WorldWideScience

Sample records for international roads

  1. The problems in determining international road mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerzapf, V; Jones, A P; Haynes, R

    2010-03-01

    We examined road traffic crash (RTC) fatality rate data for the year 2002 with the object of determining which data source offered the most reliable estimates for international comparison work. Data from the World Health Organisation (WHO) (supplied by national health authorities) and the International Road Federation (IRF) (supplied by national transport authorities) was compared. There were large discrepancies between the rates reported. Discrepancies may be partially explained by the under-reporting of fatalities and by different definitions of road fatality. Two methodologies to adjust for these factors in the IRF database were examined. Neither brought consensus with the WHO RTC fatality rate for all nations. While the WHO provide RTC fatality rates for a wider socio-economic and geographical range of nations than the IRF, the methodology used by the WHO to produce estimates for the least economically developed nations may lead to over-estimation of RTC fatality rate. WHO RTC fatality rates were more strongly associated with variables that are thought to explain RTC fatality rate. We suggest that WHO data may be more suitable than the IRF data for international comparison studies. However, it is advisable that data for the least developed nations be excluded from such work. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social costs of road crashes : an international analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, W. & Stipdonk, H.L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an international overview of the most recent estimates of the social costs of road crashes: total costs, value per casualty and breakdown in cost components. The analysis is based on publications about the national costs of road crashes of 17 countries, of which ten high income

  3. The road towards the international linear collider: Higgs, top ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences. Indian Academy of Sciences ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 69; Issue 5. The road towards the international linear ... The international linear +− collider (ILC) could go into operation in the second half of the upcoming decade. Experimental analyses and ...

  4. Social costs of road crashes: An international analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Wim; Stipdonk, Henk

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides an international overview of the most recent estimates of the social costs of road crashes: total costs, value per casualty and breakdown in cost components. The analysis is based on publications about the national costs of road crashes of 17 countries, of which ten high income countries (HICs) and seven low and middle income countries (LMICs). Costs are expressed as a proportion of the gross domestic product (GDP). Differences between countries are described and explained. These are partly a consequence of differences in the road safety level, but there are also methodological explanations. Countries may or may not correct for underreporting of road crashes, they may or may not use the internationally recommended willingness to pay (WTP)-method for estimating human costs, and there are methodological differences regarding the calculation of some other cost components. The analysis shows that the social costs of road crashes in HICs range from 0.5% to 6.0% of the GDP with an average of 2.7%. Excluding countries that do not use a WTP- method for estimating human costs and countries that do not correct for underreporting, results in average costs of 3.3% of GDP. For LMICs that do correct for underreporting the share in GDP ranges from 1.1% to 2.9%. However, none of the LMICs included has performed a WTP study of the human costs. A major part of the costs is related to injuries: an average share of 50% for both HICs and LMICs. The average share of fatalities in the costs is 23% and 30% respectively. Prevention of injuries is thus important to bring down the socio-economic burden of road crashes. The paper shows that there are methodological differences between countries regarding cost components that are taken into account and regarding the methods used to estimate specific cost components. In order to be able to make sound comparisons of the costs of road crashes across countries, (further) harmonization of cost studies is recommended. This can be

  5. ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL CARGO TRANSPORTATION BY ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kosovsky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes methodology for estimating efficiency international economic relations in the sphere international cargo transportation by road for the national economy on the basis of relationship between advantages and costs of sub-systems of the unified system for automotive export services.

  6. Deaths from international terrorism compared with road crash deaths in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G

    2005-12-01

    To estimate the relative number of deaths in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) from international terrorism and road crashes. Data on deaths from international terrorism (US State Department database) were collated (1994-2003) and compared to the road injury deaths (year 2000 and 2001 data) from the OECD International Road Transport Accident Database. In the 29 OECD countries for which comparable data were available, the annual average death rate from road injury was approximately 390 times that from international terrorism. The ratio of annual road to international terrorism deaths (averaged over 10 years) was lowest for the United States at 142 times. In 2001, road crash deaths in the US were equal to those from a September 11 attack every 26 days. There is a large difference in the magnitude of these two causes of deaths from injury. Policy makers need to be aware of this when allocating resources to preventing these two avoidable causes of mortality.

  7. A review of international sources for road safety measures assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W. & Kauppila, J.

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency assessment of road safety measures is considered to be an extremely useful tool in decision making; in particular, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses are carried out in several countries, in a more or less systematic way. The objective of this paper is to present findings

  8. International comparisons of road safety using Singular Value Decomposition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    2001-01-01

    There is a general interest in the comparison of road safety developments in different countries. Comparisons have been made, based on absolute levels of accident or fatality risk or on the rate of change of functions regarding risk, the number of accidents, fatalities or injuries over time. Such

  9. International comparisons of energy and environmental efficiency in the road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdallah, Khaled; Belloumi, Mounir; De Wolf, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present work provides an international comparison of the energy intensity and the carbon dioxide intensity in road transport for a group of 90 countries over the period 1980–2012. This paper attempts to perform a comparative analysis to find the most appropriate mapping of the energy performance in road transport taking into account the three dimensions of sustainable energy development, namely road transport-related energy consumption, economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions. An important result of the study is the inverse relationship between energy efficiency and environmental efficiency. Through the calculated Theil coefficient, our empirical findings highlight the existence of spatial and temporal disparities between countries. In 2012, Tunisia occupies the 48th and the 38th rank respectively in terms of energy and environmental efficiency. Based on a general index of energy performance in the road transport sector, it is deemed to have a medium–high energy performance by occupying the 34th rank. The study shows the importance of enhancing a number of policies for the road transport system through the joint improvement of the fuel price policy, of the road infrastructure policy and of the fuel-efficient road vehicles policy, in order to maintain sustainable energy road transport. - Highlights: • The paper presents an international comparative analysis of the energy performance. • The road transport is analyzed for a group of 90 countries over the period 1980–2012. • There is no convergence between energy and environmental efficiencies. • Tunisia has a medium-high energy performance by occupying the 34th rank in 2012. • The findings show the importance of enhancing some policies for the road transport.

  10. Development of roads in the area of the international border crossing Vrtojba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alojzij Juvanec

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Slovenia is part of the European Union. With the abolishment of borders (free flow of goods also the traffic functions in the areas of international border crossings between member countries are changing. Among such border crossings is also the international border crossing (IBC between the Republic of Italy and the Republic of Slovenia in Vrtojba. The bordering communities of Šempeter-Vrtojba and Gorizia (Italy are therefore already preparing a development plan related to the use of space to ensure traffic access to the wider area of this border crossing ,when the “Schengen border” is abolished (free flow of people. Especially important is adequate design of roads that should allow this space to be uniformly and equally included into the road systems of both neighbouring countries. Owing to this change, the existing “communal” road, which today leads to the border crossing, will attain the status of the expressway Ljubljana–Venice via Gorizia, which means that high travelling speeds and changed regime of connecting roads can be expected. The existing arrangement has too many individual connections, and there is the possibility of turning or even parking (in Italy. The paper presents solutions or proposals for a systematic rearrangement of the present road through the IBC to the motorway and the principle of connecting the road networks of both neighbouring communities to it. Presented are also proposals how to rearrange or complete the existing local road networks and the railway infrastructure (arrangement of an intermodal terminal, and the traffic regime on roads to achieve as efficient use of space as possible at the present IBC Vrtojba with the least possible burden to the space.

  11. The road towards the international linear collider: Higgs, top ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heinmeyer@cern.ch. Abstract. The international linear e+e− collider (ILC) could go into operation in the second half of the upcoming decade. Experimental analyses and theory calculations for the physics at the ILC are currently performed.

  12. Evaluation of Road Performance Based on International Roughness Index and Falling Weight Deflectometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuddin; Setyawan, A.; Yulianto, B.

    2018-03-01

    Assessment to the performance of road pavement is deemed necessary to improve the management quality of road maintenance and rehabilitation. This research to evaluate the road base on functional and structural and recommendations handling done. Assessing the pavement performance is conducted with functional and structural evaluation. Functional evaluation of pavement is based on the value of IRI (International Roughness Index) which among others is derived from reading NAASRA for analysis and recommended road handling. Meanwhile, structural evaluation of pavement is done by analyzing deflection value based on FWD (Falling Weight Deflectometer) data resulting in SN (Structural Number) value. The analysis will result in SN eff (Structural Number Effective) and SN f (Structural Number Future) value obtained from comparing SN eff to SN f value that leads to SCI (Structural Condition Index) value. SCI value implies the possible recommendation for handling pavement. The study done to Simpang Tuan-Batas Kota Jambi road segment was based on functional analysis. The study indicated that the road segment split into 12 segments in which segment 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 were of regular maintenance, segment 2, 4, 8, 10, 12 belonged to periodic maintenance, and segment 6 was of rehabilitation. The structural analysis resulted in 8 segments consisting of segment 1 and 2 recommended for regular maintenance, segment 3, 4, 5, and 7 for functional overlay, and 6 and 8 were of structural overlay.

  13. Addendum: Tenth International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, The road to commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Tenth International Symposium on ALCOHOL FUELS ``THE ROAD TO COMMERCIALIZATION`` was held at the Broadmoor Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA November 7--10, 1993. Twenty-seven papers on the production of alcohol fuels, specifications, their use in automobiles, buses and trucks, emission control, and government policies were presented. Individual papers have been processed separately for entry into the data base.

  14. PROBLEMS OF DETERMINING THE FUEL COST FOR INTERNATIONAL ROAD TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bondarev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When performing international goods transportation the most expensive consumption is the fuel. For planing reliable fuel costs there was conducted analytical and experimental research. According to the research, the method to determine the volume and cost of fuel according to the criterion of its maximum use with minimum cost within the country follow routes is determined.

  15. Can business road travel be safe? Experience of an international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldoni Laestadius, Jasminka; Selod, Anne Gaëlle; Ye, Jian; Dimberg, Lennart; Bliss, Anthony G

    2011-01-01

    Globally, more than 1.2 million people die on the roads every year, and unfortunately so do one or two operational travelers for the World Bank Group (WBG). To investigate potentially preventable factors and improve the institution's road safety policies and practices, an electronic survey was designed in 2008 targeting about 16,000 WBG staff worldwide to inquire about road crashes and near crashes over the 3-year period. Also, questions were asked pertaining to contributing circumstances. Staff was encouraged to provide comments on prevention. A combined index based on the number of reported crashes and near crashes divided by person-days spent on mission in each country was used to rank the countries. A total of 3,760 responses were collected. There were 341 road crashes reported, about 1 in 175 missions. Seventy percent took place in taxis, and 40% of crash victims reported that seatbelts were not used. Contributing factors included driver's decision error, speeding, or road/weather conditions. On the basis of a combined index, a list of 36 high-risk countries is presented. A high correlation between crashes and near crashes (r = 0.89) justifies the method. Improved corporate policies will need to be developed to address preventable risk factors identified in the study. © 2011 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  16. Towards a Road Safety Development Index (RSDI) : Development of an International Index to Measure Road Safety Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Al Haji, Ghazwan

    2005-01-01

    Aim. This study suggests a set of methodologies to combine different indicators of road safety into a single index. The RSDI is a simple and quick composite index, which may become a significant measurement in comparing, ranking and determining road safety levels in different countries and regions worldwide. Design. One particular concern in designing a Road Safety Development Index (RSDI) is to come up with a comprehensive set of exposure and risk indicators which includes as far as possible...

  17. Blood lead levels in candy sellers working near an international road in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoglu, Onur; Caglayan, Cigdem; Yavuz, Cavit I; Sevin, Erce

    2007-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this study was to examine the effects on health, as measured by blood lead levels (BLLs), of living and working near the D-100 international road, which passes through Kocaeli, Turkey. In this cross-sectional study, the authors examine BLLs in 3 groups to determine the health effects of exposure to motorized road transport. By comparing the 3 groups, the investigators found that the mean BLL was 4.23 +/- 1.59 microg/dL in a group of candy sellers who worked beside the road, 4.18 +/- 2.07 microg/dL in a group of city residents, and 3.82 +/- 1.71 microg/dL in a group of village residents. (The latter 2 groups were not in close proximity to the road, and the authors used their measurements for comparison.) The difference in BLLs between the candy sellers and the village residents was statistically significant (p candy sellers and city residents (p > .05). The authors recommend limiting the use of the D-100's city section to only local traffic and preventing heavy cargo vehicles from passing through.

  18. NEA International Workshop on the Nuclear Innovation Road-map - NI2050. Workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, Hamid; Fernandez Fernandez, Alberto; Van Walle, Eric; Speranzini, Robert; Zezula, Lubor; Puska, Eija Karita; Tuomisto, Harri; Al Mazouzi, Abderrahim; Bazile, Fanny; Cordier, Pierre-Yves; Wahide, Carole; Tromm, Th. Walter; Horvath, Akos; Agostini, Pietro; Ambrosini, Walter; Kamide, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Toru; Sagayama, Yutaka; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Jeong, Ik; LEE, Gye Seok; Roelofs, Ferry; Van Der Lugt, Hermen; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Alekseev, Pavel; Andreeva-Andrievskaya, Lyudmila N.; Liska, Peter; Cizelj, Leon; Castelao Lopez, Carlos; Zimmermann, Martin; Rayment, Fiona; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal; Martin Ramos, Manuel; Schmitz, Bruno; Monti, Stefano; Bignan, Gilles; Mcgrath, Margaret; Caron-Charles, Marylise; Magwood, William IV; Ha, Jaejoo; Deffrennes, Marc; Paillere, Henri; Noh, Jae Man; Gulliford, Jim; Breest, Axel; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2015-07-01

    The two-day workshop held at the OECD Headquarters in Paris on 7-8 July 2015, brought together some of the leading experts in the field of nuclear fission research, development and demonstration. The purpose was to launch the NEA Nuclear Innovation 2050 Initiative, aiming, after a first survey phase, at producing a road-map of main priority research programs and infrastructures necessary to support the role nuclear energy may play in the low carbon power sector of the future. This might then further lead to some ad-hoc co-operation frameworks that help to effectively implement key priorities coming out of the road-mapping. The workshop was organised into the following five sessions: 1 - Opening session on NI2050: vision and main objectives; 2 - National presentations on nuclear fission research and innovation activities (programs, infrastructures, budgets); 3 - Presentations on some existing international nuclear fission road-maps and co-operation frameworks; 4 - Defining the way forward for NI2050: survey, road-mapping and priorities and co-operation; 5 - Open discussion. This document gathers the available presentations given at this workshop

  19. Proceedings of the NEA International Workshop on the Nuclear Innovation road-map (NI2050)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jaejoo HA; Deffrennes, Marc; ); Tromm, Walter; Ait Abderrahim, Hamid; Fernandez Fernandez, Alberto; Speranzini, Robert; Jeong, Ik; Lee, Gye Seok; Castelao Lopez, Carlos; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal; Puska, Eija Karita; Cordier, Pierre-Yves; Horvath, Akos; Agostini, Pietro; Kamide, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Toru; Roelofs, Ferry; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zezula, Lubor; Rayment, Fiona; Cizelj, Leon; Zimmermann, Martin A.; Schmitz, Bruno; Martin-Ramos, Manuel; Andreeva-Andrievskaya, Lyudmila N.; Monti, Stefano; ); Paillere, Henri; ); Caron-Charles, Marylise; Gulliford, Jim; ); Breest, Axel; ); McGrath, Margaret; Bignan, Gilles

    2015-07-01

    The two-day workshop held at the OECD Headquarters in Paris on 7-8 July 2015, brought together some of the leading experts in the field of nuclear fission research, development and demonstration. The purpose was to launch the NEA Nuclear Innovation 2050 Initiative, aiming, after a first survey phase, at producing a road-map of main priority research programmes and infrastructures necessary to support the role nuclear energy may play in the low carbon power sector of the future. This might then further lead to some ad-hoc cooperation frameworks that help to effectively implement key priorities coming out of the road-mapping. The workshop was organised into the following five sessions: 1 - Opening session on NI2050: vision and main objectives; 2 - National presentations on nuclear fission research and innovation activities (programmes, infrastructures, budgets); 3 - Presentations on some existing international nuclear fission road-maps and co-operation frameworks; 4 - Defining the way forward for NI2050: survey, road-mapping and priorities and co-operation; 5 - Open discussion. These proceedings bring together the available presentations (slides) given during the workshop: 1. Opening session on NI2050: vision and main objectives: Setting the scene: NEA/IEA Nuclear Energy road-map 2050 (Jaejoo Ha); Proposed scope and organisation of the NI2050 project launching, taking stock of the IEA Energy RD and D survey and going further (Marc Deffrennes); 2. National presentations on nuclear fission research and innovation activities (programmes, infrastructures, budgets): Overview of German Situation with focus on HGF NUSAFE - HELMHOLTZ (W. Tromm); Investing in Nuclear Innovation in Belgium - SCKCEN (Hamid Ait Abderrahim and Alberto Fernandez); Canadian Nuclear Laboratories: Nuclear S and T and Innovation (R. Speranzini); ROK's Nuclear Policies and R and D Programs - KAERI (Ik Jeong and Lee Gye Seok); R and D Spanish Nuclear Platform (C. Castelao); NOE-NE Programs and

  20. A Study on the International Tourism of Jiangxi Province under the Guidance of One Belt, One Road Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xiaojing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the shift and violent development of economic globalization and sciences and technology, the connection between counties and citizens all over the world has become more and more intimate, so that the international tourism develops quickly and has become one of the important revenue sources gradually. In 2013, China proposed the new strategic thought of One Belt, One Road (the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. Jiangxi province will bring its local regional superiority to full play under the guidance of the strategic thought, and powerfully cooperate with neighboring provinces and cities, in order to actively participate in the international tourism market and attempt to make its international tourism bigger and stronger. As the national strategic pillar industry, tourism plays an important role in the regional industrial structure adjustment and upgrade. Possessing the characteristics of strong integration, high interactivity and wide expansibility, tourism is the important engine to accelerate the development of urban economy. In September and October of 2013,during the visit of Chinese President Xi Jinping to countries of Central and East Asia, he successively proposed the significant suggestions of the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, and the two of them were collectively intituled as One Belt, One Road New Strategic Thought. Silk Road Economic Belt covers the integration of the Southeast and Northeast Asian Economy entities which were eventually merged to lead to Europe. 21st Century Maritime Silk Road refers to unite Europe, Asia and Africa at sea in order to form a complete economic belt. Based on the increasingly deepening of economic integration, One Belt, One Road New Strategy is an international strategy which possesses the strategic importance of promoting industry upgrading and accelerating the transformation of economic growth mode for the purpose of mutual

  1. International scale implementation of the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model for epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, D.W.; Hoogh, K. de; Fecht, D.; Fabbri, F.; Bell, M.; Goodman, P.S.; Elliott, P.; Hodgson, S.; Hansell, A.L.; Gulliver, J.

    2015-01-01

    The EU-FP7-funded BioSHaRE project is using individual-level data pooled from several national cohort studies in Europe to investigate the relationship of road traffic noise and health. The detailed input data (land cover and traffic characteristics) required for noise exposure modelling are not always available over whole countries while data that are comparable in spatial resolution between different countries is needed for harmonised exposure assessment. Here, we assess the feasibility using the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model with coarser input data in terms of model performance. Starting with a model using the highest resolution datasets, we progressively introduced lower resolution data over five further model runs and compared noise level estimates to measurements. We conclude that a low resolution noise model should provide adequate performance for exposure ranking (Spearman's rank = 0.75; p < 0.001), but with relatively large errors in predicted noise levels (RMSE = 4.46 dB(A)). - Highlights: • The first implementation of CNOSSOS-EU for national scale noise exposure assessment. • Road traffic noise model performance with varying resolution of inputs is assessed. • Model performance is good with low resolution inputs (r s  = 0.75). • This model will be applied in epidemiological studies of European cohorts. - The CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise model estimates can be used for international scale exposure assessment when parameterised with freely available low resolution covering a large geographic area.

  2. International Comparison of Water Resources Utilization Efficiency in the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Long; Ma, Jing; Deng, Wei; Wang, Yong

    2018-03-01

    In order to get knowledge of the standard of water utilization of the Silk Road Economic Belt from international point of view, the paper analyzes the annual variation of water resources utilization in the Silk Road Economic Belt, and compares with other typical countries. The study shows that Water resources utilization efficiency has been greatly improved in recent 20 years and the water consumption per USD 10000 of GDP has been declined 87.97%. the improvement of industrial water consumption efficiency is the key driving factors for substantial decrease in water consumption.The comparison of water utilization and human development shows that the higher HDI the country is, the more efficient water utilization the country has. water consumption per USD 10000 of GDP in country with HDI>0.9 is 194m³, being 8.5% of that in country with HDI from 0.5 to 0.6. On the premise of maintaining the stable economic and social development of the Silk Road Economic Belt, the realization of the control target of total water consumption must depend on the strict control over the disorderly expansion of irrigated area, the change in the mode of economic growth, the implementation of the development strategy for new industrialization and urbanization, vigorous development of the processing industry with low water consumption as well as the high-tech and high value-added industry. Only in this way, the control target of total water consumption can be realized in the process of completing the industrialization task.

  3. International Road Freight Transport in France: Experiences from Germany, the Netherlands and Driver Costs Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Guihery

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available These last few years, French international road freight transport has been undergoing a loss of influence within Europe while traffic has increased and great manoeuvres are taking place since the opening of the European Union towards East. Some of the French transporters are then focusing back on the French market showing a worrying loss in competitiveness. On the contrary, German and Dutch companies are increasing their shares in the French market and have reorganized themselves within Europe to face Eastern Europe competition: follow-up on customers delocalizing in the East, networking, hyperproductivity, markets segmentation between high quality transport in the West, specific markets and low cost segment in Eastern Germany and East Europe (Poland, Romania, ..., intensive geographical closeness to a great harbour (Rotterdam... What should France learn from German and Dutch experiences? On the basis of a comparison of our neighbours' driving costs and road freight transport structure, our contribution - a synthesis of two recent studies ordered by the Comite National Routier (CNR, studies free to be downloaded by www.cnr.fr - will first propose a cooperation with German or Dutch companies in order to propose a winner-winner model based on exchange of competencies: North Africa (Morocco for instance and Southern Europe for French partners (specialization Storage - Logistics and transport business model and opening towards the East for the German and Dutch partners.

  4. MODERN CONDITIONS OF ROAD FACILITIES AND INTERNATIONAL AUTOMOTIVE TRANSPORTATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Tsarenkova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For analysis of technical and economic conditions of automotive roads and determination of reserves for improvement of financial situation and usage of capital in road facilities operational efficiency of road facilities and automotive freight-traffic services that provide significant currency receipt for Republic budget. The main ways for higher export of construction services are involvement of road facilities enterprises in this activity and introduction of highly-productive technologies in their operation. The paper demonstrates an importance of non-conventional sources of investment attractions such as leasing which is used for renovation of capital assets and invests resources in the basic capital on the return basis in the natural form. For application of new technologies and modern technique it is justifiable to establish joint road-construction enterprises with foreign sub-contractors. The paper reveals main reasons of profit increase due to operation and services of road branch.

  5. Global road safety and the role of the international community : some considerations and recommendations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, over 1.2 million people are killed in traffic every year and another 20 to 50 million are seriously injured. Road traffic injuries are estimated to be the eighth leading cause of death globally. If no action is taken, road traffic injuries will be the fifth leading cause of death in 2030.

  6. An international perspective on electric transportation. Survey on electric road transport 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeda, M; Kroon, P. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Appels, D. [Agentschap NL, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    To compare the Dutch governmental efforts and developments in the field of electric road transport, the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation has asked ECN Policy Studies and NL Agency to conduct an international assessment on electric mobility. The countries that have been considered are: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, UK, China, USA and South Korea. The Netherlands has a high ambition level with regard to the number of electric vehicles and is one of the leaders as for the envisaged number of charging points. In the field of R and D, Germany, South Korea and China take the lead, followed by France, the UK, the USA and Austria. However, the assessment has only looked at specific funds for electric mobility, and has not looked at general R and D and innovation funds. The Netherlands has several electro-mobility field tests, but is not leading in number. Norway and Austria are leading countries when it comes to implementation of public charging infrastructure.

  7. Trend road safety measures : international course on transportation and road engineering in developing countries. Two-year postgraduate Diploma and M.Sc. programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1991-01-01

    This course focuses mainly on traffic and transport in developing countries, and deals primarily with matters of infrastructure. Road safety and road safety problems are closely related to the construction and operation of the road network. (See also C 1341 - C1346).

  8. The quantifying of road safety developments. Paper presented at the International Conference 'Road Safety in Europe', Birmingham, September 9-11, 1996.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The evaluation of the effectiveness of road safety policies and measures must be based on quantative information in road safety developments and the relevant variables that influence that development. However, the concept of road safety itself is not well defined theoretically and quantatively. This

  9. Road design, human behaviour, and road accidents : towards a `learning design community'. Paper presented at the international conference `Road safety in Europe', Birmingham, England, September 9-11, 1996.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of unsolved problems in the field of road design (i.e. geometric design), human behaviour and road safety, particularly concerning the operationalisation of the existing design principles for a safe road network in terms of concrete road design in existing

  10. Communications and Positioning by Satelhte in the International Road Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draško Marin

    2012-10-01

    be well developed.Croatia has been a member of the EUTELSAT organisationsince December 1992, and this has provided the basic conditions for organising this service. The service provider canbe the acting telecommunications operator, in this case theCroatian Post and Telecommunications (HPT, or any othercompany in co-operation with HPT (leasing the telecommunicationslines, tariffs, maintenance etc..The article presents the possibility of implementing theEUTELTRACS service in Croatia with the responsibility of theservice provider to establish connections between any dispatchcentre in Croatia by means of Croatian telecommunicationsnetwork, and through international network to the HUB stationand the corresponding geostationary satellites, includingthe accounting matters.It also presents the usage of the computerised road maps foraccurate vehicle position-plotting and free circulation for OmniTRACSterminals.

  11. Several roads lead to international norms, but few via international socialization. A case study of the European Commission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghe, E.A.E.B.

    2005-01-01

    Can an international organization socialize those who work within it? The European Commission of the European Union is a crucial case because it is an autonomous international organization with a vocation to defend supranational norms. If this body cannot socialize its members, which international

  12. Safety Performance Indicator for alcohol in road accidents--international comparison, validity and data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assum, Terje; Sørensen, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Safety Performance Indicators, SPIs, are developed for various areas within road safety such as speed, car occupant protection, alcohol and drugs, vehicle safety, etc. SPIs can be used to indicate the road safety situation and to compare road safety performance between countries and over time and to understand the process leading to accidents, helping to select the measures to reduce them. This article describes an alcohol SPI defined as the percentage of fatalities resulting from accidents involving at least one driver impaired by alcohol. The calculation of the alcohol SPI for 26 European countries shows that the SPI varies from 4.4% in Bulgaria to 72.2% in Italy. These results raise the question if the results reflect the real situation or if there is a methodological explanation. To answer this question three different studies were carried out: comparison with other alcohol SPIs, in-depth studies of data quality in seven selected countries, and a study of correlations between the SPI and influencing factors. These studies indicate clearly that there is a need to improve quality of the data used for the alcohol SPI. Most importantly, the total number of drivers involved in fatal accidents, the number tested for alcohol and the number not tested, should be reported, in addition to the number of alcohol positive and negative drivers among those tested. Until these improvements are made, the validity of this SPI seems poor and comparison of the alcohol SPI results across countries should be made with caution. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Charting the Road to Competence: Developmental Milestones for Internal Medicine Residency Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael L.; Aagaard, Eva M.; Caverzagie, Kelly J.; Chick, Davoren A.; Holmboe, Eric; Kane, Gregory; Smith, Cynthia D.; Iobst, William

    2009-01-01

    Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Outcome Project requires that residency program directors objectively document that their residents achieve competence in 6 general dimensions of practice. Intervention In November 2007, the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) and the ACGME initiated the development of milestones for internal medicine residency training. ABIM and ACGME convened a 33-member milestones task force made up of program directors, experts in evaluation and quality, and representatives of internal medicine stakeholder organizations. This article reports on the development process and the resulting list of proposed milestones for each ACGME competency. Outcomes The task force adopted the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition as a framework the internal medicine milestones, and calibrated the milestones with the expectation that residents achieve, at a minimum, the “competency” level in the 5-step progression by the completion of residency. The task force also developed general recommendations for strategies to evaluate the milestones. Discussion The milestones resulting from this effort will promote competency-based resident education in internal medicine, and will allow program directors to track the progress of residents and inform decisions regarding promotion and readiness for independent practice. In addition, the milestones may guide curriculum development, suggest specific assessment strategies, provide benchmarks for resident self-directed assessment-seeking, and assist remediation by facilitating identification of specific deficits. Finally, by making explicit the profession's expectations for graduates and providing a degree of national standardization in evaluation, the milestones may improve public accountability for residency training. PMID:21975701

  14. Forks in the Road. Alternative Routes for International Climate Policies and their Implications for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slingerland, S.; Meyer, L.; Van Vuuren, D.; Den Elzen, M.

    2011-11-01

    Several scenarios are possible for future international climate policies, each with a different role in the climate negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). These scenarios assume policies that are comparable to the current policies, as well as more fragmented and more integrated international climate policies. The various alternative routes have been assessed with respect to their potential consequences. These assessments showed that none of the proposed routes could fully replace the current negotiation process under the UNFCCC, but rather that they could contribute to generating societal support for future climate policies. In addition, the report presents an analysis of how the Netherlands could use this development of alternative routes for international climate policy. Possible responses by the Netherlands to each of these scenarios would depend on the degree to which climate change as a policy topic is considered a priority in the Netherlands.

  15. Economic development's effect on road transport-related mortality among different types of road users: a cross-sectional international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulozzi, Leonard J; Ryan, George W; Espitia-Hardeman, Victoria E; Xi, Yongli

    2007-05-01

    The relationship between a country's stage of economic development and its motor vehicle crash (MVC) mortality rate is not defined for different road users. This paper presents a cross-sectional regression analysis of recent national mortality in 44 countries using death certificate data provided by the World Health Organization. For five types of road users, MVC mortality is expressed as deaths per 100,000 people and per 1000 motor vehicles. Economic development is measured as gross national income (GNI) per capita in U.S. dollars and as motor vehicles per 1000 people. Results showed overall MVC mortality peaked among low-income countries at about US$ 2000 GNI per capita and at about 100 motor vehicles per 1000 people. Overall mortality declined at higher national incomes up to about US$ 24,000. Most changes in MVC mortality associated with economic development were explained by changes in rates among nonmotorized travelers, especially pedestrians. Overall MVC rates were lowest when pedestrian exposure was low because there were few motor vehicles or few pedestrians, and were highest during a critical transition to motorized travel, when many pedestrians and other vulnerable road users vied for use of the roadways with many motor vehicles.

  16. International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET): creating a developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing road map for regulatory purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M.; Leist, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    A major problem in developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) risk assessment is the lack of toxicological hazard information for most compounds. Therefore, new approaches are being considered to provide adequate experimental data that allow regulatory decisions. This process requires a matching...... of regulatory needs on the one hand and the opportunities provided by new test systems and methods on the other hand. Alignment of academically and industrially driven assay development with regulatory needs in the field of DNT is a core mission of the International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET) in DNT testing....... The first meeting of ISTNET was held in Zurich on 23-24 January 2014 in order to explore the concept of adverse outcome pathway (AOP) to practical DNT testing. AOPs were considered promising tools to promote test systems development according to regulatory needs. Moreover, the AOP concept was identified...

  17. International Symposium on Visual Aspects of Road Markings, Paris, 2-3 May 1983 : reports and papers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A. Jackson, J. O'Hanlon, J.F. Riemersama, J.B.J. Blaauw, G.J. Serres, A.M. Jenkins, S.E. Lay, M.G. Bry, M. Fournier, J.S. Lothe, M. Schreiber, G. Cathelain, M. Reidt, W. Kebschull, W. Stephenson, H.F. Lundkvist, S.O. Sorenson, K. Rennilson, J.J. Fleischer, J. Gudum, J. Meseberg, H.H. & Paumier, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Reports and papers are presented under five sections as follows: section 1, Signalling function of road markings: report section 1 (Schreuder, D.A.); Reflectorised road markings, their contribution to traffic safety (Jackson, J.); Raised lane-line pavement markers as an aid to the performance of

  18. Tyres and road surfaces : paper presented to the Second Internation Skid Prevention Conference, Columbus, Ohio, May 2-6, 1977.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, L.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    The study concerning the contact between a tyre and a road surface was conducted by means of an experimental multifactor investigation. It was attempted not only to determine the effect of variables such as type of road surface and speed on the skid resistance but also interaction effects. In the

  19. A history of diabetes insipidus: paving the road to internal water balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2010-12-01

    Diabetes insipidus is an ancient disease considered under the rubric of diabetes, the Greek descriptive term for polyuria, which was unrecognized even after the sweetness of urine was reported as a characteristic of diabetes mellitus in the 17th century. It would be another century before diabetes insipidus was identified from the insipid rather than saccharine taste of urine in cases of polyuria. After its increased recognition, pathologic observations and experimental studies connected diabetes insipidus to the pituitary gland in the opening decades of the 20th century. Simultaneously, posterior pituitary lobe extracts were shown to be vasoconstrictive (vasopressin) and antidiuretic (antidiuretic hormone). As vasopressin was purified and synthesized and its assay became available, it was shown to be released in response to both osmotic and volume stimuli that are integrated in the hypothalamus, and vasopressin thereby was essential to maintaining internal water balance. The antidiuretic properties of vasopressin to treat the rare cases of diabetes insipidus were of limited clinical utility until its vasoconstrictive effects were resuscitated in the 1970s, with the consequent increasing wider use of vasopressin for the treatment of compromised hemodynamic states. In addition, the discovery of antidiuretic hormone receptor blockers has led to their increasing use in managing hypo-osmolar states. Copyright © 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. II International Scientific Theological Conference “Spiritual Silk Road. Creativity. Integration”, Bolgar–Kazan, 3–5 September, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Giniyatullina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available On September 3–5, 2017, the Second International Scientific Theological Conference “Spiritual Silk Road. Creativity. Integration” was held as a continuation of the official opening of the Bolgar Islamic Academy. The conference was organized by the Russian Mufties Council, the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of the Russian Federation, the strategic vision group “Russia – Islamic World”, Kazan Federal University. The grand opening of the Bolgar Islamic Academy was held on September 4 in the town of Bolgar (Republic of Tatarstan. The plenary session saw the presentation of the theological work “Qalandar-name” of the Golden Horde thinker and spiritual leader Abu Bakr Qalandar Rumi, translated from Farsi. Assistant to the President of Tatarstan Kamil Iskhakov was elected President of the Bolgar Islamic Academy. Deputy Mufti of the Republic of Tatarstan for Education, Rector of the Russian Islamic Institute Rafik Mukhametshin was appointed Rector of the Academy. President of the Republic of Tatarstan Rustam Minnikhanov opened the solemn ceremony and noted in his speech: “For many centuries, Bolgar was a place of concentration of eminent scholars-theologians. By opening in its heart an Islamic academy, we revive its former greatness. Last year, the first stone was laid in the foundation of the academy on the anniversary of the adoption of Islam. Today it welcomes the first students”. The conference was continued in the form of sectional sessions and discussion roundtables on September 5 in the city of Kazan. The conference facilitated the interaction of the spiritual departments and the relevant government departments of Russia, China and the countries of Central Asia and the Southern Caucasus. The resolution was approved following the results of the conference determining the main results of the conference and the main directions for further cooperation.

  1. GGVS. Ordinance on road transport of hazardous materials, including the European agreement on international road transport of hazardous materials (ADR), in their wording. Annexes A and B. Ordinances regarding exceptions from GGVS and from the ordinance on rail transport of hazardous materials, GGVE. Reasons. Selected guidelines. List of materials. 6. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridder, K.

    1990-01-01

    The brochure contains the following texts: (1) Ordinance on road transport of hazardous materials (GGVS), including the European agreement on international road transport of hazardous materials (ADR), as of 1990: Skeleton ordinance, annexes A and B, reasons given for the first version, and for the first amendment in 1988, execution guidelines - RS 002 (guidelines for executing the ordinance on road transport of hazardous materials, with catalogue of penalties), guidelines for drawing up written instructions for the event of accidents - RS 006, guiding principles for the training of vehicle conductors; (2) ordinance regarding exceptions from the ordinance on road transport of hazardous materials; (3) ordinance regarding exceptions from the ordinance on rail transport of hazardous materials; (4) selected guidelines: Technical guidelines TR IBC K 001, TRS 003, TRS 004, TRS 005, TRS 006; (5) listing of materials and objects governed by the ordinance on hazardous materials transport; (6) catalogue of penalties relative to road transport of hazardous materials. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Road Closures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This is an up to date map of current road closures in Montgomery County.This dataset is updated every few minutes from the Department of Transportation road closure...

  3. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  4. Strabo's roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2017-01-01

    To ancient geographers, roads were important not only as arteries of communication, but also as sources of information, since mileages measured along the Roman highways were among the very few precise distances available to the ancient geographer. This chapter explores the place of roads...... in the Geography, and the world-view, of Strabo. Strabo did not take much interest in roads as artefacts or monuments, in the technology of road construction, or in the mythological and historical background of individual roads. He is primarily interested in roads from a functional point of view. For the general...... or the statesman, roads provide routes of communication; for the systematic geographer, they provide measured distances and directions. Through case studies of Spain, Gaul, Italy, Greece and Anatolia, this chapter attempts to reach a better understanding of the place of roads in Strabo’s universe, especially two...

  5. Transport energy consumption in mountainous roads. A comparative case study for internal combustion engines and electric vehicles in Andorra

    OpenAIRE

    Travesset Baro, Oriol; Rosas Casals, Martí; Jover Comas, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses transport energy consumption of conventional and electric vehicles in mountainous roads. A standard round trip in Andorra has been modelled in order to characterise vehicle dynamics in hilly regions. Two conventional diesel vehicles and their electric-equivalent models have been simulated and their performances have been compared. Six scenarios have been simulated to study the effects of factors such as orography, traffic congestion and driving style. The European fuel con...

  6. Road Damage Externalities and Road User Charges.

    OpenAIRE

    Newbery, David M

    1988-01-01

    Vehicles damage roads and, thus, increase road repair costs and create a road damage externality by raising the operating costs of subsequent vehicles. The main result is that if periodic road maintenance is condition responsive and if all road damage is attributable to traffic, then, in steady state with zero traffic growth, the average road damage externality is zero a nd the appropriate road damage charge is the average maintenance cost. Where weather accounts for some road damage, the roa...

  7. Road works and road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Roadworks can cause dangerous situations for both road users and road workers. In the period 2000-2009, 2% of all registered fatal crashes in the Netherlands took place at roadworks. In addition, roadworks seem to increase the crash rate. Lorries are relatively often involved in crashes at

  8. Traffic accidents and road surface skidding resistance : paper presented to the Second Internation Skid Prevention Conference, Columbus, Ohio, May 2-6, 1977.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, L.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this research a statistical relation was sought between the skidding resistance of road surfaces and the relative road risks. In the concept of accident quotient the number of accidents that occurs on a certain section of road within a certain period of time is related to the total number of

  9. Taking the (right?) fork in the road: Canada's two-track approach to domestic and international science and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Dufour

    2002-01-01

    Canada's approach to developing a strategic capability of integrating science and technology into its international trade and foreign relations agenda has remained largely stagnant, while its domestic strategy for S&T has flowered. Canada is not perceived by the global industry and investment community to have a strong industrial R&D capacity: this may be hindering ready access to emerging international technology. Nevertheless, the quality of Canada's academic and industrial research is wide...

  10. Road Rage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Up to one-third of community participants report being perpetrators of road rage, indicating that various forms of road rage are relatively commonplace. However, only two percent or less of incidents culminate in serious damage to persons or vehicles. The most common offenders appear to be young and male. A number of factors may contribute to road rage, including environmental factors (e.g., greater number of miles driven per day, traffic density), nonspecific psychological factors (e.g., displaced aggression, attribution of blame to others), and bona fide Axis I and II disorders. The most common Axis I disorders appear to be related to alcohol and substance misuse, whereas possible Axis II disorders include borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Being aware of these contributory factors to road rage may improve general clinical awareness of the nature and treatment of perpetrators. PMID:20805914

  11. GPS Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a 1:100,000 scale vector digital representation of all interstate highways, all US highways, most of the state highways, and some county roads...

  12. The Road to Reconciliation? Optimizing the Legitimacy and Efficacy of the International Criminal Court within the African Union and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, I.S.

    2018-01-01

    It is close to a decade now that tensions continue to obstinately persist between the International Criminal Court (ICC) and the African Union (AU) to the point of numerous threatened en masse withdrawals by African States from the Rome Statute. This, automatically following in the wake of an all

  13. Louisiana ESI: ROADS (Road Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. Vector lines in the data set represent Interstates, U.S. Highways, and...

  14. Distributed road assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  15. The Road to Become a Legitimate Scholar: A Case Study of International PhD Students in Science and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Bøgelund

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the doctoral education process is to create and legitimize scholarly researchers. This transformation, from student to scholar, is widely discussed in the literature. However, recent rapid changes in university culture have resulted in less time for supervision, stricter completion deadlines, and a greater focus on efficiency and productivity. This has had an impact on this transition process, and this impact has not been widely studied. The aim of this article is to understand the consequences of the current trends for PhD students and the education of PhD students in general. The article is based on interviews with 14 international students from two different research programs at the Faculty of Engineering and Science at Aalborg University in Denmark. The case of international PhD students in a western setting is singled out as a challenging case for becoming a legitimate scholar, since they face the additional challenge of becoming socialised into their new foreign setting. Overall, the study concludes that the transition process of doctoral students is affected by the way different supervisors deal with current university trends and how PhD students fit or do not fit into their knowledge production practices. The study identifies matches or mismatches in a knowledge production perspective, quality of contact, and degree of independence of the PhD student as factors that influence whether a transition process can be marked as sound, troublesome, or lacking. Finally, the study identifies an overall risk of neglecting the more interdependent types of international PhD students. Suggestions are given as how to address this risk.

  16. "POLAR-PALOOZA" and "International POLAR-PALOOZA": Taking Researchers on the Road to Engage Public Audiences across America, and Around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.

    2010-12-01

    traveling science road shows, even in a time of plentiful media, can serve a powerful and important function. Tips and tricks? Disastrous "rehearsals" often make for successful performances. Personality is more important than media coaching. Stories are more important than facts. Less is sometimes more. Researchers appreciate hearing "Thank you for your service." Lastly, evaluation of "International POLAR-PALOOZA" indicates that many aspects of the model travel well, with the opportunity for personal interaction rating highly with all audiences. (And, yes, a short clip of a rap/music video about ice coring will be played.)

  17. Automatic Matching of Multi-scale Road Networks under the Constraints of Smaller Scale Road Meshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEI Hongxing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to achieve automatic matching for multi-scale roads under the constraints of the smaller scale data. Firstly, meshes should be extracted from the two different scales road data. Secondly, several basic meshes in the larger scale road network will be merged as a composite one, which will be matched with one mesh from the smaller scale road network, so that the meshes with many-to-one and one-to-one matching relationships will be matched. Thirdly, meshes from the two different scale road data with many-to-many matching relationships will be matched. Finally, road will be classified into two categories under the constraints of meshes: mesh border roads and mesh internal roads, and then matching will be done in their own categories according to the matching relationships between the two scales meshes. The results showed that roads from different scale will be more precisely matched.

  18. Road works

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    From Monday 11 October until Friday 29 October 2010, the flow of traffic will be disrupted by road works at the roundabout in front of Restaurant No. 2; The number of spaces available in the car park in front of Rest. No. 2 will be reduced. Thank you for your understanding during this period. GS/SEM Group

  19. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link......Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book...

  20. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book...... outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link...

  1. A road map to the internal carotid artery in expanded endoscopic endonasal approaches to the ventral cranial base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Mohamed A; Prevedello, Daniel M; Carrau, Ricardo; Kerr, Edward E; Naudy, Cristian; Abou Al-Shaar, Hussam; Corsten, Martin; Kassam, Amin

    2014-09-01

    Injuring the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a feared complication of endoscopic endonasal approaches. To introduce a comprehensive ICA classification scheme pertinent to safe endoscopic endonasal cranial base surgery. Anatomic dissections were performed in 33 cadaveric specimens (bilateral). Anatomic correlations were analyzed. Based on anatomic correlations, the ICA may be described as 6 distinct segments: (1) parapharyngeal (common carotid bifurcation to ICA foramen); (2) petrous (carotid canal to posterolateral aspect of foramen lacerum); (3) paraclival (posterolateral foramen lacerum to the superomedial aspect of the petrous apex); (4) parasellar (superomedial petrous apex to the proximal dural ring); (5) paraclinoid (from the proximal to the distal dural rings); and (6) intradural (distal ring to ICA bifurcation). Corresponding surgical landmarks included the Eustachian tube, the fossa of Rosenmüller, and levator veli palatini for the parapharyngeal segment; the vidian canal and V3 for the petrous segment; the fibrocartilage of foramen lacerum, foramen rotundum, maxillary strut, lingular process of the sphenoid bone, and paraclival protuberance for the paraclival segment; the sellar floor and petrous apex for the parasellar segment; and the medial and lateral opticocarotid and lateral tubercular recesses, as well as the distal osseous arch of the carotid sulcus for the paraclinoid segment. The proposed endoscopic classification outlines key anatomic reference points independent of the vessel's geometry or the sinonasal pneumatization, thus serving as (1) a practical guide to navigate the ventral cranial base while avoiding injury to the ICA and (2) further foundation for a modular access system.

  2. The effects of `non-infrastructural' measures to improve the safety of vulnerable road users : a review of international findings, prepared for the OECD Scientific Expert Group "Safety of vulnerable road users".

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    This report reviews the evaluated effects of what can be called `non-infrastructural measures' to improve the safety of vulnerable road users. Three selected areas are discussed: education and training, measures to enhance visibility and conspecuity, and protective devices for bicyclists. Other

  3. Decree No 2674/1973 of 19 October 1973 determining the authorities competent for application of the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    In accordance with the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) signed by Spain on 22 November 1972, every Government Parts to the Agreement must designate the authorities competent for its application, which in Spain are the Minister of the Interior, the Minister for Public Works and the Minister for Industry. Radioactive materials are classified as dangerous goods under the ADR. (N.E.A.) [fr

  4. The PolicyRelevance of WearEmissions fromRoad Transport,Nowand in the Future-An InternationalWorkshop Report and Consensus Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Gerlofs-Nijland, M.E.; Gehrig, R.; Gustafsson, M.; Janssen, N.; Harrison, R.M.; Hulskotte, J.; Johansson, C.; Jozwicka, M.; Keuken, M.; Krijgsheld, K.; Ntziachristos, L.; Riediker, M.; Cassee, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Road transport emissions are a major contributor to ambient particulate matter concentrations and have been associated with adverse health effects. Therefore, these emissions are targeted through increasingly stringent European emission standards. These policies succeed in reducing exhaust

  5. Proceedings of the International Symposium Concepts 2020. Road Transport, Vehicles and the Motor Industry into the Next Century, 16 November 1995, Delft, Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    In 1995, the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute clocked up 25 years as a TNO research institute and we naturally wanted to celebrate this milestone with our many friends and associates at home and abroad.

  6. Road pricing policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas suffer from the negative externalities of road transport like congested road networks, air pollution and road traffic accidents. A measure to reduce these negative externalities is road pricing, meaning policies that impose direct charges on road use (Jones and Hervik, 1992). Since the

  7. The policy relevance of wear emissions from road transport, now and in the future--an international workshop report and consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gon, Hugo A C Denier; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Gehrig, Robert; Gustafsson, Mats; Janssen, Nicole; Harrison, Roy M; Hulskotte, Jan; Johansson, Christer; Jozwicka, Magdalena; Keuken, Menno; Krijgsheld, Klaas; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Riediker, Michael; Cassee, Flemming R

    2013-02-01

    Road transport emissions are a major contributor to ambient particulate matter concentrations and have been associated with adverse health effects. Therefore, these emissions are targeted through increasingly stringent European emission standards. These policies succeed in reducing exhaust emissions, but do not address "nonexhaust" emissions from brake wear, tire wear, road wear and suspension in air of road dust. Is this a problem? To what extent do nonexhaust emissions contribute to ambient concentrations of PM10 or PM2.5? In the near future, wear emissions may dominate the remaining traffic-related PM10 emissions in Europe, mostly due to the steep decrease in PM exhaust emissions. This underlines the need to determine the relevance of the wear emissions as a contribution to the existing ambient PM concentrations, and the need to assess the health risks related to wear particles, which has not yet received much attention. During a workshop in 2011, available knowledge was reported and evaluated so as to draw conclusions on the relevance of traffic-related wear emissions for air quality policy development. On the basis of available evidence, which is briefly presented in this paper it was concluded that nonexhaust emissions and in particular suspension in air of road dust are major contributors to exceedances at street locations of the PM10 air quality standards in various European cities. Furthermore, wear-related PM emissions that contain high concentrations of metals may (despite their limited contribution to the mass of nonexhaust emissions) cause significant health risks for the population, especially those living near intensely trafficked locations. To quantify the existing health risks, targeted research is required on wear emissions, their dispersion in urban areas, population exposure, and its effects on health. Such information will be crucial for environmental policymakers as an input for discussions on the need to develop control strategies. Road

  8. Armenia - Rural Road Rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The key research questions guiding our design of the RRRP evaluation are: • Did rehabilitating roads affect the quality of roads? • Did rehabilitating roads improve...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF ROAD DEVELOPMENT IN ABAK LOCAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. The poor quality of infrastructure in terms of network density, connectivity and accessibility levels and general conditions of road affect not only the rural economy but also triggers internal migration to urban areas. This study aim at assessing road development in Abak local government taking into consideration ...

  10. Bevorderen van het gebruik van autogordels in Nederland : een bijdrage aan International Conference "Roads and trafic safety on two continents", Gothenburg, Zweden, 9-11 september 1987.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Mulder, J.A.G. & Gundy, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Recently the 4-year plan for traffic safety 1987-1991 "more kilometres less accidents" (ministry of transport and public works 1986) was adopted by the dutch parliament. In the plan new ways are indicated to call the attention of civilians and authorities to improve road safety. This appears from

  11. Driving down the road toll by building a safe system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Much has been done to improve road safety in South Australia. Traditional stakeholders such as the police, road authorities and insurance agencies have invested considerable resources into tackling road safety problems and South Australia has good capability via the internationally recognised Centre

  12. Challenges of raising road maintenance funds in developing countries: An analysis of road tolling in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Mbara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The condition of Zimbabwe's roads has been declining due to insufficient maintenance and rehabilitation. Year on year, budget allocations have compared unfavourably with funding considered adequate to maintain highway networks and conduct modest construction work. Road infrastructure shortcomings have manifested themselves in the form of high vehicle operating costs and rampant potholes, leading to a decline in road safety and a deterioration of service levels for those who use roads to deliver goods or connect to international markets. In order to try and stop this vicious cycle of decline, the Government of Zimbabwe, on 8 August 2009, introduced a new policy of road-user charges, which involved the setting-up of 22 toll gates on the trunk road network. The overall objective was to raise revenue in order to close the funding gap, blamed for declining road quality. Although alternative methods of financing road maintenance have been debated for years, a generally accepted understanding is that road users should pay costs for road provisioning. This paper assesses the implementation of a road tolling system in Zimbabwe and describes matters relating to, inter alia, implementation strategy, initial performance outcomes and sustainability.

  13. The road safety audit and road safety inspection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    A road safety audit (RSA) and a road safety inspection (RSI) are used to test the safety level of the road infrastructure. The RSA tests the design of new roads or the reconstruction of existing roads, whereas the RSI is used for testing existing roads. An RSA, therefore, aims to 'improve' the road

  14. Road lighting fundamentals, technology and application

    CERN Document Server

    van Bommel, Wout

    2015-01-01

    This book outlines the underlying principles on which modern road lighting is based, and provides the reader with knowledge of how these principles should be applied in practice. It offers a completely fresh approach to the subject, reflecting how the technology of road lighting has progressed to keep up with the changes in lamp technology, especially in solid state light sources, and the increasing awareness of energy use and environmental issues. The book is divided into three parts. Part One describes lighting of open roads, with chapters discussing visual performance and comfort (including the effects of mesopic vision and age), and international standards and recommendations for road lighting. Lighting equipment is introduced; specifically lamps and luminaires in terms of their practical properties and features, but also the road surface and its characteristics. A chapter on Lighting Design makes the link between theory and practice, providing the reader with the knowledge needed for effective lighting d...

  15. Future Road Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  16. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  17. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  18. Road condition reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the findings of the road condition reporting project where the feasibility of live reporting of the road : conditions with an Android camera and computer vision algorithms was tested. An app was developed that can collect videos...

  19. VT Road Centerline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata)(User Guide)(Symbology layer files: aotclass_only.lyr aotclass_surfacetyp.lyr)The Vermont Road Centerline data layer (TransRoad_RDS) contains all...

  20. FEATURES ROAD SAFETY AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abramova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of the road network, increasing motorization of the population significantly increase the risk of accidents. Experts in the field of traffic are developing methods to reduce the probability of accidents. The ways of solving the problems of road safety audit at various stages of the «life» of roads are considered.

  1. Overload road damage model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, MP

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only do overloaded vehicles pose an increased safety risk on the road (reduced stability and braking efficiency etc.), but they also accelerate the rate of deterioration of the road network and increase road maintenance costs, which in turn...

  2. Lighting of roads outside built-up areas. Paper presented at the International Road Safety Congress London 1964, Theme III 'Ways of reducing the frequency of accidents', discussed at the Seventh International Study Week in Traffic Engineering, London, 21-26 September 1964.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E.

    1964-01-01

    Before talking about the specific problems of lighting roads outside built-up areas, I would like to discuss some general problems of fixed lighting. To answer the question of how and when the system of fixed lighting started, we have to go back far in history. In Holland, for example, in the 17th

  3. Pollution-free road lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Duco A.

    They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in 'low' income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in 'high' income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form 'sky glow'. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow. Lighting improves visibility, essential for almost all human activity. However, light that hits the road contributes to visibility only if it is reflected. In poorly designed lighting equipment much of the lumen output of the lamps is sent directly upwards. This can be avoided by properly defined light fittings. The light output of fittings is determined by their optical quality and by the installation maintenance factor. Open fittings are to be preferred. If mounted horizontally, they make street lighting with the least light pollution.

  4. Decree of the President of the Republic No. 895 of 20 November 1979: Implementation of amendments to Annexes A and B of the European Agreement of 30 September 1957 concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) notified to the Secretary-General of the United Nations between 1970 and 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Italy ratified the European Agreeement on the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) of 30 September 1957 (Act No. 1839 of 12 August 1962). Decree No. 895 of the President of the Republic of 20 November 1979 implements in Italy the amendments made in recent years to Annexes A and B (which cover radioactive materials) of the Agreement. (NEA) [fr

  5. An analysis of Malaysia road traffic death distribution by road ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yusria Darma

    2017-07-14

    Jul 14, 2017 ... road networks and designing roads, defects in existing roads and lack of remedial action at high-risk crash sites are the risk factors for crashes. Hence, this study is focussed on investigating the road environment elements that have a significant contribution on road traffic deaths in Malaysia. The findings of ...

  6. Traveling the Silk Road: A Measurement of a Large Anonymous Online Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    Silk Road, an anonymous, international online marketplace that operates as a Tor hidden service and uses Bitcoin as its exchange currency. We gather...analysis of Silk Road, an anonymous, international on- line marketplace that operates as a Tor hidden service and uses Bitcoin as its exchange currency. We...anonymity, Silk Road needs to also preserve payment anonymity. To that effect, Silk Road only supports Bitcoin (BTC, [30]) as a trading currency

  7. Pocket facts 2009 : Swedish Road Administration, roads and traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This publication offers an overall picture of the road transport : system. Here you will find a selection of brief facts about roads, : road transports, vehicles and people in traffic. In addition, it : includes an overview of SRA tasks and organisat...

  8. Pocket facts 2008 : Swedish Road Administration, roads and traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Pocket Facts offers an overall picture of the road : transport system. Here you will find a selection of : brief facts about roads, road transports, vehicles and : people in traffic. In addition, it presents the functions : and organisation at the SR...

  9. Trajectory of a road vehicle during road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Stachová Darina

    2017-01-01

    Consider a vehicle moving on a road whose usage over time creates an uneven surface on the road. Road unevenness that we encounter on surface communications often arises as a consequence of dynamical effects of moving vehicles, of weather changes, and due to road construction works. This article concerns with mathematical modeling of the trajectory of a road vehicle moving on such a surface during the course of road maintenance.

  10. What is vision Hampton Roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    What is Vision Hampton Roads? : Vision Hampton Roads is... : A regionwide economic development strategy based on the collective strengths of all : localities of Hampton Roads, created with the input of business, academia, nonprofits, : government,...

  11. The incidence of human induced community road dilapidation: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of human induced community road dilapidation: A case study of Ekpoma, Edo- Nigeria. ... International Journal of Community Research ... The manner by which community roads are been excavated without concerted efforts to seal them up properly, has indeed become a worrisome phenomenon. The irony is ...

  12. Road pricing and road safety : possible effects on road safety of 23 variants of road pricing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenink, R.G. Dijkstra, A. Wijnen, W. & Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Nouwen Committee (National Platform Paying Differently for Mobility) advised the Cabinet in 2005 about the introduction of a system of road pricing. Part of this advice consisted of a calculation of the expected road safety effects of such a system. In a letter to the Minister of Transport, SWOV

  13. Vulnerable road users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A group of road users can be defined as ‘vulnerable’ in a number of ways, such as by the amount of protection in traffic (e.g. pedestrians and cyclists) or by the amount of task capability (e.g. the young and the elderly). Vulnerable road users do not usually have a protective 'shell', and also the

  14. Road crash costs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or

  15. Road diet informational guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A classic Road Diet converts an existing four-lane undivided roadway segment to a three-lane segment consisting of two : through lanes and a center two-way left turn lane (TWLTL). A Road Diet improves safety by including a protected left-turn lane : ...

  16. Batteries for electric road vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B; Braga, M Helena

    2018-01-15

    The dependence of modern society on the energy stored in a fossil fuel is not sustainable. An immediate challenge is to eliminate the polluting gases emitted from the roads of the world by replacing road vehicles powered by the internal combustion engine with those powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries must be safe and competitive in cost, performance, driving range between charges, and convenience. The competitive performance of an electric car has been demonstrated, but the cost of fabrication, management to ensure safety, and a short cycle life have prevented large-scale penetration of the all-electric road vehicle into the market. Low-cost, safe all-solid-state cells from which dendrite-free alkali-metal anodes can be plated are now available; they have an operating temperature range from -20 °C to 80 °C and they permit the design of novel high-capacity, high-voltage cathodes providing fast charge/discharge rates. Scale-up to large multicell batteries is feasible.

  17. Access road reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, T.; Blok, M.

    1997-01-01

    A general review of the measures involved in restoring abandoned access road sites in British Columbia was presented. Permits and licences are needed for the use of crown land for roads used by the petroleum and natural gas industry for exploration activities. However, the regulatory framework for road site reclamation is not well developed. The nature of access road reclamation is very site-specific. Some of the issues that are considered for all reclamation projects include slope stability, water control, revegetation, soil rehabilitation, access management and monitoring. The primary objective of reclaiming access road sites is to return the site to conditions that are equal or better than pre-disturbance conditions. Restoration measures must be approved by BC Environment and by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans where federal fisheries responsibilities are involved. 54 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  18. eRoads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    battery capacity required for electric vehicles if they are not installed. The electric road and battery electric vehicle scenarios are more efficient and produce less carbon dioxide emissions than their corresponding oil scenarios for two key reasons: 1) the vehicles are more efficient and 2) electric...... in the energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions, since they also enable heavy-duty transport to be electrified such as trucks and buses. It is unlikely that these forms of transport will be electrified without electric roads, due to the relatively high cost of on-board battery storage.......This study compares electric roads with oil (petrol and diesel) and battery electric vehicles, using Denmark as a case study. Electric roads can reduce the cost of electric vehicles by supplying them with electricity directly from the road rather than via a battery for long-distance journeys...

  19. Air pollution due to road traffic in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Ogrin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is due to road traffic an inevitable outcome of internal combustion in engines ofvehicles and some other processes. Air near the roads is more polluted with some pollutants,such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, particulate matter and some others.Monitoring the air quality is a key issue, when one wants to estimate environmental impactsof the road traffic. The article shows a method of passive samplers for air quality monitoringalong different roads in the area of Ljubljana Municipality.

  20. Politics of contemporary "Silk Roads"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey I. Litvinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently in mass media we can find the idea about a new Silk Road or the concept of "Silk Road Economic Belt" which has been formulated by the Chinese PresidentXi Jinping on September 7,2013, during his official visit to Kazakhstan. This project is not only the creation of a transport, power and trade corridor, and also the project which will promote development of tourism in the region and to strengthening of cultural exchanges of China with the countries of Central Asia, it also includes construction of a network of high-speed fiber-optical networks. The economic strip of the Silk Road will begin in China and pass across the Central and the Southern Asia, part of branches across the territory of the Russian Federation and to leave to Europe. This international investment project assumes creation of a continental transport way. For implementation of overland part of "A great Silk Road is a three railway corridors (northern, central have to be constructed and southern They have form a basis for development of other means of transport, including automobile subsequently. Construction of these three railway corridors acts as the most important and necessary stage of implementation of the project. The government of China declares that creation of an economic belt of the Silk way is a revival of once prospering trade-transport and cultural corridor from Asia to Europe which will promote activization of a friendly exchange between the people of the different countries. Further all this has to connect trade and economic space of Europe and Asia in a whole that has to serve implementation of deeper economic cooperation, between the countries participating in him, to increase in a trade turnover and expansion of scientific and technical exchanges between them.

  1. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than any other Igbo sub-group; the Nnewi Igbo emerged as pioneer road transport entrepreneurs and charted this novel economic enterprise with huge success. Some of these pioneer transport capitalists were J.C. Ulasi, L.P. Ojukwu, and A.E. Ilodibe. These indigenous entrepreneurs commercialized the revolution in ...

  2. Safety effects of road design standards in Europe. Contribution to the International Symposium on Highway Geometric Design Practices, Session on Safety and Human Factors Considerations, Boston, Massachusetts, August 30 - September 1, 1995.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Slop, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the result of a study carried out for the European Commission by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, in co-operation with a number of other European institutes, and which was reported in 1994. The title of the study is "Safety Effects of Road Design Standards." The

  3. DMFC Module for non-road transport and mobile applications. Final report; DMFC Modul for intern transport og mobile anlaeg. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-15

    The objective of the project has been to develop a compact fuel cell generator using methanol as fuel. The DMFC module will be tested as power generator for internal transport using a Mini Crosser electric wheelchair for elderly and disabled people. The main advantage is the potential enhanced operation time (enhanced range) and the abbreviated recharge time compared with rechargeable batteries. The project approach was to use a hybrid system comprising a DMFC and a battery. The Hybrid system enables the usage of the battery to cover the dynamic power requirements while operating the DMFC generator at a constant load charging the battery. The project result is a functioning vehicle with a 600W DMFC system installed. The DMFC system has been tested independently and together with the vehicle where test results have been gathered. It was not possible within the project to make a compact installation in the existing battery box of the vehicle, but it is illustrated that it will be possible to make the full installation of a 2nd generation system in the vehicle. On the commercial side it is concluded that there can be a potential market entry opportunity if the DMFC system can meet commercialisation targets. It is also concluded that usage of a DMFC system in a closed wheel chair would give the possibility to use the produced heat from the fuel cell and thereby eliminate the requirement for an additional heater on the vehicle. (au)

  4. The Rise of Self-Driving Cars: Is the Private International Law Framework for non-contractual obligations posing a bump in the road?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan De Bruyne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focusses on some implications related to the commercialisation of self-driving or autonomous cars. Such vehicles are no longer a mere futuristic idea. They could soon be available on the market. Society in general and the applicable rules in particular will undergo a transformation following the introduction of autonomous vehicles. Despite the many benefits, self-driving cars also pose several challenges. These do not only relate to technical aspects but also to the influence of the autonomisation of traffic on infrastructure and employment in different sectors. More importantly, several legal challenges will need to be addressed as well before society will be able to fully enjoy the benefits of self-driving cars. The question as to who should be held liable for damage caused by self-driving car has already been addressed in academia. Less attention has been devoted to the relationship between autonomous vehicles and the existing private international law rules in the European Union. Although the application of the current jurisdictional and conflict of laws rules does not present problems, the membership of some EU Member States of the 1971 Hague Traffic Accidents Convention and/or the 1973 Hague Products Liability Convention impedes the harmonisation of conflict of laws rules in non-contractual matters as envisaged by the Rome II Regulation. In cases concerning liability arising from traffic accidents and in product liability cases, different Member States courts sometimes apply a different national law. This reduces foreseeability and legal certainty.

  5. Roads Rehabilitation and Environment in Moldova: Some Legal and Normative Harmonization Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocirta Petru

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the environmental regulatory reforms of the Republic of Moldova to restore roads and problems over time. Goals and objectives are the analysis of the current situation on road rehabilitation and environmental assessments in this area, as well as issues that require in rehabilitation and maintenance of roads in the Republic of Moldova.Are described briefly: general aspects of road rehabilitation issues; legislation and environmental regulations in the road; differences between Moldova and procedures of the World Bank's environmental assessment in the construction and rehabilitation of roads; problem of national legislative and normative acts harmonization to international requirements.The paper discusses specific environmental to appear on completion of the rehabilitation of roads in the Republic of Moldova. In the final part of the paper presents the conclusions and some suggestions on how to facilitate the rehabilitation of roads in accordance with Agenda 21 of the country and European and international requirements.

  6. Evaluating road surface conditions using dynamic tire pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yubo; Wu, H. Felix; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

    2014-03-01

    In order to best prioritize road maintenance, the level of deterioration must be known for all roads in a city's network. Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and International Roughness Index (IRI) are two standard methods for obtaining this information. However, IRI is substantially easier to measure. Significant time and money could be saved if a method were developed to estimate PCI from IRI. This research introduces a new method to estimate IRI and correlate IRI with PCI. A vehicle-mounted dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) system is used. The DTPS measures the signals generated from the tire/road interaction while driving. The tire/road interaction excites surface waves that travel through the road. DTPS, which is mounted on the tire's valve stem, measures tire/road interaction by analyzing the pressure change inside the tire due to the road vibration, road geometry and tire wall vibration. The road conditions are sensible to sensors in a similar way to human beings in a car. When driving on a smooth road, tire pressure stays almost constant and there are minimal changes in the DTPS data. When driving on a rough road, DTPS data changes drastically. IRI is estimated from the reconstructed road profile using DTPS data. In order to correlate IRI with PCI, field tests were conducted on roads with known PCI values in the city of Brockton, MA. Results show a high correlation between the estimated IRI values and the known PCI values, which suggests that DTPS-based IRI can provide accurate predictions of PCI.

  7. Unsurfaced Road Maintenance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This draft manual describes an unsurfaced road maintenance management system for use on military installations. This system is available in either a manual or computerized mode (Micro PAVER). The maintenance standards prescribed should protect Govern...

  8. Hydrologically Connected Road Segments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Link it ArcGIS Item is HERE.The connectivity layer was created to assist municipalities in preparing for the forthcoming DEC Municipal Roads General Permit in 2018....

  9. NM GPS Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains a vector digital representation of all interstate highways, all US highways, most of the state highways, and some county roads in New Mexico.

  10. State Forest Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — ArcView shape file of roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. Most, but not...

  11. Taos County Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Vector line shapefile under the stewardship of the Taos County Planning Department depicting roads in Taos County, New Mexico. Originally under the Emergency...

  12. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  13. Road rage and collision involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert E; Zhao, Jinhui; Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M; Smart, Reginald G; Donovan, John E

    2007-01-01

    To assess the contribution of road rage victimization and perpetration to collision involvement. The relationship between self-reported collision involvement and road rage victimization and perpetration was examined, based on telephone interviews with a representative sample of 4897 Ontario adult drivers interviewed between 2002 and 2004. Perpetrators and victims of both any road rage and serious road rage had a significantly higher risk of collision involvement than did those without road rage experience. This study provides epidemiological evidence that both victims and perpetrators of road rage experience increased collision risk. More detailed studies of the contribution of road rage to traffic crashes are needed.

  14. Building rural roads

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record Rural roads are the last link of the transport network, however, they often form the most important connection in terms of providing access for the rural population. The permanent or seasonal absence of road access is a constraining factor in terms of providing rural communities with essential services such as education, primary health care, water supply, local markets as well as economic opportunities. The availability of such services and opportunities are difficult ...

  15. Measurements for winter road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Riehm, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Winter road maintenance activities are crucial for maintaining the accessibility and traffic safety of the road network at northerly latitudes during winter. Common winter road maintenance activities include snow ploughing and the use of anti-icing agents (e.g. road salt, NaCl). Since the local weather is decisive in creating an increased risk of slippery conditions, understanding the link between local weather and conditions at the road surface is critically important. Sensors are commonly i...

  16. New innovative educational method to prevent accidents involving young road users (aged 15-24 – European Road Safety Tunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Karpa Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new teaching method designed to improve road safety among young road users. Developed under “European Road Safety Tunes”, this international project was cofunded by EU DG MOVE. Its main aim is to improve road safety and minimize the number of road accidents, injuries and fatalities among road users who are 15-24 years old. The Safety Tunes method contains a series of workshops addressed to young vocational school students: cyclists, moped and motor riders and car drivers. The workshops incorporate peer and emotive education, and delivery of road safety related messages through different types of artistic forms. The topics tackled during class address awareness of possible risks and risk-behaviour, prevention of distraction and reduction in young fatalities and serious injuries on the road. All actions within the project are evaluated, both in terms of the impact of the workshops on students’ attitudes towards road safety problems and in terms of process assessment.

  17. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  18. Roads to knowledge | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-13

    building functions as do similar consortia elsewhere, VERN's special role has been to provide .... At a time when some have been questioning the value of providing foreign aid to Africa, AERC stands as a remarkable success story.

  19. International partnerships : a road map to success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, B.

    2006-01-01

    Green Breeze was founded in 2003, and was initially a small wind farm development company with 5 employees before creating partnerships with both local and North American companies in order to expand. The company now has 50 employees that work within 3 separate divisions, namely Green Breeze Energy Systems (GBES); Green Breeze Wind Park Development (GBWPD); and Compsotech. This presentation described the company's business strategy. GBES was created to meet market demand for small wind turbines. Barriers to success included the fact that market demand outweighed Canadian supply, and that Canadian suppliers were still challenged by technical issues. In order to maintain Canadian content and meet the needs of their clients, GBES formed a partnership with the Danish company WES to bring 80 kW and 250 kW turbines into Ontario. By partnering with WES, the company has been able to create a stable supply chain for customers while maintaining ties to Canadian turbine suppliers. GBWPD was created to develop utility-scale wind generation. The company did not win a contract in any recent requests for proposals (RFPs), which led them to conclude that smaller developers seemed to be excluded from the electricity market. As the aim of the organization was to develop projects and not simply model them, they have chosen to focus on smaller wind projects outside the RFP process. However, smaller projects have had limited access to financing and turbine suppliers. In order to address these issues GBWPD formed a partnership with ENERCON which provided financial support as well as access to German foundation specialists and the E48 turbine. Seven of the turbines are now planned for installation in 2007. The partnership has allowed GBWPD to bring over 150 MW of projects into their portfolio. In early 2006, Green Breeze bought controlling interest in Composotech Structures, a company specializing in structural composites manufacturing as well as turbine blade manufacturing and repair. Composotech has now been partnered with Windguard, a German wind turbine service company specializing in assessing turbine faults. It was concluded that the partnership has been awarded a $2 million contract for blade repair which will expand to a $6 million and $13 million contract in 2007. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Gravel roads management : volume 3, gravel roads management : programming guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  1. Gravel roads management : volume 1, gravel roads management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  2. Gravel roads management : volume 2, gravel roads management : implementation guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  3. Symmetric road interchanges

    OpenAIRE

    Kurauskas, Valentas; Šiurienė, Ugnė

    2018-01-01

    A road interchange where $n$ roads meet and in which the drivers are not allowed to change lanes can be modelled as an embedding of a 2-coloured (hence bipartite) multigraph $G$ with equal-sized colour classes into an orientable surface such that there is a face bounded by a Hamiltonian cycle (Kurauskas, 2017). The case of $G$ a complete bipartite graph $K_{n,n}$ corresponds to a complete $n$-way interchange where drivers approaching from each of $n$ directions can exit to any other direction...

  4. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    Road transport is an important sector, connecting time and space of production and consumption. Its market conditions has changed. The EU single market implementation has increased price pressure due to supply of low cost road freight transport from counties with lower cost structures. Changes...... a competitive value proposition? We will illustrate the strategy-as-practice with two projects, and discuss implications in terms of capabilities needed to create an effective value proposition and hence competitiveness. The theoretical contribution is in theorizing haulier strategic development in which we...

  5. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The

  6. An analysis of Malaysia road traffic death distribution by road ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this regard, it is imperative for all parties concerning road safety to determine the factors that significantly contribute to road traffic deaths. According to the Ministry of Works, Malaysia, the blackspot treatment programme (which is centred on the elimination of road hazards by engineering approaches) is successful in ...

  7. An analysis of Malaysia road traffic death distribution by road ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yusria Darma

    2017-07-14

    Jul 14, 2017 ... According to the Ministry of Works, Malaysia, the blackspot treatment programme (which is centred on the elimination of road hazards by engineering approaches) is successful in reducing the number of injuries due to road traffic accidents up to a certain extent. This study is focussed on analysing road ...

  8. The Priority of Road Rehabilitation in Karanganyar Regency Using IRI Estimation from Roadroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achmadi, F.; Suprapto, M.; Setyawan, A.

    2017-02-01

    The IRI (International Roughness Index) is a road roughness index commonly obtained from measured longitudinal road profiles. This is one of the functional performance a surface of road pavement. Therefore, needs to be done evaluation and monitoring periodically to getting priority of road rehabilitation right on target. The IRI standard has commonly been used worldwide for evaluating road system. The Roadroid is an application to measure road quality with a website to view road quality. It is designed for Android smartphones, so we can easily measure and monitor the road and also use the camera for GPS-tagged photo. By using the built-in vibration sensor in smartphones, it is possible to collect IRI value which can be an indicator road conditions. This study attempts to explain the priority of road rehabilitation in Karanganyar Regency. The location of the study focused on a collector street (primary, secondary and locally road). The result of IRI estimation will be combined with other aspects that influences; land use, policy, the connectivity of road and traffic average daily. Based on IRI estimation using Roadroid, the road conditions in Karanganyar Regency can be described 59,60% were good (IRI12).

  9. Sierra County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some city streets in...

  10. Standard road plans [English version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Road Plans contained within this manual have been developed : to show standardized design features, construction methods and approved : materials to be used in design plans for Interstate, Primary, and Secondary : road construction in th...

  11. Grant County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads in the county including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and city...

  12. Multi-Image Road Extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, W. A; Cochran, Steven D; McKeown, David M

    2005-01-01

    .... It also supports direct extraction of 3D information along the path of the road. Determination of road elevation has significant implications for reducing cost and time in applications requiring cartographic features with full 3D attribution...

  13. Valencia County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads in the county including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some...

  14. Kansas Road Centerline Fle (KRCF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This version of the Kansas Road Centerline File (0801) represents the first effort to create a statewide roads layer from best available data sources. KGS integrated...

  15. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  16. On the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

  17. Eritrea - Road Sector Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    P.C. Mohan

    2004-01-01

    The project, begun in 1997 and completed in mid-2002, responded to the key findings of the IDA Participatory Rural Assessment study undertaken in 1994, which identified isolation and lack of road links as substantial constraints to poverty alleviation. It comprised the following components: (1) Infrastructure strengthening studies: (a) a feasibility and environmental impact assessment to d...

  18. Mayan Forest Road Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    2008-01-01

    Road-building projects in the Mayan Biosphere Reserve to connect Mexico and Guatemala were subjected to a cost-benefit evaluation. Up to an estimated 311,000 hectares of jaguar habitat were found to be at risk of deforestation due to these projects. Some of the projects were shown to have negative...

  19. Tyre and road wear prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Both tyre wear and road polishing are complex phenomenon, which are obviously strongly related; the energy that polishes the road is the energy that wears the tyre. The both depend non-linearly on numerous parameters, like materials used, vehicle and road usage, environmental conditions (i.e.

  20. Road work zone accident studies : Advanced Research On Road Work Zone Safety Standard in Europe ARROWS Task 2.2 internal report. On behalf of the European Union, Directorate-General for Transport DG VII-E3, Transport RTD Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gundy, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this study, part of the ARROWS (Advanced Research on Road Work Zone Safety Standards in Europe) project, is to draw conclusions about the nature and extent of work zone traffic accidents. To that end, existing empirical studies concerning work zone traffic accidents have

  1. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... road, a strip right-of-way joining the main body of the airport to the nearest public road may be... acquired to provide an airport entrance road and was not, before the existence of the airport, a public... road extends only to the nearest public highway, road, or street. (c) An entrance road may be joined to...

  2. Can we prevent road rage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbridge, Mark; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E

    2006-04-01

    Road rage has become a serious concern in many countries, and preventive efforts are required. This article reviews what can be done to prevent road rage by exploring potential prevention avenues in five areas. First, legal changes aimed at increasing the penalties for road rage behavior could be instituted, drawing on models from aggressive-driving or impaired-driving laws. A second approach would involve the adoption of court programs for convicted road ragers. Third, car redesign offers a means of reducing crime through environmental design. Fourth, mass media education could be implemented to inform drivers of the risk from road rage and how to avoid situations that facilitate road rage. Finally, prevention efforts could be directed to long-term societal changes that emphasize structural modifications, such as reducing congestion on the roads, reduced driver stress, or promoting public transportation. The strengths and weaknesses of these strategies are discussed.

  3. National and international forums to discuss the approach and the results of PROMISING : Discussion in the framework of the European research project PROMISING (Promotion of Measures for Vulnerable Road Users), Workpackage 7.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, R. (ed.)

    2001-01-01

    The European PROMISING research project is aimed at the development and promotion of measures to improve both safety and mobility of vulnerable road users. Consideration was given to differences between European countries in the share of different transport modes. During the research work, an

  4. Influencing speeding behaviour through preventative police enforcement. Paper presented at the VIth International Road Safety Organisation PRI World Congress on `Marketing traffic safety', 3-6 October 1994, Cape Town, South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of speed on road safety and how to influence speeding behaviour. The results that can be achieved through police enforcement combined with information campaigns are discussed with reference to projects carried out in the Netherlands. The cost implications are

  5. Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2013-10-01

    This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer

  6. Environmentally friendly road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Essawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  7. Tweets on the road.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Lenormand

    Full Text Available The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation between the number of tweets on the road and the Average Annual Daily Traffic on highways in France and in the UK. Transport modality can be studied with these data as well, for which we discover very heterogeneous usage patterns across the continent.

  8. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  9. Development of Pavement Maintenance Management System (PMMS of Urban Road Network Using HDM-4 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuj Chopra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop Pavement Maintenance Management System (PMMS for four road sections of urban road network (Patiala, Punjab, India using Highway Development and Management (HDM-4 model. The HDM-4 provides a deterministic approach in data input and process data of existing road condition, traffic volume and pavement composition to predict road deterioration as per the urban road conditions in terms of International Roughness Index (IRI value. This study presents the use of HDM-4 model for the computation of optimum Maintenance and Rehabilitation (M&R strategy for each road section and comparative study of scheduled and condition responsive M&R strategies. The results of present study will be useful for gaining better support for decision-makers for adequate and timely fund allocations for preservation of the urban road network.

  10. Technology road mapping to guide development planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goossen, J.E.; Congedo, T.V.

    2004-01-01

    For the past five years, Westinghouse Electric Company, has made ever increasing use of Technology Road Mapping, to direct company development efforts to achieve maximum benefits for our customers and ourselves. Comprised of business units in Nuclear Fuels, Nuclear Services and Nuclear Power Plants, including domestic and international business segments, Westinghouse must pay particular attention to coordinating development to satisfy the diverse needs of our growing international customer base. We must develop products which both benefit the individual Business Unit customer base, and which create synergy to produce the best possible offerings to the broader marketplace. The knowledge we gain through customer contacts and direct customer participation provides the basis from which we develop the Technology Road Map. This Road Map development process can be compared to painting a picture, where the background colors and features correspond to drivers related to the Customer and the prevailing features of the market environment. The subsequent layers of detail include broad Technical Objectives and then specific Technical Goals which will support achieving those objectives. The process is described in detail, and examples are provided. (authors)

  11. Radioactive material (road transport) bill. [Third reading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishburn, D.; Walley, J.; Currie, E.

    1991-01-01

    This is a private members Bill which will enable new rules to be set out that will govern the way in the which nearly 500,000 shipments of radioactive and nuclear material go by road in the United Kingdom every year. It would give the Department of Transport, which would become the enforcing authority, the powers of entry and inspection and allows penalties to be exacted from those breaking the rules. The present regulations for transport by road are those set out in 1947 and these need to be updated to comply with International Atomic Energy Authority Standards. The debate which lasted over one and a half hours is reported verbatim. The main points raised were about which emergency services if any should be notified on the transport of nuclear materials, with particular reference to Derbyshire. Nuclear power in general was also discussed. (UK)

  12. Bicycle facilities on distributor roads. [Formerly known as: Bicycle facilities on road segments and intersections of distributor roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A sustainably safe road environment requires bicycle facilities that separate motorized traffic from relatively vulnerable road users like cyclists. Research indicates that on distributor roads the road sections with adjoining or separate bicycle tracks are safer than the road sections without any

  13. Road Assessment Model and Pilot Application in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiejun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment of roads is an effective approach for road agencies to determine safety improvement investments. It can increases the cost-effective returns in crash and injury reductions. To get a powerful Chinese risk assessment model, Research Institute of Highway (RIOH is developing China Road Assessment Programme (ChinaRAP model to show the traffic crashes in China in partnership with International Road Assessment Programme (iRAP. The ChinaRAP model is based upon RIOH’s achievements and iRAP models. This paper documents part of ChinaRAP’s research work, mainly including the RIOH model and its pilot application in a province in China.

  14. Towards Efficient Road Transport in Logistics Operations : A Case Study of IKEA China

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Zhu; Haoqi, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose- The purpose of this research is to explore the role of road transport in logistics operations, and to investigate and analyze how IKEA China does operate on road transport in logistics operations. Design/methodology/approach- A single case study has been conducted at IKEA China, including semi-structured interviews and review of internal documents. Along with the case study, literature reviews have been conducted within the areas of efficient road transport in logistics operations.  ...

  15. Information technology road map 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    This book introduces information technology road map 2015 with presentation, process, plan and conclusion of it. It also has introduction of IT road map by field : information technology road map 2015 on the next-generation of semiconductor, display, light emitting diode and light industry, home network and home electronic appliances, digital TV and broadcasting, radio technology, satellite communications, mobile communication for the next-generation, BcN field, software, computer for the next-generation and security of knowledge information.

  16. Energy efficiency of road freight hauliers - A Nordic comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Nykanen, Lasse; Arvidsson, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    In order to promote policy targets for decarbonising road freight, it is important to gain knowledge on the current energy efficiency practices of hauliers in various countries. This research aimed to provide such knowledge to enable international comparison of the energy efficiency practices...... of road freight hauliers. This was achieved by replicating the Finnish haulier survey in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Energy efficiency index was developed to provide a simple metric for international comparison. The EEL covers various aspects of energy efficiency to provide a comprehensive outlook...

  17. Effects on road safety of new urban arterial roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Astrid H; Elvik, Rune

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the effects on road safety of new urban arterial roads in Oslo, Norway, and a synthesis of evidence from similar studies that have evaluated the safety effects of new urban arterial roads in other cities. A before-and-after study was made of four urban arterial road projects in Oslo. The study controlled for general accident trends in Oslo and for regression-to-the-mean. A statistically non-significant reduction of 9% in the number of injury accidents was found for all four projects combined. The effects on safety of new urban arterial roads were found to vary, depending on whether a new arterial road was built, or an existing arterial road upgraded by means of lane additions and reconstruction of junctions to interchanges. New arterial roads tend to induce more traffic, which tends to offset the benefits of a lower accident rate on the new roads. The results for other cities are very consistent with those for Oslo. For a total of seven cases in which new arterial roads were built, a statistically non-significant reduction of 1% in the number of injury accidents was found. Two cases that involved lane additions and converting at-grade junctions to interchanges resulted in a mean accident reduction of 51%, which was highly significant. On the average, the nine arterial road projects from which evidence was summarised resulted in a net induced traffic of 16%, and a net reduction in accident rate (accidents per million vehicle kilometres) of 18%. These effects almost cancel each other, leading to a very small net change in the expected number of accidents.

  18. Road traffic injuries in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Deysi Yasmin; Fernández, Francisco José; Acero Velásquez, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading public health problem in Colombia. Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, especially in the main urban centers of Bogotá, Medellin and Cali. Data analyzed in this report include official statistics from the National Police and the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences for 1996-2000, and results of a study conducted at the National University of Colombia in 2000. Methods from the Highway Capacity Manual were used for determining physical and technical variables, and a Geographical Information System tool was used for the location and spatial analysis of the road traffic crashes. Pedestrians accounted for close to 32% of injuries and 40% of the deaths from road traffic crashes. The problem of road traffic crashes existed predominately in urban areas. In the main urban centers, pedestrians constituted nearly 68% of road traffic crash victims. The high level of risky road use behaviors demonstrated by pedestrians and drivers, and inadequate infrastructure for safe mobility of pedestrians in some sections of the road network were the main contributing factors. Major improvements were achieved in Bogotá following enhancements to the municipal transport system and other policies introduced since 1995. In conclusion, policies and programs for improving road safety, in particular pedestrian safety, and strengthening urban planning are top priority.

  19. Implementability Of Municipal Transport Master Plan Of Bandipur Inner Ring Road Tanahun Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjay Kumar Mishra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this study is to assess the implementability of Municipal Transport Master Plan with the assessment of Bandipur Inner Ring Road. Various literatures were reviewed to assess the planning adopted approaches and implementability related with the transportation master plan. Data were collected through Questionnaire survey Interviews and Focus Group Discussions. Technical Survey was also conducted for assessing compliance level of technical parameters of ring road. Traffic Count Survey and Household Survey were carried out to analyze the traffic situation of ring road. Possible budget allocation and possible budget requirement for ring road were calculated for five years FY 201617 to FY 202021 and determined the possible financial gap. Results were assessed with the indicators of implementability rational legitimate feasible politically viable and socially acceptable. The result showed that still 2.64km section of ring road is earthen where total length of road is 3.9km. Just 500m lined and 460m dry side drain is constructed throughout the ring road. It complies 70.59 technical parameters of Village Road Standards and only 6.25 of Urban Road Standards but 510 vehicles including motorcycle 567 PCU run on this road per day from two sides. The road is found overloaded. MTMP report has just prepared in municipality and 93 of total respondents has accepted that MTMP is prepared adopting Participatory and Bottom Up planning Approach. MTMP is implementable by generating internal revenue.

  20. Effect of the Road Environment on Road Safety in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Antoniuk, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Run-off-road accidents tend to be very severe because when a vehicle leaves the road, it will often crash into a solid obstacle (tree, pole, supports, front wall of a culvert, barrier). A statistical analysis of the data shows that Poland’s main roadside hazard is trees and the severity of vehicles striking a tree in a run-off-road crash. The risks are particularly high in north-west Poland with many of the roads lined up with trees. Because of the existing rural road cross-sections, i.e. having trees directly on road edge followed immediately by drainage ditches, vulnerable road users are prevented from using shoulders and made to use the roadway. With no legal definition of the road safety zone in Polish regulations, attempts to remove roadside trees lead to major conflicts with environmental stakeholders. This is why a compromise should be sought between the safety of road users and protection of the natural environment and the aesthetics of the road experience. Rather than just cut the trees, other road safety measures should be used where possible to treat the hazardous spots by securing trees and obstacles and through speed management. Accidents that are directly related to the road environment fall into the following categories: hitting a tree, hitting a barrier, hitting a utility pole or sign, vehicle rollover on the shoulder, vehicle rollover on slopes or in ditch. The main consequence of a roadside hazard is not the likelihood of an accident itself but of its severity. Poland’s roadside accident severity is primarily the result of poor design or operation of road infrastructure. This comes as a consequence of a lack of regulations or poorly defined regulations and failure to comply with road safety standards. The new analytical model was designed as a combination of the different factors and one that will serve as a comprehensive model. It was assumed that it will describe the effect of the roadside on the number of accidents and their consequences

  1. Emissions of road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.; Tuominen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Information on the emissions and energy consumption of different vehicles per transported amount of goods has up to last years been minimal. The unit emissions mean the amount of harmful compounds in the flue gases of a vehicle per service, time or energy unit. National three-year MOBILE 2-research program, started in 1999, determines the unit emissions of all the traffic sectors in Finland. VTT Building and Transport mainly carry out the research, but the Institute of Transportation Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TTKK) is responsible for a part of the research. The objective of the project is to create common rules for the determination of unit emissions values, and to determine the best possible values for Finnish conditions. Unit emission data is mainly needed for evaluation of the environmental impacts of production plants and other activities containing transportation of commodities. At the web sites of VTT Building and Transport there are about 60 pages of text and tables (about 4000 values) on unit emissions. The URL of the pages is http://www.vtt.fi/rte/projects/lipastoe/index.htm. These web pages present data on all the transportation sectors (road, railroad, water and air transportation), most of the materials concerning road transportation. Following compounds and values are included: CO, HC, NO x , particulates, SO 2 , CO 2 and energy consumption. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions values have also been presented

  2. Improving road safety : Experiences from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Hagenzieker's research and education activities focus on the road safety effects of the transport system, with particular interest in road user behaviour aspects. Her PhD-research was on the effects of rewards on road user behaviour.

  3. Road safety in developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of countries (developing and developed alike), divided into two main categories: an economical and historical entry. When road safety problems are placed into the economical context, it then appears that, among other things: (1) The road safety problem in the

  4. Road rage: a psychiatric phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, G; Frost, D; Stansfeld, S

    2001-06-01

    Road rage is a concept recently popularised by the press. An association with psychiatric illness is implied from reports of such drivers being "mad". Previous literature has demonstrated a link between road traffic accidents and mental illness. This study examines the relationship between road rage and psychiatric morbidity. It aims to estimate the prevalence of road rage by self-report and elucidate demographic and psychiatric factors associated with road rage. This is a cross-sectional study of attendees at general practice clinics that examines self-reported road rage and psychiatric morbidity. Assessment was based on the total score on the Clinical Interview Schedule (revised version; CIS-R), Aggression Questionnaire, Screening Test for Comorbid Personality Disorders, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Life Events Schedule. Fifty-three percent of 131 subjects reported a recent incident of road rage. Perpetrator and victim groups differed from controls. Perpetrators had increased aggression scores and psychiatric morbidity. There was a strong association with male sex and illicit drug use, and a strong negative association with driving experience. A weaker association was found with youth. Victims showed increased psychiatric morbidity and were more likely than perpetrators to seek help for emotional problems. Life events stress, social class, alcohol use and personality disorder had no significant effect. There is an association between road rage and psychiatric morbidity.

  5. Road traffic noise and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Hvidberg, Martin; Andersen, Zorana J

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before....

  6. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, S.M.; Keith, V.F.; Spertzel, R.O.; De Avila, J.C.; O'Donnell, M.; Vann, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE's internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex

  7. CURRENT FACTORS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS IN ISFAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B AMINMAN SOUR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction. Car accident mortality is the third order causes of death in the USA, following cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Given present survival and outcome Iranian data, more than 14,000 patients die annually in road accidents. Having a valid and reliable data could be useful in reduce mortality and morbidity reduction.
    Methods. Twenty five percent of total traumatic patients in Isfahan were selected (N=2809 at the time of study (1997-1998. Forty five percent of them with car accident were asked about causes of accidents and risk factors for the severity and type of injuries were recorded based on International Classification of Disease 10.
    Results. Most of the victims were young (10-20 years old, students and industrial workers. Statistically unreasonable numbers of cars without extension of roads and high ways, using old and unsafe cars will affects on accidents.
    Discussion. In comparison with European and some Asian countries, Iran has unacceptable road accidents and it seems necessary to pay more attention to stop the current increasing data.

     

  8. Scale invariance in road networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapala, Vamsi; Sanwalani, Vishal; Clauset, Aaron; Moore, Cristopher

    2006-02-01

    We study the topological and geographic structure of the national road networks of the United States, England, and Denmark. By transforming these networks into their dual representation, where roads are vertices and an edge connects two vertices if the corresponding roads ever intersect, we show that they exhibit both topological and geographic scale invariance. That is, we show that for sufficiently large geographic areas, the dual degree distribution follows a power law with exponent 2.2< or = alpha < or =2.4, and that journeys, regardless of their length, have a largely identical structure. To explain these properties, we introduce and analyze a simple fractal model of road placement that reproduces the observed structure, and suggests a testable connection between the scaling exponent and the fractal dimensions governing the placement of roads and intersections.

  9. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  10. Joint road safety operations in tunnels and open roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, Adewole; Avenoso, Antonio; Dionelis, Kallistratos; Cela, Liljana; Nicodème, Christophe; Goger, Thierry; Polidori, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the ECOROADS project is to overcome the barrier established by the formal interpretation of the two Directives 2008/96/EC and 2004/54/EC, which in practice do not allow the same Road Safety Audits/Inspections to be performed inside tunnels. The projects aims at the establishment of a common enhanced approach to road infrastructure and tunnel safety management by using the concepts and criteria of the Directive 2008/96/CE on road infrastructure safety management and the results of related European Commission (EC) funded projects. ECOROADS has already implemented an analysis of national practices regarding Road Safety Inspections (RSI), two Workshops with the stakeholders, and an exchange of best practices between European tunnel experts and road safety professionals, which led to the definition of common agreed safety procedures. In the second phase of the project, different groups of experts and observers applied the above common procedures by inspecting five European road sections featuring both open roads and tunnels in Belgium, Albania, Germany, Serbia and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. This paper shows the feedback of the 5 joint safety operations and how they are being used for a set of - recommendations and guidelines for the application of the RSA and RSI concepts within the tunnel safety operations.

  11. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Road roughness evaluation using in-pavement strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Deng, Fodan; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj

    2015-11-01

    The international roughness index (IRI) is a characterization of road roughness or ride quality that transportation agencies most often report. The prevalent method of acquiring IRI data requires instrumented vehicles and technicians with specialized training to interpret the results. The extensive labor and high cost requirements associated with the existing approaches limit data collection to at most once per year for portions of the national highway system. Agencies characterize roughness only for some secondary roads but much less frequently, such as once every five years, resulting in outdated roughness information. This research developed a real-time roughness evaluation approach that links the output of durable in-pavement strain sensors to prevailing indices that summarize road roughness. Field experiments validated the high consistency of the approach by showing that it is within 3.3% of relative IRI estimates. After their installation and calibration during road construction, the ruggedized strain sensors will report road roughness continuously. Thus, the solution will provide agencies a real-time roughness monitoring solution over the remaining service life of road assets.

  13. Road safety in practice

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On the 23 and 25 September come and test your driving skills and your reflexes on the two days of road safety in practice! To conclude the poster and article campaign on this topic which started last year, CERN now comes to the practical part with demonstrations, like a spectacular overturning test, information stands, where you can meet safety personnel from France, Switzerland and CERN, and discussions & debates. Come to ... ... the Meyrin site on 23 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site Cèdres, behind the Restaurant no. 1. - From 9:30 hrs, discussions and debates in the main auditorium. ... the Prévessin site on 25 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site of the building 866. - From 14:00 hrs, discussions and debates in the AB auditorium, building 864.

  14. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...

  15. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.; Harrison, K.; Pawlowski, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  16. Roundabouts converted for road trains and the effect on vehicle speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Road trains has been used internationally in many years, but it was first in 2008 the first trials with road trains (up to a length of 25.25m) on the Danish road network were initiated. The trial period was extended several times and is now prolonged to 2030, i.e. virtually as a permanent...... arrangement. The state roads and selected municipal roads have ongoing been rebuild to ensure sufficient space for these road trains – design changes, which mainly have been concentrated in nodes. In total are around 150 locations, of which a considerable part are roundabouts, converted to ensure passage...... that the speed increases from about 28 kph to nearly 38 kph. It is therefore plausible that it resulted in increased accident risk and additionally increased speed variation, which is normally an outcome of an increased speed level. The final results will be presented in the final paper....

  17. GGVS, Ordinance on road transport of hazardous materials, latest amendment as of 1993, including the European agreement on international road transport of hazardous materials (ADR). Annexes A and B. Selected directives, Act on Transport of Hazardous Materials, list of materials. 8. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridder, K.

    1993-01-01

    The publication presents the authentic texts of the: (1) Ordinance on road transport of hazardous materials (GGVS) with the ADR, as of 1993, skeleton ordinance, annexes A and B, reasons underlying the 4th ordinance amending the GGVS, directives for implementation, RS 002, instructions for accident management, RS-006, design approval standards for packaging materials and IBC-R002. (2) Ordinance on exemptions under the GGVS (GGAV). (3) Guiding principles for the training of vehicle drivers. (4) Catalogue of monetary fines under the GGVS, BKatV. (5) Draft version of catalogue of on-the-spot cautionary fines. (6) List of materials. (7) Technical rules TR IBC 003, non-electrical equipment, TRS 003, TRS 004, TRS 005, TRS 006. (HP) [de

  18. Community Road Safety Initiatives for the Minerals Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Horberry

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Major companies in the minerals industry are increasingly recognizing that their operations have an impact in the wider community. Regarding transportation issues, this impact extends beyond purely the safety of company vehicle fleets to consideration of Community Road Safety (CRS concerns, which address the driving, walking, and riding practices of community members in a locale with increased heavy vehicle traffic. Our assessment here of national and international trends in approaches to road safety awareness and associated road safety strategies is meant to inform companies in the minerals industry of developments that can influence the design of their road safety initiatives. The review begins by considering the overall road safety context and the dominant “safe systems” framework employed internationally. Thereafter, it considers what is typically included in CRS initiatives for the minerals industry. Three case studies are then presented to highlight approaches that feature exemplary collaboration, design, implementation, or impact. Thereafter, we analyze lessons learnt by key researchers and practitioners in the CRS field. Finally, we conclude that best CRS practices for the minerals industry rely on eleven factors, including for example collaboration with local entities and stepwise implementation.

  19. Road Infrastructure Safety Management in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Kustra, Wojciech; Michalski, Lech; Gaca, Stanislaw

    2017-10-01

    The objective of road safety infrastructure management is to ensure that when roads are planned, designed, built and used road risks can be identified, assessed and mitigated. Road transport safety is significantly less developed than that of rail, water and air transport. The average individual risk of being a fatality in relation to the distance covered is thirty times higher in road transport that in the other modes. This is mainly because the different modes have a different approach to safety management and to the use of risk management methods and tools. In recent years Poland has had one of the European Union’s highest road death numbers. In 2016 there were 3026 fatalities on Polish roads with 40,766 injuries. Protecting road users from the risk of injury and death should be given top priority. While Poland’s national and regional road safety programmes address this problem and are instrumental in systematically reducing the number of casualties, the effects are far from the expectations. Modern approaches to safety focus on three integrated elements: infrastructure measures, safety management and safety culture. Due to its complexity, the process of road safety management requires modern tools to help with identifying road user risks, assess and evaluate the safety of road infrastructure and select effective measures to improve road safety. One possible tool for tackling this problem is the risk-based method for road infrastructure safety management. European Union Directive 2008/96/EC regulates and proposes a list of tools for managing road infrastructure safety. Road safety tools look at two criteria: the life cycle of a road structure and the process of risk management. Risk can be minimized through the application of the proposed interventions during design process as reasonable. The proposed methods of risk management bring together two stages: risk assessment and risk response occurring within the analyzed road structure (road network, road

  20. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Med...

  1. The Long and Winding Road to a “Stake in the Internal Market” under the Association Agreement between the EU and Ukraine – with a Particular Focus on Telecommunication Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batura, Olga; Kretova, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    The perspective of the granting a full internal market treatment to Ukraine arguably constitutes the core of the comprehensive Association Agreement (AA) between the European Union (EU) and Ukraine signed in June 2014. With regard to the internal market treatment the Association Agreement contain...... services, postal and courier services and international maritime transport services (Article 1 Annex XVII AA). Due to the limitations of scope and in order to provide for analytical depth, it focuses mainly on the telecommunications sector....

  2. Road Service Performance Based On Integrated Road Design Consistency (IC Along Federal Road F0023

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Zaffan Farhana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road accidents are one of the world’s largest public health and injury prevention problems. In Malaysia, the west coast area of Malaysia been stated as the highest motorcycle fatalities and road accidents are one of the factors that cause of death and injuries in this country. The most common fatal accident is between a motorcycle and passenger car. The most of the fatal accidents happened on Federal roads with 44 fatal accidents reported, which is equal to 29%. Lacks of road geometric designs consistency where the drivers make mistakes errors due to the road geometric features causes the accident kept rising in Malaysia. Hence, models are based on operating speed to calculate design consistency of road. The profiles were obtained by continuous speed profile using GPS data. The continuous operating speed profile models were plotted based on operating speed model (85th percentile. The study was conduct at F0023 from km 16 until km 20. The purpose of design consistency is to know the relationship between the operating speed and elements of geometric design on the road. As a result, the integrated design consistency motorcycle and cars along a segment at F0023, the threshold shows poor design quality for motorcycles and cars.

  3. Road safety audits: The way forward

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, FJJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The South African Road Safety Manual (SARSM) was published in 1999 and includes guidelines on road safety audits (RSA). The development of SARSM was a proactive process for improving the road environment with respect to road safety but was never...

  4. Semantic objects and context for finding roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Albert; Steger, Carsten T.; Mayer, Helmut; Eckstein, Wolfgang

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents a multi-resolution approach for automatic extraction of roads from digital aerial imagery. Roads are modeled as a network of intersections and links between the intersections. For different context regions, i.e., rural, forest, and urban areas, the model describes different relations between background objects, e.g., buildings or trees, and semantic road objects, e.g., road-parts, road- segments, road-links, and intersections. The classification of the image into context regions is done by texture analysis. The approach to detect roads is based on the extraction of edges in a high resolution image and the extraction of lines in an image of reduced resolution. Using both resolution levels and explicit knowledge about roads, hypotheses for roadsides are generated. The roadsides are used to construct quadrilaterals representing road-parts and polygons representing intersections. Neighboring road-parts are chained to road-segments. Road-links, i.e., the roads between two intersections, are built by grouping of road-segments and closing of gaps between road-segments. Road-links are constructed using knowledge about context.

  5. Surfacing Alternatives for Unsealed Rural Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Theuns; Kadar, Peter; Bennett, Christopher R.

    2006-01-01

    Despite extensive road construction programs over the last century, a substantial proportion of roads remained unsealed especially in developing and emerging economies. As these economies develop, the demand arises to seal previously unsealed roads. The most economical transition point between unsealed and sealed roads depends on many conditions that need to be evaluated. The purpose of th...

  6. Data Collection Technologies for Road Management

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher R. Bennett; Hernán De Solminihac; Alondra Chamorro

    2006-01-01

    Different types of data are required for managing the road infrastructure. Inventory data describe the physical elements of a road system. Condition data describe the condition of elements that can be expected to change over time. There are a wide range of technologies available to the road manager for measuring attributes of the road network. The challenge is to select the appropriate equ...

  7. Road traffic injuries: social change and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowy, Iris

    2013-01-01

    In the course of the twentieth century road traffic injuries (RTIs) became a major public health burden. RTI deaths first increased in high-income countries and declined after the 1970s, and they soared in low- and middle-income countries from the 1980s onwards. As motorisation took off in North America and then spread to Europe and to the rest of the world discussions on RTIs have reflected and influenced international interpretations of the costs and benefits of 'development', as conventionally understood. Using discourse analysis, this paper explores how RTIs have been constructed in ways that have served regional and global development agendas and how 'development' has been (re-)negotiated through the discourse of RTIs and vice versa. For this purpose, this paper analyses a selection of key publications of organisations in charge of international health or transport and places them in the context of (a) the surrounding scientific discussion of the period and (b) of relevant data regarding RTI mortality, development funding, and road and other transport infrastructure. Findings suggest that constructions of RTIs have shifted from being a necessary price to be paid for development to being a sign of development at an early stage or of an insufficiently coordinated development. In recent years, RTI discussions have raised questions about development being misdirected and in need of fundamental rethinking. At present, discussions are believed to be at a crossroads between different evaluations of developmental conceptualisations for the future.

  8. Road weather management performance metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-29

    This report presents the results of a study to identify appropriate measures of performance that can be attributed to the Federal Highway Administrations (FHWA) Road Weather Management Program (RWMP) products and activities. Specifically, the stud...

  9. Investigate attractiveness of toll roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    HOT facilities are used as a solution for congestion mitigation instead of constructing or expanding the capacity of : existing roadways. Although toll roads modeling has been researched for a long time, High Occupancy Toll (HOT) : modeling is relati...

  10. Road Rage: What's Driving It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2010-07-01

    Up to one-third of community participants report being perpetrators of road rage, indicating that various forms of road rage are relatively commonplace. However, only two percent or less of incidents culminate in serious damage to persons or vehicles. The most common offenders appear to be young and male. A number of factors may contribute to road rage, including environmental factors (e.g., greater number of miles driven per day, traffic density), nonspecific psychological factors (e.g., displaced aggression, attribution of blame to others), and bona fide Axis I and II disorders. The most common Axis I disorders appear to be related to alcohol and substance misuse, whereas possible Axis II disorders include borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Being aware of these contributory factors to road rage may improve general clinical awareness of the nature and treatment of perpetrators.

  11. Curry County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Line attributes denoting all street centerlines in Curry County. Dataset includes all centerlines for all county maintained roads, all state and federal highways,and...

  12. Torrance County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Torrance County digital road network wa created as part of the State of New Mexico Enhanced 911 Addressing Grant. The original primary function was to lay the...

  13. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.

  14. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...

  15. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  16. Road rage victimization among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Reginald G; Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Sharpley, Justin M

    2007-09-01

    Although much has been learned about road rage among adults, data on road rage experiences among adolescents has not been available previously. We examine the prevalence and demographic correlates of road rage victimization based on a population survey of Ontario students. Based on the 2005 Ontario Student Drug Use Survey, a self-administered survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12 (n = 7726), the contribution of demographic factors (gender, region, driver's license status, grade, overall marks) to three road rage victimization measures was examined with logistic regression analysis. Just over half of students (53.2%) had been victims of shouts, curses and rude gestures in the past year, 8.9% were threatened with damage to their vehicle or personal injury and 6.2% experienced an attempt or actual damage to their vehicle or personal injury. Logistic regression analyses revealed that being a victim of shouting was significantly related to region, driver's license status, and grade. Victimization by threats was significantly related to gender, driver's license, grade, and marks. Being a victim of attempts or actual vehicle damage or injury was significantly related to region, driver's license, and marks. This study provides the first indication of prevalence of road rage victimization among adolescents. Road rage victimization in its milder form is common, involving just over half of Ontario students in grades 7-12. About 1 in 10 students were threatened with vehicle damage or personal injury, and about 1 in 20 were victims of attempts or actual damage or injury.

  17. Tourist Assessment of Croatian Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joso Vurdelja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As environmentally clean industry and as the most significantworld industry regarding the number of employees and theimpact on the social and economic development of a countTy,tourism represents an extremely important social and economicbranch for Croatia.As a functional unit of the mutually interweaving socialand economic relations, tourism is a complex phenomenonwhose development depends on a number of compatible factorsout of which the transport infrastructure is considered to bethe most obvious and almost the most significant one, i.e. thefirst among the equal. This is primarily true for road traffic infrastructure,since road trai!Sportation of tourists by passengercars, buses and motorcycles accounts for more than 90 percentof the overall tourist journeys in Croatia.The topic of this paper is precisely, among other things, thetourist assessment of the Croatian road network by means ofthe so-called econometric model regarding the contribution ofa certain road route to the overall tourist traffic.Practical implementation of the elaborated problematicshould result in the improvement of road infrastructure eitherby constructing new motonvays and/or roads, or by reconstructionand/or modernisation of the existing traffic routes.

  18. Innovation as Road Safety Felicitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S.; Mitra, A.; Kumar, J.; Sahoo, B.

    2018-03-01

    Transportation via Roads should only be used for safely commuting from one place to another. In 2015, when 1.5 Million people, across the Globe started out on a journey, it was meant to be their last. The Global Status Report on Road Safety, 2015, reflected this data from 180 countries as road traffic deaths, worldwide. In India, more than 1.37 Lakh[4] people were victims of road accidents in 2013 alone. That number is more than the number of Indians killed in all the wars put together. With these disturbing facts in mind, we found out some key ambiguities in the Indian Road Traffic Management systems like the non-adaptive nature to fluctuating traffic, pedestrians and motor vehicles not adhering to the traffic norms strictly, to name a few. Introduction of simple systems would greatly erase the effects of this silent epidemic and our Project aims to achieve the same. It would introduce a pair of Barricade systems to cautiously separate the pedestrians and motor vehicles to minimise road mishaps to the extent possible. Exceptional situations like that of an Ambulance or any emergency vehicles will be taken care off by the use of RFID tags to monitor the movement of the Barricades. The varied traffic scenario can be guided properly by using the ADS-B (Automatic Detection System-Broadcast) for monitoring traffic density according to the time and place.

  19. Description of a SWOV pilot study on integral registration in hospitals of road traffic accidents. Prepared for the OECD International Symposium on counter measures to driver behaviour under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, London, 22-23 September 1971.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, J.H.

    1971-01-01

    A pilot study on an integral registration of road traffic accidents in the city of Rotterdam was done. The method and the task of the participants in the study, are outlined. The criterion for a road traffic accident is every injury sustained on a public road not being the result of some other

  20. Road maintenance planning using network flow modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chao; Remenyte-Prescott, Rasa; Andrews, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a road maintenance planning model that can be used to balance out maintenance cost and road user cost, since performing road maintenance at night can be convenient for road users but costly for highway agency. Based on the platform of the network traffic flow modelling, the traffic through the worksite and its adjacent road links is evaluated. Thus, maintenance arrangements at a worksite can be optimized considering the overall network performance. In addition, genetic alg...

  1. Agricultural vehicles and rural road safety: tackling a persistent problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Catharinus F; De Vries, Jasper R

    2014-01-01

    Crashes involving agricultural vehicles (AVs) on public roads are an increasing road safety problem. We aim to analyze developments in the appearance and severity of these accidents, identify influencing factors, and draw lessons for possible interventions for accident prevention within the context of modern mechanized agriculture. To analyze developments in the appearance of accidents we use a subset of accidents with AVs involved on public roads in The Netherlands aggregated per year for 1987-2010. To identify and explore preventive measures we use an in-depth study of the Dutch Safety Board. With a study of international literature we put our findings in a wider context. During this time span, Dutch annual averages show 15 registered fatal accidents involving AVs, 93 with hospitalization and 137 with slight injuries. For nonfatal accidents, the numbers are decreasing over time. This decrease is proportionate to the reduction in the total number of traffic victims. For fatalities, however, the number is stable, increasing its proportion in all traffic fatalities from 1 in 1987 to 2 percent in 2010. Related to the number of inhabitants, this number is 2 times the value in the UK and 3 times the value in the United States. Influencing factors can be related to the 3 road system components (AV, driver, and infrastructure). Weak points for AVs are the view from the driver's seat, visibility at night, permitted vehicle width, and crash aggressivity (large kinetic energy of the AV) that is transferred to other road users in case of a collision. Important factors identified for the driver are poor risk perception and high risk acceptance, in combination with speeding, dysfunctional use such as the use of AVs as modes of transport to and from school, and driving on public roads without protecting or removing protruding and sharp components. For infrastructure, the focus is on road design and separation of AVs from other motor vehicles. Lessons to be learned follow from

  2. Pavement Subgrade Performance Study in the Danish Road Testing Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Ertman Larsen, Hans Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    Most existing pavement subgrade criteria are based on the AASHO Road Test, where only one material was tested and for only one climatic condition. To study the validity of these criteria and to refine the criteria a co-operative research program entitled the "International Pavement Subgrade...... Performance Study" was sponsored by the FHWA with American, Finnish and Danish partners. This paper describes the first test series which was carried out in the Danish Road Testing Machine (RTM).The first step in this program is a full scale test on an instrumented pavement in the Danish Road Testing Machine....... Pressure gauges and strain cells were installed in the upper part of the subgrade, for measuring stresses and strains in all three directions. During and after construction FWD testing was carried out to evaluate the elastic parameters of the materials. These parameters were then used with the theory...

  3. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  4. Emerging research methods and their application to road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarko, Andrew; Boyle, Linda Ng; Montella, Alfonso

    2013-12-01

    The study of road safety has seen great strides over the past few decades with advances in analytical methods and research tools that allow researchers to provide insights into the complex interactions of the driver, vehicle, and roadway. Data collection methods range from traditional traffic and roadway sensors to instrumented vehicles and driving simulators, capable of providing detailed data on both the normal driving conditions and the circumstances surrounding a safety critical event. In September 2011, the Third International Conference on Road Safety and Simulation was held in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, which was hosted by the Purdue University Center for Road Safety and sponsored by the Transportation Research Board and its three committees: ANB20 Safety Data, Analysis and Evaluation, AND30 Simulation and Measurement of Vehicle and Operator Performance, and ABJ95 Visualization in Transportation. The conference brought together two hundred researchers from all over the world demonstrating some of the latest research methods to quantify crash causality and associations, and model road safety. This special issue is a collection of 14 papers that were presented at the conference and then peer-reviewed through this journal. These papers showcase the types of analytical tools needed to examine various crash types, the use of naturalistic and on-road data to validate the use of surrogate measures of safety, and the value of driving simulators to examine high-risk situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ANALYSIS OF ROAD SURFACE TEMPERATURE VARIATION ALONG THE ROAD SEGMENTATION USING MOBILE THERMAL SENSOR

    OpenAIRE

    Dukgeun Yun; Jaehong Park

    2016-01-01

    According to the road accidents statistics of Korea, 33% of fatalities occurred in winter. As many factors can be the causes of the accidents in winter season, road freezing is the most important factor among them. Even though the road surface temperature is more important than air temperature, generally the drivers and road manager get the air temperature from the weather forecast. If a road manager has information or can predict the road surface condition or temperature, the accidents relat...

  6. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  7. Roads and Roadlessness: Driving Trucks in Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Argounova-Low

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article relates to the studies of roads and engages with the experience of driving in Sakha (Yakutiia, Siberia. The article intends to contribute to the broad corpus of literature on mobility and argues that an alternative perspective on roads and road-users from a geographical area beyond the West might better inform and add another dimension to our notions of roads and our movement along them. The article examines the fluid nature of roads in Siberia and the social significance the roads carry by focussing on truck-drivers and their perception and engagement with the so-called winter roads through their sensory experiences. The article analyses narratives of the truckers who frame their experiences of the road with close reference to time and money and where notions of agency of the road become prominent.

  8. Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  9. Road safety analysis on Achmad Yani frontage road Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machsus; Prayogo, I.; Chomaedhi; Hayati, D. W.; Utanaka, A.

    2017-11-01

    This research discusses road safety analysis on the operation of frontage road on the west side of Achmad Yani Road Surabaya. This research began by conducting survey on secondary data of traffic accidents. In addition, primary data survey was conducted to obtain traffic data, geometric road data, and other supporting data at the study site along the west side frontage of Ahmad Yani Road Surabaya. Devices used in this research include camera, handy cam, speed gun, counters of vehicles, rolling meter, computer and others. In outline, the stages to conduct this research are divided into 4 stages, namely 1.the preparation stage, 2.data collection and processing, 3. analysis and discussion, and 4. conclusion. The results of this study showed that the accident characteristics of the frontage road are (i) 3 accidents occured per month, (ii) motorcycles was accounted for the largest proportion of accidents which amounted to 74.6 percent, (iii) there were 3 accident victims per month, and (iv) material losses per month worths 1.2 million. The accident rate in 2016 was 0.04 crashes per one million vehicle travels per kilometer, while during 2 months in 2017 it was 0.15 accidents per one million vehicle travels per kilometer. Black spot area of accident is located on Sta 2 + 800 to 2 + 900 which is in front of Graha Pena building and DBL Arena. The high rate of accidents is influenced by the speed of the vehicle which 85 percentile exceeds the speed limit of 40km per hour.

  10. Autogas in Road Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Nada Štrumberger; Željko Šekerija; Dragan Peraković

    2003-01-01

    LPG is an international abbreviation for liquefied petroleumgas, i.e. autogas. Today, there are about 5 million vehiclesin the world that use autogas and the number is constantlygrowing. One of the reasons lies in its efficiency which is provenin the 50% lower fuel price and in the lower maintenance priceof the automotive parts! From the ecological aspect, autogas isa much, much lesser polluter which does not let out fumes,lead, solid particles and sulphur oxides into the atmosphere,generatin...

  11. Road Traffic Accidents: A Wild Life Exterminator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiseh Kavandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Once commonly traced in various parts of Southwest Asia, the Iranian cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus, a disparagingly endangered cheetah subspecies, seems to have been driven to extinction. Restricted to its only remained appropriate habitat, The Iranian cheetah has barely survived in Iran's Dasht-e Kavir plateau. Throughout the 1970s, about 200 cheetahs were estimated to live in seven protected areas in Iran (1. Nevertheless, the figures dramatically declined to 50 and 60 individuals in 2005–2006. Over ten years, Iranian researchers captured images of 76 individual cheetahs using 80 camera traps implanted throughout the Dasht-e Kavir plateau (2. Disappointingly in 2011, camera traps captured only 20 individuals in the protected areas (2, 3. What adds insult to the injury is knowing the fact that two-thirds of cheetah deaths in 2012–2013 were due to road accidents(4.      Beside the human fatalities and injuries, road traffic accidents remain as serious threats for wildlife. Although numerous measures are taken to hinder the extinction of this subspecies, efforts should be concentrated on long-term planning at both national and international levels to raise awareness and promote willingness to address this ongoing yet controllable damage.

  12. Carbon Nanomaterials for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of developing and modernizing the roads in Russia and in the Volgograd region in particular, is based on need of expanding the directions of scientific research on road and transport complexes. They have to be aimed at the development of the theory of transport streams, traffic safety increase, and, first of all, at the application of original methods of road development and modernization, introduction of modern technologies and road-building materials.On the basis of the analysis of the plans for transportation sphere development in the Volgograd region assuming the need to apply the new technologies allowing to create qualitative paving, the authors propose the technology of creating a heavy-duty paving with the use of carbon nanomaterial. The knowledge on strengthening the characteristics of carbon nanotubes is a unique material for nanotechnology development which allowed to assume the analysis of general information about asphalt concrete. The analysis showed that carbon nanotubes can be used for improvement of operational characteristics of asphalt concrete, and it is possible to carry out additives of nanotubes in hot as well as in cold bitumen. The article contains the basic principles of creation of the new road material received by means of bitumen reinforcing by carbon nanotubes. The structures received by the offered technique binding on the basis of the bitumens modified by carbon nanomaterial can be used for coverings and bases on highways of all categories in all road and climatic zones of Russia. The technical result consists in increasing the durability and elasticity of the received asphalt covering, and also the increase of water resistance, heat resistance and frost resistance, the expansion of temperature range of its laying in the field of negative temperatures.

  13. Is my country safer than others ? : a comparison of road safety data between different countries. Paper presented to the PIARC XIXth World Road Congress, Marrakesh, Morocco, 22-28 September 1991.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, S. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Countries compare their road safety as they do their economies, namely to see if they are better than others. The OECD has recently started an "International Road Traffic and Accident Database (IRTAD)" as a permanent measuring instrument. It contains, per country, annual figures, since the

  14. Policy information on road safety programmes in The Netherlands : paper presented at the Conference on `Russian Federal Targeted Road Safety Programme 1996-98', Sotchi, Russia, May 28-29, 1997.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braimaister, L.G. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elucidate Dutch policy in the field of road safety programmes. A lot of knowledge accumulated in The Netherlands could be very useful for the Russian situation as well. In view of the lack of road safety data and research from Russia in international issues, attention

  15. Building lunar roads - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Bennett

    The problems involved in constructing lunar roads are explored. The main challenges are airlessness, low gravity, and solar effects, especially temperature extremes. Also involved are the expense of delivering equipment and material to the job site (especially for bridges and other structures), obtaining skilled labor, and providing maintenance. The lunar road will most likely be gravel, but with the size of the material closer to cobblestone to reduce scattering. They will probably be very winding, even on the flats, and feature numerous bridges and some cuts. This traffic will be mostly automatic or teleoperated cargo carriers with a handful of shirtsleeve-pressurized 'passenger cars' large enough to live in for several days.

  16. Paver automation for road surfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihonov, A.; Velichkin, V.

    2017-10-01

    The paper discusses factors that bear on the quality of motor road pavement as access roads and highways are built and used. A block diagram is proposed to organize elements of the automatic control system to control the asphalt paver’s mechanisms; the system is based on a microprocessor onboard controller to maintain preset elevation of the finishing plate; description of its operation principle is offered. The paper names primary converters to control the finishing plate elevation. A new control method is described to control the machine’s straight-line movement with GLONASS Satellite Positioning System (SPS) during operation.

  17. MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS ROAD REPAIR WORKS OF THE ROADS NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вікторія Василівна ІГНАТЮК

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the model and algorithm optimization program of road repair works, with limited funds. Features introduction program for calculating rational level detection repair costs for the period of the program, which allows dos evolve a desired operating condition of the pavement.

  18. Towards a line-of-sight, implementation of performance measurement by road agencies : A European and Western Australian perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, R.; Van der Lei, T.T.E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the result of an international, explorative study of the alignment of government and road authority goals from different European countries and Western Australia. The goal of the study is to advance the understanding of the development of performance management of road agencies.

  19. Priority of road maintenance management based on halda reading range on NAASRA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbakti, M.; Doan, A.

    2018-02-01

    The road pavement, constantly experiencing stress-strain due to traffic load through it, can cause damage to the pavement. Therefore, early detection and repair of the damage will be able to prevent more severe damage that can develop into pavement failure. A road condition survey is one of the earliest attempts to detect the initial damage of a pavement. In this case the driving comfort is the most important part for the driver in assessing road conditions that are affected by the level of road surface roughness. To determine the level of roughness of the road, one of the methods developed is the measurement using the NAASRA method. In this method the roughness of the road is an accumulation of the average unevenness of the road, with the general setting on halda of 100 m. However, with this 100-meter setting, in some places the final value of the roughness value is too large or too small so that it will result in the priority of the road maintenance. This is what underlies roughness research by comparing halda settings at 50 m and 200 m different from the general settings above.This study uses the International Roughness Index (IRI) method in determining the level of road stability concerning driving discomfort. IRI score obtained from direct survey in field by using Roughometer-NAASRA.The final result shows that there is a significant difference between the reading of halda which is set at 100 m reading with halda set with 50 and 200 meter readings. This may lead to differences in handling priorities, which may impact on the sustainability of road network maintenance management (Sustainaible Road Management)

  20. Road Impacts on Abundance, Call Traits, and Body Size of Rainforest Frogs in Northeast Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad J. Hoskin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Frogs are potentially sensitive indicators of road impacts, with studies indicating particular susceptibility to road mortality. Calling, i.e., breeding, behavior could also be affected by traffic noise. We investigated effects on frog abundance and calling behavior where a busy highway crosses rainforest stream breeding habitat in northeast Australia. Frog abundance was repeatedly surveyed along five stream transects during a summer breeding season. Abundance of two species, Litoria rheocola and Austrochaperina pluvialis, increased significantly with perpendicular distance from the road along two transects. No trends in abundance were detected for A. pluvialis on two other transects where it was common, or for Litoria serrata on one transect where abundance was sufficient for analysis. Both species with lowered abundance near the road, L. rheocola and A. pluvialis, are rare in road kill statistics along this highway, suggesting road mortality is not the cause of reduced frog abundance near the road. We postulate that lowered abundance may reflect traffic noise effects. We analyzed calls of the International Union for Conservation of Nature endangered species L. rheocola along the one stream transect on which it was common. We found significant trends in two call traits over a very fine scale: both call rate and dominant frequency were significantly higher closer to the road. Furthermore, males were significantly smaller closer to the road. These call and body size trends most likely reflect road impacts, but resolving these is complicated by correlations between traits. Potential mechanisms, effects on fitness, and management recommendations to mitigate the impacts of roads on frogs are outlined.

  1. VT Data - E911 Road Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) EmergencyE911_RDS was originally derived from RDSnn (now called TransRoad_RDS). "Zero-length ranges" in the ROADS layer pertain to grand-fathered...

  2. Standard road plans index sheets [English version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Road Plans contained within this manual have been developed to show standardized design features, construction methods and approved materials to be used in design plans for Interstate, Primary, and Secondary road construction in the Stat...

  3. Enhanced road weather forecasting : Clarus regional demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The quality of road weather forecasts : has major impacts on users of surface : transportation systems and managers : of those systems. Improving the quality : involves the ability to provide accurate, : route-specific road weather information : (e.g...

  4. 2004 road traffic crashes in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland during : 2004 in the context of the previous five years based on data contained in the Queensland : Road Crash Information System maintained by the Department of Transpor...

  5. Road surface texture and skid resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Minh-Tan; Cerezo, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between road surface texture and skid resistance. Mechanisms underlying the tire/wet road friction are first described. Definitions of road surface irregularities scales are given. The rest of the paper is then focused on the macrotexture and microtexture scales and their respective roles in what happens at the tire/road interface. Existing methods to measure and characterize the road surface texture are presented. On the one hand, problems encountered when using sensors developed for machined surfaces for the measurement of road surface profiles or cartographies are discussed. On the other hand, potential improvements when applying characterization methods developed for machined surfaces to road surfaces are highlighted. The paper presents finally modeling approaches to calculate friction forces from road surface texture. The generalized form of the models is presented from which terms related respectively to the macrotexture and the microtexture are identified. Approaches used to calculate these terms, integrating eventually other variables, are presented.

  6. Hampton Roads 2015 Regional Transportation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The Hampton Roads Planning District Commission has developed a transportation plan which addresses a twenty year planning period (1990-2015). The Hampton Roads 2015 Regional Transportation Plan includes both long-range and short-range strategies/acti...

  7. DNR State Forest Roads - WHEELS Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. These roads are generally open to...

  8. Honduras - Transportation and Farm to Market Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation of the Transport Project and Farm to Market Roads Activity aimed to answer whether or not improved conditions throughout the road network: • Lowered...

  9. MODELLING OF NON-ROAD TRANSIENT CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kotus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the modeling of NRTC (Non-Road Transient Cycle test procedure based on previously measured characteristics of fuel consumption, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, hydrocarbons (HC, nitrogen oxides (NOx and particulates (PM production. It makes possible to compare the current technical condition of an internal combustion engine of an agricultural tractor with its previous state or other tractor’s engine. Based on measured characteristics, it is also possible to model any other cycle without further measurements (NRSC test procedure, cycle for specific conditions – mountain tractor, etc.. The result may thus contribute to improving the environment by reducing the production of harmful substances emitted into the air and save money due to reduced fuel consumption.

  10. Road weather management performance measures : a way to measure achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    This flyer describes the Road Weather Management Performance Measures that will help the Road Weather Management Program (RWMP) maximize the use of available road weather information and technologies; expand road weather research and development effo...

  11. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  12. Salt on roads and the environment (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessberg, Philipp von; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2000-01-01

    This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment that this...... that this report discusses are:- The ground water.- Lakes and streams.- Plants and trees along roads.The consequences for the economy through usage of salt on roads has not been carried out....

  13. Road freight and the environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makamo, N

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Freight transportation is one of the major contributors to economic development in a country. During a recent study, it was found that little information is available in terms of the cost of crashes to the environment. Environmental impacts of road...

  14. EDITORIAL ROAD SAFETY IN KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    even if they own personal transport they still make use of local public transport systems (2, 6, 7). Pedal cyclists also constitute a significant proportion on road victims in developing and emerging countries despite fairly low vehicles populations (1, 2, 5, 6). In. Kenya, cyclists have to compete with vehicular traffic for the existing ...

  15. Headway times and road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    In road traffic, the advice is to maintain a minimum distance of two seconds to the vehicle in front. This headway time is based on the reaction time of drivers under various circumstances. A headway time of two seconds is sufficient for the majority of drivers to prevent a rear-end collision with

  16. Distributed modeling for road authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, G.T.; Bõhms, H.M.; Nederveen, S. van; Bektas, E.

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge for road authorities is to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their core processes by improving data exchange and sharing using new technologies such as building information modeling (BIM). BIM has already been successfully implemented in other sectors, such as

  17. Road usage charge economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The overall objective of this research is to provide ODOT with up to date information on the economic : impact of various Road User Charge (RUC) alternatives on the stakeholders in the state of Oregon. Of particular : concern to policymakers were the...

  18. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire

  19. Tyre-road noise measurements: influence of tyre tread and road characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer-Krijnen, Marieke; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries

    2016-01-01

    Traffic noise is a well known problem. For speeds above approximately 40 km/h the noise is mostly tyre-road noise. The noise level depends on the tyre, the road and the interaction between the tyre and the road. There are various well-known methods to measure tyre-road noise and in this paper the

  20. [Strategy programming for acupuncture development along One-Belt-One-Road countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuyang; Shen, Zhixiang; Wu, Zhongchao; Luo, Lu; Liu, Jingyuan; Liu, Baoyan

    2017-04-12

    Acupuncture has been applied in 183 countries and regions and gradually become a name card as TCM spreads across the world. The international influence of which plays a significant role in enhancing TCM development. The laws and regulations of TCM acupuncture along One-Belt-One-Road countries were compared and analyzed in this article. With comprehensive research and analysis, the international development strategy of acupuncture was rationally proposed. Combined with the historical background of China's national initiative One-Belt-One-Road, the acupuncture was taken as a breakthrough to lead the global spreading of TCM culture and Chinese herbs, so as to enhance China's soft strength, which could further create a fine cultural environment for the economic prosperity of One-Belt-One-Road countries. In addition, the strategy selection for China regarding TCM acupuncture development along One-Belt-One-Road countries was proposed, and the suggestive solution and implementation strategy for the essential missions and significant issues were provided.

  1. Guidelines for upgrading of low volume roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Division of Roads and Transport Technology CSIR

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this manual is to provide guidelines on the upgrading of gravel low volume roads to roads and maintenance personnel of road authorities of all sizes. Low volume is, for the purpose of this document, defined to be less than 500...

  2. Optimal Redesign of the Dutch Road Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Snelder; A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert); J.M. Schrijver; H.J. van Zuylen (Henk); L.H. Immers (Lambertus)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe Dutch national road network has been developed over several decades. In the past, roads were constructed according to the then current spatial and transportation planning philosophies. Because the existing road network is a result of a long process of successive developments, the

  3. Simplified methods for evaluating road prism stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Elliot; Mark Ballerini; David Hall

    2003-01-01

    Mass failure is one of the most common failures of low-volume roads in mountainous terrain. Current methods for evaluating stability of these roads require a geotechnical specialist. A stability analysis program, XSTABL, was used to estimate the stability of 3,696 combinations of road geometry, soil, and groundwater conditions. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to...

  4. The influence of weather on road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    The weather has an influence on road safety. Weather conditions partly determine the road conditions and the driver's behaviour. Most studies into the relation between weather and road safety are about the situation during rainfall. However, many other weather conditions are serious influences: fog,

  5. Modeling erosion from forest roads with WEPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. McFero Grace

    2007-01-01

    Forest roads can be major sources of soil erosion from forest watersheds. Sediments from forest roads are a concern due to their potential delivery to stream systems resulting in degradation of water quality. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) was used to predict erosion from forest road components under different management practices. WEPP estimates are...

  6. Road geometry classification by adaptive shape models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Álvarez, J.M.; Gevers, T.; Diego, F.; López, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Vision-based road detection is important for different applications in transportation, such as autonomous driving, vehicle collision warning, and pedestrian crossing detection. Common approaches to road detection are based on low-level road appearance (e.g., color or texture) and neglect of the

  7. Value of monitoring in road network management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouch, M.; Courage, W.; Napoles-Morales, O.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for road network management to assist road authorities in maintenance budget estimations and long-term maintenance strategies definition. Information about road conditions is obtained from monitoring. Available data are used to estimate and update prediction of degradation

  8. Psychological aspects of road user behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, J.A.

    The behaviour of road users is an important factor in accident causation. Traffic psychology, defined as ''the study of the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behaviour'', attempts to identify the determinants of road user behaviour with the aim of developing

  9. Analysis of traffic safety at road works.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W. & Spittje, H.

    2010-01-01

    Road works create a risk, both to road workers and drivers. SWOV conducted research into 58 severe crashes to gain more insight into the causes of crashes at work zones. Finally, 50 work-zones were visited to obtain more insight into (1) the extent to which the Dutch guidelines for safe road works

  10. Performance standards of road safety management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milenko R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road safety management controlling means the process of finding out the information whether the road safety is improving in a measure to achieve the objectives. The process of control consists of three basic elements: definition of performances and standards, measurement of current performances and comparison with the set standards, and improvement of current performances, if they deviate from the set standards. The performance standards of road safety management system are focused on a performances measurement, in terms of their design and characteristics, in order to support the performances improvement of road safety system and thus, ultimately, improve the road safety. Defining the performance standards of road safety management system, except that determines the design of the system for performances measurement, directly sets requirements whose fulfillment will produce a road safety improvement. The road safety management system, based on the performance standards of road safety, with a focus on results, will produce the continuous improvement of road safety, achieving the long-term 'vision zero', the philosophy of road safety, that human life and health take priority over mobility and other traffic objectives of the road traffic.

  11. Forest roads, chronic turbidity, and salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. M. Reid

    1998-01-01

    Certain impacts of forest roads on habitats used by anadromous salmonids are widely recognized and well-understood: road-related landslides increase sediment loads and modify channel morphology, and culverts restrict access to parts of the channel network. Other influences are less obvious, but may be even more pervasive. For example, road-related erosion significantly...

  12. Regulations of 20 December 1979 relating to domestic carriage of dangerous goods by road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    By Royal Decree of 20 December 1979, the provisions of the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Roads (ADR) were adopted for domestic carriage of dangerous goods. The competent authority is the Public Road Administration which may under certain circumstances grant exemptions from the provisions of the Decree. It may also prepare regulations supplementing the Decree. Such Regulations came into force on 1 April 1980. The above mentioned Regulations were issued by the Ministry of Communications pursuant to Act No. 4 of 18th June 1965 concerning road traffic. (NEA) [fr

  13. Bilateral Carotid Artery Dissection after High Impact Road Traffic Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Kelly; Marcus Bradley; Ankur Srivastava

    2008-01-01

    A 58 year old man was involved in a high impact road traffic incident and was admitted for observation. Asymptomatic for the first 24 hours, he collapsed with symptoms and signs consistent with a cerebrovascular accident. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA) and Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) demonstrated bilateral internal carotid artery dissections and a left middle cerebral artery infarct. It was not considered appropriate to attempt stenting or other revascularistation. The patient was...

  14. Automatic Recognition of Road Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasuo; Kohashi, Yuuichirou; Ishikawa, Naoto; Nakajima, Masato

    2002-11-01

    The increase in traffic accidents is becoming a serious social problem with the recent rapid traffic increase. In many cases, the driver"s carelessness is the primary factor of traffic accidents, and the driver assistance system is demanded for supporting driver"s safety. In this research, we propose the new method of automatic detection and recognition of road signs by image processing. The purpose of this research is to prevent accidents caused by driver"s carelessness, and call attention to a driver when the driver violates traffic a regulation. In this research, high accuracy and the efficient sign detecting method are realized by removing unnecessary information except for a road sign from an image, and detect a road sign using shape features. At first, the color information that is not used in road signs is removed from an image. Next, edges except for circular and triangle ones are removed to choose sign shape. In the recognition process, normalized cross correlation operation is carried out to the two-dimensional differentiation pattern of a sign, and the accurate and efficient method for detecting the road sign is realized. Moreover, the real-time operation in a software base was realized by holding down calculation cost, maintaining highly precise sign detection and recognition. Specifically, it becomes specifically possible to process by 0.1 sec(s)/frame using a general-purpose PC (CPU: Pentium4 1.7GHz). As a result of in-vehicle experimentation, our system could process on real time and has confirmed that detection and recognition of a sign could be performed correctly.

  15. Proceedings of the International Conference on The Performance of Off-Road Vehicles and Machines (8th). Volume 2. Held at Cambridge England, on August 5-11, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    Hence Pfe . -P# +If +Pf3 ( 1-) where P,.JN((P){(cos-’( R)-os(1-5))JH -2R1 )4(H-R) Pp.~~ATy(2HRR where )Ais the friction coefficient of soil, V is the...appreciated. (1) Z. C. V. A. Geuse and Tan Tjong-Iie: The mechanical behavior of clays , Prec. 2nd International Conference on Rheolog;y, Oxford, 1953...patterns and deformation of a dry sand and a clay under the action of the lugs of the model wheels are presented. The boundaries of the failure zones in

  16. GIS Applications in Forest Operations and Road Network Planning: an Overview over the Last Two Decades

    OpenAIRE

    Grigolato, Stefano; Mologni, Omar; Cavalli, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    A systematic literature review was settled to investigate the application of GIS in terms of methods, complexity and accuracy to support decision on forestry operations and forest road network planning. A comprehensive search for relevant studies was performed to retrieve as many relevant international scientific publications dealing with forestry operations and forest road network planning in the period 1996–2015. The analysis was based on the development of a systematic literature review co...

  17. Autogas in Road Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available LPG is an international abbreviation for liquefied petroleumgas, i.e. autogas. Today, there are about 5 million vehiclesin the world that use autogas and the number is constantlygrowing. One of the reasons lies in its efficiency which is provenin the 50% lower fuel price and in the lower maintenance priceof the automotive parts! From the ecological aspect, autogas isa much, much lesser polluter which does not let out fumes,lead, solid particles and sulphur oxides into the atmosphere,generating at the same time less carbon dioxide andnon-degradable hydrocarbons. Because of its characteristicsautogas has favourable impact on the engine. The engine durabilityis increased by about 35% compared to petro~ the engineoperates more quietly, the cylinders wear out less, the oil lastslonger in the engine, the durability of the catalyst and thelambda tube is doubled. Complete combustion of the gas-airmixture in the engine cylinders does not result in fuel losses inthe exhaust gases. The exhaust gases are cleaner.

  18. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  19. Using CART to segment road images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.

  20. Technical regulations for road transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juul-Jensen, P.; Ulbak, K.

    1990-01-01

    The technical regulations for the transport of radioactive materials in Denmark are set down by the (Danish) National Board of Health in collaboration with the (Danish) National Institute for Radiation Hygiene in accordance with paragraph 3 of the Danish Ministry of Justice's Executive Order no. 2 of 2, January 1985 on the national road transport of dangerous goods by road, as amended by exutive order no. 251 of April 29th 1987 and no. 704 of November 1989. These regulations are presented here. They are almost identical, with only very few exceptions indicated in the publication, with the rules for Class 7 of the European convention on international transport of dangerous goods by road (ADR). In addition to the aforementioned regulations for national road transport of radioactive materials the general rules for the transport of radioactive materials found in the National Board of Health's executive order no. 721 of November 27th 1989 on the transport of radioactive materials are valid. The abovementioned executive orders, with the exception of certain supplements which are not part of the technical regulations, are also contained in this publication. (AB)

  1. Exploring the temporal stability of global road safety statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Loukas; Nikolaou, Paraskevas; Antoniou, Constantinos

    2018-02-08

    Given the importance of rigorous quantitative reasoning in supporting national, regional or global road safety policies, data quality, reliability, and stability are of the upmost importance. This study focuses on macroscopic properties of road safety statistics and the temporal stability of these statistics at a global level. A thorough investigation of two years of measurements was conducted to identify any unexpected gaps that could highlight the existence of inconsistent measurements. The database used in this research includes 121 member countries of the United Nation (UN-121) with a population of at least one million (smaller country data shows higher instability) and includes road safety and socioeconomic variables collected from a number of international databases (e.g. WHO and World Bank) for the years 2010 and 2013. For the fulfillment of the earlier stated goal, a number of data visualization and exploratory analyses (Hierarchical Clustering and Principal Component Analysis) were conducted. Furthermore, in order to provide a richer analysis of the data, we developed and compared the specification of a number of Structural Equation Models for the years 2010 and 2013. Different scenarios have been developed, with different endogenous variables (indicators of mortality rate and fatality risk) and structural forms. The findings of the current research indicate inconsistency phenomena in global statistics of different instances/years. Finally, the results of this research provide evidence on the importance of careful and systematic data collection for developing advanced statistical and econometric techniques and furthermore for developing road safety policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PROPOSAL OF VOIVODESHIP ROAD SAFETY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SZCZURASZEK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a proposal of the ‘GAMBIT KUJAWSKO-POMORSKI’ Road Safety Improvement Programme. The main idea of the Programme is to establish and initiate systems that will be responsible for the most important areas of activity within road safety, including road safety control, supervision, and management systems in the whole Voivodeship. In total, the creation and start of nine such systems has been proposed, namely: the Road Safety Management, the Integrated Road Rescue Service, the Personnel Continuing Education, the Hazardous Road Behaviour Monitoring, the Social Education for Safe Behaviour on Road, the Teaching Personnel Improvement, the Area Development and Planning Process Improvement, the Road Infrastructure Design Quality Improvement, and the Road and Traffic Management Process Efficiency Improvement. The basic aim of each system has been discussed as well as the most important tasks implemented as its part. The Road Safety Improvement Programme for the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship presented in this article is a part of the National Road Safety Programme 2013-2020. Moreover, it is not only an original programme in Poland, but also a universal project that may be adapted for other voivodeships as well.

  3. Obstacle Emergence Risk and Road Patrol Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors model the emergence processes of road obstacles, such as fallen objects on roads, the deformation and destruction of pavements, and the damage and destruction of road facilities, as counting processes. Especially, in order to take into account the heterogeneity of the emergence risk of a variety of road obstacles, the authors model a mixture Poisson process in which the arrival rate of road obstacles is subject to a probability distribution. In detail, the authors formulate a Poisson-Gamma model expressing the heterogeneity of the arrival rate as a Gamma distribution and formulate the management indicator of the emergence risk of road obstacles. Then, a methodology is developed in order to design a road patrol policy that can minimize the road obstacle risk with a limited amount of budget. Furthermore, the authors empirically verify that it is possible to design road patrol policy based on the emergence risk of actual road obstacles with the proposed methodology, by studying the cases of the application of the methodology to general national roads.

  4. Road user behaviour changes following a self-explaining roads intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Hamish W; Charlton, Samuel G; Baas, Peter H; Villasenor, Pablo C

    2013-01-01

    The self-explaining roads (SER) approach uses road designs that evoke correct expectations and driving behaviours from road users to create a safe and user-friendly road network. Following the implementation of an SER process and retrofitting of local and collector roads in a suburb within Auckland City, lower speeds on local roads and less variation in speed on both local and collector roads were achieved, along with a closer match between actual and perceived safe speeds. Preliminary analyses of crash data shows that the project has resulted in a 30% reduction crash numbers and an 86% reduction in crash costs per annum, since the road changes were completed. In order to further understand the outcomes from this project, a study was carried out to measure the effects of the SER intervention on the activity and behaviour of all road users. Video was collected over nine separate days, at nine different locations, both before and after SER construction. Road user behaviour categories were developed for all potential road users at different location types and then used to code the video data. Following SER construction, on local roads there was a relatively higher proportion of pedestrians, less uniformity in vehicle lane keeping and less indicating by motorists along with less through traffic, reflecting a more informal/low speed local road environment. Pedestrians were less constrained on local roads following SER construction, possibly reflecting a perceptually safer and more user-friendly environment. These behaviours were not generally evident on collector roads, a trend also shown by the previous study of speed changes. Given that one of the objectives of SER is to match road user behaviour with functionally different road categories, the road user behaviour differences demonstrated on different road types within the SER trial area provides further reinforcement of a successful SER trial. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The road from Rio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornos, W

    1992-12-01

    The UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED in Rio de Janeiro has passed and future plans and expectations are forming for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. UNCED did not come up with a miracle cure. Some argued that population control should have been included in the agenda; actually the population issue was not ignored entirely, as both the UNCED Secretary-General and chair of the World Commission on Environment and Development population growth affect both economics and environment. Population must be stabilized. The interrelationships between poverty, population, and environment must be recognized in the formulation of policies. A human rights approach with increased educational opportunities for women, increased women's status, and improved public health and family planning is needed. The UNCED principal document, Agenda 21, devoted an entire chapter to the dynamics of population growth and sustainability. The implications of national demographic trends must be assessed and demographic features included in policies and plans. Debating the accomplishments of UNCED is secondary to planning for the 1994 conference and dealing with the issues: family planning (FP) and well-being, women's status, urbanization and migration, and population policies and programs. The delivery of FP information, education, and services must be expedited by all agencies and organizations; there must be universal availability of maternal and child health care. 500 million women are currently in need of FP. Research is needed to improve contraceptive safety, efficiency, and effectiveness. More than 500,000 maternal deaths occur each year; many could be prevented. 15 million births/year are spaced too closely and infant health is jeopardized. Education and employment of women holds the hope for eliminating some of the social and cultural barriers to women's rights. 45 out of 100 people living in cities today are not experiencing upward mobility

  6. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Honeywell International Incorporated in Morristown, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeywell International Incorporated, formerly known as Allied-Signal, Inc. is located at 101 Columbia Road in Morristown, New Jersey. Honeywell International has occupied this approximately 170-acre site in Morris Township since 1946. The company conducts

  7. High-Luminance Road Surfaces,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    condition was changed with the decreased use of snow chains and increasing use of studded tires. The studded tires wear down the road surface in a...region, white anorthosite of a uniform and unweathered type is usable as an additive to asphalt con- crete and wear surfacing for asphalt gravel...CLASSIFICATION Of THIS PAGE(W/em Daateoo 20. Abstract (cont’d) resistance to weathering, and the degree of luminosity. Quartzites have the best wear

  8. Automated road marking recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, R. R.; Shigabiev, R. R.; Talipov, D. N.

    2017-09-01

    Development of the automated road marking recognition systems in existing and future vehicles control systems is an urgent task. One way to implement such systems is the use of neural networks. To test the possibility of using neural network software has been developed with the use of a single-layer perceptron. The resulting system based on neural network has successfully coped with the task both when driving in the daytime and at night.

  9. The Impact of Rural Roads

    OpenAIRE

    de Vera Garcia, Elma

    1984-01-01

    This article is a product of a nine-month training and application program implemented by the micro component of the Economic and Social Impact Analysis/Women in Development (ESIA/WID) and the Food Systems Program of the East-West Center Resource Systems Institute (RSI). It compares and analyzes the socioeconomic status of the population within the influence areas of the experimental and control group before and after the rural road construction. In particular, it conducts an impact assessmen...

  10. Road safety: take it seriously

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Around 50 road accidents happen every year at CERN. Cyclists, drivers and pedestrians must pay attention to their behaviour at all times to ensure that this doesn’t become an even more serious problem. Even if the Laboratory’s sites are not exactly downtown Shanghai, all road users need to make a little effort. So let’s do it!   Life at CERN: let’s stick to accumulating scientific data rather than road accidents! (Cartoon by Cian O'Luanaigh) Despite a dedicated Safety Code in force since 1990, “traffic-calming” measures put in place last year, several reminders in the Bulletin and frequent safety campaigns, the number of accidents, particularly those involving cyclists, has remained high since 2008. Luckily, no-one has been seriously injured but it is more and more frequent to experience near misses or actual accidents, whether in a car or on a bike. Incivilities, excessive speeding (also for bikes!) and answering ...

  11. Industrial wind. Strategic Road-map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therond, Pierre-Guy; Le Tirant, Alain; Vergnet, Marc; Hita-Perona, Sebastien; Bonnefond, Thierry; Guignard, Jean-Philippe; Roudil, Jean-Philippe; Villageois, Jean-Remy; Meyronneinc, Jean-Paul; Hua, Xavier; Herlaut, Fabienne; Maurel, Olivier; Boulnois, Renald; Lapeyre, Dominique; Mairet, Franck; Bongrain, Marie-Pierre; Kariniotakis, Georges; Rapin, Marc

    2012-06-01

    research). These research and experimentation priorities originate from a coming together of the visions and obstacles, but they also take account of French capacities in the fields of research and industry. This road-map shall also include an international comparison mainly focusing on public policy initiatives related to the wind energy industry

  12. The roads of decentralisation. The history of rural road construction in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Emmenegger, Rony

    2012-01-01

    Roads, in particular rural roads, play a major role in deve- lopment. In Ethiopia, where the vast majority of the popula- tion depends on agricultural production, this is even more so, and the country’s road network has become a major po- licy issue with significant consequences for the population. An extensive network of 114,397 km of different roads has been constructed, maintained, and classified to date. Alt- hough community roads account for nearly two-thirds of the country’s total road ...

  13. Economic, Socio-Political and Environmental Risks of Road Development in the Tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J; Sloan, Sean; Goosem, Miriam; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Mahmoud, Mahmoud I; Laurance, William F

    2017-10-23

    It is projected that 25 million km of new paved roads will be developed globally by 2050 - enough to encircle the planet more than 600 times. Roughly 90% of new roads will be built in developing nations, frequently in tropical and subtropical regions with high biodiversity and environmental values. Many developing nations are borrowing from international lenders or negotiating access to their natural resources in order to expand their transportation infrastructure. Given the unprecedented pace and extent of these initiatives, it is vital to thoroughly assess the potential consequences of large-scale road and highway projects. In appropriate contexts and locales, new roads can promote sizeable economic and social benefits. If poorly planned or implemented, however, new roads can provoke serious cost overruns, corruption and environmental impacts, while generating sparse economic benefits and intense social and political conflict. Using examples from developing nations, we identify risks that can hinder road projects in wet and dry tropical environments. Such risks, we assert, are often inadequately considered by project proponents, evaluators and the general public, creating a systematic tendency to overestimate project benefits while understating project risks. A more precautionary approach is needed to reduce risks while maximizing benefits of new road projects in the tropics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Satellite Remote Sensing and Transportation Lifelines: Safety and Risk Analysis Along Rural Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, R.

    the application of satellite Earth Observation (EO) methods to the analysis of transportation networks. Other geospatial technologies, including geographic information systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), sharply enhance the utility of EO data in identifying potential road hazards and providing an objective basis for allocating resources to reduce their risks. In combination, these powerful information technologies provide substantial public benefits and increased business opportunities to remote sensing value-added firms. departments in rural jurisdictions improve the trafficability of the roads under their management during severe weather. We are developing and testing these methods in the U.S. Southwest, where thousands of kilometers of unimproved and graded dirt roads cross Native American reservations. This generally arid region is nevertheless subject to periodic summer rainstorms and winter snow and ice, creating hazardous conditions for the region's transportation lifelines. Arizona and Southeast Utah, as well as digital terrain models from the U.S. Geological Survey. We have analyzed several risk factors, such as slope, road curvature, and intersections, by means of multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) on both unimproved and improved roads. In partnership with the Hopi Indian Nation in Arizona, we have acquired and analyzed GPS road centerline data and accident data that validate our methodology. hazards along paved and unpaved roads of the American Southwest. They are also transferable to the international settings, particularly in similarly arid climates.

  15. How can Saudi Arabia use the Decade of Action for Road Safety to catalyse road traffic injury prevention policy and interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Turki, Yousef Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death in adolescents and young adults worldwide. Nearly three-quarters of road deaths occur in developing countries and men comprise a mean 80% of casualties. The rate of road traffic accidents caused by four-wheeled vehicles is the highest globally reported road traffic accidents statistic. In Saudi Arabia, the motor vehicle is the main means of transportation with one person killed and four injured every hour. Over 65% of accidents occur because of vehicles travelling at excess speed and/or drivers disobeying traffic signals. Road traffic injuries cause considerable economic losses to victims, their families, and to nations as a whole. Strategic prevention plans should be implemented soon by various sectors (health, police, transport, and education) to decrease the mortality and morbidity among adolescent and young age group. Strong and effective coordination between ministry of health and other ministries together with World Health Organization and other related organisations will be an important step towards implementing the international Decade of Action for Road Safety (2011-2020). The aim of this review article is to highlight some aspects of the health impacts of road traffic accidents.

  16. Invasive Brown Treesnake movements at road edges indicate road-crossing avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siers, Shane R; Savidge, Julie S; Reed, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Roads have significant impacts on the dispersal of wildlife. Although this poses a threat to the abundance and diversity of desirable flora and fauna, it also affords some opportunity for enhancing control of invasive species. Roads are the most common terrain features that may affect the rate of landscape-scale movements of invasive Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) throughout Guam. We radio tracked 45 free-ranging Brown Treesnakes in close proximity to two roads in Guam and recorded instances where daily relocations of snakes spanned roads. Then we reconstructed observed movement histories with randomized turning angles, which served as a useful null hypothesis for assessing the effect of roads or road edge habitat on Brown Treesnake movement patterns. Random walk simulations demonstrated that Brown Treesnakes crossed these roads at a rate far lower than would be expected if snake movement was random with respect to roads and road edge habitat. We discuss two alternative hypotheses for these results: 1) habitat gaps posed by roads physically or behaviorally restrict snake movement; or 2) road edges provide preferred foraging habitat from which snakes are reluctant to depart. Because roads often form the boundaries of jurisdictional and management units, the effects of roads on the movement of invasive Brown Treesnakes will influence the prospects for success of future landscape-level suppression efforts.

  17. Road Traffic Accidents - The Number One Killer in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajid Ahmed Ali

    2007-01-01

    is well documented that Advanced Trauma and Life Support (ATLS and Advanced Life Support (ALS courses improve survival [5].Unfortunately in Libya they are not compulsory for nurses or doctors. Some doctors and nurses working in the Emergency department are even unaware that these courses exist. Therefore, it is no surprise that the majority of car accident causalities dies or sustain permanent disabilities despite reaching the hospital in redeemable condition.WHAT CAN WE DO TO HELP?A. Ministry of Health:1. We must put pressure on the ministry of health and offer our services in running ATLS, ALS and Trauma courses to all medical personnel and paramedics. These courses should become a prerequisite for qualifying to work in the Medical field especially for those who directly deal with trauma patients.2. All hospitals dealing with trauma must have well trained and well equipped trauma and cardiac arrest teams whose ATLS/ ALS knowledge is revalidated periodically.3. Emphasise the importance of introducing the Bleep/Page System.4. Train paramedics and improve the Emergency Service [5,6].5. Emergency phone numbers should exist and should be made free of charge to dial.B. Ministry of Education:1. Educate children at an early age about behaviour in the street and dangers on the road.2. The schools should share the responsibilities with the traffic police in ensuring the safety of pupils.3. Supply posters and educate the public.4. The United Nations invited member states and the international community to recognize the third Sunday in November of every year as the World Day of Remembrance for Road Traffic Victims as the appropriate acknowledgement for victims of road traffic crashes and their families.I think a union should be formed in Libya, of people who have lost relatives to car accidents to campaign and educate drivers as per recommendation of the UN [7].C. Ministry of Transport:1. Re-validate the traffic police on their behaviour and knowledge of the law.2. Revise and

  18. Dynamics of vehicle-road coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...

  19. Pavement Condition Assessment Using IRI from Roadroid and Surface Distress Index Method on National Road in Sumenep Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianto, T.; Suprapto, M.; Syafi’i

    2018-03-01

    The pavement condition will decrease due to the influence of traffic and environment, so that the maintenance effort is needed to maintain the road condition during the service period. In order to carry out road maintenance activities right on target, there needs to be a plan based on accurate pavement condition data. Road roughness is the most commonly used condition parameter in evaluating pavement conditions objectively because road roughness data is relatively easy to obtain, well correlated with vehicle operating costs and the most relevant parameter in road functional performance measurement. The Roadroid is an Android-based application that measures road roughness by using vibration sensors on a smartphone so it is possible to get an International Roughness Index (IRI) value as an indicator of pavement conditions more easily and efficiently. Besides based on road roughness, pavement condition evaluation can also be done visually by using Surface Distress Index (SDI) method that uses the total crack area parameters, average crack width, total number of potholes and the average depth of rutting. This study attempts to assess the condition of Jenderal Sudirman-Kalianget road by combining IRI Roadroid value and SDI value which will be used as the basis to determine the required road maintenance. This road segment is one of the national strategic road connecting the center of Sumenep regency with the Kalianget harbor. Based on IRI measurement and SDI calculation, the pavement condition of Jenderal Sudirman-Kalianget road can be described 4.2 kilometers (37.17%) were good and 2.3 kilometers (20.35%) were fair that need routine maintenance. While 2.1 kilometers (18.58%) were bad and 2.7 kilometers (23.89%) were poor that need periodical maintenance and reconstruction.

  20. Strategies for prevention of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Pakistan: situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adeel Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar

    2014-05-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are one of the leading causes of death among productive age group. Using systems approach framework (SAF), current preventive strategies for RTI control were reviewed in Pakistan. A review of the literature was done using four international search engines. Only ten studies on preventive strategies for RTI stemming from Pakistan were found. The first Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) surveillance system for road traffic injuries was established in urban city (Karachi) in Pakistan has shown promise for injury control and should be scaled up to other cities. Enforcement of traffic laws on seat-belt and helmet wearing is poor. National Highway and Motorway Police Ordinance (2000) was one of the few legislative measure so far taken in Pakistan. Using SAF, efforts are required to implement interventions targeting human, vehicle design and also making environment safer for road users.

  1. Road safety and trade and industry.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Trade and industry mostly experience the negative consequences of crashes, but sometimes the consequences are positive. The negative consequences of road traffic crashes include loss of personnel and damage to vehicles. Some other industries, such as damage repair companies, on the other hand, derive income from road crashes. Trade and industry can also be of importance for road safety. Particularly the transport sector, the car industry and insurers take several initiatives which for example...

  2. Road Rage: What’s Driving It?

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Up to one-third of community participants report being perpetrators of road rage, indicating that various forms of road rage are relatively commonplace. However, only two percent or less of incidents culminate in serious damage to persons or vehicles. The most common offenders appear to be young and male. A number of factors may contribute to road rage, including environmental factors (e.g., greater number of miles driven per day, traffic density), nonspecific psychological factors (e.g., dis...

  3. Economic Efficacy of Road Traffic Safety Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Gul, Ejaz

    2013-01-01

    The number of road traffic casualties is still very lofty and the trend shows a boost with each passing day. The road traffic accidents involve fatalities due to which economic resources are damaged and the productivity of the economy is correspondingly impaired. Costs resulting from traffic accidents represent the largest single part of the overall cost of traffic to the economy. Knowledge about the harm of these traffic accidents to the economy is essential if measures to reduce road traffi...

  4. Economic Evaluation of Road Traffic Safety Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Gul, Ejaz

    2013-01-01

    The number of road traffic casualties is still very lofty and the trend shows a boost with each passing day. The road traffic accidents involve fatalities due to which economic resources are damaged and the productivity of the economy is correspondingly impaired. Costs resulting from traffic accidents represent the largest single part of the overall cost of traffic to the economy. Knowledge about the harm of these traffic accidents to the economy is essential if measures to reduce road traffi...

  5. Natural road construction materials of Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Weinert, HH

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available valuable work of refer- ence for all those concerned with the planning, design, construction and mainten- ance of roads. Although the book was written primarily for the benefit of South- ern African engineers and engineering geologists concenled... General Surfacing Other layers of lhe pavement Chapter 7: Testing the durabilit y General Determination of durability Design tests Field inspection of nalUfroad building materials Chapter 8: Classificatio"n of nalura l road conslruction...

  6. Pedestrian road crossing behavior (PEROB): Development and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemiparast, Mina; Montazeri, Ali; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Negarandeh, Reza; Sadeghi, Roya; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza

    2017-04-03

    The aim of this study was to develop a theory-based questionnaire to measure road crossing attitudes and potentially risky pedestrian behavior. A cross-sectional validation study was carried out on a total sample of 380 young adults aged 18 to 25 years who live in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected from January 27 to May 20, 2015, using a self-administered structured pool of 76 items that was developed from research on the theory of planned behavior. A panel of subject-matter experts evaluated the items for content validity index and content validity ratio, and the questionnaire was pretested. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to test construct validity. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analyses were done to assess internal consistency and stability of the scale. From the initial 76 items, 38 items were found to be appropriate for assessing the pedestrian road crossing behavior (PEROB) of young adults in Tehran. A 9-factor solution revealed an exploratory factor analysis that jointly accounted for 63.8% of the variance observed. Additional analyses also indicated acceptable results for the internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha value ranging from 0.67 to 0.88 and ICC values ranging from 0.64 to 0.96. This psychometric evaluation of a self-administered instrument resulted in a reliable and valid instrument to assess young adult pedestrians' self-reported road crossing attitudes and behaviors in Tehran. Further development of the instrument is needed to assess its applicability to other road users, particularly older pedestrians.

  7. Guidelines for disseminating road weather messages : improved road weather information for travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Highway Administration : (FHWA) Road Weather Management : Program (RWMP) recently published a : document titled Guidelines for Disseminating : Road Weather Advisory and : Control Information (FHWA-JPO-12- : 046). The guidelines are intend...

  8. Road weather information for travelers : improving road weather messages and dissemination methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Federal Highway Administration : (FHWA) Road Weather Management : Program (RWMP) recently completed : a study titled Human Factors Analysis : of Road Weather Advisory and Control : Information (Publication No. FHWAJPO- : 10-053). The goal of the ...

  9. Demonstrating a correlation between the maturity of road safety practices and road safety incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Luis; Willis, Christopher Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate a correlation between the maturity of a country's road safety practices and road safety incidents. Firstly, data on a number of road injuries and fatalities for 129 countries were extracted from the United Nations Global Status on Road Safety database. These data were subdivided according to road safety incident and accident causation factors and normalized based on vehicular fleet (per 1000 vehicles) and road network (per meter of paved road). Secondly, a road safety maturity model was developed based on an adaptation of the concept of process maturity modeling. The maturity of countries with respect to 10 road safety practices was determined through the identification of indicators recorded in the United Nations Global Status of Road Safety Database. Plots of normalized road safety performance of the 129 countries against their maturity scores for each road safety practice as well as an aggregation of the road safety practices were developed. An analysis of variance was done to determine the extent of the correlation between the road safety maturity of the countries and their performance. In addition, a full Bayesian analysis was done to confirm the correlation of each of the road safety practices with injuries and fatalities. Regression analysis for fatalities, injuries, and combined accidents identified maturity with respect to road safety practices associated with speed limits and use of alternative modes as being the most significant predictors of traffic fatalities. A full Bayesian regression confirms that there is a correlation between the maturity of road safety practices and road safety incidents. Road safety practices associated with enforcement of speed limits and promotion of alternative modes are the most significant road safety practices toward which mature countries have concentrated their efforts, resulting in a lower frequency of fatalities, injury rates, and property damage accidents. The authors

  10. POROUS STRUCTURE OF ROAD CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pshembaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Having a great number of concrete structure classifications it is recommended to specify the following three principal types: microstructure – cement stone structure; mesostructure – structure of cement-sand mortar in concrete; macrostucture – two-component system that consists of mortar and coarse aggregate. Every mentioned-above structure has its own specific features which are related to the conditions of their formation. Thus, microstructure of cement stone can be characterized by such structural components as crystal intergrowth, tobermorite gel, incompletely hydrated cement grains and porous space. The most important technological factors that influence on formation of cement stone microstructure are chemical and mineralogical cement composition, its grinding fineness, water-cement ratio and curing condition. Specific cement stone microstructure is formed due to interrelation of these factors. Cement stone is a capillary-porous body that consists of various solid phases represented predominantly by sub-microcrystals of colloidal dispersion. The sub-microcrystals are able adsorptively, osmotically and structurally to withhold (to bind some amount of moisture. Protection of road concrete as a capillary-porous body is considered as one of the topical issues. The problem is solved with the help of primary and secondary protection methods. Methods of primary protection are used at the stage of designing, preparation and placing of concrete. Methods of secondary protection are applied at the operational stage of road concrete pavement. The paper considers structures of concrete solid phase and characteristics of its porous space. Causes of pore initiation, their shapes, dimensions and arrangement in the concrete are presented in the paper. The highest hazard for road concrete lies in penetration of aggressive liquid in it and moisture transfer in the cured concrete. Water permeability of concrete characterizes its filtration factor which

  11. AUTOMATIC CONSTRUCTION OF HIERARCHICAL ROAD NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an automated method of constructing a hierarchical road network given a single dataset, without the presence of thematic attributes. The method is based on a pattern graph which maintains nodes and paths as junctions and through-traffic roads. The hierarchy is formed incrementally in a top-down fashion for highways, ramps, and major roads directly connected to ramps; and bottom-up for the rest of major and minor roads. Through reasoning and analysis, ramps are identified as unique characteristics for recognizing and assembling high speed roads. The method makes distinctions on the types of ramps by articulating their connection patterns with highways. Major and minor roads will be identified by both quantitative and qualitative analysis of spatial properties and by discovering neighbourhood patterns revealed in the data. The result of the method would enrich data description and support comprehensive queries on sorted exit or entry points on highways and their related roads. The enrichment on road network data is important to a high successful rate of feature matching for road networks and to geospatial data integration.

  12. Geotechnical Monitoring of the Automobile Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsiy, Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    In the present article, the results of geotechnical monitoring of A-147 automobile road “Dzhubga-Sochi” are given. Some sections of the automobile road suffered from the landslide adjustment movements; it resulted in many deformations of the retaining structures, the damages of the roadbed and ground crawling over the retaining walls. The observation data made it possible to specify the borders of the active landslide and to form a forecast of the landslide activity in the sections of the automobile roads. Due to monitoring being carried out, there was substantiated the necessity to correct the service forms and records connected with the automobile road reconstruction.

  13. A numerical forecast model for road meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chunlei

    2017-05-01

    A fine-scale numerical model for road surface parameters prediction (BJ-ROME) is developed based on the Common Land Model. The model is validated using in situ observation data measured by the ROSA road weather stations of Vaisala Company, Finland. BJ-ROME not only takes into account road surface factors, such as imperviousness, relatively low albedo, high heat capacity, and high heat conductivity, but also considers the influence of urban anthropogenic heat, impervious surface evaporation, and urban land-use/land-cover changes. The forecast time span and the update interval of BJ-ROME in vocational operation are 24 and 3 h, respectively. The validation results indicate that BJ-ROME can successfully simulate the diurnal variation of road surface temperature both under clear-sky and rainfall conditions. BJ-ROME can simulate road water and snow depth well if the artificial removing was considered. Road surface energy balance in rainy days is quite different from that in clear-sky conditions. Road evaporation could not be neglected in road surface water cycle research. The results of sensitivity analysis show solar radiation correction coefficient, asphalt depth, and asphalt heat conductivity are important parameters in road interface temperatures simulation. The prediction results could be used as a reference of maintenance decision support system to mitigate the traffic jam and urban water logging especially in large cities.

  14. Roads Belong in the Urban Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2013-01-01

    Roads are often associated with a fragmentation or splintering of landscapes and their natural connectivity; particularly in relation to ‘green infrastructure’ they are often considered problematic elements that rupture and barricade. Conversely, as part of larger networks, roads can be considered...... important elements in the creation of new, ‘green infrastructures’ that can qualify urban landscapes in terms of improving their overall porosity and connectivity. This argument will be unfolded and substantiated in this article through theoretical reflections which conceptually re-locate road networks...... in the urban landscape, supported by relevant reference projects that illustrate the potential of road networks as a platform for ‘green infrastructure’....

  15. The impact of road traffic injury in North India: a mixed-methods study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Prinja, Shankar; Lakshmi, P V M; Aggarwal, Sameer; Gabbe, Belinda; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2015-08-19

    Road traffic injuries are a large and growing public health burden, especially in low and middle income countries where 90% of the world's deaths due to road traffic injuries are estimated to occur. India is one of the fastest growing economies, with rapid motorisation and increasing road traffic burden. However, there are limited data addressing the problem of non-fatal road traffic injuries, with existing data being of poor quality, non-representative and difficult to access, and encompassing a limited number of relevant variables. This study aims to determine the outcomes of road traffic injuries on function and health-related quality of life, to assess their social impact and to weigh the economic cost of road traffic crashes in an urban setting in India. This prospective observational study will recruit approximately 1500 participants injured in road traffic crashes, who are admitted to hospital for >24 h at any of three participating hospitals in Chandigarh, India. Face-to-face baseline interviews will be conducted by telephone at 1, 2, 4 and 12 months postinjury. Standardised tools will be used to collect data on health and social outcomes, and on the economic impact of road traffic crashes. Descriptive analysis and multivariate models will be used to report outcome data and associations. The qualitative in-depth interviews will be analysed thematically using content analysis. This study will provide the first comprehensive estimates on outcomes of serious road traffic injury in India, including economic and social costs, and the impact on individuals and families. Primary ethics approval was received from the Postgraduate Institute for Medical Education and Research, institute's ethics committee, Chandigarh, India. Results will be disseminated via the usual scientific forums including peer-reviewed publications and presentations at international conferences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  16. Road map for photovoltaic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This road map aims at highlighting industrial, technological and social challenges, at elaborating comprehensive visions, at highlighting technological locks, and at outlining research needs for the photovoltaic sector. It considers the following sector components: preparation of photo-sensitive materials, manufacturing of photovoltaic cells, manufacturing of photovoltaic arrays, design and manufacturing of electric equipment to control photovoltaic arrays and to connect them to the grid. It highlights the demand for photovoltaic installations, analyzes the value chain, proposes a vision of the sector by 2050 and defines target for 2020, discusses needs for demonstration and experimentation

  17. Headway times and road safety.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In road traffic, the advice is to maintain a minimum distance of two seconds to the vehicle in front. This headway time is based on the reaction time of drivers under various circumstances. A headway time of two seconds is sufficient for the majority of drivers to prevent a rear-end collision with the vehicle in front. This is mainly the case on motorways, where the traffic situation is not very complex. It gives the driver sufficient time to commence emergency braking if necessary. However, ...

  18. Seeing red on the road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Romnán, Amparo; Megías, Alberto; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Catena, Andrés; Di Stasi, Leandro L

    2015-01-01

    Human and animal research has found that red perception is associated with specific behavioral reactions, generally characterized by intense responses. Here, we explored whether red cars are perceived as more dangerous than other colored cars. One hundred Spanish drivers examined several road scenarios which involved hazardous cars with different colors: red, green, yellow, black, gray, and white. Driver's behavior (response time and probability of braking) and the perceived level of risk for each scenario were analyzed. Although car color affected participants' response times, contrary to expectations, red cars did not elicit faster responses or higher perceived levels of risk.

  19. Value creation of road infrastructure networks: a structural equation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Ling, F.Y.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Although road agencies need to provide road infrastructure that is beneficial for road users, little is known about how the activities of the agencies influence the value creation of road infrastructure. From a service-dominant logic perspective, the importance of road maintenance and traffic

  20. The Use of Theatre Tours in Road Safety Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powney, Janet; And Others

    The Scottish Road Safety Campaign and the Road Safety Council of Wales have made a large investment in theater tours as a method of providing road safety education. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a road safety message delivered by a theater group, Road Safety Officers (RSOs), or, teachers for pupils in upper secondary classes.…

  1. The study of technological prevention method of road accident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of technological prevention method of road accident related to driver and vehicle. ... road accident prevention method based on the factors studied. The study of this paper can provide forceful data analysis support for the road traffic safety related research. Keywords: road accident; accident prevention; road safety.

  2. Economy-wide Impact of Investment in Road Infrastructure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The rural poor benefited more from road investment in terms of earning better income and consumption. Road infrastructure affects the production sectors ... due to the construction of new roads, the average distance from a road has been .... Khandker and Koolwal (2010) also examines the impact of rural roads using.

  3. RoADS: A road pavement monitoring system for anomaly detection using smart phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seraj, Fatjon; van der Zwaag, B.J.; Dilo, Arta; Luarasi, Tamara; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Atzmueller, Martin; Chin, Alvin; Janssen, Frederik; Schweizer, Immanuel; Trattner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the road pavement is a challenging task. Authorities spend time and finances to monitor the state and quality of the road pavement. This paper investigate road surface monitoring with smartphones equipped with GPS and inertial sensors: accelerometer and gyroscope. In this study we

  4. The relationship between traffic volume and road safety on the secondary road network : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, K.

    2010-01-01

    On motorways, congestion is a well-known traffic problem. On the secondary road network, the same problem arises when traffic volume increases and the driven speed decreases. At certain times of day, roads get congested and the number of interactions between road users increases. In general, higher

  5. Construction of Three-Dimensional Road Surface and Application on Interaction between Vehicle and Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yongjie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative description is given to three-dimensional micro and macro self-similar characteristics of road surface from the perspective of fractal geometry using FBM stochastic midpoint displacement and diamond-square algorithm in conjunction with fractal characteristics and statistical characteristics of standard pavement determined by estimation method of box-counting dimension. The comparative analysis between reconstructed three-dimensional road surface spectrum and theoretical road surface spectrum and correlation coefficient demonstrate the high reconstruction accuracy of fractal reconstructed road spectrum. Furthermore, the bump zone is taken as an example to reconstruct a more arbitrary 3D road model through isomorphism of special road surface with stochastic road surface model. Measurement is taken to assume the tire footprint on road surface to be a rectangle, where the pressure distribution is expressed with mean stiffness, while the contact points in the contact area are replaced with a number of springs. Two-DOF vehicle is used as an example to analyze the difference between three-dimensional multipoint-and-plane contact and traditional point contact model. Three-dimensional road surface spectrum provides a more accurate description of the impact effect of tire on road surface, thereby laying a theoretical basis for studies on the dynamical process of interaction of vehicle-road surface and the road friendliness.

  6. Road deaths in the Netherlands. [Previously known as: Road fatalities in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    This fact sheet outlines the development of the number of road deaths in the Netherlands since 1950. After a rise in the 1950s and 1960s, the number of road deaths in the Netherlands has shown a gradual decline since 1973. In 2016, there were 629 road deaths in the Netherlands. After the years of

  7. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of brine with nozzles is precision spreading, while spreading of salt with rotation plate are very imprecise; you can measure 80% residual salt when using brine and only 40% when using pre wetted salt. Of course the result would be worse if dry (solid) salt were used on dry roads. A winter route in Denmark...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...

  8. All roads lead to Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    Communication locale

    2011-01-01

    Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin - All roads lead to Meyrin From 29 September to 16 October, 2011, come to the Salle Antoine Verchère in Meyrin for Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin. The celebration will include an exposition as well as a theatrical performance about Meyrin, the first satellite city in Switzerland. With the help of the memories and testimonies from the people of Meyrin, Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin is putting the collective memories of the commune on display. It is an occasion for everyone, whether you're from near or far, to find out how all the roads lead to Meyrin.  Salle Antoine-Verchère Route de Meyrin 294 – 1217 Meyrin Tram 18 – Stop: Meyrin Village Thursdays / Fridays / Saturdays at 8pm Sundays at 5pm Regular ticket: CHF 15.- Concession ticket (students, chômeurs, AVS, AI): CHF 12.- Children up to 16: CHF 10.- Family ticket: CHF 35.-

  9. Scaling roads and wildlife: The Cinderella principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonette, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    It is clear that a reduction in both direct and indirect effects of roads and road networks must be the goal of management agencies. However, increased permeability of roaded landscapes can only be achieved by up-front planning and subsequent mitigative actions. The key is to understand that roads must be made permeable to the movement of animals. More profoundly, ecosystem services, i.e., clean water, clean air, uncontaminated soil, natural landscapes, recreation opportunities, abundant wildlife, and life sustaining ecological processes must not be seriously impacted. In other words, quality of life as measured by ecosystem services should be a major component of the planning process when roads are constructed or improved. Mitigative structures exist to increase permeability of roads. Wildlife overpasses and underpasses, often referred to as ecoducts or green bridges, with associated structures to enable larger animals to exit the road right of way, e.g., earthen escape ramps (BISSONETTE and HAMMER, 2001), various culvert designs for smaller animals including badger pipes and amphibian and reptile tunnels, and fish ladders are but a small sampling of the structures already in place around the world. What is needed is attention to the big picture. Landscapes need to be reconnected and made more permeable. Responsible agencies and organizations need to be aggressive about promoting mitigations and a conservation ethic into road planning. Only with a broad based effort between a concerned public, a database to work from, and a willingness of responsible agencies, will the now very large virtual footprint of roads and road networks be reduced to more closely approximate the physical footprint. By embracing the Cinderella Principle of making the virtual shoe fit more closely the actual physical footprint of roads, we will be able to achieve a closer connection with ecological harmony with its resultant effect of abundant wildlife.

  10. Semi-automatic road extraction from very high resolution remote sensing imagery by RoadModeler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao

    Accurate and up-to-date road information is essential for both effective urban planning and disaster management. Today, very high resolution (VHR) imagery acquired by airborne and spaceborne imaging sensors is the primary source for the acquisition of spatial information of increasingly growing road networks. Given the increased availability of the aerial and satellite images, it is necessary to develop computer-aided techniques to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of road extraction tasks. Therefore, automation of image-based road extraction is a very active research topic. This thesis deals with the development and implementation aspects of a semi-automatic road extraction strategy, which includes two key approaches: multidirectional and single-direction road extraction. It requires a human operator to initialize a seed circle on a road and specify a extraction approach before the road is extracted by automatic algorithms using multiple vision cues. The multidirectional approach is used to detect roads with different materials, widths, intersection shapes, and degrees of noise, but sometimes it also interprets parking lots as road areas. Different from the multidirectional approach, the single-direction approach can detect roads with few mistakes, but each seed circle can only be used to detect one road. In accordance with this strategy, a RoadModeler prototype was developed. Both aerial and GeoEye-1 satellite images of seven different types of scenes with various road shapes in rural, downtown, and residential areas were used to evaluate the performance of the RoadModeler. The experimental results demonstrated that the RoadModeler is reliable and easy-to-use by a non-expert operator. Therefore, the RoadModeler is much better than the object-oriented classification. Its average road completeness, correctness, and quality achieved 94%, 97%, and 94%, respectively. These results are higher than those of Hu et al. (2007), which are 91%, 90%, and 85

  11. Road Accidents and Road Fatalities in Denmark from 1968 to 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2008-01-01

    and actions targeted to improve road safety have indeed led to a significant reduction in injury accidents and fatalities. Further research and more detailed data, especially on traffic volume and individual exposure are necessary in order to investigate properly a causal relation between the number...... of accidents and fatalities and given road safety initiatives.......The purpose of this article is to describe the road accidents and road fatalities in Denmark in the period 1968-2004. Only accidents registered by the police were used. Crude and gender & age specific fatality rates (counts per 1,000,000 inhabitants) were estimated for all road users...

  12. Executive report : toll roads, toll rates, and driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    State and federal research has examined toll roads and attempted to identify methods to make toll roads a more attractive option for drivers. Researchers examined various views of toll road transactions and concluded: : Truckers and trucking comp...

  13. Use of porous asphalt on major roads in Johannesburg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Horak, E

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Roads with high traffic volumes are synonymous with high road related noise levels. In Johannesburg road related noise pollution is recognised as a negative environmental impact. The Noise Pollution Unit of Johannesburg City Council regularly...

  14. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  15. Use of wood ash for road stabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerkvist, A.; Lind, B.

    2009-01-01

    Due to warmer winters in Sweden, the bearing capacity of forestry roads has become increasingly problematic in recent years. Road stabilization is needed in order to get timber out from the forests. This usually involves the addition of cement to the road body. However, wood ash is a possible substitute for cement because it has similar properties. Using wood ash has the added advantage of saving landfill space. This paper presented an ongoing laboratory study on leaching and mechanical stability, as well as frost-sensitivity using a 30 per cent ash addition to natural soils for reinforcing a forestry road near Timra in central Sweden. The road was being monitored with regard to environmental impact and mechanical properties. The paper discussed the potential of biofuel ashes and the increasing need to reinforce infrastructure due to climate change. The environmental impact from ash use in road constructions was then addressed. It was concluded that the application of ash in road construction would help to strengthen forest roads, make them more resistant to climatic change and render them accessible year-round. 32 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Investigating road safety management processes in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jähi, H. Muhlrad, N. Buttler, I. Gitelman, V. Bax, C. Dupont, E. Giustiniani, G. Machata, K. Martensen, H. Papadimitriou, E. Persia, L. Talbot, R. Vallet, G. & Yannis, G.

    2012-01-01

    The work package 1 of the EC FP7 project DaCoTA investigates road safety management processes in Europe. It has drafted a model to investigate the state of the art of road safety policy-making and management at the national level and to define “good practice”. The DaCoTA “good practice”

  17. Clear roads' safety effect on elderly drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Driving on roads that are covered with ice or snow is hazardous for all drivers, but there may be : disproportionally high risks for certain age groups on certain road types and different winter : maintenance practices may also have a greater influen...

  18. Distraction-related road traffic collisions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objectives: We aimed to prospectively study distraction-related road traffic collision injuries, their contributory factors, severity, and outcome. Methods: Data were prospectively collected on all hospitalized road traffic collision trauma patients in Al-Ain City who were drivers at the collision time over one and half years ...

  19. IMPACT OF ROAD TRANSPORT ON AGRICULTURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-09

    Mar 9, 2012 ... participation in road transport development should also be encouraged in the study area. Keywords: Rural Development, Marketing, Transportation, Agricultural Production & Road. Network. Introduction. Transport is regarded as an important factor involved in agricultural development all over the world.

  20. Rumble devices for road traffic safety

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jobson, AJ

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of rumble installations have been constructed on rural roads in South Africa and although no local accident data are available the provincial roads engineers consider them of value in alerting drives to the need for caution...

  1. Reduction of soil erosion on forest roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward R. Burroughs; John G. King

    1989-01-01

    Presents the expected reduction in surface erosion from selected treatments applied to forest road traveledways, cutslopes, fillslopes, and ditches. Estimated erosion reduction is expressed as functions of ground cover, slope gradient, and soil properties whenever possible. A procedure is provided to select rock riprap size for protection of the road ditch.

  2. IMPROVEMENT WORKS OF THE SCHRODINGER ROAD

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST-TFM; GSM 164478; ST-TFM Group; Tel. 72296; GSM 164478

    2000-01-01

    Division ST will proceed, as from Monday September 4, with improvement works of the SCHRÖDINGER road with the aim of facilitating the passing conditions of vehicles (see plan). These works will last for two weeks during which traffic will be forbidden on this section of road. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension.

  3. Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and Road Safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.L. & Polak, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    An ISA system consists of GPS to determine the car's position, a CD-ROM in the car containing information of a road network including the prevailing speed limit of each road section, and feedback to the driver, Experiments in Sweden are testing several options, from warning the driver, to resisting

  4. Forest roads: a synthesis of scientific information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann Gucinski; Michael J. Furniss; Robert R. Ziemer; Martha H. Brookes

    2001-01-01

    Effects of roads in forested ecosystems span direct physical and ecological ones (such as geomorphic and hydrologic effects), indirect and landscape level ones (such as effects on aquatic habitat, terrestrial vertebrates, and biodiversity conservation), and socioeconomic ones (such as passive-use value, economic effects on development and range management). Road...

  5. ROAD REPAIR WORKS ON THE MEYRIN SITE

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-TFM Group

    2001-01-01

    ST Division will proceed, as from Monday 23 July, in repairing some parts of roads on the Meyrin site (see drawing). This work will last for one week depending on the weather conditions and will cause some traffic hold ups during this period. Please follow the indications on the temporary road signs. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension.

  6. Road safety 'results focus' - ready to launch?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, FJJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of road safety interventions in South Africa are disappointing and the cost of road safety related casualties and damage and drain on public resources are possibly to the upper side of the typical range of 2 to 3 per cent of Gross...

  7. Quantification of Gravel Rural Road Sediment Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, B. A.; Myers Toman, E.

    2014-12-01

    Unbound rural roads are thought to be one of the largest anthropogenic sources of sediment reaching stream channels in small watersheds. This sediment deposition can reduce water quality in the streams negatively impacting aquatic habitat as well as impacting municipal drinking water sources. These roads are thought to see an increase in construction and use in southeast Ohio due to the expansion of shale gas development in the region. This study set out to quantify the amount of sediment these rural roads are able to produce. A controlled rain event of 12.7 millimeters of rain over a half hour period was used to drive sediment production over a 0.03 kilometer section of gravel rural road. These 8 segments varied in many characteristics and produced from 2.0 to 8.4 kilograms of sediment per 0.03 kilometers of road with the average production over the 8 segments being 5.5 kilograms of sediment. Sediment production was not strongly correlated with road segment slope but traffic was found to increase sediment production from 1.1 to 3.9 times as much sediment after traffic use. These results will help inform watershed scale sediment budgeting, and inform best management practices for road maintenance and construction. This study also adds to the understanding of the impacts of rural road use and construction associated with the changing land use from agricultural to natural gas extraction.

  8. Calculating Traffic based on Road Sensor Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, Rob; Gao, Fengnan; Hafkenscheid, Patrick; Idema, Reijer; Jetka, Tomasz; Guerra Ones, Valia; Rata, Debanshu; Sikora, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Road sensors gather a lot of statistical data about traffic. In this paper, we discuss how a measure for the amount of traffic on the roads can be derived from this data, such that the measure is independent of the number and placement of sensors, and the calculations can be performed quickly for

  9. Road, Paved, Unpaved, Socio-economic, Development.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    absence of good road infrastructure may undermine productive process and may further ... author's email: vicmoor2000@yahoo.com. 2Department of Geography and Regional Planning University Of Calabar, Nigeria. 83 ... construction of new roads and rehabilitation of existing ones(Umoren,2008). Most of the bitumen.

  10. Forest road sideslopes and soil conservation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny M. Grace

    2000-01-01

    Forest road sideslopes have been identified as one of the major sources of erosion losses from managed forest systems. Stabilization by vegetation has shown the greatest potential for mitigation of soil erosion on forest road sideslopes. Sediment and runoff production from a wood excelsior erosion mat, native species vegetative mix, and exotic species vegetative mix...

  11. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF EXISTING ROAD NETWORKS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-01-15

    Jan 15, 2013 ... Abstract. Road has been described as the life-blood of human civilisation. Social interaction and economic prosperity in space have been shaped by the road networks both at intra and inter regional levels. Consequently, it is regarded as one of the most important indices of economic, social and ...

  12. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, S.M.; Keith, V.F.; Spertzel, R.O.; De Avila, J.C.; O`Donnell, M.; Vann, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE`s internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex.

  13. Vulnerable road users are at greater risk during Ramadan -- results from road traffic surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Amber; Khan, Irum Qamar; Mir, Mohammad Umer; Moin, Anoosh; Jooma, Rashid

    2015-03-01

    To assess how the frequency, nature and outcome of road traffic crashes differ during the fasting month of Ramadan. The retrospective study was conducted in Karachi and comprised data from the Road Traffic Injury Surveillance Project which entailed information on all road traffic injury victims presenting to Emergency Departments in the city between September 2006 and September 2011. Data was analysed to find the frequency of road traffic crashes according to time of incident, road user group and survival. Ramadan and Non-Ramadan groups were compared with respect to time and frequency of incidents, road user group and mortality. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. There were 163,022 subjects from whom 13,640(8.36%) came during Ramadan and 149,382 (91.6%) during the non-Ramadan months. Frequency of road traffic crashes did not change significantly during Ramadan, but was clustered around the breaking of Fast and the Taravih prayers. The most commonly affected road user group was motorbike riders followed by pedestrians. Overall survival of the RTI victims was 96.1% with a mortality rate of 4.1% which was higher than the figure of 3.5% in the non-Ramadan period. Vulnerable road users were more frequently involved in road traffic injuries during Ramadan. Moreover, the frequency of crashes increased around evening which requires more careful planning of traffic controls, especially for the vulnerable road users.

  14. TOWARDS FINANCING AND PLANNING ROAD SAFETY AUDIT OPERATIONS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Adetunji ODELEYE, M.Sc.

    2000-01-01

    Finally, this paper suggests commissioning of a National Road Research Fund, with a view to developing an efficient road safety audit operational system. Also, the introduction of private initiatives and a Community-based Approach in road administration, as well as decentralization of road administration framework at all levels, will greatly help “engineer out” potentially unsafe features across Nigerian roads, towards a better road traffic environment in the 21st century.

  15. The road to harmony: How to share resources | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-26

    Jan 26, 2011 ... In response, the C&C partner hosted a series of participatory encounters between traditional leaders and Guatemala's environmental regulators. These workshops helped enlighten the public authorities about Indigenous attitudes toward the environment, and led to the creation of the Indigenous Peoples ...

  16. The road towards the international linear collider: Higgs, top ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ILC, independent of what the LHC will find, has been made in various studies in the past years [3–7]. The complementarity and the synergy of the two colliders and combined physics analyses has been discussed extensively in ref. [6]. A very important consideration with respect to the ILC physics case is the ques- tion as to ...

  17. BRICS: opportunities to improve road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I

    2014-06-01

    Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--are currently undergoing a deep epidemiological transition that is mainly driven by rapid economic growth and technological change. The changes being observed in the distribution of the burden of diseases and injuries--such as recent increases in the incidence of road traffic injuries--are matters of concern. BRICS may need stronger institutional capacity to address such changes in a timely way. In this paper, we present data on road traffic injuries in BRICS and illustrate the enormous challenge that these countries currently face in reducing the incidence of such injuries. There is an urgent need to improve road safety indicators in every country constituting BRICS. It is imperative for BRICS to invest in system-wide road safety interventions and reduce the mortality and morbidity from road traffic injuries.

  18. How is the older road users’ perception of risk constructed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Kjær, Marlene Rishøj

    2011-01-01

    with Danish senior citizens. The material is analysed with qualitative methods. The findings of the study indicate that older persons in this study tended to perceive risk as something external (e.g., bad infrastructure) that can sometimes be managed by internal means (e.g., skills). The results also indicate...... limitations but by perceiving other road users behaving dangerously. While the self-regulation practices adapted by the participants may have been responses to age-related changes, they were constructed as practices based on the driver’s skills, experience and preferences, and presented as responses...

  19. A statistical analysis of the impact of advertising signs on road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Papantoniou, Panagiotis; Voulgari, Chrisoula

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the impact of advertising signs on road safety. An exhaustive review of international literature was carried out on the effect of advertising signs on driver behaviour and safety. Moreover, a before-and-after statistical analysis with control groups was applied on several road sites with different characteristics in the Athens metropolitan area, in Greece, in order to investigate the correlation between the placement or removal of advertising signs and the related occurrence of road accidents. Road accident data for the 'before' and 'after' periods on the test sites and the control sites were extracted from the database of the Hellenic Statistical Authority, and the selected 'before' and 'after' periods vary from 2.5 to 6 years. The statistical analysis shows no statistical correlation between road accidents and advertising signs in none of the nine sites examined, as the confidence intervals of the estimated safety effects are non-significant at 95% confidence level. This can be explained by the fact that, in the examined road sites, drivers are overloaded with information (traffic signs, directions signs, labels of shops, pedestrians and other vehicles, etc.) so that the additional information load from advertising signs may not further distract them.

  20. 2008 annual CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Dear runners, The 2008 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 24 September at 6.00 p.m. This 5.4 km race consists of 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. Past races have attracted runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, with starting times staggered to ensure that (in theory) all runners finish together. However, if the popularity of the race continues to grow (95 runners took part last year), its format may be modified to a classic single start. For more information and to complete the online entry form, go to http://club-running.web.cern.ch

  1. Load Tracking in Road Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Čop

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available For the first time in history, remole moniloring and safekeepingof the assels is now possible also during road lransporl.These possibililies were enabled by developmelll of !he informaliontechnology during the last decade. Whereas such developmenlcontinues in a planned direction, !he influence of !heimproved and cheaper means of informal ion upon !he transporicompanies could be foreseen.This arlicle includes !he !ales/ guidelines for !ruck and loadmoniloring syslems develop men!. On the basis of lhese guidelines,!he role of users in !he rem ole monitoring syslems developmentis also presenled. In order lo express !heir problemsmore quickly and lo respond wilh grea/er efficiency, if may benecessmy for !hem lo gel basic knowledge aboul lelecommunicalionand informalics.

  2. Wohin führen die Neuen Seidenstraßen? Chinas ›Belt and Road Initiative‹

    OpenAIRE

    Stiftung, Asienhaus

    2017-01-01

    »China rief, und fast alle sind gekommen«, hieß es in Der Spiegel. Delegationen aus mehr als hundert Ländern versammelten sich Mitte Mai 2017 zum zweitägigen Belt and Road Forum on International Cooperation in Beijing – vier Jahre nach der ersten Ankündigung der Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) im September 2013, die auch als One Belt, One Road (OBOR) oder griffiger und mit historischer Reminiszenz als »neue Seidenstraßen-Initiative« bezeichnet wird. Damit de...

  3. Modernization of the Russian Automobile Road Network on the Base of Innovative Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Zhukov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main goal of the article is to build a conceptual model for the organization of effective functioning of the points of economic and innovative growth of the region in modern conditions, taking into account regional and municipal limitations of internal and external nature, with the aim of ensuring economic security, effective interaction of subjects of the "business-power" system Taking into account the influence of institutional factors. Methods: in the present study the following methods were used: systemic approach, methods of social diagnosis, comparative analysis, method of expert evaluations, and method of statistical processing of information. Results: the short characteristic of modern development and technical level of the Russian automobile roads network as the important part of the automobile roads material-technical base is presented. Realization process of the actual task putted by Russian President V.V. Putin to transport builders: two times increasing construction of automobile roads is analyzed. The reality of decision this task due to modernization roads economy material-technical base on the base of innovative technologies and progressive world experience in the field of roads construction is scientifically proved. Conclusions and Relevance: in spite of losing now in decision of the actual task putted by Russian President V.V. Putin to transport builders: two times increasing construction of automobile roads, nevertheless the real possibilities to reach the important aim still remain. It may be done only due to scientifically grounded modernization of the roads economy material-technical base on the base of innovative technologies and progressive world experience in the field of roads construction 

  4. A systems approach to managing R&D in the road infrastructure in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available . This thesis is aimed at the development of a systems-based R&D management model and tools for road engineering and shows that their implementation has a significant impact on R&D outputs. This study evaluated international best practice as well as the success...

  5. Linkages between unpaved forest roads and streambed sediment: why context matters in directing road restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Black, Tom A.; Thomas, Cameron; Luce, Charlie H.; Rieman, Bruce; Cissel, Richard; Carlson, Anne; Hendrickson, Shane; Archer, Eric K.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Unpaved forest roads remain a pervasive disturbance on public lands and mitigating sediment from road networks remains a priority for management agencies. Restoring roaded landscapes is becoming increasingly important for many native coldwater fishes that disproportionately rely on public lands for persistence. However, effectively targeting restoration opportunities requires a comprehensive understanding of the effects of roads across different ecosystems. Here, we combine a review and a field study to evaluate the status of knowledge supporting the conceptual framework linking unpaved forest roads with streambed sediment. Through our review, we specifically focused on those studies linking measures of the density of forest roads or sediment delivery with empirical streambed sediment measures. Our field study provides an example of a targeted effort of linking spatially explicit estimates of sediment production with measures of streambed sediment. Surprisingly, our review uncovered few studies (n = 8) that empirically tested the conceptual framework linking unpaved forest roads and streambed sediment, and the results varied considerably. Field results generally supported the conceptual model that unpaved forest roads can control streambed sediment quality, but demonstrated high-spatial variability in the effects of forest roads on streambed sediment and the need to address hotspots of sediment sources. The importance of context in the effects of forest roads is apparent in both our review and field data, suggesting the need for in situ studies to avoid misdirected restoration actions.

  6. Ultra Low Noise Poroelastic Road Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy A. Ejsmont

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Noise is one of the most important environmental problems related to road traffic. During the last decades, the noise emitted by the engines and powertrains of vehicles was greatly reduced and tires became a clearly dominant noise source. The article describes the concept of low noise poroelastic road surfaces that are composed of mineral and rubber aggregate bound by polyurethane resin. Those surfaces have a porous structure and are much more flexible than standard asphalt or cement concrete pavements due to high content of rubber aggregate and elastic binder. Measurements performed in several European countries indicate that such surfaces decrease tire/road noise between 7 dB and 12 dB with respect to reference surfaces such as dense asphalt concrete or stone matrix asphalt. Furthermore, poroelastic road surfaces ascertain the rolling resistance of car tires, which is comparable to classic pavements. One of the unforeseen properties of the poroelastic road surfaces is their ability to decrease the risks related to car fires with fuel spills. The article presents the road and laboratory results of noise, rolling resistance, and fire tests performed on a few types of poroelastic road surfaces.

  7. Continuous Road Network Generalization throughout All Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radan Šuba

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Until now, road network generalization has mainly been applied to the task of generalizing from one fixed source scale to another fixed target scale. These actions result in large differences in content and representation, e.g., a sudden change of the representation of road segments from areas to lines, which may confuse users. Therefore, we aim at the continuous generalization of a road network for the whole range, from the large scale, where roads are represented as areas, to mid- and small scales, where roads are represented progressively more frequently as lines. As a consequence of this process, there is an intermediate scale range where at the same time some roads will be represented as areas, while others will be represented as lines. We propose a new data model together with a specific data structure where for all map objects, a range of valid map scales is stored. This model is based on the integrated and explicit representation of: (1 a planar area partition; and (2 a linear road network. This enables the generalization process to include the knowledge and understanding of a linear network. This paper further discusses the actual generalization options and algorithms for populating this data structure with high quality vario-scale cartographic content.

  8. Index and query methods in road networks

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the index and query techniques on road network and moving objects which are limited to road network. Here, the road network of non-Euclidean space has its unique characteristics such that two moving objects may be very close in a straight line distance. The index used in two-dimensional Euclidean space is not always appropriate for moving objects on road network. Therefore, the index structure needs to be improved in order to obtain suitable indexing methods, explore the shortest path and acquire nearest neighbor query and aggregation query methods under the new index structures. Chapter 1 of this book introduces the present situation of intelligent traffic and index in road network, Chapter 2 introduces the relevant existing spatial indexing methods. Chapter 3-5 focus on several issues of road network and query, they involves: traffic road network models (see Chapter 3), index structures (see Chapter 4) and aggregate query methods (see Chapter 5). Finally, in Chapter 6, the book briefly de...

  9. Assessment of Road Infrastructures Pertaining to Malaysian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsuddin Norshakina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road Infrastructures contribute towards many severe accidents and it needs supervision as to improve road safety levels. The numbers of fatalities have increased annually and road authority should seriously consider conducting programs or activities to periodically monitor, restore of improve road infrastructure. Implementation of road safety audits may reduce fatalities among road users and maintain road safety at acceptable standards. This paper is aimed to discuss the aspects of road infrastructure in Malaysia. The research signifies the impact of road hazards during the observations and the impact of road infrastructure types on road accidents. The F050 (Jalan Kluang-Batu Pahat road case study showed that infrastructure risk is closely related with number of accident. As the infrastructure risk increase, the number of road accidents also increase. It was also found that different road zones along Jalan Kluang-Batu Pahat showed different level of intersection volume due to number of road intersection. Thus, it is hoped that by implementing continuous assessment on road infrastructures, it might be able to reduce road accidents and fatalities among drives and the community.

  10. Tools for road infrastructure safety management in poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kustra Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road safety can be improved by implementing principles of road safety infrastructure management (RIS on the network of European roads as adopted in the Directive. The document recommends that member states should use tried and tested tools for road safety management such as: road safety impact assessment (RIA, road safety audit (RSA, safety management on existing road networks including road safety ranking (RSM and road safety inspection (RSI. The objective of the methods is to help road authorities to take rational decisions in the area of road safety and road infrastructure safety and understand the consequences occurring in the particular phases of road life cycle. To help with assessing the impact of a road project on the safety of related roads, a method was developed for long-term forecasts of accidents and accident cost estimation as well as a risk classification to identify risks that are not acceptable risks. With regard to road safety audits and road safety inspection, a set of principles was developed to identify risks and the basic classification of mistakes and omissions.

  11. Characteristics of the auto users and non-users of central Texas toll roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    As toll road usage increases to finance new road infrastructure or add capacity to existing road infrastructure, the : question of who does and does not use toll roads becomes increasingly important to toll road developers, financiers, : Traffic and ...

  12. 75 FR 49459 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration A-570-912 Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less...: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. EFFECTIVE DATE: August...

  13. Non-Official Roads Dilemma in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Arima, Eugenio; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Caldas, Marcellus; Brandao, Amintas de O., Jr.; Araujo de Souza, Francisco Kennedy; Walker, Robert

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of this millennium, "non-official" roads predominate in Amazonia. The opening of these roads, a phenomenon that has not been studied in depth, represents a major dilemma - it generates environmental and social impacts, but it helps to reduce the isolation of the communities in Amazonia and to improve the quality of life for those rural populations. The combined positive and negative aspects of this dilemma mean that it is a matter of crucial importance for the government at last to do a proper job in building these roads; if this is disregarded, in the future, the environment and the Brazilians living in that region will be at risk.

  14. Reducing Future International Chemical and Biological Dangers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddal, Chad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Patricia Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foley, John T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The International Biological and Chemical Threat Reduction Program at Sandia National Laboratories is developing a 15 - year technology road map in support the United States Government efforts to reduce international chemical and biological dangers . In 2017, the program leadership chartered an analysis team to explore dangers in the future international chemical and biological landscape through engagements with national security experts within and beyond Sandia to gain a multidisciplinary perspective on the future . This report offers a hi gh level landscape of future chemical and biological dangers based upon analysis of those engagements and provides support for further technology road map development.

  15. Sustainable road safety: a new (?) neighbourhood road pattern that saves VRU lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Vicky Feng; Lovegrove, Gord

    2012-01-01

    Both the UN (2007) and World Health Organizations (2004) have declared the enormous social and economic burden imposed on society by injuries due to road collisions as a major global problem. While the road safety problem is not new, this prominent global declaration sends an important signal of frustration regarding progress to date on reducing road collisions. It is clear that governments, communities, businesses and the public must discover ways of reducing this burden, especially as it relates to vulnerable road users (VRUs), typically meaning pedestrian and bicyclist road users. Recent comparisons of global VRU collisions statistics suggest that, in addition to mixed land use density, the layout of neighbourhood roads plays a vital role in the encouragement of walkable, safe and quiet, yet accessible and sustainable communities. The purpose of this paper was to: The Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) Program has produced a number of innovative land use and transportation initiatives for vehicular road users as well as non-vehicular VRUs. Following from the Dutch initiatives, these new 3-way offset, and fused grid neighbourhood patterns appear to not only have positive effects in encouraging mode split (i.e. increasing walking and bicycling, and transit), slowing traffic, and reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions; but also, to hold potential to improve road safety. To test the road safety hypothesis, UBCO researchers evaluated the level of road safety relative to five neighbourhood patterns - grid, culs-de-sac, and Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) (or limited access), 3-way offset, and fused grid networks. Analysis using standard transportation planning methodology revealed that they would maintain both mobility and accessibility. Analysis using standard road safety analysis methodology further revealed that these 3-way offset, and fused grid patterns would significantly improve road safety levels by as much as 60% compared to prevalent patterns (i

  16. An Evaluation of Forest Road Standards and Road Gradients in Turkey in View of FAO Criteria and Some EU Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadık Çağlar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest roads are one of the inevitable infrastructures in conducting forestry operations. Around 1000 km under standardized forest roads have been largely repaired in addition to construction of 1000 km new forest roads in Turkey. Implementing uniform road gradient along the road sections is very important in terms of transportation techniques and safety, as well as the geometrical standardizations of the forest road. In this study, current road standards, longitudinal gradient values and their limitations in forest road constructions recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO and some Europe Union (EU countries were examined. Firstly, the forest road standards and their gradient values have been defined in Turkish forest road construction practices. Afterwards, the forest road standards and the gradient values applied by FAO and some EU countries were presented, and finally, the specifications were examined by comparing them with the current practices in Turkish forestry.

  17. Overview of the neural network based technique for monitoring of road condition via reconstructed road profiles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngwangwa, HM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bank funds. Besides, HDM model still require road condition parameters obtained from good road inventory (Tsunokawa, Ul-Islam, 2007) often collected through visual inspections or using one of a limited number of instrumented vehicles. It is therefore..., 2005). Secondly, HDM is largely viewed as World Bank tool for evaluating the viability of road maintenance, rehabilitation and construction projects, and as such, it might be largely used in situations where justification is required to solicit World...

  18. Infiltration, erosion, and vegetation recovery following road obliteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. B. Foltz; H. Rhee; K. A. Yanosek

    2007-01-01

    Forest roads are obliterated to lower the risks of surface erosion and mass failures. One purpose of the road obliteration is to return the compacted forest roads to productive pre-road conditions, i.e., a forest floor with high infiltration capacity, low interrill erodibility, and high vegetation ground cover. It is important to know how these characteristics recover...

  19. Speed limit-related issues on gravel roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    In the United States, there are nearly 1.6 million miles of unpaved roads. Total length of unpaved roads in Kansas is : about 98,000 miles, of which about 78,000 miles are gravel roads. Most of the gravel roads are not typically posted : with speed l...

  20. Road Situation and the Development of Katsina State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts an assessment of the road transport situation in the state based on the road network, road quality, vehicular movement and other infrastructures. It was found that there are many problems facing road transportation in the State. These problems are multi-faceted and range from high traffic, bad condition ...

  1. Risk factors for road traffic accidents in Gulu municipality, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been no published study on RTA in Gulu municipality. There is a high frequency of RTA in Gulu municipality with poor road design and inadequate knowledge on road safety precaution among road users. Objectives: To establish the causes of Road Traffic Accidents (RTA), establish the safety measures in place ...

  2. Automated Systems for Road Safety control in a Developing World

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... 1.62 Indian hemp. The role of poor sight in accident causation has also been well documented. With the high rate of road mishaps and road congestion, there lies a great vacuum of Communication Bridge between the daily road users and the. Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC). There is an urgent need ...

  3. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...

  4. pliance with road safety signs among commercial mo- torcyclists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    2011-09-01

    Sep 1, 2011 ... Disobeying road signals was one of the risk taking ac- tions reported among motorcyclists in an in-depth study in London which put the rider and other road users at risk.11 In Nigeria, commercial motorcyclists have been observed to pay little attention to road safety regulations leading to road traffic ...

  5. Provincial road condition and round wood timber transport in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The context of the study is the concern over declining provincial road conditions due to insufficient government funding for road maintenance. The roads are used by a wide variety of commercial and private interests that contribute a broad range of axle loads. There is no information available on the use of these roads, nor ...

  6. Recent findings related to measuring and modeling forest road erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Elliot; R. B. Foltz; P. R. Robichaud

    2009-01-01

    Sediment is the greatest pollutant of forest streams. In the absence of wildfire, forest road networks are usually the main source of sediment in forest watersheds. An understanding of forest road erosion processes is important to aid in predicting sediment delivery from roads to streams. The flowpath followed by runoff is the key to understanding road erosion...

  7. Urban Road Transportation in Nigeria From 1960 To 2006 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    populated Northern Region. The roads in. Nigeria were classified into three (3) groups. Federal Roads or Trunk A – 8,800 kms (5,500mls), this represented the skeleton on which the country's road system was built. This trunk represented the main North-South arteries and five. East-West arteries. The Trunk B roads, of.

  8. Connected Vehicle Applications : Road Weather Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-16

    Connected vehicle applications related to road weather management and enabling systems are being designed to collect and take advantage of connected vehicle data and information transmissions to increase situational awareness, improve roadway levels ...

  9. Integrated Modeling for Road Condition Prediction (IMRCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-17

    Intelligent transportation system deployments have enabled great advances in operational awareness and response based on the data they gather on the current state of the roadways. The next step in decision support is to forecast road conditions and b...

  10. Gravel road paving guidelines, technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The percentage of gravel roads in rural areas in Kansas is higher than most states. A wide variation of traffic volumes across different regions and variations of local conditions and scenarios present a great challenge for local agencies to determin...

  11. Allegheny County-Owned Roads Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the roads owned by Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  12. Road weather management performance measures : 2012 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    In 2007, the Road Weather Management Program (RWMP) conducted a study with stakeholders from the transportation and meteorological communities to define eleven performance measures that would enable the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to determ...

  13. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... complete any roads providing access to the subdivision, submit copies of any bonds or escrow agreements which have been posted to guarantee completion thereof. (c) Submit copies of any bonds or escrow...

  14. Empirical Bayes methods in road safety research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelesang, R.A.W.

    1997-01-01

    Road safety research is a wonderful combination of counting fatal accidents and using a toolkit containing prior, posterior, overdispersed Poisson, negative binomial and Gamma distributions, together with positive and negative regression effects, shrinkage estimators and fiercy debates concerning

  15. Vision Hampton Roads : public responsiveness summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    All comments submitted to Vision Hampton Roads were reviewed prior to addition to the final : document. Using this Public Responsiveness Summary, citizens will be able to see and track how : their engagement has impacted results. On the following pag...

  16. Estimation of Turkish road transport emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, Seref

    2007-01-01

    Using the COPERT III program, an inventory of Turkish road transport emissions was calculated and the contributions of road transport to global and local air pollutant emissions were examined for the year 2004. It was observed that passenger cars are the main source of CO, HC, and Pb emissions while heavy duty vehicles are mainly responsible for NO x , particulate matter (PM), and SO 2 emissions. Taking the emissions for the year 2004 as the baseline, a parametric study was conducted to determine the emission reduction potentials of different road transport strategies. The results indicated that the following road transport strategies; fleet renewal, promotion of public transportation, and faster urban traffic speed are very effective strategies for reducing regulated emissions and fuel consumption (FC) from a technical point of view. It was also noted that replacement of two-stroke motorcycles with four-stroke motorcycles is as effective as fleet renewal in reducing HC emissions

  17. Review of road user costs and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) uses road user costs (RUC) to calculate incentive or disincentive compensation for contractors, quantify project-specific liquidated damages, select the ideal sequencing of a project, and forecast...

  18. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  19. HCEI Road Map: 2011 Edition (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braccio, R.; Finch, P.

    2011-08-01

    This road map outlines the 2011 key goals and strategies of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, was founded based on a Memorandum of Understanding between the State of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy in 2008.

  20. Kansas Non-State Road System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a single centerline road network representation of 120,000 miles of the Kansas non-state highway system with limited attribution. It includes rural...

  1. The place of digital technology on the IEA's energy road-maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Naceur, Kamel

    2017-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) has drafted road-maps for the next four decades in collaboration with public and private producers and consumers of energy. For each type of energy, these road-maps indicate the key elements for compliance with the objectives of the Paris Climate Agreement. They emphasize the role of digital technology, in particular smart grids, in the transition toward a more digital and more intelligent energy system. The conditions necessary for successfully transforming this sector are mapped out, while attention is called to the risks inherent in this transition

  2. A subharmonic detrending or data-smoothing approach for longitudinal road profile measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Commonly used figure-of-merits for longitudinal road profiles such as the International Roughness Index (IRI) and the Ride Number (RN) are based on statistical properties. Raw measured longitudinal road profile data may contain large trending components especially when the measurements are made...... without significantly corrupting the short wavelength content of the profile data. The method called sub-harmonic detrending works by fitting sub-harmonic sinusoids to the data followed by circular filtering in order to remove the trend. The method is also well suited for data-smoothing....

  3. The potential of bioash for utilization in road construction in eastern Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagvozda, Martina; Dimter, Sanja; Rukavina, Tatjana

    2017-12-01

    In recent years usage of biomass as energy source has intensified in eastern Croatia. Newly built biomass power plants generate great amounts of bioash that is being disposed at landfills. Due to its favorable properties bioashes could be reused as alternative materials in road construction or road fundation. Therefore, research on application of bioashes in construction industry is being conducted at Faculty of Civil Engineering in Osijek. The main motivation behind this research, in a form of biomass and bioash production in eastern Croatia as well as international research on potential application of this types of bioashes, is show in this paper.

  4. CERN Road Race | 1 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 1 October at 18:15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter for free and each child will receive a medal. More information, and the online entry form, can be fo...

  5. CERN Road Race | 7 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke, CERN Running Club

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday, 7 October at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over three laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 minutes to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all the runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over one lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judging best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by the registration fee of 10 CHF. Children are free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and t...

  6. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  7. Structuring of Road Traffic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planko Rožić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic traffic count on the Croatian road network hasbeen carried out for more than three decades in different ways.During this period a large number of automatic traffic countershave been installed, and they operate on different principles.The traffic count has been analyzed from the aspect of vehicleclassification. The count results can be only partly comparedsince they yield different structures of traffic flows. Special analysisrefers to the classification of vehicles by automatic trafficcounters.During the research, a database has been formed with physicalelements of vehicles of over five thousand vehicle types. Theresearch results prove that the vehicle length only is not sufficientfor the classification of vehicles, the way it is used in thepresent automatic traffic counts, but rather the number of axles,the wheelbase as well as the front and rear overhangs needto be considered as well. Therefore, the detector system shouldapply also the detector of axles.The results have been presented that were obtained as partof the program TEST- Technological, research, developmentproject supported by the Minist1y of Science, Education andSport.

  8. The Road to Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Keel, William C

    2007-01-01

    The formation of galaxies is one of the greatest puzzles in astronomy, the solution is shrouded in the depths of space and time, but has profound implications for the universe we observe today. The book discusses the beginnings of the process from cosmological observations and calculations, considers the broad features of galaxies that we need to explain and what we know of their later history. The author compares the competing theories for galaxy formation and considers the progress expected from new generations of powerful telescopes both on earth and in space. In this second edition the author has retained the observationally-based approach of the first edition, a feature which was particularly well-reviewed: Writing in Nature, Carlton Baugh noted in February 2003 that “It is refreshing, in a market dominated by theorists, to come across a book on galaxy formation written from an observational perspective. The Road to Galaxy Formation should prove to be a handy primer on observations for graduate student...

  9. Road accident rates: strategies and programmes for improving road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, K; Goniewicz, M; Pawłowski, W; Fiedor, P

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the problem of road accident rates is one of the most important health and social policy issues concerning the countries in all continents. Each year, nearly 1.3 million people worldwide lose their life on roads, and 20-50 million sustain severe injuries, the majority of which require long-term treatment. The objective of the study was to identify the most frequent, constantly occurring causes of road accidents, as well as outline actions constituting a basis for the strategies and programmes aiming at improving traffic safety on local and global levels. Comparative analysis of literature concerning road safety was performed, confirming that although road accidents had a varied and frequently complex background, their causes have changed only to a small degree over the years. The causes include: lack of control and enforcement concerning implementation of traffic regulation (primarily driving at excessive speed, driving under the influence of alcohol, and not respecting the rights of other road users (mainly pedestrians and cyclists), lack of appropriate infrastructure and unroadworthy vehicles. The number of fatal accidents and severe injuries, resulting from road accidents, may be reduced through applying an integrated approach to safety on roads. The strategies and programmes for improving road traffic should include the following measures: reducing the risk of exposure to an accident, prevention of accidents, reduction in bodily injuries sustained in accidents, and reduction of the effects of injuries by improvement of post-accident medical care.

  10. Iranian road traffic injury project: assessment of road traffic injuries in Iran in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi, Ali; Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Sabbagh, Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-05-01

    To assess the status of road traffic injuries in Iran. The retrospective study was conducted in Iran and comprised all reported traffic accidents from March 2011 to March 2012 that were recorded in the national traffic accident database. The information collected included demographic data specific to road traffic accidents and injuries. The data was summarised and presented using frequencies and percentages. There were a total of 452192 road traffic accidents with 252246 victims in the one-year period. The highest number of accidents, 110348(47%), involved individuals in the 15-30 year age group. Among the gender-identified injured, 206171(78.4%) were male and 56639 (21.6%) were female. Besides, 298750(73.2%) accidents took place between 6am and 6pm. In terms of location, the province of Semnan had the highest rates of injury and death (913 per 100000 and 41per 100000, respectively), while the lowest rate of injury was in Alborz (131 per 100000) and lowest rate of death was in Tehran (5 per 100000). The majority of accidents 301516(66.7%) occurred on inner city roads. Although the total number of victims in inner city roads (180893) was higher than outer the city roads (2.2:1), the number of deaths (8615) on outer roads was higher (3:1). Road traffic injuries placed a heavy burden on the Iranian population, especially on young men. Comprehensive strategies and policies must be implemented for effective prevention of road accidents in Iran.

  11. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...... surfaces in use have changed - for instance to road surface types with less noise from wheel passages. Because of this, a co-operation between the road administrations of the Nordic countries (abbreviated NMF) decided to construct a portable instrument to be used on selections of traffic roads within...

  12. The Relationship between Road Design and Driving Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abele, Liva; Møller, Mette

    2011-01-01

    -driving simulator experiment. Speed and lateral position were used as performance indicators. The results indicated that shoulders might not be applied to decrease the speed on the experimental road stretch, but their presence cause drivers to drive closer to the road edge, hence eliminating the probability of head....... Improving road infrastructure safety can be achieved by making roads forgiving and self-explaining. This could be done by clarifying the road design characteristics for each road category. The effect on driver behavior by varying road-shoulders and presence of roadside trees was tested by means of a fixed...

  13. 76 FR 76810 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; Austin Straubel International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; Austin Straubel International Airport, Green Bay, WI AGENCY: Federal Aviation... the Austin Straubel International Airport, Green Bay, WI. Brown County, as sponsor of the airport, is... in exchange for the village vacating 2 parcels of road and road right-of- way totaling 9.367 acres...

  14. Characterization of Jos City Road Network, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide Akinwumi Oluwole

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ἀe performance of road network depends on its topological characteristics which help to deḀne its connectiv-ity. ἀis paper analyses the topological characteristic of Jos city road network and its bearing on traᴀc ᰀow situations. Simple graph theoretic measures oᬀered the framework on which the problem was approached. ἀe study requires the abstraction and analysis of the topological structure by selection of certain variables relating to the road connectivity. ἀese include the Beta, Gamma and Alpha index, the PI, Cyclomatic number, and the spread and density of the network. Information on these variables was obtained through the use of vector data model to abstract the road network graph from the Quick-bird satellite imagery used for the study. Results of the Ḁndings reveal that, the road network of Jos City Centre as a whole have achieved an average level of connectivity, showing Beta index values of 1.4049, Gamma index value of 47.06%, Alpha index Value of 20.63%; and a pi and cyclomatic number of 24.74 and 165 respectively, the spread of the network is moderate exhibiting a value of 23, even though some areas have more concentration of roads than the others; and has a road density of 52 links per km2. Based on these Ḁndings, the need for construction of new roads is imperative so as to improve the eᴀciency of connectivity and accessibility within the city.

  15. Use of natural resources for sustainable roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ” such as industrial waste materials, mine wastes, building demolition rubble, significant energy savings can be made. Essentially these materials are already pre-processed and the energy required to prepare them for construction is significantly less than... of natural resources during the construction, operation, maintenance and rehabilitation of the road network. Road construction is, by its nature, a highly resource intensive and material dependent industry that utilizes large quantities of construction...

  16. Mongolia: Road Sector Development to 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    Mongolia’s growth is set to accelerate in the next decade, as its vast mining resources start to be put into large-scale production. This has greatly improved its prospects for prosperity and poverty reduction. However, to realize its full potential, Mongolia will need to transform its society, economy, and administration. This report discusses how the context of road sector policy and road infrastructure investments will change, and the ways the sector can best prepare to fulfill its new rol...

  17. Road rage among drug dependent patients

    OpenAIRE

    Benavidez, Daniela C.; Flores, Antonio M.; Álvarez, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    Producción Científica The consumption of alcohol, cocaine and cannabis is associated with aggressive behaviour, being a victim of injuries from various causes, and suffering traffic accidents. On the other hand, there is a significant association between road rage and traffic accidents, yet this has not been studied in persons suffering a substance dependence disorder. This study analyses the prevalence of road rage in substance dependent patients undergoing treatment. 100 pati...

  18. Road Signs: Geosemiotics and Human Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamid, Salmiah Binti Abdul

    to answer the question of whether road signs have significant impact on human behaviour when moving in an urban environment. Selected cities in Denmark and Scotland were used as study areas in this research project. The methods were conducted within urban settings as well as controlled settings...... were adapted from geosemiotics and mobility empirical studies. This thesis aims to be used as a guideline for the urban planning of a Malaysian road traffic sign system in the future....

  19. Cost of Road Traffic Accidents in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed A. Ismail; Samar M. M. Abdelmageed

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to estimate the cost of road traffic accidents in Egypt. The Human Capital (HC) approach, specifically the Gross-Loss-of-Output methodology, is adopted for estimation. Moreover, cost values obtained by previous national literature are updated using the inflation rates. The results indicate an estimated cost of road traffic accidents in Egypt of approximately 10 billion Egyptian Pounds (about $US 1.8 billion) for the year 2008. In addition, it is expected th...

  20. Road traffic noise and children's inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyde, Kjell Vegard; Krog, Norun Hjertager; Oftedal, Bente; Magnus, Per; Øverland, Simon; Stansfeld, Stephen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Vrijheid, Martine; de Castro Pascual, Montserrat; Aasvang, Gunn Marit

    2017-11-21

    An increasing number of children are exposed to road traffic noise levels that may lead to adverse effects on health and daily functioning. Childhood is a period of intense growth and brain maturation, and children may therefore be especially vulnerable to road traffic noise. The objective of the present study was to examine whether road traffic noise was associated with reported inattention symptoms in children, and whether this association was mediated by sleep duration. This study was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Parental reports of children's inattention at age 8 were linked to modelled levels of residential road traffic noise. We investigated the association between inattention and noise exposure during pregnancy (n = 1934), noise exposure averaged over 5 years (age 3 to 8 years; n = 1384) and noise exposure at age 8 years (n = 1384), using fractional logit response models. The participants were children from Oslo, Norway. An association with inattention at age 8 years was found for road traffic noise exposure at age 8 years (coef = .0083, CI = [.0012, .0154]; 1.2% point increase in inattention score per 10 dB increase in noise level), road traffic noise exposure average for the last 5 years (coef = .0090, CI = [.0016, .0164]; 1.3% point increase/10 dB), and for pregnancy road traffic noise exposure for boys (coef = .0091, CI = [.0010, .0171]), but not girls (coef = -.0021, CI = [-.0094, .0053]). Criteria for doing mediation analyses were not fulfilled. Results indicate that road traffic noise has a negative impact on children's inattention. We found no mediation by sleep duration.

  1. Road repair works on the Meyrin site

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    ST Division will proceed, as from Monday 15th of September, in repairing some parts of roads on the Meyrin site (see drawing). This work will last for three weeks depending on the weather conditions and will cause some traffic hold ups during this period. Please follow the indications on the temporary road signs. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension. ST-CE and ST-FM Groups GSM 160224 - 163976

  2. Trace metals in urban road dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randazzo, Loredana Antonella; Dongarra, Gaetano; Manno, Emanuela; Varrica, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    Heavy metals associated with urban road dust is a matter for concern as they may have serious effects on biological systems. The bioavailability and potential toxicity of metals bound to urban dust is related to the specific chemical form of the element. In the present article are reported the determinations and chemical speciation of As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn in six samples of road dust collected within the urban centre and the outskirts of Palermo [it

  3. Ensemble forecasts of road surface temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Bližňák, Vojtěch; Sedlák, Pavel; Zacharov, Petr, jr.; Pešice, Petr; Škuthan, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 187, 1 May (2017), s. 33-41 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01031509 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ensemble prediction * road surface temperature * road weather forecast Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809516307311

  4. The quality of life in residential areas : an introduction to a film made by the Foundation for Film and Science, in co-operation with the Institute for Road Safety Research SWOV, supported by the Royal Dutch Touring Club ANWB. Paper presented at the 13th AIT/FIA/PIARC International Study Week on Traffic Engineering and Safety, Montreux, 11-16 September 1978.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1978-01-01

    The films purpose is to review what is known about housing-quality social activities and road safety. These aspects constitute the so-called quality of life in residential areas. The possible influence is examined of several principles of urban planning on the quality of life in residential areas.

  5. The impact of subjective road safety on parents’ feeling of risk and their home-school travel choices. Paper presented at Walk21-XI, “Getting Communities Back on their Feet : Promising approaches to support walking for a sustainable future”, The 11th International Conference on Walking and Liveable Communities, The Hague, The Netherlands, November 16-19, 2010.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesken, J. & Hoekstra, T.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed the question whether subjective and objective information about road safety affects parents' feeling of risk, and consequently their decision on how to take their children to school. Twelve scenarios were developed, each describing a fictitious city in the Netherlands. In each

  6. Inhalation of road dust by human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takishima, T; Nakamura, M; Sasaki, M; Miyano, M; Yamaya, M; Sasaki, H

    1987-11-01

    We measured pneumomagnetic field strength (PMFS) in 42 healthy control subjects living in districts of Northern Japan with low levels of road dust pollution and in 39 healthy subjects living in areas with high levels of road dust pollution. Suspended road dust produced by studded tires increases from 30 micrograms/m3 during the summer season to levels as high as 400 micrograms/m3 during the snow season in the downtown areas of Sendai, Japan. Road dust retained in the lungs, containing 3% iron, was magnetized from the surface of the chest wall, and PMFS was measured. Three to 5 sequential PMFS measurements were made in each subject in March and October of 1984 and 1985, and in March 1986. The PMFS in control subjects in March 1984 was 37 +/- 14 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and did not significantly differ from the PMFS in October 1984 or that in March 1985. In March 1984, the PMFS of the subjects in highly polluted areas was 95 +/- 100 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and was significantly higher than that of control subjects (p less than 0.01) and subsequently decreased in March 1985 and in March 1986, corresponding to a decrease in suspended road dust brought about by a campaign to eliminate the use of studded tires. Our findings suggest that some road dust caused by studded tires is retained in the lungs.

  7. A Review of Roads Data Development Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Ubukawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear need for a public domain data set of road networks with high special accuracy and global coverage for a range of applications. The Global Roads Open Access Data Set (gROADS, version 1, is a first step in that direction. gROADS relies on data from a wide range of sources and was developed using a range of methods. Traditionally, map development was highly centralized and controlled by government agencies due to the high cost or required expertise and technology. In the past decade, however, high resolution satellite imagery and global positioning system (GPS technologies have come into wide use, and there has been significant innovation in web services, such that a number of new methods to develop geospatial information have emerged, including automated and semi-automated road extraction from satellite/aerial imagery and crowdsourcing. In this paper we review the data sources, methods, and pros and cons of a range of road data development methods: heads-up digitizing, automated/semi-automated extraction from remote sensing imagery, GPS technology, crowdsourcing, and compiling existing data sets. We also consider the implications for each method in the production of open data.

  8. In–Service Road Safety Audits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mendoza–Díaz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A road safety audit is a formal analysis that seeks to guarantee that an existing or future road fulfills optimal safety criteria, conducted by a team of experts who se members are independent of the road project. It can be carried out in one, several or all of the stages of the project (planning, design, construction, before opening the road to traffic, and operation. The development and implementation of a road safety audit process is one of the strategies that have been applied in Mexico in recent years to reduce road accidents and their associated consequences. The objective of this work is to present the procedures that have been developed and applied in Mexico, as well as the benefits and problems that have been encountered. The application of those procedures to a specific case is also shown. Emphasis is made in the audit of high ways in the operation stage, which is the type that greater application and development has had in Mexico.

  9. Road Lane Detection Robust to Shadows Based on a Fuzzy System Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Baek, Na Rae; Cho, Se Woon; Kim, Ki Wan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-10-28

    Recently, autonomous vehicles, particularly self-driving cars, have received significant attention owing to rapid advancements in sensor and computation technologies. In addition to traffic sign recognition, road lane detection is one of the most important factors used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles for maintaining the safety of semi-autonomous and fully autonomous systems. Unlike traffic signs, road lanes are easily damaged by both internal and external factors such as road quality, occlusion (traffic on the road), weather conditions, and illumination (shadows from objects such as cars, trees, and buildings). Obtaining clear road lane markings for recognition processing is a difficult challenge. Therefore, we propose a method to overcome various illumination problems, particularly severe shadows, by using fuzzy system and line segment detector algorithms to obtain better results for detecting road lanes by a visible light camera sensor. Experimental results from three open databases, Caltech dataset, Santiago Lanes dataset (SLD), and Road Marking dataset, showed that our method outperformed conventional lane detection methods.

  10. Road Lane Detection Robust to Shadows Based on a Fuzzy System Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Minh Hoang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, autonomous vehicles, particularly self-driving cars, have received significant attention owing to rapid advancements in sensor and computation technologies. In addition to traffic sign recognition, road lane detection is one of the most important factors used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles for maintaining the safety of semi-autonomous and fully autonomous systems. Unlike traffic signs, road lanes are easily damaged by both internal and external factors such as road quality, occlusion (traffic on the road, weather conditions, and illumination (shadows from objects such as cars, trees, and buildings. Obtaining clear road lane markings for recognition processing is a difficult challenge. Therefore, we propose a method to overcome various illumination problems, particularly severe shadows, by using fuzzy system and line segment detector algorithms to obtain better results for detecting road lanes by a visible light camera sensor. Experimental results from three open databases, Caltech dataset, Santiago Lanes dataset (SLD, and Road Marking dataset, showed that our method outperformed conventional lane detection methods.

  11. Technology Road-map Update for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This Technology Road-map Update provides an assessment of progress made by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) in the development of the six systems selected when the original Technology Road-map was published in 2002. More importantly, it provides an overview of the major R and D objectives and milestones for the coming decade, aiming to achieve the Generation IV goals of sustainability, safety and reliability, economic competitiveness, proliferation resistance and physical protection. Lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident are taken into account to ensure that Generation IV systems attain the highest levels of safety, with the development of specific safety design criteria that are applicable across the six systems. Accomplishing the ten-year R and D objectives set out in this new Road-map should allow the more advanced Generation IV systems to move towards the demonstration phase. (authors)

  12. A new road map for the research in photovoltaic electricity production in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destruel, P.; Chataing, H.

    2009-01-01

    Dealing with the new road map published in 2009 by the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology development Organization) for the research activity in photovoltaic electricity production in Japan from now until 2030, this brief embassy report first outlines the need for such a new road map as Japan's international competitiveness is more and more challenged: it only possesses 10% of the installed power in the world (50% in 2003) and ranks now in sixth position in terms of annual installed power. Beside this trend, environmental challenges and CO 2 emission reduction objectives, as well as oil price increase, have driven the NEDO to review its road map sooner as foreseen. The author describes the contents of the three main axis which have been defined for the photovoltaic development: photovoltaic profitability improvement (grid parity objective by 2030, production cost reduction), broadening of photovoltaic uses and applications, development and competitiveness of Japanese industries

  13. Speed enforcement detection devices for preventing road traffic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C; Willis, C; Hendrikz, J K; Bellamy, N

    2006-04-19

    only and five reported speed outcomes only. All but one study reported an absolute reduction in pre/post average speeds. A pre/post reduction in the proportion of speeding vehicles ranged across studies from 5% to 70% depending on the speed threshold set. Pre/post reductions of 50% to 65% were reported in the proportion of speeding vehicles travelling >15 km/h over the speed limit. Compared with controls, the relative improvement was from 1% to 15% for average speed and from 14% to 65% for percent speeding. All studies reporting crash outcomes reported an absolute pre/post reduction in all crashes and injury related crashes. In the vicinity of camera sites these pre/post reductions ranged from 14% to 72% for all crashes, 8% to 46% for injury crashes, and 40% to 45% for crashes resulting in fatalities or serious injuries. More generalised effects over wider areas showed an absolute pre/post crash reduction ranging from 9% to 35%, 7% to 30% for all injury crashes and 13% to 58% for crashes resulting in fatalities alone, or in combination with serious injuries. The studies of longer duration showed that these positive trends were either maintained or improved with time. Compared with controls, the relative improvement in pre/post crash numbers resulting in any type of injury ranged from 5% to 36%. Despite the methodological limitations of the studies reviewed, the consistency of reported positive reductions in speed and crash outcomes across all studies suggest that SEDs are a promising intervention for reducing the number of road traffic injuries and deaths. More studies of a scientifically rigorous nature are necessary to provide a stronger evidence base that these interventions are worthwhile. There is a need for international harmonisation of data collection methods, including standards on how best to measure speeds and collect crash data, over lengthy intervention and follow-up periods, as well as some consensus as to the expression of outcomes in studies, so that

  14. Do roads reduce painted turtle (Chrysemys picta populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Dorland

    Full Text Available Road mortality is thought to be a leading cause of turtle population decline. However, empirical evidence of the direct negative effects of road mortality on turtle population abundance is lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide a strong test of the prediction that roads reduce turtle population abundance. While controlling for potentially confounding variables, we compared relative abundance of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta in 20 ponds in Eastern Ontario, 10 as close as possible to high traffic roads (Road sites and 10 as far as possible from any major roads (No Road sites. There was no significant effect of roads on painted turtle relative abundance. Furthermore, our data do not support other predictions of the road mortality hypothesis; we observed neither a higher relative frequency of males to females at Road sites than at No Road sites, nor a lower average body size of turtles at Road than at No Road sites. We speculate that, although roads can cause substantial adult mortality in turtles, other factors, such as release from predation on adults and/or nests close to roads counter the negative effect of road mortality in some populations. We suggest that road mitigation for painted turtles can be limited to locations where turtles are forced to migrate across high traffic roads due, for example, to destruction of local nesting habitat or seasonal drying of ponds. This conclusion should not be extrapolated to other species of turtles, where road mortality could have a larger population-level effect than on painted turtles.

  15. The failure to respond to changes in the road environment : Does road familiarity play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Marieke H.

    2017-01-01

    Road signs do not necessarily lead to the right response. Especially when signs are changed, drivers may not always detect new signs and may therefore fail to respond correctly to the situation indicated. The present driving simulator study investigated whether road familiarity (increased exposure

  16. Temporary roads : nature-friendly construction method cuts road width by half and saves money

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, B.

    2010-10-15

    This article discussed a new method for building low-disturbance temporary roads that entails mulching trees and using the resulting wood-fibre material for the road bed. The size of the mulch is adjusted for conditions. A specialized whole-tree mulcher is used after the access area is logged and the felled trees cleared away. The mulcher mulches a whole tree to specs and then moves on to the next tree. Merchantable wood is removed and sold. The process is suited to flat or gently sloping areas at higher elevations, and it reduces the width of a conventional clay-based right-of-way by 50 percent. Clay-built roads require extensive ditch drainage, increasing the width needed, but moisture drains directly through mulch-based roads, which also leave the underlying root zone undisturbed, so no drainage ditches are needed. The new method reduces disturbance resulting from road width, makes use of materials that would otherwise go unused, eliminates the need to import large quantities of fill, and eliminates the risk of introducing new species to the roadway area during the reclamation process. The mulch road bed has a depth of 8 to 20 inches. Leaving the root bed undisturbed adds to the load-bearing integrity of the road. The mulch method also cuts overall access costs. The construction cost is slightly more than for clay-based roads, but the severely reduced reclamation cost results in big savings. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  17. Modeling of dynamic vehicle-road interactions for safety-related road evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfila, O; Coiret, A; Do, M T; Mammar, S

    2010-11-01

    Usually, road safety is assessed by following adequate highway geometric design standards and can be controlled later by measurement and expertise. Nevertheless, interactions between vehicle dynamics and road characteristics cannot be simultaneously analyzed for these two means of safety evaluation. In this study, an analytical method based on road/vehicle physical interactions applied to road diagnosis is proposed. Vehicle "point" and "bicycle" models are used in this first approach. French highway geometric design standards and a statistical method are presented and evaluated on a real curve case. The proposed numerical criterion, for the "bicycle" model, is then compared to these two classical methods for the considered road section. Its advantages are that it takes into account several combined parameters, that road defects are precisely localized and that it provides hierarchically classified solutions to the road managers. After this comparison step, further improvements should be focused on the modeling of successive curves and on the improvement of the informations given to the road manager. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reconstruction of road defects and road roughness classification using vehicle responses with artificial neural networks simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngwangwa, HM

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal of Terramechanics Volume 47, Issue 2, April 2010, Pages 97-111 Reconstruction of road defects and road roughness classification using vehicle responses with artificial neural networks simulation H.M. Ngwangwaa, P.S. Heynsa, , , F...

  19. Road rage and road traffic accidents among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, M A; Shaikh, I A; Siddiqui, Z

    2012-04-01

    Road rage and road traffic accidents increase the burden of morbidity and mortality in a population. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan (n = 901) to record their behaviours/experiences regarding road rage and road traffic accidents. Respondents were asked about incidents of shouting/cursing/rude gestures or threats to physically hurt the person/vehicle, by others or themselves, in the previous 24 hours or 3 months, and their involvement in road traffic accidents in the previous 12 months. Auto-rickshaw drivers were significantly more likely to report various road rage experiences/behaviours and involvement in accidents compared with bus and wagon drivers. A total of 112 respondents (12.4%) reported being involved in a road traffic accident in the previous 12 months but traffic police did not record the accident in 52.7% of cases. The results of this study underline the need to improve road safety in Pakistan.

  20. Sediment deposition from forest roads at stream crossings as influenced by road characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.J. Lang; W.M. Aust; M.C. Bolding; K.J. McGuire

    2015-01-01

    Recent controversies associated with ditched forest roads and stream crossings in the Pacific Northwest have focused national attention on sediment production and best management practices (BMPs) at stream crossings. Few studies have quantified soil erosion rates at stream crossings as influenced by road characteristics and compared them to modeled rates. Soil erosion...

  1. Mass-media information campaigns about road safety. [previously known as: Public information about road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, public information is often used as an instrument to improve road safety. The purpose of each public information campaign is a voluntary and lasting change in traffic behaviour. This requires road users to have sufficient knowledge about a problem and to adapt their behaviour.

  2. 1999 road traffic crashes in Queensland : a report on the road toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland for the year : ended 31 December 1999 in the context of the previous five years. : The information in this bulletin is based on data contained in the Queensland Road Cras...

  3. 2000 road traffic crashes in Queensland : a report on the road toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland for the year : ended 31 December 2000 in the context of the previous five years. : The information in this bulletin is based on data contained in the Queensland Road Cras...

  4. 2001 road traffic crashes in Queensland : a report on the road toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland for the year ended 31 December 2001 in the context of the previous five years. : The information in this report is based on data contained in the Queensland Road Crash In...

  5. 2003 road traffic crashes in Queensland : a report on the road toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    This report presents an overiew of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland for the year ended 31 December 2003 in the context of the previous five years, based on data contained in the Queensland Road Crash Information System maintained by the Qu...

  6. 2002 road traffic crashes in Queensland : a report on the road toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland for the year : ended 31 December 2002 in the context of the previous five years, based on data contained in : the Queensland Road Crash Information System maintained by Q...

  7. [Pollution characteristics of platinum group elements in road dust in central urban area of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling-Ling; Gao, Bo; Lu, Jin; Zhou, Huai-Dong; Hao, Hong; Wang, Xiao-Jun

    2011-03-01

    In order to survey platinum group elements (PGEs) contamination in central urban area of Beijing, dust samples were collected from the second ring road in December 2009. The road samples were digested with aqua regia and separated and purified with cation exchange resin, and the resulting solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that the concentrations of Pd, Pt and Rh in road dust ranged from 17.40-458.75 ng x g(-1) (126.66 ng x g(-1)), 10.04-182.89 ng x g(-1) (65.25 ng x g(-1)), 4.00-68.04 ng x g(-1) (22.67 ng x g(-1)) respectively. In comparison with international cities, Pd and Rh concentrations in Beijing road dust were middle level and Pt concentration was lower. Pd concentration was rapidly increased in recent years. The concentrations of PGEs in four locations of the second ring road were arranged in the following order: West approximately East > North > South, which were controlled with the traffic intensity. Size partitioning indicated that the 0.125-0.25 mm fraction had the higher PGEs concentrations than other fractions and the fine grain size fraction (< 0.063 mm) is analyzed.

  8. Road condition evaluation using the vibration response of ordinary vehicles and synchronously recorded movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Tomonori; Miyajima, Akira; Kimura, Shunya; Shimada, Yuuki; Fujino, Yozo

    2013-04-01

    Frequent and quantitative assessment of road condition is important as the maintenance of the road infrastructure needs to be performed with a limited budget. Vehicle Intelligent Monitoring System (VIMS) has been developed to estimate an index of road ride comfort (International Roughness Index; IRI) by obtaining the acceleration responses of ordinary vehicles together with GPS position data. VIMS converts the vertical acceleration of the measurement vehicle to acceleration RMS of the sprung mass of the standard Quarter Car model, and then to IRI using an approximate expression. By driving over a hump of a known profile and comparing the responses with Quarter Car simulation responses, a variety of vehicles can be calibrated; a non-linear quarter car model equivalent to the vehicle is identified. By performing numerical simulation using the nonlinear vehicle model, the difference in driving speed can also be calibrated. The measurement results can be exported to maps to comprehend road condition in a geographical view and to other data base systems. In addition, smartphones which can record motions, GPS data, and movies synchronously are utilized to improve VIMS. Because practical installation locations of smartphones are limited and because angular velocity responses are less subjective to difference in installation locations, VIMS is extended to utilize the pitching angular velocity. Furthermore, high frequency components of acceleration responses are analyzed to distinguish local pavement damages or joints from rough road sections. The examination of synchronously recorded movies confirmed the capability to distinguish the local conditions.

  9. Road Accidents and Road Fatalities in Denmark from 1968 to 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2008-01-01

    and actions targeted to improve road safety have indeed led to a significant reduction in injury accidents and fatalities. Further research and more detailed data, especially on traffic volume and individual exposure are necessary in order to investigate properly a causal relation between the number......The purpose of this article is to describe the road accidents and road fatalities in Denmark in the period 1968-2004. Only accidents registered by the police were used. Crude and gender & age specific fatality rates (counts per 1,000,000 inhabitants) were estimated for all road users...... and for bicyclists. The accident and fatality rates have decreased by around 70% from 1968 to 2004, while the motorisation rate has increased by approximately 90%. The sharpest decrease in the fatality rate was observed among the youngest (below 18 years old) and the older (above 64) road users. Gender related...

  10. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Minh Hoang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  11. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-08-18

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  12. ENHANCEMENT OF ROAD SAFETY THROUGH MORE EFFECTIVE ROAD AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SZCZURASZEK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To make the policy aimed at mitigating the risk of road incidents more effective, Poland should see the introduction of the more efficient road and traffic management. In November 2008 the European Parliament and the European Council published the Directive on "infrastructure safety management" which provides guidance on the procedures for carrying impact assessments of traffic safety, traffic safety audits, safety management on the road network and monitoring traffic safety in Member States. In this article, the authors have proposed a systemic approach to road and traffic management, involving the implementation of consistent procedures that should include regular revisions of roads, eliminating hazardous sites, speed management, as well as the approval and implementation of traffic organization designs.

  13. Data requirements for road network inventory studies and road safety evaluations - guidelines and specifications. Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET), Deliverable No. 3.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candappa, N.L. Schermers, G. Stefan, C. & Elvik, R.

    2014-01-01

    Improving road safety is and has been a priority in most first world countries with the result that road crashes and resultant traffic injuries have thankfully been declining. However, improvements in road safety have also brought about new challenges for managing the remaining problems. One of

  14. Cardiac anatomy and diastolic filling in professional road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missault, L; Duprez, D; Jordaens, L; de Buyzere, M; Bonny, K; Adang, L; Clement, D

    1993-01-01

    In the literature two divergent types of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy have been described: isotonic exercise induced eccentric hypertrophy with proportional increase in end-diastolic left ventricular dimension and wall thickness and isometric exercise induced concentric hypertrophy with normal end-diastolic left ventricular dimension but increased wall thickness. Using echocardiography, cardiac anatomy and diastolic filling were studied in 26 professional road cyclists. Compared to 21 control subjects, matched according to age, sex and morphometry the athletes had significantly larger left atrial dimension [41.3 (SD 4.8) vs 36.6 (SD 4.5) mm], left ventricular dimension [56.0 (SD 3.8) vs 53.2 (SD 4.7) mm], end-diastolic septum thickness [11.1 (SD 2.5) vs 8.4 (SD 1.9) mm], end-diastolic posterior wall thickness [11.6 (SD 2.2) vs 8.4 (SD 1.5) mm] and left ventricular mass index [170.4 (SD 40.6) vs 107.0 (SD 27.7) g.m-2]. We concluded that the hypertrophy in the road cyclists was of the mixed type (concentric-eccentric) with an increase in the internal dimension of the left ventricle and an even larger increase in the thickness of the ventricular walls. Diastolic filling however was similar in the athletes and control subjects. No correlations were found between the left ventricular mass index and diastolic filling parameters. We concluded therefore that professional road cycling causes mixed cardiac hypertrophy without diastolic filling abnormalities and can therefore be considered benign.

  15. Road traffic noise: self-reported noise annoyance versus GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Matthias; Ivina, Olga; von Klot, Stephanie; Babisch, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    self-reported road traffic noise annoyance is commonly used in epidemiological studies for assessment of potential health effects. Alternatively, some studies have used geographic information system (GIS) modelled exposure to road traffic noise as an objective parameter. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between noise exposure due to neighbouring road traffic and the noise annoyance of adults, taking other determinants into consideration. parents of 951 Munich children from the two German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus reported their annoyance due to road traffic noise at home. GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure (L(den), maximum within a 50 m buffer) from the noise map of the city of Munich was available for all families. GIS-based calculated distance to the closest major road (≥10,000 vehicles per day) and questionnaire based-information about family income, parental education and the type of the street of residence were explored for their potential influence. An ordered logit regression model was applied. The noise levels (L(den)) and the reported noise annoyance were compared with an established exposure-response function. the correlation between noise annoyance and noise exposure (L(den)) was fair (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.37). The distance to a major road and the type of street were strong predictors for the noise annoyance. The annoyance modelled by the established exposure-response function and that estimated by the ordered logit model were moderately associated (Pearson's correlation r(p) = 0.50). road traffic noise annoyance was associated with GIS modelled neighbouring road traffic noise exposure (L(den)). The distance to a major road and the type of street were additional explanatory factors of the noise annoyance appraisal.

  16. Road2Vec: Measuring Traffic Interactions in Urban Road System from Massive Travel Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Good characterization of traffic interactions among urban roads can facilitate traffic-related applications, such as traffic control and short-term forecasting. Most studies measure the traffic interaction between two roads by their topological distance or the correlation between their traffic variables. However, the distance-based methods neglect the spatial heterogeneity of roads’ traffic interactions, while the correlation-based methods cannot capture the non-linear dependency between two roads’ traffic variables. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called Road2Vec to quantify the implicit traffic interactions among roads based on large-scale taxi operating route data using a Word2Vec model from the natural language processing (NLP field. First, the analogy between transportation elements (i.e., road segment, travel route and NLP terms (i.e., word, document is established. Second, the real-valued vectors for road segments are trained from massive travel routes using the Word2Vec model. Third, the traffic interaction between any pair of roads is measured by the cosine similarity of their vectors. A case study on short-term traffic forecasting is conducted with artificial neural network (ANN and support vector machine (SVM algorithms to validate the advantages of the presented method. The results show that the forecasting achieves a higher accuracy with the support of the Road2Vec method than with the topological distance and traffic correlation based methods. We argue that the Road2Vec method can be effectively utilized for quantifying complex traffic interactions among roads and capturing underlying heterogeneous and non-linear properties.

  17. A review of road extraction from remote sensing images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a significant role for traffic management, city planning, road monitoring, GPS navigation and map updating, the technology of road extraction from a remote sensing (RS image has been a hot research topic in recent years. In this paper, after analyzing different road features and road models, the road extraction methods were classified into the classification-based methods, knowledge-based methods, mathematical morphology, active contour model, and dynamic programming. Firstly, the road features, road model, existing difficulties and interference factors for road extraction were analyzed. Secondly, the principle of road extraction, the advantages and disadvantages of various methods and research achievements were briefly highlighted. Then, the comparisons of the different road extraction algorithms were performed, including road features, test samples and shortcomings. Finally, the research results in recent years were summarized emphatically. It is obvious that only using one kind of road features is hard to get an excellent extraction effect. Hence, in order to get good results, the road extraction should combine multiple methods according to the real applications. In the future, how to realize the complete road extraction from a RS image is still an essential but challenging and important research topic.

  18. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, J. [Royal Haskoning, P.O. Box 151, 6500 Ad Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: Han.Blok@royalhaskoning.com

    2005-09-15

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m{sup 2} year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m{sup 2} year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The

  19. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.

    2005-01-01

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m 2 year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m 2 year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter

  20. Geophysical methods for road construction and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Hedi; Karlson, Caroline; Jamali, Imran; Earon, Robert; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Infrastructure, such as road transportation, is a vital in civilized societies; which need to be constructed and maintained regularly. A large part of the project cost is attributed to subsurface conditions, where unsatisfactory conditions could increase either the geotechnical stabilization measures needed or the design cost itself. A way to collect information of the subsurface and existing installations which can lead to measures reducing the project cost and damage is to use geophysical methods during planning, construction and maintenance phases. The moisture in road layers is an important factor, which will affect the bearing capacity of the construction as well as the maintenances. Moisture in the road is a key factor for a well-functioning road. On the other hand the excessive moisture is the main reason of road failure and problems. From a hydrological point of view geophysical methods could help road planners identify the water table, geological strata, pollution arising from the road and the movement of the pollution before, during and after construction. Geophysical methods also allow road planners to collect valuable data for a large area without intrusive investigations such as with boreholes, i.e. minimizing the environmental stresses and costs. However, it is important to specify the investigation site and to choose the most appropriate geophysical method based on the site chosen and the objective of the investigation. Currently, numerous construction and rehabilitation projects are taking places around the world. Many of these projects are focused on infrastructural development, comprising both new projects and expansion of the existing infrastructural network. Geophysical methods can benefit these projects greatly during all phases. During the construction phase Ground Penetrating radar (GPR) is very useful in combination with Electrical Resistivity (ER) for detecting soil water content and base course compaction. However, ER and Electromagnetic

  1. Putting road safety awareness into practice

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    To round off the series of articles and posters published as part of its road safety awareness campaign, CERN is organising two information and demonstration open days on 23 and 25 September. Can you brake in time ? Did you know that you are 21 times more at risk of being killed if you are not wearing a seat belt in the event of your car rolling over? All your questions on road safety will be answered at two special days that are being organized on 23 and 25 September. You will also be able to test your reflexes and your knowledge by taking part in demonstrations. The CERN Management attaches high priority to an improvement in safety standards on the Laboratory's roads. These two open days have been arranged to round off the road safety awareness and highway courtesy campaign which was launched last year. They are intended to provide us with an opportunity, through a more "hands-on" approach, of heightening our awareness of the risks associated with road traffic, of the legislation in force, and above all t...

  2. [Road-rage in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Inmaculada; Gómez-Talegón, Trinidad; Alvarez, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence of road rage in the general population and the sociodemographic factors associated with this phenomenon. A total of 2,500 interviews were carried out in the population of Castile and Leon aged 14-70 years. Road rage was evaluated in the year prior to the survey using a test with eight questions. One-third (31.1%) of the interviewees reported they had experienced a situation involving road rage during the previous 12 months (26.8% on more than one occasion). Among these episodes, 2.6% involved "serious" aggressors. In drivers, the probability of experiencing road rage increased in line with the number of kilometers driven per week (odds ratio [OR]=1.52), decreased as the age of the driver increased (OR=0.975), and was highest in men (OR=1.287), university graduates (OR=1.408), and persons living in towns with over 10,000 inhabitants (OR=1.25). The results of this study show that road rage affects almost a third of the general population of Castile and Leon, which would amply justify the adoption of prevention and/or reduction measures. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Road rage among drug dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavidez, Daniela C; Flores, Antonio Marcos; Fierro, Inmaculada; Alvarez, F Javier

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol, cocaine and cannabis is associated with aggressive behaviour, being a victim of injuries from various causes, and suffering traffic accidents. On the other hand, there is a significant association between road rage and traffic accidents, yet this has not been studied in persons suffering a substance dependence disorder. This study analyses the prevalence of road rage in substance dependent patients undergoing treatment. 100 patients randomly selected at an outpatient treatment centre were included in the study. 63% of the patients had experienced road rage in the year prior to the interview, and 18% were serious perpetrators. There was a higher frequency among drivers and those who were starting treatment for cocaine and cocaine+heroin. The study shows that road rage is very frequent among patients with disorders due to substance dependence who are undergoing treatment, in particular the most severe form ("serious perpetrators"). Special attention should be addressed to the issue of driving and road rage during the treatment of these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Causes of road traffic accidents in Juba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akway M. Cham

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic accidents (RTAs are a major cause of death and disability in South Sudan. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether violation of traffic rules is the main cause of RTAs. Method: A cross sectional study design was used with quantitative data covering January – December 2014. The main objective of the research was to understand the epidemiology of RTAs in order to develop preventive measures. A total of 1725cases from road RTAs data were extracted from the directorate of traffic police Central Equatoria state Juba and Juba teaching hospital. Results: Most (99.5% of the RTA drivers were not under the influence of alcohol. Most accidents were caused by male drivers (99%. The highest number of RTAs took place in August (11%. Drivers of private vehicles caused most accidents (37%. Most drivers (46% were aged 20-30 years. RTAs occurred most often on city roads (89.83%. Conclusion: This leads us to conclude that a comprehensive safety system is needed that are premised on the idea of community-based awareness of traffic rules and safety regulations. Resources are limited so there is a need to harness local resources including the local community. More efforts are needed to improve road safety education among the youth/integrate safety into road design.

  5. Risk management model in road transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of a study of road safety indicators that influence the development and operation of the transport system. Road safety is considered as a continuous process of risk management. Authors constructed a model that relates the social risks of a major road safety indicator - the level of motorization. The model gives a fairly accurate assessment of the level of social risk for any given level of motorization. Authors calculated the dependence of the level of socio-economic costs of accidents and injured people in them. The applicability of the concept of socio-economic damage is caused by the presence of a linear relationship between the natural and economic indicators damage from accidents. The optimization of social risk is reduced to finding the extremum of the objective function that characterizes the economic effect of the implementation of measures to improve safety. The calculations make it possible to maximize the net present value, depending on the costs of improving road safety, taking into account socio-economic damage caused by accidents. The proposed econometric models make it possible to quantify the efficiency of the transportation system, allow to simulate the change in road safety indicators.

  6. Small-scale geodiversity and dirt road management, Ede (NL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2016-04-01

    A large part of the countryside roads on the Pleistocene sands of The Netherlands are dirt roads. Most are footpaths, but a small percentage are relatively heavily used by motorized vehicles. These latter roads are a cause subject of debate. Puddles and potholes develop during periods of wet weather, while dust whirls from the roads form during spells of dry weather as do washboard ripples. They cause problems for people living along these roads and tourists (walkers and bikers. The community of Ede (NL), like many other communities on the sand, wants to keep its 80 km of dirt roads because of the natural values they harbour as well as for their characteristic landscape quality and cultural heritage value. A part of the dirt roads in Ede is heavily used. In 2009, the community of Ede developed a decision model to support management of the dirt roads. Ede acknowledges that each dirt road is unique and asks for a tailor-made solution. Road maintenance measures include grading, making a camber, digging pits, applying loam or sandy loam. If problems become too large, one-way traffic can be an option. In more and more cases the dirt roads are barred for motorized through traffic (Gemeente Ede, 2009). As a reconnaissance we have studied the dirt roads of the Horabos/Horalaan over the last year. Incidentally we looked at other parts of the main Horalaan and the footpaths in the adjacent forest of Hoekelum. All dirt roads lie near the top of a Saalian push-moraine in which the upper course of dry valleys are present. Some results of the reconnaissance: - Most dirt roads sections in the Horabos lie lower than the surrounding terrain; - The problems develop in a short period of time during special weather conditions; - Certain dirt road sections e.g. those sections crossing a slight depression are quickly developing potholes; - Even a small slope of the road (car traffic improves the infiltration in the road, and reduces the run-off to other the road sections to nearly zero

  7. At the end of the potholed road

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordt Jørgensen, Nanna

    It took nearly 2 hours to drive the 60 km potholed Kenyan road from the administrative center in Laikipia North to the nearest big town by car or minibus. And much longer if riding on top of one of the heavy lorries transporting sand from dry riverbeds in the area to construction sites in town....... When young people travelled to town, they would often, when reaching the smoother part of the tarmac road, exclaim something like ‘now we have arrived in Kenya’ or ‘this is where development begins’, as if Laikipia North was not really part of the Kenyan state. The relation between pastoral communities...... proclaimed their community to be marginalized and in political opposition to the government, they also dreamed about infrastructure development and aspired to a closer incorporation in the Kenyan state and its development schemes. This paper explores the ambiguities of roads leading to rural places...

  8. Commentary: Status of road safety in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismans, Jac; Skogsmo, Ingrid; Nilsson-Ehle, Anna; Lie, Anders; Thynell, Marie; Lindberg, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the status of road safety in Asia and present accident and injury prevention strategies based on global road safety improvement experiences and discuss the way forward by indicating opportunities and countermeasures that could be implemented to achieve a new level of safety in Asia. This study provides a review and analyses of data in the literature, including from the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank, and a review of lessons learned from best practices in high-income countries. In addition, an estimation of costs due to road transport injuries in Asia and review of future trends in road transport is provided. Data on the global and Asian road safety problem and status of prevention strategies in Asia as well as recommendations for future actions are discussed. The total number of deaths due to road accidents in the 24 Asian countries, encompassing 56% of the total world population, is 750,000 per year (statistics 2010). The total number of injuries is more than 50 million, of which 12% are hospital admissions. The loss to the economy in the 24 Asian countries is estimated to around US$800 billion or 3.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP). This article clearly shows that road safety is causing large problems and high costs in Asia, with an enormous impact on the well-being of people, economy, and productivity. In many Asian low- and middle-income countries, the yearly number of fatalities and injuries is increasing. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists combined) are particularly at risk. Road safety in Asia should be given rightful attention, including taking powerful, effective actions. This review stresses the need for reliable accident data, because there is considerable underreporting in the official statistics. Reliable accident data are imperative to determine evidence-based intervention strategies and monitor the success of these interventions and analyses. On the other

  9. Road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, N J; Ansari, M; al-Kalai, D

    1994-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are a major health hazard in Saudi Arabia, particularly during Ramadan. The ensuing trauma has increased in direct proportion to the increase in the number of road vehicles. An audit of RTAs over a one-year period revealed that, out of 361 victims, 16% were under 10 years and 47% between 11 and 30 years. None of those involved in accidents was wearing a seat belt. Half of the children injured were pedestrians. There was a male to female ratio of 4:1 reflecting the driving laws in Saudi Arabia. Burst tyres due to intense heat were identified as a common cause (39%) of accidents. The introduction of seat belt legislation and stricter law enforcement should lead to a rapid reduction in morbidity and mortality on the roads in Saudi Arabia.

  10. Road safety campaign is a great success

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Rolf Heuer, the next Director-General of CERN, and Sigurd Lettow, the Director of Finance and Human Resources (photo below), completed all the tests of the CERN road safety campaign under the supervision of TCS instructors. The road safety campaign, which took place in the Main Building during the week of 10 November, attracted large numbers of participants. More than 300 CERN personnel and users took part in, and in some cases were literally bowled over by, the activities set up by instructors from the TCS (Touring Club Suisse). The campaign’s aim was to raise driver awareness of several aspects of road safety, including speed, use of mobile phones at the wheel, pedestrian priority, unlawful parking and driving with a valid licence. The campaign was an unqualified success! Even CERN’s directors joined in, testing their own reactions as drivers on the various pieces of apparatus in place.

  11. DESIGNING ROADS IN GRENLAND USING GIS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel A.Z. Barten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing a road in the Arctic (Greenland which stretches 157 km between the towns of Sisimiut and Kangerlussuaq was very challenging. Difficult climatic and geotechnical conditions and presence of permafrost required some in-depth analysis and research. Geotechnical investigations were conducted along the entire route. The investigations included field geological and geophysical studies and survey using aerial photography.Based on the investigations a digital model of the area 2 km Ѕ 170 km was prepared. Using a Novapoint software a detailed geometric model was created which allowed for calculationsof the volume of earthworks and creation of transverse and longitudinal sections of the road. A virtual model of the entire road and a movie were made based on the results of all investigations.

  12. Improving and optimising road pricing in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Larsen, Marie Karen

    2008-01-01

    though quite a number of proposed charging systems have been examined only a few pricing strategies have been investigated. This paper deals with the optimisation of different designs for a road pricing system in the Greater Copenhagen area with respect to temporal and spatial differentiation......The question whether to introduce toll rings or road pricing in Copenhagen has been discussed intensively during the last 10 years. The main results of previous analyses are that none of the systems would make a positive contribution at present, when considered from a socio-economic view. Even...... of the pricing levels. A detailed transport model was used to describe the demand effects. The model was based on data from a real test of road pricing on 500 car drivers. The paper compares the price systems with regard to traffic effects and generalised costs for users and society. It is shown how important...

  13. 2nd Road Vehicle Automation Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation

    2014-01-01

    This contributed volume covers all relevant aspects of road vehicle automation including societal impacts, legal matters, and technology innovation from the perspectives of a multitude of public and private actors. It is based on an expert workshop organized by the Transportation Research Board at Stanford University in July 2013. The target audience primarily comprises academic researchers, but the book may also be of interest to practitioners and professionals. Higher levels of road vehicle automation are considered beneficial for road safety, energy efficiency, productivity, convenience, and social inclusion. The necessary key technologies in the fields of object-recognition systems, data processing, and infrastructure communication have been consistently developed over the recent years and are mostly available on the market today. However, there is still a need for substantial research and development, e.g. with interactive maps, data processing, functional safety, and the fusion of different data sources...

  14. LOS INTERESES DE CHINA EN ASIA CENTRAL, BELT AND ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alonso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available China´s interests in Central Asia were propelled, with the launching of the initiative “One Belt, One Road”, renamed as “The Belt and Road Initiative”, better known as the New Silk Road. Thanks to the infrastructure investment China will become interconnected with other regions of the world, breaking up its secular isolation and will send its products to the global market more easily by land and sea. One principal question in this revolutionary change has to do with China´s hypothetical second intentions of geopolitical influence on the countries affected by the new routes (countries of transit or final destination. The article tries to answer the following questions: Does the People's Republic of China aim only to revive its internal labour market, reduce its industrial overcapacity and boost its exports? Is globalization coming to an end or is it entering a new phase of interconnectivity? How does this affect the relations between Russia and China in the Asian region?

  15. Assessment of rockfall risk along roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Budetta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a method for the analysis of rockfall risk along roads and motorways. The method is derived from the Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS developed by Pierson et al. (1990 at the Oregon State Highway Division. The RHRS provides a rational way to make informed decisions on where and how to spend construction funds. Exponential scoring functions are used to represent the increases, respectively, in hazard and in vulnerability that are reflected in the nine categories forming the classification. The resulting total score contains the essential elements regarding the evaluation of the degree of the exposition to the risk along roads. In the modified method, the ratings for the categories 'ditch effectiveness', 'geologic characteristic', 'volume of rockfall/block size', 'climate and water circulation' and 'rockfall history' have been rendered more easy and objective. The main modifications regard the introduction of Slope Mass Rating by Romana (1985, 1988, 1991 improving the estimate of the geologic characteristics, of the volume of the potentially unstable blocks and the underground water circulation. Other modifications regard the scoring for the categories 'decision sight distance' and 'road geometry'. For these categories, the Italian National Council's standards (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - CNR have been used (CNR, 1980. The method must be applied in both the traffic directions because the percentage of reduction in the decision sight distance greatly affects the results. An application of the modified method to a 2km long section of the Sorrentine road (no 145 in Southern Italy was developed. A high traffic intensity affects the entire section of the road and rockfalls periodically cause casualties, as well as a large amount of damage and traffic interruptions. The method was applied to seven cross sections of slopes adjacent to the Sorrentine road. For these slopes, the analysis shows that the risk is

  16. Modelling of road traffic fatalities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rahul

    2018-03-01

    Passenger modes in India include walking, cycling, buses, trains, intermediate public transport modes (IPT) such as three-wheeled auto rickshaws or tuk-tuks, motorised two-wheelers (2W) as well as cars. However, epidemiological studies of traffic crashes in India have been limited in their approach to account for the exposure of these road users. In 2011, for the first time, census in India reported travel distance and mode of travel for workers. A Poisson-lognormal mixture regression model is developed at the state level to explore the relationship of road deaths of all the road users with commute travel distance by different on-road modes. The model controlled for diesel consumption (proxy for freight traffic), length of national highways, proportion of population in urban areas, and built-up population density. The results show that walking, cycling and, interestingly, IPT are associated with lower risk of road deaths, while 2W, car and bus are associated with higher risk. Promotion of IPT has twofold benefits of increasing safety as well as providing a sustainable mode of transport. The mode shift scenarios show that, for similar mode shift across the states, the resulting trends in road deaths are highly dependent on the baseline mode shares. The most worrying trend is the steep growth of death burden resulting from mode shift of walking and cycling to 2W. While the paper illustrates a limited set of mode shift scenarios involving two modes at a time, the model can be applied to assess safety impacts resulting from a more complex set of scenarios. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Victims of road rage: a qualitative study of the experiences of motorists and vulnerable road users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavacuiti, Christopher; Ala-Leppilampi, Kari Juhani; Mann, Robert E; Govoni, Richard; Stoduto, Gina; Smart, Reginald; Locke, Jennifer Ann

    2013-01-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of road rage incidents from the victims' perspectives. The data consisted of 30- to 60-min in-depth semistructured phone interviews with 29 self-identified victims of road rage. Twenty of the participants were in a motor vehicle, whereas 9 were pedestrians/cyclists. A qualitative Grounded Theory approach was used to inductively code and analyze the transcripts. Victims reported a correlation between their vulnerability and the perceived intensity/severity of the road rage incidents. The most vulnerable victims (pedestrians and cyclists) were the least likely to view road rage incidents as a random event and the most likely to feel that they were specifically targeted. Road rage incidents tended to evolve more rapidly when there was a greater real or perceived power imbalance between the victims and perpetrators. The most vulnerable victims were the most likely to have long-term physical and mental health consequences from the incident, and to significantly modify their behavior after the incident. Our analysis suggests that issues of victim vulnerability play a major role in determining the intensity, severity, and psychological consequences of road rage incidents. This seems particularly true for the most vulnerable of road users, such as pedestrians and cyclists.

  18. Road traffic noise, air pollution components and cardiovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne de Kluizenaar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until date, only a limited amount of prospective epidemiological studies is available on long-term effects of road traffic noise and combustion related air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between road traffic noise and air pollution and hospital admissions for ischemic heart disease (IHD: International Classification of Diseases (ICD9 410-414 or cerebrovascular disease (cerebrovascular event [CVE]: ICD9 430-438. We linked baseline questionnaire data to 13 years of follow-up on hospital admissions and road traffic noise and air pollution exposure, for a large random sample (N = 18,213 of inhabitants of the Eindhoven region, Netherlands. Subjects with cardiovascular event during follow-up on average had higher road traffic noise day, evening, night level (L den and air pollution exposure at the home. After adjustment for confounders (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, education, exercise, marital status, alcohol use, work situation, financial difficulties, increased exposure did not exert a significant increased risk of hospital admission for IHD or cerebrovascular disease. Relative risks (RRs for a 5 th to 95 th percentile interval increase were 1.03 (0.88-1.20 for L den; 1.04 (0.90-1.21 for particulate matter (PM 10 ; 1.05 (0.91-1.20 for elemental carbon (EC; and 1.12 (096-1.32 for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 in the full model. While the risk estimate seemed highest for NO 2 , for a 5 th to 95 th percentile interval increase, expressed as RRs per 1 μg/m 3 increases, hazard ratios seemed highest for EC (RR 1.04 [0.92-1.18]. In the subgroup of study participants with a history of cardiovascular disease, RR estimates seemed highest for noise exposure (1.19 [0.87-1.64] for L den; in the subgroup of elderly RR seemed highest for air pollution exposure (RR 1.24 [0.93-1.66] for NO 2 .

  19. Road traffic noise, air pollution components and cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; van Lenthe, Frank J; Visschedijk, Antoon J H; Zandveld, Peter Y J; Miedema, Henk M E; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-01-01

    Traffic noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until date, only a limited amount of prospective epidemiological studies is available on long-term effects of road traffic noise and combustion related air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between road traffic noise and air pollution and hospital admissions for ischemic heart disease (IHD: International Classification of Diseases (ICD9) 410-414) or cerebrovascular disease (cerebrovascular event [CVE]: ICD9 430-438). We linked baseline questionnaire data to 13 years of follow-up on hospital admissions and road traffic noise and air pollution exposure, for a large random sample (N = 18,213) of inhabitants of the Eindhoven region, Netherlands. Subjects with cardiovascular event during follow-up on average had higher road traffic noise day, evening, night level (L den) and air pollution exposure at the home. After adjustment for confounders (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, education, exercise, marital status, alcohol use, work situation, financial difficulties), increased exposure did not exert a significant increased risk of hospital admission for IHD or cerebrovascular disease. Relative risks (RRs) for a 5 (th) to 95 (th) percentile interval increase were 1.03 (0.88-1.20) for L den; 1.04 (0.90-1.21) for particulate matter (PM 10 ); 1.05 (0.91-1.20) for elemental carbon (EC); and 1.12 (096-1.32) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in the full model. While the risk estimate seemed highest for NO 2 , for a 5 (th) to 95 (th) percentile interval increase, expressed as RRs per 1 μg/m 3 increases, hazard ratios seemed highest for EC (RR 1.04 [0.92-1.18]). In the subgroup of study participants with a history of cardiovascular disease, RR estimates seemed highest for noise exposure (1.19 [0.87-1.64] for L den); in the subgroup of elderly RR seemed highest for air pollution exposure (RR 1.24 [0.93-1.66] for NO 2 ).

  20. Erosion and sediment delivery following removal of forest roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Mary Ann

    2001-01-01

    Erosion control treatments were applied to abandoned logging roads in California, with the goal of reducing road-related sediment input to streams and restoring natural hydrologic patterns on the landscape. Treatment of stream crossings involved excavating culverts and associated road fill and reshaping streambanks. A variety of techniques were applied to road benches, which included decompacting the road surface, placing unstable road fill in more stable locations, and re-establishing natural surface drainage patterns. Following treatment and a 12-year recurrence-interval storm, some road reaches and excavated stream crossings showed evidence of mass movement failures, gullying, bank erosion and channel incision. Post-treatment erosion from excavated stream crossings was related to two variables: a surrogate for stream power (drainage area × channel gradient) and the volume of fill excavated from the channel. Post-treatment erosion on road reaches was related to four explanatory variables: method of treatment, hillslope position (upper, mid-slope or lower), date of treatment, and an interaction term (hillslope position × method of treatment). Sediment delivery from treated roads in upper, middle and lower hillslope positions was 10, 135 and 550 m3 of sediment per kilometre of treated roads, respectively. In contrast, inventories of almost 500 km of forest roads in adjacent catchments indicate that untreated roads produced 1500 to 4700 m3 of sediment per kilometre of road length. Erosion from 300 km of treated roads contributed less than 2 per cent of the total sediment load of Redwood Creek during the period 1978 to 1998. Although road removal treatments do not completely eliminate erosion associated with forest roads, they do substantially reduce sediment yields from abandoned logging roads.

  1. An approach to accidents modeling based on compounds road environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana; Neves, Jose

    2013-04-01

    The most common approach to study the influence of certain road features on accidents has been the consideration of uniform road segments characterized by a unique feature. However, when an accident is related to the road infrastructure, its cause is usually not a single characteristic but rather a complex combination of several characteristics. The main objective of this paper is to describe a methodology developed in order to consider the road as a complete environment by using compound road environments, overcoming the limitations inherented in considering only uniform road segments. The methodology consists of: dividing a sample of roads into segments; grouping them into quite homogeneous road environments using cluster analysis; and identifying the influence of skid resistance and texture depth on road accidents in each environment by using generalized linear models. The application of this methodology is demonstrated for eight roads. Based on real data from accidents and road characteristics, three compound road environments were established where the pavement surface properties significantly influence the occurrence of accidents. Results have showed clearly that road environments where braking maneuvers are more common or those with small radii of curvature and high speeds require higher skid resistance and texture depth as an important contribution to the accident prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Is my country safer than others ? : a comparison of road safety data between different countries. (= Mon pays est-il plus sur que les autres : une comparaison des donnees sur la securite routiere de differents pays.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, S. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Countries compare their road safety as they do their economies, namely to see if they are better than others. The OECD has recently started an "International Road Traffic and Accident Database (IRTAD)" as a permanent measuring instrument. It contains, per country, annual figures, since the

  3. Vulnerability analysis methods for road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíl, Michal; Vodák, Rostislav; Kubeček, Jan; Rebok, Tomáš; Svoboda, Tomáš

    2014-05-01

    Road networks rank among the most important lifelines of modern society. They can be damaged by either random or intentional events. Roads are also often affected by natural hazards, the impacts of which are both direct and indirect. Whereas direct impacts (e.g. roads damaged by a landslide or due to flooding) are localized in close proximity to the natural hazard occurrence, the indirect impacts can entail widespread service disabilities and considerable travel delays. The change in flows in the network may affect the population living far from the places originally impacted by the natural disaster. These effects are primarily possible due to the intrinsic nature of this system. The consequences and extent of the indirect costs also depend on the set of road links which were damaged, because the road links differ in terms of their importance. The more robust (interconnected) the road network is, the less time is usually needed to secure the serviceability of an area hit by a disaster. These kinds of networks also demonstrate a higher degree of resilience. Evaluating road network structures is therefore essential in any type of vulnerability and resilience analysis. There are a range of approaches used for evaluation of the vulnerability of a network and for identification of the weakest road links. Only few of them are, however, capable of simulating the impacts of the simultaneous closure of numerous links, which often occurs during a disaster. The primary problem is that in the case of a disaster, which usually has a large regional extent, the road network may remain disconnected. The majority of the commonly used indices use direct computation of the shortest paths or time between OD (origin - destination) pairs and therefore cannot be applied when the network breaks up into two or more components. Since extensive break-ups often occur in cases of major disasters, it is important to study the network vulnerability in these cases as well, so that appropriate

  4. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  5. Low-volume road engineering : Best Management Practices : Field Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Improperly constructed roads can negatively impact everything from terrestrial plant populations and soil conservation efforts to water quality and populations of aquatic organisms in receiving waters. This Low-Volume Roads Engineering Best Managemen...

  6. Classification of Steps on Road Surface Using Acceleration Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Takahashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce a road monitoring cost, we propose a system to monitor extensively road condition by cyclists with a smartphone. In this paper, we propose two methods towards road monitoring. First is to classify road signals to four road conditions. Second is to extract road signal from a smartphone's accelerometer in three positions: pants' side pocket, chest pocket and a bag in a front basket. In pants' side pocket, road signal is extracted by Independent Component Analysis. In chest pocket and bag in a front basket, road signal is extracted by selecting 1-axis affected from gravitational acceleration. In the experiment of the classification method, overall accuracy was 75%. The experimental results of the extraction methods with correlation coefficient showed the overall accuracy were more than 0.7 in pants' side pocket and chest pocket, the overall accuracy was less than 0.3 in bag in a front basket.

  7. Prototype road weather performance management tool : project report : draft report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This report is the Project Report for the Road Weather Performance Management (RW-PM) Tool developed for the project on Development and Demonstration of a Prototype Road Weather Performance Management Application that Uses Connected Vehicle Data (RW-...

  8. Prototype road weather performance management tool : installation instructions & user manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    This document is the Installation Instructions and User Manual for the Road Weather Performance Management (RW-PM) Tool developed for the project on Development and Demonstration of a Prototype Road Weather Performance Management Application that Use...

  9. Simulate to regulate - Denmark's virtual road pricing programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildebogaard, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The article describes the reseach programme on electronic road pricing launched at the Technical University of Denmark.......The article describes the reseach programme on electronic road pricing launched at the Technical University of Denmark....

  10. Towards successful SPP treatment of local materials for road building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2009-06-17

    Full Text Available of the increasing need for improvement of the rural road network and of roads associated with the Reconstruction and Development Program (RDP). Recommendations for testing materials for compatibility with SPPs are provided. In addition, a detailed construction...

  11. Mainstreaming road safety in the regional integration of the East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mainstreaming road safety in the regional integration of the East African Community to reduce road traffic injuries. Joseph K. Balikuddembe, Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh, Paul Sinclair, Kasiima Stephen, Ali Ardalan, Amir Nejati ...

  12. Federal and tribal lands road safety audits : case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    A road safety audit (RSA) is a formal safety performance examination by an independent, multidisciplinary team. RSAs are an effective tool for proactively improving the safety performance of a road project during the planning and design stages, and f...

  13. CODATA Catalog of Roads Data Sets, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CODATA Catalog of Roads Data Sets, Version 1 contains 367 entries describing national-level road network data sets for 147 countries and four entries describing...

  14. Thermoelectric generator installation at Divide Road Weather Information Systems (RWIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The Department of Transportation and Public Facilities (DOT&PF) has a network of Road Weather Information System (RWIS) environmental sensor stations (ESS) deployed along the road network. Six of the stations do not have access to commercial power an...

  15. Vision Hampton Roads : economic performance measures, 2010 DASHBOARD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Mission: Provide leadership to focus on the strategic issues that will improve Hampton Roads' competitive position in the global economy. : Goal: With proper foresight, continuous planning and dynamic economic development, Hampton Roads will be recog...

  16. Reliability-based optimization design of geosynthetic reinforced road embankment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Road embankments are typically large earth structures, the construction of which requires for large amounts of competent fill soil. In order to limit costs, the utilization of geosynthetics in road embankments allows for construction of steep slopes ...

  17. An Efficient Framework for Road Sign Detection and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanling Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Road sign detection and recognition is a significant and challenging issue not only for assisting drivers but also navigating mobile robots. In this paper, we propose a novel and fast approach for the automatic detection and recognition of road signs. First, we use Hue Saturation Intensity (HSI color space to segment the road signs color. And then we locate the road signs based on the geometry symmetry, as almost all the shapes of road sign shapes are symmetrical such circle, rectangle, triangle and octagon. The proposed shape feature is further applied to classify the shape initially. Finally, the road signs are exactly recognized by support vector machine (SVM classifiers. We test our proposed method on real road images and the experimental results show that it can detect and recognize road signs rapidly and accurately.

  18. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  19. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  2. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  3. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  9. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  10. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  12. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  13. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  15. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  17. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  18. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  19. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...