WorldWideScience

Sample records for international relations

  1. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Concerning international relations, the different meetings in the field of nuclear safety are reported (Western european nuclear regulator association or Wenra, Nea, IAEA, northern dimension environmental partnership or N.D.E.P., nuclear safety and security group or N.S.S.G., international nuclear regulators association or I.N.R.A.). (N.C.)

  2. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma......: Flat or uneven? Change and transformation in the international system • Block 3: Just or unjust? Intervention and inequality in the international system • Block 4: Top-down or bottom-up? Governance in the international system • Block 5: Secure or insecure? Pursuing security in the international system...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity....

  3. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The French nuclear safety authority (A.S.N.) has participated at different meeting in European Union as nuclear decommissioning assistance programme(N.D.A.P.), Regulatory assistance management group (R.A.M.G.) and Instrument for nuclear safety cooperation (I.N.S.C.). The members of Western European nuclear regulator association (W.E.N.R.A.) met and discussed about the future of W.E.N.R.A. and its representativeness and its cooperation with European nuclear safety regulator group (E.N.S.R.E.G.) and head of European radiation control authorities (H.E.R.C.A.). About International relations it is to noticed a meeting at the invitation of IAEA to discuss about the possibility to resort to the Ines scale for medical events. An audit mission under the IAEA aegis stood at Fessenheim, O.S.A.R.T. for operational safety review team. Two years and a half passed by between the audit mission Integrated regulatory review service (I.R.S.S.) welcome by A.S.N. in november 2006 and the audit mission follow up in 2009, 12 experts from 11 different countries and coordinated by three representatives of IAEA worked, the conclusions were that 90% of recommendations made to A.S.N. in 2006 were treated in a satisfying way; the evaluation gives three new recommendations, 7 new suggestions and 11 new correct practices. A meeting of the commission on safety standards (C.S.S.) stood in april 2009. Some others meeting are to be noticed: nuclear safety and security group (N.S.S.G.), expert group on nuclear and radiation safety (E.G.N.R.S.) instituted by the council of the Baltic sea states (C.B.S.S.) treats data exchange on the national networks of dose rates and surveillance of radioactivity in air. International nuclear regulator association (I.N.R.A.) held its first meeting in april 2009 at Seoul (Korea). Bilateral relations with Poland, Italy, Ukraine and Germany planed cooperation or information exchange in the field of nuclear safety. Participation to conference in Usa, meetings with United

  4. School of International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Michail M. Narinskii

    2014-01-01

    International Relations have been and remain not only one of the basic academic disciplines, but also one of the main directions of research work at MGIMO. Doing IR is closely intertwined with theory and practice, history and current events, the desire to combine a deep knowledge of the factual material and research-based evaluation in accordance with objective laws found in international life. Training of highly qualified specialists in international relations is impossible without a fundame...

  5. Bourdieu in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The last few years have seen a genuine wave of publications promoting sociology in international relations. Scholars have suggested that Bourdieu’s vocabulary can be applied to study security, diplomacy, migration and global environmental politics. Yet we still lack a systematic and accessible....... The chapters demonstrate how these concepts can be reinterpreted and used in new ways when exposed to Bourdieusian logic. Challenging key pillars of IR scholarship, Bourdieu in International Relations will be of interest to critical theorists, and scholars of IR theory....

  6. Analysing international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    theories to ‘explain’ international relations and distinguishes between different kinds of explanation. In Section 4 I look at how different theories have been grouped – first according to their underlying views of what is valid knowledge, and second in terms of different accounts of how history works....... matters by depicting reality in new ways. I then show how different theories rely on different ‘pictures’ of what makes up the international system. Section 2 shows how theories differ in terms of their scope, their aims and their purposes. Section 3 explores some of the choices to be made when using...

  7. Theorising International Monetary Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2015-01-01

    on Cohen's treatment of electronic money and its significance for the Politics of International Monetary Relations. The first question posed is about ontology, the second about agency and the third about the scope of politics. The three questions are raised as a conversation in which arguments...... and counterarguments are advanced. The questions are therefore posed with Cohen's contributions to theorizing the political significance of materiality as their point of departure. They are formulated as a consequence of bringing these contributions in relation to insights from the Social Studies of Finance. From...... this perspective it would seem that a more far reaching engagement with materiality (in terms of ontology, agency and epistemology) is necessary to capture its political significance for international monetary politics and currency hierarchies. The article does not conclude in conventional fashion but purposefully...

  8. Uruguay in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sergeevich Andreev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the foreign policy of the leftist government of Uruguay at the beginning of the XXI century. Latin America is an important actor in the process of creating a multipolar world, and Uruguay becomes one of the political and economic centers of the continent. One of the important political processes in South America is a regional integration which has many forms. This article shows the main areas of Uruguay diplomacy in various integration formations of the region. Based on the analysis of the program of the third government of “Broad Front” article shows the goals and objectives of the country in the processes of regional integration, the problems and prospects of these processes. The author notes that the Government of Uruguay is looking for creating common political and economic institutions for the united Latin American continent. In the new political and economic conditions Uruguay becomes important partner for the BRICS countries as well as for the EU and the United States. The article shows the prospects for Uruguay in the BRICS in the context of changing the place of developing countries in the architecture of the global world, as well as in the context of the participation of ex-President Jose Mujica in the BRICS summit 2014. Currently, Uruguay is standing in front of a political choice, because the country has people who want the development of relations with the United States as economic partner and political center of the region. Also in Uruguay are supporters of the development of relations with the EU. The paper shows the tasks and objectives of Uruguay's foreign policy towards the US and the EU, as well as a place of Uruguay in the foreign policy of major actors of international relations. The article says the prospects for the foreign policy of Uruguay in the context of the presidential and parliamentary elections in 2014, a new government and the conservation status of Uruguay as a country of “left turn

  9. The security in international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Iurie RICHICINSCHI

    2016-01-01

    Regardless the fact that concerns about the nature of relations between states, the causes of war, the peacekeeping issues, the international cooperation and recognition of international actors have preceded with millennia the emergence of the academic field of International Relations as a discipline, this one has been embedded along several centuries in much broader areas of research, whose influence is still manifested today.

  10. The security in international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurie RICHICINSCHI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regardless the fact that concerns about the nature of relations between states, the causes of war, the peacekeeping issues, the international cooperation and recognition of international actors have preceded with millennia the emergence of the academic field of International Relations as a discipline, this one has been embedded along several centuries in much broader areas of research, whose influence is still manifested today.

  11. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  12. International Relations Research Methodology: Realism

    OpenAIRE

    Andrey Vladimirovich Shabaga

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the origins and conceptual analysis capabilities of international relations in the framework of a realistic paradigm. We research political conditions and preconditions of the creation of realism’s theory and axiological features of realism’s practice in international relations. We also analyze the basic concepts and schools of realism: Realpolitik, political realism, neorealism, neoclassical realism. It is shown that based on the balance of power in the Realpolitik Pruss...

  13. Blog Consumption and International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    International relations professors have sought to incorporate current events into their curriculum through various mechanisms. A traditional way to incorporate the news into the classroom is to have students either subscribe and read a particular newspaper or watch the nightly news and hold them responsible for that information. However, with the…

  14. Outsourcing in International Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Bilan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Entities from different countries interact through various forms of international cooperation, integration, subcontracting, outsourcing to ensure competitive advantage, reduce costs and increase economic efficiency. The article is an analysis and synthesis of existing approaches to defining the essence of outsourcing research and its application in international. The article deals with the prerequisites of outsourcing as a new form of organization of business processes. There are investigated and classified approaches to defining the essence of outsourcing. The hierarchy of objectives and motives based on organization of outsourcing is built. The practice of outsourcing during implementation of international economic relations is studied. Specifically examined the dynamics of development of the outsourcing market. Studied leader countries which provide outsourcing services and major consumers of these services.

  15. Institutional Theory in International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Christer; Tallberg, Jonas

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we trace the emergence of institutional approaches in IR theory, outline three important areas of research on international institutions, and suggest promising directions for future research. The review demonstrates that rational choice institutionalism, historical institutionalism, and normative institutionalism, as developed in the study of domestic institutions, have constituted sources of inspiration in IR theory. At the same time, the relative absence of formal instituti...

  16. International Relations Research Methodology: Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vladimirovich Shabaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the origins and conceptual analysis capabilities of international relations in the framework of a realistic paradigm. We research political conditions and preconditions of the creation of realism’s theory and axiological features of realism’s practice in international relations. We also analyze the basic concepts and schools of realism: Realpolitik, political realism, neorealism, neoclassical realism. It is shown that based on the balance of power in the Realpolitik Prussian and Austrian cases, this understanding of politics within the systematics of the XIX century; the adaptation of the bourgeois liberal and national ideas to the foreign-policy specifics Germany middle of the XIX century. It is shown that political realism is targeting an international actor on the desire to subjugate the greatest possible political space. In the case of political weakness (absolute or relative political realism indicates a way of adapting to circumstances in order to achieve the most desirable of the possible. The article discusses the concept A. Rochau, H. Morgenthau, H. Kissinger, K. Waltz, showing differences and instrumentality realistic theories and concludes that the main provisions of the concept as a whole.

  17. The 'Nature' of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    The discipline of IR is beginning to grapple with how nature is a condition for, and increasingly and object of, international politics. This chapter narrates how IR actually began with features of the natural world at its heart, then narrowed this down to human nature, before losing sight...... of it almost entirely – only to rediscover it years later as ‘the environment’. A recent revival of realist geopolitics brings geography back in, but misses the environmental angle as well as the Anthropocene idea that due to human influence nature is now more dynamic, more prone to harm and in some ways more......, but then to think in dialectical terms about their mutual relations and transformations. Neither strategy is without pitfalls, but I suggest that the latter deserves more attention....

  18. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  19. Civil-military relations : enhancing international security

    OpenAIRE

    Fekete, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The thesis describes how civil-military relations at the international level enhance international security, in particular, the way of development of international society in trying to orient its progress towards international peace, security and sustainable development. It focuses upon civil-military relationships in the League of Nations and the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The International Committee of Re...

  20. Judicialization of International Relations: Do International Courts Matter?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíř, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2013), s. 208-224 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : judicialization * international relations * legal and extralegal factors Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  1. From International Relations to Alternative Globalisations

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie Sklair

    2010-01-01

    International Relations has struggled to escape the limitations of state centrism. Building on a transnational approach to globalisation, this paper seeks to show that the concept of transnational practices provides a better tool to analyze and explain the contemporary world than the concept of international relations.

  2. International Relations Scholarship Around the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    geocultural sites and the ways in which these traits inform and condition scholarly activity in International Relations. By bringing together scholars living and working across the globe Tickner and Wæver provide the most comprehensive analysis of IR ever published. It is essential reading for anyone who...... is concerned about the history, development and future of international relations....

  3. From International Relations to Alternative Globalisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Sklair

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available International Relations has struggled to escape the limitations of state centrism. Building on a transnational approach to globalisation, this paper seeks to show that the concept of transnational practices provides a better tool to analyze and explain the contemporary world than the concept of international relations.

  4. [Interface between bioethics and international relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchola-Castillo, Camilo; Garrafa, Volnei

    2016-08-01

    Recently, bioethics and international relations have gotten closer to one an other, probably as a result of the motivation of bioethics to intervene in global affairs. However, this relationship has only been on the practical level.This study's objective, through a literature review, is to highlight the huge potential that the epistemologies of both areas have to build a more fruitful dialogue. 18 articles relating both areas were retrieved from databases Scopus, Web of Science, Bireme and PubMed. The articles were then grouped in three categories of analysis: bioethics and global health; international organizations and bioethics; and international relations and bioethics. This study concludes that an epistemological approaching between these areas is desirable and proposes the establishment of two new areas of study: international relations in health and international relations from the South, drawing upon the conceptual basis developed by Latin-American bioethics.

  5. Going global: Trust research and international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Jan; Keating, Vincent Charles

    2015-01-01

    In this review article we explore the growing body of literature on the subject of trust in the field of international relations. We argue that the international level represents a unique challenge for trust research. This is so because some of the most pressing problems facing the world today...... require the development of trusting relationships internationally. In addition, the international environment is structurally different from domestic or personal relations on which much of the trust literature has focused so far. We identify three main strands of trust literature in international...... relations – rationalist, social and psychological. We not only note the contributions these have made to understanding the role of trust internationally, but also highlight areas where more research is needed. Particularly, we argue that this includes theorising processes of trust...

  6. Measuring international relations in social media conversations

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, GA; Xu, WW; Chu, J; Jiang, K; Huh, C; Park, JY; Park, HW

    2017-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier Inc. This paper examines international relations as perceived by the public in their social media conversations. It examines over 1.8 billion Facebook postings in English and 51 million Chinese posts on Weibo, to reveal the relations among nations as expressed in social media conversations. It argues that social media represent a transnational electronic public sphere, in which public discussions reveal characteristics of international relations as perceived by a foreign publi...

  7. International Security in the World Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Iryna P

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the urgent topic of the evolution of international relations, the issue of establishing international security, and the development of international economic cooperation based on the principles of security. In order to analyze the current status of international security in the world and to identify key factors that hinder the way of establishing a positive global community, researches by the international analytical centers together with the institutes for international security and cooperation have been generalized. To this end, both the status of and changes in the Global Peace Index in the recent years has been disclosed, the position of Ukraine in the world according to this index has been examined. It has been proven that the main international security problems are related to the armed conflicts, civil wars, political violence, terrorism impacting the development of humanity as a whole, the status of international relations, the evolution of the world economy as well as national economies. Further researches should be focused on how the status of peace in the countries impacts their economic status and the status of international cooperation in other areas of economic cooperation, excluding the military. It should be answered particularly, how the above indicated status affects strengthening the Ukraine's position in the world.

  8. Mainstreaming International Forestry Related Agreements at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case study provides in-sights on initiation, negotiation and implementation of International Forestry Related Agreements (IFRAs). It is observed and concluded that (i) there is low and inconsistent participation by Africa in international forest processes that lead to IFRAs, ostensibly due to lack of funds, (ii) Africa is not ...

  9. The Figure 8 Model of International Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sibayan, Jerome T

    2008-01-01

    .... The Figure 8 Model is presented first in a Cartesian format and then in geometrical form. This model is an intuitive idea based on a particular reading of history rather than a new international relations theory...

  10. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, targets, tools, processes. Results of research show that the beginning of the XXI century is distinguished by the development of new types of political concepts that explain interaction of elements in modern international relations in the area of environmental protection. The reason of these changes lies in the phenomena of environmentalism integration into Three paradigms of international relations. However, we cannot say that any of the examined paradigms accumulated all features of environmentalism without their modification. Better to say, it's rather similar to adaptation of environmental ideas. Therefore, to understand modern international relations processes, it is necessary to take into account their environmental element. Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-4

  11. Energy problem and harmony in international relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Akira

    1975-01-01

    Energy problems and harmony in international relation are closely related with world politics. Oil is destined to remain as the primary energy source for the time being. The situation of oil has different implications to the U.S. and U.S.S.R., oil producing countries, and consumer countries. The hasty attitude in the past to attain energy sufficiency must be avoided by all means. Congenial harmony is to be established in international relation to meet world energy requirement. This also applies to the case of nuclear power in future. (Mori, K.)

  12. The end of International Relations theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunne, Tim; Hansen, Lene; Wight, Colin

    2013-01-01

    With a view to providing contextual background for the Special Issue, this opening article analyses several dimensions of ‘The end of International Relations theory?’ It opens with a consideration of the status of different types of theory. Thereafter, we look at the proliferation of theories...... to the alternatives currently being practised: integrative pluralism. The article ends on a cautiously optimistic note: given the disciplinary competition that now exists in relation to explaining and understanding global social forces, International Relations may find resilience because it has become theory...

  13. Constructing a chinese international relations theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P.M.; Nielsen, R.T.

    2013-01-01

    Chinese scholars are debating whether, and how, to innovate a Chinese theory of International Relations (IR). This article examines the driving forces behind this theoretical debate. It challenges the commonsensical link between external events in the subject matter (i.r.) and theorizing (IR......, and argue that theoretical innovation, in China and elsewhere, is best understood as an interplay between internal and external layers. The internal academic context comprises intellectuals pursuing prominence, with each intellectual trying to carve out a maximally distinct position in order to receive...... where control over rewards such as research funds, promotion, and publications affects what kind of work is done, with theorizing being increasingly rewarded....

  14. REVOLUTIONS AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: THE AFRICAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fagundes Visentini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the impact of revolutions in the International Relations and the World System as constitutive and renewed elements. Criticizes the stance of theories that consider it a domestic phenomenon that causes a systemic disturbance, focusing in the case of the African Revolutions in the 1970s. Explores the international dimension they possess, considering their impact regarding the end of the Cold War, even though it happened in the periphery of the world.

  15. International relations and co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the international relations and co-operation of the UJD are presented. International community is aware of the fact that nuclear energy shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and on condition of high standard of nuclear safety. Therefore, the long-term aim of UJD in the area of international relations is to maintain and develop internationally recognised system of state supervision upon the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to reach internationally accepted level of nuclear safety in the Slovak Republic. There are many important international treaties (Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Convention on Nuclear Safety, etc.) to which slovakia is a party. In order to meet the obligations of these treaties UJD has the main aim for contribute to the process of international disarmament, and to a mutually advantageous co-operation. By means of the most important international organisations (e.g. International Atomic Energy Agency) the Slovak Republic actively participates in the international co-operation. Under the leadership of UJD, Slovak institutions participate in many projects and activities which have the aim to improve the safety of nuclear international obligations. In addition, UJD actively participates in the integration process of the Slovak Republic into European and Trans-Atlantic structures. Since 1993 the co-operation with the European Commission and the Nuclear Energy Agency of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD/NEA) has been successfully implemented. Besides multilateral co-operation UJD attaches extraordinary importance to bilateral co-operation, in particular with neighbouring countries. Regular meetings of senior Slovak experts with foreign experts are organised, with the aim to exchange the newest experiences and information on peaceful use of nuclear energy. Also in

  16. Power relations within the Situationist International

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This proposal presents the Dutch artist Jacqueline de Jong, (*1939, NL), and the French author/artist Michelle Bernstein, (*1932, F), two major of the very few women within the Situationist International movement. What both have in common is that as young women, they were related to the founding...... members and major actors of the group. Therefore, within the discourse of the Situationist International, de Jong is usually described as the muse of the 25 year older, at that point internationally acclaimed Danish artist. Bernstein, to the contrary, is pictured as the one who provided a living not only...... exhibition practise on the Situationist International contributes to this rather one -­‐sided reading of “de Jong, the muse” and “Bernstein the breadwinner” in order to reveal, to which extent this either conforms or opposes to the results of the analysis in the first part....

  17. International Relations in China and Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The international relations (IR) discipline is known as an ‘American Social Science’ dominated by scholars and theories from the US core. This paper compares IR in two noncore settings, China and Europe. It shows that there is a growing institutional and intellectual integration into global...... Anglophone, mostly American, IR in both Europe and China. Both Chinese and European IR communities have established top Anglophone journals like the European Journal of International Relations and the Chinese Journal of International Politics to spearhead their integration into mainstream Anglophone IR...... and carve out a space for regional thinking. Yet, the analysis of their publication and citation patterns shows that IR outside the American core communicates through a hub-and-spokes system where there is always a connection to the American core but rarely very strong linkages to other peripheral regions...

  18. Bourdieu, International Relations and European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Despite promising attempts to apply the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu to International Relations (IR), the field could still profit from unexplored potential in his thinking for understanding pivotal theoretical and empirical puzzles. This article takes the failure to fully grasp the paradigmatic...

  19. Reflections on Dead Theory in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    In this short autobiographical essay, I trace my journey in the discipline of International Relations. While entering the discipline, I, along with a host of my classmates, were enamoured by the exciting possibilities of thinking theoretically. Almost a decade later, those promises look bleak. From the perspective of a student in the discipline, I…

  20. International Relations as if the Earth mattered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    This book set out to examine how International Relations has begun to come to terms with the entwinement of social and natural systems. In a sense it is mysterious that this entwinement ever disappeared from view. Natural features of the world were originally the central focus of 19th century thi...

  1. Relationalism or why diplomats find international relations theory strange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In this conclusion, which reflects critically on the relational approach to diplomacy and its wider consequences, I argue that diplomats are estranged from IR theory and vice versa - because International Relations scholars generally subscribe to substantialism, whereas diplomats tend to think...... scholarship and diplomatic knowledge and practice are important for how we understand (and construct) world politics, including war, international cooperation, and responses to human and natural catastrophes....... in terms of relations. In fact, a deeper understanding of these relations is a key theoretical take-away point of this book. More specifically, I argue that relationalism - as a meta-theoretical approach - not only helps us understand the diplomatic production of world politics, relationalism also reflects...

  2. The Role of Communication in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Frosin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the impact of (global communication on international relations in various fields: military, diplomatic, economic, scientific, educational, and cultural, and to draw out the implications of the communication in each field. The main idea is that in the absence of the communication, nothing is possible, either the peace or the welfare of the humankind. Global communication it is blurring technological, economic, political, and cultural boundaries and, particularly in its interactive forms, has created immense new moral spaces for exploring new communities of affinity rather than vicinity. First, dialogue and communication are the essence of the foreign relations.

  3. Strengthening CERN’s international relations

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Council’s decision in June to open membership of CERN to the world in a clear and well-defined way means that it’s time to strengthen our international relations. Non-Member State interest, and participation, in CERN has been rising for many years, and with the LHC running smoothly that trend is continuing.   Furthermore, the long-term future of particle physics may well see Europe contributing to facilities in other regions of the world, with European participation coordinated through CERN. It was with these developments in mind that I established the External Relations Office under Felicitas Pauss at the start of my mandate last year. Council’s decision underlines the need for that office, and clarifies its liaison role of with Member and non-Member States. Clarity of function demands clarity of name, so from now on, the Office will be known as the Office for International Relations. It will continue to be headed by Felicitas Pauss. The Office’s main r...

  4. Dealing with femtorisks in international relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Aaron Benjamin; Collins, Margaret Goud; Levin, Simon A; Lo, Andrew W; Ramo, Joshua; Dieckmann, Ulf; Kremenyuk, Victor; Kryazhimskiy, Arkady; Linnerooth-Bayer, JoAnne; Ramalingam, Ben; Roy, J Stapleton; Saari, Donald G; Thurner, Stefan; von Winterfeldt, Detlof

    2014-12-09

    The contemporary global community is increasingly interdependent and confronted with systemic risks posed by the actions and interactions of actors existing beneath the level of formal institutions, often operating outside effective governance structures. Frequently, these actors are human agents, such as rogue traders or aggressive financial innovators, terrorists, groups of dissidents, or unauthorized sources of sensitive or secret information about government or private sector activities. In other instances, influential "actors" take the form of climate change, communications technologies, or socioeconomic globalization. Although these individual forces may be small relative to state governments or international institutions, or may operate on long time scales, the changes they catalyze can pose significant challenges to the analysis and practice of international relations through the operation of complex feedbacks and interactions of individual agents and interconnected systems. We call these challenges "femtorisks," and emphasize their importance for two reasons. First, in isolation, they may be inconsequential and semiautonomous; but when embedded in complex adaptive systems, characterized by individual agents able to change, learn from experience, and pursue their own agendas, the strategic interaction between actors can propel systems down paths of increasing, even global, instability. Second, because their influence stems from complex interactions at interfaces of multiple systems (e.g., social, financial, political, technological, ecological, etc.), femtorisks challenge standard approaches to risk assessment, as higher-order consequences cascade across the boundaries of socially constructed complex systems. We argue that new approaches to assessing and managing systemic risk in international relations are required, inspired by principles of evolutionary theory and development of resilient ecological systems.

  5. Teaching International Economics and Trade--Concepts in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; DeBoer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to introduce students to real-life issues in international economics. The sections of the book are: (1) The Advantages of Trade; (2) Judging NAFTA; (3) Does Globalization Benefit Poor Countries?; (4) Pocket Guide to International Financial Institutions; (5) What Do You Know about the WTO?; (6) Free Trade and Shifting…

  6. EXPERTISE OF POLITICAL ANALYSIS IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Bogaturov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a problem of political analysis in the fi eld of international relations. The author discusses the key rules, standards and requirements of correct political research as well as basic criteria of analytical correctness. The author formulates typology of analytical papers, assesses the state of environment and working conditions for today’s experts, analysis key problems and diffi culties at the stage of empirical data selection (including verifi cation of information sources, while choosing analytical methods and formulating conclusions. The article gives advice for experts, how to organize research, deal with diffi culties and fi nd non-standard solutions.

  7. Skepticism about Universalism: International Bankruptcy and International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Frederick

    2002-01-01

    There is no international bankruptcy law, but only the national bankruptcy laws of various states. The failure of a multinational firm therefore raises difficult questions of conflict and cooperation among national bankruptcy regimes. Theorists have proposed various reforms to the uncoordinated territorial approach that most states pursue when a multinational firm suffers financial distress. Among these reform proposals, universalism has long been the dominant idea. Under universalism, the ba...

  8. Cultural Dimension of International Relations During Interwar Period: International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation and the Scientific Study of International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara Popa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the past is highly influenced/leaded by the “lens” (readings, ideologies, etc. that have guided us through approaching realities of a specific period of time. In this article, we will discuss the cultural dimension of international relations characteristic for the interwar period , emphasizing , while tracing back on Romanian historiography, the aspects regarding the role that the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation had in organizing the scientifically study of IR and the specific participation of Romania within this League of Nations‘ body activity.

  9. Civil-Military Relations: Enhancing International Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fekete, Florian

    2003-01-01

    .... In particular, it focuses upon civil-military relationships in the League of Nations and the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and The International Committee of Red Cross...

  10. International Accounting Convergences Related to EU Admitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from January 1, 2005, member countries of the European Union began the obligatory or optional application of the international standards IAS/IFRS for consolidated accounts, what means a revolution in financial reporting of the enterprises. In regards to the individual accounts (generally based on the national book-keeping standards these will converge gradually to referential international book-keeper on short and medium term. At the world level the process which dominates the accounting systems is the convergence between american and international reference system, followed immediatly more or less by the convergence between national accounting systems and the international one. Where Romania and its specialists are situated confronting this process? A reflection subject which finalises this article.

  11. Human Rights and International Relations. Some Remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Mogens Chrom Jacobsen

    2017-01-01

    An introductory note to the this special issue of Nordicum-Mediterraneum, which contains select proceedings from the meeting of the Nordic Summer University (NSU) research circle “Human Rights and International Relations”.

  12. Teaching International Public Relations: An Update Report among Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Angela Ka Ying

    2017-01-01

    Involvement in international and multicultural career-related practices is ever on the rise in a global economic and political society, especially in public relations. This article reported an update of examining the attributes of public relations educators and their institutions in teaching of international public relations (IPR) through an…

  13. Policy Analysis, International Relations, and European Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis; Tatham, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights the rationale of the special issue in terms of its objectives and guiding principles. It maps different evolutions and challenges within three analytical streams (1) regarding the field of policy analysis, (2) concerning the interaction between domestic and international...

  14. International cost relations in electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.; Duengen, H.; Wilhelm, M.

    1986-01-01

    In spite of the fact that analyses of the cost of electric power generation as the result of international comparative evaluations are indisputably relevant, problems pending in connection with the costs of representative power plant technologies are of the methodological bind. German authors have hitherto also been failing to clear up and consider all aspects connected with the problems of data acquisition and the adequate interpretation of results. The analysis presented by the paper abstracted therefore aims at the following: 1) Systematization of the different categories of cost relevant in connection with international comparative evaluation. Classification into different categories of decision making and development of standards meeting the requirements of international comparative evaluation. 2) Calculation of relevant average financial costs of Western German, America and French fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants by means of adequate calculation models, that is the assessment of costs with regard to countries and power plant technologies which are relevant to the Federal Republic of Germany. 3) Analysis of the resulting differences and determinantal interpretation. (orig./UA) [de

  15. State of the Art of International Public Relations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Gay; And Others

    To examine aspects of the political/economic/social/cultural environments (PESCE) affecting international public relations and their significance to the future of public relations practitioners, this paper reviews the 1980s literature regarding the current and projected trends in international public relations practice and their implications for…

  16. Relative costs to nuclear plants: international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1992-03-01

    This work approaches the relative costs to nuclear plants in the Brazil. It also presents the calculation methods and its hypothesis to determinate the costs, and the nacional experience in costs of investment, operating and maintenance of the nuclear plants

  17. International political communication and influence of information and communication technologies on contemporary international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranješ Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available International political communication can be seen as an auxiliary but also constitutive discipline of the International relations in the wider field of the Political science. At the very core of International relations is Political communication through which the most important actors of world politics realize political goals. This paper presents a short genesis of the development of the International political communication and relation to the International relations. The key terms have been defined, the most important theories have been given and today's global character of International communication has been highlighted. The changes in International politics were analyzed as the consequence of the information and communication revolution and the emergence of modern Information and communication technologies that change the very nature of International relations. An overview of the new communication technologies impact on the main actors (subjects/entities of International relations was made, thus analyzing the impact of this factor on both state and non-state actors. We looked back at the impact of information and communication technologies on an individual who, thanks to the global communications network, became a real actor of world politics. There is also a section of the main theories of International relations and their relation to the challenges brought by the Informatics revolution (IT revolution and the Digital age.

  18. War and Peace in International Relations Theory: A Classroom Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Nathan Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Simulations are increasingly common pedagogical tools in political science and international relations courses. This article develops a classroom simulation that aims to facilitate students' theoretical understanding of the topic of war and peace in international relations, and accomplishes this by incorporating important theoretical concepts…

  19. Africa and the Principles and Theories of International Relations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To what extent have the principles and theories of international relations (as formulated) accommodated the specific needs and circumstances of Africa? In other words, how can the circumstances and peculiarities of Africa be made to shape and influence the established principles and theories of international relations as ...

  20. School Related Factors as Predictors of Internal Efficiency of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    constructed questionnaire tagged 'School Related Factors and Internal Efficiency. Questionnaire' (SRFIEQ) was ... related factors (students/teacher, curriculum deficiency and school organizational climate) and internal efficiency .... universities are not relevant to the needs of the labour market. He stressed that the lecturers ...

  1. Teaching Culture: The Challenges and Opportunities of International Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amiso M.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the challenges and opportunities for international public relations practice. Looks at current United States-Arab relations issues in international crisis communication. Discusses those issues, especially the role of culture and media. Proposes strategies including a case study that teachers can use to help students become effective…

  2. Communications and Public Relations Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Under the supervision of the Regional Director in Nairobi and in contact with the Director, Communications in Ottawa (Canada), the Communications and Public Relations Officer acts as a communications expert, increasing the visibility of the IDRC and its research partners in the Sub-Saharan Africa Region. The incumbent ...

  3. Communications and Media Relations Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Social Media. Working with the Social Media Officer in Ottawa, contributes to the development of IDRC's social media strategy and policy taking the lead for execution in the region. Monitors, reviews, and analyzes comments and conversations on IDRC's social media sites. Brings to the attention of the Media Relations ...

  4. Senior Media Relations Advisor | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Works with IDRC Regional Communications Officers as required as well as keeping staff abreast of media activities emanating from Headquarters. ... Develops monitoring and tracking systems to support high-level media relations services, to ensure consistency in approach and to track trends to highlight opportunities and ...

  5. All projects related to bangladesh | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 438,600.00. Reducing dietary related risks associated with non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh. Project. Bangladesh is undergoing a rapid demographic and epidemiological transition. Region: Bangladesh, Canada. Program: Food, Environment, and Health.

  6. A hierarchy of needs in international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Hayden, Casey P.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Characterizing U.S.-Russian relations as a new Cold War is nostalgic for many, but it does not accurately describe Russian motivation behind its current behavior. Abraham Maslow, a prominent behavioral psychologist, investigated motivation behind human behavior and concluded that human motivation centers on satisfying five basic "needs." It is plausible to modify his hierarchy of basic human needs and develop a similar hierarchy of basic ...

  7. Global Health Cooperation: International Relations' New Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This issue of MEDICC Review appears in the wake of a media splash on the reopening of the Cuban and US embassies in Washington and Havana, signaling the renewal of full diplomatic relations between the two governments. Although the US embargo is still law and one of the thorniest bilateral issues remaining, the Obama administration's bold opening towards Cuba is being echoed in the chambers of Senate committees, calling for an end to the policy in place since 1962. Meanwhile, people from the United States have begun to travel to Cuba in droves, and for the first time in many years, we perceive real hope that cooperation may replace hostility-at least in the sectors that most matter to ordinary people in both nations.

  8. Computational Model for Internal Relative Humidity Distributions in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondwosen Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational model is developed for predicting nonuniform internal relative humidity distribution in concrete. Internal relative humidity distribution is known to have a direct effect on the nonuniform drying shrinkage strains. These nonuniform drying shrinkage strains result in the buildup of internal stresses, which may lead to cracking of concrete. This may be particularly true at early ages of concrete since the concrete is relatively weak while the difference in internal relative humidity is probably high. The results obtained from this model can be used by structural and construction engineers to predict critical drying shrinkage stresses induced due to differential internal humidity distribution. The model uses finite elment-finite difference numerical methods. The finite element is used to space discretization while the finite difference is used to obtain transient solutions of the model. The numerical formulations are then programmed in Matlab. The numerical results were compared with experimental results found in the literature and demonstrated very good agreement.

  9. F.S. Northedge and English School of International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor V. Mironov

    2017-01-01

    This article is devoted to English historian F.S. Northedge (1918-1985) and his role in the development conception of international society and English School of International relations in 1960-1980. This school consists of small group of scientists and diplomats, who were well educated in elite British universities like Cambridge and Oxford. They were acquainted with each other personally. British Committee for the Theory of International Politics in 1960-1970 was the center for the stud...

  10. Global assemblages and structural models of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Rather than consigning assemblages to the micro-politics of international relations, the chapter argues that assemblages can also be seen to play a role in the ‘grand’ structures of international relations. Structural IR theory normally only considers how subjects are ordered – hierarchically......, anarchically, in core-periphery relations or in terms of networks. However, not only subjects but also assemblages – the bringing together of previously unconnected elements into novel constellations – play a critical role in structuring international relations. More specifically, one sub......-category of assemblages – those constructed as malleable and governable which I call ‘governance-objects’ – is central to structure in international relations. The chapter begins with standard definitions of what structures are – patterns of interaction between elements – and briefly covers the range of models currently...

  11. POS 591: International Relations Seminar "The Modern World-System."

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Patrick J.

    The syllabus outlines a college level international relations seminar with a neo-Marxist theoretical orientation. The objective of the seminar is to present an historical and comparative approach to a study of the evolution of the international political economy. Following an introduction explaining seminar objectives, grading, and course…

  12. All projects related to South Africa | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    All projects related to South Africa. Keyword Search. Topics ... Improving Labour Market Outcomes for the Poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. Project ... Negotiations around intellectual property rights (IPR) are increasingly a key factor in international trade and an important item on the international development agenda. Start Date: ...

  13. All projects related to nigeria | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although birth and death rates are still relatively high in Africa, African populations display some of the most youthful age structures in the world. ... Consumer Unity &Trust Society (CUTS International) is an international research, advocacy and networking organization based in India, with resource centres in Kenya, Viet ...

  14. F.S. Northedge and English School of International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor V. Mironov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to English historian F.S. Northedge (1918-1985 and his role in the development conception of international society and English School of International relations in 1960-1980. This school consists of small group of scientists and diplomats, who were well educated in elite British universities like Cambridge and Oxford. They were acquainted with each other personally. British Committee for the Theory of International Politics in 1960-1970 was the center for the study of International Society. Such composition of the school demonstrated aristocratic character of the International relations study as intellectual pursuit in United Kingdom. Meanwhile, such people like Charles Manning, Fred Northedge, Edward Carr and some other famous people, who usually were English School members, did not taken part in the British Committee due to different reasons. Thus, F.S. Northedge was untypical participant of English school and his scientific heritage need to be studied. Key factors of his biography and his views on International Policy are studies in the article. “Diplomatic style”, “System of the state” and “International society” were the central concepts in his works. He met with these ideas in the London School of economy, where Charles Manning, Martin Wight and Headley Bull – founders of English School - had worked at International relations chair in different time. The analysis of these categories let make conclusion that F. Northedge agreed with main ideas of English School of International relations. But at the same time he understood them very originally. His system of the views demonstrated that British Committee for the Theory of International Politics, but not London School of economy, was the main center for the development conception of International Society in 1960-1980.

  15. Back to the Future: International Education in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerness, Martin D.; Beaman, Ronda

    1994-01-01

    Finds few offerings of university courses emphasizing international public relations across the United States, despite global trends underlining increased internationalization. Argues that individuals and organizations must take account of those trends to stay abreast of the changing environment. (SR)

  16. All projects related to | Page 301 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NETWORKS, INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT THEORY, STRATEGIC PLANNING. Region: Middle East, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, West Indies, North and Central America, South America, North of Sahara, Canada.

  17. Change, Institutions, and International Organisations : Essays on the English School of International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Friedner Parrat, Charlotta

    2017-01-01

    The overall topic of this thesis is the English School understanding of international order, which I approach specifically by analysing the English School idea of international institutions and their change. The purpose is to develop the theory in a meta-theoretically conscious and coherent way. The three essays in this volume are independent in relation to each other, yet in some ways cumulative. Essays I and II aim to address primarily the question of how to conceptualise the current intern...

  18. International organizations as corporate actors: Agency and emergence in theories of international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Maier-Rigaud, Remi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the implicit and explicit conceptualizations of international organizations found in the three major theories of international relations are outlined and compared. It turns out that in a neorealist framework, international organizations can be explained; however, they exhibit no autonomy and cannot therefore be conceptualized as a corporate actor. Principally, the same applies to rational choice institutionalism, although limited autonomy is conceivable. Both theories are reduc...

  19. ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL CARGO TRANSPORTATION BY ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kosovsky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes methodology for estimating efficiency international economic relations in the sphere international cargo transportation by road for the national economy on the basis of relationship between advantages and costs of sub-systems of the unified system for automotive export services.

  20. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR LAW PRINCIPLES AS GUIDELINES TO FOSTEREMPLOYMENT RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniko Noemi TURI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary human resource management practices often ignore very important values of international labour law; however there is a wide floor for improvements in this area. In this sense the main guidelines are arising from the legal acts of the International organizations. The social responsibility, professional ethics and management are categories which have the intense relation with the legal system. Some historically developed degree of social responsibility and professional ethics may be considered as an important resource of values which are the starting point for building the legal system and also international regulations. The international labour law principles are significant elements in employment relations. The paper represents how the principles of the international labour law can positively influence managerial strategies through the social dialogue. Social dialogue provides a communication platform between social partners and by that it is actually creating a socio-economic and social development. Furthermore social dialogue is a key instrument in planning social development, harmonizing different interests, prevent and resolve disputes between the management and labour. International law shows many ways how to strengthen the principle of ethics in the employment relations. The values, arising from the existing international legal documents may be the significant guideline for the development of “good practices of managers”.

  1. International Information, Education and Cultural Relations: Recommendations for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC. Center for Strategic and International Studies.

    The report analyzes American government programs in international information, education, and cultural relations in order to provide recommendations for program improvement. A history of public diplomacy programs since World War II traces creation of the United States Information Agency (USIA) and the Bureau of Cultural Relations (CU) and analyzes…

  2. International academic cooperation on international relations in the interwar period : the International Studies Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, Michael

    Based on considerable archival research in Switzerland and France, this article considers the creation of specialised institutions and centres for scientific research, discussion and information on international questions after the First World War. It analyses the origins and development of the

  3. The parallel diplomacy and the International Relations of the regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zeraoiu, Zidane

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion of subnational entities in international politics, breaks with the exclusive privilege of handling external relations by the States. Regions and municipalities have developed international policies that strengthen local affairs in cultural, economic, politic, security and strategic cooperation aspects, through the so-called parallel diplomacy activities. The influence of regional institutions in global affairs is growing; however paradiplomacy practice is not institutionalized a...

  4. Science and diplomacy a new dimension of international relations

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, Pierre-Bruno

    2017-01-01

    This book examines in depth science diplomacy, a particular field of international relations, in which the interests of science and those of foreign policy intersect. Building on a wealth of examples drawn from history and contemporary international relations, it analyzes and discusses the links between the world of scientists and that of diplomats. Written by a professor of economics and former Embassy counselor for science and technology, the book sets out to answer the following questions: Can science issues affect diplomatic relations between countries? Is international scientific cooperation a factor for peace? Are researchers good ambassadors for their countries? Is scientific influence a particular form of cultural influence on the world stage? Do diplomats really listen to what experts say when negotiating on the future of the planet? Is the independence of the scientist threatened by science diplomacy? What is a scientific attaché for?

  5. Reading comics for the field of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    This article draws attention to a medium that has escaped the attention of International Relations scholars: comics. Comics are combinations of text and drawings and they come in a variety of formats: as newspaper strips, as stories printed in magazines and as long narratives presented in free...... through which central questions on the research agenda of International Relations scholars working on visuality, practices and intertextuality can be pursued. Drawing on comics scholarship, this article presents a theoretical framework aimed specifically at analysing comics as international relations......-standing books. Comics have been central to how generations of children have encountered foreign places and comics artists have successfully captured public attention, with comics offering explicit engagements with foreign policy events. Theoretically, comics provide a unique combination of text and images...

  6. Idealism and realism in International Relations: an ontological debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Ramon Fernandes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The debate between realism and idealism continues to mark the discipline of International Relations. On the one hand, realism argues that international politics is a struggle for power and a quest for survival, which results in a condition of permanent conflict between States without any possibility of evolution or progress. On the other hand, idealism considers it possible to build a world of peaceful coexistence, prosperity and well-being, achieved through cooperation and based on values and aspirations shared by humans. The object of this article is to analyse the debate between idealism and realism, considering it as an ontological debate and taking into account the controversy it has generated. The argument presented here is that both realism and idealism are two responses to the creation and maintenance of international order, that is, how States relate in international society; however these responses are not mutually exclusive and can coexist in constant tension with one another. An analysis of internationalist thought of two authors, Hans Morgenthau and Raymond Aron, is also presented, which relates to how they are positioned in this debate as well as International Relations as a whole.

  7. The Concept of Security in International Relations Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Orozco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War and the emergence of globalisation have transformed the reality of International Relations, which has meant a change in the theories which this reality had assumed. The concept of security reveals itself as an organisational idea on the different phenomena of globalisation, carrying out a programme of research that goes beyond the realistic presumptions of military power or of the idealistic principles of research for peace. This article explores the new meanings of security for International Relations theory and discusses the theoretical models that influence policy design and that aim to confront the problems and challenges of security in globalisation.

  8. Training specialists in international relations: rethinking the new paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Voevoda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers new tasks of universities and faculties training students of international relations. The author analyzes the essence of the concept "paradigm" in education because paradigm serves as the basis of the educational process in universities. The content of professional education depends on the aims of professional education of specialists in international relations. The process of globalization, global changes, challenges and threats bring about the necessity to study specific features of international cooperation in ecology, psychology of conflict, psychology of leadership, etc. In the age of globalization, national economies are converging while national cultures are diverging. Representatives of different nations realize the importance of preserving cultural identity. It is of vital importance to instil tolerance in future specialists in international relations and prepare them for cross-cultural communication. At the same time, it is necessary that they should not only enjoy individual freedom and national cultural identity, but realize their own responsibility to the state. In the modern world, the axiological and educational functions of professional training are growing. At the same time, it is crucial to let the students build a number of professionally relevant competences that will make it possible for them to effectively perform their professional functions. It is the competence-based approach that makes the basis of Federal state education standards, including education standards for faculties of international relations. Another direction that needs developing is training and retraining lecturers for universities specializing in international relations. Foreign language training of lecturers in basic subjects will make it possible for the, to give lectures in foreign languages, particularly in English, which, in its turn, will help to make Russia's universities more competitive.

  9. International Relations and the environment: practical examples of environmental multilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Tiago Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “environmental crisis” we experience today and the international community’s struggle to develop environmental standards to reach the epic “sustainable development” are widely known topics. What is needed, then, is an urgent and determined practice, which is only possible if international governance is structured, coherent and effective. The optimization of Environmental Multilateralism (the joining of what are considered the “driving forces” of Environmental International Relations: Law, Politics and international Diplomacy contributes greatly to this end. To understand its basic concepts and systems, as for example, its actors, negotiation and implementation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs and the carrying out of their Regimes, as well as their development in the United Nations, these are all crucial elements for its improvement and optimization. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992 and “its” Conventions are important examples in the history of Environmental Multilateralism, still very up-to-date not only due to the 20th anniversary of the “Rio Conference” but also due to the continuity and importance that the “Rio Conventions” and their Conferences of Parties (COP still have. This papers aims to analyze this area of studies transversal to International Relations and to the Environment, namely by studying the relation between the theory of Environmental Multilateralism and its practice.

  10. Critical Realism versus Social Constructivism in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Bobulescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the methodological differences between the British school and the American school of international relations. It attempts to demonstrate that Susan Strange, representative of the British school, could be considered a critical realist. The aim of the article is to show that her vision of international political economy fulfills the methodological reorientation initiated in economics by Tony Lawson at the end of the 90s. Strange’s radical ontology claims that structural power determines human actions. The paper contrasts Strange’s approach with that of John Ruggie, from the American school, who identifies himself as a social constructivist. Ruggie emphasizes the role of ideational factors in international relations and the constructed nature of social reality.

  11. Assessing the risk of work-related international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Myles; Harber, Philip; Liu, Yihang; Quigley, Robert L

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting the likelihood of requiring medical services during international business trips. Data from more than 800,000 international trips and medical assistance cases provided to 48 multinational corporations in 2009. Travel destination countries were grouped into four a priori risk-related categories. Travel to "low" medical risk countries in aggregate accounted for more hospitalizations and medical evacuations than travel to "high" medical risk countries. Nevertheless, the risk per trip was much higher for travel to higher medical risk countries. Corporations with employees on international travel should allocate sufficient resources to manage and ideally prevent medical issues during business travel. Travel medicine must focus on more than infectious diseases, and programs are necessary for both high- and low-risk regions. Improved understanding of travel-related needs determines resource allocation and risk mitigation efforts.

  12. Evaluating internal public relations using the critical incident technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, K.H.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the critical incident technique (CIT) is one of the current methods in communication audits, little is known about the way it works. The validity of the CIT in the context of internal public relations depends on 3 assumptions: that participants can describe discrete communication events,

  13. Civic Consciousness in Professional Education of Specialists in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina V. Pekushkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses characteristic changes of civic and patriotic component in the modern world and notes characteristic features and problems in forming civic consciousness of university students. The author gives special attention to bringing up a citizen in the context of modernizing the system of education and studies the main aspects of building civic competence in students of international relations. The article further considers the correlation between the concepts of "civic consciousness" and "patriotism" at the present stage within the framework of professional training of international relations specialists who stand for state interests, and presents a historical survey of building civic consciousness in future diplomats at the Collegium of Foreign Affairs in the 18th-19th-century Russia. The author stresses the importance of building up civic responsibility and legal consciousness as a reflection of state interests. The author determines and gives solid grounding to the role of civic competence in the professional training of future international relations specialists in accordance with the Federal state education standards of higher education (3rd edition showing the necessity of developing high professional responsibility based on axiological and spiritual values. The writer comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to study the philosophical, psychological and pedagogical aspects of the process of forming civic consciousness of international relations specialists.

  14. All projects related to Ghana | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-06-30

    Health systems in sub-Saharan Africa face a “triple” burden: a high prevalence of childhood malnutrition, an increase in diet-related chronic diseases, and an HIV epidemic that disproportionately affects women. Start Date: June 30, 2009. End Date: July 1, 2014. Region: Ghana. Program: International Research Chairs ...

  15. "In-Awareness" Approach to International Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharna, R. S.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a three-tiered framework intended to expose hidden cultural assumptions and expectations that plague international public relations. Notes the country profile outlines what may be feasible within a particular country; the cultural profile speaks to what may be effective in that country; and the communication profile delineates…

  16. Beyond the Borders: Principles of International Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Connie

    1994-01-01

    Advice on international public relations for colleges and universities includes focusing efforts on one country or region at a time; researching the market and media outlets; involving faculty and administrators; using the local language; careful budgeting; providing photographs and copy; focusing story ideas; considering politics; and considering…

  17. All projects related to | Page 216 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: DEVELOPMENT AID, FOREIGN POLICY, ECONOMIC POLICY, POLITICAL ASPECTS, INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK. Region: China, Far East Asia, India, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, South Asia, Afghanistan. Total Funding: CA$ 56,000.00. Foreign Assistance ...

  18. All projects related to | Page 251 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: International cooperation, DEVELOPMENT AID, SOUTH SOUTH RELATIONS. Region: Far East Asia, Singapore, Central Asia, South Asia, Philippines. Total Funding: CA$ 87,800.00. Anchoring Singapore Philanthropy in Southeast Asia. Project. Philanthropy in Singapore has traditionally had a charitable and local ...

  19. How Expensive is Norway? New International Relative Price Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Kornelia Krajnyak; Volodymyr Tulin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we derive two new measures of international relative prices for Norway. Developments in these new measures follow rather closely movements in the CPI-based real effective exchange rate through the 1990s, but diverge after 2000—suggesting that the costs of living in Norway relative to its trading partners have risen in the recent years more than the real effective exchange rate would indicate.

  20. Professional Language Training of International Students in the Multicultural Environment of University for International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Glebova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the specific features of professional language training of international students in the multicultural environment of a Russian university teaching students of international relations. After a brief historical survey of teaching foreign students in the universities of Russia, the writer considers the factors that influence the choice of universities graduating specialists in international relations by foreign students. The author goes on to analyze the specifics of linguisticand socio-cultural environment in Russian universities and its impact on international students stressing the fact that the educational environment at MGIMO-University is multilingual and multicultural. That explains the relevance of studying the quality of professional language training of foreign students in the sphere of international relations. The language of teaching in most universities of the Russian Federation is Russian, besides, all MGIMO students are obliged to learn English either as their first or second foreign language, that is why international students have to study in a tri-lingual environment and the interfering influence of several cultures. The writer points out that under such circumstances it is necessary for future IR specialists to build a number of professionally relevant competences: linguistic, socio-cultural, communicative, and suggests educational technologies that have proved to be effective in building them: case-study, role-plays, etc. The article gives special attention to the place and role of translation in teaching English as translation is a system of encoding within the system of two language systems. Translating phrases from Russian into English the student does 'inner', mental translation using the mother tongue. That makes the author suggest using the students'mother tongues in the teaching process. While learning foreign languages, international students should, along with language material, study the system

  1. 6th International Conference on the History of General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenstaedt, Jean; The Universe of General Relativity; GR 6

    2005-01-01

    This volume from the Einstein Studies Series is based largely on papers presented at the Sixth International Conference on the History of General Relativity, held in Amsterdam on June 26-29, 2002. These contributions from notable experts offer both new and historical insights on gravitation, general relativity, cosmology, unified field theory, and the history of science. Topics discussed include the prehistory of special relativity, early attempts at a relativistic theory of gravitation, the beginnings of general relativity, the problem of motion in the context of relativity, conservation laws, the axiomatization of relativity, classical and contemporary cosmology, gravitation and electromagnetism, quantum gravity, and relativity as seen through the eyes of the public and renowned relativists. Contributors: K. Brading; G. Gale; H.F.M. Goenner; J. Goldberg; S. Katzir; D. Kennefick; H. Kragh; C. Lehner; U. Majer; J. Mattingly; E.T. Newman; J.D. Norton; J. Renn; R. Rynasiewicz; J.M. Sánchez-Ron; T. Sauer; C. Sm...

  2. Environmental issues and international relations, a new global (dis)order - the role of International Relations in promoting a concerted international system

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,Joana Castro

    2015-01-01

    Is it possible to talk about the rise of a new global (dis)order founded on the challenges posed by environmental issues? Through the review of the state of the art on the subject, this article analyzes the growing importance of the environment, and natural resources in particular, in international relations; and aims to raise awareness among International Relations scholars to the potential positive impact of the development of the discipline in integration with global environmental change s...

  3. The Place of Culture in the Current International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Frosin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Culture and international relations easily appear to be mutually contradictory terms. To speak of "culture" is to invoke the creative capacities of human beings, to point, for example, to the constitutive role of values and visions, to the power of language and aesthetic expression, to communities great and small engaged in reconstructing normative aspirations and reshaping the possibilities for a decent way of life. To speak of "international relations," by contrast, is to draw upon an altogether bleaker account of the human condition, to refer to missiles and bombs, trade figures and debts, statesmanship and diplomacy, intrigue and force. It is to echo assertions about naked power and the sacrifice of cultural creativity and normative aspiration to the supposedly more enduring determinations of survival or supremacy. From the dark depths of international relations, the term culture takes on an aura of frivolity. It appears to refer to the idealistic and utopian, to the veneer of civilized decency that is always stripped away by the harsh realities of power politics and international conflict. This work aims at showing the contrary.

  4. Survey of environment related monitoring programmes of international organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report is a summary of environment-related monitoring programmes of international governmental organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes. it presents the situation as of November 1986: This survey has been prepared by a consultant for the Secretariat as a background document for the second meeting of the Environment Experts, Economic Summit in Munich, November 1986. It serves information purposes only. No claim for completeness is intended. This report may also prove to be helpful for administrators and the scientific community as regards gaining knowledge on present arrangements, approaches and environmental activities in the framework of international organizations. In this light, the present report could facilitate communication and progress in solving pressing environmental problems on the international level. (orig.)

  5. CONSIDERATIONS APPLICABLE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING REGULATIONS OF WAGES AND RELATED RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available General research area of this article is the issue of employee benefits nationwide and can be placed in the sphere of accounting research at the intersection of the finance research and field research on human resource management. The current conditions of global economic crisis, rewarding staff works on two levels, influencing both the behavior of employees and the efficiency of the economic entity. Wages and related rights are regulated under International Accounting Standards and International Financial Reporting Standards by IAS 19 "Employee Benefits" and IFRS 2 "Share-based Payment". Concerns over the years, on remuneration, was the International Accounting Standards Board, as in 1998 was developed International Accounting Standard 19 "Employee Benefits" and in 2004 was drafted to International Financial Reporting Standard 2 "Share-based Payment". This article is part of a broader research and through it we tried to address a topical issue that employee benefits and consequences of the degree of economic and financial development of economic entities and living standards of the population.

  6. International experience in the use of leasing relations in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Mikhalchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the market of leasing relations in the UK, Germany, France, the USA. Comparative analysis of development of leasing in foreign countries has been carried out in order to use international experience of leasing relations in Ukraine at the present stage of development of state economy. In spite of prevalence of leasing in developed countries, this kind of relationship is still uncommon in the economic environment of Ukraine because of its novelty and lack of experience. Relevance of leasing development in Ukraine, including the formation of leasing market, primarily is caused by a significant proportion of obsolete equipment and low efficiency of its use. One of solutions to these problems can be leasing which brings together all the elements of international trade, credit, and investment operations.

  7. Brazilian nuclear politics in the context of contemporary international relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpes, Mariana Montez

    2006-09-01

    The present dissertation analyses the retaking of the debate over Brazilian nuclear Program's recovery by Luis Inacio Lula da Silva government, based on the defense of the utilization of an already acquired technology of its own to enrich uranium. In spite of the intrinsic duality on this subject and having in mind the pacific ends concerning the utilization of such technology by Brazil, the hypothesis sustained in this work is that the Program's defense is considered a strategy of sovereign international insertion with relative autonomy and an instrument of national valorization against other powers. In order to verify the hypothesis outlined above, we will analyse the actual government, comparing it to, two other moments in Brazilian History in which the nuclear issue also acquired preponderance on the national agenda, namely, Geisel and Sarney governments. Although these three moments differ in relation to their internal political regime, our goal is to identify their similarities. (author)

  8. Relations over Time among Children's Shyness, Emotionality, and Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggum, Natalie D.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos; Sallquist, Julie; Michalik, Nicole M.; Liew, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Data regarding children's shyness and emotionality were collected at three time points, two years apart (T1: N = 214, M = 6.12 years; T2: N = 185, M = 7.67 years; T3: N = 185, M = 9.70 years), and internalizing data were collected at T1 and T3. Relations among parent-rated shyness, emotionality [parent- and teacher-rated anger, sadness, and…

  9. Propaganda and International Relations: an Outlook in Wartime

    OpenAIRE

    Marsili, Marco Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to highlight the role of propaganda during the conflicts in the contemporary age, particularly during the two World Wars. The propaganda developed during two major conflicts of the ‘900 as a true ‘weapon’ and instrument of government policy in international relations, has perfected the techniques of ‘news management’, and today is a real and relished ‘art’ applied to guide public opinion in favor of government decisions.

  10. The role of tourism in the development of international relations

    OpenAIRE

    MORADI A.; MORADI M.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, tourism is considered as a profitable and job-making indus- try and one of the largest sections of the global economy. This designation indi- cates its importance and eminent position in economy and international relations. Aside from economic aspects, tourism has got extensive social and cultural as- pects, as well. This industry can play a significant role in easing the tensions and establishing world peace and security as one of the solutions of development in the modern world an...

  11. Albanian-NATO Relations in the Fight Against International Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Mediation IEJ Islamic Egyptian Jihad IFOR Implementation Force IIRO Humanitarian Islamic Organization IMF International Monetary Fund IPP...In sum, NATO-Albanian relations in the counterterrorism realm suggest NATO’s ability to promote constructive cooperation and to wage “the war of...however, this progress was nearly undone by a popular uprising that was caused by the collapse of some financial pyramid schemes that swept away the

  12. Human Rights, Fundamental Freedoms and Universal Values in International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lev S. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    The author analyzes the evolution of human rights and fundamental freedoms in domestic political life of individual states and in international relations as well over the latest two centuries. The article traces the role of struggle for liberal political human rights and civilian freedoms in the dismantling of the feudal-absolutist regimes as well as the challenges of radical left-wing (communist) and far right-wing (national-socialistic) threats to be met by the supporters of liberal politic...

  13. The role of cultural diplomacy in international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Saddiki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diplomacy, as a cornerstone of public diplomacy, plays an important role in today’s international relations, which are characterised by so-called culture shocks, and it should represent a decisive tool not only for transmitting culture and national values, but also for listening to what the cultures from the rest the world are saying to us. The main role of cultural diplomacy is to promote transnational dialogue between cultures and nations, especially between the West and the Muslim world. Cultural diplomacy, just like other new dimensions in diplomacy, is not exclusively controlled by nation-states, given that at present they are not the only actors on the international stage, since other non-state actors (civil society, NGOs, universities, academics, etc. are playing an important role in this field. The aim of this article is to analyse the role of culture in modern diplomacy and its impact on relations between peoples and nations. It also attempts to focus on the positive aspects of the influence of culture on contemporary international relations.

  14. The Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S.; Manko, V. I.

    1993-01-01

    This conference publication contains the proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations held in Moscow, Russia, on 25-29 May 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to study possible applications of squeezed states of light. The Workshop brought together many active researchers in squeezed states of light and those who may find the concept of squeezed states useful in their research, particularly in understanding the uncertainty relations. It was found at this workshop that the squeezed state has a much broader implication than the two-photon coherent states in quantum optics, since the squeeze transformation is one of the most fundamental transformations in physics.

  15. Cultural Diplomacy and its Presentation in International Affairs Textbooks, 1945-1971. A Study of the Treatment Accorded International Education and Cultural Relations in 171 Textbooks on International Relations, Foreign Policy, and International Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Michael J.; And Others

    International education and cultural relations (IEC) are surveyed in the content of books from three areas of political science--international relations, foreign policy, and international organizations. One hundred seventy one texts published in the U.S. from 1945-mid 1971 are statistically analyzed in terms of amount of consideration of IEC;…

  16. Human Rights, Fundamental Freedoms and Universal Values in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev S. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the evolution of human rights and fundamental freedoms in domestic political life of individual states and in international relations as well over the latest two centuries. The article traces the role of struggle for liberal political human rights and civilian freedoms in the dismantling of the feudal-absolutist regimes as well as the challenges of radical left-wing (communist and far right-wing (national-socialistic threats to be met by the supporters of liberal political rights and civil freedoms in the interwar period. The list of human rights and fundamental freedoms had constantly been updating in the postwar period, including by the efforts of the UNO and other international organizations, and fixing in different international documents. The author emphasizes the import role of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE in transforming the issues of human rights and fundamental freedoms into the essential element of public diplomacy of contemporary states. He traces the process of the increasing utilization of liberal political rights and civilian freedoms, which are usually the effective tools for domestic democratic transformation, within the framework of diplomatic practice of European and North-American states, aimed at ensuring their political and economic interests on the world stage. In this regard the author addresses the attempts of Western countries to legalize "humanitarian"interventions in circumvention of the UN Security Council. The article emphasizes the necessity to replenish the understanding of universal human rights and freedoms by the values, developed both by the international community within the framework of implementing the Millennium Development Goals and by various countries and peoples, which in sum constitute the modern international civilizational baggage.

  17. Introduction: gender-based violence and international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brysk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women (according to the WHO, one in three women worldwide suffers from gender violence is an issue of global security as well as of human rights. Because these human security violations have a very significant impact on development, conflict, public health and transnational flows, they merit study from the international relations perspective. We find that academic research into the links between neoliberal development and insecurity, the response via the mobilisation of international institutions for legal and public policy reform, and the rise of transnational social movements contributes and enriches our understanding of the dynamics and the direction to of globalisation, as well as the well-being of over a billion of our planet’s female inhabitants.

  18. Cyborg pantocrator: international relations theory from decisionism to rational choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhot, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    International relations theory took shape in the 1950s in reaction to the behavioral social science movement, emphasizing the limits of rationality in a context of high uncertainty, weak rules, and the possibility of lethal conflict. Yet the same discipline rapidly developed "rational choice" models applied to foreign policy decision making or nuclear strategy. This paper argues that this transformation took place almost seamlessly around the concept of "decision." Initially associated with an antirationalist or "decisionist" approach to politics, the sovereign decision became the epitome of political rationality when it was redescribed as "rational choice," thus easing the cultural acceptance of political realism in the postwar years. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. International evaluation of the programme on engine-related combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcoumanis, D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Greenhalgh, D. [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom); Magnusson, B.F. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Peters, N. [Institut fuer Technische Mechanik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The 12 projects in the engine related combustion programme cover the entire range from fundamental and theoretical aspects of combustion to more applied subjects such as engine control. The common denominator in the programme clearly is the internal combustion engine, both the reciprocating as well as the gas turbine engine. Such a large coverage by a relatively small number of projects necessarily leads to an isolation of some of the projects in terms of their subject as well as the methodology that is used. On the other hand, all the research areas of interest in combustion technology are represented by at least one of the projects. These are: mathematical and numerical methods in combustion; modelling of turbulent combustion; laser diagnostics of flows with combustion; studies of engine performance and their control; semi-empirical model development for practical applications. As a conclusion, the evaluation committee believes that the programme is well balanced between fundamental and applied projects. It covers the entire range of modern methodologies that are used on the international level and thereby contributes to the application and further development of these research tools in Sweden

  20. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  1. Public Diplomacy and Refugee Relations Reflections of Turkey’s Refugees Relations on the International Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergün Köksoy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Public diplomacy is described as a new form of relations and communications between countries and societies in the field of international relations with the process of globalisation. The subject of refugees shown among the priority issues can be solved through international cooperation and solidarity with its results affecting all countries and societies, that’s why becoming part of public diplomacy. Asylum seekers and refugee rights are guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and considered to be an area that the international community needs to take the roles and share responsibilities. In this aspect, it is shown as global responsibilities and part of the humanitarian sensibility of countries and societies. In one hand, asylum seekers and refugees are considered to be the subject of the problem and crisis, on the other hand, due to contributing to the human and cultural interaction between the different communities, these are specified as part of public diplomacy. This article discusses the relationship between public diplomacy and refugees relations which provides the interaction between countries and effects the prestige and perception of them. In the study, to reveal the reflections of Turkey’s Refugees Relations on the International Media, three highest-circulation newspapers (“The Guardian”, “Le Monde”, “Der Spiegel” will be choosen from three important EU countries (United Kingdom, France, Germany. These newspapers’ headlines and news content which related to Turkey and Syrian refugees are going to be analized on three-month period. As a result, Turkish public diplomacy and refugee relations and its implications on the international media in the context of Syrian refugees will be evaluated and some recommendations for the future of Turkish public diplomacy and refugee relations will be provided.

  2. International economic relations of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Politics of Uzbekistan on development of international trade-economic cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Mirmuminov M.; Akbarov B.

    2018-01-01

    The article reveals the question of international economic relations of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The policy of Uzbekistan on the development of international trade and economic cooperation. And also, the economic relations of Uzbekistan and Russia. Economic relations with the countries Iran and Azerbaijan.

  3. Relations between information and communication technologies and international migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the topic of the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT on the international migration phenomenon According to the discussed literature, there is an impression that ICTs change the essence of migration and monitoring of migration flows. It also suggests that migration and migrants’ needs shape the development of ICT services intended to them, but they also shape the content of social media. The impact of new technologies on international migration (before migration, during migration and upon arrival in the country of destination has been discussed through an overview of empirical research findings in Serbia and other countries. In this context, the ICT users relevant to the migration process (individuals and interest groups have been more closely determined and discussed, the aspects of the relations between ICTs and migration have been highlighted, as well as their implications for individuals and society. The considered aspects of relations of ICTs and international migration at different stages of the migration process and their severe implications for individuals and society, in our opinion, point to the need for cooperation of users of information and communication technologies relevant to the migration process in different domains ‒ the spheres of influence of ICTs. We believe that is how the potential of ICTs will be exploited in an adequate way, for benefit of both ‒ migrants and other relevant interested parties. While widely accepted by individuals, information and communication technologies have just begun to be recognized as important for migration policy in Serbia and generally, in terms of their opportunities and challenges. In Serbia, only recently (as of the 2011 Census there has been data available on the use of ICTs by certain migrant groups (long-term settled refugees from former Yugoslav republics. Also, the qualitative surveys on the use of ICTs during the migration by transit

  4. Work-Related Attitudes of Czech Generation Z: International Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kubátová,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present work-related attitudes of a sample of Czech Generation Z and their comparison to the results of an international research study. Currently, there are three important trends influencing the labor market: (1 the origin and development of a ubiquitous working environment, (2 the thriving of coworking centers, and (3 Generation Z's entering the labor market. Instead of traditional jobs, the bearers of human capital tend to choose independent work in an online environment, and often work in coworking centers. Using self-determination theory, we substantiate why they thrive better this way. Based on the results of an international research project focused on work attitudes among Generation Z and the results of a replication study we carried out in the Czech Republic, we attest that members of Generation Z may prefer independent virtual work in coworking centers, too. The total amount of available human capital, the lack of which is pointed out by companies, may grow thanks to new ways of working. Companies, which can use human capital of independent workers, gain a competitive advantage.

  5. The Incidence of Study-Related Stress in International Students in the Initial Stage of the International Sojourn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lorraine

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the incidence of stress in international students in relation to the requirements of an international master's programme. The data presented here were taken from a doctoral ethnographic study of the adaptation of international postgraduate students to life in the United Kingdom, involving individual interviews with 13…

  6. The Curious Case of ‘Schools’ of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yongjin; Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2017-01-01

    This article interrogates the questions evoked by the curious case of ‘schools’ of thought in International Relations (IR) through the twin perspectives of the sociology of knowledge and geopolitics of knowledge. Drawing inspirations from the tradition of the sociology of IR pioneered by E. H. Carr...... and dynamics that, we argue, facilitate the formation and sustain the operation of schools of thought in IR. Taking seriously the recent insight from geopolitics of knowledge, the article then looks at why and how school labelling constitutes a battleground for contestation and legitimation of knowledge. While...... the ‘core’ uses the school label to create a parallel, and explicitly inferior, universe of knowledge production to localize theoretical noises from the peripheries, the school label, we argue, has been proactively appropriated by those at peripheries and semi-peripheries for three strategic purposes...

  7. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  8. Sixth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Solimento, S. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    These proceedings contain contributions from about 200 participants to the 6th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (ICSSUR'99) held in Naples May 24-29, 1999, and organized jointly by the University of Naples "Federico II," the University of Maryland at College Park, and the Lebedev Institute, Moscow. This was the sixth of a series of very successful meetings started in 1990 at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland. The other meetings in the series were held in Moscow (1992), Baltimore (1993), Taiyuan P.R.C. (1995) and Balatonfuered, Hungary (1997). The present one was held at the campus Monte Sant'Angelo of the University "Federico II" of Naples. The meeting sought to provide a forum for updating and reviewing a wide range of quantum optics disciplines, including device developments and applications, and related areas of quantum measurements and quantum noise. Over the years, the ICSSUR Conference evolved from a meeting on quantum measurement sector of quantum optics, to a wide range of quantum optics themes, including multifacet aspects of generation, measurement, and applications of nonclassical light (squeezed and Schrodinger cat radiation fields, etc.), and encompassing several related areas, ranging from quantum measurement to quantum noise. ICSSUR'99 brought together about 250 people active in the field of quantum optics, with special emphasis on nonclassical light sources and related areas. The Conference was organized in 8 Sections: Squeezed states and uncertainty relations; Harmonic oscillators and squeeze transformations; Methods of quantum interference and correlations; Quantum measurements; Generation and characterisation of non-classical light; Quantum noise; Quantum communication and information; and Quantum-like systems.

  9. Elite International Schools in the Global South: Transnational Space, Class Relationalities and the "Middling" International Schoolteacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarc, Paul; Mishra Tarc, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    The elite international school is a rich site for sociological inquiry in global times. In this paper, we conceptualize the international school as a transnational space of agonist social class-making given the dynamic positioning of the complement of international school actors. We position international schoolteachers in the middle of these…

  10. International Relations and the Paradiplomacy of Brazilian Cities: Crafting the Concept of Local International Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. S. Milani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the broader context of globalization as politics, this paper adopts the following assumption: cities through their transnational cooperation networks and economic projects are the expression of a new political actor that has shifted its scale of operations, and have thus partly emancipated themselves from the monopoly of the nation-state in the deployment of transborder public action. In pursuance of developing this assumption, this paper approaches the discussion on municipal paradiplomacy in three parts: firstly, it presents the historical and theoretical background of paradiplomacy in Brazil; secondly, it looks into the empirical reality of several Brazilian municipalities and their international actions; thirdly, it presents a series of critical questions for analyzing cities and their transnational networks as new political actors in the global arena. Empirically, this paper raises key issues related to the multiple ways in which municipalities throughout Brazil develop transnational activities, whereas analytically it aims to provide a better understanding of their soft-border approach, as well as their pragmatic association between a renewed identity in the global scenario and an innovative strategy of local international management.

  11. Improving international relations conferences through virtual interactions : Embodying a multi-agent Z specification framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okot-Uma, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates virtual interactions in distributed collaboration, with the aim to improve international relations conferences through virtual interactions. This is done by addressing the problems and issues of operation, context and strategy that frequently affect international relations

  12. International migration desires related to subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Ruohong; Esipova, Neli; Oppenheimer, Michael; Feng, Shuaizhang

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on the determinants of international migration has largely focused on objective factors, such as income. We instead use subjective well-being (SWB) to explain international migration desires, an expressed willingness to migrate. We find that individuals with higher SWB have lower international migration desires. At the individual level, the SWB-migration relationship appears to be more robust than the income-migration relationship. At the country level, national average SWB ...

  13. Regional Community and International Relations: the Volgograd Region Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danakari Richard A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the complex and controversial problems of the new regional communities’ formation and the impact of the interethnic relations sphere on them. The author notes that the processes of interaction between representatives of different cultures and civilizations, ethnic groups and religions have become increasingly controversial and tense in the context of continuous social dynamics. Similarly to the Russian society as a whole, regional communities are in a state of transitivity. They get transformed, they acquire new qualities such as multicasting and heterogeneity, multi-ethnicity and multi-confessionalism, fragmentarity and multiculturality. This fact increases the risks and uncertainties, problematizes future prospects. National non-governmental organizations are increasingly positioning themselves as civil society institutions at the present stage of social development at the regional level. They perform a difficult dual task: on the one hand, they ensure the preservation and development of history, native language, culture, ethnic traditions, and on the other hand, they work on the integration, on the common identity and the Russian nation formation. On the territory of the Volgograd region, largely due to the active cooperation of regional authorities and local authorities with national public associations, international and inter-confessional relations are stable. The basis of such activity is respect for history, native language, culture, tradition, religion, national dignity of all people in the region, regardless of their belonging to a certain ethnic group or religion. Over two decades of accumulated considerable experience of joint inter-ethnic dialogue and cooperation, provided tolerance and peace, harmony and mutual understanding between people of different ethnicities and religions in the country.

  14. All projects related to India | Page 15 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Consumer Unity &Trust Society (CUTS International) is an international research, advocacy and networking organization based in India, with resource centres in Kenya, Viet Nam, the United Kingdom and Zambia. Start Date: July 1, 2008. End Date: March 24, 2011. Topic: COMPETITION LAW, COMPETITION POLICY, ...

  15. All projects related to Canada | Page 14 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-10-31

    End Date: October 31, 2012. Topic: DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION, International cooperation. Region: Canada, North and Central America, South America. Program: Foundations for Innovation. Total Funding: CA$ 212,000.00. International Barcode of Life Project : Engaging Developing Nations. Project. DNA barcoding is a ...

  16. All projects related to | Page 552 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-01-01

    Project. Negotiations around intellectual property rights (IPR) are increasingly a key factor in international trade and an important item on the international development agenda. Start Date: January 1, 2008. End Date: April 14, 2011. Topic: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, ACCESS TO ...

  17. All projects related to Guatemala | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-01-23

    Project. For several decades, a variety of Canadian academic and nonacademic programs have enabled young Canadians to undertake international practicums through volunteer and work abroad programs. Start Date: January 23, 2007. End Date: July 6, 2012. Topic: VOLUNTEERS, YOUTH, International cooperation, ...

  18. All projects related to | Page 614 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-01-23

    Project. For several decades, a variety of Canadian academic and nonacademic programs have enabled young Canadians to undertake international practicums through volunteer and work abroad programs. Start Date: January 23, 2007. End Date: July 6, 2012. Topic: VOLUNTEERS, YOUTH, International cooperation, ...

  19. All projects related to malawi | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-01-23

    Project. For several decades, a variety of Canadian academic and nonacademic programs have enabled young Canadians to undertake international practicums through volunteer and work abroad programs. Start Date: January 23, 2007. End Date: July 6, 2012. Topic: VOLUNTEERS, YOUTH, International cooperation, ...

  20. All projects related to | Page 336 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-25

    The Chantier de l'économie social, in consortium with its major partners, is organizing an international forum on social economy and solidarity (Forum international de l'économie sociale et solidaire) in Montreal, 17-20 October 2011. Start Date: October 25, 2010. End Date: October 25, 2013. Topic: COMMUNITY ...

  1. All projects related to canada | Page 15 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The International Model Forest Network (IMFN) dates from a commitment made by Canada at the UNCED (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) Rio Conference in 1992 to create an international network of working models of sustainable forest management that are based on local-level ...

  2. All projects related to | Page 437 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: International cooperation, INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS, Civil society, Governance. Region: Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Canada. Total Funding: CA$ 533,000.00. Migration, Rural Poverty and Community Natural Resource Management in Cambodia. Project. Cambodia has a long history of migration, dislocation ...

  3. All projects related to | Page 459 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-01-16

    ... documenting different modes of collaboration based on information and communications technology (ICT). End Date: January 16, 2017. Topic: RESEARCH NETWORKS, INFORMATION EXCHANGE, International cooperation. Region: Bolivia, Canada. Program: Foundations for Innovation. Total Funding: CA$ 636,538.00.

  4. All projects related to kenya | Page 13 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, LEGISLATION, ACCESS TO EDUCATION, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, PUBLIC SERVICES, GENDER DISCRIMINATION, GENDER EQUALITY. Region: Argentina, South America, Iran, Middle East, Kenya, Pakistan, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and ...

  5. All projects related to canada | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , FOOD INDUSTRY, LIVESTOCK FEEDING. Region: Kenya, South Africa, Canada. Program: Canadian International Food Security Research Fund. Total Funding: CA$ 4,973,300.00. Enhanced Preservation of Fruits Using Nanotechnology ...

  6. All projects related to | Page 471 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , Senegal, Viet Nam, Togo, Burkina Faso, Zambia, United Kingdom. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 408,414.00. Competition and Regulation in West Africa. Project. Consumer Unity &Trust Society (CUTS International) ...

  7. All projects related to | Page 460 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: LABOUR MIGRATION, INTRAREGIONAL MIGRATION, INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, BRAIN DRAIN, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS, MIGRATION POLICY. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 548,550.00. Migration, Development ...

  8. All projects related to | Page 537 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-24

    End Date: December 24, 2010. Topic: TRADE LIBERALIZATION, Globalization, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, INTRAREGIONAL TRADE, TRADE NEGOTIATIONS, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SMALL ENTERPRISES, MEDIUM ENTERPRISES, TRADE AGREEMENTS. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Ghana, ...

  9. All projects related to | Page 433 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: SHIFTING CULTIVATION, AGROFORESTRY, LAND TENURE, AGRARIAN STRUCTURE, AGRARIAN POLICY, AGRICULTURAL POLICY. Region: ... In the 1980s, as recommended by the international organizations, almost all African countries adopted direct payment for healthcare services as the principal means of ...

  10. All projects related to | Page 115 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project addresses the lack of quantitative and qualitative employment data for students who graduate from Canadian university programs in international development studies ... Topic: Climate change, ADAPTATION, KNOWLEDGE, EMPOWERMENT, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT.

  11. All projects related to Canada | Page 22 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Canada. Program: Foundations for Innovation ... Founded in 1999, Mining Watch Canada (MWC) is a coalition of 18 Canadian environmental, social justice, church, first nations and labour organizations. Start Date: ... Topic: RESEARCH NETWORKS, INFORMATION EXCHANGE, International cooperation. Region: ...

  12. All projects related to | Page 665 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin American Knowledge Networking Program on Gender, Macroeconomics and International Economics. Project. This project aims to strengthen the capacity of Latin American researchers, academics, policymakers and practitioners to mainstream gender in macroeconomic policies and programs. Start Date: March 30, ...

  13. All projects related to | Page 134 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, PUBLICATIONS, INFORMATION SYSTEMS, CANADA, ADAPTATION ... The Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women (GrOW) research program is a collaborative initiative involving IDRC, the United Kingdom's Department for International Development, and The William and ...

  14. All projects related to nigeria | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-24

    End Date: December 24, 2010. Topic: TRADE LIBERALIZATION, Globalization, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, INTRAREGIONAL TRADE, TRADE NEGOTIATIONS, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SMALL ENTERPRISES, MEDIUM ENTERPRISES, TRADE AGREEMENTS. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Ghana, ...

  15. International Relations and the environment: practical examples of environmental multilateralism

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Filipa Tiago

    2012-01-01

    The “environmental crisis” we experience today and the international community’s struggle to develop environmental standards to reach the epic “sustainable development” are widely known topics. What is needed, then, is an urgent and determined practice, which is only possible if international governance is structured, coherent and effective. The optimization of Environmental Multilateralism (the joining of what are considered the “driving forces” of Environmental Internati...

  16. Human rights and sanction. A paradox in international relations

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMAD KORDZADEH KERMANI

    2016-01-01

    The Protection and promotion of human rights, however, have become one of the most important issues for the international community as a whole. Yet, at the same time, it has become increasingly difficult for the international community to address human rights problems collectively. Undertaking research on human rights, immorality and illegality of sanctions covers wide area of study. This article explores the immoral aspects and consequently illegal aspects of sanctions as a foreign policy to...

  17. Globalisation of water resources: International virtual water flows in relation to international crop trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Hung, P.Q.

    2005-01-01

    The water that is used in the production process of a commodity is called the ‘virtual water’ contained in the commodity. International trade of commodities brings along international flows of virtual water. The objective of this paper is to quantify the volumes of virtual water flows between

  18. National and international dimensions of the Triple Helix in Japan: University-industry-government versus international coauthorship relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Sun, Y.

    2009-01-01

    International co-authorship relations and university-industry-government (Triple Helix) relations have hitherto been studied separately. Using Japanese publication data for the 1981-2004 period, we were able to study both kinds of relations in a single design. In the Japanese file, 1,277,030

  19. Provisions relating to Nuclear Energy. II - International Conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book published by the Portuguese Junta de Energia Nuclear (Nuclear Energy Commission) reproduces in Portuguese and in the original language (English or French), texts of a series of international conventions in the nuclear field and the Statutes of international nuclear organisations and undertakings. The following are among the texts included: the Statutes of the IAEA, NEA, Eurochemic; the Euratom Treaty; the Tlatelolco Treaty; the co-operation agreement between Portugal and the United States on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. (NEA) [fr

  20. All projects related to south africa | Page 13 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-01-23

    Creating Global Citizens : Impact of Volunteer and Work Abroad Programs. Project. For several decades, a variety of Canadian academic and nonacademic programs have enabled young Canadians to undertake international practicums through volunteer and work abroad programs. Start Date: January 23, 2007. End Date: ...

  1. All projects related to Philippines | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-07-19

    International labour migration is a salient feature of regional economic integration and an integral component of development among countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Start Date: July 19, 2009. End Date: December 20, 2011. Topic: MIGRANT WORKERS, FOREIGN WORKERS, WORKING ...

  2. All projects related to | Page 520 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: CIVIL WAR, PEACE RESEARCH, REMITTANCES, REFUGEES. Region: Somalia, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 114,600.00. Remittances and Conflict : Somalia Case Study. Project. Despite the combined efforts of the international community to end the ...

  3. All projects related to | Page 345 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, South America, Costa Rica, North and Central America, Kenya, Peru, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Mexico, Canada. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 2,158,187.00. International Barcode of Life Project : Engaging Developing Nations. Project. DNA barcoding ...

  4. All projects related to mexico | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-04-01

    Region: North and Central America, South America, Mexico. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 4,000,000.00. International Barcode of Life Project : Engaging Developing Nations. Project. DNA barcoding is a new tool for taxonomic research. Start Date: April 1, 2010. End Date: October 1, 2013.

  5. All projects related to Argentina | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, South America, Costa Rica, North and Central America, South Africa, South of Sahara. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 421,218.00. International Barcode of Life Project : Engaging Developing Nations. Project. DNA barcoding is a new tool for taxonomic research. Start Date: April 1, ...

  6. All projects related to | Page 346 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, South America, Costa Rica, North and Central America, Kenya, Peru, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Mexico, Canada. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 2,158,187.00. International Barcode of Life Project : Engaging Developing Nations. Project. DNA barcoding ...

  7. Think Tank-University Relations in Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regional and international organizations, governments, and groups concerned with developing research and higher education capacity in Africa also influence how think tanks and universities interact. The Partnership for African Social & Governance Research (PASGR) is undertaking a study in collaboration with IDRC's ...

  8. All projects related to Burkina Faso | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Culture and the Exercise of Decision Making by Women in West Africa. Project. This research is grounded in the phenomenon of the simultaneous existence of a legal arsenal of national and international dispositions favorable to the integration of women in economic, political and social decision-making, and weak ...

  9. All projects related to | Page 609 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, South America, Iran, Middle East, Kenya, Pakistan, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, Far East Asia, ... Women (CEDAW) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) are legally bound to put their provisions into practice.

  10. All projects related to | Page 576 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-05-17

    Start Date: May 17, 2007. End Date: July 31, 2011. Topic: WOMEN'S RIGHTS, WOMEN WORKERS, INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, MIGRATION POLICY, MIGRATION LAW. Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Viet Nam, Taiwan, South Korea. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 361,300.00 ...

  11. All projects related to Nigeria | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-04-06

    Project. In West Africa, private sector information and communication technology (ICT) firms have demonstrated their capacity to create jobs and stimulate the growth of other economic sectors. Start Date: April 6, 2008. End Date: December 24, 2010. Topic: TRADE LIBERALIZATION, Globalization, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, ...

  12. All projects related to | Page 503 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-10-31

    In the La Plata basin, production of industrial crops and biofuels is rapidly expanding - a phenomenon driven by international markets, energy prices and the desire to offset the use of fossil fuels. Start Date: October 31, 2007. End Date: May 31, 2011. Topic: LAND USE, CLIMATE CHANGE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT. Region: ...

  13. All projects related to | Page 318 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: International cooperation, POLICY MAKING, TRAINEES, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, Poverty alleviation. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Sri Lanka, Peru, South Africa. Program: Networked Economies. Total Funding: CA$ ...

  14. All projects related to | Page 413 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: Capacity building, ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, ECONOMIC POLICY, ECONOMIC PLANNING, BRAIN DRAIN, International cooperation. Region: Lebanon, Middle East, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 244,900.00. Upgrading Lebanese Economic Analytical ...

  15. All projects related to canada | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 743,000.00. Scaling Research Results: Design and Evaluation. Project. Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) supports research to seek scalable solutions to improve the lives of people in the developing world. Region: Canada.

  16. All projects related to morocco | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: International Research Initiative on Adaptation to Climate Change. Total Funding: CA$ 2,500,000.00. Arab Democracy Barometer. Project. The joint Arab Democracy Barometer constitutes the second wave of surveys for both the Arab Barometer (University of Michigan) and the Arab Reform Initiative (ARI).

  17. All projects related to guatemala | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting indigenous women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics careers in Mexico and Central America. Project. Over the last 15 years there have been a number of efforts by government, civil society, private sector, and international organizations to address challenges faced by indigenous people, and ...

  18. All projects related to mexico | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting indigenous women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics careers in Mexico and Central America. Project. Over the last 15 years there have been a number of efforts by government, civil society, private sector, and international organizations to address challenges faced by indigenous people, and ...

  19. Are international fund flows related to exchange rate dynamics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Employing monthly data for 53 countries between 1996 and 2015, we investigate the relationship between international fund flows and exchange rate dynamics. We find strong co-movement between funds flows (as measured with the EPFR Global data base) and bilateral real exchange rates vis-à-vis the USD.

  20. All projects related to Lebanon | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: Capacity building, ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, ECONOMIC POLICY, ECONOMIC PLANNING, BRAIN DRAIN, International cooperation. Region: Lebanon, Middle East, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 244,900.00. Lebanese Palestinian Dialogue Committee ...

  1. All projects related to | Page 393 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-03-15

    Global Knowledge Partnership (GKP) is a multi-stakeholder partnership that seeks to advance the use of information and communication technology for development (ICT4D). Start Date: March 15, 2009. End Date: January 15, 2010. Topic: Evaluation, ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE, International cooperation, RESEARCH ...

  2. All projects related to | Page 282 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-03-31

    End Date: March 31, 2014. Topic: PEACE RESEARCH, CONFLICT RESOLUTION, REFUGEES, INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS. Region: Middle East, Palestine, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 720,673.00. Dialogue on Solutions to the Palestinian Refugee ...

  3. All projects related to Brazil | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin American governments, academics and nongovernmental organizations are paying increasing attention to poverty, inequality and social inclusion, and the ... This project is based on the premise that emerging countries must be full participants in key agenda-setting bodies if international governance mechanisms are ...

  4. All projects related to Ethiopia | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: MALNUTRITION, FOOD SECURITY, WOMEN, MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH, FOOD TECHNOLOGY, AFRICA, Gender. Region: Ethiopia, Canada. Program: Canadian International Food Security Research Fund. Total Funding: CA$ 3,845,000.00. Adaptation to Increase Resilience to Climate Change in Ethiopian ...

  5. All projects related to China | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: INTERNAL MIGRATION, GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY, WOMEN'S RIGHTS. Region: China, Far East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, United States. Program: Governance ... Region: Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Canada. Total Funding: CA$ 533,000.00. Prefabricated Engineered Bamboo Housing for East ...

  6. All projects related to mexico | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Brazil, South America, Chile, Guatemala, North and Central America, Mexico, Uruguay. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ ... Total Funding: CA$ 851,826.00. International Migration, Management of Natural Resources and Division of Labour along Gender Lines in Veracruz, Mexico. Project.

  7. All projects related to | Page 531 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The United Kingdom's Department for International Development (DFID) has entered into a partnership with IDRC's Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) program area in support of research that improves livelihood opportunities, enhances social service delivery and empowers citizens in ...

  8. All projects related to | Page 443 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-07-14

    There is evidence that the new wave of information and communication technologies (ICTs), mainly social networking and mobile applications, are reducing the cost to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of engaging with international markets. Start Date: July 14, 2009. End Date: May 31, 2012. Topic: SMALL ...

  9. All projects related to | Page 273 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-10

    The Fifth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development (ICTD2012) will take place 12-15 March 2012 at the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) in Atlanta, USA. Start Date: January 10, 2012. End Date: January 10, 2013. Topic: RESEARCH RESULTS ...

  10. All projects related to Kenya | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Canadian International Food Security Research Fund. Total Funding: CA$ 4,300,000.00. Canada-Africa Prevention Trials Network : Building African Capacity for HIV/AIDS Prevention Trials. Project. The Canada-Africa Prevention Trials Network (CAPT Network) was formed through a capacity building grant from ...

  11. All projects related to Canada | Page 13 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: International Research Initiative on Adaptation to Climate Change. Total Funding: CA$ 2,500,000.00. TanZamBo Capacity Building for HIV Prevention Research Network. Project. This grant will support the development of HIV/AIDS prevention trial expertise in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia using existing ...

  12. All projects related to Canada | Page 15 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: PEACE RESEARCH, REFUGEES, RESEARCH RESULTS, INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS. Region: Middle East, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Canada, Israel. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 88,213.00. HIV/AIDS Prevention Trials Capacity Building Grants - Phase II. Project.

  13. All projects related to | Page 391 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: RESEARCH NETWORKS, INFORMATION NETWORKS, RURAL DEVELOPMENT. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 2,433,705.00. HIV/AIDS Prevention Trials Capacity Building Grants - Phase II. Project. Canada's international response to the ...

  14. All projects related to Nepal | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project. Most fast-growing cities in South Asia face increased waterlogging and water contamination from improperly managed solid waste. Region: Bangladesh, Nepal. Program: Climate Change ... Region: Nepal, Canada. Program: Canadian International Food Security Research Fund. Total Funding: CA$ 2,198,040.00.

  15. All projects related to Népal | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project. Most fast-growing cities in South Asia face increased waterlogging and water contamination from improperly managed solid waste. Region: Bangladesh, Nepal. Program: Climate Change ... Region: Nepal, Canada. Program: Canadian International Food Security Research Fund. Total Funding: CA$ 2,198,040.00.

  16. All projects related to lebanon | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In its 2006-2011 Strategic Plan, IDRC's Acacia program identified small-scale agriculture, including environment and natural resource management (NRM), as a ... in Lebanon and to coordinate efforts by stakeholders (United Nations Relief and Works Agency-UNRWA, Lebanese ministries, the international community, etc.

  17. International market segmentation based on consumer-product relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hofstede, F; Steenkamp, JBEM; Wedel, M

    With increasing competition in the global marketplace, international segmentation has become an ever more important issue in developing, positioning, and selling products across national borders. The authors propose a methodology to identify cross-national market segments, based on means-end chain

  18. All projects related to | Page 427 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-07-19

    International labour migration is a salient feature of regional economic integration and an integral component of development among countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Start Date: July 19, 2009. End Date: December 20, 2011. Topic: MIGRANT WORKERS, FOREIGN WORKERS, WORKING ...

  19. All projects related to | Page 493 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-15

    Women, Migration and Rights in Mali and Sénégal. Project. In West Africa, notably Mali and Sénégal, the flow of women's migration takes place mainly within and between countries. Start Date: February 15, 2008. End Date: August 26, 2011. Topic: INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, RURAL URBAN MIGRATION, MIGRANT ...

  20. All projects related to | Page 155 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-05-03

    As 2015 approaches, the international community is critically assessing the delivery of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which were established in 2000. Start Date: May 3, 2013. End Date: September 30, 2014. Topic: CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, SOCIAL PROBLEMS, LOCAL ...

  1. THE CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL LAW. A RELATION BETWEEN HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEANNETTE IRIGOIN BARRENE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During an armed conflict, a change in the application of the human right regulations and international humanitarian law can be observed in the practice of contemporary international law. It is possible to observe at UN and International Courts’ levels an interesting trend in the sense of considering the application of both systems simultaneously in cases of international crisis as well as in internal conflicts. This innovation in contemporary international law can be observed initially in the change experimented by the legislation of the Human Rights’ European Court and specially and clearer in the Human Rights’ Inter American Court, which in cases against Honduras, Colombia, Paraguay and other countries, states that the State, being warrantor of the efficient protection of civil population, must apply and honor not only the Human Rights’ American Convention, but also the articles 13th and 14th of the II protocol of the Geneva Conventions of 1949. The convergence of both branches of the Law, and its application may help to achieve a better defense and efficiency of the fundamental rights of the human being.

  2. International Relations in Russia. Interview with Pavel A. Tsygankov, Moscow State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Vladimirovich Barnashov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The interview is devoted to methodological aspects of research in the field of international relations, the specifics of Russian research on the theory of international relations. The scientist is concerning the activities of nowadays’ analytical centers in the field of international political subjects, their role in political decision-making processes. Prospects of development of the theory of international relations in Russia are being analyzing. P. Tsygankov is comparing the quality of research in the West and in Russia, noting a number of factors, which can enhance the role of domestic researches on the problems of international relations: pluralization and the creation of a global science of international relations, development of national schools of international relations. During the interview P. Tsygankov is refering to a number of scientific papers and conferences, which confirm the validity of the point of view of the researcher. Specific attention is drawn to the fact that there is a kind of “regional division of labour” in the Russian science of international relations; major universities in various cities and regions of Russia are solving too specific problems of international relations. The researcher emphasizes the issues of interdisciplinarity, which is ordinary and necessary for such science as the theory of international relations is. Interdisciplinarity, in turn, considers the use of multiple research methods and techniques - both from the field of humanities and natural sciences.

  3. The politics of inter-regionalism: relations between international regional organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleuten, J.M. van der; Ribeiro Hoffman, A.; Reinalda, B.

    2013-01-01

    As the development of relations between international regional organizations, inter-regionalism denotes a relatively recent phenomenon. Largely due to systemic bipolarity, inter-regional relations remained limited to 'dialogue partnerships' between the European Community (EC) and other regional

  4. The impact of international service on the development of volunteers' intercultural relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Benjamin J; Sherraden, Margaret Sherrard; McBride, Amanda Moore; Xiang, Xiaoling

    2014-07-01

    Approximately one million people from the United States perform international volunteer service each year, representing a significant flow of ideas, people, resources, and aid across international borders. This quasi-experimental study assesses the longitudinal impact of international volunteer service on volunteers' intercultural relations, international social capital, and concern about international affairs. Using linear mixed regression models that control for a counterfactual comparison group of individuals that did not travel abroad, international volunteers are more likely to report significant increases in international social capital and international concern two to three years after returning from service. Results indicate that intercultural relations may also continue to increase years after returning from service. International service may be a useful approach to helping people gain skills and networks that are needed in an increasingly global society. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Drugs in the Americas: Their Influence on International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-31

    their own countries if posible. with national judges, but under Interamerican (International) court rules to diminish the possibility of corruption. 2...extends to some countries, it has taken upon itself the right to act both as judge and executioner grading and certifying the actions of other nations...conditions. The countries involved in the war to eradicate this crime against humanity carry on their struggle within their available resources and

  6. Toward More Emphasis in International Public Relations Research and Education: A USA Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    International public relations continues to be a rare experience in most public relations curriculums, but courses are found in journalism and business. The emphasis, however, is slightly different. Business departments emphasize international economic principles to be supported by public relations, whereas journalism stresses issues management…

  7. The Role of International Juridical Process in International Security and Civil-Military Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Court of Jerusalem in 1961, and the case of Klaus Barbie in France. Until today the application of international rules of war remains generally...227 By June 27, 2002 China, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Iraq, and Turkey have failed to sign up to the 1998 Rome Treaty. The U.S., Egypt, Iran

  8. Characterizing multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation via internal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballar, Roland Cristopher F.; Ocampo, Leonard R.; Galapon, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Internal symmetries can be used to classify multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation (TE-CCR). The dynamical behavior of solutions to the TE-CCR possessing particular internal symmetries involving time reversal differ significantly from solutions to the TE-CCR without those particular symmetries, implying a connection between the internal symmetries of a quantum system, its internal unitary dynamics, and the TE-CCR.

  9. CrossFit-related cervical internal carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Albert; Shen, Peter; Lee, Paul; Dahlin, Brian; Waldau, Ben; Nidecker, Anna E; Nundkumar, Anoop; Bobinski, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    CrossFit is a high-intensity strength and conditioning program that has gained popularity over the past decade. Potential injuries associated with CrossFit training have been suggested in past reports. We report three cases of cervical carotid dissection that are associated with CrossFit workouts. Patient 1 suffered a distal cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection near the skull base and a small infarct in Wernicke's area. He was placed on anticoagulation and on follow-up has near complete recovery. Patient 2 suffered a proximal cervical ICA dissection that led to arterial occlusion and recurrent middle cerebral artery territory infarcts and significant neurological sequelae. Patient 3 had a skull base ICA dissection that led to a partial Horner's syndrome but no cerebral infarct. While direct causality cannot be proven, intense CrossFit workouts may have led to the ICA dissections in these patients.

  10. All projects related to | Page 147 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: UNIVERSITIES, HIGHER EDUCATION, PARTNERSHIP, RESEARCH NETWORKS, STUDENT EXCHANGE, NORTH SOUTH RELATIONS. Region: Canada. Program: ... One constant in the ebb and flow of the Arab Spring has been the increased influence of public opinion on public policy. Topic: PUBLIC OPINION ...

  11. All projects related to | Page 389 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-03-01

    Project. The Association for Progressive Communication (APC) is repositioning itself in relation to information and communication technology (ICT) policy research. Start Date: March 1, 2010. End Date: July 1, 2012. Topic: APPLIED RESEARCH, PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH, INFORMATION SOCIETY, POLICY MAKING.

  12. All projects related to Brazil | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, South Asia, Egypt, Canada ... Topic: PEACE RESEARCH, PEACE KEEPING, CONFLICT RESOLUTION, ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION, SOUTH SOUTH RELATIONS.

  13. All projects related to | Page 176 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CEEPA) has worked to enhance the skills and knowledge of African researchers to conduct ... Africa continues to deal with high morbidity and mortality rates related to health inequalities and diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS.

  14. All projects related to | Page 252 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-03-01

    , strengthen the foreign policy community in the national capital region, and include younger professionals in ongoing work. Start Date: March 1, 2012. End Date: February 28, 2015. Topic: FOREIGN RELATIONS, FOREIGN POLICY, Capacity ...

  15. International Relations and Diplomatic Service: Retrospective Analysis and Prospects of The New World Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii V. Ohotskii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presented as a review to the textbook of the Doctor of History Shakhalilov Shamansur, The History of International Relations: Driving Forces, Global Tendencies. Moscow State University Press, 2015. The author focuses readers attention on the regularities of formation, development and peculiarities of legal regulation of international relations, considers these relations as an ongoing, highly controversial and multidirectional developing process of the formation of the world system of States and international relations, explores the driving forces, events and phenomena, who had in his time, and many still have a decisive influence on international policy the leading powers of the world in the framework of nonlinear processes of globalization and the current, seriously flawed by today's standards, world order and system of international law. The article draws readers attention to everything presented in the tutorial main substantial characteristics and patterns of international relations in their historical context. Emphasizes the inadmissibility of violations of principles and norms of functioning of the traditional system of international law; analyses the factors of influence on the world trends of globalization processes is the gradual destruction of the boundaries between national and international levels of government and governance, the increasing role of supranational political actors. Attention is drawn to the increasing importance in international Affairs information and communication technologies and social networks, expanding the access of citizens to discuss government decisions on international issues. Article will help not only students, but all interested in the patterns, principles and features of international practices in different historical periods and in different civilization. Will foster in the reader a holistic view of the system of international relations and diplomatic activities, to learn, to understand the

  16. Between Theory and History: "The Remains of the Day" in the International Relations Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Anthony F., Jr.; Lang, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Recommends using Kazuo Ishiguro's "The Remains of the Day" to teach international relations by focusing on the normative elements of international relations, the importance of history, and the relationship between theory and history. Explores the use of one theory, feminism, in the novel and provides suggestions for other novels. (CMK)

  17. International coauthorship relations in the Social Sciences Citation Index: is internationalization leading the network?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Park, H.W.; Wagner, C.

    2014-01-01

    International coauthorship relations have increasingly shaped another dynamic in the natural and life sciences during recent decades. However, much less is known about such internationalization in the social sciences. In this study, we analyze international and domestic coauthorship relations of all

  18. Progress in Research and Theory: Eleven Years of International Public Relations Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, W. Timothy

    Public relations has been caught up in the drive to internationalize business. Organizations are now dealing with global constituencies on a more frequent basis, which increases the demand for international public relations. One concern raised by this development is whether or not theory and research are keeping pace with the international needs…

  19. All projects related to | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This pilot project is one of four pilots exploring the feasibility of a Think Heath Initiative, a prospective program that would support evidence-based policy engagement on the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Region: South Asia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan.

  20. All projects related to | Page 7 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This is one of four pilot projects exploring the feasibility of a Think Heath Initiative, a prospective program that would support evidence-based policy engagement on the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Region: South of Sahara, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia.

  1. All projects related to | Page 222 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    India is facing a rising burden of cardiovascular disease and obesity-related diabetes due to increasingly unhealthy diets and tobacco use. Start Date: October 1, 2012. End Date: April 20, 2015. Topic: TAX REFORM, EPIDEMIOLOGY, FOOD INDUSTRY, TOBACCO INDUSTRY, SOUTH ASIA. Region: India, Central Asia, Far ...

  2. All projects related to | Page 221 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    India is facing a rising burden of cardiovascular disease and obesity-related diabetes due to increasingly unhealthy diets and tobacco use. Start Date: October 1, 2012. End Date: April 20, 2015. Topic: TAX REFORM, EPIDEMIOLOGY, FOOD INDUSTRY, TOBACCO INDUSTRY, SOUTH ASIA. Region: India, Central Asia, Far ...

  3. All projects related to india | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    India is facing a rising burden of cardiovascular disease and obesity-related diabetes due to increasingly unhealthy diets and tobacco use. Start Date: October 1, 2012. End Date: April 20, 2015. Topic: TAX REFORM, EPIDEMIOLOGY, FOOD INDUSTRY, TOBACCO INDUSTRY, SOUTH ASIA. Region: India, Central Asia, Far ...

  4. All projects related to | Page 349 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-02-25

    The Economic Committee of the National Assembly (ECNA) of Viet Nam is mandated to review drafts of legislation related to economic management, business activity and monetary affairs (including banking), and to supervise the implementation of state plans for socioeconomic development. Start Date: February 25, 2010.

  5. All projects related to | Page 135 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-08-21

    Although many developing countries are working on appropriate mechanisms for financing adaptation to combat climate-related problems, there is a great need for research and insight to support these efforts. End Date: August 21, 2017. Topic: POLICY MAKING, Capacity building, METHODOLOGY, DATA ANALYSIS, ...

  6. 9th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmutzer, E.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 3 presents the abstracts of the following discussion groups: Quantization about classical background metrics (36 abstracts); Supergravity, renormalization program (8 abstracts); Classical gauge type theories of gravity (23 abstracts). 14 abstracts not related to any discussion group and 5 later submitted abstracts are also included. An alphabetic author index is given

  7. All projects related to | Page 226 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Welfare Evaluation and the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Water Supply and Demand in Chile, Colombia, and Bolivia. Project. While countries in Latin America have a relatively plentiful supply of water on a per-capita basis and high coverage of water supply services, there is ample evidence that water scarcity is ...

  8. All projects related to colombia | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Welfare Evaluation and the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Water Supply and Demand in Chile, Colombia, and Bolivia. Project. While countries in Latin America have a relatively plentiful supply of water on a per-capita basis and high coverage of water supply services, there is ample evidence that water scarcity is ...

  9. All projects related to | Page 250 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Total Funding: CA$ 833,600.00. Contributions of Global Health Diplomacy to Health Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa:Evidence and Information to Support Capabilities for Health Diplomacy. Project. Health is becoming a core feature of global negotiations, whether they relate to trade, economic growth, or social development.

  10. All projects related to | Page 66 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will increase awareness and access to economic and policy data for tobacco and alcohol-related policies in sub-Saharan Africa among researchers, policymakers, and public health advocates. Topic: TOBACCO, DATA ANALYSIS, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, INFORMATION DISSEMINATION, POLICY ...

  11. All projects related to | Page 71 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will increase awareness and access to economic and policy data for tobacco and alcohol-related policies in sub-Saharan Africa among researchers, policymakers, and public health advocates. Topic: TOBACCO, DATA ANALYSIS, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, INFORMATION DISSEMINATION, POLICY ...

  12. All projects related to | Page 19 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Technologies like the Internet and mobiles are disrupting many things, including traditional economic systems, banking and communications systems, and socioeconomic and gender relations. Region: ... A number of studies in recent years have reported disturbingly high levels of violence against women in the workplace.

  13. All projects related to | Page 634 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: POLITICAL REFORM, Governance, GOVERNMENT MILITARY RELATIONS, POLICE, HUMAN RIGHTS, Civil society. Region: Middle East, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, United States. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 78,200.00. Security Sector Reform in the Arab Region. Project.

  14. All projects related to Tanzania | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    All projects related to Tanzania. Keyword ... Tobacco use is one of the main risk factors for the rapidly growing non-communicable disease (NCD) burden in low- and middle-income countries. ... Innovative Approaches to Creating Opportunities and Incorporating Youth into Labour Markets in the East African Community.

  15. All projects related to egypt | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-07-10

    All projects related to egypt. Keyword Search. Topics ... Displaying 31 - 40 of 41. Poverty, Job Quality and Labor Market Dynamics in the Middle East and North Africa ... Competitiveness on the part of Egyptian enterprises is regarded as one of the key factors in the country's economic development. Start Date: July 10, 2006.

  16. All projects related to South Africa | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-07-23

    All projects related to South Africa. Keyword Search. Topics. - Any - ... Topic: LAND TENURE, CULTURAL FACTORS, GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY, Gender. Region: South of Sahara, Uganda, ... Agrifood markets in developing and transition countries are undergoing rapid change. Start Date: July 23, 2006.

  17. All projects related to Kenya | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    All projects related to Kenya ... During the first phase of this project (103765), researchers conducted a market analysis for bamboo and bamboo products, compared the livelihoods of ... In recent years the security of women's entitlement to land and land-based resources has been compromised by a number of factors.

  18. All projects related to South Africa | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Shaping Social Protection in Africa : National Transfer Accounts. Project. Although birth and death rates are still relatively high in Africa, African populations display some of the most youthful age structures in the world. Start Date: December 15, 2008. End Date: March 21, 2012. Topic: DEMOGRAPHIC MODELS, SOCIAL ...

  19. A Study in Historical Materialism and International Relations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historical materialism as a discourse assumes that the economic determines the political and other dimensions of society. Nigeria had set specific conditions for renewed relations with apartheid South Africa. These were yet to be met and the intensity that characterised Nigeria's pursuance of an aggressive anti-apartheid ...

  20. All projects related to Colombia | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: North and Central America, South America, Colombia, Canada. Total Funding: CA$ 2,800,000.00. Welfare Evaluation and the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Water Supply and Demand in Chile, Colombia, and Bolivia. Project. While countries in Latin America have a relatively plentiful supply of water on a ...

  1. All projects related to | Page 454 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project was prompted by the perception that partnerships between Canadian research organizations and their counterparts in Africa - in contrast to partnerships between Canadian research organizations and their counterparts in Latin America and the Caribbean - have remained relatively limited and probably fall short ...

  2. All projects related to Peru | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-06-30

    Health systems in sub-Saharan Africa face a “triple” burden: a high prevalence of childhood malnutrition, an increase in diet-related chronic diseases, and an HIV epidemic that disproportionately affects women. Start Date: June 30, 2009. End Date: July 1, 2014. Topic: Gender. Region: Ghana, Peru, Canada. Program: ...

  3. Public relations research: European and international perspectives and innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerfass, A.; van Ruler, B.; Sriramesh, K.

    2008-01-01

    This volume is a major contribution to the trans-national debate on public relations research and communication management. It presents dominant concepts and findings from the scientific community in Germany in English language. At the same time, the compilation contains a selection of the most

  4. Africa and the Principles and Theories of International Relations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    relations are networks of interactions in areas such as science and technology, sports and culture, economy and development, social media, etc, all done with the view to advancing and consolidating interests. As networks, they become activities with the passage of time to the extent that they constitute the agenda shaping ...

  5. All projects related to bangladesh | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ATTITUDES, GENDER DISCRIMINATION, GENDER RELATIONS, GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY ... The exponential growth of data storage capability coupled with the rise of social media and Internet business applications means that companies and governments now have the ability to capture and ...

  6. All projects related to | Page 218 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Promoting Innovation in the Services Sector: Toward Productivity and Competitiveness. Project. The services sector is increasingly important to the economies of Latin America and the Caribbean, but productivity remains relatively low. Start Date: April 1, 2012. End Date: March 12, 2014. Topic: LATIN AMERICA, SERVICE ...

  7. A Relational Approach to International Education through Homestay Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Junko; Viswat, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies and analyzes intercultural problems through surveys of homestay programs with Japanese students and American host mothers. Given that participants need to go beyond their cognitive knowledge to interact effectively with people from other cultures, a relational approach may be more effective than traditional intercultural…

  8. All projects related to Bolivia | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-09-26

    Displaying 41 - 41 of 41. ICTs for Building Democratic Dialogue : the Agrarian Revolution Observatory in Bolivia. Project. Since the inception of the first Agrarian Reform Law in 1953, Bolivia has gone through a long and conflictive process related to land redistribution. Start Date: September 26, 2007. End Date: December ...

  9. All projects related to ethiopia | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ ... Studies have related maternal mortality to stage of economic development and access to reproductive services. Start Date: May 31, ... Linking Macro Development Policies to Child Poverty in Ethiopia's Second Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2006-2010). Project.

  10. All projects related to ethiopia | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ ... Studies have related maternal mortality to stage of economic development and access to reproductive services. Start Date: May 31, ... Linking Macro Development Policies to Child Poverty in Ethiopia's Second Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2006-2010). Project.

  11. All projects related to | Page 244 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-02-07

    Research aimed at policymakers in Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus will highlight how tobacco taxation policies can serve public health goals and reduce the burden of tobacco-related diseases and deaths. Start Date: February 7, 2012. End Date: March 12, 2013. Topic: TOBACCO, SMOKING, TAXATION, PUBLIC HEALTH.

  12. All projects related to | Page 254 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-02-10

    Violent conflict related to drug trafficking in Mexico has had a profound impact on the quality of life and health of affected communities. Start Date: February 10, 2012. End Date: May 10, 2014. Topic: NARCOTICS, VICTIMS, VIOLENCE, DRUG TRAFFIC, VULNERABLE GROUPS, JUDICIAL SYSTEM. Region: Mexico, North ...

  13. All projects related to Brazil | Page 10 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Open business is a different way of doing business related to information, knowledge and culture, in which intellectual property does not play the role of being either the ... Historically, the cooperative sector in Latin America has contributed to job creation, and been a relevant provider of housing, consumer goods, marketing ...

  14. All projects related to | Page 25 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Africa, there is an increasing call for real engagement with stakeholders around governance-related policy issues. Region: South of Sahara. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 599,800.00. The Bolivian public justice performance research study. Project. The Bolivian justice system obtains a conviction ...

  15. All projects related to Kenya | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project. Although birth and death rates are still relatively high in Africa, African populations display some of the most youthful age structures in the world. ... Project. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the global burden of disease could be reduced by up to 15% by improving water, sanitation and hygiene.

  16. All projects related to Senegal | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The feminization of poverty in Sénégal seems largely related to women's difficulty in accessing resources, notably land. Start Date: November ... Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: ... Topic: ECONOMIC RECESSION, Poverty, VULNERABLE GROUPS, SOCIAL SERVICES, Poverty alleviation. Region: Senegal ...

  17. All projects related to | Page 4 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 728,100.00. Promoting inclusive policies and approaches to address youth networks of violence in South Africa. Project. In South Africa, a history of apartheid policies, concentrated poverty, social deprivation, and other risk factors related to violence within particular ...

  18. Australian Applied Linguistics in Relation to International Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.; Kaplan, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Applied Linguistics is a diverse field, comprising a substantial number of sub-fields, sub-specialisations and related fields. To see that this is the case one need only examine the various handbooks and encyclopaedic references that have been published in the last ten years to see the wide range of topics that have been covered. As with many…

  19. All projects related to | Page 179 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-09-27

    In developing countries like Cambodia, it is often assumed that the cost of tobacco-related disease to national economies and households is low, despite a high number of male smokers. Start Date: September 27, 2013. End Date: December 31, 2015. Topic: HEALTH EXPENDITURE, SMOKING, TOBACCO, RESPIRATORY ...

  20. All projects related to | Page 305 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: TOBACCO INDUSTRY, SMOKING, CROP DIVERSIFICATION, INCOME GENERATION. Region: India, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 200,500.00. Options for Diversification in Tobacco Farming and Related Activities (India). Project. Although India ...

  1. All projects related to lebanon | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Displaying 11 - 20 of 39. Renegotiating Arab Civil-Military Relations: Political and Economic Governance in Transition ... Region: Middle East, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Philippines, Lebanon ... Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in Lebanon. Project.

  2. All projects related to india | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: SOCIAL CONFLICTS, Governance, PEACE KEEPING, SAFETY, ETHNIC GROUPS, INTERETHNIC RELATIONS, POLICY MAKING. Region: Sri Lanka, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan. Total Funding: CA$ 25,200.00. Preparing States in India for Universal Health Coverage.

  3. All projects related to Pakistan | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This pilot project is one of four pilots exploring the feasibility of a Think Heath Initiative, a prospective program that would support evidence-based policy engagement on the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Region: South Asia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan.

  4. All projects related to | Page 203 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Welfare Evaluation and the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Water Supply and Demand in Chile, Colombia, and Bolivia. Project. While countries in Latin America have a relatively plentiful supply of water on a per-capita basis and high coverage of water supply services, there is ample evidence that water scarcity is ...

  5. All projects related to | Page 350 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-02-25

    The Economic Committee of the National Assembly (ECNA) of Viet Nam is mandated to review drafts of legislation related to economic management, business activity and monetary affairs (including banking), and to supervise the implementation of state plans for socioeconomic development. Start Date: February 25, 2010.

  6. All projects related to Argentina | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-09-14

    Open business is a different way of doing business related to information, knowledge and culture, in which intellectual property does not play the role of being either the primary incentive or the primary source of remuneration. Start Date: September 14, 2008. End Date: June 15, 2011. Topic: INFORMAL SECTOR ...

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Internal Communication and Public Relations Audits. State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…

  8. Queer feminist international relations: uneasy alliances, productive tensions

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh, Darcy

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the ‘uneasy alliance’ between Feminist IR and Queer IR. The article focusses on three areas of tension and continuity between the fields: (1) sexuality, sexual deviance and gender variance; (2) the roles of liberalism in gendered, sexualized and racialized violence; and (3) binaries relating to sex, gender and sexuality. The article argues that it is around tensions between Queer and Feminist IR that a Queer Feminist IR can be productively articulated. In particular, a Q...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF THE FRANCHISE RELATIONS IN THE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Мазуренко, Валентина Петрівна

    2013-01-01

    The article is about the functioning patterns and modern development tendency of franchise system of the leading company relations of the economically developed countries under conditions of the globalizing business; the comparative analysis of the sectorial distribution of the franchising in U.S., Europe and Ukraine. Also in this article singled out the main factors that hinder the development of a national franchise service market and an improvement of the franchising in Ukraine. 

  10. The relation between attachment, personality, internalizing, and externalizing dimensions in adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vera; Canta, Guilherme; de Castro, Filipa; Leal, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The relation between attachment and personality features is an important field to explore in adolescent borderline personality disorder (BPD), and previous research has shown that personality features may be conceptualized within latent internalizing and externalizing dimensions. This cross-sectional study used a structural equation model to examine the association between the BPD participants' perception of attachment and personality features, mediated by the underlying internalizing/externalizing personality dimensions. Data were analyzed for 60 adolescents, ages 15 to 18 years, diagnosed with BPD who completed attachment and personality self-report measures. The authors' results showed a good fit of the model, suggesting a significant association between attachment and the internalizing/externalizing dimensions, which simultaneously congregate and influence personality traits. The perception of attachment anxiety was positively related to the internalizing dimension and at the same time negatively related to the externalizing dimension. However, the perception of attachment avoidance was not related to internalizing or externalizing personality dimensions.

  11. The Current Situation and Future Prospects of International Relations in Japanese Higher Education Related Engineering Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Shigenori

    With ongoing globalization, the role of higher education in developing excellent human resources who can play an active role in international society, among other things is becoming increasingly important. Recently, the international competition among higher education institutions to recruit the best and brightest students has been heating up increasingly. In this section, we present the outline of recent trend of internationalization in higher education with reference to policy of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) .

  12. International migration and related policies in europe 1950 - 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penninx Rinus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigration in Europe has been shaped by: a its particular development in time; b the geographical patterns of migration within and towards European countries; and c the shifting types of migration and characteristics of migrants involved. The first part of this contribution outlines changes in these three basic migration-related factors. Migration outcomes are not haphazard nor are these the result of unhindered economic push and pull factors in a free market. Immigration policies of receiving countries do greatly influence the volume and patterns of migration, the place of settlement and the characteristics of migrants. Regulations on conditions of residence and integration do furthermore influence significantly the position of immigrants in their new destination, among others by setting conditions for their stay (residence rights and access to the labour market. The second part of this chapter outlines the migration and integration regimes that have been developed by states of different parts of Europe and by the European Union. In conclusion, immigration has become a relevant phenomenon in all EU countries. However, as a consequence of different timing of immigration, different socio-economic contexts and varying governmental migration and integration policies, European countries are confronted with different forms migration (immigration, emigration, transit migration and with different types of migrants. European states have also developed different governmental policies of migration and integration. Historically, a common denominator in the framing of European policies is that countries do not see themselves as immigration countries; they are immigration countries against their will. In recent times, such framing is reinforced by populist and nationalist movements that see immigrants not only as economic competitors, but also as a threat to the national "culture and world views". The more Europe needs immigrants for economic and

  13. Differences in the size-internal velocity relation of galactic and extragalactic HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the size-internal velocity relation in extragalactic HII regions is examined in order to improve their use as distance determinants. The relation between the linear size and the internal velocity was compared for HII regions in the Galaxy and in external galaxies. Data for the former are from the researcher's own studies at high spatial resolution, while the latter have been the subject of spectroscopy that includes almost the entire objects. The Galactic HII regions are corrected to values of the internal velocity that would be observed if they were at extragalactic distances. A very different size-internal velocity relation was found for the two types of objects in the sense that the extragalactic objects are some ten times larger at the same internal velocity. This is interpreted to mean that the extragalactic HII regions are actually complexes of small HII regions comparable in size to their Galactic counterparts

  14. Is International Relations still an American social science discipline in Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Duarte Villa

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last 40 years, investigations have shown the discipline of International Relations to reproduce the American influence on its methods, paradigms, and institutional dynamics. This article explores the case for the Latin American community, based on the survey data from the Teaching, Research, and International Politics project (TRIP 2014 developed by the Institute for the Theory and Practice of International Relations of the College of William and Mary, Virginia (USA. TRIP evaluated International Relations communities in 32 countries around the world. The article aims to answer two main questions: (i is American influence still dominant over epistemological, methodological, paradigmatic, and institutional representative terms in Latin American International Relations communities, as has been considered in the past? (ii Is there in the region any contestation to this supposed influence? Primarily, the present article shows an affirmative answer for the first issue. Therefore, and most importantly, the data analysis shows upcoming local pressures rooted in American influence, especially on its epistemic and paradigmatic terms. The data strengthens the miscegenation tendency on its epistemological and paradigmatic aspects, which underlines a lack of consensus over the structure of American dominance over the discipline of International Relations in Latin America, especially if one observes the most numerous and structured group in the region: the Brazilian International Relations community.

  15. German National Proficiency Scales in Biology: Internal Structure, Relations to General Cognitive Abilities and Verbal Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampa, Nele; Köller, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    National and international large-scale assessments (LSA) have a major impact on educational systems, which raises fundamental questions about the validity of the measures regarding their internal structure and their relations to relevant covariates. Given its importance, research on the validity of instruments specifically developed for LSA is…

  16. Are Externalizing and Internalizing Difficulties of Young Children with Spelling Impairment Related to Their ADHD Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietz, Chantal Sabrina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Labuhn, Andju Sara

    2012-01-01

    Children with literacy difficulties often suffer from a variety of co-occurring externalizing and internalizing difficulties, as well as comorbid ADHD. Therefore, these externalizing and internalizing problems might be more related to comorbid ADHD, rather than being a correlate of literacy difficulties per se. In the present study, we…

  17. Mathematics Achievement and Anxiety and Their Relation to Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of…

  18. Post-cold war international relations and foreign policies in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that international relations in Africa have changed especially in content since the abatement of the Cold War. These changes have been accelerated by the pressures unleashed by the international environment, including the reality of Africa's marginalisation and the forces of globalisation. These, along ...

  19. All projects related to nigéria | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although birth and death rates are still relatively high in Africa, African populations display some of the most youthful age structures in the world. ... Consumer Unity &Trust Society (CUTS International) is an international research, advocacy and networking organization based in India, with resource centres in Kenya, Viet ...

  20. African American Career Aspirations: Examining the Relative Influence of Internalized Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Danice L.; Segrist, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relative influence of aspects of internalized racism on the career aspirations of a sample of African American adults. Participants (N = 315), ranging in age from 18 to 62 years, completed measures of internalized racism and career aspirations online. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to…

  1. The Evolvement of International Secretariats, Executive Heads and Leadership in Inter-Organizational Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinalda, B.; Kille, K.J.; Koops, J.A.; Biermann, R.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses inter-organizational relations (IORs) from the perspective of the international Secretariat of an International Governmental Organization (IGO) and the organization’s Executive Head. IORs are a long-standing phenomenon that resulted from the evolution of IGOs, the increase in

  2. Understanding Social Learning Relations of International Students in a Large Classroom Using Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Héliot, YingFei; Jindal-Snape, Divya

    2013-01-01

    A common assumption in higher education is that international students find it difficult to develop learning and friendship relations with host students. When students are placed in a student-centred environment, international students from different cultural backgrounds are "forced" to work together with other students, which allows…

  3. USSR Report, World Economy and International Relations, No. 12, December 1986

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    This report is a Translation of the Russian-language monthly journal MIROVAYA EKONOMIKA I MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA published in Moscow by the Institute of World Economy and international Relations...

  4. Private public diplomacy. The end of public hegemony over international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Melgar

    2014-09-01

    We could be witnessing a completely new model: a private public diplomacy that would be based on a sovereign states definitive withdrawal from their monopoly on international relations in favour of the private sector.

  5. International agreements relating to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and implications for Dutch policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaton, D.J.F.; Kalaugher, E.; Bijman, J.

    2004-01-01

    Policy issues related to plant genetic resources are socially, technically and scientifically complex. This report summarises the international agreements and relevant bodies con-cerning plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, including the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), FAO

  6. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: World Economy & International Relations, No. 4, April 1989

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    This report is a translation of the Russian-language monthly journal MIROVAYA EKONOMIKA I MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA published in Moscow by the Institute of World Economy and International Relations...

  7. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: World Economy & International Relations, No. 2, February 1989

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    This report is a translation of the Russian-language monthly journal MIROVAYA EKONOMIKA I MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA published in Moscow by the Institute of World Economy and International Relations...

  8. Public diplomacy and cooperation with non-governmental organizations in the liberal perspective of international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Broś

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of state cooperation with non-governmental organizations in public diplomacy. This has been explored in relation to the liberal perspective in international relations, which very clearly highlights the importance of NGOs as an influential participant in world politics. The article contains an analysis of the international system, categorizes the roles and functions of NGOs in international relations. It shows concepts on contemporary understanding of power and a clear focus on reinforcing and using components of soft power, including public diplomacy, in moden international relations. Methodological aspects are deepened by an analytical layer exploring Civil Society 2.0 Program, what is an example of an effective combination of diplomatic efforts between the state and NGOs to achieve common goals.

  9. U.S. Public Relations from an International Perspective: Curricular Issues and Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cornelius B.; Ogbondah, Chris W.

    This paper establishes a rationale for international public relations courses in the curricula of university public relations education in the U.S. and outlines the content of such courses. Disagreements between practitioners and educators on a blueprint for public relations education are documented. Developments pointing to a crucial need for…

  10. Public relations ve firmě LUMEN INTERNATIONAL a.s.

    OpenAIRE

    DICHTLOVÁ, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Goal of the thesis was to assess current significance and usage of public relations in LUMEN INTERNATIONAL a.s. company and to create plan of another development. The author analysed development and current situation of public relations in LUMEN holding. There are a few suggestions in this thesis how to improve public relations in whole LUMEN holding.

  11. The Concept of State Identity in International Relations : A Theoretical Analysis 【Article】

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrov, Maxym

    2003-01-01

    The identity problematique is fast moving to the core of the research agenda of international relations discipline, and the concept of state identity has now become a permanent feature of the constructivist discourse. This paper identifies four problems attendant upon the introduction of the state identity con-cept to international relations theory. Firstly, the relationship between state identity and other importantconcepts of constructivist argument is underspecified. Secondly, the question...

  12. The relational underpinnings of quality internal auditing in medical clinics in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Abraham; Zisu, Malka

    2009-03-01

    Internal auditing is a key mechanism in enhancing organizational reliability. However, research on the ways quality internal auditing is enabled through learning, deterrence, motivation and process improvement is scant. In particular, the relational underpinnings of internal auditing have been understudied. This study attempts to address this need by examining how organizational trust, perceived organizational support and psychological safety enable internal auditing. Data collected from employees in medical clinics of one of the largest healthcare organizations in Israel at two points in time six months apart. Our results show that organizational trust and perceived organizational support are positively related to psychological safety (measured at time 1), which, in turn, is associated with internal auditing (measured at time 2).

  13. Relational aggression and victimization in gay male relationships: the role of internalized homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Thomas M; Robertson, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    This article presents two studies that are the first to examine relational aggression and relational victimization in gay male peer relationships. A qualitative pilot study provides a strong rationale for a subsequent empirical investigation of 100 young adult, self-identified gay males. Results of both studies demonstrate that relational aggression and relational victimization are common experiences in gay male relationships. They also reveal forms of relational aggression and victimization that appear to be unique to gay males (e.g., outing). Results of the empirical study found significant relations between engaging in relational aggression against gay males and experiencing relational victimization and between experiencing relational victimization and internalized homophobia. However, there was no significant correlation between internalized homophobia and engaging in relational aggression. A multiple regression analysis found that experiencing relational victimization was correlated more strongly with the combination of engaging in relational aggression and internalized homophobia together than with relational aggression alone. Results are discussed within the framework of Allport's "traits due to victimization" theory and Meyer's theory of "minority stress." Implications for the prevention of relational aggression/victimization in gay male relationships are offered. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Bridging international relations and disaster studies: the case of disaster-conflict scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Simon

    2018-01-01

    International relations and disaster studies have much to gain by thinking critically about their respective theoretical and epistemological assumptions. Yet, few studies to date have sought to assess the potential value of linking these two disciplines. This paper begins to address this shortfall by examining the relationship between disasters and conflict as a research sphere that intersects international relations and disaster studies. Through an analysis of whether or not disasters contribute to intra-national and international conflict, this paper not only provides a review of the state of the art, but also serves to invite scholars to reflect on related concepts from other fields to strengthen their own approaches to the study of disasters in an international setting. An evaluation of the conceptual and theoretical contributions of each subject area provides useful heuristics for the development of disaster-conflict scholarship and encourages alternative modes of knowledge production through interdisciplinarity. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  15. Gendered aspects of perceived and internalized HIV-related stigma in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Ji, Guoping

    2017-10-01

    Although studies have demonstrated that females experience more HIV-related stigma than males do, questions remain regarding the different dimensions of the stigma (i.e., perceived versus internalized) in China. The present study investigated gender differences in perceived and internalized HIV-related stigma, taking into account the potential influence of education. The study was conducted between October 2011 and March 2013. A total of 522 people living with HIV (PLH) were recruited from Anhui Province, China. The PLH participated in a survey using the Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) method. The gender differences in perceived and internalized HIV-related stigma were calculated with and without stratifying by education level. Female participants had significantly less education than the male participants. No significant difference was observed between females and males with respect to perceived stigma. However, females reported significantly higher internalized stigma than males did (p stigma remained significant among educated participants (p = .038). The findings suggested that gender differences in HIV-related stigma were primarily found for internalized stigma. Heightened intervention efforts are encouraged to reduce internalized HIV-related stigma, particularly among female PLH in China and other regions with similar gender dynamics.

  16. Host-Country Related Risk Factors in International Construction: Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güzin AYDOGAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization has been on the agenda of construction firms as a strategic option in global competition. Due to globalization every sector including the construction industry has faced with high levels of competitiveness, uncertainty, and risk. International construction involves common risks to domestic construction, as well as risks that are related to the host country. These risks have serious effects on the performance of international projects. Since the sustainable competitiveness of international contractors depends largely on the effective management of these risks, their assessment becomes vital for the success of international contractors. The main aim of this study is to analyse the risks for international construction projects that are related to the host country. Meta-analysis technique is used in order to determine these risks. This paper, therefore, reviews the literature that has been published in four most respected construction and management journals, these being; Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Journal of Management in Engineering, Construction Management and Economics, and International Journal of Project Management for the period of 2000-2010. International construction risk assessment models are also reviewed within the context of this study, since host country related risk factors were found to have serious effects on the profitability of international contractors due to literature review. As a result; political stability, law and regulations, exchange rate risk, cultural differences, inflation, expropriation, tax discrimination, language barrier, bribery and corruption, force majeure, and societal conflicts in the host country are found to be the most important risk factors in international construction. Findings of this study can be used in risk assessment models for international construction projects.

  17. Scientific Meetings Database: A New Tool for CTBT-Related International Cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapik, Jerzy F.; Girven, Mary L.

    1999-08-20

    The mission of international cooperation is defined in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Ways and means of implementation were the subject of discussion during the International Cooperation Workshop held in Vienna in November 1998, and during the Regional Workshop for CTBTO International Cooperation held in Cairo, Egypt in June 1999. In particular, a database of ''Scientific and Technical Meetings Directly or Indirectly Related to CTBT Verification-Related Technologies'' was developed by the CTBTO PrepCom/PTS/International Cooperation section and integrated into the organization's various web sites in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy CTBT Research and Development Program. This database, the structure and use of which is described in this paper/presentation is meant to assist the CTBT-related scientific community in identifying worldwide expertise in the CTBT verification-related technologies and should help experts, particularly those of less technologically advanced States Signatories, to strengthen contacts and to pursue international cooperation under the Tredy regime. Specific opportunities for international cooperation, in particular those provided by active participation in the use and further development of this database, are presented in this paper and/or presentation.

  18. Brand Aid and the International Political Economy and Sociology of North-South Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    This forum brings together a diverse group of scholars from international relations, international political economy, sociology, geography and development studies, to explore ‘Brand Aid’— a new concept in studies of North-South relations that can be advanced by IPE/IPS scholarship. In Brand Aid...... of the profit or sales is devoted to helping ‘distant others’. Brand Aid reconfigures images and representations of the legitimate role of business, civil society and the state (and their overlaps) in North-South relations in ways that are not easily situated between ‘exploitation’ and ‘development’....

  19. The International Relations Academy and the United Nations System Reform: the case of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rezende Campos Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents how International Relations Academy approaches theUnited Nations System and its reform through the analysis of publications in the field. Were identified both worldwide tendencies, such as the influence of Realism and of security-related themes, and local ones, such as the influence of Brazilian foreign policy in national publications on the matter.

  20. Challenging Assumptions of International Public Relations: When Government Is the Most Important Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Maureen; Kent, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores assumptions underlying Malaysia's and the United States' public-relations practice. Finds many assumptions guiding Western theories and practices are not applicable to other countries. Examines the assumption that the practice of public relations targets a variety of key organizational publics. Advances international public-relations…

  1. International research collaboration as social relation: an Ethiopian-Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Amy; Guruge, Sepali; Aga, Fekadu; Hailemariam, Damen; Hyman, Ilene; Tamiru, Melesse

    2011-06-01

    International collaboration in nursing and other health disciplines is vital for addressing global health issues. While the results and processes of such collaborations have been reported, few publications have addressed their philosophical or theoretical underpinnings, particularly with respect to collaboration between those in low- and high-income countries. Piaget's notion of social relations of cooperation and constraint and Habermas's notion of "lifeworld" provide a theoretical lens through which to examine international collaboration as a construction of knowledge. This article is an exploration of these ideas as seen in the collective experience of Canadians and Ethiopians organizing an interdisciplinary forum on intimate partner violence in Ethiopia. The project is presented as a case study for reflecting on international collaboration as a manifestation of social relations. Such re-visioning of international collaboration may be useful for improving collaborative processes and their outcomes.

  2. Third Level of International Relations: Characteristics of Sub-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey P. Arteev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is in the genre of the review for textbook O. V. Plotnikova and O. Y. Dubrovina International relations of the regions States: characteristics and features (Moscow: Norma; INFRA-M, 2016. 192 p.. Textbook on international activities of sub-state/subnational actors in international relations. Under the sub-state/subnational actors refers to the regions of the States. The authors propose an along with interstate relations (first level and supranational organizations (second level to distinguish a third level of international relations - international relations of the regions in Federal and unitary States. The topic is very relevant due to the ongoing restructuring of the architecture of international relations and world politics. In addition, these processes lead to involvement in international relations new actors. The resulting configuration and the role of traditional players. In addition to long-term evolutionary processes, we should not forget about the position of Russia in the last few years. It is obvious that the current tensions around the Russian Federation may not be fully resolved with the old methods. At the same time, sub-state/ subnational actors as subjects of a combined nature, the role played by regions of the Russian Federation, able to combine harmoniously in its international activities as the techniques characteristic of the traditional actors - States and developments in the tools of non-traditional actors - international non-governmental and non-profit organizations etc. As a result of positive results can be achieved faster and at the interstate level. The review considers the subject and the relevance of the topic, presents the analysis of the content of the work. Marked strengths of the textbook, including those associated with the consideration of the diagonal ties and the political components in the international activities of the regions. In addition to the advantages, attention is paid to the analysis of

  3. THE ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTARY OF THE "SOFT POWER" IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Kushelieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available "Soft power" is a complex instrument of international politics. It is an organized set of interactions and relationships predetermined to a large extent by the psychological element. Its core qualities are attraction, persuasion and legitimacy. The "soft power" acts in international relations through a complex instrumentation consisting of actions in the military, political, economic, cultural, sports, ideological, religious spheres, but all its manifestations must be supported by the economic instrument. To this end, many countries have set up special bodies. It is expected that "soft power" will be a major instrument of international politics in the coming epoch.

  4. China-CEEC Cooperation: China’s Building of a New Type of International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Zuokui, Liu

    2017-01-01

    The article analyzes how the 16+1 Cooperation promotes the Chinese new type of international relations from four perspectives: firstly, the “16+1 Cooperation” insists on not rejecting third parties and promotes the idea of open and inclusive international cooperation; Secondly, the cooperation framework adheres to the principle of mutually-beneficial and win-win cooperation, and proposes to wisely handle differences and divergences; Thirdly, this framework never engages in zero-sum games, ins...

  5. Global health diplomacy in Iraq: international relations outcomes of multilateral tuberculosis programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Jaf, Payman; Workneh, Nibretie Gobezie; Abu Dalod, Mohammad; Tabena, Mohammed; Rashid, Sara; Al Hilfi, Thamer Kadum Yousif

    2014-01-01

    International development programmes, including global health interventions, have the capacity to make important implicit and explicit benefits to diplomatic and international relations outcomes. Conversely, in the absence of awareness of these implications, such programmes may generate associated threats. Due to heightened international tensions in conflict and post-conflict settings, greater attention to diplomatic outcomes may therefore be necessary. We examine related 'collateral' effects of Global Fund-supported tuberculosis programmes in Iraq. During site visits to Iraq conducted during 2012 and 2013 on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, on-site service delivery evaluations, unstructured interviews with clinical and operational staff, and programme documentary review of Global Fund-supported tuberculosis treatment and care programmes were conducted. During this process, a range of possible external or collateral international relations and diplomatic effects of global health programmes were assessed according to predetermined criteria. A range of positive diplomatic and international relations effects of Global Fund-supported programmes were observed in the Iraq setting. These included (1) geo-strategic accessibility and coverage; (2) provisions for programme sustainability and alignment; (3) contributions to nation-building and peace-keeping initiatives; (4) consistent observation of social, cultural and religious norms in intervention selection; and (5) selection of the most effective and cost-effective tuberculosis treatment and care interventions. Investments in global health programmes have valuable diplomatic, as well as health-related, outcomes, associated with their potential to prevent, mitigate or reverse international tension and hostility in conflict and post-conflict settings, provided that they adhere to appropriate criteria. The associated international presence in such regions may also contribute to peace

  6. A Dynamic Approach to the Analysis of Soft Power in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses soft power in international relations and the soft power of China’s foreign policy in recent years. After presenting a critique of the soft power theory developed by Joseph S. Nye, the paper provides an alternative interpretation of soft power. The author proposes a dynamic analysis of soft power in international relations, and argues that whether a power resource is soft or hard depends on the perceptions and feelings of various actors in specific situations. Due to the varying degrees of acceptance, power can be divided into hard power, soft power and bargaining power. An analysis should look at the soft or hard effectiveness of a power resource from three perspectives–horizontally, vertically and relatively. Recently, the soft power of China’s foreign policy and international behavior has mainly been manifested in multilateralism, economic diplomacy and a good-neighborly policy.

  7. Pubertal Timing and Youth Internalizing Psychopathology: The Role of Relational Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Hayley; Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Winer, Jeffrey P

    2017-02-01

    The current study examined relational aggression as a potential mechanism that explains the association between off-time pubertal development and internalizing problems in youth. Youth gender was also examined as a moderator for the association between these variables. It was hypothesized that early pubertal maturation would be associated with higher levels of relationally aggressive behavior which, in turn, would be associated with elevated levels of internalizing problems. Parents of 372 children between the ages of 8 and 17 were recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Parents responded to demographic information about themselves, as well as information about their child's pubertal timing, relationally aggressive behavior, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Findings indicated that early pubertal timing was associated with higher levels of anxiety directly, and higher levels of both anxiety and depressive symptoms indirectly through higher levels of relational aggression. In all but one of the pathways examined, gender was not found to moderate the associations between the study variables of interest. This study is the first to examine relational aggression as a mechanism by which early pubertal timing leads to internalizing problems. The findings suggest that relational aggression could be a target for intervention among early developing youth who are at risk for internalizing problems.

  8. An International Relations perspective on the global politics of carbon dioxide capture and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Coninck, H. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Policy Studies, Radarweg 60, 1043 NT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baeckstrand, K. [Department of Political Science, Lund University, P.O. Box 52, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    With the publication of the IPCC Special Report on Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS), CCS has emerged as a focal issue in international climate diplomacy and energy collaboration. This paper has two goals. The first goal is to map CCS activities in and among various types of intergovernmental organisations; the second goal is to apply International Relations (IR) theories to explain the growing diversity, overlap and fragmentation of international organisations dealing with CCS. Which international organisations embrace CCS, and which refrain from discussing it at all? What role do these institutions play in bringing CCS forward? Why is international collaboration on CCS so fragmented and weak? We utilise realism, liberal institutionalism and constructivism to provide three different interpretations of the complex global landscape of CCS governance in the context of the similarly complicated architecture of global climate policy. A realist account of CCS's fragmented international politics is power driven. International fossil fuel and energy organisations, dominated by major emitter states, take an active role in CCS. An interest-based approach, such as liberal institutionalism, claims that CCS is part of a 'regime complex' rather than an integrated, hierarchical, comprehensive and international regime. Such a regime complex is exemplified by the plethora of international organisations with a role in CCS. Finally, constructivism moves beyond material and interest-based interpretations of the evolution of the institutionally fragmented architecture of global CCS governance. The 2005 IPCC Special Report on CCS demonstrates the pivotal role that ideas, norms and scientific knowledge have played in transforming the preferences of the international climate-change policy community.

  9. CTBT verification-related technologies for peaceful purposes: the French experiences of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massinon, B.

    1999-01-01

    The French experience concerning CTBT verification-related technologies for peaceful purposes as well a the international cooperation in this field are presented. Possible objectives and cooperation program needs are cited. French experience in international cooperation is related to seismology and seismic hazards in Bolivia, Madagascar, Nepal and Indonesia and is considered as very constructive, meaning that technical experience is developed, consistent scientific results are obtained, and a considerable yield to the CTBT task is achieved. Large scientific benefits are expected from the CTBTO

  10. The Intrinsic explanatory value of social constructivism in International Relations Theory

    OpenAIRE

    KARKALANOV TSVETKO V.

    2016-01-01

    Why has constructivism emerged as an important force in the field of international relations and politics in the end of the 20th century? Why constructivism and not any other theoretical approach? The constructivist perspective of international relations appeared as a counterbalance to rationalism that was entrenched in US Political Science throughout the last decades. Analyzing the contemporary state of world affairs through the prism of social constructivism provides us with a unique unders...

  11. How Relational Capabilities Matter? Organizational Context and Performance of Internationally Oriented SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Ciszewska-Mlinarič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article sheds light on the organizational context enhancing development of relational capabilities and examines the significance of relational capabilities for SMEs’ financial and non-financial performance. The firm relational capability is measured separately in customers’ and suppliers’ networks. The research results reveal that fostering internal social capital coupled with the usage of economic motivators augment a firm relational capability in a supplier network, which in turn is associated with better performance results, both financial and non-financial. The results on relational capability in a customer network with respect to performance are less conclusive, indicating that vertical ties that internationally oriented SMEs develop (with suppliers and customers are not of equal importance.

  12. Blood pressure variability in relation to outcome in the International Database of Ambulatory blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring provides information not only on the BP level but also on the diurnal changes in BP. In the present review, we summarized the main findings of the International Database on Ambulatory BP in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDACO) with regard to risk.......1%. In conclusion, the IDACO observations support the concept that BP variability adds to risk stratification, but above all highlight that 24-h ambulatory BP level remains the main predictor to be considered in clinical practice....

  13. Internalized heterosexism, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems among lesbians and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, Dean M

    2006-07-01

    Research regarding internalized heterosexism in relation to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems has suffered from methodological problems. Moreover, the results of the research have been mixed. The purpose of the current study was to examine internalized heterosexism in relation to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among a sample of 335 lesbians and gay men recruited through lesbian and gay events, listserves, and friendship networks. Females completed the Lesbian Internalized Homophobia Scale [Szymanski, D. M., & Chung, Y. B. (2001). The internalized homophobia scale for lesbians: A rational/theoretical approach. Journal of Homosexuality, 41(2), 37-52.]; males completed the Internalized Homonegativity Inventory [Mayfield, W. (2001). The development of an internalized homonegativity inventory for gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 41(2), 53-76.]. Items from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse [Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2000). National household survey on drug abuse: main findings 1998. Rockville, MD: Author.] measured alcohol consumption. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test [Selzer, M. L. (1971). The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test: the quest for a new diagnostic instrument. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 89-94.] and the Drinker Inventory of Consequences [Miller, W. R., Tonigan, J. S., & Longabaugh, R. (1995). The drinker inventory of consequences (DrInC): An instrument for assessing adverse consequences of alcohol abuse test manual. National institute on alcohol abuse and alcoholism project match monograph series volume 4. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.] measured alcohol-related problems. The hypothesis that a positive relationship exists was partially supported for lesbians, but generally not supported for males.

  14. Estimating the international burden of sport-related death: a review of data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Kristen L; Fortington, Lauren V; Wolff, Catherine S; Marshall, Stephen W; Finch, Caroline F

    2018-02-01

    Despite detailed recommendations for sports injury data capture provided since the mid-1990s, international data collection efforts for sport-related death remains limited in scope. The purpose of this paper was to review the data sources available for studying sport-related death and describe their key features, coverage, accessibility and strengths and limitations. The outcomes of interest for this review was death occurring as a result of participation in organised sport-related activity. Data sources used to enumerate death in sport were identified, drawing from the authors' knowledge/experience and review of key references from international organisations. The general purpose, case identification, structure, strengths and limitations of each source in relation to collection of data for sport-related death were summarised, drawing on examples from the international published literature to illustrate this application. Seven types of resources were identified for capturing deaths in sport. Data sources varied considerably in their ability to identify: participant status, sport relatedness of the death, types of sport-related deaths they capture, level of detail provided about the circumstances and medical care received. The most detailed sources were those that were dedicated to sports surveillance. Sport relatedness and type of sport may not be reliably captured by systems not dedicated to sports injury surveillance. Only one source permitted international comparisons and was limited to one sport (soccer). Data on sport-related death are currently collected across a wide variety of data sources. This review highlights the need for robust, comprehensive approaches with standardised methodologies enabling linkage between sources and international comparisons. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Student nurse perceptions of risk in relation to international placements: a phenomenological research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Debra A

    2012-11-01

    International nursing electives have been identified as a positive learning experience for students. However, whilst there are risks associated with international student placements in general, there is a scarcity of research specifically relating to student nurse's experiences of risk. This study aimed to investigate UK undergraduate student nurse experiences of risk during an international placement. A phenomenological methodology was applied and semi-structured interviews were conducted with student nurses who had recently returned from an international clinical placement abroad. Ten, second year student nurses, studying on a pre-registration diploma/BSc (Hons) Nursing Studies/Registered Nurse programme from one UK University participated in the study. Findings from the study highlighted that students felt that three types of risk existed; physical risk, clinical-professional risk and socio-cultural risk. Perceptions of risk were influenced by sociological theory relating to the concept of 'the other' and students attempted to reduce risk by employing strategies to reduce 'Otherness'. They also applied psychological theory relating to heuristics such as 'safety in numbers.' It also emerged from the study that exposure to perceived risk enhanced learning as students reported that it encouraged personal and professional development in particular and so assisted students in their move toward self-actualisation. It is suggested, and intended, that findings from this study can be applied to the preparation of students to further enhance their safety and learning experience during international placements abroad. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Normalization of US-Cuban Relations: Obama Doctrine and International Security in the Western Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Łaciński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Strained relations between the US and Cuba after the victory of the Cuban revolution were a permanent element of the destabilization of international security in the Western Hemisphere. During the Cold War, this destabilization was a function of the East-West confrontation. Since the end of Cold War the importance of Cuba as a Western Hemisphere entity hostile to the United States has diminished radically. Definite steps to normalize relations with Cuba have been taken only in 2014. The media named the change of policies of the US towards Cuba (and Iran as the Obama Doctrine. This article will try to prove that the continuation of the confron-tational and hostile US-Cuban relations after the collapse of the Eastern bloc was an exceptional and "unnatural" phenomenon from the perspective of realistic school of international relations, both for Washington and Havana.

  17. 75 FR 55626 - Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Under the International Narcotics Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... determine and certify that: (1) The herbicide used for aerial eradication of illicit crops in Colombia is... Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Under the International Narcotics Control and Law... harm to health or licit crops caused by such aerial eradication are thoroughly evaluated and fair...

  18. International Relations as Group Interaction: The Case of Russia and NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    of Intergroup Behavior 15 2 From Discrimination to Aggression 20 3 NATO Support in Some Member States 39 4 NATO Enlargement ...Madeleine K. Albright, Statement on NATO Enlargement before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Washington, D.C., 24 February 1998, As released...to conceptions of international security. NATO has undergone several enlargements , bringing under its umbrella countries such as Albania or Croatia

  19. [The use of information on residence of relatives to measure international migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, H

    1987-12-01

    The author discusses progress made in measuring international migration and proposes a method based on the use of information from censuses of countries of origin, with emphasis on the geographic location of relatives' residence. This method is evaluated using data for migration from Barbados and Colombia to Venezuela and the United States. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 3, March 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-15

    diseases (A. Sasson , "Biotechnologies: Challenges and Promises," Paris, 1984, p 279). In the United States altogether 46 percent of biotechnology firms...Currency-Finance and Credit Relations," Moscow, 1984, p 212. 2. See MEMO No 11, 1981, p 98. 3. Quoted from F. David , "Le commerce international a

  1. The xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related retrovirus debate continues at first international workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Stoye (Jonathan); R.H. Silverman (Robert); C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); S.F.J. Le Grice

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe 1stInternational Workshop on Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Retrovirus (XMRV), co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, The Department of Health and Human Services and Abbott Diagnostics, was convened on September 7/8, 2010 on the NIH campus, Bethesda, MD.

  2. THE SLACS SURVEY. VIII. THE RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Gorecki, Alexia; Marshall, Philip J.; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Bolton, Adam S.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Burles, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation between the internal structure of early-type galaxies and their environment using 70 strong gravitational lenses from the SLACS Survey. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database is used to determine two measures of overdensity of galaxies around each lens-the projected

  3. The transformation of the global oil industry and its impact on international relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleyard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The transformations of ownership and control in the global oil industry since the first oil shock of 1974 are discussed and the impact of that change on several interconnected issues is explored. It is argued that structural changes in the industry affect interstate relations in ways that are of central concern to the discipline of international relations. Any likely future oil industry scenario will have considerable political and economic repercussions for both producer and consumer states, with a concommitant impact on the relations between those states more generally. There is a danger that interstate conflicts among oil producers will increase with perodic changes in the global supply and demand conditions for oil. Ways are suggested for international relations studies to take into account the change in the global oil industry and its impact on the distribution of power and on international order and justice. It is contended that a growing number of states must be considered as behaving much like firms in a competitive market, and the new international oil order both constrains and provides opportunities for those firm-like states. 20 refs

  4. The Challenges of International Education: Developing a Public Relations Unit for the Asian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Kate; Surma, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Murdoch University's public relations program attracts a significant number of international students. Up to 60% of students in some units come from Singapore and Malaysia. While many spend at least one year in Australia as part of the three year degree, students in both countries may complete the entire degree offshore from 2007. The authors…

  5. Curriculum Integration versus Educating for Global Citizenship: A (Disciplinary) View from the International Relations Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a view from the classroom and departmental chair's office, using the teaching of introductory "International Relations" and some basic theoretical foundations of the field, "Realism," "Cosmopolitanism," and "Constructivism," to explore how study abroad can balance calls to educate for…

  6. African American Youths with Internalizing Difficulties: Relation to Social Support and Activity Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Social support and positive activity involvement are considered protective factors that can help offset the risks for youths living in impoverished areas. This study investigated whether insufficient social support and activity involvement are related to internalizing difficulties, such as depression, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem.…

  7. Constitutional “World Views”, Global Governance and International Relations Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larik, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the constitutional entrenchment of foreign policy preferences, or “world views”, from the vantage point of International Relations theory. Empirically, norms that sketch out certain visions of global governance have become a popular feature of constitutional design. The paper

  8. Beyond The Inter-National Relations Framework: An Essay In Descriptive Global Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Discussions of global ethics—about the types of normative claim made on individuals and groups, not only states, by individuals and groups around the world—have had to move beyond the categories inherited in the International Relations discipline. Many important

  9. Editorial 6th International Conference on Near-field Optics and Related Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, N.F.

    2001-01-01

    This topical issue of the Journal of Microscopy contains all of the papers are based on work presented at NFO-6, the 6th International Conference on Near-field Optics and Related Techniques, held at the University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands, 27-31 August 2000.

  10. International Relations as a Field of Study in the Canadian System of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomina, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    The research presents an attempt to investigate the current state of international relations as a field of study in the context of higher education system in Canada. It contains a general overview of the field of study, focusing predominantly on the role and function of the given academic discipline. The scientific investigation covers the issue…

  11. A Matter of Perspective: Teaching International Relations in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Sean

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author looks at several popular international relations textbooks in light of his experience teaching students in the Middle East. He finds that, for their many strengths, most of the books lack some key features that would make them more useful for students abroad.

  12. Conceptual Ideas of Masters' Professional Training in International Relations in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretko, Vitalii

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual positions of professional training of Masters in International Relations in Great Britain have been studied. On the basis of literary and documentary sources the basic concepts laid into contemporary theories of constructivism and cognitivism, theory of development and self-realisation of creative personality on the basis of…

  13. The Rise of International Relations Programs in the Brazilian Federal Universities: Curriculum Specificities and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcos Alan S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this reflection is to study the new international relations (IR) programs introduced by Brazilian federal universities, looking comparatively at their curriculum specificities and current challenges. In recent years, Brazil has seen an increase of IR programs launched in several regions. Since 2003, the Ministry of Education is in the…

  14. International Students' Critical Thinking-Related Problem Areas: UK University Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nisbah

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to understand the areas of international students' critical thinking-related initial difficulties, in order to facilitate their academic experiences in UK universities. Using a sample of 14 British teachers, the findings reveal that students from culturally and linguistically diverse traditions are very different in…

  15. MASTERING EFFECTIVE BUSINESS COMMUNICATION WRITING SKILLS BY FUTURE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS PROFESSIONALS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasylyshyna, N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The article under consideration is related to the problem of mastering writing skills by future international relations professionals. The problem is that for the last ten years its performance has declined in comparison with other foreign сommunication skills at all key stages. In our investigation, the history of teaching-of-writing approaches over the last 50 years was characterised by five phases, some elements of which have been and continue to be concurrent in the best practice. Modern ...

  16. The Importance of Localized Related Variety for International Diversification of Corporate Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dettmann, Eva; Lacasa, Iciar Dominguez; Günther, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    technological activities. The estimations show that this is the case in regions characterized by a high overall technological strength. This suggests that related variety facilitates technological diversifications of foreign corporations in regions at the top of the geographic hierarchy......The importance of localized related variety for international diversification of corporate technology, Regional Studies. Internationalization of research and development has increased substantially in recent years. This paper analyses the determinants of spatial distribution of foreign...

  17. Accounting and international relations:Britain, Spain and the Asiento treaty

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona, S.; Donoso, R.; Walker, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    The boundaries between accounting and law are contingent on time-space intersections. Here, these margins are explored in the realm of international relations by focusing on the Asiento, an 18th century treaty granting Britain the monopoly to trade slaves with the Spanish American colonies. Although a relatively minor concern of treaty-makers, noncompliance with provisions of the Asiento by the South Sea Company placed accounting centre stage in conflicts between Britain and Spain. In combina...

  18. THE INTRINSIC EXPLANATORY VALUE OF SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ts. V. Karkalanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Why has constructivism emerged as an important force in the field of international relations and politics in the end of the 20th century? Why constructivism and not any other theoretical approach? The constructivist perspective of international relations appeared as a counterbalance to rationalism that was entrenched in US Political Science throughout the last decades. Analyzing the contemporary state of world affairs through the prism of social constructivism provides us with a unique understanding of how intersubjective perceptions lead to unique epistemic interpretations of reality, which form the ideological framework within which social constructs are being generated. Constructivism succeeds not only in identifying the motives behind the behavior of international actors, but also in unfolding the mechanism through which those motives are being envisaged and accepted through the process of social construction – here lies the greatest value of the constructivist approach in IR theory. Culture formation, nation building, imagined communities, security complexes – the constructivist approach remains an invaluable tool in the arsenal of political analysts, seeking to understand how culture, history, social order, religion, and language project their infl uence on the international arena and ultimately: why international players behave the way they do?

  19. Cinema as a Tool for Critical Thinking on Contemporary International Relations: Analysis of the Individual as a Subject of International law Through the Film "Le Havre"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joséli Fiorin Gomes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available International relations have shown signs of opening to the participation of different actors, a right time to elevate the individual as a subject of international law. A suitable tool for awareness on the issue is cinema, for it provides a concrete perception on the subject. Thus, an appropriate film is “Le Havre”, which, in the first part of the paper, will be analyzed based on the theory of international relations, resuming postulates of "idealism", to which international law has an important role, in order to, in the second part, see how it addresses the individual's participation in global context.

  20. Age-related differences in internalizing psychopathology amongst the Australian general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Batterham, Philip; Buchan, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Two methodological criticisms have limited the reliability and validity of findings from previous studies that seek to examine change across the life span in levels of internalizing psychopathology using general population surveys. The first criticism involves the potential influence of cohort effects that confound true age-related changes whereas the second criticism involves the use of a single form of assessment to measure and compare levels of internalizing psychopathology. This study seeks to address these criticisms by modeling age-related change using multiple measures and multiple surveys. Data from 2 epidemiological surveys conducted 10 years apart in the Australian general population were combined and used for the current study. The latent construct of internalizing psychopathology was modeled using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) depression and anxiety diagnoses as well as items from the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10; Kessler et al., 2002). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a single internalizing dimension provided good model fit to the data. Multigroup CFA indicated that strict measurement invariance of the model can be assumed across survey administrations and age bands, justifying comparisons of mean differences in latent trait levels. Significant changes in mean levels of latent internalizing psychopathology were evident between respondents aged 30-39 years old in 1997 and respondents aged 40-49 years old in 2007, suggesting a minor but significant increase in psychopathology across middle age. By contrast, a minor but significant decrease in psychopathology was noted when transitioning from late middle age (50-59 years old) to old age (60-69 years old). The majority of individuals in the general population will experience constant levels of internalizing psychopathology as they age, suggesting that the construct is relatively

  1. Revisiting the "American Social Science" – Mapping the Geography of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2015-01-01

    International Relations (IR) knows itself as an American social science. The paper first traces how the self-image as a uniquely dividing and American social science was established in the postwar period and is reproduced to this day. Second, it employs bibliometric methods to challenge this image....... By looking at cities and institutions, rather than national centers and peripheries, it finds a Western, rather than American, dominance materializing along the US coasts and in Western Europe and further expressed by most international coauthorships being Transatlantic. At the institutional level...

  2. The Promises, Problems, and Potentials of a Bourdieu-Inspired Staging of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The promise of Bourdieu-inspired analysts to provide a “different reading” of the international is receiving increasing attention in the academic discipline of international relations (IR). This attention also generates awareness and of problems inherent in the Bourdieuian approach and a desire...... to develop it further (or abandon it). These discussions have often focused on the difficulties that arise for IR as a consequence of the structuralism of Bourdieu’s approach, and as such they dovetail with the discussions between Bourdieu’s “critical sociology” and the “pragmatic school” in the French...

  3. Media internalization and conformity to traditional masculine norms in relation to body image concerns among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Arthur Y; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Frisén, Ann; Smolak, Linda; Yager, Zali; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Franko, Debra; Gattario, Kristina Holmqvist

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have separately examined conformity to masculine norms and internalization of body ideals in the media in relation to the drive for muscularity (DM). This study was designed to examine these factors together in relation to DM, and further examine how they may differ in relation to drive for thinness (DT) and drive for leanness (DL). Participants were 284 Australian males between ages 18 and 42. They completed validated measures that assessed DM, DT, DL, male gender role norms, and internalization of body ideals. The findings showed that internalization of body ideals mediated the relationship between masculine role norms and body image in the case of both DM and DL. However, masculine norms and internalization were independent predictors of DT. Our findings contribute to further understanding of the roles that the media and masculine norms have in shaping men's drive for muscularity, leanness, and thinness. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm the nature and direction of these relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. New Trends that Influenced the Way We View the International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț-Bogdan Ionescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is our intention to present changes in the international environment, changes that have occurred in the recent years. All these changes have had, and will have, a significant impact on how we view international relations. Firstly we will start in the Black Sea region due to the fact that in this region we find the starting point of the most important events with global impact but also where it is expected to be "the chessboard" where the majority of these events will take place. We believe that this region is the point in the world where international relations theories can be tested and analyzed through a holistic approach because it is the meeting point of different civilizations, the place where most conflicts in the world have occurred over time for various reasons, it is an area of interest for the great powers but also an area with a history dating from antiquity. All these aspects make the Black Sea region an ideal place to begin analyzing the changes that have occurred in international relations. These changes were caused by the evolution of the conflict in Syria, the wave of immigrants that still continues to create real problems in the European Union, terrorist attacks in EU countries, the election results in European countries, as well as strengthening the position of the Russian Federation. We believe that due to the short timeframe in which these changes occurred, approximately two years, careful consideration is needed of how the international situation changed and, therefore, we can find new trends in the area of international relations. The method used for the research of this article will be mainly the observation method and the strategy approach will be the inductive research type. The induction form will be that of the “full induction”, which will be based on presenting the features and characteristic considered relevant for events. After we conduct this analysis we will formulate a conclusion

  5. World of Warcraft™ and the State of Territory in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    According to conventional knowledge, the realist tradition in International Relations has maintained the world of International Politics in a perpetual state of ‘warcraft’ between sovereign territorial states. Since the early 1990s arguments associated with Historical Sociology have sought...... to counter such a timeless image of states and politics. Yet, while this has done much to historicise state institutions and the international system, one of the fundamental features of the modern state remains poorly understood: that of territory. This is because, I argue, that the concept of space remains...... absent from the historical analyses. Historical Sociology proper usually treat territory as an unproblematic transhistorical concept and Constructivist approaches tend to focus on how perceptions of space interrelate with historical developments of institutions. Both tend to leave space as unhistorically...

  6. Proximal femoral reconstruction for failed internal fixation of a bisphosphonate-related femur fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishabh G. Jethanandani, BSE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a bisphosphonate-related femur fracture in an elderly woman, who failed treatment with both cephalomedullary nail and proximal femoral locking plate, leading to successful treatment with total hip arthroplasty. Hardware failure should be included in the differential of patients with previous internal fixation of bisphosphonate-related femur fracture that present with hip or groin pain. Arthroplasty can be an acceptable salvage option in an active elderly patient with a bisphosphonate-related femur fracture.

  7. What proportion of international travellers acquire a travel-related illness? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Kristina M; Kozarsky, Phyllis E; Ryan, Edward T; Chen, Lin H; Sotir, Mark J

    2017-09-01

    As international travel increases, travellers may be at increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases not endemic in their home countries. Many journal articles and reference books related to travel medicine cite that between 22-64% of international travellers become ill during or after travel; however, this information is minimal, outdated and limited by poor generalizability. We aim to provide a current and more accurate estimate of the proportion of international travellers who acquire a travel-related illness. We identified studies via PubMed or travel medicine experts, published between January 1, 1976-December 31, 2016 that included the number of international travellers acquiring a travel-related illness. We excluded studies that focused on a single disease or did not determine a rate based on the total number of travellers. We abstracted information on traveller demographics, trip specifics, study enrollment and follow-up and number of ill travellers and their illnesses. Of 743 studies, nine met the inclusion criteria. The data sources were from North America (four studies) and Europe (five studies). Most travellers were tourists, the most frequent destination regions were Asia and Africa, and the median trip duration ranged from 8-21 days. Six studies enrolled participants at the travellers' pre-travel consultation. All studies collected data through either extraction from the medical record, weekly diaries, or pre- and post-travel questionnaires. Data collection timeframes varied by study. Between 6-87% of travellers became ill across all studies. Four studies provided the best estimate: between 43-79% of travellers who frequently visited developing nations (e.g. India, Tanzania, and Kenya) became ill; travellers most frequently reported diarrhoea. This is the most comprehensive assessment available on the proportion of international travellers that develop a travel-related illness. Additional cohort studies would provide needed data to more precisely

  8. A class of constitutive relations with internal variable derivatives: derivation from homogenization and initial value problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieux, S.; Joussemet, M.; Lorentz, E.

    1996-12-31

    When they are subjected to excessive loads, some materials may exhibit a softening behaviour resulting from the deterioration of their mechanical properties. To idealize such behaviours, constitutive relations with softening are introduced, for which the size of the domain of reversibility in the stress-space decreases. These models feature a strain localization within the material, in agreement with experiments, but cannot predict the subsequent behaviour because they lead to shear bands the width of which is equal to zero, physically unacceptable and numerically troublesome. It has been proposed in the literature to overcome these difficulties by adding to the list of internal variable the spatial gradients of some of them. This procedure suffers from lack of firm methodological basis. Although, some quantitative justification have been advanced relying on some kind of microscopic analysis. Therefore, we propose to extend the classical (local) models by introducing the internal state variable first gradients. Given local model within the framework of standard generalized materials, consistent homogenization procedure is put forward to derive macroscopic free energy and dissipation potentials. The standard generalized character is preserved, with an extended set of state variables, containing not only the strain and the internal variables but also the internal variable derivatives. Nevertheless, when dealing with the whole structure, the independence between the new state variables is lost. We propose then to generalize the constitutive relations, leading to a new variational principle that ensures the Clausius-Duhem inequality at the structure scale. (authors). 9 refs.

  9. Mathematics achievement and anxiety and their relation to internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah S; Willcutt, Erik G; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of 366 second and third graders. Math achievement was significantly correlated with attentional difficulties and social problems but not with internalizing symptoms. The relation between math achievement and externalizing behavioral problems was stronger in girls than in boys. Math achievement was not correlated with trait anxiety but was negatively correlated with math anxiety. Critically, math anxiety differed significantly between children classified as math learning disabled (MLD), low achieving (LA), and typically developing (TD), with math anxiety significantly higher in the MLD and LA groups compared to the TD group. Our findings suggest that, even in nonclinical samples, math difficulties at the earliest stages of formal math learning are associated with attentional difficulties and domain-specific anxiety. These findings underscore the need for further examination of the shared cognitive, neural, and genetic influences underlying problem solving and nonverbal learning difficulties and accompanying internalizing and externalizing behaviors. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  10. A class of constitutive relations with internal variable derivatives: derivation from homogenization and initial value problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, S.; Joussemet, M.; Lorentz, E.

    1996-01-01

    When they are subjected to excessive loads, some materials may exhibit a softening behaviour resulting from the deterioration of their mechanical properties. To idealize such behaviours, constitutive relations with softening are introduced, for which the size of the domain of reversibility in the stress-space decreases. These models feature a strain localization within the material, in agreement with experiments, but cannot predict the subsequent behaviour because they lead to shear bands the width of which is equal to zero, physically unacceptable and numerically troublesome. It has been proposed in the literature to overcome these difficulties by adding to the list of internal variable the spatial gradients of some of them. This procedure suffers from lack of firm methodological basis. Although, some quantitative justification have been advanced relying on some kind of microscopic analysis. Therefore, we propose to extend the classical (local) models by introducing the internal state variable first gradients. Given local model within the framework of standard generalized materials, consistent homogenization procedure is put forward to derive macroscopic free energy and dissipation potentials. The standard generalized character is preserved, with an extended set of state variables, containing not only the strain and the internal variables but also the internal variable derivatives. Nevertheless, when dealing with the whole structure, the independence between the new state variables is lost. We propose then to generalize the constitutive relations, leading to a new variational principle that ensures the Clausius-Duhem inequality at the structure scale. (authors)

  11. [Asymmetry in international relations, industrial property rights and anti-HIV medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Couto, Maria Helena; Nascimento, Alvaro César

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the asymmetry in the international relations as refers to the recognition of industrial property rights in the pharmaceutical industry. It focuses on the impact of such relations upon the access to ARV medication, an issue of worldwide interest due to its connection with the development of the nations. Clashing interests and the position taken by some countries in their patent laws point to a scenario less favorable for the access of peripheral countries to anti-HIV/AIDS medication. On the other hand, it seems that the success of the Brazilian STD/AIDS program in negotiating ARV prices will open new possibilities. The solution may be the internal strengthening of the National States and the active role played by the Agencies of the United Nations System in defense of the collective human interests.

  12. Equilibrium relations and bipolar cognitive mapping for online analytical processing with applications in international relations and strategic decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Ran

    2003-01-01

    Bipolar logic, bipolar sets, and equilibrium relations are proposed for bipolar cognitive mapping and visualization in online analytical processing (OLAP) and online analytical mining (OLAM). As cognitive models, cognitive maps (CMs) hold great potential for clustering and visualization. Due to the lack of a formal mathematical basis, however, CM-based OLAP and OLAM have not gained popularity. Compared with existing approaches, bipolar cognitive mapping has a number of advantages. First, bipolar CMs are formal logical models as well as cognitive models. Second, equilibrium relations (with polarized reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity), as bipolar generalizations and fusions of equivalence relations, provide a theoretical basis for bipolar visualization and coordination. Third, an equilibrium relation or CM induces bipolar partitions that distinguish disjoint coalition subsets not involved in any conflict, disjoint coalition subsets involved in a conflict, disjoint conflict subsets, and disjoint harmony subsets. Finally, equilibrium energy analysis leads to harmony and stability measures for strategic decision and multiagent coordination. Thus, this work bridges a gap for CM-based clustering and visualization in OLAP and OLAM. Basic ideas are illustrated with example CMs in international relations.

  13. Petroleum and international relations: Saudi Arabia, victim of the new world energy deal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraval, M.

    2002-01-01

    The US-Saudi Arabia partnership is, on the aspect of international relations, the main victim of September 11, 2001 terror events. If it is excessive today to claim that the President Bush government wishes to weaken the Saudi state, the 2002 trends of the US foreign policy have deeply modify the world energy deal to the detriment of OPEC and its main producing country

  14. Historical Preconditions and Factors for Development of International Relations between UAE and African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Voronkov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on analyses of preconditions for development of international relations between UAE and African countries including geographical location of the UAE, naval and ship building skills of the Persian gulf Arabs, participation of both Eastern Africa and Persian Gulf in the Indian ocean trade as well as influence on its development of external factors such as Islamic expansion and colonial policies of Britain and Portugal.

  15. Norms and international standards related to reduce risk management: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Fuentes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The current work aims to develop a revision of the literature within the main concepts in the international rules and standards related to risk management in companies. By this way, there will be an analysis of issues such as the COSO - ERM model, an introduction to the ISO 27000 and 31000 standards; and the Project Management according to PMI targeted at risk management

  16. The Social Self in International Relations: Identity, Power and the Symbolic Interactionist Roots of Constructivism

    OpenAIRE

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that symbolic interactionist sources of the first generation of constructivists in IR theory are worth recovering because of their ability to address what constructivists have always wanted to understand – the social construction of world politics. Symbolic interactionism is more or less implicit in key claims of canonical works of the first generation of constructivism in International Relations (IR) theory. However, constructivism lost some of its potential to address ev...

  17. Knowledge internalization and product development in family firms : When relational and affective factors matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chirico, Francesco; Salvato, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the forces that support and inhibit product development (PD) in family firms is central to explaining their long-term success and survival. Our study reveals that social capital and relational conflict among family members do not affect PD directly, as existing theory suggests, but only through the internalization of knowledge among family members. In contrast, family members’ affective commitment to the family firm is so powerful that it has both a mediated and a direct effect ...

  18. STUDYING THE RELATION „BRAND – LEADERSHIP” ON THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET OF SEASIDE TOURIST DESTINATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Temelkova, Miglena; Bakalov, Iliyan

    2013-01-01

    The leadership of a certain tourist destination on the international market is intrinsically related in customers’ minds to the identity and popularity of the destination, which have been formed as a result of a focused strategically intended behaviour on the target market audiences, both by the businesses providing tourist services (tour operators, tour agents, hotels, restaurants, aqua parks, museums), and by the government and municipal authorities. Namely, the interrelation between ...

  19. THE IMPORTANCE OF AND ECONOMIC MOTIVATION FOR THE INTERNATIONAL LICENSING OF BRANDED FOOD AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Dennis R.; Sheldon, Ian M.

    1991-01-01

    Casual empiricism suggests that the international licensing of the production and marketing of branded food and related products may become an increasingly important aspect of the globalization of the food industry, particularly in sectors such as soft drinks, brewing and confectionery products. For example, Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola both license the canning and distribution of their final products in overseas markets, Anheuser-Busch and Miller license production of various of their beer brand...

  20. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  1. The Differential Relations Between Empathy and Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Inpatient Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambin, Malgorzata; Sharp, Carla

    2016-12-01

    Impaired empathy is associated with a variety of psychiatric conditions; however, little is known about the differential relations between certain forms of psychopathology and cognitive and affective empathy in adolescent girls and boys. The aim of this study was to examine the relations between externalizing and internalizing disorders and cognitive and affective empathy, respectively, while controlling for covariance among different forms of psychopathology, separately in girls and boys. A total of 507 inpatient adolescents (319 girls and 188 boys) in the age range of 12-17 years completed the Basic Empathy Scale that measures affective and cognitive empathy. The Youth Self-Report Form and Child Behavior Checklist were used to assess the severity of psychopathological symptoms. Results demonstrated that affective and cognitive empathy were negatively associated with conduct problems only in girls, but not in boys. Affective empathy was positively related to internalizing problems observed by parents and youths and self-reported ADHD symptoms in girls and boys. The clinical implications of these differential relationships for externalizing versus internalizing symptoms and empathy are discussed.

  2. Long-term forecasting of international relations as strategic planning of national security policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Podberezkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary transformation and chaos in international relations reduce its predictability, which must be compensated by strengthening the normative content of its analysis that is in fact strategic planning. The deepening of international relations in recent years allows one to make a pessimistic conclusion about the most likely and dangerous scenario for the development of international relations - «the strengthening of military power struggles among the major local human civilizations» and they represent a militarypolitical coalitions and power centers. It should be noted that an effective tool for the implementation of this confrontation is the system of military and civilian instruments used to provide comprehensive multi-factor and multi-dimensional effect on an object. Today, the most striking example of such an integrated infl uence policy is the new public diplomacy. For implementation of such an integrated approach Russia needs to reform the system of national security to include in it not only the traditional enforcement agencies, but also the organizations of business and civil society, as well as to improve coordination between its individual parts. However, the implementation of such a reform is impossible without national ideology that forms the regulatory priorities of national development and national security

  3. Internal Medicine Residents' Beliefs, Attitudes, and Experiences Relating to Palliative Care: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, S; Mirza, R; Nissim, R; Ridley, J

    2017-05-01

    Internal medicine residents are frequently called upon to provide palliative care to hospitalized patients, but report feeling unprepared to do so effectively. Curricular development to enhance residents' palliative care skills and competencies requires an understanding of current beliefs, attitudes and learning priorities. We conducted a qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews with ten internal medicine residents to explore their understanding of and experiences with palliative care. All of the residents interviewed had a sound theoretical understanding of palliative care, but faced many challenges in being able to provide care in practice. The challenges described by residents were system-related, patient-related and provider-related. They identified several priority areas for further learning, and discussed ways in which their current education in palliative care could be enhanced. Our findings provide important insights to guide curricular development for internal medicine trainees. The top five learning priorities in palliative care that residents identified in our study were: 1) knowing how and when to initiate a palliative approach, 2) improving communication skills, 3) improving symptom management skills, 4) identifying available resources, and 5) understanding the importance of palliative care. Residents felt that their education in palliative care could be improved by having a mandatory rotation in palliative care, more frequent didactic teaching sessions, more case-based teaching from palliative care providers, opportunities to be directly observed, and increased support from palliative care providers after-hours.

  4. 12th international conference on human retrovirology: HTLV and related retroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lairmore Michael D

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 12th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses, was held at the Half Moon Hotel in Montego Bay, Jamaica, from June 22nd to June 25th 2005. The scientific conference, sponsored by the International Retrovirology Association, is held biennially at rotating international venues around the world. The meeting brings together basic scientists, epidemiologists and clinical researchers to discuss findings to prevent HTLV infection or develop new therapies against HTLV-mediated diseases. The Association fosters the education and training of young scientists to bring new approaches to the complex problems of HTLV research, such as translational research to bring findings from the laboratory into clinical trials that benefit HTLV-infected patients. The breadth and quality of research presentations and workshops at the 12th International Conference indicate that these goals are being accomplished. As HTLV research enters its third decade a new generation of scientists face many challenges. However, HTLV scientists and clinicians displayed exciting new approaches and discoveries during plenary talks and poster sessions. The conference encouraged research in HTLV infections and disease, fostered collaborations, and stimulated new partnerships between clinicians and scientists to encourage clinical trials and novel therapeutic interventions.

  5. 12th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairmore, Michael D; Fujii, Masahiro

    2005-10-04

    The 12th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses, was held at the Half Moon Hotel in Montego Bay, Jamaica, from June 22nd to June 25th 2005. The scientific conference, sponsored by the International Retrovirology Association, is held biennially at rotating international venues around the world. The meeting brings together basic scientists, epidemiologists and clinical researchers to discuss findings to prevent HTLV infection or develop new therapies against HTLV-mediated diseases. The Association fosters the education and training of young scientists to bring new approaches to the complex problems of HTLV research, such as translational research to bring findings from the laboratory into clinical trials that benefit HTLV-infected patients. The breadth and quality of research presentations and workshops at the 12th International Conference indicate that these goals are being accomplished. As HTLV research enters its third decade a new generation of scientists face many challenges. However, HTLV scientists and clinicians displayed exciting new approaches and discoveries during plenary talks and poster sessions. The conference encouraged research in HTLV infections and disease, fostered collaborations, and stimulated new partnerships between clinicians and scientists to encourage clinical trials and novel therapeutic interventions.

  6. Relative deprivation and internal migration in the United States: A comparison of black and white men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2013-01-01

    While the link between geographic and social mobility has long been a cornerstone of sociological approaches to migration, recent research has cast doubt on the economic returns to internal U.S. migration. Moreover, important racial disparities in migration patterns remain poorly understood. Drawing on data from the 2000 census, I reappraise the link between migration and social mobility by taking relative deprivation into consideration. I examine the association between migration, disaggregated by region of origin and destination, and absolute and relative earnings and occupational prestige, separately by race. Findings lend new insight into the theoretical and stratification implications of growing racial disparities in migration patterns; while both blacks and whites who move north-south generally average lower absolute incomes than their stationary northern peers, they enjoy significantly higher relative social position. Moreover, the relative “gains” to migration are substantially larger for blacks than whites. The opposite patterns obtain for south-north migration. PMID:24391221

  7. Maturity Status Strongly Influences the Relative Age Effect in International Elite Under-9 Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller, Josef Gehmaier, Christoph Gonaus, Christian Raschner, Erich Müller

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the role of the relative age effect (RAE and to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in international under-9 soccer. The birth dates of 222 male participants of the U9 Eurochampionship Soccer Tournament in Vienna in 2016 were analyzed and divided into four relative age quarters (Q1-Q4 and the biological maturity status was assessed with the age at peak height velocity (APHV method. Based on the mean±standard deviation of the APHV, the athletes were divided into three groups of maturity: early, normal and late maturing. Chi-Square-tests were used to assess the difference between the observed and the expected even relative age quarter distribution and to evaluate the difference between the observed distribution of early, normal and late maturing athletes and the expected normal distribution. A univariate analysis of variance was performed to assess differences in the APHV between the relative age quarters. A RAE was present (χ2 = 23.87; p < 0.001; ω = 0.33. A significant difference was found in APHV between the four relative age quarters (F = 9.906; p < 0.001; relatively older athletes were significantly less mature. A significant difference was found between the distribution of early, normal and late maturing athletes and the expected normal distribution for athletes of Q1 (high percentage of late maturing athletes: 27%; χ2 = 17.69; p < 0.001; ω = 0.46 and of Q4 (high percentage of early maturing soccer players: 31%; χ2 = 12.08; p = 0.002; ω = 0.58. These findings demonstrated that the selection process in international soccer, with athletes younger than 9 years, seems to be associated with the biological maturity status and the relative age. Relatively younger soccer players seem to have a better chance for selection for international tournaments, if they enter puberty at an earlier age, whereas relatively older athletes seem to have an increased likelihood for

  8. WATER POLO GAME-RELATED STATISTICS IN WOMEN'S INTERNATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS: DIFFERENCES AND DISCRIMINATORY POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Escalante

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (i to compare women's water polo game-related statistics by match outcome (winning and losing teams and phase (preliminary, classificatory, and semi-final/bronze medal/gold medal, and (ii identify characteristics that discriminate performances for each phase. The game-related statistics of the 124 women's matches played in five International Championships (World and European Championships were analyzed. Differences between winning and losing teams in each phase were determined using the chi-squared. A discriminant analysis was then performed according to context in each of the three phases. It was found that the game-related statistics differentiate the winning from the losing teams in each phase of an international championship. The differentiating variables were both offensive (centre goals, power-play goals, counterattack goal, assists, offensive fouls, steals, blocked shots, and won sprints and defensive (goalkeeper-blocked shots, goalkeeper-blocked inferiority shots, and goalkeeper-blocked 5-m shots. The discriminant analysis showed the game-related statistics to discriminate performance in all phases: preliminary, classificatory, and final phases (92%, 90%, and 83%, respectively. Two variables were discriminatory by match outcome (winning or losing teams in all three phases: goals and goalkeeper-blocked shots

  9. Differential relations between youth internalizing/externalizing problems and cortisol responses to performance vs. interpersonal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Stroud, Laura R

    2016-09-01

    Efforts to define hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis profiles conferring risk for psychopathology have yielded inconclusive results, perhaps in part due to limited assessment of the stress response. In particular, research has typically focused on HPA responses to performance tasks, while neglecting the interpersonal stressors that become salient during adolescence. In this study we investigated links between psychosocial adjustment - youth internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as competence - and HPA responses to both performance and interpersonal stressors in a normative sample of children and adolescents. Participants (n = 59) completed a set of performance (public speaking, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing) and/or interpersonal (peer rejection) tasks and gave nine saliva samples, which were assayed for cortisol. Hierarchical linear models of cortisol response trajectories in relation to child behavior checklist (CBCL) scores revealed stressor- and sex-specific associations. Whereas internalizing problems related to earlier peaking, less dynamic cortisol responses to interpersonal stress (across males and females), externalizing problems related to lower, earlier peaking and less dynamic cortisol responses to performance stress for males only, and competence-related to later peaking cortisol responses to interpersonal stress for females only. Implications for understanding contextual stress profiles underlying different forms of psychopathology are discussed.

  10. International relations among Tom Thumbs: Taiwan as provider of aid Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Haro Navejas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Official Development Aid (AOD that has as its source Taiwan and as its destination Central America. It has three basic aims: Firstly, there is a huge bibliographic vacuum on the topic of these pages. Beginning filling it is an academic need. Even some intellectuals feel that they should lean against either Beijing or Taipei, that if they write on Taiwan they should defend or attack one of the contending parties. Here it is seen that a study close to objectivity is possible. Secondly, most of the research in International Relations has been focused on topics related with power itself or with just elements related with hard power. AOD is both hard and soft power, therefore this paper shades light to the dark side partially viewing international relations from a theoretical perspective were interactions help to construct identities and cooperation is an essential variable of world politics. Finally, it will be seen below that the Taiwanese cooperativeeconomic actions are helpful to the progress of poor parts of the Central American region and are helpful to create domestic markets with strong links with the world market deepening the economic integration both regional and global. Aid from Taiwan and some other countries, mainly through the transmission of know how, could be of assistance in surmounting huge troubles. Aid is vital because some of Central American’s problems are being exported mainly to México and the United States under the form, just to give an example, of Mara Salvatrucha gangs source of violence and drug trafficking. It is not meaningless to stress that Taiwanese ODA is by far not enough and is very small in the international context.

  11. Water Polo Game-Related Statistics in Women’s International Championships: Differences and Discriminatory Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Yolanda; Saavedra, Jose M.; Tella, Victor; Mansilla, Mirella; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Dominguez, Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to compare women’s water polo game-related statistics by match outcome (winning and losing teams) and phase (preliminary, classificatory, and semi-final/bronze medal/gold medal), and (ii) identify characteristics that discriminate performances for each phase. The game-related statistics of the 124 women’s matches played in five International Championships (World and European Championships) were analyzed. Differences between winning and losing teams in each phase were determined using the chi-squared. A discriminant analysis was then performed according to context in each of the three phases. It was found that the game-related statistics differentiate the winning from the losing teams in each phase of an international championship. The differentiating variables were both offensive (centre goals, power-play goals, counterattack goal, assists, offensive fouls, steals, blocked shots, and won sprints) and defensive (goalkeeper-blocked shots, goalkeeper-blocked inferiority shots, and goalkeeper-blocked 5-m shots). The discriminant analysis showed the game-related statistics to discriminate performance in all phases: preliminary, classificatory, and final phases (92%, 90%, and 83%, respectively). Two variables were discriminatory by match outcome (winning or losing teams) in all three phases: goals and goalkeeper-blocked shots. Key pointsThe preliminary phase that more than one variable was involved in this differentiation, including both offensive and defensive aspects of the game.The game-related statistics were found to have a high discriminatory power in predicting the result of matches with shots and goalkeeper-blocked shots being discriminatory variables in all three phases.Knowledge of the characteristics of women’s water polo game-related statistics of the winning teams and their power to predict match outcomes will allow coaches to take these characteristics into account when planning training and match preparation. PMID

  12. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  13. Sustainable Relations in International Development Cooperation Projects: The Role of Organizational Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Rota

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available  The importance of the human side of project management to assess the success of international development project has not been fully considered yet. An analysis of the literature on the project success definition, focused on the success criteria and success factors, was carried out. The organization’s effectiveness, in terms of Relations Sustainability, emerged as a criteria integrating the "time, cost, performance" approach to define a project success. Based on previous research contributions on the factors influencing the organization’s effectiveness, the paper expands the analysis of the influence of Organizational Climate on the Relation Sustainability between project manager and project team involved in international cooperation for development. The statistical methods used include confirmatory factors analysis and structural equation modeling. The results carry implications for project management identifying five dimensions of Organizational Climate (trust, innovation, social cohesion, communication and job challenge influencing Relations Sustainability. This finding suggests that Organizational Climate contributes to project success by creating trust, stimulating commitment and generating satisfaction to overcome conflicts between project manager and project team.

  14. Mental Illness Related Internalized Stigma: Psychometric Properties of the Brief ISMI Scale in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevoulakou, Alexia; Vrettou, Kassiani; Pikouli, Katerina; Triantafillou, Evgenia; Lykou, Anastasia; Economou, Marina

    2017-09-01

    Since evaluation regarding the impact of mental illness related internalized stigma is scarce, there is a great need for psychometric instruments which could contribute to understanding its adverse effects among Greek patients with severe mental illness. The Brief Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale is one of the most widely used measures designed to assess the subjective experience of stigma related to mental illness. The present study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the Brief ISMI scale. In addition to presenting psychometric findings, we explored the relationship of the Greek version of the Brief ISMI subscales with indicators of self-esteem and quality of life. 272 outpatients (108 males, 164 females) meeting the DSM-IV TR criteria for severe mental disorder (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression) completed the Brief ISMI, the RSES and the WHOQOL-BREF scales. Patients reported age and educational level. A retest was conducted with 124 patients. The Chronbach's alpha coefficient was 0 0.83. The test-retest reliability coefficients varied from 0.81 to 0.91, indicating substantial agreement. The ICC was for the total score 0.83 and for the two factors, 0.69 and 0.77 respectively. Factor analysis provided strong evidence for a two factor model. Factors 1 and 2 were named respectively "how others view me" and "how I view myself". They were negatively correlated with both RSES and WHOQOL-BREF scales, as well as with educational level. Factor 2 was significantly associated with the type of diagnosis. The Greek version of the Brief ISMI scale can be used as a reliable and valid tool for assessing mental illness related internalized stigma among Greek patients with severe mental illness.

  15. A tale of two cognitions: The Evolution of Social Constructivism in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Peltonen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Constructivism in International Relations (IR is popular, but constructivists seem disappointed. Allegedly something has been lost. Such criticisms are misplaced. There was never a uniform Constructivism. Since constructivism is socially constructed, to argue that constructivism has evolved “wrongly” is odd. This paper explains the dissatisfaction with constructivism followed by a second reading of its evolution as a tale of two cognitions. These two cognitions distinguish genera in the constructivist “family”. A criticism against one genus based on the cognition of the other is unfair. A focus on cognitions and the use of genera helps in perceiving constructivism’s future evolution.

  16. The Creation of Myth: Starting the First "Great Debate" in International Relations Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aleksandrovna Alekseeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From one textbook to another wanders the story about three (sometimes - four Great debates, which formed the canonical history of the theory of international relations. In reality everything was much more complicated, and the theoretical richness much wider than many times repeated antinomic pairs - realism vs. idealism, traditionalism vs. modernism, rationalism vs. reflectivism The author regards the discussions between different trends of the political thought in the interwar period, which were later called the First "Great Debates", which, according to the author's view were pre-paradigmal.

  17. Global partnering related to nuclear materials safeguards and security - A pragmatic approach to international safeguards work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents issues Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. has addressed in the performance of international work to safeguards and security work. It begins with a description of the package we put together for a sample proposal for the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, for which we were ranked number one for technical approach and cost, and concludes with a discussion of approaches that we have taken to performing this work, including issues related to performing the work as part of a team. The primary focus is on communication, workforce, equipment, and coordination issues. Finally, the paper documents the rules that we use to assure the work is performed safely and successfully. (author)

  18. An International Consensus Definition of the Wish to Hasten Death and Its Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta-Sales, Josep; Alonso-Babarro, Alberto; Altisent, Rogelio; Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Bellido-Pérez, Mercedes; Breitbart, William; Centeno, Carlos; Cuervo, Miguel Angel; Deliens, Luc; Frerich, Gerrit; Gastmans, Chris; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Limonero, Joaquín T; Maier, Markus A; Materstvedt, Lars Johan; Nabal, María; Rodin, Gary; Rosenfeld, Barry; Schroepfer, Tracy; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Trelis, Jordi; Villavicencio-Chávez, Christian; Voltz, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Background The desire for hastened death or wish to hasten death (WTHD) that is experienced by some patients with advanced illness is a complex phenomenon for which no widely accepted definition exists. This lack of a common conceptualization hinders understanding and cooperation between clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to develop an internationally agreed definition of the WTHD. Methods Following an exhaustive literature review, a modified nominal group process and an international, modified Delphi process were carried out. The nominal group served to produce a preliminary definition that was then subjected to a Delphi process in which 24 experts from 19 institutions from Europe, Canada and the USA participated. Delphi responses and comments were analysed using a pre-established strategy. Findings All 24 experts completed the three rounds of the Delphi process, and all the proposed statements achieved at least 79% agreement. Key concepts in the final definition include the WTHD as a reaction to suffering, the fact that such a wish is not always expressed spontaneously, and the need to distinguish the WTHD from the acceptance of impending death or from a wish to die naturally, although preferably soon. The proposed definition also makes reference to possible factors related to the WTHD. Conclusions This international consensus definition of the WTHD should make it easier for clinicians and researchers to share their knowledge. This would foster an improved understanding of the phenomenon and help in developing strategies for early therapeutic intervention. PMID:26726801

  19. Relations between shyness-sensitivity and internalizing problems in Chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems.

  20. International movement on radiation safety related to the ICRP and the IAEA-RADWASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso

    1994-01-01

    Nowadays discussion on Radiation Safety has a spread of world wide range. The main framework on radiation safety was constructed by ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection), which was established in 1928. This term of the committee was from June 1993 to May 1997 and the first plenary meeting was held at the Queen's hotel in Bournemouth of the United Kingdom on September 1993. The outline of this meeting, especially related items to the Committee 4, were summarized in this paper. The second point of our workshop considerations is radioactive waste problems, which are now under discussion in RADWASS (Radioactive Waste Safety Standards) project of IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). This IAEA-RADWASS will last nearly 10 years to cover whole subjects. These discussed items are arranged into various international standards; the safety fundamental, the safety standards, the safety guides and the safety practices. These systematic approach, if we could summarize, would be effective not only to the specialists but also to a general public to get an acceptance of radioactive waste problem. Here, this IAEA-RADWASS project is reviewed. (author)

  1. An International Consensus Definition of the Wish to Hasten Death and Its Related Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Balaguer

    Full Text Available The desire for hastened death or wish to hasten death (WTHD that is experienced by some patients with advanced illness is a complex phenomenon for which no widely accepted definition exists. This lack of a common conceptualization hinders understanding and cooperation between clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to develop an internationally agreed definition of the WTHD.Following an exhaustive literature review, a modified nominal group process and an international, modified Delphi process were carried out. The nominal group served to produce a preliminary definition that was then subjected to a Delphi process in which 24 experts from 19 institutions from Europe, Canada and the USA participated. Delphi responses and comments were analysed using a pre-established strategy.All 24 experts completed the three rounds of the Delphi process, and all the proposed statements achieved at least 79% agreement. Key concepts in the final definition include the WTHD as a reaction to suffering, the fact that such a wish is not always expressed spontaneously, and the need to distinguish the WTHD from the acceptance of impending death or from a wish to die naturally, although preferably soon. The proposed definition also makes reference to possible factors related to the WTHD.This international consensus definition of the WTHD should make it easier for clinicians and researchers to share their knowledge. This would foster an improved understanding of the phenomenon and help in developing strategies for early therapeutic intervention.

  2. Involvement of human internal globus pallidus in the early modulation of cortical error-related activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrojo Ruiz, María; Huebl, Julius; Schönecker, Thomas; Kupsch, Andreas; Yarrow, Kielan; Krauss, Joachim K; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Kühn, Andrea A

    2014-06-01

    The detection and assessment of errors are a prerequisite to adapt behavior and improve future performance. Error monitoring is afforded by the interplay between cortical and subcortical neural systems. Ample evidence has pointed to a specific cortical error-related evoked potential, the error-related negativity (ERN), during the detection and evaluation of response errors. Recent models of reinforcement learning implicate the basal ganglia (BG) in early error detection following the learning of stimulus-response associations and in the modulation of the cortical ERN. To investigate the influence of the human BG motor output activity on the cortical ERN during response errors, we recorded local field potentials from the sensorimotor area of the internal globus pallidus and scalp electroencephalogram representing activity from the posterior medial frontal cortex in patients with idiopathic dystonia (hands not affected) during a flanker task. In error trials, a specific pallidal error-related potential arose 60 ms prior to the cortical ERN. The error-related changes in pallidal activity-characterized by theta oscillations-were predictive of the cortical error-related activity as assessed by Granger causality analysis. Our findings show an early modulation of error-related activity in the human pallidum, suggesting that pallidal output influences the cortex at an early stage of error detection.

  3. Labor rights as legal constitutional category – Kosovo in relation to international labor organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Vokrri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study paper is the analyzing of the processes that followed the labor relations, its historical development respectively, since its first concrete efforts from the representatives of the workers (unions till the establishment of the International Labor Organization (1919. As it is known the labor law presents one of the fundamental rights of the human being, thus such rights (right to work, freedom of work are constitutional category and protected in whole legal systems of the present time. The efforts to install such positive spirit were not easy. Genuinely is known that bearers of progressive developments in this field (end of XIX century were organized groups of workers (unions, then initiatives from various statesmen and later to be materialized from the governments of present time followed by the addressing and protecting of these rights in international aspect. Practice has proved that creation, purpose and activity of International Labor Organization has provided its benefits in achieving the primary principles of work, such rights proclaimed by the majority of world states and embedded in their highest legal act (Constitution of the organization in question (ILO. We consider that bearers of government politics of Kosovo, responsible sectors of this field respectively, shall regard these rules set and implemented by this international body and at the same time make maximal efforts towards advancing the current legislation in this field as well as to utilize all necessary resources in order to achieve the vital goal which is the adherence in ILO. This would certainly have an impact on minimizing the occurrence of eventual discontent from the organized groups (Unions as well as other classes and naturally the progress and positive effects in this field would be visible and useful for the society.

  4. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  5. [Position of health at international relations. Part I. Structural dimensions of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    In the article, the health is perceived as complex, multidimensional concept and not as absence of disease. This is consistent with public health perspective, where public health is regarded as public as well as political activity. It aims to solve health and social problems, depends on analysis of phenomena, needs the negotiations and relies on making decision on feasible directions of changes--what, why, how, where, when and by whom should be done. Public health policy developed as a result of international relations, and UN family fora especially, is regarded as significant for creating of health position. The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of selected concepts and definitions related to structural dimensions of health, used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of health structure notions at worldwide agenda. The UN main bodies, programmes and funds working on the health field are mentioned and voting rules in UN General Assembly and World Health Assembly are reminded. The following structural dimensions were considered: (a) well-being, (b) human rights, (c) everyday resource, health potential, (4) equity. All were explored in WHO Constitution, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and numerous WHA and UN GA resolutions, decisions as well as other documents. Some remarkable differences in English and Polish language versions and meanings were pointed out. It was argued that present perception of structural dimension of health is strongly derived from the preamble of the WHO Constitution adopted and signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States. It is an evidence of the strength of this document and wisdom of its authors. The greater progress is associated. with concepts and notion of organizational dimensions of health perceived as action and processes leading to health. Long-term efforts to strengthen

  6. Examining the Case for Reflexivity in International Relations: Insights from Bourdieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Eagleton-Pierce

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available When scholars identify themselves as studying international political practices, they are frequently bound to, or rely on, certain epistemological commitments, which may or may not be made explicit to the reader or, indeed, appreciated by the author. In an effort to understand the political world, researchers draw upon their existing visions and dispositions, but such conceptions and habits may result from, and be shaped by, what they are trying to describe and explain. The struggle for objectivity can thus be characterised as an enduring problem which colours the relationship between the scholar and the research object. Yet within the study of international relations (IR, one is often struck by how the field has tended to lack a sociology of itself, including its participants and multiple relations with political agents and forces (Waever, 1998; Smith, 2002. This is particularly surprising when one considers how IR has experienced a general turn towards sociological theories and ideas, to the point where constructivism has become a mainstream conceptual approach. But when it comes to turning those techniques of sociology upon themselves, to critically interrogate their own interested actions as cultural producers, many IR analysts are absent. Here, in this short paper, I seek to explore these problems and propose an agenda for the practice of methodological reflexivity in IR

  7. Cities and Water Security in the Anthropocene: Research Challenges and Opportunities for International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Castro Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract Cities have become important actors in international relations, and integral to security and environmental politics. We are living in an increasingly urban world, dominated by human settlements and activities. The central role now played by humans in shaping the planet has led us into an uncertain, unstable, and dangerous geological epoch – the Anthropocene – that poses great and additional challenges to security. Local and global spheres are connected as never before, generating ‘glocal’ issues in which water plays a central role. Water is the element that interconnects the complex web of food, energy, climate, economic growth, and human security. In a rapidly urbanising world, cities influence the hydrological cycle in major but uncertain ways, affecting water resources beyond their boundaries. There is no doubt that these issues are highly relevant to the discipline of International Relations (IR. However, IR scholars have been slow to engage with them, and most academic studies of cities and water security still emanate from the natural sciences. This article examines the ways in which cities in the Anthropocene challenge water security, and why IR needs to reinvent itself if it wants to sustain its contribution to global security.

  8. LANGUAGE, POWER AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: THE CASE OF ENGLISH IN THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA LUZ SUÁREZ CASTIÑEIRA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Though generally overlooked, the language question is at the core of International Relations studies: it is associated with power in general and with the concept of “soft power”1 in particular. Indeed, language cannot be considered as just an instrument of communication. In the context of the Nation State as well as in the context of the EU and International Relations in general, it has a strong symbolic value. At the level of the EU and its institutions, the linguistic governance is a very technical and political debate. On the one hand, the European institutions have been promoting multilingualism as crucial for social and political inclusion, but, on the other, English has imposed itself as the main lingua franca. Despite the affirmation of the official character of all national official languages, the EU has never clearly addressed the challenge we are facing. The main focus of this presentation is on whether in the context of regionalization and globalization, English can be stopped from being used as the main lingua franca. First the EU language reality and doctrines will be addressed. Then we shall consider the unbalance of power and the role of English in the EU and worldwide on the basis of several theoretical debates, and finally we shall conclude addressing future challenges.

  9. Theorising international monetary relations: three questions about the significance of materiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Leander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article engages a conversation with Benjamin Cohen by raising three questions about the significance of materiality. The paper's questions focus on how materiality can be included in theorizations so that its political import is not defined away from the outset. The article does this focussing on Cohen's treatment of electronic money and its significance for the Politics of International Monetary Relations. The first question posed is about ontology, the second about agency and the third about the scope of politics. The three questions are raised as a conversation in which arguments and counterarguments are advanced. The questions are therefore posed with Cohen's contributions to theorizing the political significance of materiality as their point of departure. They are formulated as a consequence of bringing these contributions in relation to insights from the Social Studies of Finance. From this perspective it would seem that a more far reaching engagement with materiality (in terms of ontology, agency and epistemology is necessary to capture its political significance for international monetary politics and currency hierarchies. The article does not conclude in conventional fashion but purposefully strives to leave these questions open for discussion.

  10. Middle east and North African oil in international relations (from 1970 to these days)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafie, Hossein

    1999-01-01

    Petroleum is not purely an economical product, its main role in world economy and its concentration in Middle East and North Africa (two third of world reserves) made influence international politics. Knowing the nature of the region, petroleum and politics make one. The politicization of oil in the region starts, first of all, with the efforts of some powers, through their companies, to dominate oil countries, which by reaction incite these countries to eliminate foreign domination and establish their national control on oil matters. The situation is changing progressively. The position of productive states got stronger with the beginning of the 1970's which permitted the use of oil, in a way relatively efficient, as an instrument of power. Consequently, the balance of power shifted deeply in the favor of producers. On this basis, the argument consists of three parts: the first puts theoretic bases - theory of economical arm - and defines geographical and historical environment of the research. The second part studies the period of force of the oil countries, from the fourth Israel-Arab war and oil embargo that followed it, to the end of the second oil slump. The third part explains the shift of power on the international scene and the relative decline of oil power for the states of the region. The analysis of impact of the oil slump in 1986 and the mini impact of the second Persian Gulf war, quickly dominated, lead to clear the actual situation and outline the viewpoint of the future. (author)

  11. Administrative-Contractual Legal Relations with the Participation of the Internal Affairs’ Bodies in Administrative-Tort Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Aleksandr I.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the problems of application of administrative-contractual legal relations in the activities of internal affairs’ bodies. It is proved that for participation in the administrative-contractual legal relations of the organs of internal affairs should have relevant expertise. The conclusion about the presence of activities of internal affairs’ bodies and public-service administrative-contractual legal relations, international administrative-contractual legal relations, coordination of administrative-contractual legal relations, administrative-contractual legal relations in the sphere of science and education and competency of administrativecontractual legal relations. Agreement in the administrative-tort industry with the participation of the internal affairs bodies should be recognized competency administrative-contractual legal relations, the content of which are the rights and obligations of the parties for the transfer of the powers for drawing up protocols on administrative offenses, responsibility for which is stipulated by the legislation of constituent entities. Analysis of administrativecontractual legal relations in administrative-tort field allows to conclude that the administrative and contractual regulation is an essential element of administrative activity of internal affairs bodies.

  12. The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and ISTC projects related to research reactors. Information review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tocheniy, L.; Rudneva, V.Ya.

    1998-01-01

    1. ISTC - history, activities, outlook: The ISTC is an intergovernmental organization established by agreement between the Russian Federation, the European Union, Japan, and the United States. Since 1994, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Georgia, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic have acceded to the Agreement and Statute. At present, the Republic of Korea is finishing the process of accession to the ISTC. All work of the ISTC is aimed at the goals defined in the ISTC Agreement: - To give CIS weapons scientists, particularly those who possess knowledge and skills related to weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems, the opportunities to redirect their talents to peaceful activities; - To contribute to solving national and international technical problems; - To support the transition to market-based economies; - To support basic and applied research; - To help integrate CIS weapons scientists into the international scientific community. The projects may be funded both through governmental funds of the Funding Parties specified for the ISTC, and by organizations, nominated as Funding Partners of the ISTC. According to the ISTC Statute, approved by the appropriate national organizations, funds used within ISTC projects are exempt from CIS taxes. As of March 1998, more than 1500 proposals had been submitted to the Center, of which 541 were approved for funding, for a total value of approximately US dollars 165 million. The number of scientists and engineers participating in the projects is more than 17,000. 2. Projects Related to Research Reactors: There are about 20 funded and as yet non-funded projects related to various problems of research reactors. Many of them address safety issues. Information review of the results and plans of both ongoing projects and as yet non-funded proposals related to research reactors will be presented with the aim assisting international researchers to establish partnerships or collaboration with ISTC projects

  13. Do people ruminate because they haven't digested their goals? The relations of rumination and reflection to goal internalization and ambivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Tønnesvang, Jan; Schnieber, Anette

    2011-01-01

    , and internalization of self-regulation and goals. In Study 1, rumination was related to less internalized self-regulation, whereas reflection was related to more internalized self-regulation. In Study 2, rumination was related to less internalized self-regulation and goals as well as to more avoidance- and extrinsic...

  14. ASSESSING INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION APPROACHES: RELATED LITERATURE AT A GLANCE AND SUGGESSTIONS FOR GLOBAL COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Nacar, Ramazan; Uray, Nimet

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing role of globalization, international market segmentation has become a critical success factor for global companies, which aim for international market expansion. Despite the practice of numerous methods and bases for international market segmentation, international market segmentation is still a complex and an under-researched area. By considering all these issues, underdeveloped and under-researched international market segmentation bases such as social, cultural, psychol...

  15. Does audit quality influence the relation between earnings management and internal control weakness in the post - SOX period?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenstein, J.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Kalantonis, P.; Kaldis, P.

    2013-01-01

    Material weaknesses in the internal control system of a company create more opportunities for managers to engage in opportunistic earnings management. In this study the authors investigate the relation between earnings management and disclosed material weaknesses in the internal controls, both under

  16. How the European Parliament's participation in international relations affects the deep tissue of the EU's power structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckes, C.

    2014-01-01

    The European Parliament’s (EP) public refusal to consent to several international agreements gives EU citizens a voice in international relations, which, with all its flaws, draws on a source of democratic legitimation that is independent and separate from the EU member states. These acts of

  17. How the European Parliament's participation in international relations affects the deep tissue of the EU's power structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckes, C.

    2014-01-01

    The European Parliament’s public refusal to consent to several international agreements gives EU citizens a voice in international relations, which, with all its flaws, draws on a source of democratic legitimation that is independent and separate from the EU Member States. These acts of contestation

  18. Golden Standard" in International Relations Training and The Effectiveness of Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Baykov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the main aspects of the IR experts' professional education and training, aimed at improving the efficiency of the foreign office staff. A new approach has been taken to the problem of updating and rationalization of the current academic programs (especially, MA training programs in order to boost the competitiveness of national educational system at the global education market. The main focus is shifted from marketing to quality and "content" characteristics of the professional training in IR studies' area within the organization of higher education. The author draws on the empirical data, collected by means of analysis, processing and generalization of expert assessments and evaluations of Russian and foreign participants of international faculty and university forums in International Studies in 2015. As a result, the article proposes an ideal model of the master's program, developed by the author, based on "benchmark"International Relations/World Politics programs, which are highly valuated by the respondents. Moreover, it examines the most relevant issues, concerning the framework of students' teaching process (including preparation of master's theses, further employment of graduates and, finally, the development/modernisation of teaching staff. In conclusion, the article highlights recommendations on probable reforms of higher education in IR studies' area. The author does not criticize the national education system destructively. On the contrary, the inevitable question is how to converge the best qualities of domestic and foreign institutions of higher education system in a harmonious way. The article is designed and might be of interest for higher education and training experts, as well as for a wide range of readers interested in the education and training of the foreign office staff.

  19. The Significance of Socm-Psychological Competence of Students of International Relations in Contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Alexandrovna Svirskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the socia-psychological competence as an essential value of the modern Russian society. The author defines the term ofsoda-psychological competence, underlines its characteristics, basic components, phases and principles of formation, analyzes and defines competences that contain its essence. The process of formation of the socia-psychological competence is identified in a student environment of a high school, inclusive the specificity of the Russian society. Problems of modern Russian realities, social adaptation ways, as danger tendencies, deviations that influence the socialization of a growing personality are considered separate in the article. Special focus is on problems of the educational system as a general integral structure that is responsible for the formation of a social, psychological and professional personality of an individual as a future qualitative social unit and is influenced by internal and external social exposures. The new paradigm of the higher education as the new interaction's type between a teacher and a student is highlighted, that mark conceptions and methods of an educational program, that is focused now on the sustainable development of motivations base of an individual. The author underlines the actuality of the autonomous model that is focused on self-development and selfknowledge of an individual that meets requirements and challenges of today's realities. The specificity of student environment as a field with its own value and evaluation structure, requirements system and psychological context is attended separate. The unicity of the student environment in this case is in the international character of the University international relations, unique educational program and established methods and approaches.

  20. The consequences of increasing assertiveness of trans-national religious communities for international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najamudin Najamudin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The transnational communities, or in other terms, the migrant communities whowent to the US and the UK, or to any other European states had strong belief intheir religion in which they might not be contaminated by the secular ideology inthe Western countries. In this respect, the phenomenology of religion in internationalrelations is a relatively new and surprising. Accordingly, this paper aims atinvestigating the implications of the emergence of trans-national religious groupsfor international relations. The paper will argue that the rise of trans-nationalreligious groups has produced a profound impact on international relations. Thefactors that influenced this transformation in international relations is the contemporaryprocesses of globalization which scholars argue, are pivotal to bringingreligion to the centre stage of international relations. In order to deepen theunderstanding of this process, two case scenarios will be analyzed, namely, theSikh Diasporas and the imagined Islamic community, the umma. In this paper, ithas been argued that the rise of trans-national religious actors may affect statesovereignty in one way or another. Under secular ideology, the role of religion ismarginalized from the public sphere, in particular, the domain of politics and religion is being obviously separated. This separation, according to both groups,is problematic. It is therefore, the emergence of Islamic and Sikh communities isconsidered by some liberal democratic countries like India as a peril to its statesovereignty. In Islamic doctrines, the Muslims hold a principle in din wa dawla,the unity of state and religion, while in Sikhism, the Sikhs have to trust miri andpiri, the unification of religious and political institution.Masyarakat transnasional atau dalam terma lain disebut juga sebagai masyarakatmigran yang menetap di Amerika dan Inggris, atau ke negara-negara Eropalainnya memiliki keyakinan yang kuat terhadap agama mereka dan

  1. Orthorexic eating behaviors related to exercise addiction and internal motivations in a sample of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D; Watkins, Ryan S; Burkot, Andrew J

    2018-02-01

    This research explored the exercise tendencies and motivations of individuals varying in orthorexia symptomatology. Participants were 411 university students, who completed the Eating Habits Questionnaire alongside measures of exercise activity and addiction in Study 1 (a modified version of the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Exercise Addiction Inventory, and the Compulsive Exercise Test) and various exercise motivations in Study 2 (the Behavioural Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire and the Exercise Motivations Inventory-2). Orthorexia symptomatology was positively correlated with aerobic and strength-training exercise levels; all measures of exercise addiction; all measures of internal exercise motivation; and nearly all measures of exercise motivation for the purposes of psychological, social, health, and body improvement. Symptomatology was not significantly related to either measure that specifically assessed external motivation to exercise. Individuals high in orthorexia symptomatology are internally driven to exercise for the purposes of improving their physical and mental health, but these strong motivations also lead to exercise addiction characterized by a compulsive need to follow a rigid schedule of intensive exercise even in the face of injury, illness, or other problems. Level V, descriptive cross-sectional study.

  2. Internal structure of magnetic porous glasses and the related ferroelectric nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naberezhnov, A. A.; Ryukhtin, V.; Sysoeva, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    The internal structure of empty porous micro- and macroporous magnetic glasses and the related nanocomposites containing NaNO2 and KNO3 embedded in pores of the glasses has been investigated using small-angle neutron scattering. The characteristic sizes of magnetite particles in matrices and the sizes of nanoparticles embedded in ferroelectric materials have been estimated. It has been shown that, for microporous glasses in the momentum transfer range 0.35 nm-1 small-angle neutron scattering intensity on the momentum transfer has two characteristic regions: the first region corresponds well to the Porod's law Q -4 (smooth surface), and the second region is consistent with the mass fractal reflecting the internal structure of channels in the microporous glass. For macroporous glasses over the entire momentum transfer range 0.35 nm-1 scattering intensity is described by the dependence I( Q) Q - n with α = 3.96 ± 0.02; i.e., in these glasses, there is a system of channels with sufficiently smooth surfaces.

  3. ISHHC XIII International Symposium on the Relations betweenHomogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai (Ed.), G.A.

    2007-06-11

    The International Symposium on Relations between Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis (ISHHC) has a long and distinguished history. Since 1974, in Brussels, this event has been held in Lyon, France (1977), Groeningen, The Netherlands (1981); Asilomar, California (1983); Novosibirsk, Russia (1986); Pisa, Italy (1989); Tokyo, Japan (1992); Balatonfuered, Hungary (1995); Southampton, United Kingdom (1999); Lyon, France (2001); Evanston, Illinois (2001) and Florence, Italy (2005). The aim of this international conference in Berkeley is to bring together practitioners in the three fields of catalysis, heterogeneous, homogeneous and enzyme, which utilize mostly nanosize particles. Recent advances in instrumentation, synthesis and reaction studies permit the nanoscale characterization of the catalyst systems, often for the same reaction, under similar experimental conditions. It is hoped that this circumstance will permit the development of correlations of these three different fields of catalysis on the molecular level. To further this goal we aim to uncover and focus on common concepts that emerge from nanoscale studies of structures and dynamics of the three types of catalysts. Another area of focus that will be addressed is the impact on and correlation of nanosciences with catalysis. There is information on the electronic and atomic structures of nanoparticles and their dynamics that should have importance in catalyst design and catalytic activity and selectivity.

  4. Family relations, stressful events and internalizing symptoms in adolescence: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Adriana Raquel Binsfeld; Teodoro, Maycoln Leoni Martins; Falcke, Denise

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine how emotional and behavioral problems of parents and children and the characteristics of family relationships can be predictors of internalizing symptoms manifested by children after one year. This was a quantitative research study, of the longitudinal type, with a one year interval between the first and second evaluation. Participants were 139 adolescents, and their parents, with ages ranged from 11 to 16 years (M age = 12.90, SD = 1.07). The instruments used were: a Socio-Demographic Data Sheet, Youth Self-Report of 11 to 18 years old (YSR), Adult Self-Report of 18 to 59 years old (ASR), Familiogram (FG), the Family Climate Inventory (FCI) and Inventory of Stressful Events in Adolescence (ISEA). Results indicated that family relationships did not have a significant explanatory power in relation to internalizing symptoms of the adolescent after a year. Based on this study, it is possible to think that during adolescence, the power of the family to influence becomes more restricted in comparison with social and peer influence.

  5. HIV-Related Stigma, Shame, and Avoidant Coping: Risk Factors for Internalizing Symptoms Among Youth Living with HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David S; Hersh, Jill; Herres, Joanna; Foster, Jill

    2016-08-01

    Youth living with HIV (YLH) are at elevated risk of internalizing symptoms, although there is substantial individual variability in adjustment. We examined perceived HIV-related stigma, shame-proneness, and avoidant coping as risk factors of internalizing symptoms among YLH. Participants (N = 88; ages 12-24) completed self-report measures of these potential risk factors and three domains of internalizing symptoms (depressive, anxiety, and PTSD) during a regularly scheduled HIV clinic visit. Hierarchical regressions were conducted for each internalizing symptoms domain, examining the effects of age, gender, and maternal education (step 1), HIV-related stigma (step 2), shame- and guilt-proneness (step 3), and avoidant coping (step 4). HIV-related stigma, shame-proneness, and avoidant coping were each correlated with greater depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms. Specificity was observed in that shame-proneness, but not guilt-proneness, was associated with greater internalizing symptoms. In multivariable analyses, HIV-related stigma and shame-proneness were each related to greater depressive and PTSD symptoms. Controlling for the effects of HIV-related stigma and shame-proneness, avoidant coping was associated with PTSD symptoms. The current findings highlight the potential importance of HIV-related stigma, shame, and avoidant coping on the adjustment of YLH, as interventions addressing these risk factors could lead to decreased internalizing symptoms among YLH.

  6. Acquisition and Analysis of Information Relative to the Industrial Behavior of the Major National and International Motor Vehicle Manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    This report summarizes data collected from 1978 to 1980 relating to the following motor vehicle companies: General Motors, Chrysler, Ford, American Motors, International Harvester, BL, Fiat, Peugeot, Renault, Saab, Volvo, Daimler-Benz, Volkswagen, BM...

  7. The Association between Related Party Transactions and Real Earnings Management: Internal Governance Mechanism as Moderating Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khober Limanto Genius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the association between related party transactions (RPT and real earnings management (REM. We also investigate the role of internal governance mechanism through the effectiveness of board of commissioner and audit committee in mitigating the association between RPT and REM. Our research sample consists of 386 firm-years of manufacturing firms listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX from year 2010 - 2014. Using linear regression, we find evidence that RPT has positive association with REM, only when the firm has higher RPT but not in the lower RPT. We find a contradictory result that board of commissioners strengthen the positive association between RPT and REM. Finally, we find evidence that the effectiveness of audit committees weaken the positive association between RPT and REM, both in full sample and in high RPT sample.

  8. SELF-DETERMINATION AND POWER: A HUMAN-CENTRIC APPROACH TO THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameer Modongal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the importance of self-determination in international relations. It explains the puzzle why some small regions or group of people are ready to be small states by separating from big powerful states. The self-determination of a nation is preferable to the people than a military power of the large state. The military power of a state may not translate into a better life of people. So people’s empowerment cannot be treated the necessary outcome of state’s military power. When one group of people feel as marginalized in national policymaking and its implications, they show a secessionist tendency. This paper contends that people may prefer their ideology, identity and self-determination than the power of the state.

  9. 8th International Conference on Partial Least Squares and Related Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Vinzi, Vincenzo; Russolillo, Giorgio; Saporta, Gilbert; Trinchera, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents state of the art theories, new developments, and important applications of Partial Least Square (PLS) methods. The text begins with the invited communications of current leaders in the field who cover the history of PLS, an overview of methodological issues, and recent advances in regression and multi-block approaches. The rest of the volume comprises selected, reviewed contributions from the 8th International Conference on Partial Least Squares and Related Methods held in Paris, France, on 26-28 May, 2014. They are organized in four coherent sections: 1) new developments in genomics and brain imaging, 2) new and alternative methods for multi-table and path analysis, 3) advances in partial least square regression (PLSR), and 4) partial least square path modeling (PLS-PM) breakthroughs and applications. PLS methods are very versatile methods that are now used in areas as diverse as engineering, life science, sociology, psychology, brain imaging, genomics, and business among both academics ...

  10. Towards elimination of asbestos-related diseases: a theoretical basis for international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ken; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-12-01

    We develop a theoretical framework for international cooperation that can be used for the elimination of asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). The framework is based on the similarities in the temporal patterns of asbestos use and occurrence of ARDs in diverse countries. The status of each nation can be characterized by observing asbestos use and ARD frequency therein using a time window. Countries that supply technology for prevention of ARDs can be classified as donors and countries that receive these technologies as recipients. We suggest identification of three levels of core preventative technologies. Development of a common platform to gather and manage core preventative technologies will combine the strengths of donor countries and the needs of recipient countries.

  11. Harmonization of health related environmental measurements using nuclear and isotopic techniques. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    One of the particular strengths of nuclear methods is in analytical quality assurance, including the validation of analytical methods and the development of new analytical reference materials. These methodologies are therefore helping to harmonize the data produced not only by nuclear techniques themselves, but also by other non-nuclear methods of analysis. The aim of this symposium was to provide an international forum for discussion of these topics. Its programme covered a wide variety of applications of nuclear (and related) analytical techniques (mainly neutron activation analysis, energy dispersive X ray fluorescence, particle induced X ray emission and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) as used in the study of air particulates, solid waste products, sediments, food, water, human tissues, biomonitors and other kinds of environmental samples

  12. EXA 2011 : Proceedings of the International Conference on Exotic Atoms and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Olaf; Marton, Johann; Suzuki, Ken; Widmann, Eberhard; Zmeskal, Johann; EXA 2011

    2012-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference on Exotic Atoms and Related Topics (EXA 2011) held in Vienna, Austria, September 5-9, 2011 P. Bühler, O. Hartmann, J. Marton, K. Suzuki, E. Widmann and J. Zmeskal (Eds.) Now the research in exotic atoms has a remarkable history of more than 50 years. Enormous success in the understanding of fundamental interactions and symmetries resulted from the research on these tiny objects at the femtoscale. This volume contains research papers on recent achievements and future opportunities of this highly interdisciplinary field of atomic, nuclear, and particle physics. The Proceedings are structured according to the conference session topics: Kaon-Nucleus and Kaon-Nucleon Interactions, Antihydrogen and Fundamental Symmetries, Hadronphysics with Antiprotons, Future Facilities and Instrumentation, Low energy QCD. Reprint from Hyperfine Interactions vol. 209, 210 and 211

  13. Globalization by the Souths. Chinese-African Relations and International Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Rajaoson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on worldwide governance. It will be related to the Assian approach of international relationships. This approach claiming by the Chinese is closed to the David Miller Nationalist and liberal way of thinking. But it remains very restrictive because it is only based on the liberal economic point of view. We will do a critical study of the principles which are regulating the governances and we will analyse a special sectorial field: the Sino-African relations. These thoughts and statements need to have a sectorial dimension of approaching matters. The management of the different governments can have effects on local realities of people's life and on investments. In thirty years China passed from an emerging country to the second worldwide economically powerful country just behind the United States. Now, they must have an interdependance relationship with the United States. It is very important and necessary to undermine this interdependance relationship in order to understand how its economic strategy has an influence upon the worldwide market. And from this study, we will understand how the Chinese relate to the balance of power they are dealing with.

  14. Social construction and physical nihilation of the Keystone XL pipeline: Lessons from international relations theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, Robert Y.

    2013-01-01

    If a prime goal of energy policy is to achieve energy security, why is there a controversy over the proposed Keystone XL pipeline, designed to deliver new supplies of oil from within North America? This Viewpoint seeks answers in the debate over the underlying purposes of energy policy: how does one answers the question “what do we want from energy policy?” Perceptions of feasible answers and policy options change over time, as witnessed in the 1970s. Analogous shifts in opinion are changing today's policy debates and widening the contradictions in policy purposes. Attention to the existence of these contradictions, without illusions, is necessary to meet the policy challenges of the future effectively. - Highlights: • We apply international relations theory to explain the persistence of the Keystone controversy. • Key question relates to policy purposes: “what do we want from energy policy?” • Alternative purposes: maximizing economic growth or ensuring environmental sustainability. • 1970s US cases show how perceptions of each purpose's relative feasibility shift. • Different purposes generate different attitudes to policies that result in higher oil prices

  15. Development of event related negativity together with an internal model of audio-motor associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eLutz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The brain’s reactions to error are manifested in several event related potentials (ERP components, derived from electroencephalographic (EEG signals. Although these components have been known for decades, their interpretation is still controversial. A current hypothesis (first indicator hypothesis claims that the first indication of an action being erroneous leads to a negative deflection of the EEG signal over frontal midline areas. In some cases this requires sensory feedback in the form of knowledge of results (KR. If KR is given, then the first negative deflection can be found around 250 ms after feedback presentation (feedback related negativity, FRN. When KR is not required, a negative deflection is found already around 100 ms after action onset (ERN. This deflection may be evoked when a mismatch between required and actually executed actions is detected. To detect such a mismatch, however, necessitates knowledge about which action is required. To test this assumption, the current study monitored EEG error components during acquisition of an internal model, i.e., acquisition of the knowledge of which actions are needed to reach certain goals. Actions consisted of finger presses on a piano keyboard and goals were tones of a certain pitch to be generated, thus the internal model represented audio-motor mapping. Results show that with increasing proficiency in mapping goals to appropriate actions, the amplitude of the ERN increased, whereas the amplitude of the FRN remained unchanged. Thus, when knowledge is present about which action is required, this supports generation of an ERN around 100ms, likely by detecting a mismatch between required and performed actions. This is in accordance with the first indicator hypothesis. The present study furthermore lends support to the notion that FRN mainly relies on comparison of sensory targets with sensory feedback.

  16. Paving the way for farm animal welfare in international relations: an EU–Brazil case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciel, C.; Mol, A.P.J.; Bock, B.B.

    2015-01-01

    As a sensitive area in international trade, animal welfare measures have encountered resistance in negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO). Consequently, alternative avenues have been pursued to reach international trade policy convergence. To further understand the contemporary trade

  17. Insights from an international stakeholder consultation to identify informational needs related to seafood safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tediosi, Alice; Fait, Gabriella; Jacobs, Silke; Verbeke, Wim; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Diogene, Jorge; Reuver, Marieke; Marques, António; Capri, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Food safety assessment and communication have a strong importance in reducing human health risks related to food consumption. The research carried out within the ECsafeSEAFOOD project aims to assess seafood safety issues, mainly related to non-regulated priority environmental contaminants, and to evaluate their impact on public health. In order to make the research results accessible and exploitable, and to respond to actual stakeholders' demands, a consultation with international stakeholders was performed by means of a survey. The focus was on policy and decision makers, food producers and processors, and agencies (i.e. EU and National or Regional agencies related to Food Safety or Public Health) and consumer organisations. The survey considered questions related to: seafood safety assessment and mitigation strategies, availability of data, such as the level of information on different contaminants, and communication among different stakeholder groups. Furthermore, stakeholders were asked to give their opinion on how they believe consumers perceive risks associated with environmental contaminants. The survey was distributed to 531 key stakeholders and 91 responses were received from stakeholders from 30 EU and non-EU countries. The main results show that communication between different groups of stakeholders needs to be improved and that there is a deficit of information and data in the field of seafood safety. This pertains mainly to the transfer of contaminants between the environment and seafood, and to the diversity of environmental contaminants such as plastic additives, algal toxins and hormones. On-line tools were perceived to be the most useful communication channel. - Highlights: • We consulted stakeholders to identify their needs about seafood safety. • An on-line survey was prepared and sent to gather stakeholders' opinions. • Communication among stakeholders needs to be improved. • There is a deficit of information and data in the field of

  18. International Façades - CROFT : Climate Related Optimized Façade Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilow, M.

    2012-01-01

    "International Façades - CROFT" links the fields of architecture, building services and building physics. It aims at an international diversity in façade design to reduce energy consumption in building design. Current architectural planning practices, such as the International Style, perceive the

  19. The Role of Industrial Relations Centers, Proceedings of a Regional Meeting of the International Industrial Relations Association (Chicago, May 17-18, 1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Industrial Relations Research Inst.

    This meeting was held to exchange views on organization, operation, and goals of industrial relations centers, institutes, and schools. The opening speaker outlined the structure and functions of the international organization and of the regional conferences. The first paper, "Administrative Arrangements in Industrial Relations Centers," was based…

  20. The role of theory of international relations in explicating global political events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Bardhok Bashota

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is rather obvious that different developments in the international relations scene are so dynamic that a theory of international relations cannot elaborate alone the ways they begin, develop and eventually end. Therefore, one must underline that using a theoretical framework of wi-der extent becomes almost indispensable. In this sense, one must underli-ne that IR theories are paths or means used by scholars to provide expla-nation on these developments. Among numerous IR theories, those app-lied the most are the three key ones: liberalism, realism and rationalism. These three theories, depending on the manner and logic of approach and effort in trying to elaborate an IR event, they gain labels in a specific form, for instance – positivist theories. They are called positivist, because they aim to pursue the example of natural science to be more accurate in their work, at least in a metaphorical sense. Therefore, the contents of this paper provide an example of physics, to adapt to the nature of theory elaborated herein. The reason and objective of this paper is to argue our thesis that “li-beral theory alone cannot elaborate on all IR developments, and more theories are required”. The two other theories, realism and ratio-nalism help build a more wholesome understanding of IR developments. Also, the two other theories are used to support or counter the arguments of liberals and liberalism in relation to interpretation, explication and forecast of IR developments, which are tasks of an IR theory. This research is realized in a temporal context of post Cold War. This period is more suitable for study, and has attracted our interest. Otherwise, the three theoretical traditions had existed even before, and any effort to elaborate in details would be historical. Also, the focus in only three main IR theories, Liberalism, Realism and Rationalism, narrow down the field of study and make it more tangible. Nevertheless, to have an easier job in

  1. The rise of global health diplomacy: An interdisciplinary concept linking health and international relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) is relatively a very new field that has yet to be clearly defined and developed though there are various definitions given by different experts from foreign policy, global health, diplomacy, international relations, governance, and law. With the intensification of globalization and increasing gaps between countries, new and reemerging health threats such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika and a gradual rethinking on security concepts framed a new political context. The health problems addressed diplomatically have also become diverse ranging from neglected tropical diseases, infectious diseases, sale of unsafe, counterfeit drugs to brain drain crisis. We see that global health has become more diverse as the actors widened and also the interests appealing not only to the traditional humanitarian ideals associated with health but also to the principles grounded in national and global security. Recently, we are witnessing the increased priority given to the GHD because the issue of health is discussed by various actors outside the WHO to shape the global policy for health determinants. In fact, the area of health has become the part of UN Summit Diplomacy involving the G8, G20, BRICS, and the EU. The recent WHO Pandemic Influenza Framework, UN High Level Framework on Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are some of the examples of long-term negotiation processes for agreements that took place.

  2. Global Risks as Factors that Affect the Current system of international Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Zaitseva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the globalization of risks is examined in this article. Based on the World Economic Forum (WEF report on global risks 2015-2017, the impact of global risks on the social and economic development of countries is examined. Economic, social, environmental, geopolitical, technological risks are analyzed in a coordinated fashion. The article notes that the main risks are in the field of environment and ecology. Anthropogenic pressure amplification, scientific and technological advance have an influence on the natural environment. The risks of infrastructure and environmental damage in danger zone are increased because of the growth of the frequency of extreme weather events. The measures for the protection of the environment are examined. The unilateral approach to solving international issues, instead of the collective efforts of the international community; the deployment of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical, biological and technologies for the production of radioactive materials; escalation of economic and resource nationalization (the desire of States to expropriate or restrict the export of important for the world economy of resources, etc. promote the increasing geopolitical risks.Economic risks include the risk in terms of their likelihood their impact on the macroeconomic, as from the financial systems and infrastructure to price volatility and regulatory issues. Social risks are the risks relating to instability of population dynamics, social crises and human survival.Technological risks include such problems as software defects, failure of important information systems, upon which today industrial production is depended, the services and communications sector; the escalation of large-scale cyber-attacks; theft of electronic information and the illegal usage of personal data. The trends that can intensify the global risks or to change the correlation between them are analyzed in this article.

  3. Drug related problems identified by clinical pharmacist at the Internal Medicine Ward in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abunahlah, Nibal; Elawaisi, Anfal; Velibeyoglu, Fatih Mehmet; Sancar, Mesut

    2018-01-29

    Background Drug-related problems (DRPs) interfere with patient optimal therapeutic outcomes and may be associated with higher morbidity, mortality and healthcare expenditures. Objective This study aimed to identify DRPs and their causes in a Turkish hospital. Setting Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Teaching and Research Hospital, Internal Medicine Ward, Istanbul, Turkey. Method Cross-sectional study included a total of 100 patients. Patient demographics, medications, and history were evaluated. Data regarding recent medications were analyzed by two clinical pharmacists and an Internal Medicine physician. The DRPs were identified via V7.0 PCNE classification. Lexicomp ® was used to assess the drug-drug interactions. UpToDate ® recommendations and national guidelines were applied in the assessment of compliance with approved medication procedures. Main outcome measures Number and causes of the potential DRPs. Results At least one potential DRP was seen in 80% of the patients and 163 potential DRPs were identified (average = 1.6 DRPs/patient). The most common causes of DRPs were errors in drug selection (44.78%), dose selection (27.61%) and medication procedures (21.47%). There were significant correlations (p < 0.05) between DRPs and age (r = 0.4), number of drugs used (r = 0.32), duration of hospitalization (r = 0.25), renal impairment (r = - 0.34) and inflammation (r = 0.31). Conclusion The majority of the patients had DRPs. Patients with renal impairment, inflammation, polypharmacy or an extended hospital stay had a much higher chance of developing DRPs.

  4. Relation between intelligence, emotional intelligence, and academic performance among medical interns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashish Nath

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of research on the correlation between emotional quotient (EQ and intelligence quotient (IQ, and specifically among medical students and interns. So, we in our study aim to find out the correlation between these two variants of intelligence, and their relation to academic performance among medical interns as well as the gender differences between EQ, IQ, and academic performance. Methodology: EQ Test Questionnaire developed by Chadha and Singh was used for testing the EQ of the participants (n=50; males=34, females=16; mean age=24.1 years. IQ was tested by an experienced clinical psychologist using Wechsler’s Adult Intelligence Test. The academic achievement was determined from the percentage of marks secured in tenth standard, 12th standard, and Final MBBS. GraphPad InStat version 3.05 was used for data entry and analysis. Results: A statistically high significant negative correlation was found between EQ and IQ of our total study sample as well as among the male participants. The mean EQ was higher among females and mean IQ among males. The females were academically better than the males and this difference was statistically highly significant. No significant correlation of EQ and IQ to academic performance was found in the total sample group. Conclusion: EQ and IQ are negatively correlated to each other, and there is no significant correlation of EQ and IQ to academic performance. Based on the current findings, further studies need to be built in larger samples. Limitation of the study is a small sample population.

  5. The Development of Russian-Chinese Expert Contacts on International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan A. Safranchuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article is devoted to the contacts of Russian and Chinese experts on international relations and to the visit of MGIMO-University delegation to Beijing in June 2015. The article studies the major tracks of expert dialogue between Russian and Chinese experts on contemporary international affairs: the situation in the Near and Middle East, the developments in Eurasia, the major regional conflicts. The particular attention in the Russian-Chinese expert debates is devoted to the topic of Eurasia and the perspective for agreed implementation of Russia-sponsored Eurasian Economic Union and China-sponsored Economic belt of Silk Road. The article dwells upon the key issues in the Russian-Chinese dialogue on the Eurasian affairs. Additionally the article unveils the proposals by the US experts, concerning the development of Russian-Chinese dialogue on these matters. In 2015 the US experts developed new ideas on the regional issues in Eurasia, they offer to coordinate the Chinese project Economic belt of Silk Road and the US project of New Silk Road. In 2015 the historical topic gained momentum in the Russian-Chinese expert debates. Now Russia and China jointly oppose the attempts of some countries to revisit the results of World War II. However while Russia and China are both committed to the traditional interpretations of World war II and resist any revisionism of those results, still the Chinese experts argue in favor of greater appreciation of the role and contribution by China to the victory over fascism and militarism in World war II. The article also overviews interesting discussions between Russian and Chinese experts on the reform of global governance and the formation of the new world order.

  6. Scientific and technological monitoring: international overview on R. and D. related to Pra's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, M.; Stioui, A.

    1993-03-01

    In 1989, the R and D Division of Electricite de France launched a programme for a Technological and Scientific Overview (TSO) covering a certain number of topics considered to be important for the future of EDF. Probabilistic approaches to studies related to safety were considered to be strategically important to EDF, and therefore this area was selected for further study. A TSO is a process which can only start on the basis of a structured state-of-the-art organized as a basis of knowledge, together with the highlighting of a certain number of scientific and strategic ''set of references . The state-of-the-art of R and D related to Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) was carried out in collaboration between the EDF R and D Division (SR branch) and SRI International. The approach chosen included: segmentation of the wide field of PSAs into subject areas, topics and sensitive points to be monitored; conception of a grid for the interviews; approximately thirty in-depth interviews of organizations and experts representative of the domain; analysis leading to identify certain problems areas or particularly important features. Emerging themes for research and further consideration in relation to PSAs, their application and their limits were also identified. Based on this state-of-the-art, various themes of monitoring were defined (living PSAs, limits of PSAs,...) and an organizational structure for monitoring was set up in the branch. The state of the art is not static, it is the reason why an in-depth extension of the study was undertaken on issues of special interest for EDF. (authors). 2 figs., 2 refs

  7. Predicting morphine related side effects in the ED: An international cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounes, Vincent; Charriton-Dadone, Béatrice; Levraut, Jacques; Delangue, Cyril; Carpentier, Françoise; Mary-Chalon, Stéphanie; Houze-Cerfon, Vanessa; Sommet, Agnès; Houze-Cerfon, Charles-Henri; Ganetsky, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Morphine is the reference treatment for severe acute pain in an emergency department. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse opioid-related ADRs (adverse drug reactions) in a large cohort of emergency department patients, and to identify predictive factors for those ADRs. In this prospective, observational, pharmaco-epidemiological international cohort study, all patients aged 18years or older who were treated with morphine were enrolled. The study was done in 23 emergency departments in the US and France. Baseline numerical rating scale score and initial and total doses of morphine titration were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the effects of demographic, clinical and medical history covariates on the occurrence of opioid-induced ADRs within 6h after treatment. A total of 1128 patients were included over 10months. Median baseline initial pain scores were 8/10 (7-10) versus 3/10 (1-4) after morphine administration. Median titration duration was 10min (IQR, 1-30). The occurrence of opioid-induced ADRs was 25% and 2% were serious. Patients experienced mainly nausea and drowsiness. Medical history of travel sickness (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-2.86) and history of nausea or vomiting post morphine (OR, 3.86; 95% CI, 2.29-6.51) were independent predictors of morphine related ADRs. Serious morphine related ADRs are rare and unpredictable. Prophylactic antiemetic therapy could be proposed to patients with history of travel sickness and history of nausea or vomiting in a postoperative setting or after morphine administration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. International Myeloma Working Group Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Myeloma-Related Renal Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Sonneveld, Pieter; Leung, Nelson; Merlini, Giampaolo; Ludwig, Heinz; Kastritis, Efstathios; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Joshua, Douglas; Orlowski, Robert Z; Powles, Raymond; Vesole, David H; Garderet, Laurent; Einsele, Hermann; Palumbo, Antonio; Cavo, Michele; Richardson, Paul G; Moreau, Philippe; San Miguel, Jesús; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Durie, Brian G M; Terpos, Evangelos

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the International Myeloma Working Group was to develop practical recommendations for the diagnosis and management of multiple myeloma-related renal impairment (RI). Recommendations were based on published data through December 2015, and were developed using the system developed by the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Working Group. All patients with myeloma at diagnosis and at disease assessment should have serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and electrolytes measurements as well as free light chain, if available, and urine electrophoresis of a sample from a 24-hour urine collection (grade A). The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, preferably, or the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula should be used for the evaluation of estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with stabilized serum creatinine (grade A). International Myeloma Working Group criteria for renal reversibility should be used (grade B). For the management of RI in patients with multiple myeloma, high fluid intake is indicated along with antimyeloma therapy (grade B). The use of high-cutoff hemodialysis membranes in combination with antimyeloma therapy can be considered (grade B). Bortezomib-based regimens remain the cornerstone of the management of myeloma-related RI (grade A). High-dose dexamethasone should be administered at least for the first month of therapy (grade B). Thalidomide is effective in patients with myeloma with RI, and no dose modifications are needed (grade B). Lenalidomide is effective and safe, mainly in patients with mild to moderate RI (grade B); for patients with severe RI or on dialysis, lenalidomide should be given with close monitoring for hematologic toxicity (grade B) with dose reduction as needed. High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (with melphalan 100 mg/m(2) to 140 mg/m(2)) is feasible in patients with RI (grade C). Carfilzomib can be safely

  9. Barriers to internal rotation from relative intensity measurements as a function of temperature on microwave absorption lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, G.

    A variant is presented of the relative intensity method (RIM) in microwave spectroscopy to determine barriers to internal rotation. In this method torsional energies are determined directly from the slope of the straight line relating the logarithm of the intensity ratio and the reciprocal of the

  10. People’s Republic of China and Federal Republic of Germany in current international relations in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Tsvyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the analysis of the current Sino-German relations in the context of world politics and dynamics of international relations as exemplified by the Central Asia region. Basic problems and prospects for cooperation between China and Germany in this region, as well as possible ways of cooperation of the SCO and the EU are under consideration.

  11. Russia and China hydrocarbon relations. A building block toward international hydrocarbon regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, Catherine; Abbas, Mehdi; Rossiaud, Sylvain

    2015-12-01

    This article is a first step of a research agenda on international hydrocarbon regulations. With regards to both: i) the new wealth and power equilibrium in the international political economy and ii) the new political economy of carbon that is emerging from The Paris agreement on Climate changes, this research agenda aims at analysing the changing national structures of governance and the ways these changes lead to international, bilateral, pluri-lateral or multilateral hydrocarbon regulation

  12. Influence of Complete Coriolis Force on the Dispersion Relation of Ocean Internal-wave in a Background Currents Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this thesis, the influence of complete Coriolis force (the model includes both the vertical and horizontal components of Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field are studied, it is important to the study of ocean internal waves in density-stratified ocean. We start from the control equation of sea water movement in the background of the non-traditional approximation, and the vertical velocity solution is derived where buoyancy frequency N(z gradually varies with the ocean depth z. The results show that the influence of complete Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field is obvious, and these results provide strong evidence for the understanding of dynamic process of density stratified ocean internal waves.

  13. International overview of high-level simulation education initiatives in relation to critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinier, Guillaume; Platt, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The use of simulation in health care education has become very topical across all professions and specialties in order to improve patient safety and quality of care. In the last decade, the adoption of more realistic simulation-based teaching methodologies, which serves as a bridge between the acquisition and application of clinical skills, knowledge, and attributes, has been accompanied by the development of a multitude of international and national simulation societies. These serve as important exchange fora for educators, clinicians, researchers, and engineers who desire to learn and share their experience and knowledge around simulation-based education. Several countries have derived their own strategy in order to promote the use of such training methodology. Current key national strategies will be presented in this paper alongside a discussion of their expected impact. Various approaches have been adopted and each has their own place and the potential to be adopted by other nations depending on their political, economic or even geographic context. Within the critical care arena, simulation has generated considerable interest and there is a growing evidence base for its use as a learning and teaching strategy within this environment. A number of critical care-related associations and societies are now recognizing simulation as an appropriate pedagogical approach and acknowledging its potential to improve patient care and clinical outcomes. Its implementation should be carefully considered to ensure that developments are based on current best educational practice to maximize the efficiency of these educational interventions. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  14. Anatomical nuances of the internal carotid artery in relation to the quadrangular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Ricardo L L; Ditzel Filho, Leo F S; Goulart, Carlos R; Upadhyay, Smita; Buohliqah, Lamia; Lazarini, Paulo R; Prevedello, Daniel M; Carrau, Ricardo L

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical variations of the internal carotid artery (ICA) in relation to the quadrangular space (QS) and to propose a classification system based on the results. METHODS A total of 44 human cadaveric specimens were dissected endonasally under direct endoscopic visualization. During the dissection, the anatomical variations of the ICA and their relationship with the QS were noted. RESULTS The space between the paraclival ICAs (i.e., intercarotid space) can be classified as 1 of 3 different shapes (i.e., trapezoid, square, or hourglass) based on the trajectory of the ICAs. The ICA trajectories also directly influence the volumetric area of the QS. Based on its geometry, the QS was classified as one of the following: 1) Type A has the smallest QS area and is associated with a trapezoid intercarotid space, 2) Type B corresponds to the expected QS area (not minimized or enlarged) and is associated with a square intercarotid space, and 3) Type C has the largest QS area and is associated with an hourglass intercarotid space. CONCLUSIONS The different trajectories of the ICAs can modify the area of the QS and may be an essential parameter to consider for preoperative planning and defining the most appropriate corridor to reach Meckel's cave. In addition, ICA trajectories should be considered prior to surgery to avoid injuring the vessels.

  15. Negative emotional reactivity moderates the relations between family cohesion and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Jill A; Osigwe, Ijeoma; Drabick, Deborah A G; Reynolds, Maureen D

    2016-12-01

    Lower family cohesion is associated with adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. However, there are likely individual differences in youth's responses to family processes. For example, adolescents higher in negative emotional reactivity, who often exhibit elevated physiological responsivity to context, may be differentially affected by family cohesion. We explored whether youth's negative emotional reactivity moderated the relation between family cohesion and youth's symptoms and tested whether findings were consistent with the diathesis-stress model or differential susceptibility hypothesis. Participants were 651 adolescents (M = 12.99 ± .95 years old; 72% male) assessed at two time points (Time 1, ages 12-14; Time 2, age 16) in Pittsburgh, PA. At Time 1, mothers reported on family cohesion and youth reported on their negative emotional reactivity. At Time 2, youth reported on their symptoms. Among youth higher in negative emotional reactivity, lower family cohesion predicted higher symptoms than higher family cohesion, consistent with the diathesis-stress model. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Treaties to avoid international double income taxation and their relation with investments involving Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jônatas de Pessoa Alburquerque Martins

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To fight against fiscal evasion and facilitate the investment flow, the countries close agreements to go against double income taxation. This study aims to investigate the impact of the treaties to avoid double income taxation on the direct foreign investment relations of Brazil. The analysis included 162 countries and jurisdictions with which investments transactions were closed that originated or were received in Brazil, between 2005 and 2011. The panel data analysis technique was applied through the selection of six independent variables, in order to verify the behavior of the double taxation treaties in view of the investments. Through the estimated model, it was verified that these treaties had a positive and statistically significant impact – when compared to earlier studies – on the direct foreign investment volume. When dividing the sample between the investments received and made in Brazil, a greater increase was identified in the direct foreign investments received (130.1% than in the investments made (76.9%, although this was the variable with the second largest positive impact in the model. In conclusion, exclusively in the Brazilian context, the international double income taxation is a relevant factor in the investment decision, as the presence of treaties to guarantee the investors in the receipt of revenues without double taxation substantially increases the investment flow. This study differs from earlier research by the sample that only contains treaties in force in Brazil.

  17. THE ROLE OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN TRAINING OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS SPECIALISTS IN CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Istomina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with theoretical and pedagogical research of the development and integration of students’ public work on the example of the system of professional training of future specialists on international relations in universities of Canada. The features of the organization have been analized and the implementation of students’ public work into curricula of education programs has been done. This research provides general overview of factors that have direct impact on the successful integration of students’ public work in the learning process and which depend on the success of this teaching method implementation. The difficulties of implementing students’ public work in the learning process, as well as positive changes which is the result of this practice in higher education have been shown. The integration of public work in the system of professional training of specialists has been determined as the prospect of the development of higher education which promotes the individual formation with the necessary set of significant social, leadership and personal qualities. The prospects for further research in this area and the practical application of the results have been outlined.

  18. Molecular Phylogenetic Screening of Withania somnifera Relative From Indonesia Based on Internal Transcribed Spacer Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topik Hidayat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (family Solanaceae, known commonly as Ashwaganda, is one of the important medicinal plants, and recent studies reported that Withanone, one of the chemical components in this plant, has ability to kill cancer cell. Because of endemic state of this plant to South Asia, exploring plant species under the same family which grow well in Indonesia has been of interest. The purpose of this study was to screen the Indonesian plant which has strong phylogenetic relationship with Ashwaganda. Thus, phylogenetic analysis using DNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS region was conducted. Thus, 19 species of Solanaceae and two species of Convolvulaceae as outgroup were examined. Five ITS regions of Ashwaganda retrieved from GenBank were included in the phylogenetic analysis. Parsimony analysis showed that Indonesia Solanaceae comprises seven groups which is consistent with the global Solanaceae relationship as previously reported. Furthermore, our study revealed that two species, Physalis angulata and Physalis peruviana, are relative to W. somnifera. Morphologically, they share characters of flower and fruit. This result indicated that these two species are potential to have similar chemical properties as Ashwaganda, thus we can have new variants of Withanone originated from Indonesia with similar effect.

  19. From early family systems to internalizing symptoms: The role of emotion regulation and peer relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Jallu; Vänskä, Mervi; Flykt, Marjo; Tolvanen, Asko; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-04-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of early family characteristics, such as the quality of caregiving, on children's later mental health. Information is, however, needed about the role of more holistic family systems and specific child-related socioemotional mechanisms. In this study, we conceptualize families as dynamic family system types, consisting of both marital and parenting trajectories over the transition to parenthood. First, we examine how early family system types predict children's anxiety, depression, peer exclusion, and emotion regulation. Second, we test whether couples' infertility history and other family related contextual factors moderate the effects of family system types on child outcomes. Third, we test whether children's emotion regulation and peer exclusion mediate the effects of family system types on anxiety and depression. The participants were 452 families representing cohesive, distant, authoritative, enmeshed, and discrepant family types, identified on the basis of relationship autonomy and intimacy from pregnancy to the child's age of 2 and 12 months. Children's anxiety, depression, emotion regulation, and peer exclusion were assessed at the age of 7-8 years. Structural equation modeling showed that distant, enmeshed, and discrepant families similarly predicted children's heightened anxiety and depression. Infertility history, parental education, and parity moderated the associations between certain family system types and child outcomes. Finally, emotion regulation, but not peer exclusion, was a common mediating mechanism between distant and enmeshed families and children's depression. The results emphasize the importance of early family environments on children's emotion regulation development and internalizing psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Texas-style Fundraising and Public Relations for the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Sandra; Barna, J. W.; Geiger, S.; Johnson, R.; Rimm, N.; Griffin, J.; Watson, K.

    2008-05-01

    McDonald Observatory can be a leader in Texas for the International Year of Astronomy (IYA09) celebration. Our strategy builds on the IYA09 program, tailoring it for the Texas audience, while also nationally promoting McDonald Observatory, UT Astronomy, the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and our partnership in the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). We will also use this opportunity to make a concentrated outreach effort toward the Hispanic and Spanish-speaking communities in Texas and the nation, aligning with the IYA09 objective for improving relations with underrepresented and minority populations. Fundraising is a key ingredient to our success in 2009 and the future. With NASA Office of Space Science funding for education and public outreach being rethought, we will be focusing on new sources for fundraising, including private donations and corporate sponsorship, augmented by planned giving. We will take advantage of the timing to raise funds for special IYA09 programs, as well as for our large telescope projects HETDEX and GMT, along with our endowment and planned giving programs for education, outreach, and research. We will work with the UT McCombs School of Business on corporate sponsorship. During this time we will also go through a branding experience that will visually unify McDonald Observatory, UT Astronomy, and the education and public outreach programs. A consistent brand that can be used on the website and other media is our goal to build a stronger public presence that will aid us in our fundraising efforts. A Public Relations Internship Project produced a report to help launch this process. We are working with the UT College of Communications Advertising Department and with Hill Strategic Brand Solutions in Houston, Texas. We hope that our efforts will produce Texas-sized results!

  1. [Position of health at international relations. Part II. Organizational dimensions of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of some concepts and definitions related with "set up of health", used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of organizational dimensions of health at worldwide agenda. The following organizational dimensions of health were discussed: (a) health for all, (b) health promotion, intersectoral and multisectoral actions, health in all policies, (c) health development, health as an element of human development, (d) investment for health, (e) health diplomacy and (f) mainstreaming of health. The analysis was based on World Health Assembly and UN General Assembly resolutions as well as supranational reports and statements available through conventional channels, not grey literature. It is apparent that some of notions are not in common use in Poland, some seems to be unknown. It was argued that some general and discreet thoughts and statements concerning organizational aspects of health were expressed in the preamble of WHO Constitution. Nevertheless they are not comparable with later propositions and proceedings. The first modern concepts and notions related as process were developed at late seventies. They originated from efforts to realize a vision of health for all and formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action for attaining this goal. The turning point was in 1981, when WHA adopted Global Strategy for Heath for All by the Year 2000. Since then one can observe considerable progress and new concepts came into existence, more and more precise and better reflecting the sense of health actions. The evolution of organizational dimensions of health was described in the context of brand positioning. It was assumed that first step of positioning was concentrated on structural dimensions of health. That served to awareness raise, attitudes change and motivation to action. That made a foundation to the next step--positioning based on process approach to health. Among others the

  2. The theory of international relations at the dawn of the twentieth-first century: dialogue, dissidence, approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Salomón González

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers three main trends in current theorizing on international relations. The first is the dialogue that has been going on among neoliberal (or institutionalist and neorealist authors for the last decade over possibilities for international cooperation. The second is the call for dissidence and/or restructuring of the discipline from “reflectivist” approaches: critical theory, postmodernisms, and feminisms. The third is the attempt to achieve a synthesis of the traditional and reflectivist approaches, an attempt made from both the standpoint of a new constructivist theory as well as from a classical point of view of international society.

  3. Youth internalizing symptoms, sleep-related problems, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors: A moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Marie L; Janicke, David M; Carmody, Julia K; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C

    2016-04-01

    Internalizing symptoms increase the risk for disordered eating; however, the mechanism through which this relationship occurs remains unclear. Sleep-related problems may be a potential link as they are associated with both emotional functioning and disordered eating. The present study aims to evaluate the mediating roles of two sleep-related problems (sleep disturbance and daytime sleepiness) in the relationship between youth internalizing symptoms and disordered eating, and to explore if age moderates these relations. Participants were 225 youth (8-17years) attending a primary care appointment. Youth and legal guardians completed questionnaires about youth disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, internalizing symptoms, sleep disturbance, and daytime sleepiness. Mediation and moderated mediation analyses were utilized. The mediation model revealed both youth sleep disturbance and daytime sleepiness independently mediated the association between internalizing symptoms and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, and explained 18% of the variance in disordered eating. The moderated mediation model including youth age accounted for 21% of the variance in disordered eating; youth age significantly interacted with sleep disturbance, but not with daytime sleepiness, to predict disordered eating. Sleep disturbance only mediated the relationship between internalizing symptoms and disordered eating in youth 12years old and younger, while daytime sleepiness was a significant mediator regardless of age. As sleep-related problems are frequently improved with the adoption of health behaviors conducive to good sleep, these results may suggest a relatively modifiable and cost-effective target to reduce youth risk for disordered eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of Factors Related to Students' Understandings of Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationships between high school students' learning approaches and logical thinking abilities and their understandings of heat, temperature and internal energy concepts. Learning Approach Questionnaire, Test of Logical Thinking and Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Test were used…

  5. Factors Related to the Acculturation Stress of International Students in a Faith-Based Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Liane Videres

    2012-01-01

    The number of international students attending American educational institutions is increasing annually. Based upon Maslow theory of needs, it was hypothesized that the acculturation process contributes to stress and anxiety among international students; therefore, it is important to understand some of the variables that influence this process for…

  6. Reliability, Dimensionality, and Internal Consistency as Defined by Cronbach: Distinct Albeit Related Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Ernest C.; Davison, Mark L.; Liou, Pey-Yan; Love, Quintin U.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses definitions provided by Cronbach in his seminal paper for coefficient a to show the concepts of reliability, dimensionality, and internal consistency are distinct but interrelated. The article begins with a critique of the definition of reliability and then explores mathematical properties of Cronbach's a. Internal consistency…

  7. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bulk, Bianca G; Somerville, Leah H; van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Crone, Eveline A; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD) show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral) in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N=25), adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N=19) and healthy controls (N=26). Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G. van den Bulk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N = 25, adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N = 19 and healthy controls (N = 26. Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala.

  9. Narratives of Change and Theorisations on Continuity: the Duality of the Concept of Emerging Power in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Oliveira Paes

    Full Text Available Abstract This essay aims to discuss the appropriation of the concept of emerging power to the field of international relations, the theoretical impact it inflicts on the discipline, and the duality of its formation as a theoretical category. The adjective emerging has been appropriated into the vocabulary of international relations, but such lexical novelty comprises a debate with earlier theorisations on intermediate states. It is argued that this dialogue between the transience in the narratives of change, brought up by the qualifier emerging powers, and the stasis from the theoretical accumulation on the condition from which it breaks through is a constitutive foundation for the concept as an analytical device for international relations.

  10. Research needs related to internal dosimetry. Joint panel on occupational and environmental research for uranium production in Canada (JP-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duport, P.; Pomroy, C.; Brown, D.

    1989-01-01

    There are several important techniques of internal dosimetry for use with uranium mine and mill workers: personal radon daughter dosimetry, uranium content of urine, whole body counter to evaluate the uranium in lung burden, and assay of uranium in biopsy or autopsy tissue samples. There are problems with each of these techniques and further research is required in internal dosimetry (as well as the alternative of monitoring exposure levels). This research should be aimed at improved or supplementary dosimetry techniques, enhanced theoretical interpretation of dosimetry results and fundamental research not directly related to the techniques mentioned above. Proposals for research as presented by the working group in this report should be considered by funding organizations concerned with internal dosimetry as it relates to the uranium mining industry, and, since this report was first presented. AECB has proceeded with related projects. (author)

  11. PREFACE: The 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takaho

    2009-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains invited and contributed peer-reviewed papers that were presented at the 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008), which was held on 7-12 September 2008, at Kunibiki Messe, Matsue, Japan. This triennial symposium has a half-century long history starting from the 1st meeting in 1959 at Asbury Park, New Jersey. We were very pleased to organize ISBB 2008, which gathered chemists, physicists, materials scientists as well as diamond and high-pressure researchers. This meeting had a strong background in the boron-related Japanese research history, which includes the discovery of superconductivity in MgB2 and development of Nd-Fe-B hard magnets and of YB66 soft X-ray monochromator. The scope of ISBB 2008 spans both basic and applied interdisciplinary research that is centered on boron, borides and related materials, and the collection of articles defines the state of the art in research on these materials. The topics are centered on: 1. Preparation of new materials (single crystals, thin films, nanostructures, ceramics, etc) under normal or extreme conditions. 2. Crystal structure and chemical bonding (new crystal structures, nonstoichiometry, defects, clusters, quantum-chemical calculations). 3. Physical and chemical properties (band structure, phonon spectra, superconductivity; optical, electrical, magnetic, emissive, mechanical properties; phase diagrams, thermodynamics, catalytic activity, etc) in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. 4. Applications and prospects (thermoelectric converters, composites, ceramics, coatings, etc) There were a few discoveries of new materials, such as nanomaterials, and developments in applications. Many contributions were related to 4f heavy Fermion systems of rare-earth borides. Exotic mechanisms of magnetism and Kondo effects have been discussed, which may indicate another direction of development of boride. Two special sessions

  12. Contribution of the Japan International Cooperation Agency health-related projects to health system strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Imada, Mihoko

    2013-09-22

    The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has focused its attention on appraising health development assistance projects and redirecting efforts towards health system strengthening. This study aimed to describe the type of project and targets of interest, and assess the contribution of JICA health-related projects to strengthening health systems worldwide. We collected a web-based Project Design Matrix (PDM) of 105 JICA projects implemented between January 2005 and December 2009. We developed an analytical matrix based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework to examine the PDM data and thereby assess the projects' contributions to health system strengthening. The majority of JICA projects had prioritized workforce development, and improvements in governance and service delivery. Conversely, there was little assistance for finance or medical product development. The vast majority (87.6%) of JICA projects addressed public health issues, for example programs to improve maternal and child health, and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Nearly 90% of JICA technical healthcare assistance directly focused on improving governance as the most critical means of accomplishing its goals. Our study confirmed that JICA projects met the goals of bilateral cooperation by developing workforce capacity and governance. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that JICA assistance could be used to support financial aspects of healthcare systems, which is an area of increasing concern. We also showed that the analytical matrix methodology is an effective means of examining the component of health system strengthening to which the activity and output of a project contributes. This may help policy makers and practitioners focus future projects on priority areas.

  13. Salinity changes relative to the response to anthropogenic forcing and internal variability in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Nadya; Buckley, Martha

    2017-04-01

    Over the past few decades, surface waters in the subpolar North Atlantic have experienced substantial fluctuations, including periods of rapid cooling and freshening alternating with the periods of enhanced warming, salinification, and decreased circulation of the gyre. Since these waters feed the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation, such changes have the potential to impact the global ocean circulation and future climate states. A number of potential causes for the observed changes have been suggested, including those related to the strength of the ocean circulation and heat transports, as well as other factors, such as anthropogenic aerosol forcing or changes in surface fluxes. Here we assess how the observed warming/salinification events fit into the long-term picture, focusing on variations in upper-ocean salinity. Salinification of the subpolar North Atlantic may seem counter-intuitive to the reported long-term increase in freshwater supply to the region from river discharge and ice melting, sparking debates about whether the freshening of the subpolar gyre has ceased, and whether the recent salinification, if continued, will be able to forestall the projected slowdown of the overturning circulation. Using a suite of in situ salinity observations spanning the last 60 years, modern satellite salinity observations from Aquarius and SMOS missions, and multi-decadal realizations from global climate models, we estimate the likelihood of such salinity changes in the context of the historical record, contemporary estimates, and future projections. Results are discussed in terms of the probability of occurrence of a decade-long salinification in the presence of the background freshening in response to anthropogenic forcing. In particular, computed probabilities suggest that such "unusual" salinification events are plausible under the strong influence of internal, decadal-to-interdecadal variability.

  14. Preliminary examination of international students' adjustment and loneliness related to electronic communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Shwalb, David A

    2007-02-01

    Electronic communication, e.g., e-mail, internet, may facilitate international students' adjustment through contacts maintained in their native country. In the present study, the scores of 45 international students on a measure of adjustment and the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale were significantly associated with their electronic communications involving their native country, but not with general internet or e-mail use. International students' scores on the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure were positively correlated with amount of contact with people in their native country but not with scores on measures of adjustment or loneliness.

  15. Integrating international relations and environmental science course concepts through an interactive world politics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.

    2012-12-01

    During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of

  16. Dressing-related pain in patients with chronic wounds: an international patient perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Patricia E; Fagervik-Morton, Hilde; Mudge, Elizabeth J; Beele, Hilde; Ruiz, Jose Contreras; Nystrøm, Theis Huldt; Lindholm, Christina; Maume, Sylvie; Melby-Østergaard, Britta; Peter, Yolanda; Romanelli, Marco; Seppänen, Salla; Serena, Thomas E; Sibbald, Gary; Soriano, Jose Verdú; White, Wendy; Wollina, Uwe; Woo, Kevin Y; Wyndham-White, Carolyn; Harding, Keith G

    2008-06-01

    This cross-sectional international survey assessed patients' perceptions of their wound pain. A total of 2018 patients (57% female) from 15 different countries with a mean age of 68.6 years (SD = 15.4) participated. The wounds were categorised into ten different types with a mean wound duration of 19.6 months (SD = 51.8). For 2018 patients, 3361 dressings/compression systems were being used, with antimicrobials being reported most frequently (n= 605). Frequency of wound-related pain was reported as 32.2%, 'never' or 'rarely', 31.1%, 'quite often' and 36.6%, 'most' or 'all of the time', with venous and arterial ulcers associated with more frequent pain (P= 0.002). All patients reported that 'the wound itself' was the most painful location (n= 1840). When asked if they experienced dressing-related pain, 286 (14.7%) replied 'most of the time' and 334 (17.2%) reported pain 'all of the time'; venous, mixed and arterial ulcers were associated with more frequent pain at dressing change (P VAS) (0-100) giving a mean score of 44.5 (SD = 30.5, n= 1981). Of the 1141 who reported that they generally took pain relief, 21% indicated that they did not feel it was effective. Patients were asked to rate six symptoms associated with living with a chronic wound; 'pain' was given the highest mean score of 3.1 (n= 1898). In terms of different types of daily activities, 'overdoing things' was associated with the highest mean score (mean = 2.6, n= 1916). During the stages of the dressing change procedure; 'touching/handling the wound' was given the highest mean score of 2.9, followed by cleansing and dressing removal (n= 1944). One thousand four hundred and eighty-five (80.15%) patients responded that they liked to be actively involved in their dressing changes, 1141 (58.15%) responded that they were concerned about the long-term side-effects of medication, 790 (40.3%) of patient indicated that the pain at dressing change was the worst part of living with a wound. This study adds

  17. All projects related to Nigéria | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-24

    End Date: December 24, 2010. Topic: TRADE LIBERALIZATION, Globalization, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, INTRAREGIONAL TRADE, TRADE NEGOTIATIONS, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SMALL ENTERPRISES, MEDIUM ENTERPRISES, TRADE AGREEMENTS. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Ghana, ...

  18. Documenting and determining distributions, trends, and relations in truck times at international border crossing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-20

    Documenting the times trucks incur when crossing an international border facility is valuable both to the private freight industry and to gateway facility operators and planners. : Members of the project team previously developed and implemented an a...

  19. Internalized HIV/AIDS-related stigma in a sample of HIV-positive people in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Tanvir; Nath, Samir Ranjan; Khan, Nabilah S; Akram, Owasim; Gomes, Tony Michael; Rashid, Sabina F

    2012-03-01

    Internalized stigma among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) is prevalent in Bangladesh. A better understanding of the effects of stigma on PLHA is required to reduce this and to minimize its harmful effects. This study employed a quantitative approach by conducting a survey with an aim to know the prevalence of internalized stigma and to identify the factors associated with internalized stigma among a sample of 238 PLHA (male=152 and female=86) in Bangladesh. The findings suggest that there is a significant difference between groups with the low- and the high-internalized HIV/AIDS stigma in terms of both age and gender. The prevalence of internalized stigma varied according to the poverty status of PLHA. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) found 10 of 15 items loaded highly on the three factors labelled self-acceptance, self-exclusion, and social withdrawal. About 68% of the PLHA felt ashamed, and 54% felt guilty because of their HIV status. More than half (87.5% male and 19.8% female) of the PLHA blamed themselves for their HIV status while many of them (38.2% male and 8.1% female) felt that they should be punished. The male PLHA more frequently chose to withdraw themselves from family and social gatherings compared to the female PLHA. They also experienced a higher level of internalized stigma compared to the female PLHA. The results suggest that the prevalence of internalized stigma is high in Bangladesh, and much needs to be done by different organizations working for and with the PLHA to reduce internalized stigma among this vulnerable group.

  20. International cooperation in the solution to trade-related invasive species risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrings, Charles; Burgiel, Stas; Lonsdale, Mark; Mooney, Harold; Williamson, Mark

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we consider the factors behind the growth of invasive species as a global problem, and the scope for international cooperation and coordination in addressing that problem. This is limited by the terms of the various international agreements governing trade, health, and biodiversity. The default strategy in most cases has two parts: border protection and the control of or adaptation to introduced species that have escaped detection at the border. Most invasive species policy involves unilateral national defensive action as opposed to coordinated international action. We argue that an important part of the solution to the problem lies in global coordination and cooperation in the management of both pathways and sanitary and phytosanitary risks at all scales. More particularly, because invasive species are an externality of trade, transport, and travel that involve public goods, they require collective regulation of international markets that goes beyond that admitted under the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. We argue that it is important to bring that agreement into conformity with the International Health Regulations (IHR), and to develop an international mechanism to generate and disseminate information on invasive species risks and their impacts.

  1. Educational policy and its relation with the internationalization and international cooperation on higher education: Mexico case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Amador Fierros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of international cooperation linked to educational processes appeared explicitly in the 1990s in Latin America. International- cooperation processes as well as higher-education internationalization in Mexico started before the existence of a State policy, which helped build consensus for the adoption of the International Cooperation for Development Act in 2011. The drive of associations of universities and individuals, such as the National Association of Universities (ANUIES and later the Consortium of Mexican Universities (CUMEX, as well as the Mexican Association for International Education (AMPEI has been key in promoting international cooperation, as a catalyst for higher-education internationalization. It is now recognized that emerging work and sharing environments need a variety of competences as well as knowledge that sometimes researchers, professors or government officials do not have. In addition, there is a need to obtain knowledge and skills that do not come through traditional teaching and learning, but through processes of interaction with the world. The internationalization of higher education appears as a strategy that can help universities improve their quality, thus strengthening the need to cooperate with similar institutions and other organizations beyond our borders. Moreover, the type of academic achievement to which internationalization processes can lead are viewed by some authors as part of the very concept of quality and educational excellence in the 21st century.There is logic in the sequence in which policies and reforms have been implemented in the field of education in different parts of the world, as certain needs that the political class sees as priorities are met: expansion of coverage and access, education quality and, finally, international cooperation. This might explain the late arrival of the International Cooperation for Development Act in Mexico, although a mixed model is emerging in Latin

  2. Towards Critical Global Education Worker Subjectivity: An Exploration of Narratives of American Women Engaged in Education-Related International Volunteerism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mule, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    International volunteerism is increasingly associated with shaping global subjectivities of participants. Significant numbers of Global North volunteers--whether working through established volunteer organizations, corporations, nonprofits, academia, or personal networks and connections--engage in education related activities while in the Global…

  3. ADHD Symptoms Moderate the Relation between ASD Status and Internalizing Symptoms in 3-6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Manangan, Christen N.; Dauterman, Hayley A.; Davis, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to understand the relation between diagnostic status (autism spectrum disorders [ASD] versus typically developing) and internalizing problems in children with and without co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Participants were 88 children, ages 3:0-6:11, their parents and teachers. Findings…

  4. Learning with LinkedIn: Students' Perceptions of Incorporating Subject-Related Blogging in an International Marketing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, Nataliya; Khodabandehloo, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of implementation of blogging within a LinkedIn discussion group in an international marketing course for a multicultural group of students focusing on the students' perceptions of the subject-related blogging. Design/Methodology/ Approach: This study adopts a qualitative approach; data have been…

  5. International Baccalaureate as a Litmus Test Revealing Conflicting Values and Power Relations in the Israeli Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemini, Miri; Dvir, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    This study comprises a comprehensive attempt to reveal the power relations and conflicting interests within the local-global nexus of the Israeli public education system. The perceptions of different stakeholders were explored, in regard to the implementation of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program as an example of a globally oriented…

  6. Integrating autism-related symptoms into the dimensional internalizing and externalizing model of psychopathology. The TRAILS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhof, Arjen; Krueger, Robert F; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Hartman, Catharina A

    2015-04-01

    Problems associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) occur frequently in the general population and often co-occur with problems in other domains of psychopathology. In the research presented here these co-occurrence patterns were investigated by integrating a dimensional approach to ASDs into the more general dimensional framework of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Factor Analysis was used to develop hierarchical and bi-factor models covering multiple domains of psychopathology in three measurement waves of a longitudinal general population sample (N = 2,230, ages 10-17, 50.8% female). In all adequately fitting models, autism related problems were part of a specific domain of psychopathology that could be distinguished from the internalizing and externalizing domains. Optimal model fit was found for a bi-factor model with one non-specific factor and four specific factors related to internalizing, externalizing, autism spectrum problems and problems related to attention and orientation. Autism-related problems constitute a specific domain of psychopathology that can be distinguished from the internalizing and externalizing domains. In addition, the co-occurrence patterns in the data indicate the presence of a strong general factor.

  7. Internal consistency of event-related potentials associated with cognitive control: N2/P3 and ERN/Pe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.R. Rietdijk (Wim); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecent studies in psychophysiology show an increased attention for examining the reliability of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs), which are measures of cognitive control (e.g., Go/No-Go tasks). An important index of reliability is the internal consistency (e.g., Cronbach's alpha) of a

  8. Longitudinal relations between adolescent and parental behaviors, parental knowledge, and internalizing behaviors among urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    High prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among adolescents underscore the importance of identifying parental and adolescent behaviors that may lessen the risk for these outcomes. Previous research has shown that parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and child disclosure are negatively associated with internalizing behaviors. It is also important to explore the impact of internalizing behaviors on these parental and child constructs. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between parental acceptance, parental knowledge, child disclosure, and internalizing symptoms across a one-year time period. Participants were 358 adolescents (54 % female) and their primary caregivers, who were primarily African American (92 %). Parents and adolescents provided data through face-to-face interviews. Results showed that parental knowledge and parental acceptance predicted child disclosure, and child disclosure predicted parental knowledge one year later. Higher levels of parental acceptance predicted lower levels of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, while higher levels of parental report of adolescents' internalizing symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge. No differences in the strength of these relationships were found across grade or gender. These findings highlight the role of the adolescent's perceived acceptance by parents in promoting children's disclosure, and the benefits of parental acceptance in decreasing depressive symptoms over time. Overall, these results show the impact that both adolescent and parental behaviors and internalizing behaviors have on each other across time.

  9. Freedom of Communication - Problematic Aspects in the Horizon of International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Ştefan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of freedom is one of the fundamental issues of the philosophical thought. In theEuropean cultural area, there is a strong tradition in this respect, starting from the Greek antiquity andreaching to the philosophies of the 20th century. Existentialism, as an exemplary philosophical trendof the last century, is founded in the horizon of freedom. Freedom is an element which allows us toclassify the political regimes in democratic and non-democratic. The democratic regimes are definedas forms of government which allow for the manifestation of freedom, while the non-democratic onesare defined as governments which forbid individual freedoms. The concept of freedom is theoreticallyshaped in the philosophical thought. We distinguish between the individual’s inner freedom and hisouter freedom. According to the philosophical doctrines, each individual’s inner freedom may bealmost immune to any type of constraint, while our outer freedom is problematic. Constraints areexerted in the horizon of the individuals’ outer freedoms. This outer freedom makes itself felt in thepublic space and it is the only form of freedom which can manifest concretely, visibly. The concept offreedom is related to the concepts of communication, policy, and politics. These elementstheoretically shape the issue of the freedom of speech. The truth and correctness of the informationpresented to the public opinion will be correlated with the issue of the freedom of communication andthe issue of the freedom of speech in the public arena. In order to highlight this aspect even better, wehave presented a case concerning the freedom of speech in recounting the facts in the Gaza Strip. Atan international level, the public opinion is informed that in that area of eternal conflict there are“good characters”, namely the Jews, and “bad characters”, namely the Palestinians. But things are farfrom being that simple. To conclude, the issue of the freedom of speech in the

  10. Fracture-related infection: A consensus on definition from an international expert group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsemakers, W J; Morgenstern, M; McNally, M A; Moriarty, T F; McFadyen, I; Scarborough, M; Athanasou, N A; Ochsner, P E; Kuehl, R; Raschke, M; Borens, O; Xie, Z; Velkes, S; Hungerer, S; Kates, S L; Zalavras, C; Giannoudis, P V; Richards, R G; Verhofstad, M H J

    2018-03-01

    Fracture-related infection (FRI) is a common and serious complication in trauma surgery. Accurately estimating the impact of this complication has been hampered by the lack of a clear definition. The absence of a working definition of FRI renders existing studies difficult to evaluate or compare. In order to address this issue, an expert group comprised of a number of scientific and medical organizations has been convened, with the support of the AO Foundation, in order to develop a consensus definition. The process that led to this proposed definition started with a systematic literature review, which revealed that the majority of randomized controlled trials in fracture care do not use a standardized definition of FRI. In response to this conclusion, an international survey on the need for and key components of a definition of FRI was distributed amongst all registered AOTrauma users. Approximately 90% of the more than 2000 surgeons who responded suggested that a definition of FRI is required. As a final step, a consensus meeting was held with an expert panel. The outcome of this process led to a consensus definition of FRI. Two levels of certainty around diagnostic features were defined. Criteria could be confirmatory (infection definitely present) or suggestive. Four confirmatory criteria were defined: Fistula, sinus or wound breakdown; Purulent drainage from the wound or presence of pus during surgery; Phenotypically indistinguishable pathogens identified by culture from at least two separate deep tissue/implant specimens; Presence of microorganisms in deep tissue taken during an operative intervention, as confirmed by histopathological examination. Furthermore, a list of suggestive criteria was defined. These require further investigations in order to look for confirmatory criteria. In the current paper, an overview is provided of the proposed definition and a rationale for each component and decision. The intention of establishing this definition of FRI was

  11. Only-Child Status in Relation to Perceived Stress and Studying-Related Life Satisfaction among University Students in China: A Comparison with International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Janet Junqing; Khan, Mobarak Hossain; Jahn, Heiko J; Kraemer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    University students in general face multiple challenges, which may affect their levels of perceived stress and life satisfaction. Chinese students currently face specific strains due to the One-Child Policy (OCP). The aim of this study was to assess (1) whether the levels of perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction are associated with only-child (OC) status after controlling for demographic and socio-economic characteristics and (2) whether these associations differ between Chinese and international students. A cross-sectional health survey based on a self-administrated standardised questionnaire was conducted among 1,843 (1,543 Chinese, 300 international) students at two Chinese universities in 2010-2011. Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) and Stock and Kraemer's Studying-related Life Satisfaction Scale were used to measure perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations of OC status with perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction by sex for Chinese students and international students separately. The Chinese non-only-children (NOCs) were more likely to come from small cities. Multivariable regression models indicate that the Chinese NOCs were more stressed than OCs (OR = 1.39, 1.11-1.74) with a stronger association in men (OR = 1.48, 1.08-2.02) than women (OR = 1.26, 0.89-1.77). NOCs were also more dissatisfied than their OC fellows in the Chinese subsample (OR = 1.37, 1.09-1.73). Among international students, no associations between OC status and perceived stress or studying-related life satisfaction were found. To promote equality between OCs and NOCs at Chinese universities, the causes of more stress and less studying-related life satisfaction among NOCs compared to OCs need further exploration.

  12. Only-Child Status in Relation to Perceived Stress and Studying-Related Life Satisfaction among University Students in China: A Comparison with International Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Junqing Chu

    Full Text Available University students in general face multiple challenges, which may affect their levels of perceived stress and life satisfaction. Chinese students currently face specific strains due to the One-Child Policy (OCP. The aim of this study was to assess (1 whether the levels of perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction are associated with only-child (OC status after controlling for demographic and socio-economic characteristics and (2 whether these associations differ between Chinese and international students.A cross-sectional health survey based on a self-administrated standardised questionnaire was conducted among 1,843 (1,543 Chinese, 300 international students at two Chinese universities in 2010-2011. Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14 and Stock and Kraemer's Studying-related Life Satisfaction Scale were used to measure perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations of OC status with perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction by sex for Chinese students and international students separately.The Chinese non-only-children (NOCs were more likely to come from small cities. Multivariable regression models indicate that the Chinese NOCs were more stressed than OCs (OR = 1.39, 1.11-1.74 with a stronger association in men (OR = 1.48, 1.08-2.02 than women (OR = 1.26, 0.89-1.77. NOCs were also more dissatisfied than their OC fellows in the Chinese subsample (OR = 1.37, 1.09-1.73. Among international students, no associations between OC status and perceived stress or studying-related life satisfaction were found.To promote equality between OCs and NOCs at Chinese universities, the causes of more stress and less studying-related life satisfaction among NOCs compared to OCs need further exploration.

  13. Proposals for Paraphilic Disorders in the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Eleventh Revision (ICD-11)

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Richard B.; Reed, Geoffrey M.; First, Michael B.; Marais, Adele; Kismodi, Eszter; Briken, Peer

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization is currently developing the 11th revision of the International Classifications of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), with approval of the ICD-11 by the World Health Assembly anticipated in 2018. The Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health (WGSDSH) was created and charged with reviewing and making recommendations for categories related to sexuality that are contained in the chapter of Mental and Behavioural Disorders i...

  14. Educating international students about tuberculosis and infections associated with travel to visit friends and relatives (VFR-travel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibney, Katherine B; Brass, Amanda; Hume, Sam C; Leder, Karin

    2014-01-01

    International students in Victoria, Australia, originate from over 140 different countries. They are over-represented in disease notifications for tuberculosis and travel-associated infections, including enteric fever, hepatitis A, and malaria. We describe a public health initiative aimed to increase awareness of these illnesses among international students and their support staff. We identified key agencies including student support advisors, medical practitioners, health insurers, and government and professional organisations. We developed health education materials targeting international students regarding tuberculosis and travel-related infections to be disseminated via a number of different media, including electronic and printed materials. We sought informal feedback from personnel in all interested agencies regarding the materials developed, their willingness to deliver these materials to international students, and their preferred media for disseminating these materials. Education institutions with dedicated international student support staff and on-campus health clinics were more easily engaged to provide feedback and disseminate the health education materials than institutions without such dedicated personnel. Response to contacting off-campus medical practices was poor. Delivery of educational materials via electronic and social media was preferred over face-to-face education. It is feasible to provide health education messages targeting international students for dissemination via appropriately-staffed educational institutions. This initiative could be expanded in terms of age-group, geographic range, and health issues to be targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Internal consistency of event-related potentials associated with cognitive control: N2/P3 and ERN/Pe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim J R Rietdijk

    Full Text Available Recent studies in psychophysiology show an increased attention for examining the reliability of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs, which are measures of cognitive control (e.g., Go/No-Go tasks. An important index of reliability is the internal consistency (e.g., Cronbach's alpha of a measure. In this study, we examine the internal consistency of the N2 and P3 in a Go/No-Go task. Furthermore, we attempt to replicate the previously found internal consistency of the Error-Related Negativity (ERN and Positive-Error (Pe in an Eriksen Flanker task. Healthy participants performed a Go/No-Go task and an Eriksen Flanker task, whereby the amplitudes of the correct No-Go N2/P3, and error trials for ERN/Pe were the variables of interest. This study provides evidence that the N2 and P3 in a Go/No-Go task are internally consistent after 20 and 14 trials are included in the average, respectively. Moreover, the ERN and Pe become internally consistent after approximately 8 trials are included in the average. In addition guidelines and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  16. Reconstruction of internal longitudinal conductivity of non-ideal plasmas by exact relations and sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, I M; Ballester, D

    2005-01-01

    The classical method of moments is applied to the analysis of the external and internal dynamic conductivities of dense plasmas. The Nevanlinna formula with only one nonzero f-sum rule taken into account reproduces the Drude-Lorentz model expression for the internal conductivity. The inclusion of the second non-zero sum rule produces a new model which includes the non-monotonicity of the conductivity beyond the domain of applicability of the Drude-Lorentz model. An extensive mathematical analysis of recent simulation data and reflectivity measurements of shock-compressed dense xenon plasmas is carried out

  17. Social participation and its relation to internalizing symptoms among youth with autism spectrum disorder as they transition from high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounds Taylor, Julie; Adams, Ryan E; Bishop, Somer L

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, we examined how unstructured (e.g., spending time with friends or co-workers) and structured (e.g., attending social events at a place of workshop, sports teams) social participation changed from before to after high school for youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as the longitudinal and concurrent relations between social participation and internalizing symptoms. Participants included 36 families of youth with ASD who were all in their last year of high school at the first time point of data collection, and who were out of high school for an average of 9 months at the second time point. Social participation and internalizing symptoms were determined using parental report. There was no average change in the amount of unstructured social participation after high school exit, although substantial individual variability was observed. Participation in structured social activities significantly declined after high school exit. Youth who had more structured social participation while in high school were significantly more likely to have gains in their unstructured social participation after high school exit. Turning to relationships between internalizing and social activities, more internalizing symptoms while youth with ASD were in high school significantly predicted increasing social isolation after high school exit (both in terms of structured and unstructured activities). Results point to the likely need for additional supports during the transition to adulthood for youth with ASD who have internalizing problems. Autism Res 2016. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 663-672. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Campylobacter and related bacteria. Minutes of the Meeting, August 27 2011, Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The minutes from the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Campylobacter and Related Bacteria was submitted to the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. The subcommittee meets every two years at the Campylobacter, Helicobac...

  19. International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Campylobacter and Related Bacteria. Minutes of the Meetings, September 15th and 18th 2013, Aberdeen, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The minutes from the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Campylobacter and Related Bacteria was submitted to the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. The subcommittee meets every two years at the Campylobacter, Helicobac...

  20. Perceived value congruence and attitudes toward international relations and foreign policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetherell, Geoffrey; Benson, Or'Shaundra; Reyna, Christine; Brandt, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Much of the justification for granting foreign aid is to support nations and international policies promoting one's national values. However, little to no research has examined how perceptions of similarity between nations, especially value similarity, drive feelings toward other nations and policy

  1. Defect-related internal dissipation in mechanical resonators and the study of coupled mechanical systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Czaplewski, David A.; Sullivan, John Patrick; Modine, Normand Arthur; Wendt, Joel Robert; Aslam, Dean (Michigan State University, Lansing, MI); Sepulveda-Alancastro, Nelson (University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR)

    2007-01-01

    Understanding internal dissipation in resonant mechanical systems at the micro- and nanoscale is of great technological and fundamental interest. Resonant mechanical systems are central to many sensor technologies, and microscale resonators form the basis of a variety of scanning probe microscopies. Furthermore, coupled resonant mechanical systems are of great utility for the study of complex dynamics in systems ranging from biology to electronics to photonics. In this work, we report the detailed experimental study of internal dissipation in micro- and nanomechanical oscillators fabricated from amorphous and crystalline diamond materials, atomistic modeling of dissipation in amorphous, defect-free, and defect-containing crystalline silicon, and experimental work on the properties of one-dimensional and two-dimensional coupled mechanical oscillator arrays. We have identified that internal dissipation in most micro- and nanoscale oscillators is limited by defect relaxation processes, with large differences in the nature of the defects as the local order of the material ranges from amorphous to crystalline. Atomistic simulations also showed a dominant role of defect relaxation processes in controlling internal dissipation. Our studies of one-dimensional and two-dimensional coupled oscillator arrays revealed that it is possible to create mechanical systems that should be ideal for the study of non-linear dynamics and localization.

  2. Internalization of the Sociocultural Ideal: Weight-Related Attitudes and Dieting Behaviors among Young Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Nancy E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed adolescent girls regarding body dissatisfaction, dieting, and internalization of sociocultural values, media-influenced knowledge, acceptance of varied body shapes, and media exposure. Girls understood media influence on self-image and behavior and accepted varied body shapes. Significant numbers reported dissatisfaction with weight and…

  3. USSR Report, World Economy and International Relations, No. 1, January 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-22

    security. Another singularity is that in the 1980’s there has been a complication in the very conditions of socialist social reproduction . The...policy. These include the current level of internationalization of social reproduction . As the international socialist division of labor expands and

  4. United States Relations with the Developing Nations: The New International Economic Countdown. A Wingspread Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson Foundation, Inc., Racine, WI.

    The full texts of two speeches given at a Wingspread symposium in February 1976 deal with the exigency for a new international economic order which takes into account the needs of the developing nations, the reasons for conflicts between the developing and developed worlds, and the need for action now. Neville Kanakaratne, ambassador to the United…

  5. Relation between Assertiveness, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Psychosocial Adjustment among International Graduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyrazli, Senel; Arbona, Consuelo; Nora, Amaury; McPherson, Robert; Pisecco, Stewart

    2002-01-01

    Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, The Inventory for Student Adjustment Strain, and UCLA Loneliness Scale were used to examine a total of 122 graduate international students. Findings indicate that English proficiency, assertiveness, and academic self-efficacy contributed uniquely to the variance in students' general…

  6. Calling Orientations of Junior Doctors and Medical Interns in India: Cultural, Occupational and Relational Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Vandana

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the factors that shape calling orientations within the Indian context. Based on the narratives of 72 junior doctors and medical interns, it is found that participants identify with harbouring a calling both prior and subsequent to occupational entry. Although factors such as self-recognition of talent and sensemaking of work as…

  7. Public perception related to a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine transit bus demonstration and hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickson, Allister; Phillips, Al; Morales, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen has been widely considered as a potentially viable alternative to fossil fuels for use in transportation. In addition to price competitiveness with fossil fuels, a key to its adoption will be public perceptions of hydrogen technologies and hydrogen fuel. This paper examines public perceptions of riders of a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine bus and hydrogen as a fuel source

  8. A class of constitutive relations with internal variable derivatives. Derivation from homogenization and initial value problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, S.; Joussemet, M.; Lorentz, E.

    1996-01-01

    A general framework for deriving and using a class of constitutive laws incorporating spatial gradients of internal variables is presented. It uses two basic ingredients: a derivation of such models by homogenization techniques and a reformulation of the evolution equation at the scale of the whole structure. (orig.)

  9. Internal stress and defect-related free volume in submicrocrystalline Ni studied by neutron diffraction and difference dilatometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzurek, J A; Hofmann, M; Simic, S; Pölt, P; Hohenwarter, A; Pippan, R; Sprengel, W; Würschum, R

    2017-01-01

    A combined study of neutron diffraction and difference dilatometry on submicrocrystalline Ni prepared by high pressure torsion aims at studying the anisotropic behaviour during dilatometry and its relation to internal stress and structural anisotropy. Macroscopic stresses were undetectable in the dilatometer samples. Along with specific tests such as post cold-rolling, this shows that an observed anisotropic length change upon annealing is not caused by internal stress, but can be explained by the inherent microstructure, i.e. the anisotropic annealing of relaxed vacancies at grain boundaries of shape-anisotropic crystallites.

  10. The concept of “Comprehensive security” as a draft for reconstructing security in a system of international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Dritëro Arifi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To explain how applicable the concept of "comprehensive secu-rity" is in Kosovo, at first, I will try to analyze the term of security, and development of international relations in relation to the phe-nomenon of "Security". Initially the term “security” is to be elabo-rated, in theoretical terms, the impact "national security" had du-ring the Cold War, and the development of the international rela-tions system, especially after "the fall of the Berlin Wall,” and the fall of communism. In the broadest sense, the post- modern securi-ty is characterized by many threats, such as terrorism, failing sta-tes, climate change etc. The elements of comprehensive security will be part of the analysis of developments in Kosovo after the war and briefly transformation of the security sector after inde-pendence.

  11. Production of a liberal petroleum order. A normative american policy in the international relations between 1980 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, Noel

    2002-12-01

    From the analysis of the juridical and political possibilities conditions of a trans-national market of the exploitation permits, the author shows the great degradation of the institutional environment of petroleum contracts from 1960 to 1970. Then he studies the american strategy of the market reconstruction initiated by the Reagan administration: standards, modalities of diffusion, the transposition in the juridical system. The second part is devoted to the elaboration of a model aiming to detail the market construction and extension policy in a key domain of the international relations. The tradition of the liberal economic policy allows to understand the market promotion in the internal and the international order. (A.L.B.)

  12. The History of Romania’s Relations with the International Monetary Fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Stefan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The International Monetary Fund aims primarily at ensuring the stability of theinternational monetary system more specifically the international payment system which allowscountries and their citizens to buy, sell goods and services between them. This is essential forsustainable economic growth, improvement of life standards and reducing poverty all around theworld. The goals of Romania’s agreements with IMF subscribe these parameters, mostly the currentone, this being emphasized by the economic recession and the necessity of reducing fiscal imbalancein order to attain a deficit with normal values acceptable in the EU. These include: maintaining theinflation at the range aimed by RNB, ensuring a sufficient external financing and improvingcredibility, the attempt to amortize the effects of severe capital absorption and resolution forRomania’s external and fiscal imbalances and consolidation of the financial area.

  13. Nature does not exist: conservationisms and international relations in Doñana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Camprubí

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts by discarding the methodological approach to the history of Natural Parks that sees them as steps towards the “conservation of Nature” - with a capital N. Rather, it situates the history of Doñana within its political, personal and scientific contexts. These contexts bring us to an international scale marked by the decolonization of the British Empire and the transformation of ornithology and ecology as disciplines. Bird migratory routes contributed to the Park’s international dimension, in which context the agreement between the World Wildlife Fund (WWF and the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC took place. Creation of the Park opened the door to new conflicts among diverging ways of understanding conservation and different scientific categorizations of Doñana’s territory. The resolution of these conflicts depended on strengths and alliances, which allows us to conclude by refining our methodological starting point.

  14. A Study of Sino-Russian Energy Cooperation from the Perspective of Theories of International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyue Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy cooperation is an important component in the Sino-Russia relationship. After more than a decade of efforts, China and Russia have made great progress in their cooperation in the area of oil and natural gas, which has not only promoted the economic developments in both countries, but also expanded their common interests to a large extent, resulting in a tremendous improvement of the two countries’ international strategies towards each other. Nevertheless, constrained and influenced by the evolution of contemporary international politics and economies, the Sino-Russia energy cooperation is facing some problems and barriers. Therefore, the aim of this article is to analyze the multiple elements affecting the Sino-Russia energy cooperation through the prism of Neo-realism, Neo-liberalism and Social Constructivism, hence a clear account of the opportunities and challenges that constitute this cooperation will be gained.

  15. The Vilnius issue in international relations: the historiography of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankevich Maria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers certain historiographical aspects of the Vilnius issue as an international problem. The author analyses the origins of the Polish-Lithuanian conflict, the role of the struggle for Vilnius in the general context of the Polish-Lithuanian confrontation, and the origin and nature of Lithuanian nationalism. The article also examines historiographical perspectives on the seizure of Vilnius by the troops of the Polish general, L. Żeligowsky, and the international consequences of the violation of the Suwałki Agreement. The author pays special attention to the positions of western powers, the decision of the Conference of Ambassadors on March 15, 1923, and the mediation of the League of Nations in the territorial dispute between Lithuania and Poland. The article considers the existing historiographical concepts and evaluations of the role of the Soviet diplomacy in the Vilnius issue. The author identifies new trends in the contemporary historiography of the Vilnius problem.

  16. Democratising the learning process: the use of Twitter in the teaching of Politics and International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Alasdair

    2013-01-01

    The version attached to this record is the authors final peer reviewed version. The publishers final version of record can be found by following the DOI link. Twitter has become an established feature of the contemporary landscape. It has been used by, among others, politicians, political parties, governments, international organisations, charities, think-tanks and individuals from academics to celebrities. Twitter has also been subject to a great deal of debate and analysis. This includes...

  17. The Problem of the United Nations Reforming in the Context of International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Sepeleva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the reforming of the United Nations and its Security Council, the problems concerning globalization and consequences of the crisis. Particular attention is given to issues of international terrorism, poverty, natural calamities and transnational crime been raised in the Millennium Declaration. Considering the balance of force in the United Nations, the author points out African countries which actively participate in the process of the UN reforming.

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 12, December 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-19

    realism in the approach to international problems of the end of the 20th century. The demilitarization of human society combined with development...efforts as disarmament, development and security? Evaluating the outcome of the conference per the criteria of realism and not maximalism, it is...Yu. Kochevrin, " Neoclassical Theory of Production and Distribution" (10) A. Kudryavtsev, "The World Economy Today and Tomorrow (Meeting of Soviet

  19. Success Breeds Success, Especially When Self-efficacy is Related With a Causality Internal Attribution

    OpenAIRE

    Salanova Soria, Marisa; Martínez Martínez, Isabel M.; Llorens Gumbau, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Taking the Social Cognitive Theory by Albert Bandura as its starting point, this paper tests the hypothesis that academic self-efficacy influences future academic success through the differential impact of internal and external attribution of past success. Structural Equation Modelling performed with data from a longitudinal sample of 527 university students provides strong evidence supporting the research model. These findings show that past academic success has a positive influence on acade...

  20. Texas-Style Fundraising and Public Relations for the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, S.; Barna, J. W.; Johnson, R.; Geiger, S.; Rimm, N.; Watson, K.; Griffin, J.

    2008-11-01

    McDonald Observatory will use the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) celebration to strengthen its fundraising for science education and outreach programs. At the same time, McDonald Observatory will be undergoing a logo and branding campaign in order to better unite the work and relationship of the University of Texas Department of Astronomy, McDonald Observatory, and the Observatory's education and outreach programs.