerance, obesity category and age. The new index, called PREDIcted M (PREDIM), was based on OGIS, BMI, 2 h glucose during OGTT and fasting insulin. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a good relationship between the M value and PREDIM in the validation dataset (only 9 of 154 observations outside limits of agreement). Also, no significant differences were found between the M value and PREDIM (equivalence test: p < 0.0063). Subgroup stratification showed that measured M value and PREDIM have a similar ability to detect intergroup differences (p < 0.02, both M value and PREDIM). The new index PREDIM provides excellent prediction of M values from OGTT or meal data, thereby allowing comparison of insulin sensitivity between studies using different tests.

  7. Demystifying back scatter interferometry: a sensitive refractive index detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Søren Terpager; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Trydal, Torleif

    2014-01-01

    acting like a common-path interferometer. METHODS: A HeNe laser is directed at a glass capillary with inner diameter of 1.4 mm and reflected light from air/glass and liquid/glass interfaces interfere to form an RI dependent intensity fringe pattern at a CCD detector. The fringe shift relative......BACKGROUND: Back Scatter Interferometry (BSI) is a sensitive method for detecting changes of the refractive index (RI) in small capillaries. The method was originally developed as an off-axial column detector for use in Liquid Chromatography or Capillary Electrophoresis systems, but it has been...... a set of NaCl standard solutions. RESULTS: Ray-tracing show that the basic interference pattern recorded with BSI can be fully described by two beams, one reflected from the surface of the capillary and a beam reflected from the back of the capillary wall. In accordance we find that the interferometric...

  8. Development and sensitivity analysis of a global drinking water quality index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickwood, C J; Carr, G M

    2009-09-01

    The UNEP GEMS/Water Programme is the leading international agency responsible for the development of water quality indicators and maintains the only global database of water quality for inland waters (GEMStat). The protection of source water quality for domestic use (drinking water, abstraction etc) was identified by GEMS/Water as a priority for assessment. A composite index was developed to assess source water quality across a range of inland water types, globally, and over time. The approach for development was three-fold: (1) Select guidelines from the World Health Organisation that are appropriate in assessing global water quality for human health, (2) Select variables from GEMStat that have an appropriate guideline and reasonable global coverage, and (3) determine, on an annual basis, an overall index rating for each station using the water quality index equation endorsed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. The index allowed measurements of the frequency and extent to which variables exceeded their respective WHO guidelines, at each individual monitoring station included within GEMStat, allowing both spatial and temporal assessment of global water quality. Development of the index was followed by preliminary sensitivity analysis and verification of the index against real water quality data.

  9. Taluka level environmental sensitivity index (ESI) and vulnerability mapping for oil spills: A pilot study from Goa state, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Kumar, R.; Vethamony, P.

    . Oil spill is having tendency to float over the water surface and it can easily reach the shore with the wave or tidal actions. Once this spill reaches the shore it creates major ecological damage. Shore line is rich in biodiversity. It is home...-spill contingency planning and response since 1979. Significant effort has been put for developing sensitivity mapping components of oil spill contingency plans around the world. The Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) system is an international scheme...

  10. Large-scale international validation of the ADO index in subjects with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puhan, Milo A; Hansel, Nadia N; Sobradillo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    -to-moderate risk of 3-year mortality than FEV(1) alone. INTERPRETATION: The updated 15-point ADO index accurately predicts 3-year mortality across the COPD severity spectrum and can be used to inform patients about their prognosis, clinical trial study design or benefit harm assessment of medical interventions.......BACKGROUND: Little evidence on the validity of simple and widely applicable tools to predict mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exists. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a large international study to validate the ADO index that uses age, dyspnoea and FEV(1) to predict 3......-IV. MEASUREMENTS: We validated the original ADO index. We then obtained an updated ADO index in half of our cohorts to improve its predictive accuracy, which in turn was validated comprehensively in the remaining cohorts using discrimination, calibration and decision curve analysis and a number of sensitivity...

  11. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: American Samoa, 2004 (NODC Accession 0002827)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach...

  12. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Guam - 2005 maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0033616)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the U.S. is NOAA's Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach systematically complies...

  13. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Hawaii, December 2001, 2002, Volume 1 and 2 (NODC Accession 0002828)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index or ESI. This approach...

  14. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Hawaii - 2001, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0033632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the U.S. is NOAA's Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach systematically complies...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: WETLANDS (Environmental Sensitivity Index Wetland Types - Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing coastal wetland habitats for the Hudson River classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI)...

  16. Teaching International Business as an Opportunity to Develop Cultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Ellen J.

    2017-01-01

    Business program graduates are expected to perform with cultural sensitivity in international and intercultural professional environments. In order to support student development of the necessary mindset, a variety of assignments and activities have been integrated into the undergraduate International Business (IB) course. This article describes…

  17. An occlusal plaque index. Measurements of repeatability, reproducibility, and sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splieth, Christian H; Nourallah, Abduhl W

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate a new, computerized method of measuring dental plaque on occlusal surfaces which exhibit the highest caries prevalence. In 16 patients (6-9 years of age), plaque on the occlusal surfaces of permanent molars was stained (Mira-2-Tone) and photographed with an intra-oral camera. In a conventional picture editing program (PC/Adobe PhotoShop 6.0), the occlusal surface and plaque were measured in pixels and the relative proportion of occlusal plaque was calculated (ANALYSIS 3.0). The repeatability and reproducibility of the method were analyzed by re-taking and analyzing four images by two examiners four times via intra- and inter-examiner correlation coefficients and by re-analyzing 10 images. Sensitivity was tested by re-taking and analyzing the images of the same occlusal surfaces in all patients after instructed brushing with an electric toothbrush. Intra- and inter-examiner correlation coefficients for repeatability and reproducibility of the analysis were excellent (ICC> 0.997 and ICC=0.98, resp.; 95% confidence interval: 0.955-0.995). The inter- and intra-examiner coefficients for the whole procedure including the re-taking of images were also high (ICC > 0.90). The method was also highly sensitive, proving a statistically significant plaque reduction after brushing (before: mean 29.2% plaque, after: 14.7% plaque; t-test, P= 0.025).

  18. What Climate Sensitivity Index Is Most Useful for Projections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, Michael R.; Gregory, Jonathan; Colman, Robert; Andrews, Timothy

    2018-02-01

    Transient climate response (TCR), transient response at 140 years (T140), and equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) indices are intended as benchmarks for comparing the magnitude of climate response projected by climate models. It is generally assumed that TCR or T140 would explain more variability between models than ECS for temperature change over the 21st century, since this timescale is the realm of transient climate change. Here we find that TCR explains more variability across Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 than ECS for global temperature change since preindustrial, for 50 or 100 year global trends up to the present, and for projected change under representative concentration pathways in regions of delayed warming such as the Southern Ocean. However, unexpectedly, we find that ECS correlates higher than TCR for projected change from the present in the global mean and in most regions. This higher correlation does not relate to aerosol forcing, and the physical cause requires further investigation.

  19. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Louisiana maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013802)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of Louisiana. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  20. ESI-HI50 Haiku, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  1. ESI-HI28 Keawanui Bay, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  2. ESI-HI92 Laysan Island, NWHI, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  3. ESI-PR66, Culebra and Adjacent Islands, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  4. ESI-PR62, Salinas, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  5. ESI-PR22, Corozal, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  6. ESI-HI90 Gardner Pinnacles, NWHI, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  7. ESI-HI71 Hauula, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  8. ESI-HI33 Honokaa, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  9. ESI-HI02 Keaau Ranch, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  10. ESI-PR36 Barranquitas, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  11. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Cook Inlet, Alaska, maps and geographic information systems (NODC Accession 0046027)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  12. ESI-HI06 Kalapana, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  13. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Upper Texas Coast (NODC Accession 0046089)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This CD-ROM product from the NOAA National Ocean Service Hazardous Materials Response and Assessment Division contains the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data...

  14. ESI-HI44 Olowalu, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  15. ESI-HI55 Lanai North, Island of Lanai, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  16. ESI-HI68 Haleiwa, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  17. ESI-HI09 Naliikakani Point, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  18. ESI-HI47 Kahakuloa, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  19. ESI-HI72 Kahana, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  20. ESI-HI66 Waianae, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  1. ESI-HI91 Maro Reef, NWHI, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  2. ESI-HI54 Lanai South, Island of Lanai, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  3. ESI-PR20, Florida, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  4. ESI-HI45 Lahaina, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  5. ESI-03, Tutuila Island - South, American Samoa 2003 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  6. ESI-PR07, Arecibo, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  7. ESI-HI82 Hanalei, Island of Kauai, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  8. Rota, Commonwealth of the Nothern Mariana Islands, 2006 Environmental Sensitivity Index Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  9. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: West Peninsular Florida Volume 1 (NODC Accession 0006377)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in Portable Document Format (.PDF) for the shoreline of West Peninsular Florida (to encompass...

  10. ESI-HI57 Molokai Airport, Island of Molokai, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  11. ESI-PR64, Guayama, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  12. ESI-PR67, Isla De Vieques, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  13. ESI-HI73 Kaneohe, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  14. ESI-PR61, Santa Isabel, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  15. ESI-PR11, Bayamon, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  16. ESI-PR29, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  17. ESI-PR21, Ciales, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  18. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: New Hampshire, maps and Geographic Information Systems data (NODC Accession 0014789)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the New Hampshire coast from 2003 to 2004. ESI data characterize estuarine environments...

  19. ESI-HI21 Kailua, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: West Florida, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0006249)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in Portable Document Format (.PDF) for the shoreline of West Florida (to encompass the coastal...

  1. ESI-HI62 Pearl Harbor, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  2. ESI-HI65 Ewa, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  3. ESI-HI27 Kawaihae, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  4. ESI-HI60 Molokai East, Island of Molokai, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  5. ESI-VI14, Anegada U.K. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  6. ESI-HI95 Midway Islands, NWHI, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  7. ESI-PR09, Manati, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  8. ESI-HI42 Puu O Kali, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  9. ESI-08,Swains Island, American Samoa 2003 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  10. ESI-HI75 Koko head, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  11. ESI-PR30, Rosario, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  12. ESI-PR55, Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  13. ESI-HI49 Paia, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  14. ESI-HI10 Pahala, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  15. ESI-PR12, San Juan, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  16. ESI-HI23 Makalawena, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  17. ESI-HI69 Waimea, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  18. ESI-HI26 Puu Hinai, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  19. ESI-HI93 Lisianski Island, NWHI, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  20. ESI-VI9, Peter Island, U.K. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  1. ESI-PR56, Parguera, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  2. ESI-VI12 Beef Island, U.K. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  3. ESI-PR41 Naguabo, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  4. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Virginia, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014794)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Virginia from 1998 to 2004 (vs. 2 GDB). ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  5. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: South Florida, July 1996 (NODC Accession 0006539)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in Portable Document Format (.PDF) for the shoreline of South Florida (to encompass the...

  6. ESI-PR43, Puerto Real, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  7. ESI-PR13, Carolina, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  8. ESI-HI94 Pearl and Hermes Atoll, NWHI, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  9. ESI-HI19 Honaunau, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  10. ESI-HI11 Punaluu, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  11. ESI-PR06, Camuy, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  12. ESI-HI46 Napili, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  13. ESI-PR39 Juncos, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  14. ESI-HI63 Waipahu, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  15. ESI-05, Ofu & Olosega Islands, American Samoa 2003 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  16. ESI-HI43 Maalaea, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  17. ESI-HI76 Lihue, Island of Kauai, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  18. Tinian, Commonwealth of the Nothern Mariana Islands, 2006 Environmental Sensitivity Index Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  19. ESI-HI07 Makaopuhi Crater, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  20. ESI-PR35, Orocovis, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  1. ESI-HI29 Mahukona, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  2. ESI-HI37 Hana, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  3. ESI-PR59, Punta Cuchara , Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  4. Aguijan, Commonwealth of the Nothern Mariana Islands, 2006 Environmental Sensitivity Index Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  5. ESI-PR24, Aguas Buenas, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  6. ESI-HI38 Kipahulu, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  7. ESI-PR16, Central La Plata, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  8. ESI-HI67 Kaena, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  9. ESI-PR65, Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  10. ESI-VI11, Tortola, U.K. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  11. ESI-HI40 Lualailua Hills, Island of Maui, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  12. ESI-HI08 Kau Desert, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii 2001 ( Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  13. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Hudson River, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014791)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Hudson River from 1942 to 2005. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  14. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Columbia River, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013951)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Columbia River from 1979 to 2004. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  15. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Georgia, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013780)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of Georgia. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  16. Golfo de Fonseca ESI; Honduras and Nicaragua: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Golfo de Fonseca. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  17. U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  18. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  19. ESI-PR1 Isla Mona and Isla Desecheo, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Mississippi, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013801)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of Mississippi. ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife by...

  1. ESI-PR18 Bayaney, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  2. ESI-PR46, Yauco, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  3. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Kodiak, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0026418)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of Kodiak Island and Shelikof Strait, Alaska. ESI data characterize...

  4. ESI-HI74 Mokapu, Island of Oahu, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  5. Intuitive eating is associated with interoceptive sensitivity. Effects on body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Beate M; Blechert, Jens; Hautzinger, Martin; Matthias, Ellen; Herbert, Cornelia

    2013-11-01

    Intuitive eating is relevant for adaptive eating, body weight and well-being and impairments are associated with dieting and eating disorders. It is assumed to depend on the ability to recognize one's signs of hunger and fullness and to eat accordingly. This suggests a link to the individual ability to perceive and processes bodily signals (interoceptive sensitivity, IS) which has been shown to be associated with emotion processing and behavior regulation. This study was designed to clarify the relationships between IS as measured by a heartbeat perception task, intuitive eating and body mass index (BMI) in N=111 healthy young women. Intuitive eating was assessed by the Intuitive Eating Scale (IES) with three facets, reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues (RIH), eating for physical rather than emotional reasons (EPR), and unconditional permission to eat when hungry (UPE). IS was not only positively related to total IES score and RIH and EPR, and negatively predicted BMI, but also proved to fully mediate the negative relationship between RIH, as well as EPR and BMI. Additionally, the subjective appraisal of one's interoceptive signals independently predicted EPR and BMI. IS represents a promising mechanism in research on eating behavior and body weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Heat Vulnerability Index: Spatial Patterns of Exposure, Sensitivity and Adaptive Capacity for Santiago de Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza, Luis; Palme, Massimo; de la Barrera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Climate change will worsen the high levels of urban vulnerability in Latin American cities due to specific environmental stressors. Some impacts of climate change, such as high temperatures in urban environments, have not yet been addressed through adaptation strategies, which are based on poorly supported data. These impacts remain outside the scope of urban planning. New spatially explicit approaches that identify highly vulnerable urban areas and include specific adaptation requirements are needed in current urban planning practices to cope with heat hazards. In this paper, a heat vulnerability index is proposed for Santiago, Chile. The index was created using a GIS-based spatial information system and was constructed from spatially explicit indexes for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity levels derived from remote sensing data and socio-economic information assessed via principal component analysis (PCA). The objective of this study is to determine the levels of heat vulnerability at local scales by providing insights into these indexes at the intra city scale. The results reveal a spatial pattern of heat vulnerability with strong variations among individual spatial indexes. While exposure and adaptive capacities depict a clear spatial pattern, sensitivity follows a complex spatial distribution. These conditions change when examining PCA results, showing that sensitivity is more robust than exposure and adaptive capacity. These indexes can be used both for urban planning purposes and for proposing specific policies and measures that can help minimize heat hazards in highly dynamic urban areas. The proposed methodology can be applied to other Latin American cities to support policy making.

  7. A new process sensitivity index to identify important system processes under process model and parametric uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Heng [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Ye, Ming [Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, Tallahassee Florida USA; Walker, Anthony P. [Environmental Sciences Division and Climate Change Science Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee USA; Chen, Xingyuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological models are always composed of multiple components that represent processes key to intended model applications. When a process can be simulated by multiple conceptual-mathematical models (process models), model uncertainty in representing the process arises. While global sensitivity analysis methods have been widely used for identifying important processes in hydrologic modeling, the existing methods consider only parametric uncertainty but ignore the model uncertainty for process representation. To address this problem, this study develops a new method to probe multimodel process sensitivity by integrating the model averaging methods into the framework of variance-based global sensitivity analysis, given that the model averaging methods quantify both parametric and model uncertainty. A new process sensitivity index is derived as a metric of relative process importance, and the index includes variance in model outputs caused by uncertainty in both process models and model parameters. For demonstration, the new index is used to evaluate the processes of recharge and geology in a synthetic study of groundwater reactive transport modeling. The recharge process is simulated by two models that converting precipitation to recharge, and the geology process is also simulated by two models of different parameterizations of hydraulic conductivity; each process model has its own random parameters. The new process sensitivity index is mathematically general, and can be applied to a wide range of problems in hydrology and beyond.

  8. Enviromentally sensitive patch index of desertification risk applied to the main habitats of Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, A.; Piccione, V.; Ragusa, M. A.; Rapicavoli, V.; Veneziano, V.

    2017-07-01

    The authors applied the MEDALUS - Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use - procedure to the most representative sicilian habitat by extension, socio-economic and environmental importance, in order to assess the risk of desertification. Thanks to the ESPI, Environmentally Sensitive Patch Index, in this paper the authors estimate the current and future regional levels of desertification risk.

  9. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Salinity, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_salinity_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) salinity data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  10. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Polygons, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esip_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains polygons representing the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking...

  11. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Swamps, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_swamp_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) swamps data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  12. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Seagrass, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_seagrass_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) seagrass data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  13. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Marsh, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_fresh_marsh_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) fresh marsh data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which...

  14. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Bristol Bay, Alaska, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0033382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach systematically...

  15. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0002825)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index or ESI. This approach...

  16. Maternal BIS Sensitivity, Overprotective Parenting, and Children’s Internalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Maack, Danielle J.

    2012-01-01

    Although sensitivity to the Behavioral Inhibition System within Gray’s (1970) reinforcement sensitivity theory relates to individuals’ own depressive and anxious symptomatology, less is known about how parental BIS sensitivity relates to early indicators of internalizing problems in young children. Moreover, the extent to which this parental characteristic relates to parenting behavior, and children’s internalizing problems above and beyond parenting, remains unknown. The current study assessed maternal BIS sensitivity, overprotective parenting, and toddlers’ internalizing behaviors in a sample of 91 mothers while controlling for mothers’ own internalizing symptomatology. Heightened BIS sensitivity related to both overprotective parenting and internalizing behaviors. Overprotective parenting partially mediated the relation between BIS sensitivity and children’s internalizing behaviors, although BIS sensitivity maintained a marginal relation to internalizing behaviors. Maternal BIS sensitivity and toddler internalizing behaviors may represent a shared disposition towards inhibition that is somewhat accounted for by overprotective parenting. PMID:22904590

  17. Dispersion sensitivity of large-scale axial gradient index glass for spherochromat doublets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, Paul K.; Hunter, Boyd V.; Blankenbecler, Richard

    1999-10-01

    Bi-AGRIN cemented doublets, super corrected for zero axial color, spherical aberration and sphero-chromatism can show polychromatic performance in the range of 0.004 waves PV or better at the red and blue wavelengths for speeds up to F/2. These doublets are comprised of two elements of axial gradient index glass. The crown and flint elements are each designed with separate and distinct gradient glass lines, giving each element an axial gradient in refractive index and dispersion. This paper examines one design and its performance sensitivity to dispersion modeling via the Buchdahl and Sellmeier dispersion equations.

  18. Aquifer sensitivity to pesticide leaching: Testing a soils and hydrogeologic index method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, E.; Keefer, D.A.; Dey, W.S.; Wehrmann, H.A.; Wilson, S.D.; Ray, C.

    2005-01-01

    For years, researchers have sought index and other methods to predict aquifer sensitivity and vulnerability to nonpoint pesticide contamination. In 1995, an index method and map were developed to define aquifer sensitivity to pesticide leaching based on a combination of soil and hydrogeologic factors. The soil factor incorporated three soil properties: hydraulic conductivity, amount of organic matter within individual soil layers, and drainage class. These properties were obtained from a digital soil association map. The hydrogeologic factor was depth to uppermost aquifer material. To test this index method, a shallow ground water monitoring well network was designed, installed, and sampled in Illinois. The monitoring wells had a median depth of 7.6 m and were located adjacent to corn and soybean fields where the only known sources of pesticides were those used in normal agricultural production. From September 1998 through February 2001, 159 monitoring wells were sampled for 14 pesticides but no pesticide metabolites. Samples were collected and analyzed to assess the distribution of pesticide occurrence across three units of aquifer sensitivity. Pesticides were detected in 18% of all samples and nearly uniformly from samples from the three units of aquifer sensitivity. The new index method did not predict pesticide occurrence because occurrence was not dependent on the combined soil and hydrogeologic factors. However, pesticide occurrence was dependent on the tested hydrogeologic factor and was three times higher in areas where the depth to the uppermost aquifer was <6 m than in areas where the depth to the uppermost aquifer was 6 to <15 m. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  19. Increase in sensitivity of sensor units of environment refraction index change based on superficial plasmon resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushenin Yu. V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of computer modeling of an angular spectrum superficial plasmon resonance in metal films measurements with device PLAZMON-5 with infra-red radiator are analysed. It is shown that use of an infra-red source of radiation allows to improve sensitivity of sensor device in comparison with source of visible light. On an example of dielectric refraction indexes measurement with PLAZMON-5 device experimental check of theoretical calculations has been carried out.

  20. Increase in sensitivity of sensor units of environment refraction index change based on superficial plasmon resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Ushenin Yu. V.; Samoylov R. V.; Khristosenko R. V.

    2011-01-01

    Results of computer modeling of an angular spectrum superficial plasmon resonance in metal films measurements with device PLAZMON-5 with infra-red radiator are analysed. It is shown that use of an infra-red source of radiation allows to improve sensitivity of sensor device in comparison with source of visible light. On an example of dielectric refraction indexes measurement with PLAZMON-5 device experimental check of theoretical calculations has been carried out.

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  2. Satellite Imagery Application: An Experience In Environmental Sensitivity Index Mapping In Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolarin, A.A.O.

    1995-01-01

    Pre-planning for response to emergency, most often, dictates the degree of actual response success, within the region of 'certainty' in risk management. Contingency planning against oil spillage has been recognised as a vital tool in the oil spillage has been recognised as a vital tool in the oil industry. A number of inputs are necessary for an effective Contingency Planning. One of such inputs is the identification of priority areas to be protected or to be allowed only the minimum exposure in the event of a spillage. A modern tool for this prioritizing activity, which is constantly gaining patronage, is the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Mapping. Satellites have become invaluable sources of information for the indexing and classification purpose. They provide remotely sensed data which could otherwise be obtained at greater costs, at least, in time and money. This paper summarises the Elf Petroleum Nigeria's experience with satellite imagery application for environmental sensitivity indexing purposes. This includes the case studies of the NNPC/Elf OML's 57 (swamp), 58 (land) and 100 (offshore). It provides some background to the technology's data acquisition, and the dilemma of indexing. It is expected that the paper would serve educational and corporate purposes in the industry

  3. True Multilateral Indexes for International Comparisons of Purchasing Power and Real Income

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Neary

    1997-01-01

    I consider the problem of choosing index numbers of purchasing power and real income for international comparisons. I show that the desirable properties of methods based on the Fisher "Ideal" index do not extend to multilateral comparisons, except when tastes are homothetic. By contrast, the Geary method, which underlies the Penn World Tables, provides an approximation to a set of "true" exchange rate indexes which have many desirable properties. In particular, if demands exhibit generalized ...

  4. Adjustable internal structure for reconstructing gradient index profile of crystalline lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V; Pierscionek, Barbara K

    2014-03-01

    Employing advanced technologies in studying the crystalline lens of the eye has improved our understanding of the refractive index gradient of the lens. Reconstructing and studying such a complex structure requires models with adaptable internal geometry that can be altered to simulate geometrical and optical changes of the lens with aging. In this Letter, we introduce an optically well-defined, geometrical structure for modeling the gradient refractive index profile of the crystalline lens with the advantage of an adjustable internal structure that is not available with existing models. The refractive index profile assigned to this rotationally symmetric geometry is calculated numerically, yet it is shown that this does not limit the model. The study provides a basis for developing lens models with sophisticated external and internal structures without the need for analytical solutions to calculate refractive index profiles.

  5. Optical fiber sensor based on capillary wall for highly-sensitive refractive index measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Xinpu; Qian, Siyu

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports a temperature-compensated fiber-optic refractive index (RI) sensor for high sensitivity measurement. The sensor includes a piece of fused-silica capillary (FSC) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG), both of which are sandwiched by single-mode fibers (SMFs). When light from the lead-in SMF enters into the wall of the FSC that acts as a RI sensing element, multiple modes are excited and interfere to form fringes collected by the lead-out SMF. The FBG is fabricated adjunct to the FSC to compensate its temperature sensitivity. The FSC based sensor prototype is fabricated and sealed in a flow cell to test its performance. Experimental results show that the sensor is highly sensitive to RI, and the sensitivity in the tested RI range from 1.33 to 1.35 is 698.52 nm/RIU and from 1.35 to 1.37 is 1061.78 nm/RIU. The temperature sensitivity of the FSC is -0.173 nm/°C, which is compensated by the FBG. This capillary wall based sensor can be further developed as a miniaturized fiber optic biosensor for biochemical application.

  6. Low-loss planar metamaterials electromagnetically induced transparency for sensitive refractive index sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ying; Hu, Sen; Huang, Xiaojun; Yu, Zetai; Lin, Hai; Yang, Helin

    2017-10-01

    A low-loss and high transmission electromagnetically induced transparency like (EIT- like) structure is experimentally and numerically demonstrated in this paper. The proposed planar structure based on EIT-like metamaterial consists of two separate split-ring resonators, and its resulting transmission level can maximally reach 0.89 with significant suppression of radiation loss. According to the effective medium theory, the imaginary parts of the effective permittivity and permeability of the metamaterial are used as the evidence of low-loss. In the analysis, the simulated surface current, magnetic field distribution and coupled oscillator model reveal the principle of high transmittance EIT-effect. Furthermore, the peak of transparency frequency is highly sensitive to the variation of refractive index in the background medium. The sensor based on the proposed EIT structure can achieve a sensitivity of 1.69 GHz/RIU (refractive index unit) and a figure of merit of 11.66. Such metamaterials have potential perspectives in sensing and chiral slow light devices.

  7. Association between biomarkers of inflammation and insulin sensitivity index among Mongolian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Wei Xiaolin; Bu Xiaoqing; Tang Lingyan; Zhang Yonghong; Lu Hongmin; Zhao Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the association between the biomarkers of inflammation including C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) and soluble inter-cellular adhesion molecule-l (sICAM-1) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) in Mongolian population. Methods: Mongolian residents aged 20 and above were served as study subjects. Demographic characteristics and lifestyle risk factors were investigated by the questionnaire, and their body height, weight and blood pressure were measured, and blood lipids, blood glucose, insulin and inflammatory markers etc, were examined for all subjects. Multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to estimate the association between the biomarkers of inflammation and insulin sensitivity index. Results: Among the Mongolian residents, the risk of decreased ISI (ISI≤0.0130) was significantly increased (P<0.05) with increased CRP. Compared to lowest quartile of CRP and sE-selectin, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of decreased ISI associated with highest quartile of CRP and sE-selectin were 1.324 (0.990∼1.771) and 1.986 (1.486∼2.654), respectively. However, there was no significant association between increased sICAM-1 and decreased ISI. Conclusion: Increased C-reactive protein and sE-selectin were associated with decreased ISI among Mongolian population. (authors)

  8. Culturally Sensitive Mentoring for Asian International Students in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park-Saltzman, Jeeseon; Wada, Kaori; Mogami, Tamiko

    2012-01-01

    With growing attention to the internationalization of counseling psychology in the past decade, discussion on effective training of international students is much-needed. In order to provide effective mentorship to international students, the mentor needs to be aware of specific challenges faced by international students and cultural differences…

  9. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014793)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania from 1969 to 2000(May 2002 v.3). ESI data...

  10. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Prince William Sound, Alaska, Volumes 1 and 2, geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0019218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  11. ESI-VI2, Christiansted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  12. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Northwest Arctic, Alaska, volume 2, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0046028)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Northwest Arctic, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  13. ESI-VI5, Central St Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  14. ESI-VI7, Western St John, U.S. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  15. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: San Francisco Bay - 1998, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0036884)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of San Francisco Bay. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  16. ESI-VI6, Eastern St Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  17. ESI-V1 Frederiksted, St. Croix., U.S. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  18. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: North Carolina and South Carolina Digital Data Re-release, 1996 (NODC Accession 0049956)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises an update of the Environmental Sensitivity Indexes (ESI) data for North and South Carolina. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  19. ESI-VI4 Western St.Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: East Florida, maps in portable document format, Volume 1, Volume 2 (NODC Accession 0004150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in Portable Document Format (.PDF) for the shoreline of East Florida (to encompass the coastal...

  1. ESI-VI10 Jost Van Dyke, U.K. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  2. ESI-VI3 East Point, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  3. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: West Peninsular Florida Volume 2, maps in portable document format (pdf) (NODC Accession 0006394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in Portable Document Format (.PDF) for the shoreline of lower West Peninsular Florida (to...

  4. ESI-HI85 Niihau South and Kaula Island, Island of Niihau, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  5. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Central California (Including Monterey Bay Sanctuary), maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps have been developed for the coastal areas of Central California from Point Conception to Point Reyes National Seashore....

  6. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: US and British Virgin Islands, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0002069)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  7. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: San Francisco Bay, California maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of San Francisco Bay. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  8. ESI PDF Maps: Environmental Sensitivity Index PDF Maps (for the U.S. Shorelines, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  9. Sensitivity of the diagnostic radiological index of protection to procedural factors in fluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A Kyle; Pasciak, Alexander S; Wagner, Louis K

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of the diagnostic radiological index of protection (DRIP), used to quantify the protective value of radioprotective garments, to procedural factors in fluoroscopy in an effort to determine an appropriate set of scatter-mimicking primary beams to be used in measuring the DRIP. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the shape of the scattered x-ray spectra incident on the operator in different clinical fluoroscopy scenarios, including interventional radiology and interventional cardiology (IC). Two clinical simulations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle and patient size, while technical factors were varied according to measured automatic dose rate control (ADRC) data. Factorial simulations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle, field of view, patient size, and beam quality for constant technical factors. Average energy (Eavg) was the figure of merit used to condense fluence in each energy bin to a single numerical index. Beam quality had the strongest influence on the scattered spectrum in fluoroscopy. Many procedural factors affect the scattered spectrum indirectly through their effect on primary beam quality through ADRC, e.g., gantry angle and patient size. Lateral C-arm rotation, common in IC, increased the energy of the scattered spectrum, regardless of the direction of rotation. The effect of patient size on scattered radiation depended on ADRC characteristics, patient size, and procedure type. The scattered spectrum striking the operator in fluoroscopy is most strongly influenced by primary beam quality, particularly kV. Use cases for protective garments should be classified by typical procedural primary beam qualities, which are governed by the ADRC according to the impacts of patient size, anatomical location, and gantry angle.

  10. Implications of adopting a biodiversity-based vulnerability index versus a shoreline environmental sensitivity index on management and policy planning along coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harik, G; Alameddine, I; Maroun, R; Rachid, G; Bruschi, D; Astiaso Garcia, D; El-Fadel, M

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a multi-criteria index was developed to assess anthropogenic stressors along the Mediterranean coastline. The index aimed at geo-locating pollution hotspots for informed decision making related to coastal zone management. The index was integrated in a Geographical Information System based geodatabase implemented at several pilot areas along the Northern (Italy and France), Eastern (Lebanon), and Southern (Tunisia) Mediterranean coastlines. The generated stressor maps were coupled with a biodiversity richness index and an environmental sensitivity index to produce vulnerability maps that can form the basis for prioritizing management and mitigation interventions towards the identification of pollution hotspots and the promotion of sustainable coastal zone management. The results identified significant differences between the two assessment methods, which can bias prioritization in decision making and policy planning depending on stakeholders' interests. The discrepancies emphasize the need for transparency and understanding of the underlying foundations behind vulnerability indices and mapping development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study on the effect of carbon nanotube coating on the refractive index sensing sensitivity of fiber modal interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Xie, Wen-ge; Wang, Jianzhang; Wang, Pengzhao

    2018-01-01

    Refractive index sensing of liquid is important in the domain of chemistry and biology. Fiber optical sensors provide an excellent way to measure the refractive index due to their feasible integration to other fiber optics components, high sensitivity, small size, and distributed sensing. However, conventional optical sensors have different shortages. To find a practical way to measure the refractive index of liquid, this paper intended to combine Carbon Nanotube (CNT) with non-core fiber (NCF) to prepare a kind of modal interferometer sensor and to explore the effect of CNT coating on refractive index sensing properties of the modal interferometer. Firstly, a structure of single mode non-core single mode (SNS) fiber with a CNT film coating was proposed and simulated. The simulation results showed that the CNT coating could improve the refractive index sensitivity of the interferometer sensor. Then in the experiment part, the CNT solution was fabricated and deposited onto the NCF, and a refractive index sensing system was built to examine the property of the CNT-coated SNS interferometer sensor. During the experiment, the influence factors of sensitivity were summarized by testing the sensing performance under different conditions, and it was demonstrated that the CNT coating could improve the contrast of the interference spectrum, and also had the possibility to increase the refractive index sensitivity of the interferometer sensor.

  12. An evaluation of the MEDALUS ESA index (environmental sensitivity to land degradation), from regional to plot scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavado Contador, J. J.; Schnabel, S.; Gomez Gutierrez, A.

    2009-07-01

    An assessment of the sensitivity to land degradation have been carried out for the region of Extramadura, Sw Spain, by means of the modelling approach developed in the European Commission funded MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use) which identifies such areas on the basis of an index (ESA index) that incorporates data on environmental quality (climate, vegetation, soil) as well as on anthropogenic factors (management). Two maps of environmental sensitivity to degradation with different legend resolution (4 and 8 classes of sensitivity) have been made. (Author) 6 refs.

  13. Optimising the weighting of the water retention index using sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, William; Vandecasteele, Ine

    2015-04-01

    A robust composite indicator was developed to assess the capacity of the landscape to regulate and retain water passing through it at Pan-European scale. The "Water Retention Index" (WRI) takes into account the role of interception by vegetation, the water-holding capacity of the soil, and the relative capacity of the bedrock to allow percolation of water, as well as the influence of soil sealing and slope gradient. A delicate issue in composite indicators is however the relative weighting of each variable used in the indicator - strong correlations and skewness are known to cause unequal influence of the input variables, even though the weighting coefficients are equal (Paruolo et al, 2013). To understand the effects of the weightings in the WRI, penalised splines were used to calculate the first order sensitivity index of each variable used in the construction of the WRI, allowing the true influence of each input to be determined. Furthermore, the weighting coefficients were optimised using an iterative nonlinear algorithm to find the coefficients which resulted in the most equal influence of each input to the indicator. In principle, this approach can be used to improve the weighting of many different kinds of composite indicator, the results of which are often used as the basis for important policy decisions at the European level. Paruolo, Paolo, Michaela Saisana, and Andrea Saltelli. "Ratings and rankings: voodoo or science?." Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society) 176.3 (2013): 609-634.

  14. Improving the sensitivity of the hop index in patients with an ACL deficient knee by transforming the hop distance scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Scott G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The one leg hop for distance is one of the most commonly employed functional tests utilized in the evaluation of the ACL deficient and reconstructed patient. While the reliability of the hop test scores has been well established, validity studies have revealed low sensitivity rates in detecting functional limitations using the hop index (the ratio or percentage of limb performance. However, the impact of the inherent limitations associated with the hop index have not been investigated to date. One specific limitation relates to the impact of the differences in the underlying hop distance scores. Therefore, this pilot study set out to determine: 1 the impact that between limb differences in hop distance has on the sensitivity of the hop index in detecting functional limitations and; 2 whether a logarithmic transformation of the underlying hop distance scores improves the sensitivity of the hop index. Methods A cross sectional design involving the evaluation of one leg hop for distance performance in a consecutive sample of 10 ACL deficient males with an isolated ACL tear awaiting reconstructive surgery and nine gender, age-matched controls. Results In the ACL deficient, the hop index was associated with the distance hopped on the non-injured limb (r = -0.66, p = 0.04 but not on the injured limb. Transformation (logarithmic of the hop distance scores and re-calculation of the hop index using the transformed scores increased the sensitivity of the hop index in the detection of functional limitations from 20 to 60% and 50 to 70% using the normal limb symmetry reference norms of ≥ 85% and 90% respectively. Conclusion The distance hopped on the non-injured limb is a critical factor in detecting functional limitations using the hop index in patients with an ACL deficient knee. Logarithmic transformation of the hop distance scores minimizes the effect of the arithmetic differences between limbs however; the sensitivity of the hop

  15. An isocaloric low glycemic index diet improves insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Suzanne; Reeves, Sue; Sharp, Kay; Jeanes, Yvonne M

    2013-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting 5% to 10% of women worldwide. Approximately half of women with PCOS are lean, yet may still present with central obesity and metabolic disturbances. Low-glycemic index (GI) dietary intervention studies have demonstrated improvements in insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant populations; however, there is little evidence of this effect in women with PCOS. This research aimed to determine the efficacy of an isocaloric low-GI dietary intervention on insulin sensitivity, independent of weight change, in women with PCOS. A nonrandomized 12-week low-GI dietary intervention, preceded by a 12-week habitual diet control phase and proceeded by a 12-week follow-up phase was conducted. Dietary intake, body composition, and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline, after completion of the habitual diet control phase, and after the low-GI dietary intervention. Twenty-six participants were recruited at baseline, 22 commenced and 21 participants completed the low-GI dietary intervention phase. The primary outcome was change in insulin sensitivity. Secondary outcomes included assessment of changes to lipids, body composition, and estimated macronutrient intake. Repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction were used to detect changes to outcomes across study timepoints. Twenty-one women with PCOS with mean (± standard deviation) age of 32.1±6.7 years completed the 12-week low-GI dietary intervention. As expected, no significant changes occurred during the 12-week habitual diet control phase. However, during the dietary intervention phase, dietary GI decreased from 54.5±3.5 to 48.6±5.1 (Pdiet in women with PCOS and findings may contribute to the limited research in this area. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of logistic performance indexes of Brazil in the international trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Nunes de Faria

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of efficient logistics for trade growth is widely acknowledged. Literature has shown that better logistics performance is strongly associated with trade expansion, export diversification, ability to attract foreign direct investments, and economic growth. On the other hand, international trade represents a challenge to logistic operations in transporting and storing products. High logistic costs and low quality of services may be considered obstacles to international trade. This research aims to assess Brazil’s Logistics Performance Index (LPI in relation to its major competitors in international trade. The international trade data was collected from SECEX and COMTRADE, while the LPI was provided by the World Bank. Statistical techniques such as cluster analysis and multiple comparison tests of means have been applied to analyze the data. After using LPI index for the 39 competitors, it has been observed that Brazil occupies the 26th position in the rank of performers, behind South Africa, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. The top performers are in general the leading exporters and importers worldwide (Germany, U.S.A., Japan and the Netherlands. Furthermore, they are the strongest competitors of Brazil in international trade. Thus, the competitiveness of Brazilian domestic firms depends crucially on a dynamic and competitive internal logistic environment in order to stand up to these countries. The results also indicate the bureaucracy as a major obstacle to the logistic performance of the country. The dimension Timeliness of Brazil is very close to the High Logistics Performance Group (HLPG while Customs is very close to the Low Logistics Performance Group (LLPG. Although Brazil has failed in its customs operations, there seems to be more credibility in Brazilian dealings. The main contribution of this paper is to reveal logistical aspects in which Brazil has shown large inefficiencies. The difference among the logistic performance

  17. The Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (MIPI) is superior to the International Prognostic Index (IPI) in predicting survival following intensive first-line immunochemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Christian H; Kolstad, Arne; Laurell, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has a heterogeneous clinical course. The recently proposed Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (MIPI) predicted the survival of MCL better than the International Prognostic Index in MCL patients treated with conventional chemotherapy, but its validity in...

  18. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 in an Italian community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eGhisi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety Sensitivity (AS is defined as the fear of anxiety and of arousal-related bodily sensations, arising from erroneous beliefs that these sensations will have adverse consequences. AS plays a key role both in the onset and in the maintenance of several disorders, particularly anxiety disorders. To date, only two studies on American samples have examined the bifactor structure of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3; therefore, findings on different cultures are needed. The main purpose of the present study was to assess the factor structure and psychometric properties of the ASI-3 in an Italian community sample. Participants were recruited from the general population (N=1507. The results of a series of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the bifactor structure fitted the data better than the most commonly accepted structure for the measure and that it was invariant across gender. Moreover, the current study provided evidence regarding the ASI-3’s reliability and its convergent and divergent validity. Lastly, results pertaining incremental validity of the ASI-3 Physical and Cognitive Concerns subscales above and beyond the total showed that the former was not associated with a measure of physiological anxiety, whereas the latter was weakly associated with a measure of worry.Findings suggest that the ASI-3 is comprised of a dominant general factor and three specific independent factors; given the dominance of the general factor, the use of the ASI-3 total score as a measure of the general fear of anxiety is recommended in both clinical and research settings.

  19. The sensitivity index as a screening tooling in the uncertainty analysis of ground-water contaminant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjeld, R.A.; Sill, B.L.; Looney, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented that incorporates features of Tomovic's sensitivity index to facilitate the time-dependent sensitivity analysis of ground-water contaminant transport in a radioactive risk assessment application. The basic approach involves specification of nominal, minimum, and maximum values of the transport parameters, calculation of contaminant concentrations corresponding to the parameter values, and, finally, calculation of the sensitivity index as a function of time. A key aspect of the method is definition of an appropriate sensitivity index. In the application presented here, an index is defined that emphasizes deviations from nominal concentrations that are significant relative to the maximum nominal concentration and de-emphasizes the uncertainties at the leading edge of the contaminant breakthrough curve, which are large on a relative basis but small on an absolute basis. The method is illustrated using a simple one-dimensional ground-water advection-dispersion model and is applied to a radioactive waste disposal site. An uncertainty analysis of the same site is performed by Monte Carlo simulation for comparison. The sensitivity index is found to be a practical, easily implemented screening tool for identifying the critical parameters, determining the time periods over which parameter uncertainty is important, and obtaining an upper bond estimate of the magnitude of the uncertainty. Precise estimates of the uncertainty can subsequently be obtained by more elegant techniques. Although the application presented here involves low-level radioactive waste, the method and general conclusions regarding the use of a sensitivity index in ground-water transport modeling might be useful in evaluating high-level or hazardous waste disposal problems as well

  20. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  1. Mantle cell lymphoma: prognostic capacity of the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe; Christensen, Bjarne Egelund; Pedersen, Niels Tinggaard

    2006-01-01

    The International Prognostic Index (IPI) is the most commonly used prognostic model for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). However, the prognostic value of the IPI is limited. The recently published Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) is built on variables, which are pertinent...... to MCL. This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic value of FLIPI in a population-based series of 93 patients with MCL diagnosed in a 7-year period. End points of the study were response to therapy, overall survival, and disease-free survival (DFS) according to the IPI and FLIPI. Applied...... to the whole series, the FLIPI identified three risk groups with markedly different outcome with 5-year overall survival rates of 65%, 42%, and 8% respectively. Notably, the high-risk group comprised 53% of patients. In contrast, the IPI only allocated 16% of cases to the high-risk group and had a lower...

  2. Correlation of Neurological Symptoms and Breath Holding Index Values in Patients With Severe Internal Carotid Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zavoreo, Iris; Aleksić-Shibabi, Anka; Demarin, Vida

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of cerebral vasoreactivity measurement in the follow up of patients with severe internal carotid stenosis. We used breath holding index (BHI) as a quantitative parameter of cerebral vasoreactivity and functional state of cerebral hemodynamics. We evaluated data of 150 patients with high grade carotid stenosis (definition according to standardized criteria of the Cerebrovascular Laboratory, Reference Center for Neurovascular Disorders of the Minist...

  3. Validation of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIFE) for Use in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzáles, Ana Inês; Sties, Sabrina Weiss; Wittkopf, Priscilla Geraldine, E-mail: sabrinasties@yahoo.com.br; Mara, Lourenço Sampaio de; Ulbrich, Anderson Zampier; Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Carvalho, Tales de [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    The International Index of Erectile Function has been proposed as a method for assessing sexual function assisting the diagnosis and classification of erectile dysfunction. However, IIEF was not validated for the Portuguese language. Validate the International Index of Erectile Function in patients with cardiopulmonary and metabolic diseases. The sample consisted of 108 participants of to Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic program Rehabilitation (CPMR) in southern Brazil. The clarity assessment of the instrument was performed using a scale ranging from zero to 10. The construct validity was carried out by confirmatory factor analysis (KMO = 0.85; Barllet p < 0.001), internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha and reproducibility and interrater reliability via the test retest method. The items were considered very clear with averages superior to 9. The internal consistency resulted in 0.89. The majority of items related correctly with their domains, with exception of three questions from sexual satisfaction domain, and one from erectile function. All items showed excellent stability of measure and substantial to almost perfect agreement. The present study showed that the IIEF is valid and reliable for use in participants of a cardiopulmonary and metabolic rehabilitation program.

  4. Reducing Production Basis Risk through Rainfall Intensity Frequency (RIF) Indexes: Global Sensitivity Analysis' Implication on Policy Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, Chitsomanus; Huffaker, Ray; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The weather index insurance promises financial resilience to farmers struck by harsh weather conditions with swift compensation at affordable premium thanks to its minimal adverse selection and moral hazard. Despite these advantages, the very nature of indexing causes the presence of "production basis risk" that the selected weather indexes and their thresholds do not correspond to actual damages. To reduce basis risk without additional data collection cost, we propose the use of rain intensity and frequency as indexes as it could offer better protection at the lower premium by avoiding basis risk-strike trade-off inherent in the total rainfall index. We present empirical evidences and modeling results that even under the similar cumulative rainfall and temperature environment, yield can significantly differ especially for drought sensitive crops. We further show that deriving the trigger level and payoff function from regression between historical yield and total rainfall data may pose significant basis risk owing to their non-unique relationship in the insured range of rainfall. Lastly, we discuss the design of index insurance in terms of contract specifications based on the results from global sensitivity analysis.

  5. A confirmatory study of the Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF*: factorial structure, reliability and sensitivity to change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejas Javier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is a complex syndrome that affects many aspects of the patients life and it is very difficult to evaluate in clinical practice. A recent study has developed the Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF, an instrument that evaluates diverse aspects of FM and offers five indices: emotional, physical, active coping, passive coping and total. The objective of this study is to confirm the structure of the ICAF, check its test-retest reliability, assess its sensitivity to change, and compare the results obtained in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia with another sample of healthy controls. Methods A total of 232 patients took part in the study, 228 women and 4 men, with a mean age of 47.73 years of age (SD = 8.61 and a time of disease evolution since diagnosis of 4.28 years (SD = 4.03. The patients from the FM group completed the ICAF. Between one and two weeks later, they again attended the clinic and complete the 59 items on the ICAF (retest and immediately afterwards they began treatment (according to daily clinical practice criteria. A sample of healthy subjects was also studied as a control group: 110 people were included (106 women and 4 men with a mean age of 46.01 years of age (SD = 9.35. The study was conducted in Spain. Results The results obtained suggest that the four-factor model obtained in the previous study adequately fits the data obtained in this study. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency were all significant and show a high degree of correlation for all the factors as well as in overall score. With the exception of the passive coping factor, all the other scores, including the overall score, were sensitive to change after the therapeutic intervention. The ICAF scores of the patients with fibromyalgia compared with those of the control group were markedly different. Conclusions The findings suggest that the ICAF is a valid, reliable, sensitive to change instrument with

  6. A confirmatory study of the Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF*): factorial structure, reliability and sensitivity to change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex syndrome that affects many aspects of the patients life and it is very difficult to evaluate in clinical practice. A recent study has developed the Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF), an instrument that evaluates diverse aspects of FM and offers five indices: emotional, physical, active coping, passive coping and total. The objective of this study is to confirm the structure of the ICAF, check its test-retest reliability, assess its sensitivity to change, and compare the results obtained in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia with another sample of healthy controls. Methods A total of 232 patients took part in the study, 228 women and 4 men, with a mean age of 47.73 years of age (SD = 8.61) and a time of disease evolution since diagnosis of 4.28 years (SD = 4.03). The patients from the FM group completed the ICAF. Between one and two weeks later, they again attended the clinic and complete the 59 items on the ICAF (retest) and immediately afterwards they began treatment (according to daily clinical practice criteria). A sample of healthy subjects was also studied as a control group: 110 people were included (106 women and 4 men) with a mean age of 46.01 years of age (SD = 9.35). The study was conducted in Spain. Results The results obtained suggest that the four-factor model obtained in the previous study adequately fits the data obtained in this study. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency were all significant and show a high degree of correlation for all the factors as well as in overall score. With the exception of the passive coping factor, all the other scores, including the overall score, were sensitive to change after the therapeutic intervention. The ICAF scores of the patients with fibromyalgia compared with those of the control group were markedly different. Conclusions The findings suggest that the ICAF is a valid, reliable, sensitive to change instrument with the added advantage

  7. Towards a Road Safety Development Index (RSDI) : Development of an International Index to Measure Road Safety Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Al Haji, Ghazwan

    2005-01-01

    Aim. This study suggests a set of methodologies to combine different indicators of road safety into a single index. The RSDI is a simple and quick composite index, which may become a significant measurement in comparing, ranking and determining road safety levels in different countries and regions worldwide. Design. One particular concern in designing a Road Safety Development Index (RSDI) is to come up with a comprehensive set of exposure and risk indicators which includes as far as possible...

  8. GHGs and air pollutants embodied in China's international trade: Temporal and spatial index decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengyan; Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Temporal index decomposition analysis and spatial index decomposition analysis were applied to understand the driving forces of the emissions embodied in China's exports and net exports during 2002-2011, respectively. The accumulated emissions embodied in exports accounted for approximately 30% of the total emissions in China; although the contribution of the sectoral total emissions intensity (technique effect) declined, the scale effect was largely responsible for the mounting emissions associated with export, and the composition effect played a largely insignificant role. Calculations of the emissions embodied in net exports suggest that China is generally in an environmentally inferior position compared with its major trade partners. The differences in the economy-wide emission intensities between China and its major trade partners were the biggest contribution to this reality, and the trade balance effect played a less important role. However, a lower degree of specialization in pollution intensive products in exports than in imports helped to reduce slightly the emissions embodied in net exports. The temporal index decomposition analysis results suggest that China should take effective measures to optimize export and supply-side structure and reduce the total emissions intensity. According to spatial index decomposition analysis, it is suggested that a more aggressive import policy was useful for curbing domestic and global emissions, and the transfer of advanced production technologies and emission control technologies from developed to developing countries should be a compulsory global environmental policy option to mitigate the possible leakage of pollution emissions caused by international trade.

  9. GHGs and air pollutants embodied in China's international trade: Temporal and spatial index decomposition analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyan Liu

    Full Text Available Temporal index decomposition analysis and spatial index decomposition analysis were applied to understand the driving forces of the emissions embodied in China's exports and net exports during 2002-2011, respectively. The accumulated emissions embodied in exports accounted for approximately 30% of the total emissions in China; although the contribution of the sectoral total emissions intensity (technique effect declined, the scale effect was largely responsible for the mounting emissions associated with export, and the composition effect played a largely insignificant role. Calculations of the emissions embodied in net exports suggest that China is generally in an environmentally inferior position compared with its major trade partners. The differences in the economy-wide emission intensities between China and its major trade partners were the biggest contribution to this reality, and the trade balance effect played a less important role. However, a lower degree of specialization in pollution intensive products in exports than in imports helped to reduce slightly the emissions embodied in net exports. The temporal index decomposition analysis results suggest that China should take effective measures to optimize export and supply-side structure and reduce the total emissions intensity. According to spatial index decomposition analysis, it is suggested that a more aggressive import policy was useful for curbing domestic and global emissions, and the transfer of advanced production technologies and emission control technologies from developed to developing countries should be a compulsory global environmental policy option to mitigate the possible leakage of pollution emissions caused by international trade.

  10. Qualitative and Quantitative Status and International Visibility of Iranian Journals Indexed in Journal Citation Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadamin Erfanmanesh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aims to investigate the international status and visibility of Iranian journals which have been indexed in Journal Citation Reports (JCR. Accordingly, the number of international papers, citations and editorial board members of each journal was studied. Moreover, various measures were utilized to compare the quality of Iranian journals with their international counterparts. Method: Current paper applied scientometric research method. A total of 16471 papers which published in 38 Iranian journals and indexed by the JCR 2013 were selected as the population of the study. Web of Science (WoS, JCR and journals’ website were used for data gathering. Results: Results of the study revealed that foreign researchers have published 34.8% of papers published in Iranian ISI journals. Moreover, only 30.6% of citations to Iranian ISI journals have been received from foreign papers or Iranian internationally collaborative papers. The results showed that Iranian researchers accounted for 66.4% of editorial board member of all studied journals, while foreign researchers only occupied 33.6% of the editorial board positions. Based on the findings, only two Iranian journals have impact factors above the median of the journals in the disciplinary category areas in which they are classified in JCR. Furthermore, only 8 Iranian journals have ever been placed in the 1st and 2nd quartile of journals of the same field in the JCR. Findings also showed that 36 out of the 38 Iranian journals have mostly cited by journals with higher median impact factors than cited journals. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the share of international papers, citations and editorial board memberships is low in Iranian ISI journals. Moreover, Iranian journals’ impact factor was below of those of the leading journals.

  11. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Intermediate Marsh, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_intermediate_marsh_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) intermediate marshes data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which...

  12. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Brackish Marsh, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_brackish_marsh_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) brackish marshes data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which...

  13. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Oyster Leases, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_oyster_lease_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) oyster leases data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which...

  14. Sensitivity of fire weather index to different reanalysis products in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bedia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires are a major concern on the Iberian Peninsula, and the establishment of effective prevention and early warning systems are crucial to reduce impacts and losses. Fire weather indices are daily indicators of fire danger based upon meteorological information. However, their application in many studies is conditioned to the availability of sufficiently large climatological time series over extensive geographical areas and of sufficient quality. Furthermore, wind and relative humidity, important for the calculation of fire spread and fuel flammability parameters, are relatively scarce data. For these reasons, different reanalysis products are often used for the calculation of surrogate fire danger indices, although the agreement with those derived from observations remains as an open question to be addressed.

    In this study, we analyze this problem focusing on the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI – and the associated Seasonal Severity Rating (SSR – and considering three different reanalysis products of varying resolutions on the Iberian Peninsula: NCEP, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim. Besides the inter-comparison of the resulting FWI/SSR values, we also study their correspondence with observational data from 7 weather stations in Spain and their sensitivity to the input parameters (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity.

    As a general result, ERA-Interim reproduces the observed FWI magnitudes with better accuracy than NCEP, with lower/higher correlations in the coast/inland locations. For instance, ERA-Interim summer correlations are above 0.5 in inland locations – where higher FWI magnitudes are attained – whereas the corresponding values for NCEP are below this threshold. Nevertheless, departures from the observed distributions are generally found in all reanalysis, with a general tendency to underestimation, more pronounced in the case of NCEP. In spite of these limitations, ERA-Interim may still

  15. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Puerto Rico - Volume 1, geographic information systems data, Volume 2, maps in portable document format (NODC Accession 0006584)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach...

  16. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas, Gulf of Mexico, Alabama 2007, Louisiana 2003, Mississippi 1995, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0036821)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the U.S. is NOAA's Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach systematically complies...

  17. Using a Budyko Derived Index to Evaluate the Internal Hydrological Variability of Catchments in Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, M.

    2017-12-01

    Headwater catchments in complex terrain typically exhibit significant variations in microclimatic conditions across slopes. This microclimatic variability in turn, modifies land surface properties presumably altering the hydrologic dynamics of these catchments. The extent to which differences in microclimate and land cover dictate the partition of water and energy fluxes within a catchment is still poorly understood. In this study, we attempt to do an assessment of the effects of aspect, elevation and latitude (which are the principal factors that define microclimate conditions) on the hydrologic behavior of the hillslopes within catchments with complex terrain. Using a distributed hydrologic model on a number of catchments at different latitudes, where data is available for calibration and validation, we estimate the different components of the water balance to obtain the aridity index (AI = PET/P) and the evaporative index (EI = AET/P) of each slope for a number of years. We use Budyko's curve as a framework to characterize the inter-annual variability in the hydrologic response of the hillslopes in the studied catchments, developing a hydrologic sensitivity index (HSi) based on the relative change in Budyko's curve components (HSi=ΔAI/ΔEI). With this method, when the HSi values of a given hillslope are larger than 1 the hydrologic behavior of that part of the catchment is considered sensitive to changes in climatic conditions, while values approaching 0 would indicate the opposite. We use this approach as a diagnostic tool to discern the effect of aspect, elevation, and latitude on the hydrologic regime of the slopes in complex terrain catchments and to try to explain observed patterns of land cover conditions on these types of catchments.

  18. Line Laser and Triple Laser Quantification of the Difference in International Roughness Index between Textured and Non-Textured Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Practitioners have often wondered whether, during ride measurement with inertial devices, the motion of the laser through pavement texture introduces non representative values of international roughness index (IRI), particularly in certain textures. ...

  19. Procedures manual for the determination of International Roughness Index on HPMs sites in Oregon : operations and calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) is required to provide an annual measure of pavement condition based on International Roughness Index (IRI). The main coordination of this process with FHWA is done by the Highway Division's Planning Sec...

  20. A Study on the Development of Service Quality Index for Incheon International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Seok; Lee, Seung Chang; Hong, Soon Kil

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is located at developing Ominibus Monitors System(OMS) for internal management, which will enable to establish standards, finding out matters to be improved, and appreciation for its treatment in a systematic way. It is through developing subjective or objective estimation tool with use importance, perceived level, and complex index at international airport by each principal service items. The direction of this study came towards for the purpose of developing a metric analysis tool, utilizing the Quantitative Second Data, Analysing Perceived Data through airport user surveys, systemizing the data collection-input-analysis process, making data image according to graph of results, planning Service Encounter and endowing control attribution, and ensuring competitiveness at the minimal international standards. It is much important to set up a pre-investigation plan on the base of existent foreign literature and actual inspection to international airport. Two tasks have been executed together on the base of this pre-investigation; one is developing subjective estimation standards for departing party, entering party, and airport residence and the other is developing objective standards as complementary methods. The study has processed for the purpose of monitoring services at airports regularly and irregularly through developing software system for operating standards after ensuring credibility and feasibility of estimation standards with substantial and statistical way.

  1. Determination of continuous complex refractive index dispersion of biotissue based on internal reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhichao; Wang, Jin; Ye, Qing; Sun, Tengqian; Zhou, Wenyuan; Mei, Jianchun; Zhang, Chunping; Tian, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    The complex refractive index dispersion (CRID), which contains the information on the refractive index dispersion and extinction coefficient spectra, is an important optical parameter of biotissue. However, it is hard to perform the CRID measurement on biotissues due to their high scattering property. Continuous CRID measurement based on internal reflection (CCRIDM-IR) is introduced. By using a lab-made apparatus, internal reflectance spectra of biotissue samples at multiple incident angles were detected, from which the continuous CRIDs were calculated based on the Fresnel formula. Results showed that in 400- to 750-nm range, hemoglobin solution has complicated dispersion and extinction coefficient spectra, while other biotissues have normal dispersion properties, and their extinction coefficients do not vary much with different wavelengths. The normal dispersion can be accurately described by several coefficients of dispersion equations (Cauchy equation, Cornu equation, and Conrady equation). To our knowledge, this is the first time that the continuous CRID of scattering biotissue over a continuous spectral region is measured, and we hereby have proven that CCRIDM-IR is a good method for continuous CRID research of biotissue.

  2. Validation of surrogate indexes of insulin sensitivity in acute phase of myocardial infarction based on euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, FA; Carvalho, LSF; Cintra, RMR; Martins, NV; Figueiredo, VN; Silva, JCQE; Almeida, OLR; Coelho, OR; Sposito, AC

    2014-01-01

    The decrease in insulin sensitivity (IS) during myocardial infarction (MI) is recognized as a possible contributor to poor patient outcomes. Despite its potential relevance, a standardized and convenient IS assessment tool has yet to be established for said clinical scenarios. This study aimed to validate the accuracy of surrogate indexes in determining IS in acute MI patients by comparison with the gold standard reference method for measuring IS, the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC). ...

  3. Effect of strain rate on sooting limits in counterflow diffusion flames of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels: Sooting temperature index and sooting sensitivity index

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2014-05-01

    The effect of the strain rate on the sooting limits in counterflow diffusion flames was investigated in various gaseous hydrocarbon fuels by varying the nitrogen dilution in the fuel and oxidizer streams. The sooting limit was defined as the critical fuel and oxygen mole fraction at which soot started to appear in the elastic light scattering signal. The sooting region for normal alkane fuels at a specified strain rate, in terms of the fuel and oxygen mole fraction, expanded as the number of carbon atoms increased. The alkene fuels (ethylene, propene) tested had a higher propensity for sooting as compared with alkane fuels with the same carbon numbers (ethane, propane). Branched iso-butane had a higher propensity for sooting than did n-butane. An increase in the strain rate reduced the tendency for sooting in all the fuels tested. The sensitivity of the sooting limit to the strain rate was more pronounced for less sooting fuels. When plotted in terms of calculated flame temperature, the critical oxygen mole fraction exhibited an Arrhenius form under sooting limit conditions, which can be utilized to significantly reduce the effort required to determine sooting limits at different strain rates. We found that the limiting temperatures of soot formation flames are viable sooting metrics for quantitatively rating the sooting tendency of various fuels, based on comparisons with threshold soot index and normalized smoke point data. We also introduce a sooting temperature index and a sooting sensitivity index, two quantitative measures to describe sooting propensity and its dependence on strain rate. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  4. Guided-Mode-Leaky-Mode-Guided-Mode Fiber Interferometer and Its High Sensitivity Refractive Index Sensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A cascaded symmetrical dual-taper Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure based on guided-mode and leaky-mode interference is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the interference spectrum characteristics of interferometer has been analyzed by the Finite Difference-Beam Propagation Method (FD-BPM. When the diameter of taper waist is 20 μm–30 μm, dual-taper length is 1 mm and taper distance is 4 cm–6 cm, the spectral contrast is higher, which is suitable for sensing. Secondly, experimental research on refractive index sensitivity is carried out. A refractive index sensitivity of 62.78 nm/RIU (refractive index unit can achieved in the RI range of 1.3333–1.3792 (0%~25% NaCl solution, when the sensor structure parameters meet the following conditions: diameter of taper waist is 24 μm, dual-taper length is 837 μm and taper distance is 5.5 cm. The spectrum contrast is 0.8 and measurement resolution is 1.6 × 10−5 RIU. The simulation analysis is highly consistent with experimental results. Research shows that the sensor has promising application in low RI fields where high-precision measurement is required due to its high sensitivity and stability.

  5. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and body mass index among World Trade Center disaster-exposed smokers: A preliminary examination of the role of anxiety sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Paulus, Daniel J; Gonzalez, Adam; Mahaffey, Brittain L; Bromet, Evelyn J; Luft, Benjamin J; Kotov, Roman; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-07-30

    Among individuals exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptoms are both common and associated with increased cigarette smoking and body mass. However, there is little information on the specific processes underlying the relationship of PTSD symptoms with body mass. The current study is an initial exploratory test of anxiety sensitivity, the fear of internal bodily sensations, as a possible mechanism linking PTSD symptom severity and body mass index (BMI). Participants were 147 adult daily smokers (34.0% female) exposed to the WTC disaster (via rescue/recovery work or direct witness). The direct and indirect associations between PTSD symptom severity and BMI via anxiety sensitivity (total score and subscales of physical, cognitive, and social concerns) were examined. PTSD symptom severity was related to BMI indirectly via anxiety sensitivity; this effect was specific to physical concerns about the meaning of bodily sensations. Interventions focusing on anxiety sensitivity reduction (specifically addressing physical concerns about bodily sensations) may be useful in addressing elevated BMI among trauma-exposed persons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of bridge health index to element failure and element conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Bridge Health Index (BHI) is a bridge performance measure based on the condition of the bridge elements. It : is computed as the ratio of remaining value of the bridge structure to the initial value of the structure. Since it : is expressed as a perc...

  7. Hypoxia increases pulmonary arterial thromboxane receptor internalization independent of receptor sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, J; Sikarwar, A S; Lizotte, P P; Hinton, M; Nolette, N; Dakshinamurti, S

    2015-02-01

    Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN) is characterized by sustained vasospasm and an increased thromboxane:prostacyclin ratio. Thromboxane (TP) receptors signal via Gαq to mobilize IP3 and Ca(2+), causing pulmonary arterial constriction. We have previously reported increased TP internalization in hypoxic pulmonary arterial (PA) myocytes. Serum-deprived PA myocytes were grown in normoxia (NM) or hypoxia (HM) for 72 h. TP localization was visualized in agonist-naïve and -challenged NM and HM by immunocytochemistry. Pathways for agonist-induced TP receptor internalization were determined by inhibiting caveolin- or clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and caveolar fractionation. Roles of actin and tubulin in TP receptor internalization were assessed using inhibitors of tubulin, actin-stabilizing or -destabilizing agents. PKA, PKC or GRK activation and inhibition were used to determine the kinase responsible for post-agonist receptor internalization. Agonist-naïve HM had decreased cell surface TP, and greater TP internalization after agonist challenge. TP protein did not sort with caveolin-rich fractions. Inhibition of clathrin prevented TP internalization. Both actin-stabilizing and -destabilizing agents prevented TP endocytosis in NM, while normalizing TP internalization in HM. Velocity of TP internalization was unaffected by PKA activity, but PKC activation normalized TP receptor internalization in HM. GRK inhibition had no effect. We conclude that in hypoxic myocytes, TP is internalized faster and to a greater extent than in normoxic controls. Internalization of the agonist-challenged TP requires clathrin, dynamic actin and is sensitive to PKC activity. TP receptor trafficking and signaling in hypoxia are pivotal to understanding increased vasoconstrictor sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Combined sodium ion sensitivity in agonist binding and internalization of vasopressin V1b receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Taka-Aki; Kashiwazaki, Aki; Taniguchi, Junichi

    2016-05-03

    Reducing Na(+) in the extracellular environment may lead to two beneficial effects for increasing agonist binding to cell surface G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): reduction of Na(+)-mediated binding block and reduce of receptor internalization. However, such combined effects have not been explored. We used Chinese Hamster Ovary cells expressing vasopressin V1b receptors as a model to explore Na(+) sensitivity in agonist binding and receptor internalization. Under basal conditions, a large fraction of V1b receptors is located intracellularly, and a small fraction is in the plasma membrane. Decreases in external Na(+) increased cell surface [(3)H]AVP binding and decreased receptor internalization. Substitution of Na(+) by Cs(+) or NH4(+) inhibited agonist binding. To suppress receptor internalization, the concentration of NaCl, but not of CsCl, had to be less than 50 mM, due to the high sensitivity of the internalization machinery to Na(+) over Cs(+). Iso-osmotic supplementation of glucose or NH4Cl maintained internalization of the V1b receptor, even in a low-NaCl environment. Moreover, iodide ions, which acted as a counter anion, inhibited V1b agonist binding. In summary, we found external ionic conditions that could increase the presence of high-affinity state receptors at the cell surface with minimum internalization during agonist stimulations.

  9. Indexes of the proceedings for the nine symposia (international) on detonation, 1951--89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, S.L.; Deal, W.E.; Ramsay, J.B.; Roach, A.M.; Takala, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Proceedings of the nine Detonation Symposia have become the major archival source of information of international research in explosive phenomenology, theory, experimental techniques, numerical modeling, and high-rate reaction chemistry. In many cases, they contain the original reference or the only reference to major progress in the field. For some papers, the information is more complete than the complementary article appearing in a formal journal, yet for others, authors elected to publish only an abstract in the Proceedings. For the large majority of papers, the Symposia Proceedings provide the only published reference to a body of work. This report indexes the nine existing Proceedings of the Detonation Symposia by paper titles, topic phrases, authors, and first appearance of acronyms and code names.

  10. Enhanced international prognostic index in Japanese patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Nakaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN International Prognostic Index (IPI, we analyzed 284 patients treated with the combination of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP in our institution in Japan. Their 5-year overall survival (OS by risk level was 80.7%, 74.8%, 55.4% and 67.5% (P=0.005; and their 5-year progression-free survival (PFS was 76.8%, 78.6%, 63.7% and 58.3% (P=0.0722. The NCCN-IPI is a simple scale that uses conventional clinical factors, but did not reflect survival in our cohort. The NCCN-IPI may require further evaluation for different regions and ethnicities before adopting it for routine clinical use.

  11. Indexes of the Proceedings for the Ten International Symposia on Detonation 1951-93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, William E.; Ramsay, John B.; Roach, Alita M.; Takala, Bruce E.

    1998-09-01

    The Proceedings of the ten Detonation Symposia have become the major archival source of information of international research in explosive phenomenology, theory, experimental techniques, numerical modeling, and high-rate reaction chemistry. In many cases, they contain the original reference or the only reference to major progress in the field. For some papers, the information is more complete than the complementary article appearing in a formal journal; yet for others, authors elected to publish only an abstract in the Proceedings. For the large majority of papers, the Symposia Proceedings provide the only published reference to a body of work. This report indexes the ten existing Proceedings of the Detonation Symposia by paper titles, topic phrases, authors, and first appearance of acronyms and code names.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AAVSO International Variable Star Index VSX (Watson+, 2006-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C.; Henden, A. A.; Price, A.

    2018-04-01

    This file contains Galactic stars known or suspected to be variable. It lists all stars that have an entry in the AAVSO International Variable Star Index (VSX; http://www.aavso.org/vsx). The database consisted initially of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS) and the New Catalogue of Suspected Variables (NSV) and was then supplemented with a large number of variable star catalogues, as well as individual variable star discoveries or variables found in the literature. Effort has also been invested to update the entries with the latest information regarding position, type and period and to remove duplicates. The VSX database is being continually updated and maintained. For historical reasons some objects outside of the Galaxy have been included. (3 data files).

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AAVSO International Variable Star Index VSX (Watson+, 2006-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C.; Henden, A. A.; Price, A.

    2017-05-01

    This file contains Galactic stars known or suspected to be variable. It lists all stars that have an entry in the AAVSO International Variable Star Index (VSX; http://www.aavso.org/vsx). The database consisted initially of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS) and the New Catalogue of Suspected Variables (NSV) and was then supplemented with a large number of variable star catalogues, as well as individual variable star discoveries or variables found in the literature. Effort has also been invested to update the entries with the latest information regarding position, type and period and to remove duplicates. The VSX database is being continually updated and maintained. For historical reasons some objects outside of the Galaxy have been included. (3 data files).

  14. Editorial policy in reporting ethical processes: A survey of ‘instructions for authors’ in International Indexed Dental Journals

    OpenAIRE

    Navaneetha, Cugati

    2011-01-01

    Background: The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors expects authors to report if their studies were carried out in accordance with the International Ethical Guidelines and Declaration of Helsinki; and inform readers regarding the same. Aims: To determine the proportion of International Indexed Dental Journals reporting on ethical clearance for human and animal research, obtaining of informed consent and / or assent, and the conduction of research in accordance with the Declarat...

  15. The internal structure of the unit performance construct as measured by the performance index (PI1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roline Henning

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the internal structure of the Performance Index in order to establish the interrelationships between the eight unit performance latent variables. The present study forms part of a larger study aimed at validating the Leadership Behaviour Inventory (LBI (Spangenberg & Theron, 2002b against work unit performance. The validation sample, after imputation of missing values, consisted of 273 cases with observations on all 56 items. Item analysis and dimensionality analysis was performed on each of the sub-scales using SPSS-windows. Thereafter, confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the reduced data set using LISREL. The results indicated satisfactory factor loadings on the measurement model. Acceptable model fit was achieved. Subsequently, the structural model was tested using LISREL. The results provided statistics of good fit. Only four hypotheses failed to be corroborated in this study. The results are discussed and suggestions for further research are made. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om die interne struktuur van die Performance Indexs (PI (Spangenberg en Theron, 2002b te ondersoek ten einde die interverwantskappe tussen die agt latente eeheidprestasiedimensies te bepaal. Hierdie studie vorm deel van ’n meer omvattende studie wat daarop gemik is om die Leadership Behaviour Inventory (LBI teen werkeenheidprestasie te valideer. Die steekproef, na imputasie van ontbrekende waardes, het uit 273 gevalle bestaan met waarnemings ten opsigte van al 56 items. Item- en dimensionaliteitontledings is met behulp van SPSS-windows op elke subskaal gedoen. Bevestigende faktorontleding is daarna met behulp van LISREL op die verkleinde datastel uitgevoer. Die resultate het op bevredigende faktorbeladings vir die metingsmodel en ’n bevredigende passing van die metingsmodel gedui. Daarna is die strukturele model met behulp van LISREL getoets. Die resultate het bevredigende passing getoon, met

  16. Extraction of light trapped due to total internal reflection using porous high refractive index nanoparticle films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Peng; Sun, Fangfang; Yao, Hanchao; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Bo; Xie, Bo; Han, Min; Wang, Guanghou

    2014-07-21

    TiO₂ nanoparticle layers composed of columnar TiO₂ nanoparticle piles separated with nanoscale pores were fabricated on the bottom surface of the hemispherical glass prism by performing gas phase cluster beam deposition at glancing incidence. The porosity as well as the refractive index of the nanoparticle layer was precisely tuned by the incident angle. Effective extraction of the light trapped in the substrate due to total internal reflection with the TiO₂ nanoparticle layers was demonstrated and the extraction efficiency was found to increase with the porosity. An enhanced Rayleigh scattering mechanism, which results from the columnar aggregation of the nanoparticles as well as the strong contrast in the refractive index between pores and TiO₂ nanoparticles in the nanoporous structures, was proposed. The porous TiO₂ nanoparticle coatings were fabricated on the surface of GaN LEDs to enhance their light output. A nearly 92% PL enhancement as well as a 30% EL enhancement was observed. For LED applications, the enhanced light extraction with the TiO₂ nanoparticle porous layers can be a supplement to the microscale texturing process for light extraction enhancement.

  17. Evaluation of Road Performance Based on International Roughness Index and Falling Weight Deflectometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuddin; Setyawan, A.; Yulianto, B.

    2018-03-01

    Assessment to the performance of road pavement is deemed necessary to improve the management quality of road maintenance and rehabilitation. This research to evaluate the road base on functional and structural and recommendations handling done. Assessing the pavement performance is conducted with functional and structural evaluation. Functional evaluation of pavement is based on the value of IRI (International Roughness Index) which among others is derived from reading NAASRA for analysis and recommended road handling. Meanwhile, structural evaluation of pavement is done by analyzing deflection value based on FWD (Falling Weight Deflectometer) data resulting in SN (Structural Number) value. The analysis will result in SN eff (Structural Number Effective) and SN f (Structural Number Future) value obtained from comparing SN eff to SN f value that leads to SCI (Structural Condition Index) value. SCI value implies the possible recommendation for handling pavement. The study done to Simpang Tuan-Batas Kota Jambi road segment was based on functional analysis. The study indicated that the road segment split into 12 segments in which segment 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 were of regular maintenance, segment 2, 4, 8, 10, 12 belonged to periodic maintenance, and segment 6 was of rehabilitation. The structural analysis resulted in 8 segments consisting of segment 1 and 2 recommended for regular maintenance, segment 3, 4, 5, and 7 for functional overlay, and 6 and 8 were of structural overlay.

  18. Validation of surrogate indexes of insulin sensitivity in acute phase of myocardial infarction based on euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Filipe A; Carvalho, Luiz Sergio F; Cintra, Riobaldo M R; Martins, Naiara V; Figueiredo, Valeria N; Quinaglia e Silva, Jose C; Almeida, Osorio L R; Coelho, Otavio R; Sposito, Andrei C

    2014-02-15

    The decrease in insulin sensitivity (IS) during myocardial infarction (MI) is recognized as a possible contributor to poor patient outcomes. Despite its potential relevance, a standardized and convenient IS assessment tool has yet to be established for said clinical scenarios. This study aimed to validate the accuracy of surrogate indexes in determining IS in acute MI patients by comparison with the gold standard reference method for measuring IS, the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC). We performed EHCs in 31 consecutive nondiabetic patients who were admitted within the first 24 h of symptoms of ST-segment elevation MI. Patients with prior diagnosis of diabetes, use of hypoglycemic agents, or a glycosylated hemoglobin ≥6.5% were excluded. EHCs were performed at the second day (D2) and sixth day (D6) post-MI. Basal (12-h fasting) blood samples from D2 and D6 were used to evaluate patient blood glucose and insulin levels. We then calculated the following surrogate indexes: homeostatic model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA2S), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). The IS index measured by EHC (ISiclamp) was correlated to HOMA2S, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI at D2 (r = 0.485, P = 0.009; r = -0.384, P = 0.048; r = 0.479, P = 0.01, respectively) and D6 (r = 0.621, P = 0.002; r = -0.576, P = 0.006; r = 0.626, P = 0.002, respectively). Receiver operator characteristic curves made for discrimination of ISiclamp above the median in D2 and D6 depicted areas under the curve of 0.740, 0.734, and 0.760 for HOMA2S, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI, respectively. Bland-Altman plots displayed no apparent systematic error for indexes, but a propensity for proportional error, particularly with HOMA-IR. Thus, based on EHC, these simple surrogate indexes are feasible for assessing IS during MI.

  19. Oral sensitivity to oleic acid is associated with fat intake and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jessica E; Newman, Lisa P; Keast, Russell S J

    2011-12-01

    Taste sensitivity to fatty acids influences food ingestion and may regulate fat intake and body weight status. Fatty acids are detected via homologous receptors within the mouth and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where attenuated sensitivity may be associated with greater fat intake and BMI. This study aimed to extend observations surrounding fatty acid taste, specifically the types of foods consumed and dietary behaviours that may be associated with fatty acid taste sensitivity. 51 subjects (41 female; BMI, 21.4 ± 0.46 kg/m², age, 20 ± 0.52 yrs, 10 male; BMI, 23.6 ± 1.4 kg/m², age, 22 ± 1 yrs) were screened for oral sensitivity to oleic acid (3.8 mM) using triplicate sensory evaluations, and classified as hypersensitive; (3/3 correct identifications), or hyposensitive, (sensory-matched custards made with 0, 2, 6, 10% oil), recent diet (4-day diet record) and food habits and behaviours (food habits and behaviours questionnaire) were also established. 75% (n = 38) of subjects were classified as hyposensitive to oleic acid and these subjects differed from those who were classified as hypersensitive. Hyposensitive subjects consumed significantly more energy, fat, saturated fat, fatty foods (butter, meat, dairy), had greater BMI and were less perceptive of small changes in the fat content of custard (all P butter, meat, dairy, and increasing BMI. 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Development, application, and sensitivity analysis of a water quality index for drinking water management in small systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheili, A; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, R

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to produce a drinking water assessment tool for operators of small distribution systems. A drinking water quality index (DWQI) was developed and applied to small systems based on the water quality index of the Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment. The drinking water quality index was adapted to specific needs by creating four drinking water quality scenarios. First, the temporal and spatial dimensions of drinking water quality variability were taken into account. The DWQI was designed to express global drinking water quality according to different monitoring frequencies. Daily, monthly, and seasonal assessment was also considered. With the data made available, it was possible to use the index as a spatial monitoring tool and express water quality in different points in the distribution system. Moreover, adjustments were made to prioritize the type of contaminant to monitor. For instance, monitoring contaminants with acute health effects led to a scenario based on daily measures, including easily accessible and affordable water quality parameters. On the other hand, contaminants with chronic effects, especially disinfection by-products, were considered in a seasonal monitoring scenario where disinfection by-product reference values were redefined according to their seasonal variability. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out to validate the index. Globally, the DWQI developed is adapted to the needs of small systems. In fact, expressing drinking water quality using the DWQI contributes to the identification of problematic periods and segments in the distribution system. Further work may include this index in the development of a customized decision-making tool for small-system operators and managers.

  1. The Mediating Effect of Body Mass Index on the Relationship between Cigarette Smoking and Atopic Sensitization in Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Luo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is unclear whether the relationship between cigarette smoking and atopy is mediated by body fat mass, such as the Body Mass Index (BMI. We assessed the mediating role of BMI on the relationship between smoking and atopy in Chinese adults. Methods: A hospital-based case-control study of 786 atopic cases and 2771 controls was conducted in adults aged 18 years or older from March 2010 to September 2014 in Harbin, China. Mediation models were used to estimate the indirect effects of smoking on atopic sensitization through BMI. Results: Compared to non-smokers, light smokers and moderate smokers had a lower risk of inhalant allergen sensitization. The indirect effect of smoking and sensitization to aeroallergens were only observed in light smokers (point estimate, −0.026; 95% CI, −0.062 to −0.004. The mediating roles of BMI on the relationships between smoking and other types of allergic sensitization were not statistically significant. Conclusion: BMI appeared to partially mediate the effect of light smoking on sensitization to aeroallergens. However, considering the other harmful health effects of cigarette smoking, the effective method to lower the incidence of atopy would be to decrease body fat mass by physical exercise and employing other more healthy ways of living rather than smoking.

  2. High-sensitivity and large-dynamic-range refractive index sensors employing weak composite Fabry-Perot cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengcheng; Shu, Xuewen; Cao, Haoran; Sugden, Kate

    2017-08-15

    Most sensors face a common trade-off between high sensitivity and a large dynamic range. We demonstrate here an all-fiber refractometer based on a dual-cavity Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) that possesses the advantage of both high sensitivity and a large dynamic range. Since the two composite cavities have a large cavity length difference, one can observe both fine and coarse fringes, which correspond to the long cavity and the short cavity, respectively. The short-cavity FPI and the use of an intensity demodulation method mean that the individual fine fringe dips correspond to a series of quasi-continuous highly sensitive zones for refractive index measurement. By calculating the parameters of the composite FPI, we find that the range of the ultra-sensitive zones can be considerably adjusted to suit the end requirements. The experimental trends are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The co-existence of high sensitivity and a large dynamic range in a composite FPI is of great significance to practical RI measurements.

  3. Investigation on sensitive warning index of earth dam by use of dimensionality reduction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    FANG, Weihua; ZHANG, Na; JIN, Youjie

    2017-06-01

    The main damage cause of homogeneous earth dams is overtopping failure. In order to uncover the overall change rule of measured data when comes to overtopping failure and to establish foundation for earth dam warning indicators, this paper presents a new exact method of homogeneous earth dam overtopping rushed burst data analysis based on KPCA. Sliding window was used to construct the time series of measured data and two indicators were obtained which were the number of principal components and matrix norm of PCA or KPCA based on the 85% contribution rate. In-situ test showed that, Corresponding dam state deteriorated and final burst, these two indicators increased, decreased, and finally increased. Different size of sliding window and norm calculation shows that the two indicators are not sensitive to the window size and type of norm. Therefore, these two indicators can be taken as the first and second level sensitive warning indicators for the earth dam safety condition.

  4. The Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (MIPI) is superior to the International Prognostic Index (IPI) in predicting survival following intensive first-line immunochemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Christian H; Kolstad, Arne; Laurell, Anna

    2010-01-01

    in MCL treated with more intensive immunochemotherapy has been questioned. Applied here to 158 patients of the Nordic MCL2 trial of first-line intensive immunochemotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, the MIPI and the simplified MIPI (s-MIPI) predicted......Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has a heterogeneous clinical course. The recently proposed Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (MIPI) predicted the survival of MCL better than the International Prognostic Index in MCL patients treated with conventional chemotherapy, but its validity...

  5. Highly sensitive detection of naphthalene in solvent vapor using a functionalized PBG refractive index sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girschikofsky, Maiko; Rosenberger, Manuel; Belle, Stefan; Brutschy, Malte; Waldvogel, Siegfried R; Hellmann, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    We report an optical refractive index sensor system based on a planar Bragg grating which is functionalized by substituted γ-cyclodextrin to determine low concentrations of naphthalene in solvent vapor. The sensor system exhibits a quasi-instantaneous shift of the Bragg wavelength and is therefore capable for online detection. The overall shift of the Bragg wavelength reveals a linear relationship to the analyte concentration with a gradient of 12.5 ± 1.5 pm/ppm. Due to the spectral resolution and repeatability of the interrogation system, this corresponds to acquisition steps of 80 ppb. Taking into account the experimentally detected signal noise a minimum detection limit of 0.48 ± 0.05 ppm is deduced.

  6. Highly Sensitive Detection of Naphthalene in Solvent Vapor Using a Functionalized PBG Refractive Index Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hellmann

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an optical refractive index sensor system based on a planar Bragg grating which is functionalized by substituted γ-cyclodextrin to determine low concentrations of naphthalene in solvent vapor. The sensor system exhibits a quasi-instantaneous shift of the Bragg wavelength and is therefore capable for online detection. The overall shift of the Bragg wavelength reveals a linear relationship to the analyte concentration with a gradient of 12.5 ± 1.5 pm/ppm. Due to the spectral resolution and repeatability of the interrogation system, this corresponds to acquisition steps of 80 ppb. Taking into account the experimentally detected signal noise a minimum detection limit of 0.48 ± 0.05 ppm is deduced.

  7. Is disgust sensitive to classical conditioning as indexed by facial electromyography and behavioural responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Charmaine; Bosman, Renske C; Engelhard, Iris; Olatunji, Bunmi O; de Jong, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies provided preliminary support for the role of classical conditioning as a pathway of disgust learning, yet this evidence has been limited to self-report. This study included facial electromyographical (EMG) measurements (corrugator and levator muscles) and a behavioural approach task to assess participants' motivation-to-eat the actual food items (conditioned stimuli, CS). Food items served as CS and film excerpts of a woman vomiting served as unconditioned stimuli (US). Following acquisition the CS+ (neutral CS paired with US disgust) was rated as more disgusting and less positive. Notably, the conditioned response was transferred to the actual food items as evidenced by participants' reported lowered willingness-to-eat. Participants also showed heightened EMG activity in response to the CS+ which seemed driven by the corrugator indexing a global negative affect. These findings suggest that classical conditioning as a pathway of disgust learning can be reliably observed in subjective but not in disgust-specific physiological responding.

  8. Sensitivity and Contribution of Organic Aerosols to Aerosol Optical Properties Based on Their Refractive Index and Hygroscopicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hoon Jung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic carbon (OC accounts for a large fraction of particulate matter. Since many atmospheric organic compounds have different optical properties, it is difficult to determine the optical properties of OC accurately. In particular, hygroscopicity and light absorption of OC are important factors in understanding the aerosol optical properties. In this study, the sensitivity of organic carbon (OC to aerosol optical properties was tested. Both the refractive index and the hygroscopicity of OC were considered. Based on the filter-based monthly averaged sampling measurement data from an intensive observation site in Seoul, Korea, the contribution of each component on the aerosol optical properties was estimated. The aerosol optical properties were simulated by combining the aerosol dynamic model for polydispersed aerosols with an optical properties model based on Mie code. The optical properties were compared with the AERONET Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT measurement data. In order to estimate the contribution of the light absorption and hygroscopicity of organic carbon (OC on the optical properties of the aerosols, a sensitivity test was conducted with different imaginary refractive indices and OC hygroscopic growth factors. The results show that mass absorption efficiency can be fitted linearly as the imaginary refractive index increases. This means that one can estimate the mass absorption efficiency of OC as a function of the imaginary refractive index. The results also show that mass extinction and absorption efficiency decrease as the hygroscopic factor of OC increases because of the increase in water content. The contribution of OC to the mass extinction efficiency, however, depends on the chemical composition of other aerosol mixtures and hence, more comprehensive studies are required in this regard.

  9. Relations between shyness-sensitivity and internalizing problems in Chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems.

  10. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: South Carolina - Volume 1, geographic information systems data, Volume 2, maps and data in portable document format (NODC Accession 0013822)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of South Carolina. ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife...

  11. The Accuracy of the Navy-Standard Surf Model-Derived Modified Surf Index and its Sensitivity to Nearshore Bathymetric Profile Errors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mettlach, Theodore

    1997-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory's Remote Sensing Applications Branch has evaluated the sensitivity of the Navy-Standard Surf Model to nearshore bathymetric profiles, primarily focusing on the modified surf index (MSI) accuracy...

  12. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Classification of the Outer Coast, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains arcs representing the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification of the outer coast of Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and...

  13. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: U.S. and British Virgin Islands maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0049955)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises an update of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Virgin Islands. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife...

  14. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Alaska - 2, Northwest Arctic - 2002, North Slope - 2005, Western - 2003, maps and geographic systems data (NODC Accession 0049913)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Northwest Arctic, North Slope, and Western Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  15. ESI-VI8, Peter Island, U. K. and Eastern St John, U. S. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  16. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Southeast Alaska - volume 1, geographic information systems data and volume 2, maps in portable document format (NODC Accession 0046029)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Northwest Arctic, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  17. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Western Alaska - volume 1, geographic information systems data and data tables and volume 2, maps in portable document format (PDF) (NODC Accession 0046030)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Western Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  18. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013952)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca from 1978 to 2006. ESI data characterize...

  19. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Alaska, Prince William Sound-2000, Aleutians-2001, Bristol Bay-2004, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), and Bristol Bay (2004). ESI data...

  20. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Scrub-Shrub and Wetlands, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_scrub-shrub_wetland_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) scrub-shrub and wetlands data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system,...

  1. ESI GIS Data and PDF Maps: Environmental Sensitivity Index including GIS Data and Maps (for the U.S. Shorelines, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  2. Electronic sensitivity of a single-walled carbon nanotube to internal electrolyte composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, D; Pang, P; Lindsay, S M; Liu, H; He, J

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are well known as materials for nanoelectronics and show great potential to be used as the sensing elements in chemical and biological sensors. Recently, CNTs have been shown to be effective nanofluidic channels and the transport of substances through small diameter CNTs is intrinsically fast, selective, and operates at the single molecule level. It has been shown that the transport characteristics of semiconducting single-walled CNT (SWCNT) field effect transistors (FETs) are sensitive to internal water wetting. We report here that the characteristics of semiconducting SWCNT FETs are also sensitive to the concentration, pH and ion type of the ionic solution when the electrolyte is inside the CNT. Such sensitivity is not observed at the outside surface of a semiconducting SWCNT. This opens a new avenue for building new types of CNT sensor devices in which the SWCNT concurrently functions as a nanochannel and an electronic detector. (paper)

  3. Electronic sensitivity of single-walled carbon nanotube to internal electrolyte composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, D; Pang, P; Liu, H; He, J; Lindsay, SM

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are well-known as materials for nanoelectronics and show great potential to be used as the sensing element in chemical and biological sensors. Recently, CNTs have been shown to be effective nanofluidic channels and the transport of substances through small diameter CNTs is intrinsically fast, selective, and operates at the single molecule level. It has been shown that the transport characteristics of semiconducting single-walled CNT (SWCNT) field effect transistor (FET) are sensitive to internal water wetting. We report here that the characteristics of semiconducting SWCNT FETs are also sensitive to the concentration, pH and ion type of ionic solution when the electrolytes are inside the CNT. Such sensitivity is not observed at the outside surface of a semiconducting SWCNT. This opens a new avenue for building new types of CNT sensor devices in which the SWCNT concurrently functions as a nanochannel and an electronic detector. PMID:22293518

  4. Assessment of sexual function in patients undergoing vasectomy using the international index of erectile function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bertero

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study aims to prospectively compare the sexual function in males before and after vasectomy surgery using the international index of erectile function (IIEF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October to December 2002, sixty-four patients who were candidates for male sterilization in the vasectomy program of the Urology Section at the General Hospital of the University of São Paulo were included. The same investigator applied the IIEF before and 90 days after the surgery. The mean scores obtained on pre and postoperative visits for all domains of sexual function were analyzed and compared with the Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 35 years (range from 25 to 48 years and the mean number of children per man was 3. The total mean score of the IIEF was 64.06 before surgery and 65.64 after the procedure, with this difference considered statistically significant (p < 0.001. Sixty-seven per cent of the patients improved their scores, versus 17% and 16% who showed worsening or no change at all in IIEF scores following surgery, respectively. Of the 5 sexual function domains, desire and sexual satisfaction presented statistically significant improvement. CONCLUSION: This study showed that vasectomy caused a positive impact on sexual function, especially on desire and sexual satisfaction, in the majority of men undergoing surgery. There was no case of surgery-related erectile dysfunction.

  5. Measurement of International Roughness Index by Using Z-Axis Accelerometers and GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchuan Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Roughness Index (IRI is a well-recognized standard in the field of pavement management. Many different types of devices can be used to measure the IRI, but these devices are mainly mounted on a full-size automobile and are complicated to operate. In addition, these devices are expensive. The development of methods for IRI measurement is a prerequisite for pavement management systems and other parts of the road management industry. Based on the quarter-car model and the vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, there is a strong correlation between the in-car Z-axis acceleration and the IRI. The variation of speed of the car during the measurement process has a large influence on IRI estimation. A measurement system equipped with Z-axis accelerometers and a GPS device was developed. Using the self-designing measurement system based on the methodology proposed in this study, we performed a small-scale field test. We used a one-wheel linear model and two-wheel model to fit the variation of the Z-axis acceleration. The test results demonstrated that the low-cost measurement system has good accuracy and could enhance the efficiency of IRI measurement.

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the English version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) for use in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, T O; Das, A; Rampal, S; Zaki, M; Sahabudin, R M; Rohan, M J; Isaacs, S

    2003-10-01

    We adapted the English International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) into Malay. This was difficult as many sex-related terms do not exist in colloquial Malay. In the pretest, there was no difficulty with comprehension and all subjects judged the Malay IIEF equivalent to the English IIEF. After slight modification, a final instrument was evaluated in two studies. Study A included 136 subjects. It showed that the instrument had good reliability and discriminant validity. The factor structure of the English IIEF was not reproducible. Study B included 26 ED subjects who underwent oral sildenafil therapy. The Malay IIEF was sensitive to treatment response. The area under the ROC curve of the Malay IIEF-5 was 0.86; the optimal cutoff score has a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 75%. The results suggest that the Malay IIEF requires more work, but the Malay IIEF-5 has acceptable measurement properties to recommend its use in clinical practice and research.

  7. Sensitivity and specificity of body mass index-based classification systems for overweight in children 7-10 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Altenburg de Assis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of BMI-based classification systems for detecting excess body fat in schoolchildren. A total of 2,795 schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years were examined. Excess body fat was defined as the standardized residuals of sum of three skinfolds thickness ranking at or above the 90th percentile. The international BMI-based systems recommended by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF and the World Health Organization(WHO-2007 were evaluated on the basis of their sensitivity and specificity for detecting excess body fat and compared with a national BMI reference (Brazil-2006. The positive (LR+ and negative (LR- likelihood ratios analysis was also used to compare the diagnostic accuracies of the three BMI criteria.The three classification systems presented moderately high sensitivity (78.4-98.6% and specificity (75.9-91.6% for both genders. Overall, the three classification systems showed both LR+ and LR- values consistent with adiagnosis of moderate evidence for overweight (LR+ above five and LR- below0.2. The results showed that the three BMI classification systems can be usedas screening instruments of excess body fat. However, the performance of the Brazil-2006 classification system was superior because it showed the best balance between the diagnostic accuracy indices.

  8. SU-D-209-05: Sensitivity of the Diagnostic Radiological Index of Protection (DRIP) to Procedural Factors in Fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Pasciak, A [University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wagner, L [UT Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the sensitivity of the Diagnostic Radiological Index of Protection (DRIP) to procedural factors in fluoroscopy in an effort to determine an appropriate set of scatter-mimicking primary beams (SMPB) to be used in measuring the DRIP. Methods: A series of clinical and factorial Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to determine the shape of the scattered X-ray spectra incident on the operator in different clinical fluoroscopy scenarios. Two clinical evaluations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle and patient size while technical factors were varied according to measured automatic dose rate control (ADRC) data. Factorial evaluations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle, field of view, patient size and beam quality for constant technical factors. Average energy was the figure of merit used to condense fluence in each energy bin to a single numerical index. Results: Beam quality had the strongest influence on the scattered spectrum in fluoroscopy. Many procedural factors affected the scattered spectrum indirectly through their effects on primary beam quality through ADRC, e.g., gantry angle and patient size. Lateral C-arm rotation, common in interventional cardiology, increased the energy of the scattered spectrum, regardless of the direction of rotation. The effect of patient size on scattered radiation depended on ADRC characteristics, patient size, and procedure type. Conclusion: The scattered spectrum striking the operator in fluoroscopy, and therefore the DRIP, is most strongly influenced by primary beam quality, particularly kV. Use cases for protective garments should be classified by typical procedural primary beam qualities, which are governed by the ADRC according to the impacts of patient size, anatomical location, and gantry angle. These results will help determine an appropriate set of SMPB to be used for measuring the DRIP.

  9. The relationship between lipid accumulation product, visceral adiposity index and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan ZHANG

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the correlation between lipid accumulation product (LAP, visceral adiposity index (VAI and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP in adults, and explore whether to use such correlation as indications is superior to the traditional body fat index based on body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR and waist-height ratio (WHtR. Methods  The present work was a cross-sectional study involving 501 healthy adults (321 males and 180 females from the community of Chongqing Municipality. Anthropometric indexes [height, weight, WC, hip circumference (HC], blood pressure (BP, fasting lipid profile and levels of fasting and post-load glucose, insulin and hs-CRP were measured, and BMI, WHR, WHtR, fasting insulin resistant homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR, LAP and VAI were calculated. The correlations between hs-CRP and other variables were analyzed. Results  Following the elevation of titer of the hs-CRP, LAP, VAI, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, BP, glucose level, HOMA-IR, insulin, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and apolipoprotein B (ApoB increased (P<0.05, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1 levels declined (P<0.0001. Pearson's correlation analysis demonstrated that hs-CRP was correlated with all variances (P<0.01 except for total cholesterol (TC (P=0.181 and LDL -C (P=0.325. According to forward stepwise multiple regression analysis with hs-CRP as the dependent variance, WC was the only variance entering the regression model. Conclusion  LAP, VAI levels are correlated with hs-CRP level but not the major determinant factors of hs-CRP. WC is stronger than other variances in the association with hs-CRP in adults, and is still an independent predictor of inflammation.

  10. Trends of Educational Technology Research: More than a Decade of International Research in Six SSCI-Indexed Refereed Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Chang; Hung, Jui-Long; Ching, Yu-Hui

    2013-01-01

    This study applied text mining methods to examine the abstracts of 2,997 international research articles published between 2000 and 2010 by six journals included in the Social Science Citation Index in the field of Educational Technology (EDTECH). A total of 19 clusters of research areas were identified, and these clusters were further analyzed in…

  11. A common registration-to-publication automated pipeline for nomenclatural acts for higher plants (International Plant Names Index, IPNI), fungi (Index Fungorum, MycoBank) and animals (ZooBank)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative effort among four lead indexes of taxon names and nomenclatural acts (International Plant Name Index (IPNI), Index Fungorum, MycoBank and ZooBank) and the journals PhytoKeys, MycoKeys and ZooKeys to create an automated, pre-publication, registration workflow, based on a

  12. Evaluation of habitat suitability index models by global sensitivity and uncertainty analyses: a case study for submerged aquatic vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Zuzanna; Stith, Bradley M.; Bowling, Andrea C.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Swain, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat suitability index (HSI) models are commonly used to predict habitat quality and species distributions and are used to develop biological surveys, assess reserve and management priorities, and anticipate possible change under different management or climate change scenarios. Important management decisions may be based on model results, often without a clear understanding of the level of uncertainty associated with model outputs. We present an integrated methodology to assess the propagation of uncertainty from both inputs and structure of the HSI models on model outputs (uncertainty analysis: UA) and relative importance of uncertain model inputs and their interactions on the model output uncertainty (global sensitivity analysis: GSA). We illustrate the GSA/UA framework using simulated hydrology input data from a hydrodynamic model representing sea level changes and HSI models for two species of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in southwest Everglades National Park: Vallisneria americana (tape grass) and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). We found considerable spatial variation in uncertainty for both species, but distributions of HSI scores still allowed discrimination of sites with good versus poor conditions. Ranking of input parameter sensitivities also varied spatially for both species, with high habitat quality sites showing higher sensitivity to different parameters than low-quality sites. HSI models may be especially useful when species distribution data are unavailable, providing means of exploiting widely available environmental datasets to model past, current, and future habitat conditions. The GSA/UA approach provides a general method for better understanding HSI model dynamics, the spatial and temporal variation in uncertainties, and the parameters that contribute most to model uncertainty. Including an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in modeling efforts as part of the decision-making framework will result in better-informed, more robust

  13. Evaluation of habitat suitability index models by global sensitivity and uncertainty analyses: a case study for submerged aquatic vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Zuzanna; Stith, Bradley; Bowling, Andrea C; Langtimm, Catherine A; Swain, Eric D

    2015-07-01

    Habitat suitability index (HSI) models are commonly used to predict habitat quality and species distributions and are used to develop biological surveys, assess reserve and management priorities, and anticipate possible change under different management or climate change scenarios. Important management decisions may be based on model results, often without a clear understanding of the level of uncertainty associated with model outputs. We present an integrated methodology to assess the propagation of uncertainty from both inputs and structure of the HSI models on model outputs (uncertainty analysis: UA) and relative importance of uncertain model inputs and their interactions on the model output uncertainty (global sensitivity analysis: GSA). We illustrate the GSA/UA framework using simulated hydrology input data from a hydrodynamic model representing sea level changes and HSI models for two species of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in southwest Everglades National Park: Vallisneria americana (tape grass) and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). We found considerable spatial variation in uncertainty for both species, but distributions of HSI scores still allowed discrimination of sites with good versus poor conditions. Ranking of input parameter sensitivities also varied spatially for both species, with high habitat quality sites showing higher sensitivity to different parameters than low-quality sites. HSI models may be especially useful when species distribution data are unavailable, providing means of exploiting widely available environmental datasets to model past, current, and future habitat conditions. The GSA/UA approach provides a general method for better understanding HSI model dynamics, the spatial and temporal variation in uncertainties, and the parameters that contribute most to model uncertainty. Including an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in modeling efforts as part of the decision-making framework will result in better-informed, more robust

  14. An International, Multi-Specialty Validation Study of the IgG4-Related Disease Responder Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Zachary S; Khosroshahi, Arezou; Carruthers, Mollie D; Perugino, Cory A; Choi, Hyon; Campochiaro, Corrado; Culver, Emma L; Cortazar, Frank; Della-Torre, Emanuel; Ebbo, Mikael; Fernandes, Ana; Frulloni, Luca; Hart, Philip; Karadag, Omer; Kawa, Shigeyuki; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Lanzillotta, Marco; Matsui, Shoko; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Ryu, Jay H; Saeki, Takako; Schleinitz, Nicolas; Tanasa, Paula; Umehara, Hisanori; Webster, George; Zhang, Wen; Stone, John H

    2018-02-18

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) can cause fibro-inflammatory lesions in nearly any organ, leading to organ dysfunction and failure. The IgG4-RD Responder Index (RI) was developed to help investigators assess the efficacy of treatment in a structured manner. We sought to validate the RI in a multi-national investigation. The RI guides investigators through assessments of disease activity and damage in 25 domains, incorporating higher weights for disease manifestations that require treatment urgently or that worsen despite treatment. After a training exercise, investigators reviewed 12 written IgG4-RD vignettes (mean length: 279 words, range: 76-511 words) based upon real patients. Investigators calculated both an RI score as well as a physician global assessment (PGA) for each vignette. Three investigators used the RI on fifteen patients followed over serial visits after treatment. We assessed inter- and intra-rater reliability, precision, validity, and responsiveness. Twenty-six physician-investigators included representatives from 6 specialties and 9 countries. The inter-rater and intra-rater reliabilities of the RI were strong (0.88 and 0.69, respectively) and superior to those of the PGA. Correlations (construct validity) between the RI and PGA were high (Spearman's r=0.9, P<0.0001). The RI was sensitive to change (discriminant validity). Following treatment, there was significant improvement in the RI (mean change 10.5 (95% CI 5.4-12), P<0.001) which correlated with the change in the PGA. Urgent disease and damage were captured effectively. In this international, multi-specialty study, we found that the RI is a valid, and reliable disease activity assessment tool that can be used to measure response to therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of internal refractive index variation in near-infrared optical tomography: a finite element modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani, Hamid; Brooksby, Ben; Vishwanath, Karthik; Pogue, Brian W; Paulsen, Keith D

    2003-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) tomography is a technique used to measure light propagation through tissue and generate images of internal optical property distributions from boundary measurements. Most popular applications have concentrated on female breast imaging, neonatal and adult head imaging, as well as muscle and small animal studies. In most instances a highly scattering medium with a homogeneous refractive index is assumed throughout the imaging domain. Using these assumptions, it is possible to simplify the model to the diffusion approximation. However, biological tissue contains regions of varying optical absorption and scatter, as well as varying refractive index. In this work, we introduce an internal boundary constraint in the finite element method approach to modelling light propagation through tissue that accounts for regions of different refractive indices. We have compared the results to data from a Monte Carlo simulation and show that for a simple two-layered slab model of varying refractive index, the phase of the measured reflectance data is significantly altered by the variation in internal refractive index, whereas the amplitude data are affected only slightly

  16. GENERALIZED THEIL-TORNQVIST INDEXES WITH APPLICATIONS TO INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS OF PRICES AND REAL OUTPUT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RAO, DSP; SELVANATHAN, EA; PILAT, D

    The Theil-Tornqvist index number is widely used for binary comparisons of prices, output and productivity. This paper describes various generalizations of the Theil-Tornqvist index for purposes of multilateral spatial comparisons due to Caves, Christensen and Diewert, and more recent further

  17. Sensitivity to change of the Dermatology Life Quality Index in adult females with facial acne vulgaris: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, C; Trojahn, C; Hillmann, K; Dobos, G; Kanti, V; Vogt, A; Blume-Peytavi, U; Kottner, J

    2017-01-01

    The postadolescent form of acne papulopustulosa, also referred to as 'acne tarda' can have substantial negative impact on Quality of Life, especially in adult female patients. Although the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) is widely used, empirical evidence about its performance in adult female acne patients is lacking. In this prospective cohort study, we have investigated the sensitivity to change of the DLQI in 53 female adult acne patients with mild to moderate facial acne treated with azelaic acid (AzA) 15% gel twice daily over 24 weeks. Mean Investigator Static Global Assessment (ISGA) score was 2.3 (SD 0.5) at baseline and ranged from 0.9 (SD 0.3) to 2.1 (SD 0.4) at the end of the study in the 'Highly Improved' and 'Unchanged' responder groups respectively. The mean baseline DLQI score was 5.1 (SD 4.2). The Effect Size in the responder group 'Highly Improved' was 0.66; in group 'Improved' 0.62 and 0.23 in group 'Unchanged'. At the end of study, the mean DLQI score ranged from 1.1 (SD 1.5) in the 'Highly Improved' group to 3.7 (SD 6.0) in the 'Unchanged' group. The results support the sensitivity to change of the DLQI in this population. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. Thin-film-based sensitivity enhancement for total internal reflection fluorescence live-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyujung; Cho, Eun-Jin; Huh, Yong-Min; Kim, Donghyun

    2007-11-01

    We investigated experimentally the evanescent field enhancement based on dielectric thin films in total internal reflection microscopy. The sample employed two layers of Al2O3 and SiO2 deposited on an SF10 glass substrate. Field intensity enhancement measured by fluorescent excitation of microbeads relative to that of a control sample without dielectric films was polarization dependent, determined as 4.2 and 2.4 for TE and TM polarizations, respectively, and was in good agreement with numerical results. The thin-film-based field enhancement was also applied to live-cell imaging of quantum dots, which confirmed the sensitivity enhancement qualitatively.

  19. Editorial policy in reporting ethical processes: A survey of 'instructions for authors' in International Indexed Dental Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneetha, Cugati

    2011-04-01

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors expects authors to report if their studies were carried out in accordance with the International Ethical Guidelines and Declaration of Helsinki; and inform readers regarding the same. To determine the proportion of International Indexed Dental Journals reporting on ethical clearance for human and animal research, obtaining of informed consent and / or assent, and the conduction of research in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and International Medical Research, 2006. A cross-sectional survey of 'instructions for authors,' for analysis of editorial policy on ethical processes, was done. One hundred and twenty-six dental journals (which included 50 general and 76 specialties) were reviewed for reporting, with regard to the Ethical Committee Approval for human and animal researches, obtaining of informed consent / assent from the research participants, and research in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki as well as International Medical Research 2006 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics was used and results were expressed in percentages. Of the 126 dental journals, 57 (45.23%) reported having obtained approval from the Ethics Committee, 33 (26.19%) were instructed about the Animal Ethics Committee approval, and 38 (30.15%) insisted on obtaining and reporting informed consent / assent. 41 (32.53%) journals expected authors to mention the research being conducted according to Declaration of Helsinki and and 3 (2.38%) journals required researches to be conducted in accordance with International Medical Research, 2006. A significant proportion of international indexed dental journals did not provide instructions to authors to report on the ethical approval, informed consent and / assent, and research conduction according to the Declaration of Helsinki as well as the International Medical Research, 2006.

  20. Editorial policy in reporting ethical processes: A survey of ′instructions for authors′ in International Indexed Dental Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cugati Navaneetha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors expects authors to report if their studies were carried out in accordance with the International Ethical Guidelines and Declaration of Helsinki; and inform readers regarding the same. Aims: To determine the proportion of International Indexed Dental Journals reporting on ethical clearance for human and animal research, obtaining of informed consent and / or assent, and the conduction of research in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and International Medical Research, 2006. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey of ′instructions for authors,′ for analysis of editorial policy on ethical processes, was done. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-six dental journals (which included 50 general and 76 specialties were reviewed for reporting, with regard to the Ethical Committee Approval for human and animal researches, obtaining of informed consent / assent from the research participants, and research in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki as well as International Medical Research 2006 were analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics was used and results were expressed in percentages. Results: Of the 126 dental journals, 57 (45.23% reported having obtained approval from the Ethics Committee, 33 (26.19% were instructed about the Animal Ethics Committee approval, and 38 (30.15% insisted on obtaining and reporting informed consent / assent. 41 (32.53% journals expected authors to mention the research being conducted according to Declaration of Helsinki and and 3 (2.38% journals required researches to be conducted in accordance with International Medical Research, 2006. Conclusions: A significant proportion of international indexed dental journals did not provide instructions to authors to report on the ethical approval, informed consent and / assent, and research conduction according to the Declaration of Helsinki as well as the

  1. High Refractive Index Silicone Gels for Simultaneous Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence and Traction Force Microscopy of Adherent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Achim; Sundd, Prithu; Ley, Klaus; Danuser, Gaudenz; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Groisman, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Substrate rigidity profoundly impacts cellular behaviors such as migration, gene expression, and cell fate. Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy enables selective visualization of the dynamics of substrate adhesions, vesicle trafficking, and biochemical signaling at the cell-substrate interface. Here we apply high-refractive-index silicone gels to perform TIRF microscopy on substrates with a wide range of physiological elastic moduli and simultaneously measure traction forces exerted by cells on the substrate. PMID:21961031

  2. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-02-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population.

  3. International coauthorship relations in the Social Sciences Citation Index: is internationalization leading the network?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Park, H.W.; Wagner, C.

    2014-01-01

    International coauthorship relations have increasingly shaped another dynamic in the natural and life sciences during recent decades. However, much less is known about such internationalization in the social sciences. In this study, we analyze international and domestic coauthorship relations of all

  4. VIS and NIR land surface albedo sensitivity of the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model to forcing leaf area index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, C.; Kiang, N. Y.; Ni-Meister, W.; Yang, W.; Schaaf, C.; Aleinov, I. D.; Jonas, J.; Zhao, F. A.; Yao, T.; Wang, Z.; Sun, Q.; Carrer, D.

    2016-12-01

    Land surface albedo is a major controlling factor in vegetation-atmosphere transfers, modifying the components of the energy budget, the ecosystem productivity and patterns of regional and global climate. General Circulation Models (GCMs) are coupled to Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) to solve vegetation albedo by using simple schemes prescribing albedo based on vegetation classification, and approximations of canopy radiation transport for multiple plant functional types (PFTs). In this work, we aim at evaluating the sensitivity of the NASA Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (TBM), a demographic DGVM coupled to the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM, in estimating VIS and NIR surface albedo by using variable forcing leaf area index (LAI). The Ent TBM utilizes a new Global Vegetation Structure Dataset (GVSD) to account for geographically varying vegetation tree heights and densities, as boundary conditions to the gap-probability based Analytical Clumped Two-Stream (ACTS) canopy radiative transfer scheme (Ni-Meister et al., 2010). Land surface and vegetation characteristics for the Ent GVSD are obtained from a number of earth observation platforms and algorithms, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and plant functional types (PFTs) (Friedl et al., 2010), soil albedo derived from MODIS (Carrer et al., 2014), and vegetation height from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on board ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) (Simard et al., 2011; Tang et al., 2014). Three LAI products are used as input to ACTS/Ent TBM: MODIS MOD15A2H product (Yang et al., 2006), Beijing Normal University LAI (Yuan et al., 2011), and Global Data Sets of Vegetation (LAI3g) (Zhu et al. 2013). The sensitivity of the Ent TBM VIS and NIR albedo to the three LAI products is assessed, compared against the previous GISS GCM vegetation classification and prescribed Lambertian albedoes (Matthews, 1984), and against

  5. Effective tuning of long-period grating refractive-index sensitivity by plasma-deposited diamond-like carbon nano-coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smietana, Mateusz; Bock, Wojtek J.; Mikulic, Predrag; Szmidt, Jan

    2011-05-01

    This work presents an application of radio-frequency plasma-assisted chemical-vapor-deposited (RF PACVD) diamondlike carbon (DLC) nano-coatings for effective tuning of the refractive-index (RI) sensitivity of long-period gratings (LPGs) over a wide range (nD from 1 to 1.47). The technique allows for an efficient deposition of good quality nanofilms as required for optical sensors. The thin overlay effectively changes the distribution of the cladding modes and thus tunes the device's RI sensitivity. We correlated the optical properties of the DLC films with the RI sensitivity of the LPGs. For the developed deposition process parameters, the tuning can be realized simply by varying the length of time taken to deposit the high-refractive-index (n>2 @ λ=1460 nm) DLC film. The advantage of this approach is its speed (the deposition process takes at most 7 minutes) and precision in determining the RI sensitivity of the LPGs.

  6. Mapping of oil spill environmental sensitivity index (ESI) in western Amazonia, Brazil, using USTC classification of dual season GRFM SAR image mosaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Fernando P. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Beisl, Carlos H.; Pedroso, Enrico C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Centro Brasileiro de Recursos - RADARSAT

    2003-07-01

    This study focuses on improving information about oil spill environmental sensitivity in Western Amazonia, Brazil, using a pair of multi seasonal (1995 - low flood to 1996 - high flood) GRFM JERS-1 SAR mosaics. Fuzzy analysis is carried out to extract information about landscape modifications within half hydrological cycle. The oil spill hazard information derived from JERS-1 SAR data is straightforward to interpret and constitutes a representation of the original Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) product conceived by PETROBRAS. (author)

  7. The Consumer Quality Index in an accident and emergency department : Internal consistency, validity and discriminative capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Nanne; Sturms, Leontien M.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P; van Stel, Henk F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients' experiences are an indicator of health-care performance in the accident and emergency department (A&E). The Consumer Quality Index for the Accident and Emergency department (CQI A&E), a questionnaire to assess the quality of care as experienced by patients, was investigated.

  8. A "continuity-index" for assessing ice-sheet dynamics from radar-sounded internal layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Nanna Bjørnholt; Rippin, David; Bingham, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Radio-echo sounding (RES) of polar icesheets reveals extensive internal layering. The degree of continuity of internal layering holds critical information about the ice-flow field, but previous analyses of this parameter have been limited to qualitative classifications. Here we present a new...... further support that the main trunk and tributaries are unlikely to have undergone substantial migration since the deposition of the internal layering. Significantly, our new method for analyzing internallayers is readily transferable across RES datasets, offering promise for data-led assessments of past...

  9. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations. Books Trade Associations, United States and Canada; International and Foreign Book Trade Associations; National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Standards; Calendar, 2003-2012; Acronyms; Index of Organizations; Subject Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes two lists: one of book trade associations in the United States and Canada, and one of international and foreign book trade associations. Concludes with National Information Standards Organization (NISO) standards; calendar, 2003-2012; acronyms; index of organizations; and subject index. (LRW)

  10. Early experience shapes amygdala sensitivity to race: an international adoption design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Flannery, Jessica; Shapiro, Mor; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Goff, Bonnie; Gabard-Durman, Laurel; Gee, Dylan D; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-08-14

    In the current study, we investigated how complete infant deprivation to out-group race impacts behavioral and neural sensitivity to race. Although monkey models have successfully achieved complete face deprivation in early life, this is typically impossible in human studies. We overcame this barrier by examining youths with exclusively homogenous racial experience in early postnatal development. These were youths raised in orphanage care in either East Asia or Eastern Europe as infants and later adopted by American families. The use of international adoption bolsters confidence of infant exposure to race (e.g., to solely Asian faces or European faces). Participants completed an emotional matching task during functional MRI. Our findings show that deprivation to other-race faces in infancy disrupts recognition of emotion and results in heightened amygdala response to out-group faces. Greater early deprivation (i.e., later age of adoption) is associated with greater biases to race. These data demonstrate how early social deprivation to race shapes amygdala function later in life and provides support that early postnatal development may represent a sensitive period for race perception.

  11. EVALUATION OF LOGISTIC PERFORMANCE INDEXES OF BRAZIL IN THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    FARIA, ROSANE NUNES DE; SOUZA, CAIO SILVESTRE DE; VIEIRA, JOSÉ GERALDO VIDAL

    2015-01-01

    The importance of efficient logistics for trade growth is widely acknowledged. Literature has shown that better logistics performance is strongly associated with trade expansion, export diversification, ability to attract foreign direct investments, and economic growth. On the other hand, international trade represents a challenge to logistic operations in transporting and storing products. High logistic costs and low quality of services may be considered obstacles to international trade. Thi...

  12. Intelligent Detector of Internal Combustion Engine Cylinder Pressure and Sensitivity Temperature Coefficient Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beirong Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The detecting device based on mechanical mechanism is far from the measurement of internal combustion engine cylinder explosion and compression pressure. This pressure detection is under the environment of pulsed gas (over 500 times per one minute and mechanical impactive vibration. Piezoresistive detection with silicon on insulator (SOI strain gauges to pressure seems to be a good solution to meet such special applications. In this work, separation by implanted oxygen (SIMOX wafer was used to fabricate the high temperature pressure sensor chip. For high accuracy and wide temperature range application, this paper also presents a novel pressure sensitivity temperature coefficient (TCS compensation method, using integrated constant current network. A quantitative compensation formula is introduced in mathematics. During experiments, the absolute value of the compensated TCS is easy to be 10 × 10−6/°C~100 × 10−6/°C by individual adjustment and calibration of each device’s temperature compensation. Therefore, the feasibility and practicability of this technology are tested. Again, the disadvantages are discussed after the research of the experiment data and the improvement methods are also given in the designing period. This technology exhibits the great potential practical value of internal combustion engine cylinder pressure with volume manufacturing.

  13. GHGs and air pollutants embodied in China’s international trade: Temporal and spatial index decomposition analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengyan; Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Temporal index decomposition analysis and spatial index decomposition analysis were applied to understand the driving forces of the emissions embodied in China’s exports and net exports during 2002–2011, respectively. The accumulated emissions embodied in exports accounted for approximately 30% of the total emissions in China; although the contribution of the sectoral total emissions intensity (technique effect) declined, the scale effect was largely responsible for the mounting emissions associated with export, and the composition effect played a largely insignificant role. Calculations of the emissions embodied in net exports suggest that China is generally in an environmentally inferior position compared with its major trade partners. The differences in the economy-wide emission intensities between China and its major trade partners were the biggest contribution to this reality, and the trade balance effect played a less important role. However, a lower degree of specialization in pollution intensive products in exports than in imports helped to reduce slightly the emissions embodied in net exports. The temporal index decomposition analysis results suggest that China should take effective measures to optimize export and supply-side structure and reduce the total emissions intensity. According to spatial index decomposition analysis, it is suggested that a more aggressive import policy was useful for curbing domestic and global emissions, and the transfer of advanced production technologies and emission control technologies from developed to developing countries should be a compulsory global environmental policy option to mitigate the possible leakage of pollution emissions caused by international trade. PMID:28441399

  14. Source index A: Federal law, without agreements under international law. As of December 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Federal Law Catalogue and relevant sources - BGBl. III - is the basis of the source index A, which from 1st January 1966 onwards publishes the sources of laws and statutes announced in the Federal Law Gazette, part I and part II, as well as in the Federal Gazette. The source index A covers the sources of all statutes and amendments since 1st January 1964. Official directives, however, are not always announced in the Federal Law Gazette, or in the promulgation section of the Federal Gazette, but rather in the official journals of the Federal Ministries, and in the announcement section of the Federal Gazette. This also applies to amendments or cancellations of directives first published in the Federal Law Gazette or in the promulgation section of the Federal Gazette. As the latter and the official journals on the ministries are not scanned for the source index A, there is no guarantee as to complete coverage of directives. Subject scope 75 covers acts and directives relating to mining, nuclear energy, electricity, gas and power supply. (orig.) [de

  15. Internal noise in channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) study of detectability index-differential phase contrast CT vs. conventional CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Yang, Yi

    2014-03-01

    The channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) model, wherein internal noise plays an important role to account for the psychophysiological uncertainty in human's visual perception, has found extensive applications in the assessment of image quality in nuclear medicine, mammography and conventional CT. Recently, we extended its application to investigating the detectability index of differential phase contrast (DPC) CT-an emerging CT technology with the potential of increasing the capability in soft tissue differentiation. We found that the quantitative determination of internal noise in the CHO study of DPC-CT's detectability index should differ from that in the conventional CT. It is believed that the root cause of such a difference lies in the distinct noise spectra between the DPC-CT and conventional CT. In this paper, we present the preliminary results and investigate the adequate strategies to quantitatively determine the internal noise of CHO model for its application in the assessment of image quality in DPC-CT and its comparison with that of the conventional CT.

  16. The B2 stress index as a function of internal pressure, bend angle, loading type and material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzen, V.C.; Xi Yuan

    2003-01-01

    The current ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code equation for the B2 stress index, which is used in the design equation for primary stresses in piping components, is widely considered to be overly conservative. In recent years, various researchers have investigated the behavior of piping components, primarily elbows, to determine the effect of parameters such as internal pressure, bend angle, location of adjacent flanges, loading type, etc. on the inelastic response of elbows. This paper contains a detailed evaluation of the effects of elbow size and schedule, loading type, internal pressure and material type on the collapse moments of straight pipes and elbows using nonlinear finite element analysis, and then uses these data to construct B2 stress indices for the various combinations of parameters. Using these results, various equations for the stress index as a function of the pipe bend characteristic parameter, the bend angle, internal pressure and material type are investigated and an optimal form of one of the equations is recommended for use. (author)

  17. Triglyceride glucose index as a surrogate measure of insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents with normoglycemia, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus: Comparison with the hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need for simple surrogate estimates of insulin sensitivity in epidemiological studies of obese youth because the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is not feasible on a large scale. Objectives: (i) To examine the triglyceride glucose (TyG) index (Ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dL)'×'fasting ...

  18. Improved prognostic stratification using NCCN- and GELTAMO-international prognostic index in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Junshik; Kim, Seok Jin; Chang, Myung Hee; Kim, Jeong-A; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jin Seok; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Lee, Won Sik; Do, Young Rok; Kang, Hye Jin; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Park, Yong; Won, Jong-Ho; Mun, Yeung-Chul; Kim, Hyo Jung

    2017-01-01

    The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN)-International Prognostic Index (IPI) and GELTAMO (Grupo Español de Linfomas/Trasplante Autólogo de Médula Ósea)-IPI were developed to enable better risk prediction of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The present study compared the effectiveness of risk prediction between IPI, NCCN-IPI, and GELTAMO-IPI in patients with DLBCL particularly in terms of determining high-risk patients. Among 439 patients who were enrolled to a pro...

  19. [Evaluation of the enhanced International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) for cases with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akiko; Tamura, Hideto; Asayama, Toshio; Moriya, Keiichi; Okuyama, Namiko; Kondo-Onodera, Asaka; Hamada, Yasuko; Ishibashi, Mariko; Yokose, Norio; Tanosaki, Sakae; Inokuchi, Koiti

    2015-07-01

    The NCCN-International Prognostic Index (IPI) is reported to be more powerful than the former IPI for predicting survival in the rituximab era. To evaluate the NCCN-IPI in our institutions, we analyzed 188 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab plus CHOP or THP-COP chemotherapy. The 5-year overall survival rates of patients with low, low-intermediate, high-intermediate, and high risk were 90%, 76%, 64%, and 34%, respectively. Although there was no difference in overall survival between patients 61-75 and those >75 years of age, the NCCN-IPI is useful for classifying prognostically relevant subgroups of Japanese patients.

  20. The Social Progress Index in International Business Site Selection: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Sandra K.

    2016-01-01

    International businesses face a difficult task when trying to decide where to place or expand a business that could be located anywhere in the world. Each country is a complex system of human capabilities, technical systems, [infrastructure bases, laws, cultures and economic systems. How can a company know which country is best for it today, and…

  1. Genome-wide association study of the modified Stumvoll Insulin Sensitivity Index identifies BCL2 and FAM19A2 as novel insulin sensitivity loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walford, Geoffrey A; Gustafsson, Stefan; Rybin, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have found few common variants that influence fasting measures of insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a GWAS of an integrated assessment of fasting and dynamic measures of insulin sensitivity would detect novel common variants. We performed GWAS of the...

  2. Retractions in general and internal medicine in a high-profile scientific indexing database

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,Renan Moritz Varnier Rodrigues de; Catelani,Fernanda; Fontes-Pereira,Aldo José; Gave,Nárrima de Souza

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Increased frequency of retractions has recently been observed, and retractions are important events that deserve scientific investigation. This study aimed to characterize cases of retraction within general and internal medicine in a high-profile database, with interest in the country of origin of the article and the impact factor (IF) of the journal in which the retraction was made. DESIGN AND SETTING: This study consisted of reviewing retraction notes in the Thomso...

  3. Reduced glycemic index and glycemic load diets do not increase the effects of energy restriction on weight loss and insulin sensitivity in obese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Torkelson, Carolyn J; Redmon, J Bruce; Reck, Kristell P; Kwong, Christine A; Swanson, Joyce E; Liu, Chengcheng; Thomas, William; Bantle, John P

    2005-10-01

    Reducing the dietary glycemic load and the glycemic index was proposed as a novel approach to weight reduction. A parallel-design, randomized 12-wk controlled feeding trial with a 24-wk follow-up phase was conducted to test the hypothesis that a hypocaloric diet designed to reduce the glycemic load and the glycemic index would result in greater sustained weight loss than other hypocaloric diets. Obese subjects (n = 29) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets providing 3138 kJ less than estimated energy needs: high glycemic index (HGI), low glycemic index (LGI), or high fat (HF). For the first 12 wk, all food was provided to subjects (feeding phase). Subjects (n = 22) were instructed to follow the assigned diet for 24 additional weeks (free-living phase). Total body weight was obtained and body composition was assessed by skinfold measurements. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the homeostasis model (HOMA). At 12 wk, weight changes from baseline were significant in all groups but not different among groups (-9.3 +/- 1.3 kg for the HGI diet, -9.9 +/- 1.4 kg for the LGI diet, and -8.4 +/- 1.5 kg for the HF diet). All groups improved in insulin sensitivity at the end of the feeding phase of the study. During the free-living phase, all groups maintained their initial weight loss and their improved insulin sensitivity. Weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity scores were independent of diet composition. In summary, lowering the glycemic load and glycemic index of weight reduction diets does not provide any added benefit to energy restriction in promoting weight loss in obese subjects.

  4. The internal rate of return of photovoltaic grid-connected systems. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talavera, D.L.; Nofuentes, G.; Aguilera, J.

    2010-01-01

    At present, photovoltaic grid-connected systems (PVGCS) are experiencing a formidable market growth. This is mainly due to a continuous downward trend in PV cost together with some government support programmes launched by many developed countries. However, government bodies and prospective owners/investors are concerned with how changes in existing economic factors - financial incentives and main economic parameters of the PVGCS - that configure a given scenario may affect the profitability of the investment in these systems. Consequently, not only is a mere estimate of the economic profitability in a specific moment required, but also how this profitability may vary according to changes in the existing scenario. In order to enlighten decision-makers and prospective owners/investors of PVGCS, a sensitivity analysis of the internal rate of return (IRR) to some economic factors has been carried out. Three different scenarios have been assumed to represent the three top geographical markets for PV: the Euro area, the USA and Japan. The results obtained in this analysis provide clear evidence that annual loan interest, normalised initial investment subsidy, normalised annual PV electricity yield, PV electricity unitary price and normalised initial investment are ordered from the lowest to the highest impact on the IRR. A short and broad analysis concerning the taxation impact is also provided. (author)

  5. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas, Gulf of Mexico, Upper Coast of Texas PDFs 1996, Louisiana 2003, Mississippi 2009, Alabama 2007, Florida 1995-2003 maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0064870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the U.S. is NOAA's Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach systematically complies...

  6. International study of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with body mass index and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyck, D Van; Cerin, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I

    2015-01-01

    Background:Physical activity (PA) has been consistently implicated in the etiology of obesity, whereas recent evidence on the importance of sedentary time remains inconsistent. Understanding of dose-response associations of PA and sedentary time with overweight and obesity in adults can be improv...... for country-specific health guidelines.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 22 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.115....... effects of study site and gender.Methods:Data from the International Physical activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) Adult study were used. IPEN Adult is an observational multi-country cross-sectional study, and 12 sites in 10 countries are included. Participants wore an accelerometer for seven...... relationship of accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous PA and total counts per minute with BMI and the probability of being overweight/obese was identified. The associations were negative, but weakened at higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (>50 min per day) and higher counts per minute. No associations...

  7. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Waterfowl Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_waterfowl_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for waterfowl species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data represent waterfowl habitats with...

  8. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Bear Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_bear_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for the Louisiana black bear in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent occupied habitat for this...

  9. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Alligator Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_gator_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for American alligator in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent alligator habitats with nest density...

  10. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Crawfish Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_crawfish_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data representing major concentration areas for harvested or potentially harvested crawfish and river shrimp in...

  11. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Habitats Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_habitats_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for coastal habitats in Louisiana. Vector polygons represent various habitats, including marsh types, other...

  12. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Shorebird Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_shorebird_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebird species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent concentration areas and "hotspots"...

  13. Large Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Systems for International Collaboration In Fluid Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEligot, Donald M.; Becker, Stefan; McIlroy, Hugh M. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In recent international collaboration, INL and Uni. Erlangen have developed large MIR flow systems which can be ideal for joint graduate student education and research. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in complex passages and around objects to be obtained without locating a disturbing transducer in the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. The MIR technique is not new itself; others employed it earlier. The innovation of these MIR systems is their large size relative to previous experiments, yielding improved spatial and temporal resolution. This report will discuss the benefits of the technique, characteristics of the systems and some examples of their applications to complex situations. Typically their experiments have provided new fundamental understanding plus benchmark data for assessment and possible validation of computational thermal fluid dynamic codes.

  14. International Cultural Immersion: Assessing the Influence of a Group Intervention on Intercultural Sensitivity for Counselor Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Sejal M.; Shannonhouse, Laura; Mobley, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Scholars (e.g., Bemak & Chung, 2004) underscore the need for group workers to be culturally sensitive. One group training strategy, cultural immersion, is often employed to develop cultural sensitivity. However, no studies have utilized quasi-experimental methodologies to assess differences in cultural sensitivity between trainees that immerse…

  15. Extraordinary sensitivity of the internal Doppler effect in a superfluid 4-3He admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomnyashchy, Y. A.; Gov, N.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.

    1995-09-01

    Recently, a nontrivial T (temperature) behavior was found for the Doppler shift of the fourth and first sounds in superfluid 4He with internal motion: a plateau in the phonon region and a sharp peak in the beginning of the roton region of the Doppler parameters Γ4,1 (T)=(Δu4,1/vs)v=0. The situation is similar to the case of second sound investigated long ago for Γ2(T)=(Δu2/vn)v=0, but the signs and values of plateaus and peaks indicated some kinds of Doppler anomalies: the ``outstripping effect'' (OEF), in addition to the ``back-entrainment effect'' (BEF) described by Khalatnikov (Δui is the Doppler shift of ith sound; vs, vn, v are the velocities of superfluid and normal components and of the liquid as a whole, respectively). The Doppler anomalies mean the breaking of some ``natural'' suppositions: that Δui is intermediate between vn and vs, and that the sign of (Δui-v) is determined by the velocity of the ``dominant'' component (at low T this is the superfluid component for first and fourth sounds, vd=vs, and the normal one for second sound, vd=vn). The direction of (Δui-v) can be opposite to the direction of (vd-v) (BEF) and the center of spreading sound can move faster than the flowing dominant component when the other component is stationary: Δui>vd (OEF). The Doppler anomalies as well as the very existence of the nonkinematic (internal) Doppler shift Δui-v≠0, and its nontrivial T behavior are special manifestations of the superfluidity. Here we investigate the Doppler phenomenon in the 4-3He mixture. We find strong sensitivity of the T behavior of the Doppler shift and of the Doppler anomalies to the 3He admixture. At low T this is associated with a general peculiarity of the 4-3He mixture: the nonanalyticity of its characteristics, i.e., the inequivalence of T-->0, X-->0 to X-->0, T-->0 (X is the concentration of 3He). We find some ``key derivatives:'' ∂ρ/∂w2, ∂σ/∂w2, crucial for the T behavior of Γi whose role changes at X≠0 (ρ and

  16. Música Internacional e International Index to Music Periodicals: dos ejemplos de Bases de Datos consultables a través de Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez Tudurí, Carmen

    1997-01-01

    Música Internacional is a database of Choral Repertoire made by a network of partners of 13 different countries with the objective to create an exhaustive data bank of choral music of the world. International Index to Periodicals is a bibliographical database that review around 400 international magazines of thematic musical.

  17. Exercise self-efficacy moderates the relation between anxiety sensitivity and body mass index and exercise tolerance in treatment-seeking smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farris, S.G.; Davis, M.L.; Rosenfield, D.; Kauffman, B.Y.; Baird, S.O.; Powers, M.B.; Otto, M.W.; Marcus, B.H.; Church, T.S.; Smits, J.A.J.; Zvolensky, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    There is little known about factors that contribute to the comorbidity of cigarette smoking and obesity. The current study sought to test whether exercise self-efficacy moderated the relation between anxiety sensitivity (fear of internal sensations) and BMI and exercise tolerance among cigarette

  18. The Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Supplementary Index Score of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Screening Module that is Sensitive to Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, David; Jones, Christopher A; Clowes, Zoe; Belli, Antonio; Su, Zhangjie; Sitaraman, Murugan; Davies, David; Taylor, Ross; Flahive, Elizabeth; Travis, Clare; O'Neil, Nicci; Pettigrew, Yvonne

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the validity of the NAB Screening Module (screening module of the neuropsychological assessment battery, S-NAB) in an acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) inpatient population and provides psychometric evaluation of an original index sensitive to TBI impairment. The utility of the S-NAB as a TBI screen was examined using a between groups design. One-hundred and four patients with mild complicated to severe TBI were recruited from a consecutive cohort of patients admitted as inpatients to a UK Major Trauma Centre. Ninety-eight control participants were selected from the S-NAB normative sample. All TBI patients completed the S-NAB during their inpatient stay. Control participants scored significantly higher than TBI participants on the Total Screening index (t = 3.626, p injury. The S-NAB TBI index is a robust, reliable screening index for use with acute TBI patients, which is sensitive to the effects of acute TBI. It affords a briefer cognitive screen than the S-NAB and demonstrates a dose response relationship to TBI severity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION OF DRUG TREATMENT CENTER IN MURSKA SOBOTA FOR DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPEAN TREATMENT INDEX EXIT TREATMENT (ETI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Nolimal

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Our goal is to introduce the international cooperation of the Drug Treatment Centre in Murska Sobota in European project of the development of the final processing index under patronage of the Pompidou-group. The principal goal of the research was to collect the basic informations for the development of the final processing index and the introduction of unified epidemiological attendance of drug users in different European cities.Methods. The quality research method was used in this research.Difficulties in development of unified attendance of the phenomenon are discribed and informations which should be included in such a system are exposed.15 European cities from 6 different countries cooperated in this project.The project has bin going on for 12 months and includet minimum 20 questionaris.Results. There are introduced basic habbits which were recognized in centre in Murska Sobota. Comparative informationes which we could comprehend with other cities and issuficiences which we recognized at the treatment.Conclusions. It is about the first experiment of collecting such unified information in this area. It is important to compare the information that indicate the initial treatment with the concluded treatment.The continuation of work on developing and indicative and preparation of adequate protocol which will settle the unified convoyment of treatment at the beginning, and on the end is one of the priorities of epidemic work on the area of drugs in Europe and in Slovenia.

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Puerto Rico - 2000, maps and geographic information systems data DVD (NODC Accession 0014188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife by their sensitivity to spilled oil. The ESI data include information for three main components: shoreline...

  1. Application of the BMWP-Costa Rica biotic index in aquatic biomonitoring: sensitivity to collection method and sampling intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E; Lorion, Christopher M

    2014-04-01

    The use of aquatic macroinvertebrates as bio-indicators in water quality studies has increased considerably over the last decade in Costa Rica, and standard biomonitoring methods have now been formulated at the national level. Nevertheless, questions remain about the effectiveness of different methods of sampling freshwater benthic assemblages, and how sampling intensity may influence biomonitoring results. In this study, we compared the results of qualitative sampling using commonly applied methods with a more intensive quantitative approach at 12 sites in small, lowland streams on the southern Caribbean slope of Costa Rica. Qualitative samples were collected following the official protocol using a strainer during a set time period and macroinvertebrates were field-picked. Quantitative sampling involved collecting ten replicate Surber samples and picking out macroinvertebrates in the laboratory with a stereomicroscope. The strainer sampling method consistently yielded fewer individuals and families than quantitative samples. As a result, site scores calculated using the Biological Monitoring Working Party-Costa Rica (BMWP-CR) biotic index often differed greatly depending on the sampling method. Site water quality classifications using the BMWP-CR index differed between the two sampling methods for 11 of the 12 sites in 2005, and for 9 of the 12 sites in 2006. Sampling intensity clearly had a strong influence on BMWP-CR index scores, as well as perceived differences between reference and impacted sites. Achieving reliable and consistent biomonitoring results for lowland Costa Rican streams may demand intensive sampling and requires careful consideration of sampling methods.

  2. The difference in the position of Mexico, Japan and China as recipients of international tourism and their position in Competitiveness Index Travel and Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Magaña Carrillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mexico, as a tourist destination that is recipient of tourists, ranks among the top ten in terms of international arrivals. Nevertheless, in terms of competitiveness, according to the index of Travel and Tourism Competitiveness, its ranking is very low. This research project looks to understand and explain the differences in tourist competitiveness between Mexico and other countries within the Asia-Pacific Basin. This article is preoccupied with the question posed by Mexico’s evident contradicting position as that of being on the one hand, leader in terms of international arrivals, and on the other, having a low competitive performance, according to the index of international tourist competitiveness. Comparing Mexico to Japan and China, helps to understand what aspects, among those considered in the index pillars, should be contemplated in order to strengthen Mexico’s levels of competitiveness, as suggested in the Tourist Sectorial Plan 2007-2012.

  3. Establishing score equivalence of the Functional Independence Measure motor scale and the Barthel Index, utilising the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Rasch measurement theory

    OpenAIRE

    Prodinger, B; O'Connor, RJ; Stucki, G; Tennant, A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Two widely used outcome measures to assess functioning in neurological rehabilitation are the Functional Independence Measure (FIM™) and the Barthel Index. The current study aims to establish the equivalence of the total score of the FIM™ motor scale and the Barthel Index through the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and Rasch measurement theory. Methods: Secondary analysis of a large sample of patients with stroke, spinal cor...

  4. Greater body mass index is a better predictor of subclinical cardiac damage at long-term follow-up in men than is insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Pareek, Manan; Gerke, Oke

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine whether lower insulin sensitivity as determined by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-%S) was associated with increased left ventricular mass (LVM) and presence of LV diastolic dysfunction at long-term follow-up, independently of body mass index (BMI), in middle-aged, other......BACKGROUND: To examine whether lower insulin sensitivity as determined by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-%S) was associated with increased left ventricular mass (LVM) and presence of LV diastolic dysfunction at long-term follow-up, independently of body mass index (BMI), in middle......-aged, otherwise healthy males. METHODS: Prospective population-based cohort study with a median (IQR) follow-up time of 28 (27-28) years, in which traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including HOMA-%S and BMI, were assessed at baseline, and echocardiographic determination of LVM and LV diastolic function...... (IQR) HOMA-%S was 113.0 (68.3-284.6). Subjects with low insulin sensitivity (lowest HOMA-%S quartile (Q1)) had significantly greater BMI, fasting plasma insulin, and higher fasting blood glucose (FBG) (p HOMA-%S were significantly correlated (r = -0.383, p

  5. Sensitivities of Internal Combustion Automotive Engines to Variations in Fuel Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    An assessment of the sensitivity of the automotive gasoline and diesel engines to variations in fuel properties has been made. The variables studied include H/C ratio, distillation range, aromatic content, ignition quality as determined by the octane...

  6. Potential usefulness of solubility index for prediction of the skin permeation rate of 5-ISMN from pressure-sensitive adhesive tape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Mitsui, N; Hasegawa, T; Sugibayashi, K; Morimoto, Y

    2001-06-15

    Skin permeation of 5-ISMN from pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) tape was evaluated using thermodynamic activity of the drug in PSA. Three acrylic adhesives (Gelva 737, Gelva 1430 and Gelva 1753) were used as PSA. Since the drug activity in PSA is difficult to determine, however, a solubility index was defined. Several PSA tapes containing different amounts of 5-ISMN were prepared, and heat of fusion at the dissolution of 5-ISMN in each PSA was determined by DSC. No exothermic peak was found when the drug concentration was less than the solubility in PSA, whereas the heat of fusion increased proportionally with amount of solid drug in the PSA when the drug concentration was above the solubility. The bending point in the profile of heat of fusion versus 5-ISMN content in PSA was defined as the solubility index. In vitro skin permeation was determined using excised hairless rat skin from 5-ISMN-saturated PSA tapes. The obtained skin permeation of the drug decreased with increases in the solubility index. These profiles were confirmed by a theoretical approach using the differential equation corresponding to Fick's second law of diffusion. These results suggested that the solubility index can be utilized for prediction of the skin permeability of drugs from PSA tape.

  7. Sensitivity of emergent sociohydrologic dynamics to internal system properties and external sociopolitical factors: Implications for water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafei, Y.; Tonts, M.; Sivapalan, M.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged that effective management of water resources requires a holistic understanding of the coevolving dynamics inherent in the coupled human-hydrology system. One of the fundamental information gaps concerns the sensitivity of coupled system feedbacks to various endogenous system properties and exogenous societal contexts. This paper takes a previously calibrated sociohydrology model and applies an idealized implementation, in order to: (i) explore the sensitivity of emergent dynamics resulting from bidirectional feedbacks to assumptions regarding (a) internal system properties that control the internal dynamics of the coupled system and (b) the external sociopolitical context; and (ii) interpret the results within the context of water resource management decision making. The analysis investigates feedback behavior in three ways, (a) via a global sensitivity analysis on key parameters and assessment of relevant model outputs, (b) through a comparative analysis based on hypothetical placement of the catchment along various points on the international sociopolitical gradient, and (c) by assessing the effects of various direct management intervention scenarios. Results indicate the presence of optimum windows that might offer the greatest positive impact per unit of management effort. Results further advocate management tools that encourage an adaptive learning, community-based approach with respect to water management, which are found to enhance centralized policy measures. This paper demonstrates that it is possible to use a place-based sociohydrology model to make abstractions as to the dynamics of bidirectional feedback behavior, and provide insights as to the efficacy of water management tools under different circumstances.

  8. On the use of the (V,W) Burn-Sensitive Vegetation Index System to monitor the spatiotemporal distribution of burned areas in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaCamara, Carlos; Libonati, Renata; Calado, Teresa; Ermida, Sofia; Nunes, Sílvia

    2017-04-01

    The use of remotely sensed information for burned area detection is well established and there is a general consensus about its usefulness from global down to regional levels. In this particular, the combined use of near and middle infrared (NIR and MIR) channels has shown to be particularly suitable to discriminate burned areas in a variety of ecosystems. The so-called (V,W) system [1,2] is a burn-sensitive vegetation index system defined in a transformed NIR-MIR space that has proven to be capable of discriminating burned pixels in the Brazilian biomes. A procedure based on the (V,W) system is here presented that allows discriminating burned areas and dating burning events. The procedure is tested over Portugal using NIR and MIR data from the Terra/Aqua MODIS Level 1B 1 km V5 product (MOD021/MYD021) together with active fire data from the MODIS V5 product Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km (MOD14/ MYD14). First monthly minimum composites of W are computed for July and August 2015. Burned pixels are then identified as the ones that are located close to hot spots (detected during August) and that present low values of composited minimum of W in August (characteristic of a burning event) together with a sharp decrease of composited minimum of W from July to August (that is expected to occur after a burning event). Burned pixels are then successively identified by a seeded region-growing algorithm. The day of burning of each pixel classified as burned is finally identified as the one that maximizes an index of temporal separability computed along the respective time series of available values of W in August. Results obtained are validated using as reference burned scars and dates as identified by the Rapid Damage Assessment (RDA) module developed by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS); the EFFIS mapping process consists of an unsupervised procedure that uses MODIS bands at 250 m resolution combined with information from the CORINE Land Cover

  9. Evaluation of sexual function in young men with spina bifida and myelomeningocele using the International Index of Erectile Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamé, Xavier; Moscovici, Jacques; Gamé, Laurence; Sarramon, Jean-Pierre; Rischmann, Pascal; Malavaud, Bernard

    2006-03-01

    To assess sexual function in young men with spina bifida and myelomeningocele. Between November 2003 and February 2004, a cross-sectional study was performed in 55 men older than 18 years of age who had been regularly followed up for myelomeningocele since childhood, between 1961 and 1985, in the Pediatric Internal Surgery Department. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire was mailed to each man. The response rate was 72.7%. Of the 40 men who replied, 16 (40%) had had sexual intercourse at least once during the previous month. These were the older men (age 31.9 +/- 5.7 years versus 27.7 +/- 5.5 years, P = 0.027). The IIEF scores for the whole group were erectile function 11.61 +/- 9.44, orgasmic function 3.53 +/- 3.86, sexual desire 6.94 +/- 2.4, intercourse satisfaction 3.7 +/- 4.81, and overall satisfaction 4.7 +/- 3.34. According to the classification of Cappelleri, of the 16 men who had had sexual intercourse during the previous month, 4 had no erectile dysfunction, 3 had mild, 4 mild to moderate, and 5 severe dysfunction. Erectile function was statistically related to the ability to maintain erections (mean IIEF score 4 and 5 for men with no erectile dysfunction versus a mean IIEF score of 4 and 5 for men with erectile dysfunction: 4.75 +/- 0.5 versus 2.00 +/- 1.32, P = 0.011 for IIEF score of 4 and 4.50 +/- 1.5 versus 3 +/- 2, P = 0.040 for IIEF score of 5). Young adult men with spina bifida and myelomeningocele begin sexual activity late. Moreover, 75% have erectile dysfunction that is related to difficulty in maintaining erections.

  10. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...... information on progress or lack of progress in the reconstruction of the post Taliban Afghanistan. The index is mainly based on information collected on the internet in order to provide quick access to the original source. The index is under development and thus new information will be added on a continuous...

  11. Improved risk stratification by the integration of the revised international prognostic scoring system with the myelodysplastic syndromes comorbidity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spronsen, M F; Ossenkoppele, G J; Holman, R; van de Loosdrecht, A A

    2014-12-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise bone marrow failure diseases with a diverse clinical outcome. For improved risk stratification, the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) has recently been revised (IPSS-R). This single-centre study aimed to validate the IPSS-R and to evaluate prior prognostic scoring systems for MDS. We retrospectively analysed 363 patients diagnosed with MDS according to the FAB criteria between 2000 and 2012. The IPSS, MD Anderson Risk Model Score (MDAS), World Health Organisation (WHO)-classification based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS), refined WPSS (WPSS-R), IPSS-R and MDS-Comorbidity Index (MDS-CI) were applied to 222 patients considered with primary MDS following the WHO criteria and their prognostic power was investigated. According to the IPSS-R, 18 (8%), 81 (37%), 50 (23%), 43 (19%) and 30 (13%) patients were classified as very low, low, intermediate, high and very high risk with, respectively, a median overall survival of 96 (95% Confidence interval (CI) not reached), 49 (95% CI 34-64), 22 (95% CI 0-49), 19 (95% CI 11-27) and 10 (95% CI 6-13) months (pMDS-CI refined the risk stratification of MDS patients stratified according to the IPSS-R. In conclusion, accounting for the disease status by means of the IPSS-R and comorbidity through the MDS-CI considerably improves the prognostic assessment in MDS patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improved prognostic stratification using NCCN- and GELTAMO-international prognostic index in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Junshik; Kim, Seok Jin; Chang, Myung Hee; Kim, Jeong-A; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jin Seok; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Lee, Won Sik; Do, Young Rok; Kang, Hye Jin; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Park, Yong; Won, Jong-Ho; Mun, Yeung-Chul; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kwon, Jung Hye; Kong, Jee Hyun; Oh, Sung Yong; Lee, Sunah; Bae, Sung Hwa; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jun, Hyun Jung; Lee, Ho Sup; Yun, Hwan Jung; Lee, Soon Il; Kim, Min Kyoung; Yi, Jun Ho; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Won Seog; Suh, Cheolwon

    2017-11-03

    The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN)-International Prognostic Index (IPI) and GELTAMO (Grupo Español de Linfomas/Trasplante Autólogo de Médula Ósea)-IPI were developed to enable better risk prediction of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The present study compared the effectiveness of risk prediction between IPI, NCCN-IPI, and GELTAMO-IPI in patients with DLBCL particularly in terms of determining high-risk patients. Among 439 patients who were enrolled to a prospective DLBCL cohort treated with R-CHOP immunochemotherapy, risk groups were classified according to the three IPIs and the prognostic significance of individual IPI factors and IPI models were analyzed and compared. All three IPI effectively separated the analyzed patients into four risk groups according to overall survival (OS). Estimated 5-year OS of patients classified as high-risk according to the IPI was 45.7%, suggesting that the IPI is limited in the selection of patients who are expected to have a poor outcome. In contrast, the 5-year OS of patients stratified as high-risk according to NCCN- and GELTAMO-IPI was 31.4% and 21.9%, respectively. The results indicate that NCCN- and GELTAMO-IPI are better than the IPI in predicting patients with poor prognosis, suggesting the superiority of enhanced, next-generation IPIs for DLBCL.

  13. A global validation of the ASCAT Soil Water Index (SWI) with in situ data from the International Soil Moisture Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, C.; Naeimi, V.; Dorigo, W.; Wagner, W.; Kidd, R.

    2012-04-01

    Soil Moisture is an Essential Climate Variable and a key parameter in hydrology, meteorology and agriculture. Surface Soil Moisture (SSM) can be estimated from measurements taken by ASCAT onboard Metop-A and have been successfully validated by several studies (C. Albergel et.al. 2009 and 2012, M.Parrens et.al. 2012). Profile soil moisture, while equally important, can not be measured directly by remote sensing. The near real-time Soil Water Index (SWI) product, developed within the framework of the GMES project geoland2 aims to close this gap. It is produced from ASCAT SSM estimates using a two-layer water balance model which describes the relationship between surface and profile soil moisture as a function of time. It provides daily global data about moisture conditions for 8 characteristic time lengths representing different depths. The objective of this work was to assess the quality of the SWI data for different measurement depths. SWI data from January 1st 2007 until the end of 2010 was compared to in situ soil moisture data from 420 stations belonging to 22 observation networks which are available through the International Soil Moisture Network. These stations delivered 1331 station/depth combinations which were compared to the SWI values. After excluding observations made during frozen conditions the average significant correlation coefficients were 0.564 (min -0.684, max 0.955) while being greater than 0.3 for 88% of all station/depth combinations.

  14. Body mass index in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents: A national reference and comparison with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Herbish, Abdullah S; ElMouzan, Mohammed I; AlSalloum, Abdullah A; AlQureshi, Mansour M; AlOmar, Ahmed A; Fster, Peter J; Kecojevic, Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Because there are no reference standards for body mass index (BMI) in Saudi children, we established BMI reference percentiles for normal Saudi Arabian children and adolescents and compared them with international standards. Data from a stratified multistage probability sample were collected from the 13 health regions in Saudi Arabia, as part of a nationwide health profile survey of Saudi Arabian children and adolescents conducted to establish normal physical growth references. Selected households were visited by a trained team. Weight and length/height were measured and recorded following the WHO recommended procedures using the same equipment, which were subjected to both calibration and intra/interobserver variations. Survey of 11 874 eligible households yielded 35 275 full-term and healthy children and adolescents who were subjected to anthropometric measurements. Four BMI curves were produced, from birth to 36 months and 2 to 19 years for girls and boys. The 3rd, 5th, 10th ,25th , 5oth , 75th ,85th , 90th , 95th , and 97th percentiles were produced and compared with the WHO and CDC BMI charts. In the higher percentiles, the Saudi children differed from Western counterparts, indicating that Saudi children have equal or higher BMIs. The BMI curves reflect statistically representative BMI values for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. (author)

  15. Improved localized surface plasmon resonance index sensitivity based on chemically-synthesized gold nanoparticles on indium tin oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin; Li, Xiaolong; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Biao; Tian, Yubo

    2018-02-01

    The results of this reported work indicated that gold nanoparticle arrays self-assembled on indium tin oxide (ITO) glasses can obtain broader localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelength range and higher sensitivity than the bare quartz. The results of surface electric field calculated using finite difference time domain showed that the electric field of nanoparticles on ITO glasses is enhanced and the repulsive forces within each particle is weakened. According to the dipolar interaction mechanism, a weakened repulsive forces within each particle lead to a lower resonance frequency and a strong redshift of the LSPR spectra.

  16. Intercultural Sensitivity, Gender, and Nationality of Third Culture Kids Attending an International High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Due to the globalization and interconnectedness of people from different cultures, intercultural competence is a prerequisite to communicating effectively across different cultures. The Intercultural Sensitivity Inventory (ICSI) measures a person's ability to modify behavior in culturally appropriate ways when coming into contact with diverse…

  17. Establishing score equivalence of the Functional Independence Measure motor scale and the Barthel Index, utilising the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Rasch measurement theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, Birgit; O'Connor, Rory J; Stucki, Gerold; Tennant, Alan

    2017-05-16

    Two widely used outcome measures to assess functioning in neurological rehabilitation are the Functional Independence Measure (FIM™) and the Barthel Index. The current study aims to establish the equivalence of the total score of the FIM™ motor scale and the Barthel Index through the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and Rasch measurement theory. Secondary analysis of a large sample of patients with stroke, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis, undergoing rehabilitation was conducted. All patients were assessed at the same time on both the FIM™ and the Barthel Index. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Linking Rules were used to establish conceptual coherency between the 2 scales, and the Rasch measurement model to establish an exchange of the total scores. Using the FIM™ motor scale, items from both scales linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health d4 Mobility or d5 Self-care chapters. Their co-calibration satisfied the assumptions of the Rasch model for each of 3 diagnostic groups. A ceiling effect was observed for the Barthel Index when contrasted against the FIM™ motor scale. Having a Rasch interval metric to transform scores between the FIM™ motor scale and Barthel Index is valuable for monitoring functioning, meta-analysis, quality audits and hospital benchmarking.

  18. The International Prognostic Index correlates to survival in patients with aggressive lymphoma in relapse: analysis of the PARMA trial. Parma Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blay, J.; Gomez, F.; Sebban, C.; Bachelot, T.; Biron, P.; Guglielmi, C.; Hagenbeek, A.; Somers, R.; Chauvin, F.; Philip, T.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prognostic value of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) at relapse in the 215 patients with intermediate- or high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) included in the PARMA trial. The IPI at relapse was available in 204 (95%) of these

  19. Large-scale international validation of the ADO index in subjects with COPD: an individual subject data analysis of 10 cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puhan, Milo A; Hansel, Nadia N; Sobradillo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little evidence on the validity of simple and widely applicable tools to predict mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exists.Objective: To conduct a large international study to validate the ADO index that uses age, dyspnoea and FEV1 to predict 3-yea...

  20. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India - Exploring culture and ethnic sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The main argument of this contribution is that the distinction between internal and external is at best blurred and in reality does not make much sense in the case of India’s foreign policy. It may start and end at the border and determined by negotiations, diplomacy or brute force but there is n......The main argument of this contribution is that the distinction between internal and external is at best blurred and in reality does not make much sense in the case of India’s foreign policy. It may start and end at the border and determined by negotiations, diplomacy or brute force...... but there is no conclusive evidence in the literature to decide what determines what. There are important dynamics and interplays across the thin line between the domestic and international sphere especially in terms of understanding the reciprocal challenges related to how the factors of culture and ethnicity relate...... with the legitimacy of the state. The aim of the paper serves four purposes. To unpack and give a critical overview of the debates concerned with the internal and external aspects of India’s foreign policy; situate the literature dealing more specifically with domestic issues related to culture and ethnicity...

  1. Comparative and International Education: Policy Transfer, Context Sensitivity and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Michael; Watson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the intellectual and professional contribution of comparative and international studies to the field of education. It explores the nature of the challenges that are currently being faced, and assesses its potential for the advancement of future teaching, research and professional development. Attention is paid to the place of…

  2. 77 FR 52333 - International Workshop on Alternatives to the Murine Histamine Sensitization Test (HIST) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Alternative Methods to Reduce, Refine, and Replace the Use of Animals in Vaccine Potency and Safety Testing... reducing or replacing the use of animals in vaccine safety testing. The goal is to address the path toward... testing expense and animal usage. An international workshop organized in 2010 \\1\\ by NICEATM, Interagency...

  3. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India - Exploring culture and ethnic sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    and outline the main approaches involved; to give an overview of how external factors impact foreign policy conduct and give an overview about India’s role in defining international norms and regulations; finally the paper gives some theoretical markers, suggestions and tentative concluding remarks....

  4. Robustness and sensitivities of central U.S. summer convection in the super-parameterized CAM: Multi-model intercomparison with a new regional EOF index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooperman, Gabriel J.; Pritchard, Michael S.; Somerville, Richard C. J.

    2013-06-01

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) can bring up to 60% of summer rainfall to the central United States but are not simulated by most global climate models. In this study, a new empirical orthogonal function based index is developed to isolate the MCS activity, similar to that developed by Wheeler and Hendon (2004) for the Madden-Julian Oscillation. The index is applied to compactly compare three conventional- and super-parameterized (SP) versions (3.0, 3.5, and 5.0) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). Results show that nocturnal, eastward propagating convection is a robust effect of super-parameterization but is sensitive to its specific implementation. MCS composites based on the index show that in SP-CAM3.5, convective MCS anomalies are unrealistically large scale and concentrated, while surface precipitation is too weak. These aspects of the MCS signal are improved in the latest version (SP-CAM5.0), which uses high-order microphysics.

  5. Internal Variability and Disequilibrium Confound Estimates of Climate Sensitivity From Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Kate; Pincus, Robert; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Miller, Ron L.

    2018-02-01

    An emerging literature suggests that estimates of equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) derived from recent observations and energy balance models are biased low because models project more positive climate feedback in the far future. Here we use simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to show that across models, ECS inferred from the recent historical period (1979-2005) is indeed almost uniformly lower than that inferred from simulations subject to abrupt increases in CO2 radiative forcing. However, ECS inferred from simulations in which sea surface temperatures are prescribed according to observations is lower still. ECS inferred from simulations with prescribed sea surface temperatures is strongly linked to changes to tropical marine low clouds. However, feedbacks from these clouds are a weak constraint on long-term model ECS. One interpretation is that observations of recent climate changes constitute a poor direct proxy for long-term sensitivity.

  6. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas (2): Cook Inlet - 2002, Kodiak - 1998, Southeast - 2002, Bristol Bay - 2004, Prince William Sound - 2000, Aleutians - 2001, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0050372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Kodiak (1998), Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), Cook Inlet (2002),...

  7. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Massachusetts - Volume 1, geographic information systems data and Volume 2, maps and data in portable document format maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014790)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Massachusetts from 1980 to 2000. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife...

  8. Dual-capillary backscatter interferometry for high-sensitivity nanoliter-volume refractive index detection with density gradient compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanling; Bornhop, Darryl J

    2005-12-15

    A simple, stable, ultrasensitive dual-capillary dual-bicell (DCDB) microinterferometic backscattering detection (MIBD) system was developed. In DCDB MIBD, a He-Ne laser beam passes through a half-wave plate onto the cross section of two capillaries, one for reference and another for sensing analyte. The position of the backscattered fringe from each capillary, which are in proximity or essentially identical thermal environments, was detected with matched bicell photodetectors. The configuration was found to effectively compensate for thermal drift, which is normally the major source of noise in refractive index (RI) detection systems. It is shown that passive environmental compensation leads to greatly enhanced signal in nanoscale refractometry preformed by MIBD. An order of magnitude improvement in detection limits over single channel configurations is possible. Performance reaches the 10(-9) RIU level for like solvents in the presence in extremely large thermally induced RI gradients. At this level of detectability, DCDB MIBD could facilitate nanoliter-volume, femtomole-level universal detection in applications ranging from mu-HPLC and on-chip CE to scanning microcalorimetry.

  9. Preschoolers’ Genetic, Physiological, and Behavioral Sensitivity Factors Moderate Links Between Parenting Stress and Child Internalizing, Externalizing, and Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Molly; Thomassin, Kristel; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers’ adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism - the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator - children’s baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator - mothers’ reports of children’s negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (Mage = 30.68 years, SDage = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers’ (Mage = 3.50 years, SDage = .51, 61% boys) negative emotionality and internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems. Results indicated that the genetic sensitivity variable functioned according to a differential susceptibility model; however, the results involving physiological and behavioral sensitivity factors were most consistent with a diathesis-stress framework. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to counter the effects of parenting stress are discussed. PMID:28295263

  10. Differences in the response sensitivity of stomatal index to atmospheric CO2 among four genera of Cupressaceae conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Matthew; Heath, James; McElwain, Jennifer C

    2010-03-01

    The inverse relationship between stomatal density (SD: number of stomata per mm(2) leaf area) and atmospheric concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) permits the use of plants as proxies of palaeo-atmospheric CO2. Many stomatal reconstructions of palaeo-[CO2] are based upon multiple fossil species. However, it is unclear how plants respond to [CO2] across genus, family or ecotype in terms of SD or stomatal index (SI: ratio of stomata to epidermal cells). This study analysed the stomatal numbers of conifers from the ancient family Cupressaceae, in order to examine the nature of the SI-[CO2] relationship, and potential implications for stomatal reconstructions of palaeo-[CO2]. Methods Stomatal frequency measurements were taken from historical herbarium specimens of Athrotaxis cupressoides, Tetraclinis articulata and four Callitris species, and live A. cupressoides grown under CO2-enrichment (370, 470, 570 and 670 p.p.m. CO2). T. articulata, C. columnaris and C. rhomboidea displayed significant reductions in SI with rising [CO2]; by contrast, A. cupressoides, C. preissii and C. oblonga show no response in SI. However, A. cupressoides does reduce SI to increases in [CO2] above current ambient (approx. 380 p.p.m. CO2). This dataset suggests that a shared consistent SI-[CO2] relationship is not apparent across the genus Callitris. Conclusions The present findings suggest that it is not possible to generalize how conifer species respond to fluctuations in [CO2] based upon taxonomic relatedness or habitat. This apparent lack of a consistent response, in conjunction with high variability in SI, indicates that reconstructions of absolute palaeo-[CO2] based at the genus level, or upon multiple species for discrete intervals of time are not as reliable as those based on a single or multiple temporally overlapping species.

  11. Sensitivity of Climate Change Detection and Attribution to the Characterization of Internal Climate Variability

    KAUST Repository

    Imbers, Jara

    2014-05-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change\\'s (IPCC) "very likely" statement that anthropogenic emissions are affecting climate is based on a statistical detection and attribution methodology that strongly depends on the characterization of internal climate variability. In this paper, the authors test the robustness of this statement in the case of global mean surface air temperature, under different representations of such variability. The contributions of the different natural and anthropogenic forcings to the global mean surface air temperature response are computed using a box diffusion model. Representations of internal climate variability are explored using simple stochastic models that nevertheless span a representative range of plausible temporal autocorrelation structures, including the short-memory first-order autoregressive [AR(1)] process and the long-memory fractionally differencing process. The authors find that, independently of the representation chosen, the greenhouse gas signal remains statistically significant under the detection model employed in this paper. The results support the robustness of the IPCC detection and attribution statement for global mean temperature change under different characterizations of internal variability, but they also suggest that a wider variety of robustness tests, other than simple comparisons of residual variance, should be performed when dealing with other climate variables and/or different spatial scales. © 2014 American Meteorological Society.

  12. Routine use of ancillary investigations in staging diffuse large B-cell lymphoma improves the International Prognostic Index (IPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaulikar, Dipti; Shadbolt, Bruce; Dahlstrom, Jane E; McDonald, Anne

    2009-11-22

    The International Prognostic Index (IPI) is used to determine prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). One of the determinants of IPI is the stage of disease with bone marrow involvement being classified as stage IV. For the IPI, involvement on bone marrow is traditionally defined on the basis of histology with ancillary investigations used only in difficult cases to aid histological diagnosis. This study aimed to determine the effect of the routine use of flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and molecular studies in bone marrow staging upon the IPI. Bone marrow trephines of 156 histologically proven DLBCL cases at initial diagnosis were assessed on routine histology, and immunohistochemistry using two T-cell markers (CD45RO and CD3), two B-cell markers (CD20 and CD79a) and kappa and lambda light chains. Raw flow cytometry data on all samples were reanalysed and reinterpreted blindly. DNA extracted from archived paraffin-embedded trephine biopsy samples was used for immunoglobulin heavy chain and light chain gene rearrangement analysis. Using immunophenotyping (flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry), 30 (19.2%) cases were upstaged to stage IV. A further 8 (5.1%) cases were upstaged using molecular studies. A change in IPI was noted in 18 cases (11.5%) on immunophenotyping alone, and 22 (14.1%) cases on immunophenotyping and molecular testing. Comparison of two revised IPI models, 1) using immunophenotyping alone, and 2) using immunophenotyping with molecular studies, was performed with baseline IPI using a Cox regression model. It showed that the revised IPI model using immunophenotyping provides the best differentiation between the IPI categories. Improved bone marrow staging using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry improves the predictive value of the IPI in patients with DLBCL and should be performed routinely in all cases.

  13. Fast-food consumption and body mass index in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Irene; Stewart, Alistair W; Hancox, Robert J; Beasley, Richard; Murphy, Rinki; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2014-12-08

    To investigate whether reported fast-food consumption over the previous year is associated with higher childhood or adolescent body mass index (BMI). Secondary analysis from a multicentre, multicountry cross-sectional study (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) Phase Three). Parents/guardians of children aged 6-7 completed questionnaires which included questions about their children's asthma and allergies, fast-food consumption, height and weight. Adolescents aged 13-14 completed the same questionnaire. The questionnaire asked "In the past 12 months, how often on average did you (your child) eat fast-food/burgers?" The responses were infrequent (never/only occasionally), frequent (once/twice a week) or very frequent (three or more times per week). A general linear mixed model was used to determine the association between BMI and fast-food consumption, adjusting for Gross National Income per capita by country, measurement type (whether heights/weights were reported or measured), age and sex. 72,900 children (17 countries) and 199,135 adolescents (36 countries) provided data. Frequent and very frequent fast-food consumption was reported in 23% and 4% of children, and 39% and 13% of adolescents, respectively. Children in the frequent and very frequent groups had a BMI that was 0.15 and 0.22 kg/m(2) higher than those in the infrequent group (pfast-food consumption is high in childhood and increases in adolescence. Compared with infrequent fast-food consumption, frequent and very frequent consumption is associated with a higher BMI in children. Owing to residual confounding, reverse causation and likely misreporting, the reverse association observed in adolescents should be interpreted with caution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. The Use of International Roughness Index and Structural Number for Rehabilitation and Maintenance Policy of Local Highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan; Suprapto, M.; Setyawan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Rehabilitation and maintenance of road performed by technical agencies at the local government in Indonesia, are generally not based on the assessment of road conditions. The value of the structural and functional condition of the pavement is not counted on carefully. As a result, road rehabilitation and maintenance patterns tend to be similar, repetitive and improper. International Roughness Index (IRI) is a parameter for assessing the functional condition of the pavement while the Structural Number (SN) is a parameter for assessing the structural condition of the pavement. Measuring road conditions by using Roadroid applications on smartphones can provide an efficient way, scalable, and low cost to the highway authority to collect road condition data. This study was conducted to determine the conditions of the road both functionally and structurally. Results of research conducted, pavement functionally in a good condition with the acquisition of IRI value of less than 4. Structural pavement conditions indicate that the value of Structural Number Effective (SNeff) is less than the value of the Structural Number Future (SNf), thus the structural condition of the road segments has not been able to serve traffic with a design life of 20 years. Prediction of IRI value obtained to determine the type of road maintenance is functionally performed when the value of IRI exceeds the value of 4 with an overlay of material HRS WC 30 mm. Structurally road maintenance carried out various scenarios, the phased construction and direct construction. The type of material and thickness of pavement on a phased construction scenario for the design life of 15-20 years and direct construction gives better results than the phased construction scenarios for the design life of 5-20 years and 10-20 years.

  15. [Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the level of hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelet count as an activity index in ulcerative colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Rodríguez, J Jesús; Santiago-Luna, Ernesto; Velázquez-Ramírez, Gabriela Abigail; López-Ramírez, María Karina Lizbeth; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; González-Ojeda, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease characterized by relapsing and remitting non-infectious inflammation of the colorectal mucosa. Its heterogeneity makes assessment of the disease's activity a prerequisite for a rational choice of therapy. We aimed to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets to develop a simplified activity index of UC. Sixty patients with UC were included and submitted to measurements of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets, as well as sigmoidoscopy and biopsy. Sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values were correlated with the reported degree of activity in the biopsy. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine differences between groups, and Pearson and Spearman rank tests were used to correlate each parameter with the degree of activity. A p value hemoglobin level was 51% and 100% for hematocrit, respectively, 51% and 100% for hematocrit, and 84% and 100% for platelet counts. Spearman's correlation for hemoglobin was r = -0.866 (p hematocrit r = -0.864 (p Hemoglobin and hematocrit are useful to catalog the degree of activity of UC when it is severe. Platelet count may be a marker of severity at any time, due to its high sensitivity and specificity as a diagnostic test.

  16. Automatic Techniques for generation of environmental sensitivity index map to oil spill in the Guajará Bay , Belém-PA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pellon de Miranda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A routine of techniques and procedures was established in order to produce Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI maps for oil spill based on optical (Landsat ETM+ 7 and radar (Radarsat-1 Wide 1 remote sensing, multi-sensor data fusion and geographic information system. Seven landscape units were recognized related to high-land (coastal plateaus with artificial structures - ISA 8B and Estuarine wall - ISA 1B and recent coastal environments, as well as their ESI (flood -plain - ISA 10B ; Mangrove - ISA 10A; Vegeted muddy banks - ISA 9B; Estuarine beach - ISA 4; Cliff - ISA 3. The results obtained in the investigation have opened new perspectives in oil industry regarding the operational security and environmental protection, social-environmental assessment, technology for emergencies, coastal management and environmental information system.

  17. Structured communicative skills training for medical interns improves history taking skills on sensitive issues: An interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Sukhlecha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Communication is a process that allows us to interact with other people. Medical professionals need to possess good communication skills for history taking, diagnosis, and treatment. Communicative skills are hardly taught in medical schools of India. The students are expected to learn them on their own. To address this issue, we introduced communicative skills training (CST for medical interns. Objective: Primary – To determine the effectiveness of CST in improving history taking on sensitive issues by medical interns. Secondary – To improve patients' satisfaction through improved communicative skills. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized control study carried out on medical interns at Jamnagar. The interns were randomized to either Group A or Group B. Intervention in the form of CST was given to Group A while Group B was control. The topic of CST was “eliciting sexual history.” Assessment of participants was done by pre- and post-intervention objective structured clinical examination. For ethical reasons, Group B was also given CST by experts after completion of our study but their results were not included for analysis. Results: Although mean scores increased in both the groups, (from 6.4 to 13.4 in the intervention group and from 6.5 to 7.5 in controls, the percent increase was much larger in the intervention group than controls (109% vs. 15%. Students gave a positive feedback to CST. Opinion of teachers was favoring CST. Among the patients allotted to intervention group, 83% were satisfied. Conclusion: CST imparted to medical interns helps in improving doctor–patient relationship.

  18. Evaluation of sensitivity evaluation of a contamination monitor for use in monitoring of internal exposure of workers in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Assis, Janima Cruz de; Oliveira, Salomao Marques de; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida

    2014-01-01

    In practice of nuclear medicine, expert personnel routinely handle radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and radiotherapy. The control of intakes of radionuclides by workers can be performed through internal dosimetry techniques, as an integral part of the radiation protection program of the installation. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro in Brazil is regulated by CNEN-NE Standards and 3:05 CNEN-NN 3.01. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the establishment of an internal monitoring program on workers, especially those subject to possible exposure to annual effective doses greater than 1 mSv. Note that, currently, in Brazil, are not available qualified laboratories to provide internal monitoring services in all regions in the country, if it were applied by CNEN, the requirement for internal monitoring of workers. This paper presents the development of a simple and low-cost methodology for in vivo monitoring of 131 I in the thyroid. The proposed methodology is the use of portable monitor of surface contamination, equipment available and routinely used in all nuclear medicine services in Brazil. The monitor is calibrated with neck-thyroid simulator developed at the Laboratory of In Vivo Monitoring of IRD/CNEN-RJ. The equipment tested is suitable for application in in vivo occupational monitoring thyroid. This conclusion is based on the fact that the detection system has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring up to seven days after the incorporation of the radionuclide and guarantees 131 I detection in values that result in effective doses below 1 mSv for the exposure scenarios adopted

  19. The effect of ALD-grown Al₂O₃ on the refractive index sensitivity of CVD gold-coated optical fiber sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandia, David J; Zhou, Wenjun; Ward, Matthew J; Joress, Howie; Sims, Jeffrey J; Giorgi, Javier B; Albert, Jacques; Barry, Seán T

    2015-10-30

    The combined effect of nanoscale dielectric and metallic layers prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on the refractometric properties of tilted optical fiber Bragg gratings (TFBG) is studied. A high index intermediate layer made up of either 50 nm or 100 nm layers of Al2O3 (refractive index near 1.62) was deposited by ALD and followed by thin gold layers (30-65 nm) deposited from a known single-source gold (I) iminopyrrolidinate CVD precursor. The fabricated devices were immersed in different surrounding refractive indices (SRI) and the spectral transmission response of the TFBGs was measured. Preliminary results indicate that the addition of the dielectric Al2O3 pre-coating enhances the SRI sensitivity by up to 75% but this enhancement is highly dependent on the polarization and dielectric thickness. In fact, the sensitivity decreases by up to 50% for certain cases. These effects are discussed with support from TFBG simulations and models, by quantifying the penetration of the evanescently coupled light out of the fiber through the various coating layers. Additional characterization studies have been carried out on these samples to further correlate the optical behaviour of the coated TFBGs with the physical properties of the gold and Al2O3 layers, using atomic force microscopy x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and an ensemble of other optical and x-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques. The purity, roughness, and morphology of gold thin films deposited by CVD onto the dielectric-TFBG surface are also provided.

  20. Matsuda-DeFronzo insulin sensitivity index is a better predictor than HOMA-IR of hypertension in Japanese: the Tanno-Sobetsu study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furugen, M; Saitoh, S; Ohnishi, H; Akasaka, H; Mitsumata, K; Chiba, M; Furukawa, T; Miyazaki, Y; Shimamoto, K; Miura, T

    2012-05-01

    Here we examined whether the Matsuda-DeFronzo insulin sensitivity index (ISI-M) is more efficient than the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for assessing risk of hypertension. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted using normotensive subjects who were selected among 1399 subjects in the Tanno-Sobetsu cohort. In the cross-sectional analysis (n=740), blood pressure (BP) level was correlated with HOMA-IR and with ISI-M, but correlation coefficients indicate a tighter correlation with ISI-M. Multiple linear regression analysis adjusted by age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and serum triglyceride level (TG) showed contribution of ISI-M and fasting plasma glucose, but not of HOMA-IR. In the longitudinal analysis (n=607), 241 subjects (39.7%) developed hypertension during a 10-year follow-up period, and multiple logistic regression indicated that age, TG, systolic BP and ISI-M, but not HOMA-IR, were associated with development of hypertension. In subjects HOMA-IR. Non-hepatic IR may be a determinant, which is independent of TG, BP level and BMI, of the development of hypertension.

  1. Demonstration of the test-retest reliability and sensitivity of the Lower Limb Functional Index-10 as a measure of functional recovery post burn injury: a cross-sectional repeated measures study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryland, Margaret E; Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Wood, Fiona M; Phillips, Michael; Edgar, Dale W

    2016-01-01

    Lower limb burns can significantly delay recovery of function. Measuring lower limb functional outcomes is challenging in the unique burn patient population and necessitates the use of reliable and valid tools. The aims of this study were to examine the test-retest reliability, sensitivity, and internal consistency of Sections 1 and 3 of the Lower Limb Functional Index-10 (LLFI-10) questionnaire for measuring functional ability in patients with lower limb burns over time. Twenty-nine adult patients who had sustained a lower limb burn injury in the previous 12 months completed the test-retest procedure of the study. In addition, the minimal detectable change (MDC) was calculated for Section 1 and 3 of the LLFI-10. Section 1 is focused on the activity limitations experienced by patients with a lower limb disorder whereas Section 3 involves patients indicating their current percentage of pre-injury duties. Section 1 of the LLFI-10 demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.98, 95 % CI 0.96-0.99) whilst Section 3 demonstrated high test-retest reliability (ICC 0.88, 95 % CI 0.79-0.94). MDC scores for Sections 1 and 3 were 1.27 points and 30.22 %, respectively. Internal consistency was demonstrated with a significant negative association (r s  = -0.83) between Sections 1 and 3 of the LLFI-10 (p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that Section 1 and 3 of the LLFI-10 are reliable for measuring functional ability in patients who have sustained lower limb burns in the previous 12 months, and furthermore, Section 1 is sensitive to changes in patient function over time.

  2. Intramyocellular lipid content and insulin sensitivity are increased following a short-term low-glycemic index diet and exercise intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas; Lu, Lan

    2011-01-01

    and insulin sensitivity in older, insulin-resistant humans. Participants (66 ± 1 yr, BMI 33 ± 1 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to a parallel, controlled feeding trial [either an LGI (LGI/EX, n = 7) or high GI (HGI/EX, n = 8) eucaloric diet] combined with supervised exercise (60 min/day, 85% HR(max)). Insulin......The relationship between intramyocellular (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL) accumulation and skeletal muscle insulin resistance is complex and dynamic. We examined the effect of a short-term (7-day) low-glycemic index (LGI) diet and aerobic exercise training intervention (EX) on IMCL...... = 0.03). The LGI/EX group also demonstrated greater reductions in [EMCL] than the HGI/EX group (Δ: -5.8 ± 3.4, LGI/EX; 2.3 ± 1.1, HGI/EX, P = 0.03). Changes in muscle lipids and insulin sensitivity were not correlated; however, the change in [IMCL]/[EMCL] was negatively associated with the change...

  3. An index of parameter reproducibility accounting for estimation uncertainty: theory and case study on β-cell responsivity and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Man, Chiara; Pillonetto, Gianluigi; Riz, Michela; Cobelli, Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Parameter reproducibility is necessary to perform longitudinal studies where parameters are assessed to monitor disease progression or effect of therapy but are also useful in powering the study, i.e., to define how many subjects should be studied to observe a given effect. The assessment of parameter reproducibility is usually accomplished by methods that do not take into account the fact that these parameters are estimated with uncertainty. This is particularly relevant in physiological and clinical studies where usually reproducibility cannot be assessed by multiple testing and is usually assessed from a single replication of the test. Working in a suitable stochastic framework, here we propose a new index (S) to measure reproducibility that takes into account parameter uncertainty and is particularly suited to handle the normal testing conditions of physiological and clinical investigations. Simulation results prove that S, by properly taking into account parameter uncertainty, is more accurate and robust than the methods available in the literature. The new metric is applied to assess reproducibility of insulin sensitivity and β-cell responsivity of a mixed-meal tolerance test from data obtained in the same subjects retested 1 wk apart. Results show that the indices of insulin sensitivity and β-cell responsivity to glucose are well reproducible. We conclude that the oral minimal models provide useful indices that can be used safely in prospective studies or to assess the efficacy of a given therapy. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Enhanced detection sensitivity of carcinoembryonic antigen on a plasmonic nanoimmunosensor by transmission grating-based total internal reflection scattering microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sujin; Yu, Hyunung; Kang, Seong Ho

    2017-10-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein associated with colorectal carcinomas and is commonly used as a clinical tumor marker. Enhanced detection sensitivity for the assay of CEA molecules was achieved on a plasmonic nanoimmunosensor by wavelength-dependent transmission grating (TG)-based total internal reflection scattering microscopy (TIRSM). The plasmonic nanoparticles were placed in an evanescent field layer on a glass nanoimmunosensor that produced evanescent wave scattering by the total internal reflection of light from two lasers. The light scattered by target protein (CEA)-bound 20-nm silver nanoparticles (plasmonic nanoprobes) was collected and spectrally isolated in first-order spectral images (n=+1) by a TG (70 grooves/mm). The combination of evanescent wave scattering and TG ​significantly enhanced the detection sensitivity and selectivity due to the minimized spectroscopic interference and background noise. The TG-TIRSM method detected the CEA molecules at concentrations down to 19.75zM with a wide linear dynamic range of 19.75zM-39.50nM (correlation coefficient, R=0.9903), which was 45 to 1.25×10 9 times lower than the detection limits and 2×10 5 to 2×10 11 times wider than the dynamic ranges of previous assay methods. In particular, by simply changing the antibody of the target molecule, this technique can be used to detect various disease-related protein biomarkers directly in human biological samples at the single-molecule level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The usefulness of “corrected” body mass index vs. self-reported body mass index: comparing the population distributions, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive utility of three correction equations using Canadian population-based data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background National data on body mass index (BMI), computed from self-reported height and weight, is readily available for many populations including the Canadian population. Because self-reported weight is found to be systematically under-reported, it has been proposed that the bias in self-reported BMI can be corrected using equations derived from data sets which include both self-reported and measured height and weight. Such correction equations have been developed and adopted. We aim to evaluate the usefulness (i.e., distributional similarity; sensitivity and specificity; and predictive utility vis-à-vis disease outcomes) of existing and new correction equations in population-based research. Methods The Canadian Community Health Surveys from 2005 and 2008 include both measured and self-reported values of height and weight, which allows for construction and evaluation of correction equations. We focused on adults age 18–65, and compared three correction equations (two correcting weight only, and one correcting BMI) against self-reported and measured BMI. We first compared population distributions of BMI. Second, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported BMI and corrected BMI against measured BMI. Third, we compared the self-reported and corrected BMI in terms of association with health outcomes using logistic regression. Results All corrections outperformed self-report when estimating the full BMI distribution; the weight-only correction outperformed the BMI-only correction for females in the 23–28 kg/m2 BMI range. In terms of sensitivity/specificity, when estimating obesity prevalence, corrected values of BMI (from any equation) were superior to self-report. In terms of modelling BMI-disease outcome associations, findings were mixed, with no correction proving consistently superior to self-report. Conclusions If researchers are interested in modelling the full population distribution of BMI, or estimating the prevalence of obesity in a

  6. Preschoolers' genetic, physiological, and behavioral sensitivity factors moderate links between parenting stress and child internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Molly; Thomassin, Kristel; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Beach, Steven R H

    2017-05-01

    This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers' adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism-the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator-children's baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator-mothers' reports of children's negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (M age  = 30.68 years, SD age  = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers' (M age  = 3.50 years, SD age  = 0.51, 61% boys) negative emotionality and internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems. Results indicated that the genetic sensitivity variable functioned according to a differential susceptibility model; however, the results involving physiological and behavioral sensitivity factors were most consistent with a diathesis-stress framework. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to counter the effects of parenting stress are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Prolactin Receptor-Mediated Internalization of Imaging Agents Detects Epithelial Ovarian Cancer with Enhanced Sensitivity and Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Karthik M; Zhang, Yilin; Mitra, Anirban K; Kouadio, Jean-Louis K; Gwin, Katja; Kossiakoff, Anthony A; Roman, Brian B; Lengyel, Ernst; Piccirilli, Joseph A

    2017-04-01

    Poor prognosis of ovarian cancer, the deadliest of the gynecologic malignancies, reflects major limitations associated with detection and diagnosis. Current methods lack high sensitivity to detect small tumors and high specificity to distinguish malignant from benign tissue, both impeding diagnosis of early and metastatic cancer stages and leading to costly and invasive surgeries. Tissue microarray analysis revealed that >98% of ovarian cancers express the prolactin receptor (PRLR), forming the basis of a new molecular imaging strategy. We fused human placental lactogen (hPL), a specific and tight binding PRLR ligand, to magnetic resonance imaging (gadolinium) and near-infrared fluorescence imaging agents. Both in tissue culture and in mouse models, these imaging bioconjugates underwent selective internalization into ovarian cancer cells via PRLR-mediated endocytosis. Compared with current clinical MRI techniques, this targeted approach yielded both enhanced signal-to-noise ratio from accumulation of signal via selective internalization and improved specificity conferred by PRLR upregulation in malignant ovarian cancer. These features endow PRLR-targeted imaging with the potential to transform ovarian cancer detection. Cancer Res; 77(7); 1684-96. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. A Hazard Assessment and Proposed Risk Index for Art, Architecture, Archive and Artifact Protection: Case Studies for Assorted International Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Clara J.

    This study proposes a hazard/risk index for environmental, technological, and social hazards that may threaten a museum or other place of cultural storage and accession. This index can be utilized and implemented to measure the risk at the locations of these storage facilities in relationship to their geologic, geographic, environmental, and social settings. A model case study of the 1966 flood of the Arno River and its impact on the city of Florence and the Uffizi Gallery was used as the index focus. From this focus an additional eleven museums and their related risk were assessed. Each index addressed a diverse range of hazards based on past frequency and magnitude. It was found that locations nearest a hazard had exceptionally high levels of risk, however more distant locations could have influences that would increase their risk to levels similar to those locations near the hazard. Locations not normally associated with a given natural hazard can be susceptible should the right conditions be met and this research identified, complied and assessed those factions found to influence natural hazard risk at these research sites.

  9. Determination of the Optimal Cutoff Values for Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire Scores and the Oswestry Disability Index for Favorable Surgical Outcomes in Subjects With Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Park, Jong-Woong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Kang, Sung-Shik; Yeom, Jin S

    2015-10-15

    Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data (NCT02134821). The aim of this study was to elucidate the cutoff values for significant predictors for favorable outcomes after lumbar spine surgery in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Various factors are associated with the surgical outcomes for patients with LSS. However, we did not know the odds ratio and/or cutoff values of a predictive factor for a favorable surgical outcome for LSS. A total of 157 patients who underwent spine surgery due to LSS between June 2012 and April 2013 were included in this study. The patients were dichotomized into 2 groups on the basis of an Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score of 22 or less (favorable outcome group) or more than 22 (unfavorable outcome group) at 12 months after surgery. Regarding favorable outcomes, the odds ratio for each preoperative variable including demographic data, preoperative symptom severity, and pain sensitivity questionnaire (PSQ) score was calculated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. For the significant variables for surgical outcome, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted with calculation of the area under the ROC curve. Multivariate analysis revealed that the ODI and total PSQ scores were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of an unfavorable surgical outcome [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of ODI, 1.289 (1.028-1.616); odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of total PSQ, 1.060 (1.009-1.113)]. ROC analysis revealed area under the ROC curves for the total PSQ and ODI scores of 0.638 (P = 0.005) and 0.692 (P disability and pain sensitivity can be predictors of the functional level achieved after spine surgery in patients with LSS, and the ideal cutoff values for the total PSQ and ODI scores were 6.6 and 45.0, respectively.

  10. Three-dimensional particle tracking in concave structures made by ultraviolet nanoimprint via total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and refractive-index-matching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinami, Taku; Kigami, Hiroshi; Unno, Noriyuki; Taniguchi, Jun; Satake, Shin-ichi

    2018-03-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) is a promising method for measuring fluid flow close to a wall with nanoscale resolution in a process that is termed "multilayer nanoparticle image velocimetry" (MnPIV). TIRFM uses evanescent light that is generated on a substrate (typically a glass slide) by total internal reflection of light. Many researchers have previously studied x-y-z (3D) flows of water close to flat glass slides using MnPIV. On the other hand, a fluid flow close to a structured surface is also important. To measure flows of water near micro-patterns, we previously developed an MnPIV technique that uses a refractive-index-matching method. In previous study, the micropattern is made of a thermoplastic material with a refractive index that closely matches that of water. In this study, ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography was used for fabricating the appropriate micro-patterns because this technique can fabricate a pattern with a high resolution. As a result, we succeeded in performing MnPIV in water with a circular hole array pattern made by ultraviolet nanoimprint using a refractive-index-matching method. We believe that this technique will be helpful in elucidating fluid flows around microstructures.

  11. Assessment of the validity and internal consistency of a performance evaluation tool based on the Japanese version of the modified barthel index for elderly people living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohura, Tomoko; Higashi, Takahiro; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Nakayama, Takeo

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the validity and internal consistency of the Japanese version of a performance evaluation tool for activities of daily living (ADL) based on the modified Barthel Index (PET-MBI) among elderly people at home. [Subjects] The subjects were elderly people living at home in Japan. [Methods] A cross-sectional study was performed at five home care facilities for elderly people in Japan. ADL performance was evaluated for 128 participants using the PET-MBI, which included 10 self-care items. We used confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the factorial validity. We assessed data model fitness with the χ(2) statistic, the Goodness of Fit Index (GFI), Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI), and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA). Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to determine the internal consistency. [Results] The mean age of the participants was 79.1±8.9 years. Among the 126 participants included in the analysis, 67 were women (53.2%). The single-factor model demonstrated a fair fit to the data, with the χ(2) statistic = 74.9 (df =35), GFI = 0.88, AGFI = 0.81, and RMSEA = 0.096, and the path coefficients of each item ranged from 0.44 to 0.95. The alpha coefficient of the 10-item scale was 0.93. [Conclusion] The PET-MBI for elderly people at home was well validated.

  12. Cell Penetrating Capacity and Internalization Mechanisms Used by the Synthetic Peptide CIGB-552 and Its Relationship with Tumor Cell Line Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrada, Soledad; Fernández Massó, Julio Raúl; Vallespí, Maribel G; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela

    2018-03-30

    CIGB-552 is a twenty-amino-acid novel synthetic peptide that has proven to be effective in reducing tumor size and increasing lifespan in tumor-bearing mice. Such capability is conferred by its cell-penetrating peptide character, which allows it to enter cells and elicit a pro-apoptotic effect through its major mediator, COMMD1 protein. Cell-penetrating peptides are able to use different internalization mechanisms, such as endocytosis or direct transduction through the plasma membrane. Although CIGB-552 cytotoxicity has been evaluated in several non-tumor- and tumor-derived cell lines, no data regarding the relationship between cell line sensitivity, cell penetrating capacity, the internalization mechanisms involved, COMMD1 expression levels, or its subcellular localization has yet been produced. Here, we present the results obtained from a comparative analysis of CIGB-552 sensitivity, internalization capacity and the mechanisms involved in three human tumor-derived cell lines from different origins: mammary gland, colon and lung (MCF-7, HT-29 and H460, respectively). Furthermore, cell surface markers relevant for internalization processes such as phosphatidylserine, as well as CIGB-552 target COMMD1 expression/localization, were also evaluated. We found that both endocytosis and transduction are involved in CIGB-552 internalization in the three cell lines evaluated. However, CIGB-552 incorporation efficiency and contribution of each mechanism is cell-line dependent. Finally, sensitivity was directly correlated with high internalization capacity in those cell lines where endocytosis had a major contribution on CIGB-552 internalization.

  13. Surgical site infection in orthopedic implants and its common bacteria with their sensitivities to antibiotics, in open reduction internal fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.Q.; Zardad, M.S.; Khan, A.; Ahmed, S.; Awan, A. S.; Mohammad, T.

    2017-01-01

    Surgical site infection in orthopaedic implants is a major problem, causing long hospital stay, cost to the patient and is a burden on health care facilities. It increases rate of non-union, osteomyelitis, implant failure, sepsis, multiorgan dysfunction and even death. Surgical site infection is defined as pain, erythema, swelling and discharge from wound site. Surgical site infection in orthopaedic implants is more challenging to the treating orthopaedic surgeon as the causative organism is protected by a biofilm over the implant's surface. Antibiotics cannot cross this film to reach the bacteria's, causing infection. Method: This descriptive case series study includes 132 patients of both genders with ages between 13 years to 60 years conducted at Orthopaedic Unit, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from 1st October 2015 to 31st March 2016. Patients with close fractures of long bones were included in the study to determine the frequency of surgical site infection in orthopaedic implants and the type of bacteria involved and their sensitivity to various antibiotics. All implants were of stainless steel. The implants used were Dynamic hip screws, Dynamic compression screws, plates, k-wires, Interlocking nails, SIGN nails, Austin Moore prosthesis and tension band wires. Pre-op and post-op antibiotics used were combination of Sulbactum and Cefoperazone which was given 1 hour before surgery and continued for 72 hours after surgery. Patients were followed up to 4 weeks. Pus was taken on culture stick, from those who developed infection. Results were entered in the pro forma. Results: A total of 132 patients of long bone fractures, who were treated with open reduction and internal fixation, were studied. Only 7 patients developed infection. Staphylococcus Aureus was isolated from all 7 patients. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to Linezolid, Fusidic Acid, and vancomycin. Cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, Gentamycin and Clindamycin were partially effective

  14. The Mediating Roles of Rejection Sensitivity and Proximal Stress in the Association Between Discrimination and Internalizing Symptoms Among Sexual Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyar, Christina; Feinstein, Brian A; Eaton, Nicholas R; London, Bonita

    2018-01-01

    The negative impact of discrimination on mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations has been well documented. However, the possible mediating roles of sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and rejection-based proximal stress in the association between discrimination and internalizing symptoms remain unclear. Rejection-based proximal stress is a subset of proximal stressors that are theorized to arise from concerns about and expectations of sexual orientation-based rejection and discrimination. Drawing on minority stress theory, we tested potential mediating effects using indirect effects structural equation modeling in a sample of 300 sexual minority women. Results indicated that the indirect effect of discrimination on internalizing symptoms (a latent variable indicated by depression and anxiety symptoms) through sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and rejection-based proximal stress (a latent variable indicated by preoccupation with stigma, concealment motivation, and difficulty developing a positive sexual identity) was significant. Additionally, the indirect effects of discrimination on rejection-based proximal stress through sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and of sexual orientation rejection sensitivity on internalizing symptoms through rejection-based proximal stress were also significant. These findings indicate that sexual orientation rejection sensitivity plays an important role in contributing to rejection-based proximal stress and internalizing symptoms among sexual minority women.

  15. Examining the Average Citation Index of "Education in Rural Australia" (Now the "Australian and International Journal of Rural Education")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, R. John

    2013-01-01

    The journal "Education in Rural Australia" (now the "Australian and International Journal of Rural Education") has been in existence since 1991. During the Excellence in Research Australia (ERA) period, the journal maintained a B ranking, indicating that it was a quality journal within a specialised field. With the abolishment…

  16. ICE COLD ERIC – International collaborative effort on chronic obstructive lung disease: exacerbation risk index cohorts – Study protocol for an international COPD cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebeling, Lara; ter Riet, Gerben; van der Wal, Willem M; Geskus, Ronald B; Zoller, Marco; Muggensturm, Patrick; Joleska, Irena; Puhan, Milo A

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a systemic disease; morbidity and mortality due to COPD are on the increase, and it has great impact on patients' lives. Most COPD patients are managed by general practitioners (GP). Too often, GPs base their initial assessment of patient's disease severity mainly on lung function. However, lung function correlates poorly with COPD-specific health-related quality of life and exacerbation frequency. A validated COPD disease risk index that better represents the clinical manifestations of COPD and is feasible in primary care seems to be useful. The objective of this study is to develop and validate a practical COPD disease risk index that predicts the clinical course of COPD in primary care patients with GOLD stages 2–4. Methods/Design We will conduct 2 linked prospective cohort studies with COPD patients from GPs in Switzerland and the Netherlands. We will perform a baseline assessment including detailed patient history, questionnaires, lung function, history of exacerbations, measurement of exercise capacity and blood sampling. During the follow-up of at least 2 years, we will update the patients' profile by registering exacerbations, health-related quality of life and any changes in the use of medication. The primary outcome will be health-related quality of life. Secondary outcomes will be exacerbation frequency and mortality. Using multivariable regression analysis, we will identify the best combination of variables predicting these outcomes over one and two years and, depending on funding, even more years. Discussion Despite the diversity of clinical manifestations and available treatments, assessment and management today do not reflect the multifaceted character of the disease. This is in contrast to preventive cardiology where, nowadays, the treatment in primary care is based on patient-specific and fairly refined cardiovascular risk profile corresponding to differences in prognosis. After

  17. ICE COLD ERIC – International collaborative effort on chronic obstructive lung disease: exacerbation risk index cohorts – Study protocol for an international COPD cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muggensturm Patrick

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is a systemic disease; morbidity and mortality due to COPD are on the increase, and it has great impact on patients' lives. Most COPD patients are managed by general practitioners (GP. Too often, GPs base their initial assessment of patient's disease severity mainly on lung function. However, lung function correlates poorly with COPD-specific health-related quality of life and exacerbation frequency. A validated COPD disease risk index that better represents the clinical manifestations of COPD and is feasible in primary care seems to be useful. The objective of this study is to develop and validate a practical COPD disease risk index that predicts the clinical course of COPD in primary care patients with GOLD stages 2–4. Methods/Design We will conduct 2 linked prospective cohort studies with COPD patients from GPs in Switzerland and the Netherlands. We will perform a baseline assessment including detailed patient history, questionnaires, lung function, history of exacerbations, measurement of exercise capacity and blood sampling. During the follow-up of at least 2 years, we will update the patients' profile by registering exacerbations, health-related quality of life and any changes in the use of medication. The primary outcome will be health-related quality of life. Secondary outcomes will be exacerbation frequency and mortality. Using multivariable regression analysis, we will identify the best combination of variables predicting these outcomes over one and two years and, depending on funding, even more years. Discussion Despite the diversity of clinical manifestations and available treatments, assessment and management today do not reflect the multifaceted character of the disease. This is in contrast to preventive cardiology where, nowadays, the treatment in primary care is based on patient-specific and fairly refined cardiovascular risk profile corresponding to differences in

  18. ICE COLD ERIC--International collaborative effort on chronic obstructive lung disease: exacerbation risk index cohorts--study protocol for an international COPD cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebeling, Lara; ter Riet, Gerben; van der Wal, Willem M; Geskus, Ronald B; Zoller, Marco; Muggensturm, Patrick; Joleska, Irena; Puhan, Milo A

    2009-05-06

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a systemic disease; morbidity and mortality due to COPD are on the increase, and it has great impact on patients' lives. Most COPD patients are managed by general practitioners (GP). Too often, GPs base their initial assessment of patient's disease severity mainly on lung function. However, lung function correlates poorly with COPD-specific health-related quality of life and exacerbation frequency. A validated COPD disease risk index that better represents the clinical manifestations of COPD and is feasible in primary care seems to be useful. The objective of this study is to develop and validate a practical COPD disease risk index that predicts the clinical course of COPD in primary care patients with GOLD stages 2-4. We will conduct 2 linked prospective cohort studies with COPD patients from GPs in Switzerland and the Netherlands. We will perform a baseline assessment including detailed patient history, questionnaires, lung function, history of exacerbations, measurement of exercise capacity and blood sampling. During the follow-up of at least 2 years, we will update the patients' profile by registering exacerbations, health-related quality of life and any changes in the use of medication. The primary outcome will be health-related quality of life. Secondary outcomes will be exacerbation frequency and mortality. Using multivariable regression analysis, we will identify the best combination of variables predicting these outcomes over one and two years and, depending on funding, even more years. Despite the diversity of clinical manifestations and available treatments, assessment and management today do not reflect the multifaceted character of the disease. This is in contrast to preventive cardiology where, nowadays, the treatment in primary care is based on patient-specific and fairly refined cardiovascular risk profile corresponding to differences in prognosis. After completion of this study, we will have a

  19. High quality factor and high sensitivity photonic crystal rectangular holes slot nanobeam cavity with parabolic modulated lattice constant for refractive index sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fujun; Zhou, Jian; Huang, Lijun; Fu, Zhongyuan; Tian, Huiping

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present a novel optical sensor based on photonic crystal slot nanobeam cavity (PCSNC) with rectangular air holes. By introducing a continuous slot and quadratically modulated hole spacing (lattice constant a) structure, the majority of the optical field is localized in the slot region, which enhances the light-matter interaction. With applying the three dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) simulations, three key geometric parameters (hole width wx, slot width ws and the number of the holes N) are optimized to achieve a high sensitivity (S) while keeping a high quality (Q) factor. The highest S over 1000 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) is achieved when the slot width equals to 200 nm. The highest Q-factor of 2.15×107 is obtained when 30 holes are placed on both sides of the host waveguide with the slot width of 80 nm. Considering the transmission efficiency and the trade-off between S and Q-factor, the slot width and the number of the tapered region are chosen as 80 nm and 20, respectively. A high S approximately 835 nm/RIU and a Q-factor about 5.50×105 with small effective mode volume of 0.03(λ/nair)3 are achieved simultaneously, resulting in an ultra-high figure-of-merit (FOM) above 2.92×105. Furthermore, the active sensing region of the optimized structure occupies only about 12 μm×0.08 μm, which makes the device attractive for realizing on-chip integrated sensor arrays.

  20. Proceedings of the second United Nations international conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy. V. 33. Index of the proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    More than 2100 papers were submitted by the Governments, specialized agencies, and the International Atomic Energy Agency, which participated in the Second United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held at Geneva in September 1958. These papers together with the records of the sessions have been published, in English, in a series of thirty-two volumes which constitute the official Proceedings of the Conference. The United Nations has also published abbreviated French and Spanish editions of the Proceedings which total thirteen volumes in each edition. They consist of all the Conference papers in the language of the edition, the complete text of the orally presented papers, the complete text of the one hundred and nine thermonuclear fusion papers, additional selected papers, and the records of the sessions. A similar abbreviated edition is being published in Russian by the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. A list of the titles and prices of the volumes in each of the editions published by the United Nations is included in this volume, which is the index volume of the Proceedings. Prices are quoted in US dollars, but the volumes may be purchased in any national currency. This volume also includes, for the English edition only, a subject index, a numerical index, an author index and a list of errata. The numerical index, which was prepared by the United Nations Headquarters Library, lists the individual papers of the Proceedings serially, omitting the numbers of those papers which were withdrawn by Governments before the Conference. The arrangement of the index is self-explanatory except for the use of the letters F, R or S which appear in parentheses following some of the titles. These letters indicate the existence of a published version of the paper in French, Russian or Spanish. French and Spanish texts may be found in the corresponding series given in the list of volumes. In both editions, Volume 1

  1. Enhanced International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI), Charlson Comorbidity Index and absolute lymphocyte count as predictors for survival of elderly patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated by immunochemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicic, J; Todorovic Balint, M; Sretenovic, D Antic A; Balint, B; Perunicic Jovanovic, M; Andjelic, B; Vukovic, V; Djurasinovic, V; Bila, J; Pavlovic, M; Smiljanic, M; Mihaljevic, B

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) affects more commonly patients over 60 years. These patients have vast number of comorbidities which can modify survival as well as other clinical parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic significance of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), absolute monocyte count (AMC), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) and comorbidities expressed with Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). A total of 182 DLBCL patients 60 years old and older were included, focusing on whole group and patients older than 70. All patients were treated with immunochemotherapy.Overall treatment response was achieved in 84.6% of patients. The NCCN-IPI was of highly prognostic value in the analyzed group (p1.1x109/L, AMC≤0.59x109/L, and LMR>2.8 were associated with more favorable outcome (p=0.029, p=0.019, p=0.028, respectively). The patients with CCI≥2 had poorer outcome (p=0.008) compared to the patients with CCI 0-1. Multivariate analysis showed that among ALC, AMC, LMR, NCCN-IPI and CCI, the NCCN-IPI was the critical parameter that significantly affected survival (pIPI and ALC proved their prognostic validity, while poorer outcome could be expected in older patients with high CCI (≥2). Furthermore, mentioned prognostic parameters retained their prognostic value in the group of patients older than 70.

  2. Western Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  3. An examination of the sensitivity of numerically simulated wildfires to low-level atmospheric stability and moisture, and the consequences for the Haines Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Ann Jenkins

    2002-01-01

    The Haines Index, an operational fire-weather index introduced in 1988 and based on the observed stability and moisture content of the near-surface atmosphere, has been a useful indicator of the potential for high-risk fires in low wind conditions and flat terrain. The Haines Index is of limited use, however, as a predictor of actual fire behavior. To develop a fire-...

  4. The irreversibility of sensitive period effects in language development: evidence from second language acquisition in international adoptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrman, Gunnar; Bylund, Emanuel

    2016-05-01

    The question of a sensitive period in language acquisition has been subject to extensive research and debate for more than half a century. While it has been well established that the ability to learn new languages declines in early years, the extent to which this outcome depends on biological maturation in contrast to previously acquired knowledge remains disputed. In the present study, we addressed this question by examining phonetic discriminatory abilities in early second language (L2) speakers of Swedish, who had either maintained their first language (L1) (immigrants) or had lost it (international adoptees), using native speaker controls. Through this design, we sought to disentangle the effects of the maturational state of the learner on L2 development from the effects of L1 interference: if additional language development is indeed constrained by an interfering L1, then adoptees should outperform immigrant speakers. The results of an auditory lexical decision task, in which fine vowel distinctions in Swedish had been modified, showed, however, no difference between the L2 groups. Instead, both L2 groups scored significantly lower than the native speaker group. The three groups did not differ in their ability to discriminate non-modified words. These findings demonstrate that L1 loss is not a crucial condition for successfully acquiring an L2, which in turn is taken as support for a maturational constraints view on L2 acquisition. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/1J9X50aePeU. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Europe 2020 Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  6. A novel diagnostic index combining HE4, CA125 and age may improve triage of women with suspected ovarian cancer - An international multicenter study in women with an ovarian mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Mona Aarenstrup; Høgdall, Estrid V S; Christensen, Ib J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To develop and validate a biomarker-based index to optimize referral and diagnosis of patients with suspected ovarian cancer. Furthermore, to compare this new index with the Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI) and Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A training study......, consisting of patients with benign ovarian disease (n=809) and ovarian cancer (n=246), was used to develop the Copenhagen Index (CPH-I) utilizing the variables serum HE4, serum CA125 and patient age. Eight international studies provided the validation population; comprising 1060 patients with benign ovarian...

  7. McGraw Hill encyclopedia of science and technology. An international reference work in fifteen volumes including an index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This extensively revised and updated 5th Edition features contributions by 3000 distinguished experts - including 16 Nobel Prize winners - working with an international advisory board and 60 consulting editors. Thorough coverage is devoted to 75 separate disciplines in science and technology, from acoustics and biochemistry through fluid mechanics and geophysics to thermodynamics and vertebrate zoology. Detailed entries examine not only the physical and natural sciences, but also all engineering disciplines, discussing both the basic and the most recent theories, concepts, terminology, discoveries, materials, methods, and techniques. All of the new developments and technical advances that have occurred during the last five years - in each of the 75 disciplines - have been added to the encyclopedia and are explored in depth. Completely new material deals with such timely and newsworthy subjects as genetic engineering, artificial intelligence, nuclear medicine, desertification, psycholinguistics, industrial robots, and immunoassay. Also covered in extensive entries are such current topics as video disk recording, metallic glasses, acoustic levitation, magnetic bubble memory, gluons, and computerized tomography. The encyclopedia includes more than 15,000 photographs, drawings, maps, charts, and diagrams, shown in full-color, two-color, or black-and-white reproductions.

  8. Reliability, factor analysis and internal consistency calculation of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) in French and in English among Lebanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahoud, M; Chahine, R; Salameh, P; Sauleau, E A

    2017-06-01

    Our goal is to validate and to verify the reliability of the French and English versions of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) in Lebanese adolescents. A cross-sectional study was implemented. 104 Lebanese students aged between 14 and 19 years participated in the study. The English version of the questionnaire was distributed to English-speaking students and the French version was administered to French-speaking students. A scale (1 to 7 with 1 = very well understood and 7 = not at all) was used to identify the level of the students' understanding of each instruction, question and answer of the ISI. The scale's structural validity was assessed. The factor structure of ISI was evaluated by principal component analysis. The internal consistency of this scale was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha. To assess test-retest reliability the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used. The principal component analysis confirmed the presence of a two-component factor structure in the English version and a three-component factor structure in the French version with eigenvalues > 1. The English version of the ISI had an excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90), while the French version had a good internal consistency (α = 0.70). The ICC presented an excellent agreement in the French version (ICC = 0.914, CI = 0.856-0.949) and a good agreement in the English one (ICC = 0.762, CI = 0.481-890). The Bland-Altman plots of the two versions of the ISI showed that the responses over two weeks' were comparable and very few outliers were detected. The results of our analyses reveal that both English and French versions of the ISI scale have good internal consistency and are reproducible and reliable. Therefore, it can be used to assess the prevalence of insomnia in Lebanese adolescents.

  9. International study of perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes and Body Mass Index: IPEN Adult study in 12 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Van Dyck, Delfien; Salvo, Deborah; Davey, Rachel; Reis, Rodrigo S; Schofield, Grant; Sarmiento, Olga L; Mitas, Josef; Christiansen, Lars Breum; MacFarlane, Duncan; Sugiyama, Takemi; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Owen, Neville; Conway, Terry L; Sallis, James F; Cerin, Ester

    2015-05-16

    Ecological models of health behaviour are an important conceptual framework to address the multiple correlates of obesity. Several single-country studies previously examined the relationship between the built environment and obesity in adults, but results are very diverse. An important reason for these mixed results is the limited variability in built environments in these single-country studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine associations between perceived neighbourhood built environmental attributes and BMI/weight status in a multi-country study including 12 environmentally and culturally diverse countries. A multi-site cross-sectional study was conducted in 17 cities (study sites) across 12 countries (Australia, Belgium, Brazil, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, the UK and USA). Participants (n = 14222, 18-66 years) self-reported perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes. Height and weight were self-reported in eight countries, and measured in person in four countries. Three environmental attributes were associated with BMI or weight status in pooled data from 12 countries. Safety from traffic was the most robust correlate, suggesting that creating safe routes for walking/cycling by reducing the speed and volume of traffic might have a positive impact upon weight status/BMI across various geographical locations. Close proximity to several local destinations was associated with BMI across all countries, suggesting compact neighbourhoods with more places to walk related to lower BMI. Safety from crime showed a curvilinear relationship with BMI, with especially poor crime safety being related to higher BMI. Environmental interventions involving these three attributes appear to have international relevance and focusing on these might have implications for tackling overweight/obesity.

  10. Different sensitivity of miniature endplate currents in rat external and internal intercostal muscles to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor C-547 as compared with diaphragm and extensor digitorum longus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, K; Kovyazina, I; Zobov, V; Bukharaeva, E; Nikolsky, E E; Vyskocil, F

    2009-01-01

    Derivative of 6-methyluracil, selective cholinesterase inhibitor C-547 potentiates miniature endplate currents (MEPCs) in rat external intercostal muscles (external ICM) more effectively than in internal intercostal muscles (internal ICM). Effect of the C-547 on intercostal muscles was compared with those on extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and diaphragm muscles. Half-effective concentrations for tau of MEPC decay arranged in increasing order were as follows: EDL, locomotor muscle, most sensitive = 1.3 nM, external ICM, inspiration muscle = 6.8 nM, diaphragm, main inspiration muscle = 28 nM, internal ICM, expiration muscle = 71 nM. External ICM might therefore be inhibited, similarly as the limb muscles, by nanomolar concentrations of the drug and do not participate in inspiration in the presence of the C-547. Moreover, internal ICM inhibition can hinder the expiration during exercise-induced fast breathing of C-547- treated experimental animals.

  11. Effects of Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Internal Jugular Bulb Venous Oxygen Saturation, Cerebral Oxygen Saturation, and Bispectral Index in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiyong; Xu, Lili; Zhu, Zhirui; Seal, Robert; McQuillan, Patrick M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2), internal jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2), mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), and bispectral index (BIS) used to monitor cerebral oxygen balance in pediatric patients. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists Class II-III patients aged 1 to 4 years old with congenital heart disease scheduled for elective cardiac surgery were included in this study. Temperature, BIS, rSO2, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and hematocrit were recorded. Internal jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation and SvO2 were obtained from blood gas analysis at the time points: after induction of anesthesia (T0), beginning of CPB (T1), ascending aortic occlusion (T2), 20 minutes after initiating CPB (T3), coronary reperfusion (T4), separation from CPB (T5), and at the end of operation (T6). The effect of hypothermia or changes in CPP on rSO2, SjvO2, SvO2, and BIS were analyzed. Compared with postinduction baseline values, rSO2 significantly decreased at all-time points: onset of extracorporeal circulation, ascending aortic occlusion, 20 minutes after CPB initiation, coronary reperfusion, and separation from CPB (P  0.05). Correlation analysis demonstrated that rSO2 was positively related to CPP (r = 0.687, P = 0.000), with a low linear correlation to temperature (r = 0.453, P = 0.000). Internal jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation was negatively related to temperature (r = −0.689, P = 0.000). Bispectral index was positively related to both temperature (r = 0.824, P = 0.000) and CPP (r = 0.782, P = 0.000). Cerebral oxygen saturation had a positive linear correlation with CPP and a low linear correlation to temperature. Internal jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation had a negative linear correlation to temperature. Pre-and and early

  12. Daily stock index return for the Canadian, UK, and US equity markets, compiled by Morgan Stanley Capital International, obtained from Datastream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Testing and comparing the performance of dynamic variance and correlation models in value-at-risk estimation. North American Journal of Economics and Finance, 40, 116–135. doi:10.1016/j.najef.2017.02.006 (Li, 2017 [1]. Data on daily stock index return for the Canadian, UK, and US equity markets, as compiled by Morgan Stanley Capital International, are provided in this paper. The country indices comprise at least 80% of the stock market capitalization of each country. The data cover the period from January 1, 1990, through September 8, 2016, and include 6963 observations. All stock prices are stated in dollars.

  13. Confirmation of the mantle-cell lymphoma International Prognostic Index in randomized trials of the European Mantle-Cell Lymphoma Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoster, Eva; Klapper, Wolfram; Hermine, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL) is a distinct B-cell lymphoma associated with poor outcome. In 2008, the MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI) was developed as the first prognostic stratification tool specifically directed to patients with MCL. External validation was planned...... to be performed on the cohort of the two recently completed randomized trials of the European MCL Network. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of 958 patients with MCL (median age, 65 years; range, 32 to 87 years) treated upfront in the trials MCL Younger or MCL Elderly were pooled to assess the prognostic value of MIPI.......9) and 2.6 (2.0 to 3.3), respectively. MIPI was similarly prognostic for TTF. All four clinical baseline characteristics constituting the MIPI, age, performance status, lactate dehydrogenase level, and WBC count, were confirmed as independent prognostic factors for OS and TTF. The validity of MIPI...

  14. Daily stock index return for the Canadian, UK, and US equity markets, compiled by Morgan Stanley Capital International, obtained from Datastream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leon

    2018-02-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Testing and comparing the performance of dynamic variance and correlation models in value-at-risk estimation. North American Journal of Economics and Finance, 40, 116-135. doi:10.1016/j.najef.2017.02.006 (Li, 2017) [1]. Data on daily stock index return for the Canadian, UK, and US equity markets, as compiled by Morgan Stanley Capital International, are provided in this paper. The country indices comprise at least 80% of the stock market capitalization of each country. The data cover the period from January 1, 1990, through September 8, 2016, and include 6963 observations. All stock prices are stated in dollars.

  15. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index National Heritage Program Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_nhp_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data developed from the Louisiana National Heritage Program (NHP) database for coastal Louisiana. Vector...

  16. A review of culturally adapted versions of the Oswestry Disability Index: the adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Peter J; Nelson-Wong, Erika J; Fischer, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is a self-report-based outcome measure used to quantify the extent of disability related to low back pain (LBP), a substantial contributor to workplace absenteeism. The ODI tool has been adapted for use by patients in several non-English speaking nations. It is unclear, however, if these adapted versions of the ODI are as credible as the original ODI developed for English-speaking nations. The objective of this study was to conduct a review of the literature to identify culturally adapted versions of the ODI and to report on the adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of these ODIs. Following a pragmatic review process, data were extracted from each study with regard to these four outcomes. While most studies applied adaptation processes in accordance with best-practice guidelines, there were some deviations. However, all studies reported high-quality psychometric properties: group mean construct validity was 0.734 ± 0.094 (indicated via a correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability was 0.937 ± 0.032 (indicated via an intraclass correlation coefficient) and internal consistency was 0.876 ± 0.047 (indicated via Cronbach's alpha). Researchers can be confident when using any of these culturally adapted ODIs, or when comparing and contrasting results between cultures where these versions were employed. Implications for Rehabilitation Low back pain is the second leading cause of disability in the world, behind only cancer. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) has been developed as a self-report outcome measure of low back pain for administration to patients. An understanding of the various cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI is important for more concerted multi-national research efforts. This review examines 16 cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI and should inform the work of health care and rehabilitation professionals.

  17. Validation of Portuguese version of Quality of Erection Questionnaire (QEQ) and comparison to International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and RAND 36-Item Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ana Luiza; Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Saade, Ricardo Destro; Santos, Carlos Alberto; Lima, Marcelo Lopes de; Fregonesi, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    To validate the Quality of Erection Questionnaire (QEQ) considering Brazilian social-cultural aspects. To determine equivalence between the Portuguese and the English QEQ versions, the Portuguese version was back-translated by two professors who are native English speakers. After language equivalence had been determined, urologists considered the QEQ Portuguese version suitable. Men with self-reported erectile dysfunction (ED) and infertile men who had a stable sexual relationship for at least 6 months were invited to answer the QEQ, the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the RAND 36-Item Health Survey (RAND-36). The questionnaires were presented together and answered without help in a private room. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α), test-retest reliability (Spearman), convergent validity (Spearman correlation) coefficients and known-groups validity (the ability of the QEQ Portuguese version to differentiate erectile dysfunction severity groups) were assessed. We recruited 197 men (167 ED patients and 30 non-ED patients), mean age of 53.3 and median of 55.5 years (23-82 years). The Portuguese version of the QEQ had high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.93), high stability between test and retest (ICC 0.83, with IC 95%: 0.76-0.88, pPortuguese version presented good psychometric properties and high convergent validity in relation to IIEF. The low correlations between the QEQ and the RAND-36, as well as between the IIEF and the RAND-36 indicated IIEF and QEQ specificity, which may have resulted from the patients' psychological adaptations that minimized the impact of ED on Quality of Life (QoL) and reestablished the well-being feeling.

  18. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Semi-aquatic, Fur-bearing Mammal Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_s_mammal_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for small semi-aquatic, fur-bearing mammals in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent areas of...

  19. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Bird Nesting Colonies Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_nests_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird and wading bird nesting colonies in coastal Louisiana. Vector points in this data set represent...

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Florida 1995-1997 maps in portable document format (pdf) and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014187)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife by their sensitivity to spilled oil. The ESI data include information for three main components: shoreline...

  1. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlases: A sampling of digital data for geographic information systems, South Carolina, California, Hawaii, Oregon, Washington (NODC Accession 0046075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This CD-ROM product from the NOAA National Ocean Service Hazardous Materials Response and Assessment Division contains a collection of Environmental Sensitivity...

  2. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: North Slope, Alaska, Volume 1, geographic information systems data, Volume 2, maps in portable document format (NODC Accession 0014928)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ESI data characterize the marine and coastal environments and wildlife by their sensitivity to spilled oil. The ESI data include information for three main...

  3. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Freshwater Fish Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_freshwater_fish_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  4. Correlation of the International Prostate Symptom Score bother question with the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index in a clinical practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Michael P; Wei, John T; Roehrborn, Claus G; Miner, Martin

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the association between the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) bother question (BQ) and a validated disease-specific quality-of-life questionnaire, the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Impact Index (BPH-II), using the BPH Registry and Patient Survey database. The BPH Registry and Patient Survey is a multicentre, longitudinal, observational database of management practices and patient outcomes in a population of patients with BPH in the USA, managed with watchful waiting or pharmacotherapy. Men enrolled in the BPH Registry who completed the IPSS BQ and the four-item BPH-II at enrolment were identified. The association between the IPSS BQ score and the BPH Impact Index was assessed using Spearman rank correlation. At baseline (enrolment visit), 6439 men (mean age 66 years) completed the IPSS BQ and the BPH-II. The mean (sd) score of the IPSS BQ was 2.5 (1.4) and of the BPH-II was 2.8 (2.8). Based on responses to the BPH-II, at least half the men reported that their urinary symptoms were associated with physical discomfort, worry about their health, and bothersomeness. The IPSS BQ score was significantly correlated (P < 0.001) with the BPH-II (r = 0.68) and each of its four questions (physical discomfort, r = 0.52; worry about health, r = 0.53; bothersomeness of trouble with urination, r = 0.67; and time kept from usual activities, r = 0.44). The IPSS BQ score has a strong and positive correlation with the BPH-II among men enrolled in the BPH Registry. The IPSS BQ is a convenient tool for assessing disease-specific quality of life when determining treatment strategies and evaluating treatment outcomes in men with BPH.

  5. Diet quality as measured by the Diet Quality Index-International is associated with prospective changes in body fat among Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setayeshgar, Solmaz; Maximova, Katerina; Ekwaru, John Paul; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Henderson, Mélanie; Paradis, Gilles; Tremblay, Angelo; Veugelers, Paul

    2017-02-01

    To quantify the association of dietary quality with prospective changes in adiposity. Children participating in the QUALITY (QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth) study underwent examination at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Dietary quality was assessed by the Diet Quality Index-International (DQII) using three non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls at baseline. The DQII has four main categories: dietary adequacy, variety, moderation and overall balance. Fat mass index (FMI; [fat mass (kg)]/[height (m)]2), central FMI (CFMI; [trunk fat mass (kg)]/[height (m)]2), percentage body fat (%BF; [total fat mass (kg)]/[total mass (kg)]) and percentage central BF (%CBF; [trunk fat mass (kg)]/[total mass (kg)]) were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Children were selected from schools in the greater Montreal, Sherbrooke and Quebec City metropolitan areas between 2005 and 2008, Quebec, Canada. A total of 546 children aged 8-10 years, including 244 girls and 302 boys. Regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, physical activity and Tanner stage revealed that every 10-unit improvement in overall DQII score was associated with lower gain in CFMI (β=-0·08; 95 % CI -0·17, -0·003) and %BF (β=-0·55; 95 % CI -1·08, -0·02). Each unit improvement in dietary adequacy score was associated with lower gain in FMI (β=-0·05; 95 % CI -0·08, -0·008), CFMI (β=-0·03; 95 % CI -0·05, -0·007), %BF (β=-0·15; 95 % CI -0·28, -0·03) and %CBF (β=-0·09; 95 % CI -0·15, -0·02). Promotion of dietary quality and adequacy may reduce weight gain in childhood and prevent chronic diseases later in life.

  6. AST/ALT ratio is not an index of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C when aminotransferase activities are determinate according to the international recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéchot, Jérôme; Boisson, Renée Claude; Zarski, Jean-Pierre; Sturm, Nathalie; Calès, Paul; Lasnier, Elisabeth

    2013-11-01

    The aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST)/alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT) ratio is used as liver fibrosis index whereas the reported data are conflicting. In chronic hepatitis C (CHC), reported diagnostic accuracies range from none to good for significant fibrosis and to excellent for cirrhosis. Assuming that AST/ALT increases are mainly due to vitamin B6 defects since pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), active form of B6, acts as coenzyme in transamination reactions, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the AST/ALT ratio using standardized methods for AST and ALT activities, with PLP addition as recommended, in a prospective multicenter cohort of CHC patients. ALT and AST activities were measured using the recommended IFCC methods with addition of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. We evaluated the AST/ALT ratio for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis or cirrhosis in a cohort of CHC patients included in a multicenter prospective study. A liver biopsy was performed in each patient and reviewed by two independent pathologists in order to determine the fibrosis stage according to Metavir classification which was the reference standard. AST/ALT ratio significantly increased with histological stage of liver fibrosis and there was a significant correlation between Metavir fibrosis stage and AST/ALT ratio (r=0.129, PALT ratio does not discriminate significant fibrosis (F≥2) (AUROC=0.531) and had only very poor diagnostic accuracies for severe fibrosis (F≥3) (AUROC=0.584) or cirrhosis (F4) (AUROC=0.626). AST/ALT ratio is not a good and discriminative index of liver fibrosis in CHC when aminotransferase activities are determinate according to the international recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the methodologies used to generate random pavement profiles based on the power spectral density: An approach based on the International Roughness Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Jesús Goenaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pavement roughness is the main variable that produces the vertical excitation in vehicles. Pavement profiles are the main determinant of (i discomfort perception on users and (ii dynamic loads generated at the tire-pavement interface, hence its evaluation constitutes an essential step on a Pavement Management System. The present document evaluates two specific techniques used to simulate pavement profiles; these are the shaping filter and the sinusoidal approach, both based on the Power Spectral Density. Pavement roughness was evaluated using the International Roughness Index (IRI, which represents the most used index to characterize longitudinal road profiles. Appropriate parameters were defined in the simulation process to obtain pavement profiles with specific ranges of IRI values using both simulation techniques. The results suggest that using a sinusoidal approach one can generate random profiles with IRI values that are representative of different road types, therefore, one could generate a profile for a paved or an unpaved road, representing all the proposed categories defined by ISO 8608 standard. On the other hand, to obtain similar results using the shaping filter approximation a modification in the simulation parameters is necessary. The new proposed values allow one to generate pavement profiles with high levels of roughness, covering a wider range of surface types. Finally, the results of the current investigation could be used to further improve our understanding on the effect of pavement roughness on tire pavement interaction. The evaluated methodologies could be used to generate random profiles with specific levels of roughness to assess its effect on dynamic loads generated at the tire-pavement interface and user’s perception of road condition.

  8. Early identification of technical issues: a sensitivity study to check LISTRA1A internal consistency and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, T.F.; Maninger, R.C.; Rabsatt, S.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes a sensitivity study using LISTRA1A, a model for use in the development of a long-range, time-dependent plan for licensing nuclear waste repositories. The objectives of the model are: (1) to provide information concerning the impact of various licensing strategies on the ability to dispose of nuclear waste effectively; and (2) to provide long-range budget forecasts for differing strategies of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The model is designed to analyze the interaction between NRC regulatory policy and DOE technical programs. A sensitivity study is reported for a single parameter in a hypothetical review process

  9. An international corporate governance index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Wright, M.; Siegel, D.; Keasey, K.; Filatotchev, I.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a comparative analysis of corporate governance regulatory systems and their development since 1990 in the United States and in 30 European countries. It introduces a proposed methodology that would help create detailed corporate governance indices which describe the primary

  10. International abstracting and indexing services

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CiteSeerx is an evolving scientific literature digital library and search engine that focuses primarily on the literature in computer and information science. CiteSeerx aims to improve the dissemination of scientific literature and to provide improvements in functionality, usability, availability, cost, comprehensiveness, efficiency, ...

  11. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  12. Agreements concluded by the Federal Republic of Germany under international law in the field of environmental protection. Source index in the Federal Law Gazette, part II. As of June 1, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1992-01-01

    This compilation contains all agreements under international law in the field of environmental protection, the FRG has joined and that have been published and/or announced in the Federal Law Gazette, part II. The summary is of September 15, 1987. The classification is made according to the subjects: waste management law, pollution is made according to the date of treaty/agreement. For easier access, there are a chronological index, an index of the contracting states and an index of the places of contract. In the annex the relevant treaties with the German Democratic Republic are indicated. (orig.) [de

  13. Agreements concluded by the Federal Republic of Germany under international law in the field of environmental protection. Annex: Treaties with the GDR. (Source index in the Federal Law Gazette, part II). (As of September 15, 1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1987-01-01

    This compilation contains all agreements under international law in the field of environmental protection, the FRG has joined and that have been published and/or announced in the Federal Law Gazette, part II. The summary is of September 15, 1987. The classification is made according to the subjects: waste management law, pollution abatement law, nuclear law and energy and mining law and within these according to the date of treaty/agreement. For easier access, there are a chronological index, an index of the contracting states and an index of the places of contract. In the annex the relevant treaties with the German Democratic Republic are indicated. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Involvement of insulin-degrading enzyme in insulin- and atrial natriuretic peptide-sensitive internalization of amyloid-β peptide in mouse brain capillary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shingo; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Murata, Sho; Katsukura, Yuki; Suzuki, Hiroya; Funaki, Miho; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral clearance of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), which is implicated in Alzheimer's disease, involves elimination across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and we previously showed that an insulin-sensitive process is involved in the case of Aβ1-40. The purpose of this study was to clarify the molecular mechanism of the insulin-sensitive Aβ1-40 elimination across mouse BBB. An in vivo cerebral microinjection study demonstrated that [125I]hAβ1-40 elimination from mouse brain was inhibited by human natriuretic peptide (hANP), and [125I]hANP elimination was inhibited by hAβ1-40, suggesting that hAβ1-40 and hANP share a common elimination process. Internalization of [125I]hAβ1-40 into cultured mouse brain capillary endothelial cells (TM-BBB4) was significantly inhibited by either insulin, hANP, other natriuretic peptides or insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) inhibitors, but was not inhibited by phosphoramidon or thiorphan. Although we have reported the involvement of natriuretic peptide receptor C (Npr-C) in hANP internalization, cells stably expressing Npr-C internalized [125I]hANP but not [125I]hAβ1-40, suggesting that there is no direct interaction between Npr-C and hAβ1-40. IDE was detected in plasma membrane of TM-BBB4 cells, and internalization of [125I]hAβ1-40 by TM-BBB4 cells was reduced by IDE-targeted siRNAs. We conclude that elimination of hAβ1-40 from mouse brain across the BBB involves an insulin- and ANP-sensitive process, mediated by IDE expressed in brain capillary endothelial cells.

  15. Genetic Sensitivity to the Bitter Taste of 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP and Its Association with Physiological Mechanisms Controlling Body Mass Index (BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly J. Tepper

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Taste sensitivity to the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP is considered a marker for individual differences in taste perception that may influence food preferences and eating behavior, and thereby energy metabolism. This review describes genetic factors that may contribute to PROP sensitivity including: (1 the variants of the TAS2R38 bitter receptor with their different affinities for the stimulus; (2 the gene that controls the gustin protein that acts as a salivary trophic factor for fungiform taste papillae; and (3 other specific salivary proteins that could be involved in facilitating the binding of the PROP molecule with its receptor. In addition, we speculate on the influence of taste sensitivity on energy metabolism, possibly via modulation of the endocannabinoid system, and its possible role in regulating body composition homeostasis.

  16. Genetic Sensitivity to the Bitter Taste of 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP) and Its Association with Physiological Mechanisms Controlling Body Mass Index (BMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Beverly J.; Banni, Sebastiano; Melis, Melania; Crnjar, Roberto; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole

    2014-01-01

    Taste sensitivity to the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is considered a marker for individual differences in taste perception that may influence food preferences and eating behavior, and thereby energy metabolism. This review describes genetic factors that may contribute to PROP sensitivity including: (1) the variants of the TAS2R38 bitter receptor with their different affinities for the stimulus; (2) the gene that controls the gustin protein that acts as a salivary trophic factor for fungiform taste papillae; and (3) other specific salivary proteins that could be involved in facilitating the binding of the PROP molecule with its receptor. In addition, we speculate on the influence of taste sensitivity on energy metabolism, possibly via modulation of the endocannabinoid system, and its possible role in regulating body composition homeostasis. PMID:25166026

  17. An international prognostic index for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL-IPI): a meta-analysis of individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is currently undergoing improvements due to novel therapies and a plethora of biological and genetic variables that add prognostic information to the classic clinical staging systems. We established an international consortium with the aim to create an international prognostic index for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL-IPI) that integrates the major prognostic parameters. We used results from a systematic search of the Cochrane Haematological Malignancies Group of MEDLINE, Embase, and Central databases for prospective, clinical phase 2 and 3 trials of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, published between Jan 1, 1950, and Dec 31, 2010, which identified 13 trials. We contacted the principal investigators of these 13 trials, of which eight agreed to include individual patient data. We used the individual patient data from these phase 3 trials from France, Germany, Poland, the UK, and the USA to create the full analysis dataset. The full analysis dataset was randomly divided, using a random sample procedure, into training and internal-validation datasets. We did a univariate analysis and multivariate analyses using 27 baseline factors and overall survival as an endpoint. We assigned weighted risk scores to each factor included in the final multivariable model. We assessed the discriminatory value using C-statistics and also the validity and reproducibility of the CLL-IPI by subgroup analysis. We used two additional datasets from the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN, USA; MAYO cohort) and the SCALE Scandinavian population-based case-control study (SCAN cohort) as the external-validation datasets. 3472 treatment-naive patients were included in the full analysis dataset; 2308 were randomly segregated into the training dataset and 1164 into the internal-validation dataset. 838 patients were included in the MAYO cohort and 416 in the SCAN cohort. Median age of patients in the full analysis dataset was 61 years (range 27

  18. International prognostic index (IPI)--a critical comparison with five multiple myeloma staging systems in the group of 270 patients treated by conventional chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudla, V; Zemanova, M; Minarik, J; Bacovsky, J; Ordeltova, M; Indrak, K; Budikova, M; Dusek, L; Farbiakova, V

    2006-01-01

    In the group of 270 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) treated during 1991-2004 by conventional chemotherapy, the prognostic value and practical utility of IPI (International Prognostic Index) was assessed and compared with five other actual staging systems. Prognostic significance was assessed using the curves of overall survival (OS) according to Kaplan-Meier and log rank test (pIPI (pIPI (median OS 77, 76 and 77 months). To select a cohort of "high risk" patients, i.e. stage 3, with very unfavourable disease prognosis, the most advantageous was the system OSS and San Miguel (median OS was 5 and 6 months) and/or SWOG system selecting patients of stage 4, i.e. "worst prognosis", with median OS 8 months. It was found that IPI did not meet expectations for effective identification of "high risk" patients (median OS of stage 3 was 20 months) nor for the distinction of different prognosis of patients during initial 25 months of MM course at stage 2 vs. 3. The study indicates that under conditions of common clinical practice and conventional chemotherapy, the staging system according to D-S is still useful, while practical application of SWOG and IPI as simpler alternative to the assessment of clinical stage should be verified by further comparative studies. In harmony with the progress in cytogenetics and molecular biology as well as a prospective requirement of individual target therapy, a future suitable stratification system should be based on parameters of internal biological properties of myeloma tissue and microenvironment of bone marrow, allowing in addition a continuous evaluation of the disease course and the effect of therapy.

  19. Dietary Patterns and Their Associations with the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) in Korean Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Moon-Kyung; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Yuri

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine dietary pattern, nutritional intake, and diet quality of Korean pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Between October 2008 and May 2012, 166 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM completed a questionnaire and dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations were measured and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Two major dietary patterns ("carbohydrate and vegetable" and "western" patterns) were identified through factor analysis. Dietary pattern scores for each dietary pattern were categorized into tertiles. The dietary quality index-international (DQI-I) was used to measure overall diet quality. Subjects with higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores reported less physical activity (p pattern scores were associated with higher sodium intakes (p = 0.02), but lower intakes of fat (p = 0.002) and other micronutrients. On the other hand, higher western pattern scores were associated with higher fat intake (p = 0.0001), but lower intakes of sodium (p = 0.01) and other micronutrients. Higher scores for both dietary patterns were associated with lower scores in the moderation category of the DQI-I (p dietary pattern.

  20. The chronic lymphocytic leukemia international prognostic index (CLL-IPI) predicts time to first treatment in early CLL: Independent Validation in a Prospective Cohort of Early Stage Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molica, Stefano; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Giannarelli, Diana; Gentile, Massimo; Mirabelli, Rosanna; Cutrona, Giovanna; Levato, Luciano; Di Renzo, Nicola; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Musolino, Caterina; Angrilli, Francesco; Famà, Angelo; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Chaffee, Kari G.; Neri, Antonino; Kay, Neil E.; Ferrarini, Manlio; Morabito, Fortunato

    2016-01-01

    The chronic lymphocytic leukemia International Prognostic Index (CLL-IPI) combines 5 parameters (age, clinical stage, TP53 status [normal vs. del(17p) and/or TP53 mutation], IGHV mutational status, serum β2-microglobulin) to predict survival and time-to-first-treatment (TTFT) in CLL patients. We performed an observational study in 337 prospectively collected, Binet stage A patients to validate the ability of the CLL-IPI to predict TTFT in an independent cohort of early stage CLL patients. The CLL-IPI score stratified Binet stage A patients into three subgroups with different outcome. Since the CLL-IPI was originally developed to predict survival, we next investigated the optimal cut-off score to predict TTFT in Binet stage A patients. Recursive partitioning analysis identified three subsets with scores of 0 (n=139), 1 (n=90), and ≥ 2(n=108). The probability of remaining free from therapy 5 years after diagnosis was 85%, 67% and 46% in these three categories (PIPI scoring for TTFT was subsequently validated in an independent cohort of Binet A patients from the Mayo Clinic (n=525). The ability of either original or optimized CLL-IPI to predict TTFT was equivalent to other prognostic models specifically designed for this endpoint (2011 MDACC score and O-CLL1 score). Although originally developed to predict suvival, the CLL-IPI is useful for predicting TTFT in early stage CLL patients. PMID:27465919

  1. An enhanced International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated in the rituximab era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Sehn, Laurie H; Rademaker, Alfred W; Gordon, Leo I; Lacasce, Ann S; Crosby-Thompson, Allison; Vanderplas, Ann; Zelenetz, Andrew D; Abel, Gregory A; Rodriguez, Maria A; Nademanee, Auayporn; Kaminski, Mark S; Czuczman, Myron S; Millenson, Michael; Niland, Joyce; Gascoyne, Randy D; Connors, Joseph M; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Winter, Jane N

    2014-02-06

    The International Prognostic Index (IPI) has been the basis for determining prognosis in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) for the past 20 years. Using raw clinical data from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) database collected during the rituximab era, we built an enhanced IPI with the goal of improving risk stratification. Clinical features from 1650 adults with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) diagnosed from 2000-2010 at 7 NCCN cancer centers were assessed for their prognostic significance, with statistical efforts to further refine the categorization of age and normalized LDH. Five predictors (age, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sites of involvement, Ann Arbor stage, ECOG performance status) were identified and a maximum of 8 points assigned. Four risk groups were formed: low (0-1), low-intermediate (2-3), high-intermediate (4-5), and high (6-8). Compared with the IPI, the NCCN-IPI better discriminated low- and high-risk subgroups (5-year overall survival [OS]: 96% vs 33%) than the IPI (5 year OS: 90% vs 54%), respectively. When validated using an independent cohort from the British Columbia Cancer Agency (n = 1138), it also demonstrated enhanced discrimination for both low- and high-risk patients. The NCCN-IPI is easy to apply and more powerful than the IPI for predicting survival in the rituximab era.

  2. [Prognostic significance of NCCN-International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) for patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma treated with CHOP-based chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M C; Xu, P P; Zhong, H J; Zhao, X; Zhao, W L; Cheng, S

    2017-09-14

    Objective: To validate the prognostic value of NCCN-International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) for patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) treated with CHOP-based chemotherapy. Methods: A retrospective analysis in 162 PTCL patients who were initially diagnosed and treated in Rui Jin Hospital from January 2003 to May 2013 was conducted. Baseline characteristics were collected, and survival analysis was performed according to the IPI and NCCN-IPI model. Results: The estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) rate and progression free survival (PFS) rate were 33% and 20%, with median OS and PFS of 17.0 months and 9.2 months, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated ECOG score (PFS: HR =2.418, 95% CI 1.535-3.809, P IPI were remarkably higher than the counterparts based on IPI (5-year OS 74% vs 54%, χ (2)=5.041, P =0.025, 5-year PFS 50% vs 38%, χ (2)= 5.295, P =0.021) . NCCN-IPI was outstanding to identify the subgroup of low risk patients with PTCL, who may benefit from conventional chemotherapy such as CHOP or CHOP-like regimen. Conclusion: NCCN-IPI is more powerful for low risk PTCL patients and a strong supplement for IPI.

  3. Consequences of the discontinuation of the International Protein Index (IPI) database and its substitution by the UniProtKB "complete proteome" sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griss, Johannes; Martín, María; O'Donovan, Claire; Apweiler, Rolf; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2011-11-01

    The International Protein Index (IPI) database has been one of the most widely used protein databases in MS proteomics approaches. Recently, the closure of IPI in September 2011 was announced. Its recommended replacement is the new UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB) "complete proteome" sets, launched in May 2011. Here, we analyze the consequences of IPI's discontinuation for human and mouse data, and the effect of its substitution with UniProtKB on two levels: (i) data already produced and (ii) newly performed experiments. To estimate the effect on existing data, we investigated how well IPI identifiers map to UniProtKB accessions. We found that 21% of human and 10% of mouse identifiers do not map to UniProtKB and would thus be "lost." To investigate the impact on new experiments, we compared the theoretical search space (i.e. the tryptic peptides) of both resources and found that it is decreased by 14.0% for human and 8.9% for mouse data through IPI's closure. An analysis on the experimental evidence for these "lost" peptides showed that the vast majority has not been identified in experiments available in the major proteomics repositories. It thus seems likely that the search space provided by UniProtKB is of higher quality than the one currently provided by IPI. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Elevated Body Mass Index is Associated with Increased Integration and Reduced Cohesion of Sensory-Driven and Internally Guided Resting-State Functional Brain Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaelle E; Rasgon, Natalie; McEwen, Bruce S; Micali, Nadia; Frangou, Sophia

    2018-03-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased multi-morbidity and mortality. The investigation of the relationship between BMI and brain organization has the potential to provide new insights relevant to clinical and policy strategies for weight control. Here, we quantified the association between increasing BMI and the functional organization of resting-state brain networks in a sample of 496 healthy individuals that were studied as part of the Human Connectome Project. We demonstrated that higher BMI was associated with changes in the functional connectivity of the default-mode network (DMN), central executive network (CEN), sensorimotor network (SMN), visual network (VN), and their constituent modules. In siblings discordant for obesity, we showed that person-specific factors contributing to obesity are linked to reduced cohesiveness of the sensory networks (SMN and VN). We conclude that higher BMI is associated with widespread alterations in brain networks that balance sensory-driven (SMN, VN) and internally guided (DMN, CEN) states which may augment sensory-driven behavior leading to overeating and subsequent weight gain. Our results provide a neurobiological context for understanding the association between BMI and brain functional organization while accounting for familial and person-specific influences. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Differential identification of atypical pneumonia pathogens in aorta and internal mammary artery related to ankle brachial index and walking distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriz, Erkan; Cirak, Meltem Yalinay; Zor, Mustafa Hakan; Engin, Doruk; Oktar, Levent; Unal, Yusuf

    2013-08-01

    We studied the existence of agents in aorta biopsies, such as Chlamydia pneumoniae, cytomegalovirus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, that are thought to have a role in atherosclerosis etiopathogenesis role, and their association with peripheral artery disease. We examined aorta wall and internal mammarian artery (IMA) biopsies taken from two different places in 63 patients in whom coronary artery bypass was performed. In these biopsies, we evaluated the deoxyribonuclease (DNA) of these microorganisms using polymerase chain reaction. From the same patients, we recorded the ankle brachial index, road walking distance information, lipid profile, C-reactive proteins, blood parameters such as fibrinogen, and the patient's operation data. In the nine aorta biopsies taken from 63 patients, we isolated C pneumoniae DNA. In IMA biopsies taken from the same patients, we detected no microorganism DNA (P artery disease. In the development of atherosclerosis with C pneumoniae, there may be a determinant pathogen in both the aorta and the peripheral arteries. The nonexistence of C pneumoniae DNA in the IMA biopsies may indicate infectious agents because of the predominant endothelial functions in this artery, and thus its resistance to atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  7. Identifying core nursing sensitive outcomes associated with the most frequently used North American Nursing Diagnosis Association-International nursing diagnoses for patients with cerebrovascular disease in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin; Whyte, James; Kim, Youngae; Park, Sang Youn

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the core nursing sensitive outcomes according to the most frequently used five North American Nursing Diagnosis Association-International for patients with cerebrovascular disease using the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC). A cross-sectional survey design was used. First, nursing problems were identified through 78 charts review, and then linkages between each of nursing problems and nursing sensitive outcomes were established and validated by an expert group for questionnaires. Second, 80 nurses working in the neurosurgical intensive care unit and neurosurgery departments of five Korean hospitals were asked to evaluate how important each outcome is and how often each outcome used to evaluate patient outcomes using 5-point Likert scale. Although there were some differences in the core outcomes identified for each of the nursing problem, consciousness, cognitive orientation, neurologic status and communication were considered the most critical nursing sensitive outcomes for patients suffering cerebrovascular disease. Core nursing sensitive outcomes of patients suffering cerebrovascular disease using NOC were identified to measure the effectiveness of nursing care. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Enhanced sensitivity to dielectric function and thickness of absorbing thin films by combining total internal reflection ellipsometry with standard ellipsometry and reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizana, A; Foldyna, M; Garcia-Caurel, E; Stchakovsky, M; Georges, B; Nicolas, D

    2013-01-01

    High sensitivity of spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectometry for the characterization of thin films can strongly decrease when layers, typically metals, absorb a significant fraction of the light. In this paper, we propose a solution to overcome this drawback using total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) and exciting a surface longitudinal wave: a plasmon-polariton. As in the attenuated total reflectance technique, TIRE exploits a minimum in the intensity of reflected transversal magnetic (TM) polarized light and enhances the sensitivity of standard methods to thicknesses of absorbing films. Samples under study were stacks of three films, ZnO : Al/Ag/ZnO : Al, deposited on glass substrates. The thickness of the silver layer varied from sample to sample. We performed measurements with a UV–visible phase-modulated ellipsometer, an IR Mueller ellipsometer and a UV–NIR reflectometer. We used the variance–covariance formalism to evaluate the sensitivity of the ellipsometric data to different parameters of the optical model. Results have shown that using TIRE doubled the sensitivity to the silver layer thickness when compared with the standard ellipsometry. Moreover, the thickness of the ZnO : Al layer below the silver layer can be reliably quantified, unlike for the fit of the standard ellipsometry data, which is limited by the absorption of the silver layer. (paper)

  9. Association of Reactive-Proactive Aggression and Anxiety Sensitivity with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Tufan, Ali Evren; Yılmaz, Savaş; Özcan, Özlem; Özmen, Sevgi; Öztop, Didem; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Akça, Ömer Faruk; Yar, Ahmet; Işık, Ümit; Çolak Sivri, Rukiye; Polat, Hatice; Irmak, Ayşe; Dönmez, Yunus Emre; Çon Bayhan, Pelin; Uçur, Ömer; Cansız, Mehmet Akif; Savcı, Uğur

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluates the associations among the symptoms of anxiety, depression, and disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) in the context of their relationships with reactive-proactive aggression and anxiety sensitivity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample consisted of 342 treatment-naive children with ADHD. The severity of ADHD and DBD symptoms were assessed via parent- and teacher-rated inventories. Anxiety sensitivity, reactive-proactive aggression and severity of anxiety and depression symptoms of children were evaluated by self-report inventories. According to structural equation modeling, depression and anxiety scores had a relation with the DBD scores through reactive-proactive aggression. Results also showed a negative relation of the total scores of anxiety sensitivity on DBD scores, while conduct disorder scores had a positive relation with anxiety scores. This study suggests that examining the relations of reactive-proactive aggression and anxiety sensitivity with internalizing and externalizing disorders could be useful for understanding the link among these disorders in ADHD.

  10. Amphetamine-induced loss of human dopamine transporter activity: An internalization-dependent and cocaine-sensitive mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Christine; Ferrer, Jasmine V.; Shi, Lei; Chen, Jiayun; Merrill, Gerald; Lamb, Maria E.; Leeb-Lundberg, L. M. Fredrik; Carvelli, Lucia; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Galli, Aurelio

    2000-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a target of amphetamine (AMPH) and cocaine. These psychostimulants attenuate DAT clearance efficiency, thereby increasing synaptic dopamine (DA) levels. Re-uptake rate is determined by the number of functional transporters at the cell surface as well as by their turnover rate. Here, we present evidence that DAT substrates, including AMPH and DA, cause internalization of human DAT, thereby reducing transport capacity. Acute treatment with AMPH reduced the maximal rate of [3H]DA uptake, decreased AMPH-induced currents, and significantly redistributed the immunofluorescence of an epitope-tagged DAT from the plasma membrane to the cytosol in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Conversely, DAT inhibitors, such as cocaine, mazindol, and nomifensine, when administered with AMPH, blocked the reduction in [3H]DA uptake and the redistribution of DAT immunofluorescence to the cytosol. The reductions of [3H]DA uptake and AMPH-induced DAT internalization also were inhibited by coexpression of a dominant negative mutant of dynamin I (K44A), indicating that endocytosis modulates transport capacity, likely through a clathrin-mediated pathway. With this mechanism of regulation, acute application of AMPH would reduce DA uptake not only by direct competition for uptake, but also by reducing the available cell-surface DAT. Moreover, AMPH-induced internalization might diminish the amount of DAT available for DA efflux, thereby modulating the cytotoxic effects of elevated extracellular DA. PMID:10823899

  11. Differential effects of age and sex on insulin sensitivity and body composition in adolescent offspring of women with type 1 diabetes: results from the EPICOM study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Zuzana; Knorr, Sine; Bytoft, Birgitte

    2018-01-01

    in fasting OGTT-derived indices for insulin sensitivity (BIGTT-SI0-30-120, Matsuda index, HOMA-IR) and insulin secretion (acute insulin response [BIGTT-AIR0-0-30-120], insulinogenic index, HOMA of insulin secretory function [HOMA-β], disposition index) and physical activity (International Physical Activity...

  12. Sensitivity study of land biosphere CO2 exchange through an atmospheric tracer transport model using satellite-derived vegetation index data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knorr, W.; Heimann, M.

    1994-01-01

    We develop a simple, globally uniform model of CO 2 exchange between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere by coupling the model with a three-dimensional atmospheric tracer transport model using observed winds, and checking results against observed concentrations of CO 2 at various monitoring sites. CO 2 fluxes are derived from observed greenness using satellite-derived Global Vegetation Index data, combined with observations of temperature, radiation, and precipitation. We explore a range of CO 2 flux formulations together with some modifications of the modelled atmospheric transport. We find that while some formulations can be excluded, it cannot be decided whether or not to make CO 2 uptake and release dependent on water stress. It appears that the seasonality of net CO 2 fluxes in the tropics, which would be expected to be driven by water availability, is small and is therefore not visible in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO 2 . The latter is dominated largely by northern temperate and boreal vegetation, where seasonality is mostly temperature determined. We find some evidence that there is still considerable CO 2 release from soils during northern-hemisphere winter. An exponential air temperature dependence of soil release with a Q 10 of 1.5 is found to be most appropriate, with no cutoff at low freezing temperatures. This result is independent of the year from which observed winds were taken. This is remarkable insofar as year-to-year changes in modelled CO 2 concentrations caused by changes in the wind data clearly outweigh those caused by year-to-year variability in the climate and vegetation index data. (orig.)

  13. Impact of Radiatively Interactive Dust Aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 Climate Model: Sensitivity to Dust Particle Shape and Refractive Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarco, Peter R.; Nowottnick, Edward Paul; Randles, Cynthia A.; Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Smith, Jamison A.; Bardeen, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the radiative effects of dust aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model. GEOS-5 is improved with the inclusion of a sectional aerosol and cloud microphysics module, the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA). Into CARMA we introduce treatment of the dust and sea salt aerosol lifecycle, including sources, transport evolution, and sinks. The aerosols are radiatively coupled to GEOS-5, and we perform a series of multi-decade AMIP-style simulations in which dust optical properties (spectral refractive index and particle shape distribution) are varied. Optical properties assuming spherical dust particles are from Mie theory, while those for non-spherical shape distributions are drawn from a recently available database for tri-axial ellipsoids. The climatologies of the various simulations generally compare well to data from the MODIS, MISR, and CALIOP space-based sensors, the ground-based AERONET, and surface measurements of dust deposition and concentration. Focusing on the summertime Saharan dust cycle we show significant variability in our simulations resulting from different choices of dust optical properties. Atmospheric heating due to dust enhances surface winds over important Saharan dust sources, and we find a positive feedback where increased dust absorption leads to increased dust emissions. We further find that increased dust absorption leads to a strengthening of the summertime Hadley cell circulation, increasing dust lofting to higher altitudes and strengthening the African Easterly Jet. This leads to a longer atmospheric residence time, higher altitude, and generally more northward transport of dust in simulations with the most absorbing dust optical properties. We find that particle shape, although important for radiance simulations, is a minor effect compared to choices of refractive index, although total atmospheric forcing is enhanced by greater than 10 percent for simulations incorporating a

  14. Comparison of local International Sensitivity Index calibration and 'Direct INR' methods in correction of locally reported International Normalized Ratios: an international study. On behalf of the European Action of Anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poller, L; Keown, M; Ibrahim, S

    2007-01-01

    by local ISI calibration and with Direct INR was assessed with a set of 27 certified lyophilized plasmas (20 from patients on warfarin and seven from normals). RESULTS: At 49 centers using human thromboplastins, 3.0% initial average local INR deviation from certified INR was reduced by local ISI...

  15. Body mass index and childhood obesity classification systems: A comparison of the French, International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and World Health Organization (WHO) references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kêkê, L M; Samouda, H; Jacobs, J; di Pompeo, C; Lemdani, M; Hubert, H; Zitouni, D; Guinhouya, B C

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to compare three body mass index (BMI)-based classification systems of childhood obesity: the French, the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) references. The study involved 1382 schoolchildren, recruited from the Lille Academic District in France in May 2009 aged 8.4±1.7 years (4.0-12.0 years). Their mean height and body mass were 131.5±10.9cm and 30.7±9.2kg, respectively, resulting in a BMI of 17.4±3.2kg/m(2). The weight status was defined according to the three systems considered in this study. The agreement between these references was tested using the Cohen's kappa coefficient. The prevalence of overweight was higher with the WHO references (20.0%) in comparison with the French references (13.8%; Preferences: 6.7%; Preferences ranged from "moderate" to "perfect" (0.43≤κ≤1.00; Preferences were used to classify children as obese (0.63≤κ≤1.00; Preferences in boys aged 7-12 years (κ=0.28; Preferences and IOTF (κ=0.97; Preferences ranged from 0.60 to 1.00 (Preferences against French references or IOTF among boys aged 7-12 years (κ=0.60; Preferences yield an overestimation in overweight and/or obesity within this sample of schoolchildren as compared to the French references and the IOTF. The magnitude of agreement coefficients between the three references depends on of both sex and age categories. The French references seem to be in rather close agreement with the IOTF in defining overweight, especially in 7-12-year-old children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Complex karyotype in mantle cell lymphoma is a strong prognostic factor for the time to treatment and overall survival, independent of the MCL international prognostic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkozy, Clémentine; Terré, Christine; Jardin, Fabrice; Radford, Isabelle; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Penther, Dominique; Bastard, Christian; Rigaudeau, Sophie; Pilorge, Sylvain; Morschhauser, Franck; Bouscary, Didier; Delarue, Richard; Farhat, Hassan; Rousselot, Philippe; Hermine, Olivier; Tilly, Hervé; Chevret, Sylvie; Castaigne, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is usually an aggressive disease. However, a few patients do have an "indolent" evolution (iMCL) defined by a long survival time without intensive therapy. Many studies highlight the prognostic role of additional genetic abnormalities, but these abnormalities are not routinely tested for and do not yet influence the treatment decision. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of these additional abnormalities detected by conventional cytogenetic testing, as well as their relationships with the clinical characteristics and their value in identifying iMCL. All consecutive MCL cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 at four institutions were retrospectively selected on the basis of an informative karyotype with a t(11;14) translocation at the time of diagnosis. A total of 125 patients were included and followed for an actual median time of 35 months. The median overall survival (OS) and survival without treatment (TFS) were 73.7 and 1.3 months, respectively. In multivariable Cox models, a high mantle cell lymphoma international prognostic index score, a complex karyotype, and blastoid morphology were independently associated with a shortened OS. Spleen enlargement, nodal presentation, extra-hematological involvement, and complex karyotypes were associated with shorter TFS. A score based on these factors allowed for the identification of "indolent" patients (median TFS 107 months) from other patients (median TFS: 1 month). In conclusion, in this multicentric cohort of MCL patients, a complex karyotype was associated with a shorter survival time and allowed for the identification of iMCL at the time of diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Surgical Site Infections after Open Reduction Internal Fixation for Trauma in Low and Middle Human Development Index Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Thomas J; Cai, Lawrence Z; Corcoran-Schwartz, Ian; Weiser, Thomas G; Forrester, Joseph D

    2018-01-17

    Musculoskeletal trauma represents a large source of morbidity in low and middle human development index countries (LMHDICs). Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of traumatic long bone fractures definitively manages these injuries and restores function when conducted safely and effectively. Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a common complication of operative fracture fixation, although the risks of infection are ill-defined in LMHDIC. This study reviewed systematically all studies describing SSI after ORIF in LMDHICs. Studies were reviewed based on their qualitative characteristics, after which a quantitative synthesis of weighted pooled infection rates based on available patient-level data was performed to estimate published incidence of SSI. Forty-two studies met criteria for qualitative review and 32 studies comprising 3,084 operations were included in the quantitative analysis. Among 3,084 operations, the weighted pooled SSI rate was 6.4 infections per 100 procedures (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.6-8.2 infections per 100 procedures). Higher rates of infection were noted among the sub-group of open fractures (95% CI 13.9-23.0 infections per 100 procedures). Lower extremity injuries and procedures utilizing intra-medullary nails also had slightly higher rates of infection versus upper extremity procedures and other fixation devices. Reported rates of SSI after ORIF are higher in LMHDICs, and may be driven by high rates of infection in the sub-group of open fractures. This study provides a baseline SSI rate obtained from literature produced from LMHDICs. Infection rates are highly dependent on fracture sub-types.

  18. Relationships among participant international prostate symptom score, benign prostatic hyperplasia impact index changes and global ratings of change in a trial of phytotherapy in men with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michael J; Cantor, Alan; Roehrborn, Claus G

    2013-03-01

    We related changes in American Urological Association symptom index scores with bother measures and global ratings of change in men with lower urinary tract symptoms who were enrolled in a saw palmetto trial. To be eligible for study men were 45 years old or older, and had a peak uroflow of 4 ml per second or greater and an American Urological Association symptom index score of 8 to 24. Participants self-administered the American Urological Association symptom index, International Prostate Symptom Score quality of life item, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index and 2 global change questions at baseline, and at 24, 48 and 72 weeks. In 357 participants global ratings of a little better were associated with a mean decrease in American Urological Association symptom index scores from 2.8 to 4.1 points across 3 time points. The analogous range for mean decreases in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index scores was 1.0 to 1.7 points and for the International Prostate Symptom Score quality of life item it was 0.5 to 0.8 points. At 72 weeks for the first global change question each change measure discriminated between participants who rated themselves at least a little better vs unchanged or worse 70% to 72% of the time. A multivariate model increased discrimination to 77%. For the second global change question each change measure correctly discriminated ratings of at least a little better vs unchanged or worse 69% to 74% of the time and a multivariate model increased discrimination to 79%. Changes in American Urological Association symptom index scores could discriminate between participants rating themselves at least a little better vs unchanged or worse. Our findings support the practice of powering studies to detect group mean differences in American Urological Association symptom index scores of at least 3 points. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between experiences of discrimination and mental health among lesbians and gay men: An examination of internalized homonegativity and rejection sensitivity as potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; Goldfried, Marvin R; Davila, Joanne

    2012-10-01

    The current study used path analysis to examine potential mechanisms through which experiences of discrimination influence depressive and social anxiety symptoms. The sample included 218 lesbians and 249 gay men (total N = 467) who participated in an online survey about minority stress and mental health. The proposed model included 2 potential mediators-internalized homonegativity and rejection sensitivity-as well as a culturally relevant antecedent to experiences of discrimination-childhood gender nonconformity. Results indicated that the data fit the model well, supporting the mediating roles of internalized homonegativity and rejection sensitivity in the associations between experiences of discrimination and symptoms of depression and social anxiety. Results also supported the role of childhood gender nonconformity as an antecedent to experiences of discrimination. Although there were not significant gender differences in the overall model fit, some of the associations within the model were significantly stronger for gay men than lesbians. These findings suggest potential mechanisms through which experiences of discrimination influence well-being among sexual minorities, which has important implications for research and clinical practice with these populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON UNCERTAINTY, SENSITIVITY, AND PARAMETER ESTIMATION FOR MULTIMEDIA ENVIRONMENTAL MODELING. EPA/600/R-04/117, NUREG/CP-0187, ERDC SR-04-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An International Workshop on Uncertainty, Sensitivity, and Parameter Estimation for Multimedia Environmental Modeling was held August 1921, 2003, at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Headquarters in Rockville, Maryland, USA. The workshop was organized and convened by the Fe...

  1. Sensibilidade e especificidade do índice de conicidade como discriminador do risco coronariano de adultos em Salvador, Brasil Sensitivity and specificity of the conicity index as a coronary risk predictor among adults in Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Gondim Pitanga

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: No início da década de 90, foi proposto o índice de conicidade para avaliação da distribuição da gordura corporal, com base nas medidas de peso, estatura e circunferência da cintura. Este estudo teve como objetivo selecionar através da sensibilidade e especificidade os melhores pontos de corte para o índice de conicidade como discriminador de risco coronariano elevado. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, com amostra composta por 968 adultos de 30-74 anos de idade, sendo 391 (40,4% do sexo masculino. A análise foi feita por curva Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC para identificar a sensibilidade e especificidade do melhor ponto de corte do índice de conicidade como discriminador de risco coronariano elevado. Verificou-se também a significância estatística da área sob a curva ROC entre o índice de conicidade e risco coronariano elevado. Foi utilizado intervalo de confiança (IC a 95%. RESULTADOS: A área total sob a curva ROC entre o índice de conicidade e risco coronariano foi de 0,80, IC 95% (0,74-0,85 para homens e 0,75, IC 95% (0,70-0,80 para mulheres. Os melhores pontos de corte para discriminar o risco coronariano elevado foram, para homens e mulheres, respectivamente, 1,25 (sensibilidade de 73,91% e especificidade de 74,92% e 1,18 (sensibilidade de 73.39% e especificidade de 61,15%. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados encontrados neste estudo sugerem que o índice de conicidade deve ser comparado aos demais indicadores antropométricos de obesidade e pode vir a ser utilizado para discriminar risco coronariano elevado.OBJECTIVE: In the early nineties, the conicity index was proposed for the assessment of body fat distribution based on weight, height and waist circumference measurements. The goal of this study was to identify the sensitivity, specificity and the best cut-off point for the conicity index as a predictor of high coronary risk. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study whose population comprised 968

  2. The effect on reliability and sensitivity to level of training of combining analytic and holistic rating scales for assessing communication skills in an internal medicine resident OSCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Vijay John; Harley, Dwight

    2017-07-01

    Although previous research has compared checklists to rating scales for assessing communication, the purpose of this study was to compare the effect on reliability and sensitivity to level of training of an analytic, a holistic, and a combined analytic-holistic rating scale in assessing communication skills. The University of Alberta Internal Medicine Residency runs OSCEs for postgraduate year (PGY) 1 and 2 residents and another for PGY-4 residents. Communication stations were scored with an analytic scale (empathy, non-verbal skills, verbal skills, and coherence subscales) and a holistic scale. Authors analyzed reliability of individual and combined scales using generalizability theory and evaluated each scale's sensitivity to level of training. For analytic, holistic, and combined scales, 12, 12, and 11 stations respectively yielded a Phi of 0.8 for the PGY-1,2 cohort, and 16, 16, and 14 stations yielded a Phi of 0.8 for the PGY-4 cohort. PGY-4 residents scored higher on the combined scale, the analytic rating scale, and the non-verbal and coherence subscales. A combined analytic-holistic rating scale increased score reliability and was sensitive to level of training. Given increased validity evidence, OSCE developers should consider combining analytic and holistic scales when assessing communication skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Human development index: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, O H

    1991-09-01

    This discussion focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of constructing a summary measure of the multidimensional and dynamic concept of development. 2 indexes are referred to: the UN Development Programme; human development index (HDI) and the Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI). PQLI weights equally life expectancy at 1 year, infant mortality, and literacy, regardless of the correlation of variables and the arbitrariness of the weights. PQLI also is assumed to measure the quantity of life, not the quality. HDI measures quantity and quality and includes life expectancy, literacy, and real GDP/capita, and may include a measure of human freedom. Objectivity is a major problem with any index. Assignment of weights is an example of arbitrariness without justification and the index is sensitive the weights assigned. There is a paradox between defending weights on the 1 hand and, if robustness of the index is assumed and components are correlated, then any single component could suffice. A more serious criticism of the HDI is the weighting of each rank order of the country by 1/3 and summing the weighted ranking of the 3 indicators. The flaw here is the problem of application of ratio scales on ordinal magnitudes. The rank correlation coefficient between real GDP/capita and life expectancy, real GDP/capita and literacy; and literacy and life expectancy are .90, .80, and .89, respectively. HDI is also correlated with GDP/capita (.87). Composite indexes are not sensitive to variability in components or the imbalance in components, e.g., a country with low means but high literacy. The goal should continue to be to develop a conceptually and methodologically acceptable summary measure. It is suggested that a necessary component is economic development. Countries may be ranked according to their level of economic development in order to measure their achievements in human development. A weighted distribution of income/capita is a better indicator of the economic well

  4. Climate change threatens archaeologically significant ice patches: insights into their age, internal structure, mass balance and climate sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand Ødegård, Rune; Nesje, Atle; Isaksen, Ketil; Andreassen, Liss Marie; Eiken, Trond; Schwikowski, Margit; Uglietti, Chiara

    2017-04-01

    Despite numerous spectacular archaeological discoveries worldwide related to melting ice patches and the emerging field of glacial archaeology, governing processes related to ice patch development during the Holocene and their sensitivity to climate change are still largely unexplored. Here we present new results from an extensive 6-year (2009-2015) field experiment at the Juvfonne ice patch in Jotunheimen in central southern Norway. Our results show that the ice patch has existed continuously since the late Mesolithic period. Organic-rich layers and carbonaceous aerosols embedded in clear ice show ages spanning from modern at the surface to ca. 7600 cal years BP at the bottom. This is the oldest dating of ice in mainland Norway. The expanding ice patch covered moss mats appearing along the margin of Juvfonne about 2000 years ago. During the study period, the mass balance record showed a strong negative balance, and the annual balance is highly asymmetric over short distances. Snow accumulation is poorly correlated with estimated winter precipitation, and single storm events may contribute significantly to the total winter balance. Snow accumulation is approx. 20% higher in the frontal area compared to the upper central part of the ice patch. There is sufficient meltwater to bring the permeable snowpack to an isothermal state within a few weeks in early summer. Below the seasonal snowpack, ice temperatures are between -2 and -4 °C. Juvfonne has clear ice stratification of isochronic origin. Reference: The Cryosphere, 11, 17-32, 2017.

  5. Evolutionary Dynamics of Pandemic Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ST398 and Its International Spread via Routes of Human Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; McAdam, Paul R; Sullivan, Sean B; Knox, Justin R; Khiabanian, Hossein; Rabadan, Raul; Davies, Peter R; Fitzgerald, J Ross; Lowy, Franklin D

    2017-01-17

    Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) accounts for the majority of S. aureus infections globally, and yet surprisingly little is known about its clonal evolution. We applied comparative whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses to epidemiologically and geographically diverse ST398-MSSA, a pandemic lineage affecting both humans and livestock. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis predicted divergence of human-associated ST398-MSSA ~40 years ago. Isolates from Midwestern pigs and veterinarians differed substantially from those in New York City (NYC). Pig ST398 strains contained a large region of recombination representing imports from multiple sequence types (STs). Phylogeographic analyses supported the spread of ST398-MSSA along local cultural and migratory links between parts of the Caribbean, North America, and France, respectively. Applying pairwise single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distances as a measure of genetic relatedness between isolates, we observed that ST398 not only clustered in households but also frequently extended across local social networks. Isolates collected from environmental surfaces reflected the full diversity of colonizing individuals, highlighting their potentially critical role as reservoirs for transmission and diversification. Strikingly, we observed high within-host SNP variability compared to our previous studies on the dominant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone USA300. Our data indicate that the dynamics of colonization, persistence, and transmission differ substantially between USA300-MRSA and ST398-MSSA. Taken together, our study reveals local and international routes of transmission for a major MSSA clone, indicating key impacts of recombination and mutation on genetic diversification and highlighting important ecological differences from epidemic USA300. Our study demonstrates extensive local and international routes of transmission for a major MSSA clone despite the lack of substantial

  6. Climate index for Belgium - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Belgium. (J.S.)

  7. Climate index for Spain - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Spain. (J.S.)

  8. Climate index for France - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of France. (J.S.)

  9. Climate index for Switzerland - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Switzerland. (J.S.)

  10. Climate index for Portugal - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Portugal. (J.S.)

  11. Climate index for Germany - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Germany. (J.S.)

  12. Climate index for Italy - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Italy. (J.S.)

  13. Predicting Disability after Ischemic Stroke Based on Comorbidity Index and Stroke Severity—From the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive-Acute Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh G. Phan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimThe availability and access of hospital administrative data [coding for Charlson comorbidity index (CCI] in large data form has resulted in a surge of interest in using this information to predict mortality from stroke. The aims of this study were to determine the minimum clinical data set to be included in models for predicting disability after ischemic stroke adjusting for CCI and clinical variables and to evaluate the impact of CCI on prediction of outcome.MethodWe leverage anonymized clinical trial data in the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive. This repository contains prospective data on stroke severity and outcome. The inclusion criteria were patients with available stroke severity score such as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, imaging data, and outcome disability score such as 90-day Rankin Scale. We calculate CCI based on comorbidity data in this data set. For logistic regression, we used these calibration statistics: Nagelkerke generalised R2 and Brier score; and for discrimination we used: area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI. The IDI was used to evaluate improvement in disability prediction above baseline model containing age, sex, and CCI.ResultsThe clinical data among 5,206 patients (55% males were as follows: mean age 69 ± 13 years, CCI 4.2 ± 0.8, and median NIHSS of 12 (IQR 8, 17 on admission and 9 (IQR 5, 15 at 24 h. In Model 2, adding admission NIHSS to the baseline model improved AUC from 0.67 (95% CI 0.65–0.68 to 0.79 (95% CI 0.78–0.81. In Model 3, adding 24-h NIHSS to the baseline model resulted in substantial improvement in AUC to 0.90 (95% CI 0.89–0.91 and increased IDI by 0.23 (95% CI 0.22–0.24. Adding the variable recombinant tissue plasminogen activator did not result in a further change in AUC or IDI to this regression model. In Model 3, the variable NIHSS at 24 h explains 87.3% of

  14. Effect of body mass index, physical activity, depression, and educational attainment on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, John; Simpson, Ross; Mounsey, John Paul; Chung, Eugene; Schwartz, Jennifer; Pursell, Irion; Gehi, Anil

    2013-01-15

    Atherosclerosis development is a complex process, with inflammation, indicated by elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), as a potential mediator. Obesity, physical activity, and depression have all been reported to affect hs-CRP. However, these factors are interconnected, and their relative individual importance remains unclear. From a separate prospective cohort study, 289 patients were selected for the present substudy. We assessed the relation of a variety of potential predictors and hs-CRP. Obesity, physical activity, and depression, in addition to several other potential factors, were analyzed in bivariate and multivariate linear regression models, adjusting for potential confounders. In unadjusted analyses, mild-to-moderate and severe depression were associated with increased hs-CRP compared to no or minimal depression. Vigorous physical activity was associated with decreased hs-CRP compared to no physical activity. All classes of obesity were associated with increased hs-CRP. In addition, attaining a college or graduate degree was associated with decreased hs-CRP compared to high school or less educational attainment. On multivariate analysis, depression was no longer associated with increased hs-CRP. Physical activity remained associated with decreased hs-CRP but only at vigorous levels. Educational attainment also remained associated but only at the collegiate or professional education level. Ultimately, obesity remained the greatest absolute predictor of elevated hs-CRP. In conclusion, in analyses of multiple factors potentially predictive of elevated hs-CRP in a large population of patients with subclinical coronary heart disease, we found the most important predictor to be obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Utility of the combination of serum highly-sensitive C-reactive protein level at discharge and a risk index in predicting readmission for acute exacerbation of COPD,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Chang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frequent readmissions for acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD are an independent risk factor for increased mortality and use of health-care resources. Disease severity and C-reactive protein (CRP level are validated predictors of long-term prognosis in such patients. This study investigated the utility of combining serum CRP level with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD exacerbation risk classification for predicting readmission for AECOPD. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of consecutive patients hospitalized for AECOPD at Peking University Third Hospital, in Beijing, China. We assessed patient age; gender; smoking status and history (pack-years; lung function; AECOPD frequency during the last year; quality of life; GOLD risk category (A-D; D indicating the greatest risk; and serum level of high-sensitivity CRP at discharge (hsCRP-D. RESULTS: The final sample comprised 135 patients. Of those, 71 (52.6% were readmitted at least once during the 12-month follow-up period. The median (interquartile time to readmission was 78 days (42-178 days. Multivariate analysis revealed that serum hsCRP-D ≥ 3 mg/L and GOLD category D were independent predictors of readmission (hazard ratio = 3.486; 95% CI: 1.968-6.175; p < 0.001 and hazard ratio = 2.201; 95% CI: 1.342-3.610; p = 0.002, respectively. The ordering of the factor combinations by cumulative readmission risk, from highest to lowest, was as follows: hsCRP-D ≥ 3 mg/L and GOLD category D; hsCRP-D ≥ 3 mg/L and GOLD categories A-C; hsCRP-D < 3 mg/L and GOLD category D; hsCRP-D < 3 mg/L and GOLD categories A-C. CONCLUSIONS: Serum hsCRP-D and GOLD classification are independent predictors of readmission for AECOPD, and their predictive value increases when they are used in combination.

  16. HOMA insulin sensitivity index and the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease events in the general population: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, E L M; Cameron, A J; Balkau, B; Zimmet, P Z; Welborn, T A; Tonkin, A M; Shaw, J E

    2010-01-01

    We assessed whether the relationships between insulin sensitivity and all-cause mortality as well as fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are independent of elevated blood glucose, high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and body composition in individuals without diagnosed diabetes. Between 1999 and 2000, baseline fasting insulin, glucose and lipids, 2 h plasma glucose, HbA(1c), anthropometrics, blood pressure, medication use, smoking and history of CVD were collected from 8,533 adults aged >35 years from the population-based Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S). Deaths and fatal or non-fatal CVD events were ascertained through linkage to the National Death Index and medical records adjudication. After a median of 5.0 years there were 277 deaths and 225 CVD events. HOMA-%S was not associated with all-cause mortality. Compared with the most insulin-sensitive quintile, the combined fatal or non-fatal CVD HR (95% CI) for quintiles of decreasing HOMA-%S were 1.1 (0.6-1.9), 1.4 (0.9-2.3), 1.6 (1.0-2.5) and 2.0 (1.3-3.1), adjusting for age and sex. Smoking, CVD history, hypertension, lipid-lowering medication, total cholesterol and waist-to-hip ratio moderately attenuated this relationship. However, the association was rendered non-significant by adding HDL. Fasting plasma glucose, but not HOMA-%S significantly improved the prediction of CVD, beyond that seen with other risk factors. In this cohort, HOMA-%S showed no association with all-cause mortality and only a modest association with CVD events, largely explained by its association with HDL. Fasting plasma glucose was a better predictor of CVD than HOMA-%S.

  17. Sensitivity and specificity of the body mass index for the diagnosis of overweight/obesity in elderly Sensibilidade e especificidade do índice de massa corporal no diagnóstico de sobrepeso/obesidade em idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to verify the sensitivity and specificity of the body mass index (BMI cut-off points proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO and the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI for the diagnosis of obesity in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was made with 180 healthy elderly subjects from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Body fat percentage (%BF was determined using DEXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMI cut-off point of the NSI offers better sensitivity and specificity for men (73.7% and 72.5% respectively. For women, the lower the cut-off point the better the sensitivity, with a BMI of 25kg/m² (sensitivity of 76.3% and specificity of 100% being the most accurate for diagnosing obesity in elderly women. The WHO cut-off point offered very low sensitivity (28.9%. The results of this investigation lead to the conclusion that the cut-off points proposed by the WHO and the ones adopted by the NSI and by Lipschitz are not good indicators of obesity for the elderly of either sex, since they offer low sensitivity.O objetivo foi verificar a sensibilidade e especificidade dos pontos de corte do índice de massa corporal (IMC propostos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS e Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI no diagnóstico da obesidade em idosos. O estudo foi realizado com 180 idosos de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. O percentual de gordura corporal foi mensurado por absortometria radiológica de dupla energia. O IMC da NSI apresenta melhores valores de sensibilidade e especificidade para homens (73,7% e 72,5% respectivamente. Para os homens o IMC de 25kg/m² apresentou elevada sensibilidade (94,7% e baixa especificidade (40%, enquanto o IMC de 30kg/m² possui baixa sensibilidade (31,6% e elevada especificidade (97,5%. Nas mulheres, o IMC de 25kg/m² (sensibilidade de 76,3% e especificidade de 100% foi o mais acurado. O ponto de corte da OMS mostrou sensibilidade muito baixa (28,9%. Os

  18. Multifunctional PEGylated 2C5-immunoliposomes containing pH-sensitive bonds and TAT peptide for enhanced tumor cell internalization and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Erez; Apte, Anjali; Jani, Ankur; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2012-06-10

    pH-sensitive PEGylated (with PEG-PE) long-circulating liposomes (HSPC:cholesterol and Doxil®), modified with cell-penetrating TAT peptide (TATp) moieties and cancer-specific mAb 2C5 were prepared. A degradable pH-sensitive hydrazone bond between a long shielding PEG chains and PE (PEG(2k)-Hz-PE) was introduced. TATp was conjugated with a short PEG(1k)-PE spacer and mAb 2C5 was attached to a long PEG chain (2C5-PEG(3.4k)-PE). The "shielding" effect of TATp by long PEG chains was investigated using three liposomal models. At normal pH, surface TATp moieties are "hidden" by the long PEG chains. Upon the exposure to lowered pH, this multifunctional carrier exposes TATp moieties after the degradation of the hydrazone bond and removal of the long PEG chains. Enhanced cellular uptake of the TATp-containing immunoliposomes was observed in vitro after pre-treatment at lowered pH (using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy techniques). The presence of mAb 2C5 on the liposome surface further enhanced the interaction between the carrier and tumor cells but not normal cells. Furthermore, multifunctional immuno-Doxil® preparation showed increased cellular cytotoxicity of B16-F10, HeLa and MCF-7 cells when pre-incubated at lower pH, indicating TATp exposure and activity. In conclusion, a multifunctional immunoliposomal nanocarrier containing a pH-sensitive PEG-PE component, TATp, and the cancer cell-specific mAb 2C5 promotes enhanced cytotoxicity and carrier internalization by cancer cells and demonstrates the potential for intracellular drug delivery after exposure to lowered pH environment, typical of solid tumors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff and its contractors. There are four types of reports included: staff reports, conference reports, contractor reports, and international agreement reports. In addition to the main citations with abstracts, the following are also included: Secondary report number index; Personal author index; Subject index; NRC originating organization indices for staff reports and international agreement reports; NRC contract sponsor index; Contractor index; International organization index; and Licensed facility index

  20. Regional indexes for France. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of regional weather indexes for France. Each regional index covers an homogenous area in terms of temperature represented by the biggest city. Five reference cities are used to represent the 22 economical regions of France (Paris Orly, Lyon, Marignane, Bordeaux and Strasbourg). (J.S.)

  1. Validación del índice nutricional en preadolescentes mexicanos con el método de sensibilidad y especificidad Validation of the nutritional index in Mexican preadolescents with the sensitivity and specificity method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita de Jesús Saucedo-Molina

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la validez diagnóstica del índice nutricional (IN en una muestra de preadolescentes mexicanos. Material y métodos. Se trabajó con un grupo de 256 escolares de la Ciudad de México, de entre 10 y 12 años de edad, de ambos sexos. Se utilizó el método de sensibilidad y especificidad para establecer la validez diagnóstica del IN. Resultados. Los puntos de corte convencionales para el IN tienen buena sensibilidad y especificidad para el diagnóstico de bajo peso, normalidad y obesidad, no así para sobrepeso. Estos valores, así como los de la potencia de predicción, se optimizaron en todas las categorías cuando se utilizaron puntos de corte normalizados. Conclusiones. En el diagnóstico del estado de nutrición de los preadolescentes, los nuevos puntos de corte del IN resultan más confiables que los tradicionales.Objective. To determine the diagnostic validity of the nutritional index (NI in a sample of Mexican preadolescents. Material and methods. A total of 256 preadolescents, between 10 and 12 years old, male and female, students from Mexico City, were used to establish the diagnostic validity of NI using the sensitivity and specificity method. Results. The findings show that the conventional NI cut-off points showed good sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of low weight, normality and obesity but not for overweight. When the cut-off points of NI were normalized, the sensitivity, specificity and prediction potency values were more suitable in all categories. Conclusions. When working with preadolescents, it is better to use the new cut-off points of NI, to obtain more reliable diagnosis.

  2. Development and validation of a sensitive LC-MS/MS method without derivatization/ion-pairing agents for etimicin quantification in rat plasma, internal ear and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lan; Zhou, Fang; Cai, Mingmin; Peng, Ying; Sun, Jianguo; Chen, Qianying; Jin, Xiaoliang; Wang, Guangji; Zhang, Jingwei

    2017-11-30

    Etimicin (ETM), which belongs to the newest generation of aminoglycosides (AGs), has been proven to not only maintain but also strengthen the advantages of former AGs with relatively less toxicity. Now, it is widely applied for the treatment of bacterial infections in the clinic. Nevertheless, nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity are unavoidable issues for AGs, and while ETM is no exception, the seriousness of these issues is different. To explore the reason why ETM exhibits less toxicity and to better direct the optimization and development of new AGs, it is of great necessity and importance to monitor the pharmacokinetic behaviors of ETM in its potential toxicity target organs, the kidney and internal ear, as well as in plasma. Therefore, a novel, sensitive and efficient LC-MS/MS method without derivatization or ion-pairing agents had been developed and validated for quantification of ETM in rat plasma, kidney and internal ear for the first time. This method showed good linearity over the range of 50-2000ng/mL for rat plasma/internal ear and 100-5000ng/mL for rat kidney. The precision was less than 4.4% and the accuracy was below 4.8%. Recovery and matrix effects were 71.3%-82.8% and 97.6%-108.5%, respectively. After intravenous administration of a single dose of ETM, plasma drug concentrations fit well with a two-compartmental model, and the AUC 0-∞ , t 1/2α , t 1/2β , MRT and CL were 127.96±5.52μg*h/mL, 0.53±0.03h, 3.32±1.11h, 1.01±0.03h and 234.80±10.05mL/h/kg, respectively. Particularly, ETM showed a considerably long half-life in kidney and internal ear, up to 155.96±19.95h and 83.11±26.60h, respectively, which might contribute greatly to its toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Large-scale international validation of the ADO index in subjects with COPD: an individual subject data analysis of 10 cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puhan, Milo A; Hansel, Nadia N; Sobradillo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    -to-moderate risk of 3-year mortality than FEV1 alone. Interpretation: The updated 15-point ADO index accurately predicts 3-year mortality across the COPD severity spectrum and can be used to inform patients about their prognosis, clinical trial study design or benefit harm assessment of medical interventions....

  4. Sensitivity and Specificity of Emergency Physicians and Trainees for Identifying Internally Concealed Drug Packages on Abdominal Computed Tomography Scan: Do Lung Windows Improve Accuracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Stephen Edward; Cooke, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Suspected body packers may be brought to emergency departments (EDs) close to international airports for abdominal computed tomography (CT) scanning. Senior emergency clinicians may be asked to interpret these CT scans. Missing concealed drug packages have important clinical and forensic implications. The accuracy of emergency clinician interpretation of abdominal CT scans for concealed drugs is not known. Limited evidence suggests that accuracy for identification of concealed packages can be increased by viewing CT images on "lung window" settings. To determine the accuracy of senior emergency clinicians in interpreting abdominal CT scans for concealed drugs, and to determine if this accuracy was improved by viewing scans on both abdominal and lung window settings. Emergency clinicians blinded to all patient identifiers and the radiology report interpreted CT scans of suspected body packers using standard abdominal window settings and then with the addition of lung window settings. The reference standard was the radiologist's report. Fifty-five emergency clinicians reported 235 CT scans. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of interpretation using abdominal windows was 89.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 83.0-94.7), 81.9% (95% CI 73.7-88.4), and 86.0% (95% CI 81.5-90.4), respectively, and with both window settings was 94.1% (95% CI 88.3-97.6), 76.7% (95% CI 68.0-84.1), 85.5% (95% CI 81.0-90.0), respectively. Diagnostic accuracy was similar regardless of the clinician's experience. Interrater reliability was moderate (kappa 0.46). The accuracy of interpretation of abdominal CT scans performed for the purpose of detecting concealed drug packages by emergency clinicians is not high enough to safely discharge these patients from the ED. The use of lung windows improved sensitivity, but at the expense of specificity. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Cook Inlet and Kenai...

  6. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  7. Local refractive index sensitivity of plasmonic nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piliarik, Marek; Kvasnička, Pavel; Galler, N.; Krenn, J. R.; Homola, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 10 (2011), s. 9213-9220 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701; GA MŠk OC09058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Surface plasmon resonance * Subwavelength structures, nanostructures * Optical sensing and sensors Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.587, year: 2011

  8. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  9. A sensitive one-step real-time PCR for detection of avian influenza viruses using a MGB probe and an internal positive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delogu Mauro

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza viruses (AIVs are endemic in wild birds and their introduction and conversion to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in domestic poultry is a cause of serious economic losses as well as a risk for potential transmission to humans. The ability to rapidly recognise AIVs in biological specimens is critical for limiting further spread of the disease in poultry. The advent of molecular methods such as real time polymerase chain reaction has allowed improvement of detection methods currently used in laboratories, although not all of these methods include an Internal Positive Control (IPC to monitor for false negative results. Therefore we developed a one-step reverse transcription real time PCR (RRT-PCR with a Minor Groove Binder (MGB probe for the detection of different subtypes of AIVs. This technique also includes an IPC. Methods RRT-PCR was developed using an improved TaqMan technology with a MGB probe to detect AI from reference viruses. Primers and probe were designed based on the matrix gene sequences from most animal and human A influenza virus subtypes. The specificity of RRT-PCR was assessed by detecting influenza A virus isolates belonging to subtypes from H1–H13 isolated in avian, human, swine and equine hosts. The analytical sensitivity of the RRT-PCR assay was determined using serial dilutions of in vitro transcribed matrix gene RNA. The use of a rodent RNA as an IPC in order not to reduce the efficiency of the assay was adopted. Results The RRT-PCR assay is capable to detect all tested influenza A viruses. The detection limit of the assay was shown to be between 5 and 50 RNA copies per reaction and the standard curve demonstrated a linear range from 5 to 5 × 108 copies as well as excellent reproducibility. The analytical sensitivity of the assay is 10–100 times higher than conventional RT-PCR. Conclusion The high sensitivity, rapidity, reproducibility and specificity of the AIV RRT-PCR with

  10. Indexes to Volume 77

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: Anurag Srivastava, C. S. Praveen, H. S. Tewari. © 2015 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Contact | Site index.

  11. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Eshita

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  12. Negative index in chiral metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S.; Plum, E.; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, C.; Zheludev, N.; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that planar metamaterial lacking of mirror symmetry shows asymmetric transmission of terahertz waves and bands of positive, negative and zero phase and group velocities indicating a polarization sensitive negative index and slow-light media.

  13. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  14. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  15. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  16. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  17. The Evaluation of the Impact of Age, Skin Tags, Metabolic Syndrome, Body Mass Index, and Smoking on Homocysteine, Endothelin-1, High-sensitive C-reactive Protein, and on the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Safoury, Omar Soliman; Ezzat, Marwa; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud F; Shoukry, Nadia; Badawy, Ehssan

    2013-07-01

    Skin tags (STs) are small, pedunculated skin-colored or brown papules that occur around any site where skin folds occur. The literature is short of comprehensive and controlled clinical studies aimed to evaluate the atherogenic risk factors in patients with STs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of age, STs, metabolic syndrome (METs), body mass index (BMI), and smoking on homocysteine (Hcy), endothelin-1 (ET-1), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), and on cardiovascular diseases. This study included 30 cardiac patients with STs, 30 non-cardiac patients with STs, and 30 healthy controls with neither heart disease nor STs. History of smoking, measurement of height, weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, STs number, color, acanthosis nigricans, estimation of serum level of fasting glucose, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, high-dense lipoproteins (HDL), Hcy, ET-1, Hs-CRP, and the presence of the METs were elicited in the three groups. Regarding the Hcy, ET-1, and Hs-CRP, the cardiac-STs group showed the highest levels and the control group showed the least (P Bermuda Triangle that act against the heart.

  18. The Pemberton Happiness Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; de Camargos, Mayara Goulart; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Hervás, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Carmelo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI) is a recently developed integrative measure of well-being that includes components of hedonic, eudaimonic, social, and experienced well-being. The PHI has been validated in several languages, but not in Portuguese. Our aim was to cross-culturally adapt the Universal Portuguese version of the PHI and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of the Brazilian population using online surveys. An expert committee evaluated 2 versions of the PHI previously translated into Portuguese by the original authors using a standardized form for assessment of semantic/idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence. A pretesting was conducted employing cognitive debriefing methods. In sequence, the expert committee evaluated all the documents and reached a final Universal Portuguese PHI version. For the evaluation of the psychometric properties, the data were collected using online surveys in a cross-sectional study. The study population included healthcare professionals and users of the social network site Facebook from several Brazilian geographic areas. In addition to the PHI, participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Diener and Emmons’ Positive and Negative Experience Scale (PNES), Psychological Well-being Scale (PWS), and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS). Internal consistency, convergent validity, known-group validity, and test–retest reliability were evaluated. Satisfaction with the previous day was correlated with the 10 items assessing experienced well-being using the Cramer V test. Additionally, a cut-off value of PHI to identify a “happy individual” was defined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology. Data from 1035 Brazilian participants were analyzed (health professionals = 180; Facebook users = 855). Regarding reliability results, the internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.890 and 0.914) and test–retest (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.814) were

  19. New developments related to the Hirsch index

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the h-index on the one hand, and the A- and g-indices on the other, measure different things. The A-index, however, seems overly sensitive to one extremely highly cited article. For this reason it would seem that the g-index is the more useful of the two. As to the h- and the g-index: they do measure different aspects of a scientist’s publication list. Certainly the h-index does not tell the full story, and, although a more sensitive indicator than the h-index, neither does t...

  20. Indexing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)

  1. First Steps Toward a Quality of Climate Finance Scorecard (QUODA-CF): Creating a Comparative Index to Assess International Climate Finance Contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Katherine; Roberts, Timmons; de Nevers, Michele; Langley, Claire; Smith, Cory

    2013-06-15

    Are climate finance contributor countries, multilateral aid agencies and specialized funds using widely accepted best practices in foreign assistance? How is it possible to measure and compare international climate finance contributions when there are as yet no established metrics or agreed definitions of the quality of climate finance? As a subjective metric, quality can mean different things to different stakeholders, while of donor countries, recipients and institutional actors may place quality across a broad spectrum of objectives. This subjectivity makes the assessment of the quality of climate finance contributions a useful and necessary exercise, but one that has many challenges. This work seeks to enhance the development of common definitions and metrics of the quality of climate finance, to understand what we can about those areas where climate finance information is available and shine a light on the areas where there is a severe dearth of data. Allowing for comparisons of the use of best practices across funding institutions in the climate sector could begin a process of benchmarking performance, fostering learning across institutions and driving improvements when incorporated in internal evaluation protocols of those institutions. In the medium term, this kind of benchmarking and transparency could support fundraising in contributor countries and help build trust with recipient countries. As a feasibility study, this paper attempts to outline the importance of assessing international climate finance contributions while describing the difficulties in arriving at universally agreed measurements and indicators for assessment. In many cases, data are neither readily available nor complete, and there is no consensus on what should be included. A number of indicators are proposed in this study as a starting point with which to analyze voluntary contributions, but in some cases their methodologies are not complete, and further research is required for a

  2. The Prognostic Value of International Prognostic Index and MIB-l Immunostaining of Peripheral Lymphoid Tissues and Bone Marrow in Patients with High-Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assem, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Cell kinetic data are important indicator of the aggressiveness of tumour and clinical response. The Ki-67 antigen plays a pivotal role in maintaining cell proliferation and the expression of this antigen was found to be a valuable indicator for aggressive disease in a variety of neoplastic disorders. Aim of the study: This study aimed to assess the prognostic significance of the expression of Ki-67 antigen in peripheral lymphoid tissues and bone marrow, using the monoclonal antibody MIB-l that is applicable in formaline-fixed paraffin embedded samples in cases with high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Material and methods: The MIB-I immunostaining was performed on 96 samples from 48 patients with high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The study was performed on tissue sections, nodal or extra nodal, as well as on BM smears or BM paraffin embedded sections of same patients. Ki-67 index was determined using image analyzer. Results: Forty-five out of the studied 48 cases (93.8%) were positive with a median labelling index of 20.425% (Range, 0-58%). We were able to detect bone marrow involvement by detecting MIB-l positive cells in BM samples of 29 patients who were not morphologically diagnosed to have BM infiltration. There was a strong correlation between BM positivity for Ki-67 and Ki-67 labelling index (p < 0.001). Twenty-eight (58.3%) out of the studied 48 cases achieved complete remission (CR). The median duration of CR was 35 months (range, 8-42 months) and the overall survival at 48 months was 35.4% (median 22 months, 95% CI, 13-31 months). The median Ki-67 index (20.425%) was chosen as a cut-off level for statistical analysis of the variables that influence clinical outcome. The probability of inducing CR was associated with low and low intermediate International Prognostic Index (IPI) whereas a low growth fraction was associated, although not significant, with a trend toward a higher probability of inducing a CR. In univariate analysis, high MIB1 labelling

  3. International Data & Economic Analysis (IDEA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — International Data UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Food Price Index; IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics; Millennium Challenge Corporation; and World Bank,...

  4. Mangrove vulnerability index using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Mohd Zulkifli Mohd; Ahmad, Fatimah Shafinaz; Ibrahim, Nuremira

    2018-02-01

    Climate change, particularly its associated sea level rise, is major threat to mangrove coastal areas, and it is essential to develop ways to reduce vulnerability through strategic management planning. Environmental vulnerability can be understood as a function of exposure to impacts and the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecological systems towards environmental tensors. Mangrove vulnerability ranking using up to 14 parameters found in study area, which is in Pulau Kukup and Sg Pulai, where 1 is low vulnerability and 5 is very high vulnerability. Mangrove Vulnerability Index (MVI) is divided into 3 main categories Physical Mangrove Index (PMI), Biological Mangrove Index (BMI) and Hazard Mangrove Index (HMI).

  5. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Index. Alshaary, A. A. see Sharaf, M. A., 9. Banajh, M. A. see Sharaf, M. A., 9. Burbidge Geoffrey see Narlikar Jayant, V., 67. Chen, H. D. see Li, K. J., 147. Chen, Y. Q. see Huang, C., 139. Cui Wenyuan Evolution of the Distribution of Neutron Exposures in the Galaxy. Disc: An Analytical Model, 55. Dhurde Samir see ...

  6. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Index. Alecian, E. see Samadhi, R., 171; see Goupil, M.-J., 249. Antia, H. M. Helioseismology, 161. Ashoka, B. N. see Seetha, S., 301. Baudin, F. see Samadhi, R., 171. Boehm, T. see Goupil, M.-J., 249. Catala, C. see Goupil, M.-J., 249. Cunha Margarida S. Asteroseismic Theory of Rapidly Oscillating Ap Stars, 213.

  7. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    SUBJECT INDEX. Absorption. Effect of NaCl on the spectral and kinetic properties of cresyl violet (CV)-sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) complex. 299. Acid catalysts. Temperature-programmed desorption of water and ammonia on sulphated zirconia catalysts for measuring their strong acidity and acidity distribution. 281.

  8. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2008) 29, 405–409. Author Index. Aggarwal Malini see Jain Rajmal, 125; X-ray Emission Characteristics of Flares. Associated with CMEs, 195. Alyana Radharani see Rathod Jatin, 293; see Reddy Chandrasekhar, A., 313. Ambastha Ashok Helioseismic Effects of Energetic Transients, 93; see Maurya.

  9. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    SUBJECT INDEX. Ab initio calculations. Basis set effects on energy and hardness profiles of the hydrogen fluoride dimer. 549. Activation by calcinations. Highly active and reusable catalyst from Fe-Mg- hydrotalcite anionic clay for Friedel–Crafts type benzyla- tion reactions. 635. Adsorption. Adsorption studies of iron(III) on ...

  10. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Index. Aggarwal Malini see Jain Rajmal, 155. Aghaee, A. Determination of the Mean Hi Absorption of the Intergalactic. Medium, 59. Agrawal, S. P. see Singh Ambika, 89. Biesiada Marek Could the Optical Transient SCP 06F6 be due to Micro- lensing?, 213. C¸ aliskan, S . see Küçük, ˙I., 135. Evans Lloyd, T. Carbon ...

  11. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Index. Ahmad Farooq see Iqbal Naseer, 373. Ali Syed Salman Study of a Large Helical Eruptive Prominence Associated with. Double CME on 21 April 2001, 347; see Uddin Wahab, 267. Ali, A. Chemistry of Carbon Rich Star IRAS 15194–5115, 399. Ambastha Ashok Photospheric, Chromospheric and Helioseismic ...

  12. Subject Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2006) 27, 469–472. Subject Index. Astrophysical Processes. Spatial Damping of Linear Compressional Magnetoacoustic Waves in Quiescent. Prominences (K. A. P. Singh), 321. Report on the Dynamical Evolution of an Axially Symmetric Quasar Model. (N. J. Papadopoulos & N. D. Caranicolas), 389.

  13. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    SUBJECT INDEX. 1D inversion. A direct inversion scheme for deep resistivity sound- ing data using artificial neural networks. 49. 40. Ar-. 39. Ar thermochronology. Tectono-thermal evolution of the India-Asia colli- sion zone based on. 40. Ar-. 39. Ar thermochronology in. Ladakh, India. 737. ANN. Artificial neural network ...

  14. Index Fossils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stricted geologic time range, easily preservable, of short species duration and found in multiple environment. Index fossils are used by geologists and palaeontologists as significant aids to determine the correlation and age of rock sequences [2]. Geologists use both large fossils or 'macrofossils' and microscopic fossils or ...

  15. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Yan, X. L. see Deng, L. H., 221. Phase Relationship Between Sunspot Number, Flare Index and Solar Radio. Flux, 387. ZANINETTI, L. Revisiting the Cosmological Principle in a Cellular Framework, 399. ZHAO XIAN-FENG. Constraints on the Moment of Inertia of a Proto Neutron Star from the Hyperon Coupling Constants, ...

  16. Index Fossils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 10. Index Fossils - Evidences from Plant Sources. Dipanjan Ghosh. General Article ... Author Affiliations. Dipanjan Ghosh1. Biological Science Department Kirnahar Shib Chandra High School Kirnahar, Birbhum 731302, West Bengal, India.

  17. Does the index-to-ring finger length ratio (2D:4D) differ in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? Results from an international online case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin Kullmann, Jane Alana; Pamphlett, Roger

    2017-08-07

    The ratio of the length of the index finger (2D) to the ring finger (4D) (2D:4D) has been reported to be lower (ie, 2DALS) than non-ALS controls. This has led to suggestions that exposure to increased prenatal testosterone, which also lowers this ratio, could be a risk factor for ALS. In an attempt to test this hypothesis, we examined 2D:4Ds from large numbers of patients with ALS and controls. An online multilingual questionnaire enabling respondents to measure their own index and ring finger lengths. Of the initial 949 respondents, 572 remained for analysis after elimination for inability to straighten fingers, not answering the question, statistical outliers and aged ALS (125 males, 77 females) and 370 non-ALS controls (112 males, 258 females). Unpaired t-tests with 95% CIs were used to assess differences in mean 2D:4Ds. Males had significantly lower mean 2D:4Ds than females, in both ALS and control groups, for both left and right hands. No significant differences were found in 2D:4Ds between ALS and control groups, in either males or females, for either left or right hands. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed no power for 2D:4Ds to predict ALS status in either males or females. 2D:4Ds did not differ between patients with ALS and controls in this study. This was despite the dataset being large enough to confirm the established finding of lower 2D:4Ds in males compared with females. These findings do not support the hypothesis that exposure to increased prenatal testosterone is a risk factor for ALS. A putative lower 2D:4D has been proposed to explain the link between ALS and exercise, but our results indicate that other exercise-related factors are more likely to explain this association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Young Adult and Usual Adult Body Mass Index and Multiple Myeloma Risk: A Pooled Analysis in the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium (IMMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmann, Brenda M; Andreotti, Gabriella; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Camp, Nicola J; Chiu, Brian C H; Spinelli, John J; Becker, Nikolaus; Benhaim-Luzon, Véronique; Bhatti, Parveen; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Brown, Elizabeth E; Cocco, Pierluigi; Costas, Laura; Cozen, Wendy; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Foretová, Lenka; Giles, Graham G; Maynadié, Marc; Moysich, Kirsten; Nieters, Alexandra; Staines, Anthony; Tricot, Guido; Weisenburger, Dennis; Zhang, Yawei; Baris, Dalsu; Purdue, Mark P

    2017-06-01

    Background: Multiple myeloma risk increases with higher adult body mass index (BMI). Emerging evidence also supports an association of young adult BMI with multiple myeloma. We undertook a pooled analysis of eight case-control studies to further evaluate anthropometric multiple myeloma risk factors, including young adult BMI. Methods: We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis of usual adult anthropometric measures of 2,318 multiple myeloma cases and 9,609 controls, and of young adult BMI (age 25 or 30 years) for 1,164 cases and 3,629 controls. Results: In the pooled sample, multiple myeloma risk was positively associated with usual adult BMI; risk increased 9% per 5-kg/m 2 increase in BMI [OR, 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.14; P = 0.007]. We observed significant heterogeneity by study design ( P = 0.04), noting the BMI-multiple myeloma association only for population-based studies ( P trend = 0.0003). Young adult BMI was also positively associated with multiple myeloma (per 5-kg/m 2 ; OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3; P = 0.0002). Furthermore, we observed strong evidence of interaction between younger and usual adult BMI ( P interaction adult BMI may increase multiple myeloma risk and suggest that healthy BMI maintenance throughout life may confer an added benefit of multiple myeloma prevention. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 876-85. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. A Comparison of Kretschmann-Raether Angular Regimes for Measuring Changes in Bulk Refractive Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KASUNIC, K.J.

    1999-09-16

    We compare 2 angular regimes for the measurement of changes in the real refractive index of bulk fluid analytes. The measurements are based on the use of the Kretschmann-Raether configuration to sense a change in reflectivity with index. Specifically, we numerically simulate the relative sensitivities of the total internal reflection (TIR) and surface-plasmon resonance (SPR) regimes. For a fixed-angle apparatus, the method which gives the greatest change in reflectivity varies with metal film thickness. For films thicker than the skin depth, the SPR regime is the most sensitive to index changes. For thinner films, however, the TIR angle is then dominant, with increases in sensitivity on the order of 75% for 10 nm gold or silver media.

  20. Ptolemaic indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Lie Hetland

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a new family of bounds for use in similarity search, related to those used in metric indexing, but based on Ptolemy's inequality, rather than the metric axioms. Ptolemy's inequality holds for the well-known Euclidean distance, but is also shown here to hold for quadratic form metrics in general, with Mahalanobis distance as an important special case. The inequality is examined empirically on both synthetic and real-world data sets and is also found to hold approximately, with a very low degree of error, for important distances such as the angular pseudometric and several Lp norms. Indexing experiments are performed on several data sets, demonstrating a highly increased filtering power when using certain forms of Ptolemaic filtering, compared to existing, triangular methods. It is also shown that combining the Ptolemaic and triangular filtering can lead to better results than using either approach on its own.