WorldWideScience

Sample records for international relations economic

  1. Outsourcing in International Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Bilan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Entities from different countries interact through various forms of international cooperation, integration, subcontracting, outsourcing to ensure competitive advantage, reduce costs and increase economic efficiency. The article is an analysis and synthesis of existing approaches to defining the essence of outsourcing research and its application in international. The article deals with the prerequisites of outsourcing as a new form of organization of business processes. There are investigated and classified approaches to defining the essence of outsourcing. The hierarchy of objectives and motives based on organization of outsourcing is built. The practice of outsourcing during implementation of international economic relations is studied. Specifically examined the dynamics of development of the outsourcing market. Studied leader countries which provide outsourcing services and major consumers of these services.

  2. International Security in the World Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Iryna P

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the urgent topic of the evolution of international relations, the issue of establishing international security, and the development of international economic cooperation based on the principles of security. In order to analyze the current status of international security in the world and to identify key factors that hinder the way of establishing a positive global community, researches by the international analytical centers together with the institutes for international security and cooperation have been generalized. To this end, both the status of and changes in the Global Peace Index in the recent years has been disclosed, the position of Ukraine in the world according to this index has been examined. It has been proven that the main international security problems are related to the armed conflicts, civil wars, political violence, terrorism impacting the development of humanity as a whole, the status of international relations, the evolution of the world economy as well as national economies. Further researches should be focused on how the status of peace in the countries impacts their economic status and the status of international cooperation in other areas of economic cooperation, excluding the military. It should be answered particularly, how the above indicated status affects strengthening the Ukraine's position in the world.

  3. Teaching International Economics and Trade--Concepts in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; DeBoer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to introduce students to real-life issues in international economics. The sections of the book are: (1) The Advantages of Trade; (2) Judging NAFTA; (3) Does Globalization Benefit Poor Countries?; (4) Pocket Guide to International Financial Institutions; (5) What Do You Know about the WTO?; (6) Free Trade and Shifting…

  4. International economic relations of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Politics of Uzbekistan on development of international trade-economic cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Mirmuminov M.; Akbarov B.

    2018-01-01

    The article reveals the question of international economic relations of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The policy of Uzbekistan on the development of international trade and economic cooperation. And also, the economic relations of Uzbekistan and Russia. Economic relations with the countries Iran and Azerbaijan.

  5. THE ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTARY OF THE "SOFT POWER" IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Kushelieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available "Soft power" is a complex instrument of international politics. It is an organized set of interactions and relationships predetermined to a large extent by the psychological element. Its core qualities are attraction, persuasion and legitimacy. The "soft power" acts in international relations through a complex instrumentation consisting of actions in the military, political, economic, cultural, sports, ideological, religious spheres, but all its manifestations must be supported by the economic instrument. To this end, many countries have set up special bodies. It is expected that "soft power" will be a major instrument of international politics in the coming epoch.

  6. ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL CARGO TRANSPORTATION BY ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kosovsky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes methodology for estimating efficiency international economic relations in the sphere international cargo transportation by road for the national economy on the basis of relationship between advantages and costs of sub-systems of the unified system for automotive export services.

  7. Economics and International Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramesh

    1983-01-01

    A methodology linking the teaching of economics to the promotion of international understanding is discussed. The content of a course dealing with the new international economic order is examined. (Author/RM)

  8. British Failure? : Britain’s Relative Economic Decline in an International Context 1935-1970

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    Relative economic decline has since long been a research topic in the literature on long-term British economic development. In particular the literature on the post-second world war era suggests that the process of relative economic decline was the result of failure of British industrial policies,

  9. United States Relations with the Developing Nations: The New International Economic Countdown. A Wingspread Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson Foundation, Inc., Racine, WI.

    The full texts of two speeches given at a Wingspread symposium in February 1976 deal with the exigency for a new international economic order which takes into account the needs of the developing nations, the reasons for conflicts between the developing and developed worlds, and the need for action now. Neville Kanakaratne, ambassador to the United…

  10. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Concerning international relations, the different meetings in the field of nuclear safety are reported (Western european nuclear regulator association or Wenra, Nea, IAEA, northern dimension environmental partnership or N.D.E.P., nuclear safety and security group or N.S.S.G., international nuclear regulators association or I.N.R.A.). (N.C.)

  11. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma......: Flat or uneven? Change and transformation in the international system • Block 3: Just or unjust? Intervention and inequality in the international system • Block 4: Top-down or bottom-up? Governance in the international system • Block 5: Secure or insecure? Pursuing security in the international system...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity....

  12. The role of Chamber of Commerce System in international economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ramona Popescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of chambers of commerce and industry, non-governmental organizations, fully committed to stimulating economic initiative and increase business competitiveness. The objective of the paper is to highlight the instruments and means through which the chambers of commerce and industry provide support for the development and promotion of business and their ability to settle trade disputes. In the first part of the article are presented the characteristics and functions of chambers, organizations that support the development of international trade. Although the role of chambers of commerce and industry is essentially the same, they behave national and regional specific features. The second part advance the chamber means for promoting international trade through concrete examples based on analyzing actions of chambers of commerce and industry. The article ends with an assessment of the actual situation of the county chambers of commerce and industry in Romania, obtained after a personal research. The survey is structured around two major themes: chamber system in Romania and the Romanian business environment.

  13. Austrian Thinking on International Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.

    1988-01-01

    After mentioning Mises' few contributions to international monetary economics I first review Hayek's views on international economics. I then try to find out if Haberler's and Machlup's contributions to international economics do show any special Austrian traits. After that, I turn to Schumpeter.

  14. THE IMPORTANCE OF AND ECONOMIC MOTIVATION FOR THE INTERNATIONAL LICENSING OF BRANDED FOOD AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Dennis R.; Sheldon, Ian M.

    1991-01-01

    Casual empiricism suggests that the international licensing of the production and marketing of branded food and related products may become an increasingly important aspect of the globalization of the food industry, particularly in sectors such as soft drinks, brewing and confectionery products. For example, Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola both license the canning and distribution of their final products in overseas markets, Anheuser-Busch and Miller license production of various of their beer brand...

  15. Economic diplomacy and the impact of energy issues on the international relations at the beginning of the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GRIBINCEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential components of state power in all times was and is the access to resources - land, water and energy. However, with technical and scientific progress, the rapid growth of industrial production, the transition from fossil fuels (coal and oil that determines the role and place in developing countries lies with a separate energy resources. The crucial role of hydrocarbons, which became the basis for the development of the modern economy, was mostly manifested during the Second World War, when the outcome of battles depended on largely stable supplies of crude oil and the possibility of producing fuel at scale. Highlighting the political component of energy security and growing interdependence between the economic and political aspects imposed by the necessity to analyze trends in international economic relations under current energy conditions.

  16. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The French nuclear safety authority (A.S.N.) has participated at different meeting in European Union as nuclear decommissioning assistance programme(N.D.A.P.), Regulatory assistance management group (R.A.M.G.) and Instrument for nuclear safety cooperation (I.N.S.C.). The members of Western European nuclear regulator association (W.E.N.R.A.) met and discussed about the future of W.E.N.R.A. and its representativeness and its cooperation with European nuclear safety regulator group (E.N.S.R.E.G.) and head of European radiation control authorities (H.E.R.C.A.). About International relations it is to noticed a meeting at the invitation of IAEA to discuss about the possibility to resort to the Ines scale for medical events. An audit mission under the IAEA aegis stood at Fessenheim, O.S.A.R.T. for operational safety review team. Two years and a half passed by between the audit mission Integrated regulatory review service (I.R.S.S.) welcome by A.S.N. in november 2006 and the audit mission follow up in 2009, 12 experts from 11 different countries and coordinated by three representatives of IAEA worked, the conclusions were that 90% of recommendations made to A.S.N. in 2006 were treated in a satisfying way; the evaluation gives three new recommendations, 7 new suggestions and 11 new correct practices. A meeting of the commission on safety standards (C.S.S.) stood in april 2009. Some others meeting are to be noticed: nuclear safety and security group (N.S.S.G.), expert group on nuclear and radiation safety (E.G.N.R.S.) instituted by the council of the Baltic sea states (C.B.S.S.) treats data exchange on the national networks of dose rates and surveillance of radioactivity in air. International nuclear regulator association (I.N.R.A.) held its first meeting in april 2009 at Seoul (Korea). Bilateral relations with Poland, Italy, Ukraine and Germany planed cooperation or information exchange in the field of nuclear safety. Participation to conference in Usa, meetings with United

  17. Economic Education in an International Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael; Walstad, William B.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors explain the purpose and context for the 2009 International Symposium on Economic Education that was the source for articles on four nations with relatively developed systems for economic education: Australia, England, Japan, and Korea. The authors highlight several key comparisons from the four articles that appear in…

  18. Gender relations and economic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, D

    1993-10-01

    While most discussions of economic issues pay no explicit attention to gender relations, most economic policy is marked by male bias which provides women with an unequal access to resources. This situation exists because most economists, officials, and business managers lack the imagination to see the gender impact of economic issues and most women's groups and researchers lack the language to portray this connection. This article explores some aspects of this gap and aims to provide women with the ability to effectively discuss economic issues. After an introduction, the article considers the basic problem caused by the fact that the economy is defined primarily in terms of money-making activities. This leads to a male bias since much of women's work occurs outside of the monetary sphere. The next section looks at how a failure to understand the significance of gender relations will interfere with the fulfillment of policy objectives. This discussion is followed by a description of how cutbacks in government expenditures increase the burden on women who must replace the services. Problems with the option of the private-sector replacing government services, such as the fact that increasing disposable income in households does not guarantee that unpaid labor will be reduced and the fact that the private sector may fail to expand in a productive way, are covered. The article then touches on the new emphasis placed by some economists and policy makers on cooperative and interactive solutions to these problems and ends by mentioning three new initiatives which seek to build capacity for gender-aware economic analysis: the development of a training program at Manchester University in the UK, coordination of an international research workshop by the University of Utah in the US, and development of an international association for feminist economics based in the US.

  19. 2nd International Congress on Economics and Business – New Economic Trends and Business Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    ARIK, Nazlı

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In this study, the evaluation of The 2nd International Congress On Economics And Business: New Economic Trends and Business Opportunities held on May 30- June 3, 2016 in Sarajevo will be mentioned.Keywords. Economics, Economic Trends, Business Opportunities,  Labour Relations, Financial economics.JEL. M10, M20, O10.

  20. Prospects of international collaboration and knowledge transfer on project management and public relations in nuclear power engineering (economic aspect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pysmenna, U.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper author deals with public consultations of the State Scientific Engineering Center of Control Systems and Emergency Response, Kiev. The following conclusions should be made: - Public consultations support and strengthen the positive image of nuclear energy projects, also by youth. - The public relations work which includes only occasional meetings or discussions of some problems is not effective. - Effective are the following facilities: - press releases in popular scientific and technical issues (now there are a few of such issues because of lack of financing) - career-guidance at all phases of education (to begin with secondary schools to post-graduate courses). It is well known that the economic situation in a country influences the functioning of electric energy market and efficiency of energy companies. The aim of our research is to find out the ways of further development of energy branch and what economic consequences the different changes in legislation and taxation systems can bring about. Great attention is paid to the activities of the producers of nuclear energy and regional energy supplying companies and the state of payments in electric energy market. Current research is being carried out to find out the ways of enlarging current assets, decreasing debts, also optimal equipment depreciation normative and main dependencies between some economic indexes and existing tariffs. All these tasks can be effectively solved using the. (author)

  1. Gross Domestic Pizza. Active Learning Lessons. Economics International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleskiene, Irena; Venger, Anatoly; MacDonald, Rich; Davis, Debbie

    This lesson plan was developed through "Economics International," an international program to help build economic education infrastructures in the emerging market economies. It provides a lesson description; appropriate age level; economic concepts; content standards and benchmarks; related subject areas; instructional objectives; time…

  2. Growth Effects of International Economic Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Hino, Tomoko

    2011-01-01

    This paper quantitatively evaluates the influence of international risk sharing on econom-ic growth by extending the analysis in Obstfeld (1994). However, whereas Obstfeld employs only data on the growth rate of consumption to calculate the returns on risky and risk-free assets, we include additional data on the total rates of return for risky assets and the deposit rates for risk-free assets. We also assume more realistic values for the degree of relative risk aversion and the elasticity of...

  3. Introduction to international economics. - 2nd ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, H.; Jepma, C.

    2011-01-01

    The second edition of Introduction to International Economics is a non-technical introduction to international economics that builds on the strengths of the first edition. It analyses in a practical way how the internationalization of economic activities influences companies, investors and

  4. Uruguay in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sergeevich Andreev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the foreign policy of the leftist government of Uruguay at the beginning of the XXI century. Latin America is an important actor in the process of creating a multipolar world, and Uruguay becomes one of the political and economic centers of the continent. One of the important political processes in South America is a regional integration which has many forms. This article shows the main areas of Uruguay diplomacy in various integration formations of the region. Based on the analysis of the program of the third government of “Broad Front” article shows the goals and objectives of the country in the processes of regional integration, the problems and prospects of these processes. The author notes that the Government of Uruguay is looking for creating common political and economic institutions for the united Latin American continent. In the new political and economic conditions Uruguay becomes important partner for the BRICS countries as well as for the EU and the United States. The article shows the prospects for Uruguay in the BRICS in the context of changing the place of developing countries in the architecture of the global world, as well as in the context of the participation of ex-President Jose Mujica in the BRICS summit 2014. Currently, Uruguay is standing in front of a political choice, because the country has people who want the development of relations with the United States as economic partner and political center of the region. Also in Uruguay are supporters of the development of relations with the EU. The paper shows the tasks and objectives of Uruguay's foreign policy towards the US and the EU, as well as a place of Uruguay in the foreign policy of major actors of international relations. The article says the prospects for the foreign policy of Uruguay in the context of the presidential and parliamentary elections in 2014, a new government and the conservation status of Uruguay as a country of “left turn

  5. The Globalization of Economics and How It's Changing Domestic Politics, International Relations, and Our Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Teaching economics at the preK-12 level has always been one of the most difficult aspects of social studies education notes C. Frederick Risinger, yet, throughout his teaching career economic issues and events were the drivers of most historical, political, and sociological trends and topics and even human slavery was driven and maintained by…

  6. International Data & Economic Analysis (IDEA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — International Data UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Food Price Index; IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics; Millennium Challenge Corporation; and World Bank,...

  7. School of International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Michail M. Narinskii

    2014-01-01

    International Relations have been and remain not only one of the basic academic disciplines, but also one of the main directions of research work at MGIMO. Doing IR is closely intertwined with theory and practice, history and current events, the desire to combine a deep knowledge of the factual material and research-based evaluation in accordance with objective laws found in international life. Training of highly qualified specialists in international relations is impossible without a fundame...

  8. International Aspects of Nigeria's Economic Reforms | Iyoha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to draw a relationship between Nigeria's previous failed economic reforms and external influences from international financial institutions, which had constantly resulted in chronic economic misfortunes. Now that homegrown economic programmes are currently being undertaken in Africa through ...

  9. Principles of International Economic Law, and the Right to Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International economic law as a branch of law is interested in the development of states through trade, investment and economic legal policies. In the quest for development, many states have caused damage to the ecosystem which now constitutes a threat to humanity. At the wake of this peril, there was need to make a ...

  10. 8 October 2012 - Taipei Cultural and Economic Delegation, Geneva Office Ambassador A. Tah-Ray Yui visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with International Relations Office Adviser R. Voss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    8 October 2012 - Taipei Cultural and Economic Delegation, Geneva Office Ambassador A. Tah-Ray Yui visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with International Relations Office Adviser R. Voss.

  11. Immigration: an international economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, R

    1984-01-01

    The creation of an effective US immigration policy has been complicated by the diversity of political interests and the absence of reliable statistics to determine the magnitude of the impact on the American economy. Estimates of the number of illegal aliens in the US range from 1 to 12 million. While political biases and complexities and data inadequacies complicate this analysis, some generalizations seem to be confirmed by worldwide experience. There are 2 mutually-supportive, short-run ways to reduce the flow of undocumented workers: 1) to better police US borders and shorelines and 2) to remove the motive for entry by making it illegal for employers to hire workers who are not authorized to work in the US. To give employers an easy defense and to facilitate their compliance with immigration laws, an effective worker identification system should be developed. To avoid the civil liberties, international relations, and human problems associated with mass deportations, illegal immigrants who entered the US before January 1, 1981 and who have been in continuous residence for at least 1 year, should be permitted to remain in the US as permanent resident aliens. The US should not adopt a new guest worker program. The proper sequence of changes in immigration policy is very important. Dealing with illegal immigration is essential; all these measures should be in place before an amnesty is granted. Because it is important to have friendly relations with neighboring countries and because the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is to reduce the wide disparities in employment opportunities between countries, the US should work with other countries to control illegal immigration, but should not link control to energy, trade, or other policies. It is particularly important to discuss immigration control plans with other countries, especially Mexico, and to do everything consistent with US interests to minimize the adverse impact of our immigration policies on our

  12. Economic causes and consequences of international terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bunchuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, representatives of the scientific, political, military circles and the civil society of the most countries of the world are taking part in the antiterrorist activity. The formation and implementation of the state policy of terrorism prevention in Ukraine provide for realization of the measures package of the legislative and executive power, the society and individual citizens of Ukraine. The article: • identifies problems of terrorism combating policy in the context of research on the causes and economic impact of terrorist activities; • reveals that appearance of evaluation categories in the field of terrorism resulted in a formation of a specific world market - a terrorism market; • considers problems related to the effectiveness of budgetary and extra-budgetary expenditure linked to threats of international terrorism in the countries of the integrated world; • highlights the economic losses incurred by Ukraine because of the terrorist activity in the Donetsk and Lugansk regions in 2014; • defines theoretical aspects of anti-terrorist Ukrainian policy analysis in the context of international, especially European and Euro-Atlantic, anti-terrorism cooperation; The conducted analysis shows that one of the priority tasks of the state regarding to improving the efficiency of antiterrorist activity should be the construction of the system of prevention of terrorism as a complex, multidimensional phenomenon, including by means of creating a system of regulatory actions of authorized authorities and other institutions of civil society in this area.

  13. Bourdieu in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The last few years have seen a genuine wave of publications promoting sociology in international relations. Scholars have suggested that Bourdieu’s vocabulary can be applied to study security, diplomacy, migration and global environmental politics. Yet we still lack a systematic and accessible....... The chapters demonstrate how these concepts can be reinterpreted and used in new ways when exposed to Bourdieusian logic. Challenging key pillars of IR scholarship, Bourdieu in International Relations will be of interest to critical theorists, and scholars of IR theory....

  14. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

  15. The economics of international coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    In the scope of four related essays this thesis analyses the Chinese domestic coal sector and coal trade policies and their respective impact on international steam coal trade economics. In particular, the thesis investigates the role of domestic transport infrastructure investment policies as well as Chinese coal export and import controls and the potential exertion of market power through such trade instruments. For this purpose, several spatial equilibrium models have been developed that enable simulation runs to compare different policy scenarios. These models also permit ex-post analyses to empirically test hypotheses of non-competitive market conduct of individual players under the assumption of Cournot behaviour. These model-based analyses yield, among others, the following findings: If coal is converted into electricity early in the Chinese energy supply chain, worldwide marginal costs of supply are substantially lower than if coal is transported via railway. This can reduce China's dependence on international imports significantly. Allocation of welfare changes, particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease. If not only seaborne trade but also interactions and feedbacks between domestic coal markets and international trade markets are accounted for, trade volumes and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fit the real market outcome best in 2008. Real Chinese export quotas have been consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Uncertainties with regard to future Chinese coal demand and coal sector policies generate significant costs for international investors and lead to a spatial and temporal reallocation of mining and infrastructure investments. The potential exertion of Chinese demand side market power would further reduce the overall investment activity of exporters.

  16. The economics of international coal markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-07-13

    In the scope of four related essays this thesis analyses the Chinese domestic coal sector and coal trade policies and their respective impact on international steam coal trade economics. In particular, the thesis investigates the role of domestic transport infrastructure investment policies as well as Chinese coal export and import controls and the potential exertion of market power through such trade instruments. For this purpose, several spatial equilibrium models have been developed that enable simulation runs to compare different policy scenarios. These models also permit ex-post analyses to empirically test hypotheses of non-competitive market conduct of individual players under the assumption of Cournot behaviour. These model-based analyses yield, among others, the following findings: If coal is converted into electricity early in the Chinese energy supply chain, worldwide marginal costs of supply are substantially lower than if coal is transported via railway. This can reduce China's dependence on international imports significantly. Allocation of welfare changes, particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease. If not only seaborne trade but also interactions and feedbacks between domestic coal markets and international trade markets are accounted for, trade volumes and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fit the real market outcome best in 2008. Real Chinese export quotas have been consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Uncertainties with regard to future Chinese coal demand and coal sector policies generate significant costs for international investors and lead to a spatial and temporal reallocation of mining and infrastructure investments. The potential exertion of Chinese demand side market power would further reduce the overall investment activity of exporters.

  17. Principles of International Economic Law, and the Right to Economic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    with the responsibility of respecting and preserving the ecosystem. Closely tied to this notion is a charge prohibiting states not to involve themselves in a development strategy that will satisfy the needs for today and jeopardize the expectations of the future generation. In other words, international economic law recognizes ...

  18. Analysing international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    theories to ‘explain’ international relations and distinguishes between different kinds of explanation. In Section 4 I look at how different theories have been grouped – first according to their underlying views of what is valid knowledge, and second in terms of different accounts of how history works....... matters by depicting reality in new ways. I then show how different theories rely on different ‘pictures’ of what makes up the international system. Section 2 shows how theories differ in terms of their scope, their aims and their purposes. Section 3 explores some of the choices to be made when using...

  19. Theorising International Monetary Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2015-01-01

    on Cohen's treatment of electronic money and its significance for the Politics of International Monetary Relations. The first question posed is about ontology, the second about agency and the third about the scope of politics. The three questions are raised as a conversation in which arguments...... and counterarguments are advanced. The questions are therefore posed with Cohen's contributions to theorizing the political significance of materiality as their point of departure. They are formulated as a consequence of bringing these contributions in relation to insights from the Social Studies of Finance. From...... this perspective it would seem that a more far reaching engagement with materiality (in terms of ontology, agency and epistemology) is necessary to capture its political significance for international monetary politics and currency hierarchies. The article does not conclude in conventional fashion but purposefully...

  20. Economics and technology in international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This volume presents the main address, the lectures and the discussions of the symposium. The papers presented to the symposium were the following: the Draft Convention on the Law of the Sea and problems of the international deep seabed regime; developments in science and technology, as a challenge to international law; modern fishery engineering and its impact on international law; the EEC agricultural market - a case study of European Law; problems of international law in connection with a new system of the world economy; the GATT and a new world economic system; the Third World and UNCTAD; international disaster relief and mutual assistance in case of accidents, especially with a view to Atomic Energy Law; organisation, scope and limits of international co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  1. Scope and Limits of International Economic Cooperation and Policy Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Jocelyn Horne; Paul R. Masson

    1988-01-01

    Several important issues relating to international economic cooperation and policy coordination are considered for the scope and limits to both within the present international monetary system. Sources of the perceived need for cooperation and coordination are identified, and the experience of countries with policy coordination within the current international system are described. The benefits and costs to policy coordination are then discussed, followed by consideration of ways to increase ...

  2. Economics | Page 18 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Agents of Change presents the results of an international conference held in Africa. It provides practical solutions and suggestions for real change. It discusses national strategies for small enterprises, examines legal, regulatory, and tax reform, and makes proposals on how to ...

  3. RELATIVE COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE IN TRADE DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalendu GUHA BIKA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In the era and process of free trade globalisation the classical and neo-classical theories of comparative and competitive advantages have become short-termed because of new actors and devices in the modern techno-economic advancement. Hence, a new approach seems necessary, respectively the one of relative advantages that are related to economies of scale and marketability, as today, the macroeconomic concept is the concept of Multinational or Transnational, and no longer a national one. At the same time, the micro-concept may be used as concept of an entire international economic sector or branch. Due to these new developments the relative advantages approach focuses more on cost-reduction functions of commodities and services and it plays an important role in both theoretical and practical investigation. The examples presented in the paper are built on three competing Asian countries: China, South Korea and post-emerged Japan.

  4. 77 FR 57180 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8022] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 2 p... and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting will examine U.S.-Egypt relations...

  5. Editorial: Contemporary Issues in International Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr STANEK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available International dimension is at the core of modern business activity and globalization processes tighten interconnectedness also at the macroeconomic level to unprecedented levels. This is clearly demonstrated by the first two issues of our review and expressed in editorial introductions (Wach, 2013; Klich, 2013. Thus, the third issue is explicitly devoted to contemporary issues in international economics. Obviously, tackling them in the way as complete as for example in Global Shift: Mapping the Changing Contours of the World Economy (Dicken, 2011 is impossible, taken into consideration limits of a journal issue.

  6. Strategy of International Economic Cooperation: methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Silvestru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the authors describe the essence of cooperation and those strategic problems that can be solved internationally only through cooperation efforts. In this context, the authors propose to understand cooperation as the actions of a few companies, corporations from one country or several countries that through their activities contribute to the achievement of goals of economic, ecological and social importance for a region, a country, many countries or for all humanity. Cooperation in such cases, contribute to realization of synergistic results and development of preconditions for each participant to carry out its activities according to its own optimization criteria. Cooperation generates productive systems based on principles and technologies, it can be multispectral, creates preconditions for demand increasing, solves some marketing problems, creates a comfortable space for the activities of all economic subjects.

  7. STRATEGY OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona DANILIUC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the authors describe the essence of cooperation and those strategic problems that can be solved internationally only through cooperation efforts. In this context, the authors propose to understand cooperation as the actions of a few companies, corporations from one country or several countries that through their activities contribute to the achievement of goals of economic, ecological and social importance for a region, a country, many countries or for all humanity. Cooperation in such cases, contribute to realization of synergistic results and development of preconditions for each participant to carry out its activities according to its own optimization criteria. Cooperation generates productive systems based on principles and technologies, it can be multispectral, creates preconditions for demand increasing, solves some marketing problems, creates a comfortable space for the activities of all economic subjects.

  8. The security in international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Iurie RICHICINSCHI

    2016-01-01

    Regardless the fact that concerns about the nature of relations between states, the causes of war, the peacekeeping issues, the international cooperation and recognition of international actors have preceded with millennia the emergence of the academic field of International Relations as a discipline, this one has been embedded along several centuries in much broader areas of research, whose influence is still manifested today.

  9. Institutional factor in international economic activity of region and its socio-economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Leonidovna Andreeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the impact of the institutional factor on the development of regional international economic relations. The scope of the study is regional international economic activity (IEA, the subject-matter is the role of the institutional factor in its development. The study purpose is to develop a scientific approach for the assessment of the institutional factor impact on the development of region’s international economic relations. The hypothesis is that the targeted efforts of all participants of IEA of the region (business, authorities, local community to strengthen of theese components of the institutional factor, which have a strong influence on the regional socio-economic development. A methodological approach for the assessment of this influenceis developed. It includes determining three elements of IEA institutionalization—agreements, organizations, events. A three-dimensional model is proposed for the coordination of these elements with 3 groups of countries—developed, developing and CIS, including the Eurasian Economic Union, and also with basic indexes characterizing the qualitative and quantitative contribution of region’s IEA into its socio-economic development. This model is tested on the example of the Sverdlovsk region of Russia for 2003–2015. That has allowed to define various kinds of the effects from strenthening the IEA institutional component, which are expressed in the increase of the export of the region, improvement of its investment attractiveness, the diversification of regional economy as well as the the generation of additional jobs and tax flows increase.

  10. A Lesson about the Circular Flow. Active Learning Lessons. Economics International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfried, Janet

    This lesson plan was developed through "Economics International," an international program to help build economic education infrastructures in the emerging market economies. It provides a lesson description; appropriate grade level; economic concepts; content standards and benchmarks; related subjects; instructional objectives; time…

  11. Afro-Arab Economic Relations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    the literature . It outlines a theoretical frame- work within which the Afro- Arab economic relationship can be understood and analyzes the scope and...7 AD-AO89 013 STATE UNIV OF NEW YORK AT ALBANY COMPARATIVE DEVELOPM-ETC F/ 5/4 AFRO- ARAB ECONOMIC RELATIONSV U UCL a I BAAKLINI 00S-1722- 02148... ARAB ECONOMIC RELTION~/7 5~f By AI./ aak~g Director_ <󈧜=ftVt.V VVV~TT lopment Studies Center / Graduate School of Public Affairs State University of

  12. The security in international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurie RICHICINSCHI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regardless the fact that concerns about the nature of relations between states, the causes of war, the peacekeeping issues, the international cooperation and recognition of international actors have preceded with millennia the emergence of the academic field of International Relations as a discipline, this one has been embedded along several centuries in much broader areas of research, whose influence is still manifested today.

  13. Mechanism of economic regulation of land relations

    OpenAIRE

    Mykhaylo Stupen'; Svitlana Rogach; Ivan Riy

    2015-01-01

    In the article the mechanism of economic regulation of land relations is revealed. The main functions of the economic evaluation of land resources are: registration of land resources and environment; choices of resources and conditions usage. The author proves that the proper economic regulation needs governmental support which is to preserve the land as a natural resource.

  14. Socio-Economic Determinants of International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav PRYTULA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since economic factors cannot fully explain the determinants of bilateral migration, this study explores the social and cultural determinants that influence an individual’s decision to migrate. Values, norms and interests in a given culture, may determine whether an individual’s intention to move translates into actual migration. Work values inherent in different cultures could explain why people move or do not move under the condition of perceived economic advantages of migration. A gravity type migration model is used to incorporate variables related both to economic indicators and work values. It is perhaps the first migration study to use the World Value Survey (WVS and the European Value Survey (EVS. We use 2000 stock bilateral migration dataset collected by the World Bank. Our findings indicate that if more aspects of work are valued in a country, this country sends more migrants. Also we show that countries with higher extrinsic work value orientation tend to send more migrants, while countries with higher intrinsic work value orientation tend to send fewer migrants. Our finding shows that the value of work and the level of job security in a country may significantly change migration decision.

  15. The Role of Communication in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Frosin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the impact of (global communication on international relations in various fields: military, diplomatic, economic, scientific, educational, and cultural, and to draw out the implications of the communication in each field. The main idea is that in the absence of the communication, nothing is possible, either the peace or the welfare of the humankind. Global communication it is blurring technological, economic, political, and cultural boundaries and, particularly in its interactive forms, has created immense new moral spaces for exploring new communities of affinity rather than vicinity. First, dialogue and communication are the essence of the foreign relations.

  16. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  17. Influence of international economic integration on socio-economic development of region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Leonidovna Andreyeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis about new type’s integration processes in the world economy is made, the essence and distinctive peculiarities of these processes are determined. By the proposed groups of parameters, the comparative analysis of international economic integration (IEI within traditional integration processes (EU, NAFTA and those of new type (SCO, BRIC(S is carried out. The technique of estimation of influence of international economic integration on development of a country’s region is worked out, and the estimation of influence of international economic integration on socio-economic development of Sverdlovsk region is carried out. The movement of goods, services and factors of production (capital, work force between the region and the integration associations of traditional type and the groups of countries arisen in terms of forming integration processes of new type is analyzed. It is shown that the one of the tendencies in development of international economic integration of Sverdlovsk region during the last 12 years has been the increasing role and importance of new integration groups of countries. It is revealed that the purposeful account of this tendency can provide quantitative and qualitative shifts in external trade, foreign investments and labor migration of the region, related on the change of direction of flows: from the receivers of high-technological goods, capital, specialists from developed countries — to the supplier of manufactured goods, investments and high-qualified work force into countries of SCO and BIRC(S, what is one of the factors of providing economic safety of the region.

  18. Economics | Page 7 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In February 2015, the Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) in Ghana hosted a succession of briefings on gains made in promoting transparency and accountability, factors affecting economic growth, and the public's perception of socio-economic and governance conditions in Ghana. IEA is one of the think tanks supported by ...

  19. International Relations Research Methodology: Realism

    OpenAIRE

    Andrey Vladimirovich Shabaga

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the origins and conceptual analysis capabilities of international relations in the framework of a realistic paradigm. We research political conditions and preconditions of the creation of realism’s theory and axiological features of realism’s practice in international relations. We also analyze the basic concepts and schools of realism: Realpolitik, political realism, neorealism, neoclassical realism. It is shown that based on the balance of power in the Realpolitik Pruss...

  20. Nigeria-China Economic Relations Under the South-South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the bilateral relations have progressed from cultural linkages to intense economic penetration of the Nigerian economy, observers of Nigeria's international relations have become highly conscious of the reciprocal need to transform this intensive relationship into a mutually constructive one, that is towards the promotion ...

  1. Teaching International Public Relations: An Update Report among Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Angela Ka Ying

    2017-01-01

    Involvement in international and multicultural career-related practices is ever on the rise in a global economic and political society, especially in public relations. This article reported an update of examining the attributes of public relations educators and their institutions in teaching of international public relations (IPR) through an…

  2. Principles of International Economic Law, and the Right to Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Understanding the Role of Economics in International Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    Economic understanding is a necessary component of high quality coursework devoted to international issues and U.S. and world history and geography. A secondary program should cover specialization and exchange, barriers to trade, balance of payment and exchange rates, international aspects of growth and stability, and economic systems. (MLH)

  4. A Country Report Project for an International Economics Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Adil E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that international economics textbooks pay too little attention to the complexity of issues and problems facing individual nations. Describes a country report project included as part of a college-level international or development economics course. Provides two student instruction sheets and a sample country report. (CFR)

  5. Economic growth and gender equality | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Does economic growth impact gender equality? And conversely, does gender equality impact economic growth? GrOW-supported projects seek to provide a deeper understanding of these relationships. The University of Göttingen leads a GrOW research consortium to understand the impact of structural change and growth ...

  6. Economics | Page 4 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Read more about Improving childcare options to create better economic opportunities for women in Nairobi slums. Language English. Read more about Expanding the Canadian Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Scholarship Program to Advanced Scholars. Language English.

  7. State of the Art of International Public Relations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Gay; And Others

    To examine aspects of the political/economic/social/cultural environments (PESCE) affecting international public relations and their significance to the future of public relations practitioners, this paper reviews the 1980s literature regarding the current and projected trends in international public relations practice and their implications for…

  8. International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) is a freely available economic model that estimates gross economic impacts from wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal energy projects. Building on a similar model for the United States, I-JEDI was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory under the U.S. government's Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to support partner countries in assessing economic impacts of LEDS actions in the energy sector.

  9. Economic development's effect on road transport-related mortality among different types of road users: a cross-sectional international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulozzi, Leonard J; Ryan, George W; Espitia-Hardeman, Victoria E; Xi, Yongli

    2007-05-01

    The relationship between a country's stage of economic development and its motor vehicle crash (MVC) mortality rate is not defined for different road users. This paper presents a cross-sectional regression analysis of recent national mortality in 44 countries using death certificate data provided by the World Health Organization. For five types of road users, MVC mortality is expressed as deaths per 100,000 people and per 1000 motor vehicles. Economic development is measured as gross national income (GNI) per capita in U.S. dollars and as motor vehicles per 1000 people. Results showed overall MVC mortality peaked among low-income countries at about US$ 2000 GNI per capita and at about 100 motor vehicles per 1000 people. Overall mortality declined at higher national incomes up to about US$ 24,000. Most changes in MVC mortality associated with economic development were explained by changes in rates among nonmotorized travelers, especially pedestrians. Overall MVC rates were lowest when pedestrian exposure was low because there were few motor vehicles or few pedestrians, and were highest during a critical transition to motorized travel, when many pedestrians and other vulnerable road users vied for use of the roadways with many motor vehicles.

  10. The Impact of Political Relations Between Countries on Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assess the implications of changes in bilateral diplomatic relations with the United States for economic relations. We identify countries whose relations with the US changed during two historic and significant milestones in the past three decades, and a third group of countries after their leftist governments failed/collapsed in early 1990s. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, we measure the significance of changes in economic relations. We chose the following set of economic indices to reflect economic relations: imports and exports to and from the US, capital outflows from the US to the country, economic and military assistance provided by the US, flow of students to the US, US arms export to the country, the country’s military expenditures, and believing in the importance of remittances and FDI and portfolio investment we use total figures as we did not have bilateral figures. Our results, though mixed, offer some interesting insights.

  11. Blog Consumption and International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    International relations professors have sought to incorporate current events into their curriculum through various mechanisms. A traditional way to incorporate the news into the classroom is to have students either subscribe and read a particular newspaper or watch the nightly news and hold them responsible for that information. However, with the…

  12. Quantitative relations between corruption and economic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jia; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2007-03-01

    We report quantitative relations between corruption level and economic factors, such as country wealth and foreign investment per capita, which are characterized by a power law spanning multiple scales of wealth and investment per capita. These relations hold for diverse countries, and also remain stable over different time periods. We also observe a negative correlation between level of corruption and long-term economic growth. We find similar results for two independent indices of corruption, suggesting that the relation between corruption and wealth does not depend on the specific measure of corruption. The functional relations we report have implications when assessing the relative level of corruption for two countries with comparable wealth, and for quantifying the impact of corruption on economic growth and foreign investment.

  13. Do international economic developments affect the South African economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Swanepoel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has opened economies more, exposing them to more international shocks and increasing the challenges to which domestic economic policies must respond. This paper provides a starting point for the analysis of the impact of international economic developments on the South African economy by means of graphical illustrations, correlations coefficients and in some cases a VAR analysis. Although this paper has shed some light on the importance of international economic developments on the South African economy, more rigorous econometric investigation is needed to validate the arguments and to address many of the unresolved questions.

  14. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Indra Juarsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multinational Corporation/MNC has a significant role to play in promoting sustainable development and alleviating global poverty. As a subject of International Economic Law, MNC has the rights to take profit from its business activities. In addition, it also has responsibility to protect sustainable environment through CSR program. This paper focuses on what more specific instrument sets CSR in international economic law, and how CSR can be implemented by the MNC. International (public law has been providing instruments to regulate MNC activities related to CSR, those are: OECD Guidelines, ILO Declaration and UN Global Compact. However, they are only “soft laws” that still require more specific instrument to be implemented. As a continuation of the general rules of public international CSR Instruments, the World Bank Group through the IFC and MIGA sets standard performances that must be met by every corporation that will get finance (IFC or guarantee (MIGA. Standard Performances are described further in the environmental, health and safety guidelines that are essential for every company to provide protection to stakeholders related to business activities including workers, communities, and environment. As the method of evaluation and enforcement, IFC and MIGA have institution namely Compliance Advisor Ombudsman serving to receive reports from the public, investigate and provide notification to the company activities that negatively affect the society. Ultimately CSR is not only seen as philanthropy (mandatory but also as guidelines and a code of conduct to be followed by the corporation in carrying out any business.   Key words: mandatory norm, obligatory norm, CSR

  15. Mekong Economic Research Network (MERN) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Greater Mekong countries of Cambodia, Laos and Viet Nam are among the lowest income countries in Asia. Although recent market-oriented reforms have greatly accelerated economic development in all three countries, they face numerous challenges to achieving inclusive growth. Such challenges include the need ...

  16. Economics | Page 24 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economic self-reliance is as important as political independence. ... this premise to show unequivocally that the process of research for improving natural resource management must incorporate participatory and user-focused approaches, leading to development based on the needs and knowledge of local resource users.

  17. Climate change economics. Why international accords fail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the full extent of the potential damages from global warming remain unknown, scientists have long argued that action should be taken now to mitigate any possible adverse consequences. However, in making such policy recommendations, economic arguments need to be considered as much as

  18. Economics | Page 11 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Across Africa, men and women are increasingly entering the marketplace as small business owners, offering a range of goods and services. ... They also examine the supply of and demand for financial services in the region, with a particular focus on marginalized populations.

  19. Economics | Page 9 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Interactions between firms and universities are key building blocks of innovation systems. With a focus on developing countries, this book presents novel comparative research spanning three continents. The result is a more universal and dynamic view of the shaping and reshaping ...

  20. Economics | Page 22 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Security, sustainability, and stability often depend on a system of values that has taken centuries to develop within a specific society. Current development strategies, however, tend to ignore, often underestimate, and sometimes undermine cultural values or the cultural environment, ...

  1. Economics | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans leur livre, intitulé Manufacturing Enterprise in Asia: Size Structure and Economic Growth, Dipak Mazumdar et Sandip Sarkar proposent une interprétation des trajectoires de croissance économique de certains pays d'Asie, mise en corrélation avec la structure de la taille des entreprises manufacturières. Read more ...

  2. Economics | Page 32 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Rather than simply analyzing the current functioning of the WTO, its problems and challenges, this volume is also a call to action. It lays out proposals that are likely to become a blueprint for reform of the WTO as an institution. Its contents are abundantly worthy of reflection and ...

  3. Economics | Page 5 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Kenya's population is becoming increasingly urban; more than half of Nairobi's residents live in informal settlements (slums) plagued by cramped living conditions and poor access to basic services. Read more about IDRC-supported project influencing government policy in Kenya.

  4. Economics | Page 23 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Building Businesses with Small Producers presents the findings and a comparative analysis of seven case studies that challenge current beliefs about good practice in the provision of business development services (BDS) to small and micro enterprises. The book also highlights ...

  5. Economics of Climate Change Adaptation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Literature on the economics of climate change adaptation - especially in developing countries - is generally scarce, and this weakens the premise on which adaptation decisions are made. Moreover, there is no standard framework or toolkit to guide researchers and policymakers in this kind of decision-making. This grant ...

  6. Economic sanctions and US international business interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic sanctions are seen as a foreign policy instrument less severe than military engagement but more potent than diplomacy. The assessment of the economic impact of sanctions invariably focuses on direct bilateral trade, with little regard to indirect costs. In the case of sanctions on Iran, the real cost to Iran and the U.S. is not so much due to reduced trade but to factors such as missed investment and joint venture opportunities, especially in the energy sector. The significant size of these costs for Iran will make it difficult for Iran to resume business as usual with U.S. companies whensanctions are lifted; and for U.S. energy companies, their long-term competitiveness in Iran and also globally will be reduced.

  7. Economics | Page 26 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. L'humanité est de plus en plus tributaire des ressources marines et côtières. Les petites entreprises de pêche emploient aujourd'hui 50 des 51 millions de pêcheurs du monde, qui se trouvent pratiquement tous dans des pays en développement. Ensemble, ils produisent plus de la ...

  8. Institutional Theory in International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Christer; Tallberg, Jonas

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we trace the emergence of institutional approaches in IR theory, outline three important areas of research on international institutions, and suggest promising directions for future research. The review demonstrates that rational choice institutionalism, historical institutionalism, and normative institutionalism, as developed in the study of domestic institutions, have constituted sources of inspiration in IR theory. At the same time, the relative absence of formal instituti...

  9. Constitutional Socio-Economic Rights and International Law: "You ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenauer Foundation and Faculty of Law (NWU, Potchefstroom Campus) 3rd Human Rights Indaba on The Role of International Law in Understanding and Applying the Socio-economic Rights in South Africa's Bill of Rights.

  10. INTERNATIONAL TOURISM - ECONOMIC PARAMETERS AND STATUS QUO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the Romanian tourism cannot be obtained without following the development of the tourism indicators at international level. A first image reveals a thriving international tourism with an upward trend. Also, the forecasts regarding tourism, based on the extrapolation of the factors’ influence, anticipate a continuous growth of it. The influence of the international events slows the level of growth of the indicators, but it cannot determine a decrease in them. Tourism is considered, mainly, a form of recreation with other activities and forms of leisure. In terms of tourism, according to the new regulations, it designates "the activities of persons ,during travel and stays, in locations outside of the normal residence for a consecutive period not exceeding one year, with the purpose of leisure, business or other reasons "

  11. International Relations Research Methodology: Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vladimirovich Shabaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the origins and conceptual analysis capabilities of international relations in the framework of a realistic paradigm. We research political conditions and preconditions of the creation of realism’s theory and axiological features of realism’s practice in international relations. We also analyze the basic concepts and schools of realism: Realpolitik, political realism, neorealism, neoclassical realism. It is shown that based on the balance of power in the Realpolitik Prussian and Austrian cases, this understanding of politics within the systematics of the XIX century; the adaptation of the bourgeois liberal and national ideas to the foreign-policy specifics Germany middle of the XIX century. It is shown that political realism is targeting an international actor on the desire to subjugate the greatest possible political space. In the case of political weakness (absolute or relative political realism indicates a way of adapting to circumstances in order to achieve the most desirable of the possible. The article discusses the concept A. Rochau, H. Morgenthau, H. Kissinger, K. Waltz, showing differences and instrumentality realistic theories and concludes that the main provisions of the concept as a whole.

  12. International relations and co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the international relations and co-operation of the UJD are presented. International community is aware of the fact that nuclear energy shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and on condition of high standard of nuclear safety. Therefore, the long-term aim of UJD in the area of international relations is to maintain and develop internationally recognised system of state supervision upon the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to reach internationally accepted level of nuclear safety in the Slovak Republic. There are many important international treaties (Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Convention on Nuclear Safety, etc.) to which slovakia is a party. In order to meet the obligations of these treaties UJD has the main aim for contribute to the process of international disarmament, and to a mutually advantageous co-operation. By means of the most important international organisations (e.g. International Atomic Energy Agency) the Slovak Republic actively participates in the international co-operation. Under the leadership of UJD, Slovak institutions participate in many projects and activities which have the aim to improve the safety of nuclear international obligations. In addition, UJD actively participates in the integration process of the Slovak Republic into European and Trans-Atlantic structures. Since 1993 the co-operation with the European Commission and the Nuclear Energy Agency of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD/NEA) has been successfully implemented. Besides multilateral co-operation UJD attaches extraordinary importance to bilateral co-operation, in particular with neighbouring countries. Regular meetings of senior Slovak experts with foreign experts are organised, with the aim to exchange the newest experiences and information on peaceful use of nuclear energy. Also in

  13. Economics | Page 28 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The diffusion of its benefits in developing countries (where resources are unevenly distributed to begin with) is therefore an issue of central importance to the ... the results of an international initiative to document the effects of how health systems in the developing world have responded to macroeconomic austerity and ...

  14. Global economic governance | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... Nonetheless, caution the authors, if a country is to successfully integrate globally, its domestic financial system — or “architecture” — needs to be congruent with the international financial architecture. Medhora believes that a fatal mismatch lies at the root of the current crisis: “Basically, the American ...

  15. Economics | Page 20 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Watershed décrit la crise de l'eau à laquelle font face aujourd'hui Israël et les Territoires occupés de la Palestine – crise qui aura beaucoup d'effet sur la conception et la réussite des propositions de paix en cours. Les auteurs analysent la géopolitique de l'eau dans la région, ...

  16. Christian Joerges and Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann (eds., Constitutionalism: Multilevel Trade Governance and International Economic Law (Hart Publishing: Studies in International Trade Law, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael L. Johnstone

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Constitutionalism, Multilevel Trade Governance and International Economic Law is a second issue of a 2006 text of the same name. It brings together an impressive collection of international scholarship exploring international economic law in light of constitutional theory with many well-established experts in the field alongside some relatively junior and highly promising scholars.

  17. Economic crisis related metaphors: ECONOMIC CRISIS IS NATURAL DISASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odair Luiz Nadin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Inpe – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, disasters are calamitous events that cause great negative impact on society and are essentially distinguished by their origins, that is, by the nature of the phenomenon which triggers them. Earthquakes, deluges, storms, tsunamis, floods, among others, are examples of common natural phenomena that can cause natural disasters. The aim of this paper is to present the analyses of some metaphor occurrence in the economic-financial discourse related to the global economic crisis which originated from these natural disaster denominations. This crisis, which had its major disclosure in 2007, has caused the (reappearance of many new metaphorical Lexical Items to denominate the actions, institutions, processes, etc., which affected the financial system of several countries, causing negative effects on the economy of these nations. Lexical Items such as storm, deluge, flood and tsunami, for example, have assumed terminological characteristics and started to denominate in a more concrete way the concepts related to the crisis. Under the light of Conceptual Metaphor and Frame Semantics theories we analyze in this paper some metaphorical Lexical Items used in the press discourse to refer to the crisis, published in Folha de S. Paulo newspaper from August 2007 to December 2013.

  18. International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

  19. The Great Asian International School Gold Rush: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Denry

    2017-01-01

    The number of international schools is growing, especially in Asia. This presents competitive challenges; most obviously for student recruitment and retention. However, demand for places at these schools is also growing. As a result, while international schooling may feel competitive, aggregate economic data show that growing numbers do not…

  20. Economics and Comparative and International Education: Past, Present, Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, Charl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to map this place of economics in the field of study of Comparative and International Education. Interrelationship between economy and education is concerned, two broad lines of enquiry lie within the scope of Comparative and International Education: economy as shaping force of education systems and the effect of education…

  1. New International Economic Order (NIEO: Origin, Elements and Criticisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fesseha Mulu Gebremariam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Employing secondary sources of data this paper aims to assess the history, elements, and criticisms against New International Economic Order (NIEO. NIEO is mainly an economic movement happened after WWII with the aim of empowering developing countries politically through economic growth. It also criticizes the existing political and economic system as benefiting developed countries at the cost of developing countries so that a new system is needed that benefits poor countries. However, many criticize NIEO as hypothetical and unorganized movement. Clear division and disagreements among its members is evident. Developing countries failed to form unity, committed to meet the objectives of NIEO, and unable to compete in the market.

  2. The impact of Oil Prices on the International Economic Arena: The Economic Factors and International Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history the new technologies and discoveries revolutionized the way we live. The discovery, the oil, has been critical for society, becoming the world’s most profitable and essential industry transforming itself from domestic to international business. The aim of this paper, above all is to analyze the role of oil and its price volatility in world economy. The ongoing changes and transformations in world oil industry tend to have a great effect not only on the oilimporting countries but also on oil-exporting nations. The demand or supply-triggered oil price volatility differ in its effects to world economic activity. Although it may have different effect for the oil importing nations in comparison to oil exporting nations, still inflationary pressure may be a common feature. A number of points relevant to the study are put forward highlighting pros and cons of issues discussed. The paper also elaborates the environmental concerns, deriving from the increase of oil consumption and the necessity (globally to increase efforts in finding a decent,(environmentally friendly replacement for oil.

  3. Population, internal migration, and economic growth: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, R S

    1982-01-01

    The role of population growth in the development process has received increasing attention during the last 15 years, as manifested in the literature in 3 broad categories. In the 1st category, the effects of rapid population growth on the growth of income have been studied with the use of simulation models, which sometimes include endogenous population growth. The 2nd category of the literature is concerned with theoretical and empirical studies of the economic determinants of various demographic rates--most usually fertility. Internal migration and dualism is the 3rd population development category to recieve attention. An attempt is made to synthesize developments in these 3 categories by estimating from a consistent set of data a 2 sector economic demographic model in which the major demographic rates are endogenous. Due to the fact that the interactions between economic and demographic variables are nonlinear and complex, the indirect effects of changes in a particular variable may depend upon the balance of numerical coefficients. For this reason it was felt that the model should be empirically grounded. A brief overview of the model is provided, and the model is compared to some similar existing models. Estimation of the model's 9 behavior equations is discussed, followed by a "base run" simulation of a developing country "stereotype" and a report of a number of policy experiments. The relatively new field of economic determinants of demographic variables was drawn upon in estimating equations to endogenize demographic phenomena that are frequently left exogenous in simulation models. The fertility and labor force participation rate functions are fairly standard, but a step beyong existing literature was taken in the life expectancy and intersectorial migration equations. On the economic side, sectoral savings functions were estimated, and it was found that the marginal propensity to save is lower in agriculture than in nonagriculture. Testing to see the

  4. Analyzing International Economic Influence on Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-03

    applies carrots and sticks Pollack for relatively obvious reasons does not favor either of these alternatives, but rather favors a hybrid approach he...PARAGUAY PY PERU PE PHILIPPINES PH PITCAIRN PN POLAND PL PORTUGAL PT PUERTO RICO PR 43 QATAR QA

  5. USSR Report, International Economic Relations, No. 61

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-15

    into the heated atmosphere of the first days of work after the CPSU Central Committee June Plenum and the USSR Supreme Soviet session. In studying...million kilowatts generating capacity. Documents on cooperation in the construction of the Ilha Grande 2.4 million kilowatts TES, an ethanol production

  6. The 'Nature' of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    The discipline of IR is beginning to grapple with how nature is a condition for, and increasingly and object of, international politics. This chapter narrates how IR actually began with features of the natural world at its heart, then narrowed this down to human nature, before losing sight...... of it almost entirely – only to rediscover it years later as ‘the environment’. A recent revival of realist geopolitics brings geography back in, but misses the environmental angle as well as the Anthropocene idea that due to human influence nature is now more dynamic, more prone to harm and in some ways more......, but then to think in dialectical terms about their mutual relations and transformations. Neither strategy is without pitfalls, but I suggest that the latter deserves more attention....

  7. Economics and Comparative and International Education: Past, Present, Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charl Wolhuter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to map this place of economics in the field of study of Comparative and International Education. Interrelationship between economy and education is concerned, two broad lines of enquiry lie within the scope of Comparative and International Education: economy as shaping force of education systems and the effect of education on the economy. In the interwar “factors and forces” stage of Comparative Education, the economy as a shaping force of national education systems came to the fore. In the social science phase of the 1960s the focus shifted to a study of the effect of education on the economy. This was reversed again in the 1970s, when socio-economic reproduction theories assigned a deterministic place to socio-economic stratification of society. In recent years neo-liberal economics dictated the research agenda of Comparative Education. In conclusion recommendations for a future research agenda in the field are made.

  8. Does the internet generate economic growth, international trade, or both?

    OpenAIRE

    Meijers, H.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent cross country panel data studies find a positive impact of internet use on economic growth and a positive impact of internet use on trade. The present study challenges the first finding by showing that internet use does not explain economic growth directly in a fully specified growth model. In particular openness to international trade variables seems to be highly correlated with internet use and the findings in the literature that internet use causes trade is confirmed here, suggestin...

  9. Theories of International Economic Development (Case Study: Economic Development in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Bardhok Bashota

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Karl Popper rightly says that “real starting point for each research is set based on assumptions of reality, not only based on the real facts”. The text below was prepared In accordance with this logic, where the Theories of International Development are treated especially focusing on International Economic Development. Therefore, theoretical reflections present assumption side, and study of many empirically measured data will correspond with real facts, because with ought these facts assumption would be useless. Technically this writing consists of two parts: in the first part are elaborated all theoretical and practical characteristics of overall international development, while in a second part as a case study will be Economic Development i Kosovo. From methodological point of view this is a comparative study and based on statistical data, while problem treating approach is critical and explanatory. As it will be understood later, development theories have been decisively influenced by economic thinking, and the focus on this dimension responds best to the nature of the term development. On the other hand the fact of unfolding economical development will reflect interference and the nature of it’s inter politics. Today economic development becomes a worldwide goal, having a considerable place in most of the literature with economic content. Also, here are presented as well examples from different practices that reflect economic development in different periods and places. Here is presented international economic development starting with a brief description of a genealogy of this development and ways of economic development back that time. It is of a special importance elaboration through theoretical approach on the creation of capital and economic development, as  mercantilist theory, classic and neo classic theory, than capitalization and Socialism-Marxism. To better understand the nature of economic development, the focus falls on

  10. Launching the Journal of International Economic Policy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soogil Young

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the phase when the World Economy takes its agitation, that is, characterized as the new initiative in the International economic order and the infinite competition of the borderless world market, as well as economic integration of all regions, the economy of Korea is facing an unprecedented challenge. After 1990s, when the Cold War came to an end, globalization officially started with the support of information and communications technology revolution. On the other hand, the economic hegemonism and the ideology of "economy-first" intentions was being widely spread in the World. Governments all over the world one after another appealed for foreign investments.

  11. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  12. Economic growth, international trade and air pollution. A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukla-Gryz, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of economic growth and international trade on the level of air pollution. This is done by the estimation of the Structural Equation Model with two factors describing the structure of economic activity and air pollution intensity. It is further assumed that there is causal link between these two factors and that they are influenced by per capita income, international trade intensity and the Freedom House Index. The estimation results suggest that in the developing countries analyzed both international trade and per capita income lead to changes in the structure of economic activity and - as a consequence - to the increase in air pollution. In addition, the estimation results suggest that the impact of economic growth on air pollution intensity varies between the developing and developed countries. In the developing countries, this impact occurs through the change of the structure of economic activity, while in the developed countries, this impact is mainly direct and occurs through the sum of the scale effect and income effect. The positive sign of this impact suggests the dominance of the scale effect over the income effect. (author)

  13. International business and economic geography : knowledge, time and transactions costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip

    This paper sketches out how the ways in which a combination of economic geography and international business approaches can shed light on the spatial behaviour of multinational companies. The emphasis of the argument here is on the nature of the knowledge content embedded in the transactions of the

  14. The American Mortgage Crisis Implications on the international economics evolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalia NISTOR

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Shock waves that produce large cracks deepen existing political, economic and social, and sometimes a new order replaces the old. In 2010, states across the world over blast, which invariably will lead to changing the current world order. Last twenty years have seen major changes in international economic context, the Soviet Union collapsed and centralized economies in Eastern Europe, reforms in China and India, export-based growth strategies in East Asia, all leading to the creation of a world economy market and also bringing 4 to 5 billion people.

  15. Civil-military relations : enhancing international security

    OpenAIRE

    Fekete, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The thesis describes how civil-military relations at the international level enhance international security, in particular, the way of development of international society in trying to orient its progress towards international peace, security and sustainable development. It focuses upon civil-military relationships in the League of Nations and the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The International Committee of Re...

  16. Analysis of the first Romanian-German economic relations

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand Helmut FLEISCHER

    2013-01-01

    The first Romanian-German economic relations were initiated by the German colonists who had settled on the territory of Transylvania since the 12th century. Over the centuries, the Romanian- German economic relations had some fluctuations, but the tradition of these relations is indisputable. The fluctuations in the Romanian-German economic relations were caused by the economic evolution in Romania and Germany, the politic relations between the two states as well as the European political and...

  17. Economic Sustainability in International Business: Peculiarities, Methods and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Iryna Pavlivna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended as a contribution to the ongoing analysis of economic sustainability in international business. This study is presented with a view toward further understanding and agreement of the key concepts of sustainability. Approaches to sustainability are considered, important benchmarks and essential characteristics of sustainable development in international business are included. The article demonstrates how the concept of economic sustainability can be applied to the business level. The main ideas of the most widespread concepts on resource management are presented. Incorporation of ESG and financial factors in the concept of sustainable investing is considered. Emissions that are responsible for climate change, namely top emitters, key issues and figures are presented.

  18. 13 February 2012 - World Economic Forum Founder and Executive Chairman K. Schwab and Chairperson and Co-Founder Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship H. Schwab (Mrs)in the ATLAS experimental area at LHC Point 1 with Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni; signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    13 February 2012 - World Economic Forum Founder and Executive Chairman K. Schwab and Chairperson and Co-Founder Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship H. Schwab (Mrs)in the ATLAS experimental area at LHC Point 1 with Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni; signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

  19. The parallel diplomacy and the International Relations of the regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zeraoiu, Zidane

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion of subnational entities in international politics, breaks with the exclusive privilege of handling external relations by the States. Regions and municipalities have developed international policies that strengthen local affairs in cultural, economic, politic, security and strategic cooperation aspects, through the so-called parallel diplomacy activities. The influence of regional institutions in global affairs is growing; however paradiplomacy practice is not institutionalized a...

  20. INTERNATIONAL RESERVES, GUARANTEE THAT SUPPORTS ROMANIA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate demand in our country far exceeds the ability of the economy to produce goods and services. The gap between total demand for goods and services on the one hand and economic status, on the other hand stands out primarily by the continuing need for funds to cover the budget deficit. The Lack of foreign investors, poor development of capital market and non-involvement of credit institutions to support economic development leads the Romanian state to borrow regularly on international money market. Guarantor of the country for these loans is the reserve fund managed by the central bank of the state. Trade deficits and foreign borrowing are two components of the same problems. As the state borrows more from the international financial markets the higher is the trade deficit. A national initiative on facilities development companies with export production and aggregate demand for domestic products, can lead to lower imports. Increasing the fund's reserves and activation may be one of the solutions required to support economic development. Through this study we try to discover the role of the reserve fund and other sources of economic development.

  1. All projects related to | Page 216 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: DEVELOPMENT AID, FOREIGN POLICY, ECONOMIC POLICY, POLITICAL ASPECTS, INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK. Region: China, Far East Asia, India, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, South Asia, Afghanistan. Total Funding: CA$ 56,000.00. Foreign Assistance ...

  2. The impact of Oil Prices on the International Economic Arena: The Economic Factors and International Players

    OpenAIRE

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history the new technologies and discoveries revolutionized the way we live. The discovery, the oil, has been critical for society, becoming the world’s most profitable and essential industry transforming itself from domestic to international business. The aim of this paper, above all is to analyze the role of oil and its price volatility in world economy. The ongoing changes and transformations in world oil industry tend to have a great effect not only on the oilimporting countrie...

  3. The Method of Economic Analysis of International Law: What are its Limits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the most recent developments regarding the use of the so-called “economic analysis” approaches to international law. It reviews the main features of this methodology and its potential contribution for promoting critical scholarship in international legal studies, particularly...... in specific contemporary issues such as international security, trade and environment. The article also points out the most important limitations of this approach, which mainly derive from a misunderstanding of the assumptions behind the use of rational choice theories, particularly through a recurrent...... oversimplification of international relations literature...

  4. Preparation of International Business Contracts in Facing the ASEAN Economic Community Era

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlan Sahlan

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the preparation for composing and formulating the international business contracts in facing the ASEAN Economic Community era. The study used the normative approach by collecting the materials related to the international business contracts. The outcomes of the research indicate that constitutionally, the Indonesian government must provide protection and equitable legal certainty for Indonesian citizens who intend to conduct business transactions within the framework of A...

  5. Judicialization of International Relations: Do International Courts Matter?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíř, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2013), s. 208-224 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : judicialization * international relations * legal and extralegal factors Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS ON THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Arakelova

    2017-12-01

    mechanisms related to solving the internally displaced persons’ issues and their impact on social and economic processes in the regions. The internally displaced persons’ influence analysis on the regional social and economic systems of Ukraine was conducted. The analysis allowed determining the rating of five regions with a significant load of IDPs and identifying the social and economic system in the region and the acutest elements. Practical implications. The peculiarities of internally displaced persons’ migratory flows by regions and their impact analysis on the social and economic development of regions and Ukraine as a whole are to be investigated. Value/originality. The ways of positive social and economic dynamics of regional development enhancement due to the programs and regional development strategies correction, taking into account the resource potential of the IDPs in some areas, are proposed.

  7. From International Relations to Alternative Globalisations

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie Sklair

    2010-01-01

    International Relations has struggled to escape the limitations of state centrism. Building on a transnational approach to globalisation, this paper seeks to show that the concept of transnational practices provides a better tool to analyze and explain the contemporary world than the concept of international relations.

  8. International Relations Scholarship Around the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    geocultural sites and the ways in which these traits inform and condition scholarly activity in International Relations. By bringing together scholars living and working across the globe Tickner and Wæver provide the most comprehensive analysis of IR ever published. It is essential reading for anyone who...... is concerned about the history, development and future of international relations....

  9. From International Relations to Alternative Globalisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Sklair

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available International Relations has struggled to escape the limitations of state centrism. Building on a transnational approach to globalisation, this paper seeks to show that the concept of transnational practices provides a better tool to analyze and explain the contemporary world than the concept of international relations.

  10. CONSIDERATIONS APPLICABLE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING REGULATIONS OF WAGES AND RELATED RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available General research area of this article is the issue of employee benefits nationwide and can be placed in the sphere of accounting research at the intersection of the finance research and field research on human resource management. The current conditions of global economic crisis, rewarding staff works on two levels, influencing both the behavior of employees and the efficiency of the economic entity. Wages and related rights are regulated under International Accounting Standards and International Financial Reporting Standards by IAS 19 "Employee Benefits" and IFRS 2 "Share-based Payment". Concerns over the years, on remuneration, was the International Accounting Standards Board, as in 1998 was developed International Accounting Standard 19 "Employee Benefits" and in 2004 was drafted to International Financial Reporting Standard 2 "Share-based Payment". This article is part of a broader research and through it we tried to address a topical issue that employee benefits and consequences of the degree of economic and financial development of economic entities and living standards of the population.

  11. International Summer School on Mathematical Systems Theory and Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Szegö, G

    1969-01-01

    The International Summer School on Mathematical Systems Theory and Economics was held at the Villa Monastero in Varenna, Italy, from June 1 through June 12, 1967. The objective of this Summer School was to review the state of the art and the prospects for the application of the mathematical theory of systems to the study and the solution of economic problems. Particular emphasis was given to the use of the mathematical theory of control for the solution of problems in economics. It was felt that the publication of a volume collecting most of the lectures given at the school would show the current status of the application of these methods. The papers are organized into four sections arranged into two volumes: basic theories and optimal control of economic systems which appear in the first volume, and special mathematical problems and special applications which are contained in the second volume. Within each section the papers follow in alphabetical order by author. The seven papers on basic theories are a rat...

  12. [Interface between bioethics and international relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchola-Castillo, Camilo; Garrafa, Volnei

    2016-08-01

    Recently, bioethics and international relations have gotten closer to one an other, probably as a result of the motivation of bioethics to intervene in global affairs. However, this relationship has only been on the practical level.This study's objective, through a literature review, is to highlight the huge potential that the epistemologies of both areas have to build a more fruitful dialogue. 18 articles relating both areas were retrieved from databases Scopus, Web of Science, Bireme and PubMed. The articles were then grouped in three categories of analysis: bioethics and global health; international organizations and bioethics; and international relations and bioethics. This study concludes that an epistemological approaching between these areas is desirable and proposes the establishment of two new areas of study: international relations in health and international relations from the South, drawing upon the conceptual basis developed by Latin-American bioethics.

  13. Competition in electricity spot markets. Economic theory and international experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, Nils-Henrik von der; Harbord, David

    1998-09-01

    This publication gives a survey of economic theory and international experience connected to electricity spot markets. The main purpose is to consider the attempts that have been made to apply economic theory and empirical methods to the analysis of electricity markets, and to evaluate them in light of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence. The publication describes in simple terms the basic pool pricing mechanism, and experience with pools in a number of countries. It is worth emphasizing that it is not the purpose to treat in extensive detail the structure of electricity pools around the world. Key factors of the markets in England and Wales, Norway and Australia are described in order to allow for a comparison of design issues and evaluation of competitive performance. 80 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. The economic impact of South Africa’s international airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure is strongly linked to economic growth and plays a major role in providing greater mobility and choice, leading to an improvement in incomes and welfare. Transport infrastructure such as highways, bridges, ports, airports and railways is critical in achieving economic growth. If the supply of these facilities does not keep up with rising demand, the cost of moving goods will increase, and there will be a downward pressure on profits and growth. Airports play a critical role in generating employment within an economy, creating wealth, contributing to the tax base, stimulating tourism and contributing to world trade. While the latter two are less easily measured, it is possible to determine a base impact that an airport has on an economy by measuring the direct and indirect gross domestic product, employment and taxation impacts. This study quantifies these for the three main international airports in South Africa.

  15. Going global: Trust research and international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Jan; Keating, Vincent Charles

    2015-01-01

    In this review article we explore the growing body of literature on the subject of trust in the field of international relations. We argue that the international level represents a unique challenge for trust research. This is so because some of the most pressing problems facing the world today...... require the development of trusting relationships internationally. In addition, the international environment is structurally different from domestic or personal relations on which much of the trust literature has focused so far. We identify three main strands of trust literature in international...... relations – rationalist, social and psychological. We not only note the contributions these have made to understanding the role of trust internationally, but also highlight areas where more research is needed. Particularly, we argue that this includes theorising processes of trust...

  16. 75 FR 67804 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ..., contact Deputy Outreach Coordinator Tiffany Enoch, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy... 28, 2010. Maryruth Coleman, Office Director, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7224] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  17. Energy policy under the aspect of international economic interdependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, H.

    1978-01-01

    A few introductory remarks on the status of and on prospects fo the world energy economy as well as on reasons given for the necessity of a world-wide coordination of energy policy and economic policy are followed by an explanation of the policy led by oil extracting countries and of the endeavour of western industrialized countries to reduce oil imports. Even if the state of utilizing nuclear energy does not yet present a sufficient alternative, the international nuclear energy continues to be directed towards this goal. Seen from an international viewpoint, relieving contributions are to be expected from energy-conservation-actions and from the development of regenerative energy sources. (UA) [de

  18. Measuring international relations in social media conversations

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, GA; Xu, WW; Chu, J; Jiang, K; Huh, C; Park, JY; Park, HW

    2017-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier Inc. This paper examines international relations as perceived by the public in their social media conversations. It examines over 1.8 billion Facebook postings in English and 51 million Chinese posts on Weibo, to reveal the relations among nations as expressed in social media conversations. It argues that social media represent a transnational electronic public sphere, in which public discussions reveal characteristics of international relations as perceived by a foreign publi...

  19. THE INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS’ IMPACT ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Prykhodko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper. In our study we try to assess the causality link between a number of the international economic integration politico-economic factors, institutions and basic production factors with the growth of the economy. We form a sample of 18 post-socialist countries, including Central and Eastern Europe (CEE countries-members the European Union, and the rest of CEE non-members countries and CIS countries, who have not acquired the membership in the EU, including Ukraine. The time period of our study is 23 years, starting from 1991 – the year of independence of Ukraine till 2013 – the last year for which statistics are published for our group of a corresponding list of indicators that make up our interest. In the estimating equation we use econometric analysis panel data by least squares method with fixed effects transformation to eliminate countries’ heterogeneity. In the study we use such determinant of the institutions quality as the Index of Economic Freedom (Heritage Foundation, and we investigate various components of the Index of Economic Freedom (freedom of ownership, freedom of trade, freedom from corruption, freedom of investment. We assume that institutions towards freedom of foreign trade and reducing corruption will have a greater effect on the economy of the investigated countries. It is advisable to attach to the international economic integration politico-economic factors the indicator of foreign trade taxation as a measure of tariff barriers, international aid programs of the foreign donors and the European institutions to assess their role for the economic growth of the countries surveyed, and we take into account the capital and the labor as the basic factors of production. Methodology. The methods of synthesis, logic, abstraction and analysis are used in the study. On a sample of 18 post-socialist countries (CEE and CIS for the period of 23 years (1991-2013 we had conducted the econometric panel analysis

  20. 76 FR 17180 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... competitive global economy. The Committee also appraises the role and limits of international economic... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7327] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy... Charter of the Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy. The Committee serves in a solely...

  1. Behavioral Economic Factors Related to Pediatric Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Mark K.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The field of behavioral economics suggests that food and activity choices are governed by costs, available alternatives, and reinforcement. Here, we review basic and translational research using a behavioral economic (BE) framework with overweight or obese children up to age 18. We address BE concepts and methods, discuss developmental issues, the continuum of BE intervention approaches, findings of studies focused on increasing the cost of unwanted behaviors (i.e., energy-dense food intake and sedentary behavior) and decreasing the cost of desired behaviors (i.e., healthy food intake and PA), and our team's recent basic behavioral studies using BE approaches with minority adolescents. PMID:27261543

  2. Happiness and economic freedom: Are they related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we investigate the linkage between economic freedom and happiness (subjective well-being. We attempt to understand which economic institutions (rule of law, limited government, regulatory efficiency, open markets have influence on subjective well-being. For this purpose we use a panel dataset and analyze the effect of economic freedom on subjective well-being while using various control variables such as government expenditures as percentage of GDP, human development, social support, freedom of choice and generosity. Our pooled FGLS estimations indicate that all pillars of economic freedom have a strong influence on the average subjective well-being in society. Three of these pillars, namely rule of law, regulatory efficiency and open markets, positively affect subjective well-being. To our surprise we have found a negative relationship between limited government and subjective wellbeing. This might be due to the situation that reducing the size of government possibly leads to lower government expenditures and higher unemployment, which in turn results in lower subjective well-being.

  3. Mainstreaming International Forestry Related Agreements at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case study provides in-sights on initiation, negotiation and implementation of International Forestry Related Agreements (IFRAs). It is observed and concluded that (i) there is low and inconsistent participation by Africa in international forest processes that lead to IFRAs, ostensibly due to lack of funds, (ii) Africa is not ...

  4. Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reising, Michelle M; Watson, Kelly H; Hardcastle, Emily J; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9-15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms and economic disadvantage with children's symptoms. This study provides evidence that disrupted parenting may be a common or shared process through which both parental depression and economic disadvantage are associated with children's internalizing and externalizing problems.

  5. The Figure 8 Model of International Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sibayan, Jerome T

    2008-01-01

    .... The Figure 8 Model is presented first in a Cartesian format and then in geometrical form. This model is an intuitive idea based on a particular reading of history rather than a new international relations theory...

  6. China’s Internal Migration, Public Policies, and Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    much needed to food to feed the country. In addition, the push to industrialize faster also did not help: “While much of the output was unusable junk ... effect of migration on economic performance has had a discernible impact both positive and negative at different times. There are two distinct aspects...the actual migration patterns and their relative effects on the economy; and the domestic policies enacted by the PRC that directly prompted

  7. Politics or Economics? International Migration during the Nicaraguan Contra War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Jennifer H; Massey, Douglas S

    2005-02-01

    The issue of whether Central Americans in the United States are 'political' or 'economic' migrants has been widely debated, yet little empirical research has informed the controversy. Earlier studies have relied primarily on cross-sectional aggregate data. In order to overcome these limitations we draw on recent surveys conducted in five Nicaraguan communities by the Latin American Migration Project. Using retrospective data, we reconstruct a history of a family's migration to the United States and Costa Rica from the date of household formation to the survey date and link these data to national-level data on GDP and Contra War violence. While out migration to both Costa Rica and the United States is predicted by economic trends, US-bound migration was more strongly linked to the level of Contra War violence independent of economic motivations, especially in an interactive model that allows for a higher wartime effect of social networks. We conclude that elevated rates of Nicaraguan migration to the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s were a direct result of the US-Contra intervention. The approach deployed here - which relates to the timing of migration decisions to macro-level country trends - enables us to address the issue of political versus economic motivations for migration with more precision than prior work.

  8. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, targets, tools, processes. Results of research show that the beginning of the XXI century is distinguished by the development of new types of political concepts that explain interaction of elements in modern international relations in the area of environmental protection. The reason of these changes lies in the phenomena of environmentalism integration into Three paradigms of international relations. However, we cannot say that any of the examined paradigms accumulated all features of environmentalism without their modification. Better to say, it's rather similar to adaptation of environmental ideas. Therefore, to understand modern international relations processes, it is necessary to take into account their environmental element. Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-4

  9. The role of tourism in the development of international relations

    OpenAIRE

    MORADI A.; MORADI M.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, tourism is considered as a profitable and job-making indus- try and one of the largest sections of the global economy. This designation indi- cates its importance and eminent position in economy and international relations. Aside from economic aspects, tourism has got extensive social and cultural as- pects, as well. This industry can play a significant role in easing the tensions and establishing world peace and security as one of the solutions of development in the modern world an...

  10. Science and diplomacy a new dimension of international relations

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, Pierre-Bruno

    2017-01-01

    This book examines in depth science diplomacy, a particular field of international relations, in which the interests of science and those of foreign policy intersect. Building on a wealth of examples drawn from history and contemporary international relations, it analyzes and discusses the links between the world of scientists and that of diplomats. Written by a professor of economics and former Embassy counselor for science and technology, the book sets out to answer the following questions: Can science issues affect diplomatic relations between countries? Is international scientific cooperation a factor for peace? Are researchers good ambassadors for their countries? Is scientific influence a particular form of cultural influence on the world stage? Do diplomats really listen to what experts say when negotiating on the future of the planet? Is the independence of the scientist threatened by science diplomacy? What is a scientific attaché for?

  11. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR LAW PRINCIPLES AS GUIDELINES TO FOSTEREMPLOYMENT RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniko Noemi TURI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary human resource management practices often ignore very important values of international labour law; however there is a wide floor for improvements in this area. In this sense the main guidelines are arising from the legal acts of the International organizations. The social responsibility, professional ethics and management are categories which have the intense relation with the legal system. Some historically developed degree of social responsibility and professional ethics may be considered as an important resource of values which are the starting point for building the legal system and also international regulations. The international labour law principles are significant elements in employment relations. The paper represents how the principles of the international labour law can positively influence managerial strategies through the social dialogue. Social dialogue provides a communication platform between social partners and by that it is actually creating a socio-economic and social development. Furthermore social dialogue is a key instrument in planning social development, harmonizing different interests, prevent and resolve disputes between the management and labour. International law shows many ways how to strengthen the principle of ethics in the employment relations. The values, arising from the existing international legal documents may be the significant guideline for the development of “good practices of managers”.

  12. Energy problem and harmony in international relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Akira

    1975-01-01

    Energy problems and harmony in international relation are closely related with world politics. Oil is destined to remain as the primary energy source for the time being. The situation of oil has different implications to the U.S. and U.S.S.R., oil producing countries, and consumer countries. The hasty attitude in the past to attain energy sufficiency must be avoided by all means. Congenial harmony is to be established in international relation to meet world energy requirement. This also applies to the case of nuclear power in future. (Mori, K.)

  13. The end of International Relations theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunne, Tim; Hansen, Lene; Wight, Colin

    2013-01-01

    With a view to providing contextual background for the Special Issue, this opening article analyses several dimensions of ‘The end of International Relations theory?’ It opens with a consideration of the status of different types of theory. Thereafter, we look at the proliferation of theories...... to the alternatives currently being practised: integrative pluralism. The article ends on a cautiously optimistic note: given the disciplinary competition that now exists in relation to explaining and understanding global social forces, International Relations may find resilience because it has become theory...

  14. All projects related to | Page 413 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: Capacity building, ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, ECONOMIC POLICY, ECONOMIC PLANNING, BRAIN DRAIN, International cooperation. Region: Lebanon, Middle East, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 244,900.00. Upgrading Lebanese Economic Analytical ...

  15. Constructing a chinese international relations theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P.M.; Nielsen, R.T.

    2013-01-01

    Chinese scholars are debating whether, and how, to innovate a Chinese theory of International Relations (IR). This article examines the driving forces behind this theoretical debate. It challenges the commonsensical link between external events in the subject matter (i.r.) and theorizing (IR......, and argue that theoretical innovation, in China and elsewhere, is best understood as an interplay between internal and external layers. The internal academic context comprises intellectuals pursuing prominence, with each intellectual trying to carve out a maximally distinct position in order to receive...... where control over rewards such as research funds, promotion, and publications affects what kind of work is done, with theorizing being increasingly rewarded....

  16. REVOLUTIONS AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: THE AFRICAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fagundes Visentini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the impact of revolutions in the International Relations and the World System as constitutive and renewed elements. Criticizes the stance of theories that consider it a domestic phenomenon that causes a systemic disturbance, focusing in the case of the African Revolutions in the 1970s. Explores the international dimension they possess, considering their impact regarding the end of the Cold War, even though it happened in the periphery of the world.

  17. Politics or Economics? International Migration during the Nicaraguan Contra War*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Jennifer H.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of whether Central Americans in the United States are ‘political’ or ‘economic’ migrants has been widely debated, yet little empirical research has informed the controversy. Earlier studies have relied primarily on cross-sectional aggregate data. In order to overcome these limitations we draw on recent surveys conducted in five Nicaraguan communities by the Latin American Migration Project. Using retrospective data, we reconstruct a history of a family’s migration to the United States and Costa Rica from the date of household formation to the survey date and link these data to national-level data on GDP and Contra War violence. While out migration to both Costa Rica and the United States is predicted by economic trends, US-bound migration was more strongly linked to the level of Contra War violence independent of economic motivations, especially in an interactive model that allows for a higher wartime effect of social networks. We conclude that elevated rates of Nicaraguan migration to the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s were a direct result of the US-Contra intervention. The approach deployed here – which relates to the timing of migration decisions to macro-level country trends – enables us to address the issue of political versus economic motivations for migration with more precision than prior work. PMID:20852719

  18. DIPLOMACY IN CHINA–NIGERIA POLITICAL-ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James OKORO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines China–Nigeria political-economic relations since the end of the Cold War using methods and theory of politics and economics. Since Nigeria views its relations with China as the driving force for its economic growth/development, we assess the extent to which Nigeria’s diplomatic effectiveness and understanding of Imperialism translates into economic growth from its relations with China. Our findings include China’s domination of Nigeria’s economy/polity, through superior economic-diplomacy, resulting in differential economic outcomes: for over 27 years while China achieved sustainable economic growth, increased its direct investment in foreign aid (loans, grants, technical assistance to Nigeria, and achieved favorable trade balance with Nigeria; Nigeria’s economy increasingly stagnated/declined, exported less, imported more, lost domestic business opportunities to China. We describe Nigeria’s response to China’s economic offensive. Achievement of trade balance and sustainable economic growth/development by Nigeria requires the use of improved economic-diplomacy, based on sound understanding of globalised neoliberal-capitalism and imperialism

  19. Critical Realism versus Social Constructivism in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Bobulescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the methodological differences between the British school and the American school of international relations. It attempts to demonstrate that Susan Strange, representative of the British school, could be considered a critical realist. The aim of the article is to show that her vision of international political economy fulfills the methodological reorientation initiated in economics by Tony Lawson at the end of the 90s. Strange’s radical ontology claims that structural power determines human actions. The paper contrasts Strange’s approach with that of John Ruggie, from the American school, who identifies himself as a social constructivist. Ruggie emphasizes the role of ideational factors in international relations and the constructed nature of social reality.

  20. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  1. Toward More Emphasis in International Public Relations Research and Education: A USA Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    International public relations continues to be a rare experience in most public relations curriculums, but courses are found in journalism and business. The emphasis, however, is slightly different. Business departments emphasize international economic principles to be supported by public relations, whereas journalism stresses issues management…

  2. 78 FR 42148 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...: Gregory Maggio, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic and Business..., Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy. [FR Doc. 2013-16895 Filed 7-12-13; 8:45 am... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8380] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  3. 76 FR 71617 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Coordinator Tiffany Enoch, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic, Energy..., Acting Director, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, U.S. Department of State. [FR... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7654] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  4. 75 FR 42813 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Tiffany Enoch, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic, Energy and... Director, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, U.S. Department of State. [FR Doc. 2010... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7092] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  5. 77 FR 33014 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Coordinator Tiffany Enoch, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic and..., Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, U.S. Department of State. [FR Doc. 2012-13450... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7912] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  6. 75 FR 16894 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Nancy Smith- Nissley, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic.... Sandra E. Clark, Office Director, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, U.S... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6910] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  7. 76 FR 75599 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Meeting Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Tiffany Enoch, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic, and Business... Director, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, U.S. Department of State. [FR Doc. 2011... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7659] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  8. 76 FR 53165 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Secretary of State for Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee Chair Ted... concerning issues and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting will focus on U.S.-Brazil... Coordinator Tiffany Enoch, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic, Energy...

  9. Power relations within the Situationist International

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This proposal presents the Dutch artist Jacqueline de Jong, (*1939, NL), and the French author/artist Michelle Bernstein, (*1932, F), two major of the very few women within the Situationist International movement. What both have in common is that as young women, they were related to the founding...... members and major actors of the group. Therefore, within the discourse of the Situationist International, de Jong is usually described as the muse of the 25 year older, at that point internationally acclaimed Danish artist. Bernstein, to the contrary, is pictured as the one who provided a living not only...... exhibition practise on the Situationist International contributes to this rather one -­‐sided reading of “de Jong, the muse” and “Bernstein the breadwinner” in order to reveal, to which extent this either conforms or opposes to the results of the analysis in the first part....

  10. Economic wealth related to use of watercourses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, M.

    1998-01-01

    Investigations have been made in Finland to establish the level of the national wealth, which consists of different lands of capital items. The present investigation focuses on different types of water use and on the economic wealth which they represent. The types of water use chosen include water supply and sewerage, flood protection, water-borne traffic, timber floating, hydropower production, fishing, fish farming and recreation. Wealth has been defined, whenever possible, according to yearly profit or the increase in profit. Where this has not been possible, wealth has been defined on the basis of investment costs or according to the one-off increase in wealth achieved by the project. This method was first employed for certain types of water use in the Kalajoki watercourse. For this watercourse wealth was calculated by both the methods described above, using profits, wealth was calculated to be FIM 533 million and using investments FIM 557 million. Due to lack of adequate basic information the figures, however, cannot be compared. The estimation method was also extended to cover the whole country, whereby the total wealth was estimated to be approximately FIM 155 billion. Most of this wealth consisted of recreation, water supply, sewerage and hydropower production. Comparison of the results of this investigation with the values determined in other national wealth investigations is difficult due to the presence of different groupings and methods of determination. In this investigation, the wealth gained by recreational use of the Ostrobothnian reservoirs was also separately examined and estimated to be approximately FIM 200 million. Different kinds of estimation methods had to be used and developed in this work, because the types of water use are very different and because similar investigations have not previously been undertaken. (orig.) 42 refs

  11. Preparation of International Business Contracts in Facing the ASEAN Economic Community Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahlan Sahlan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the preparation for composing and formulating the international business contracts in facing the ASEAN Economic Community era. The study used the normative approach by collecting the materials related to the international business contracts. The outcomes of the research indicate that constitutionally, the Indonesian government must provide protection and equitable legal certainty for Indonesian citizens who intend to conduct business transactions within the framework of AEC. Format and writing techniques of international business contracts is compulsory known by the business people and their legal consultants that they do not suffer losses due to errors in the preparing of contract that violates the rules and provisions of international business contract.

  12. Rankings of International Achievement Test Performance and Economic Strength: Correlation or Conjecture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H. TIENKEN

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Examining a popular political notion, this article presents results from a series of Spearman Rho calculations conducted to investigate relationships between countries’ rankings on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic competitiveness as measured by the 2006 World Economic Forum’s Growth Competitiveness Index (GCI. The study investigated the existence of relationships between international test rankings from three different time periods during the last 50 years of U.S. education policy development (i.e., 1957–1982, 1983–2000, and 2001–2006 and 2006 GCI ranks. It extends previous research on the topic by investigating how GCI rankings in the top 50 percent and bottom 50 percent relate to rankings on international tests for the countries that participated in each test. The study found that the relationship between ranks on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic strength is stronger among nations with lower-performing economies. Nations with strong economies, such as the United States, demonstrate a weaker, nonsignificant relationship.

  13. Survey of environment related monitoring programmes of international organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report is a summary of environment-related monitoring programmes of international governmental organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes. it presents the situation as of November 1986: This survey has been prepared by a consultant for the Secretariat as a background document for the second meeting of the Environment Experts, Economic Summit in Munich, November 1986. It serves information purposes only. No claim for completeness is intended. This report may also prove to be helpful for administrators and the scientific community as regards gaining knowledge on present arrangements, approaches and environmental activities in the framework of international organizations. In this light, the present report could facilitate communication and progress in solving pressing environmental problems on the international level. (orig.)

  14. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON ECONOMIC COOPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Ciprian ANDRUSEAC; Iulian HERTUG

    2016-01-01

    Economic cooperation, the engine of relations of international economic cooperation, is an insufficiently defined, dynamic concept. The transformations of the international environment, globalization and the intensification of economic interdependencies render economic cooperation a must, and not just an option within international relations. Similar to the international environment, economic cooperation undergoes a process of redefinition, of adjustment to the new realities. This article aim...

  15. The Role of International Trade in Lesotho’s Economic Growth: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malefa Malefane

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of international trade in Lesotho's economy. Over the years, the increasing role of international trade in the economy of Lesotho has become evident, particularly with the impetus from the country‘s export sector. An exploratory review approach has been used in this paper, in which the discussion mainly focuses on Lesotho‘s economic growth policy, trade policy, trends in economic growth, and trade performance. The findings point to the connection between Lesotho‘s economic growth and exports from the manufacturing sector, which driven by trade privileges. There is a further indication from this review that Lesotho‘s growth policy has been largely shaped by the country‘s need to pursue export-led growth and private-sector led growth. In recent years, developments in the country‘s trade policy have moved towards the implementation of a more liberal trade approach, as opposed to the initial import substitution industrialisation that Lesotho adopted in the 1960s. This change in trade policy has resulted in an enforcement of measures that have helped to enhance policy-driven trade. The graphical analysis shows that, generally, trends in Lesotho‘s economic growth correspond to the performance of the country‘s trade sector. Nevertheless, while international trade has made some significant contributions to Lesotho‘s economic growth, a heavy reliance on manufactured exports, which are known to be volatile to global economic downturns, poses some challenges to the country. Therefore, it is recommended that Lesotho relies on a wider range of exports, rather than manufactured exports, in order to strengthen trade-related growth in the country.

  16. Models and relations in economics and econometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    1999-01-01

    Based on a money market analysis using the cointegrated VAR model the paper demonstrates some possible pitfalls in macroeconomic inference as a direct consequence of inadequate stochastic model formulation. A number of questions related to concepts such as empirical and theoretical steady-states,...

  17. Models and relations in economics and econometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    1999-01-01

    Based on a money market analysis using the cointegrated VAR model the paper demonstrates some possible pitfalls in macroeconomic inference as a direct consequence of inadequate stochastic model formulation. A number of questions related to concepts such as empirical and theoretical steady...

  18. ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    through their humanitarian activities and trade relations. It is argued that among these organizations, Gülen-inspired humanitarian associa- tions, schools and business groups have once become a source of Turkish soft power in the region. The Gülen movement is especially active in education, opening schools in ...

  19. International Relations in China and Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The international relations (IR) discipline is known as an ‘American Social Science’ dominated by scholars and theories from the US core. This paper compares IR in two noncore settings, China and Europe. It shows that there is a growing institutional and intellectual integration into global...... Anglophone, mostly American, IR in both Europe and China. Both Chinese and European IR communities have established top Anglophone journals like the European Journal of International Relations and the Chinese Journal of International Politics to spearhead their integration into mainstream Anglophone IR...... and carve out a space for regional thinking. Yet, the analysis of their publication and citation patterns shows that IR outside the American core communicates through a hub-and-spokes system where there is always a connection to the American core but rarely very strong linkages to other peripheral regions...

  20. Internationalization of Infrastructures : Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Conference on the Economics of Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auger, J.F.; Bouma, J.J.; Künneke, R.

    2009-01-01

    What are the economic effects of the internationalization of infrastructures? We have addressed this question at the 12th Annual International Conference on the Economics of Infrastructures (Delft, May 2009). Internationalization of infrastructures refers to the increasing network interconnections

  1. Bourdieu, International Relations and European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Despite promising attempts to apply the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu to International Relations (IR), the field could still profit from unexplored potential in his thinking for understanding pivotal theoretical and empirical puzzles. This article takes the failure to fully grasp the paradigmatic...

  2. Reflections on Dead Theory in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    In this short autobiographical essay, I trace my journey in the discipline of International Relations. While entering the discipline, I, along with a host of my classmates, were enamoured by the exciting possibilities of thinking theoretically. Almost a decade later, those promises look bleak. From the perspective of a student in the discipline, I…

  3. International Relations as if the Earth mattered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    This book set out to examine how International Relations has begun to come to terms with the entwinement of social and natural systems. In a sense it is mysterious that this entwinement ever disappeared from view. Natural features of the world were originally the central focus of 19th century thi...

  4. Relational knowledge leadership and local economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Horlings, Lummina; Collinge, Chris; Gibney, John

    2017-01-01

    This paper concerns the role of spatial leadership in the development of the knowledge-based economy. It is argued within academic and practitioner circles that leadership of knowledge networks requires a particular non-hierarchical style that is required to establish an ambience conducive to networking and knowledge sharing across boundaries. In this paper, we explore this hypothesis at both theoretical and empirical levels. Theoretically, we propose a conceptualization of relational knowled...

  5. Relationalism or why diplomats find international relations theory strange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In this conclusion, which reflects critically on the relational approach to diplomacy and its wider consequences, I argue that diplomats are estranged from IR theory and vice versa - because International Relations scholars generally subscribe to substantialism, whereas diplomats tend to think...... scholarship and diplomatic knowledge and practice are important for how we understand (and construct) world politics, including war, international cooperation, and responses to human and natural catastrophes....... in terms of relations. In fact, a deeper understanding of these relations is a key theoretical take-away point of this book. More specifically, I argue that relationalism - as a meta-theoretical approach - not only helps us understand the diplomatic production of world politics, relationalism also reflects...

  6. Corruption - a Relevant Factor in the International Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George DIMOFTE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is divided into small low-level corruption and high-level corruption. Small level little corruption is defined as the area of corruption which does not prejudice the interests of the majority of individuals. This category can be covered by a health care professional, the corruption of a clerk, etc through their decisions is an individual or group of individuals at the expense of others, but this kind of injustice is limited in time and space. Corruption, means high-level corruption of a dignitary, clerk, etc. This kind of corruption and the main effect over the entire State characteristic and the individuals who compose it. The consequences of this kind of corruption can translate into direct and indirect costs that will be supported in the end by all taxpayers. The objectives of corruption are double: profit and power. The international economic crisis has its origin in the manifestations of high level corruption in the governments of different countries. All the state now have to fight against corruption in order to settle new rules to avoid the effects af the crisis and to prevent a deepening of this crisis with devastating effects upon tha population. Here we try to emphasize the importance that we all should give corruption and measures had to be taken by everyone.

  7. Special considerations regarding indirect expropriation in international economic law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana Spătaru-Negură

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The right to property is a human right that has to be respected so that if the property of a natural or legal person is taken over, the respective person has to be compensated. The right of a state to control the economic business is one of the rights sustained and exercised by the states on a constant basis. This reflects the inherent sovereignty of a state to control its people, incidents and objects found on its territory. Between these rights, the situation of indirect expropriation appears which has been described in the doctrine as being very abstract and rigid, big lacunae existing. The sense of the indirect expropriation and of the international investors’ protection against the indirect expropriation is very ambiguous. Using different methods specific to scientific analyse of the legal phenomenon (e.g. the logical method, the comparative method, the historical method and the quantitative methods, we consider that through this paper we can reach certain results that could be interesting for any legal practitioner or theoretician, this paper intending to present the most relevant cases that could amount to indirect expropriation.

  8. Unilateral Measures addressing Non-Trade Concerns. A Study on WTO Consistency, Relevance of other International Agreements, Economic Effectiveness and Impact on Developing Countries of Measures concerning Non-Product-Related Processes and Production Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bossche, P.; Schrijver, N.; Faber, G.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last two years, the debate in the Netherlands on trade measures addressing non-trade concerns has focused on two important and politically sensitive issues, namely: (1) the sustainability of the large-scale production of biomass as an alternative source of energy; and (2) the production of livestock products in a manner that is consistent with animal welfare requirements. In February 2007 a report was issued on the 'Toetsingskader voor Duurzame Biomassa', the so-called Cramer Report. This report discusses the risks associated with large-scale biomass production and establishes a list of criteria for the sustainable production of biomass. These criteria reflect a broad range of non-trade concerns, including environmental protection, global warming, food security, biodiversity, economic prosperity and social welfare. The report recognizes that the implementation of the criteria (including the establishment of a certification system) will require careful consideration of the obligations of the Netherlands under EU and WTO law. Governments called upon to address non-trade concerns may do so by using different types of measures. Prominent among these are measures concerning processes and production methods of products. In the present study, these issues are examined primarily with regard to existing, proposed or still purely hypothetical measures for implementing the Cramer criteria for the sustainable production of biomass. Several other, non-energy-related issues are discussed in this report

  9. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  10. All projects related to Lebanon | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: Capacity building, ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, ECONOMIC POLICY, ECONOMIC PLANNING, BRAIN DRAIN, International cooperation. Region: Lebanon, Middle East, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 244,900.00. Lebanese Palestinian Dialogue Committee ...

  11. Impact of international financial assistance on economic growth in Europe after the World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polchanov A.Yu.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is devoted to studying the impact of international financial aid on economic growth in Europe after the Second World War. The aim of the investigation is the identification of regularities of post-war recovery of European economies in the second half of the twentieth century and the assessment of international financial aid’s role in the economic growth stimulation. The author summarizes domestic and foreign researchers’ achievements of studying the issue of the Marshall Plan and its importance for modern Ukraine, and differentiates the classic, capitalistic and modern stages of post-conflict reconstruction of the national economies. The relation between the amount of financial assistance from US government to 14 European countries and the growth of GDP in 1947–1952 is studied with the help of correlation and regression analysis and their significant linear dependence is determined. The issue of institutional support of international financing program of economic recovery of Europe has not been left without attention.

  12. International experience in the use of leasing relations in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Mikhalchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the market of leasing relations in the UK, Germany, France, the USA. Comparative analysis of development of leasing in foreign countries has been carried out in order to use international experience of leasing relations in Ukraine at the present stage of development of state economy. In spite of prevalence of leasing in developed countries, this kind of relationship is still uncommon in the economic environment of Ukraine because of its novelty and lack of experience. Relevance of leasing development in Ukraine, including the formation of leasing market, primarily is caused by a significant proportion of obsolete equipment and low efficiency of its use. One of solutions to these problems can be leasing which brings together all the elements of international trade, credit, and investment operations.

  13. Vpliv globalne krize na zunanjetrgovinske tokove = Impact of the Global Economic Crisis on International Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Koleša

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The world economy is facing a global crisis that spilled over from thefinancial sector to the real economy in the last quarter of 2008. Thecrisis led to falls in industrial production and foreign direct investmentsas well as to a sharp decrease in international trade volume.The article will focus on the reasons for the decrease of global trade,analyze the change of external trade policies (implementation of protectionistmeasures, also in comparison with the 1930s and 1970s crisis,and related activities of international organisations: World TradeOrganisation (WTO, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development(OECD, International Monetary Fund (IMF,World bank(WB and European Commission (EC.

  14. The International Trade Policy for Technology Transfers: Legal and Economic Dilemmas on Multilateralism versus Bilateralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    In the book, the Researcher addresses the importance of international technology transfers for economic development, as well as the underlying causes for the different institutional arrangements that promote such activity. The work provides a systematic interpretation of the wide range of interests...... among developed and developing countries, and how they affect the scope and content of international agreements dealing with technology transfers, especially given the anarchic structure of international trade relations. The research also finds that, contrary to the general view that bilateral trade...... agreements tend to undermine the effects of multilateral agreements, for the specific case of technology transfers these modalities seem to enjoy a mutually positive effect, and should thus be concurrently promoted...

  15. Macroeconomic Determinants of Economic Growth: A Review of International Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirwa Themba G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper conducts a qualitative narrative appraisal of the existing empirical literature on the key macroeconomic determinants of economic growth in developing and developed countries. Much as other empirical studies have investigated the determinants of economic growth using various econometric methods, the majority of these studies have not distinguished what drives or hinders economic growth in developing or developed countries. The study finds that the determinants of economic growth are different when this distinction is used. It reveals that in developing countries the key macroeconomic determinants of economic growth include foreign aid, foreign direct investment, fiscal policy, investment, trade, human capital development, demographics, monetary policy, natural resources, reforms and geographic, regional, political and financial factors. In developed countries, the study reveals that the key macroeconomic determinants that are associated with economic growth include physical capital, fiscal policy, human capital, trade, demographics, monetary policy and financial and technological factors.

  16. Some Opinions on the Relation between Security Economy and Economic Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALERIU IOAN-FRANC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper basically deals with two important concepts: security economy and economic security. The former is a relatively new term implying the way of building an entire system of protection by measures and activities to prevent deliberate actions affecting the quality of life and goods, while the latter is a term understood only post factum, when the threats to the economic security of a state have had effect. Therefore, a macroeconomic equilibrium at the world level should be correlated with internal political, economic and social equilibrium in order to ensure long-term sustainable development of the economy.

  17. Economic transition and maternal health care for internal migrants in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaokang, Zhan; Zhenwei, Sun; Blas, Erik

    2002-12-01

    Economic migration and growth in informal employment in many of the major cities of developing countries, combined with health sector reforms that are increasingly relying on insurance and out-of-pocket payment, are raising concerns about equity and sustainability of economic and social development. In China, the number of internal migrants has dramatically grown since economic transition started in 1980, and maternal health care for these is a pressing issue to be addressed. To provide information for policy-makers and health administrators, a medical records review, a questionnaire survey and qualitative interviews were carried out in Minhang District, Shanghai. This paper describes important inequities in main maternal health outcomes and utilization indicators relating to economic and social transformation of the Chinese society. Analysis of the data collected clarifies that insufficient antenatal care is one of the main determinants for poor maternal health outcomes and that migrants are using antenatal care services significantly less than permanent residents. The data suggest that there is no single explanatory factor, but that migrants are faced with a package of obstacles to accessing health care services, and that health systems may need to rethink and redesign their delivery approaches to specifically target those groups that are faced with such multi-faceted packages of obstacles to service-access. Although the study addresses a specific Chinese phenomenon related to internal migration and registration of residency, parallels can be drawn to other settings where a combination of economic and social transitions of the society and a reform of health care financing are potentially creating the same conditions of significant inequalities.

  18. ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of article is bilateral economical and foreign trade relations between Turkey, which has started to apply outward-oriented economic policies since globalization and Moldova, which has done market transition after breaking up with the Soviet Union. Within this frame, the subject of article has been searched in depth as follows: general overview of Turkey’s economic relations, overall picture of Moldovan-Turkish relations, short exposition of Moldovan economy and bilateral economic and foreign trade relations of Moldova and Turkey. The topic of article is a current issue. Because Moldova, which is closed to Turkey in terms of geography, culture and history always has been an attractive country politico-economically for Turkey since its independence. Bilateral economic relations starting with shuttle trade have formalized and further developed and Turkey became as one of top ten biggest economic and trade partner of Moldova. On this basis, the aim of study is to elucidate foreign trade of Turkey with Moldova and to compare performances of Turkey by years and by other countries, which have remarkable domination in Moldovan market. Within this scope, bilateral trade volume of Moldova and Turkey has increased year by year considering the past decade, which makes Turkey as the 7th largest import and 8th export partner of Moldova. Turkey aims to be one of the first three biggest economic partner of Moldova after entry into force of Free Trade Agreement (FTA, which was signed by both countries in 2014 to increase foreign trade volume up to 1 billion US dollars.

  19. Shaping the World Economy; Suggestions for an International Economic Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1962-01-01

    textabstractIn Dutch: Naar een Nieuwe Wereldeconomie: voorstellen voor een internationaal economisch beleid, Rotterdam University Press, Rotterdam, 1965, XV + 335 p. In Spanish: Hacia Una Economía Mundial: sugerencias para una política económica internacional, Series Biblioteca de Economía No.7,

  20. Marine energy consumption, national economic activity, and greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ching-Chih

    2012-01-01

    The causal relationships among marine energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping, and economic growth for Kyoto Protocol Annex I countries for the period of 1990 to 2006 are discussed. The real gross domestic product is used as a proxy for economic activity. The United States is also discussed because it was the main global polluter before 2006. The co-integration methodology and an error-correction model are used to examine the causal relationships. The empirical results show that marine energy consumption and GDP are the main factors of increased GHG emissions in the short-run, and that economic activity significantly increased emissions in the long-run. Emissions from shipping are more closely related to marine energy consumption than to economic activity. Hence, policies for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from marine shipping need to focus on greater energy efficiency in the design of ship engines and hulls. - Highlights: ► Energy consumption and GDP are the main causes to increased GHG emissions in the shipping industry. ► Emissions from shipping are more closely related to energy consumption than to GDP. ► Policies to mitigate GHG emissions from shipping industry should focus on the engine and hull design.

  1. Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Reising, Michelle M.; Watson, Kelly H.; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9–15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms an...

  2. The EU-China Economic Relations: a Harmful Competition or a Strategic Cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Walkowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The People’s Republic of China currently possesses the second biggest national economy in the world, smaller only to that of the United States. It is also a matter of time for China to become the greatest economic power, at least regarding share in aggregated global GDP and the sphere of international trade. Growing engagement of China in global economic development and its dependence on other participants of trade exchanges have made this country a more ‘responsible shareholder’ of the international economic system. China has a great development interest in upholding a stable world economic situation, and especially in proper economic relations with the United States and the European Union, on whose markets its healthy development largely depends. Whether China will soon become a “mature, responsible and attractive superpower” depends to a significant degree not only on its efforts but also on proper relations with major trade and investment partners around the world. It seems that mutually beneficial economic relations between the PRC and the European Union (founded on mutually beneficial and strategic cooperation and not on serious and opaque competition constitute one of the key factors determining this scenario’s validity. Unfortunately, for the time being, many problems arise in this relationship. They come from both sides requiring a proper diagnosis, as well as a scientific analysis including both assessment and prognosis. The presented scientific article tries to meet these expectations.

  3. Strengthening CERN’s international relations

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Council’s decision in June to open membership of CERN to the world in a clear and well-defined way means that it’s time to strengthen our international relations. Non-Member State interest, and participation, in CERN has been rising for many years, and with the LHC running smoothly that trend is continuing.   Furthermore, the long-term future of particle physics may well see Europe contributing to facilities in other regions of the world, with European participation coordinated through CERN. It was with these developments in mind that I established the External Relations Office under Felicitas Pauss at the start of my mandate last year. Council’s decision underlines the need for that office, and clarifies its liaison role of with Member and non-Member States. Clarity of function demands clarity of name, so from now on, the Office will be known as the Office for International Relations. It will continue to be headed by Felicitas Pauss. The Office’s main r...

  4. Dealing with femtorisks in international relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Aaron Benjamin; Collins, Margaret Goud; Levin, Simon A; Lo, Andrew W; Ramo, Joshua; Dieckmann, Ulf; Kremenyuk, Victor; Kryazhimskiy, Arkady; Linnerooth-Bayer, JoAnne; Ramalingam, Ben; Roy, J Stapleton; Saari, Donald G; Thurner, Stefan; von Winterfeldt, Detlof

    2014-12-09

    The contemporary global community is increasingly interdependent and confronted with systemic risks posed by the actions and interactions of actors existing beneath the level of formal institutions, often operating outside effective governance structures. Frequently, these actors are human agents, such as rogue traders or aggressive financial innovators, terrorists, groups of dissidents, or unauthorized sources of sensitive or secret information about government or private sector activities. In other instances, influential "actors" take the form of climate change, communications technologies, or socioeconomic globalization. Although these individual forces may be small relative to state governments or international institutions, or may operate on long time scales, the changes they catalyze can pose significant challenges to the analysis and practice of international relations through the operation of complex feedbacks and interactions of individual agents and interconnected systems. We call these challenges "femtorisks," and emphasize their importance for two reasons. First, in isolation, they may be inconsequential and semiautonomous; but when embedded in complex adaptive systems, characterized by individual agents able to change, learn from experience, and pursue their own agendas, the strategic interaction between actors can propel systems down paths of increasing, even global, instability. Second, because their influence stems from complex interactions at interfaces of multiple systems (e.g., social, financial, political, technological, ecological, etc.), femtorisks challenge standard approaches to risk assessment, as higher-order consequences cascade across the boundaries of socially constructed complex systems. We argue that new approaches to assessing and managing systemic risk in international relations are required, inspired by principles of evolutionary theory and development of resilient ecological systems.

  5. INTERNAL CONTROL AND AUDIT OF ENTERPRISES’ COMPLIANCE WITH CUSTOMS REQUIREMENTS WHILE CON-DUCTING FOREIGN ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Vakulchyk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the reliability of enterprises engaged in the foreign economic activity and simplifying of Customs procedures have become a relevant issue in the context of globalization. The capabilities and preferences of the “Authorized Economic Operator” status are the cause of a new challenge for managers of enterprises – creation of an internal control system to ensure a systematic monitoring of the conditions of Customs compliance standards of reliability and safety, which would allow identifying risks of loss of the “Authorized Economic Operator” status. The purpose of the scientific paper is to improve the internal control system of an enterprise engaged in foreign economic activity in the process of obtaining and saving the “Authorized Economic Operator” status in accordance with the international Custom requirements for safety and reliability. Methodology. The research is based on the methods of logical and analytical modelling of the impact assessment of individual factors on the value of the generalization indicator. The results are tested on the internal accounting data of the existing machine-building enterprises. Results. The paper shows the results of adapting the concept of COSO to the system of internal control of the foreign economic activity of the enterprise in the process of obtaining or retaining the “Authorized Economic Operator” status. The internal control system within the concept of COSO should ensure the achievement of the objectives – operations, reporting, and compliance. The criteria for estimating the objective “compliance” for an enterprise engaged in foreign economic activity can be an integral indicator of compliance. Value/originality. It is suggested to perform internal control of an enterprise’s compliance with Customs requirements based on the analysis of deviations of the compliance integral indicator. Practical implications. The result of control is to perform a steady in

  6. Economic targets and loss-aversion in international environmental cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    İriş, Doruk

    2015-01-01

    In the standard emission problem, each country’s ruling party decides on an optimal level of emissions by analyzing the cost and benefit to the country. However, such policy decisions are often influenced by political parties’ incentives to be elected. Voters tend to give higher priority to economic issues than they do to environmental ones. As a result, political parties have additional incentives to reach a critical economic benefit level, at a cost of higher emission level, in order to sat...

  7. International symposium on energy, environment and economics: Transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colville, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    The conference deals with a comprehensive range of topics on energy sources and technologies, the economic impacts of energy use and production, and environmental issues. The papers are grouped into chapters covering environmental policy, environment education, environment economics, new and renewable energy sources, utilities, electricity and planning software, domestic energy, commercial energy, heat pumps and cogeneration, and transport. A number of un-presented papers and abstracts of contributions are included. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs. figs., refs

  8. THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL INNOVATION CLUSTERS ON INCREASING ECONOMIC AGENTS SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ustymenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of enterprises integration into international innovation clusters on the increasing of enterprises, countries and regions economic sustainability under the global instability are explored. Potential sources of instability and threats of the integration into international cluster structures are defined. Author outlines the main benefits of international innovation cluster for enhancement of economic agents sustainability, such as: possibility for joint exploitation of market opportunities and efforts consolidation for overcoming market threats, cluster self-sufficiency, effective cluster internal reorganization and adaptation in response to external changes. Three clusters (engineering for agriculture production cluster (Hersonska oblast and German enterprises, IT cluster (Lvivska oblast and Poland enterprises, cluster for R&D commercialization (Slobodzanschina euroregion are examined to uncover the role of international innovation cluster formation on enhancement of economic agents' economic sustainability.

  9. International Variation in Ageing and Economic Dependency: A Cohort Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Loichinger

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Within this analysis of demographic and economic dependency ratios for 45 countries around the world, we reiterate the importance of age- and gender-specific employment levels as well as their determinants when discussing the economic challenges associated with population ageing. Building upon existing research on economic dependency, we portray and discuss cohort variation in employment and its possible effect on the challenges of population ageing, focusing on the implications of high youth unemployment, the role of changes in female employment and the evolution of retirement patterns across cohorts. The insights from our analysis reaffirm findings elsewhere that younger populations may not be as well off in the light of demographic change as an analysis of their demographic structure alone would suggest and stress the importance of considering the cohort dimension of employment in this discussion.

  10. Special economic zones as an instrument to enhance international cooperation in the economic conditions imposed sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    BURTSEVA TATIANA; SHUGAR VALERIYA

    2015-01-01

    The article considers the role of special economic zones in the conditions imposed sanctions. We analyzed the number of residents, including foreign ones, as well as the amount of their investment. We studied the special economic zones of tourist-type as a tool to enhance the attractiveness of the country and the region in particular.

  11. Politics and economics to shape international oil and gas activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that political and economic events play unusually strong roles in shaping worldwide oil and gas activity levels this year. Developments in the former U.S.S.R. will be critical. As the now-independent republics adopt new economic systems, production and demand patterns will change, as will exports from what has been the world's leading oil producer. Changing conditions in the Middle East among members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries also will affect the industry in the year following the brief Persian Gulf war. Unless worldwide demand surges unexpectedly, these substantial additions to supply will tend to weaken oil prices in 1992

  12. The Economic Dimension in China’s Foreign Relations: Reflections for China Studies in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina S. Clemente

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay elucidates the economic dimension of China’s foreign relations in aid of gleaning critical reflections on how China Studies in the Philippines can better consider China’s development experience and the Philippines’ economic engagement with China. Whether Philippines-China relations are tense or warm, the discourse on bilateral ties is dominated by interrogations from the vantage points of international relations, diplomacy, politics, and security analysis, which feature peripheral content on economic analysis even when improving economic linkages is invoked as a focal point of relations. Meanwhile, existing economic studies that touch on the bilateral relations do not have the interdisciplinary or area studies approach that must underpin the analysis. Employing a qualitative research design that involves content analysis, key informant interviews, and comparative reflection, the essay begins with an overview of how China’s development strategy has shaped its foreign relations. The essay opens with a brief overview of how China’s development strategy evolved since 1 978. The next section focuses on innovations in foreign relations and China’s grand new initiatives. What follows is the section on China’s need for further development, which consists of a discussion on inclusive development issues and resource demand. The fourth section underscores insights for China Studies in the Philippines. The essay ends with closing remarks.

  13. All projects related to | Page 460 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: LABOUR MIGRATION, INTRAREGIONAL MIGRATION, INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, BRAIN DRAIN, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS, MIGRATION POLICY. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 548,550.00. Migration, Development ...

  14. All projects related to | Page 537 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-24

    End Date: December 24, 2010. Topic: TRADE LIBERALIZATION, Globalization, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, INTRAREGIONAL TRADE, TRADE NEGOTIATIONS, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SMALL ENTERPRISES, MEDIUM ENTERPRISES, TRADE AGREEMENTS. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Ghana, ...

  15. All projects related to | Page 665 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin American Knowledge Networking Program on Gender, Macroeconomics and International Economics. Project. This project aims to strengthen the capacity of Latin American researchers, academics, policymakers and practitioners to mainstream gender in macroeconomic policies and programs. Start Date: March 30, ...

  16. All projects related to | Page 134 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, PUBLICATIONS, INFORMATION SYSTEMS, CANADA, ADAPTATION ... The Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women (GrOW) research program is a collaborative initiative involving IDRC, the United Kingdom's Department for International Development, and The William and ...

  17. All projects related to nigeria | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-24

    End Date: December 24, 2010. Topic: TRADE LIBERALIZATION, Globalization, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, INTRAREGIONAL TRADE, TRADE NEGOTIATIONS, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SMALL ENTERPRISES, MEDIUM ENTERPRISES, TRADE AGREEMENTS. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Ghana, ...

  18. Economic burden of human papillomavirus-related diseases in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Baio

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human papilloma virus (HPV genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 impose a substantial burden of direct costs on the Italian National Health Service that has never been quantified fully. The main objective of the present study was to address this gap: (1 by estimating the total direct medical costs associated with nine major HPV-related diseases, namely invasive cervical cancer, cervical dysplasia, cancer of the vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and head and neck, anogenital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and (2 by providing an aggregate measure of the total economic burden attributable to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 infection. METHODS: For each of the nine conditions, we used available Italian secondary data to estimate the lifetime cost per case, the number of incident cases of each disease, the total economic burden, and the relative prevalence of HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, in order to estimate the aggregate fraction of the total economic burden attributable to HPV infection. RESULTS: The total direct costs (expressed in 2011 Euro associated with the annual incident cases of the nine HPV-related conditions included in the analysis were estimated to be €528.6 million, with a plausible range of €480.1-686.2 million. The fraction attributable to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 was €291.0 (range €274.5-315.7 million, accounting for approximately 55% of the total annual burden of HPV-related disease in Italy. CONCLUSIONS: The results provided a plausible estimate of the significant economic burden imposed by the most prevalent HPV-related diseases on the Italian welfare system. The fraction of the total direct lifetime costs attributable to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 infections, and the economic burden of noncervical HPV-related diseases carried by men, were found to be cost drivers relevant to the making of informed decisions about future investments in programmes of HPV prevention.

  19. Tests of Behavioral-Economic Assessments of Relative Reinforcer Efficacy: Economic Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Gregory J.; Smethells, John R.; Ewan, Eric E.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test predictions of two behavioral-economic approaches to quantifying relative reinforcer efficacy. According to the first of these approaches, characteristics of averaged normalized demand curves may be used to predict progressive-ratio breakpoints and peak responding. The second approach, the demand analysis,…

  20. Tests of Behavioral-Economic Assessments of Relative Reinforcer Efficacy II: Economic Complements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Gregory J.; Smethells, John R.; Ewan, Eric E.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test the predictions of two behavioral-economic approaches to quantifying relative reinforcer efficacy. The normalized demand analysis suggests that characteristics of averaged normalized demand curves may be used to predict progressive-ratio breakpoints and peak responding. By contrast, the demand analysis holds…

  1. Economic relations between turkey and Africa: challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores the evolution of Turkish-African relations and concentrates mostly on Turkey's economic engagement in African countries. It also seeks to analyse recent Turkish initiatives in Africa's energy sector. The article argues, among other things, that although the low level of attention paid to African issues has ...

  2. Nigeria-China Economic Relations Under the South-South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... As the bilateral relations have progressed from cultural linkages to in- tense economic penetration of the .... and strengthen pre-existing ties with some countries on the Asian continent. This change in the ... million for the construction of the China-Nigeria Friendship Cultural Centre in. Abuja, grant of US$7.2 ...

  3. On religion and hospitality cultures in economic relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    focus on the role of religion in economic relations. First, by going back to the classical sociologists Max Weber and Emile Durkheim to discuss their detour into the study of religion when tracing the pre-contractual conditions for contract-making at the market place. It argues for a second look...

  4. Policy Decisions and Research in Economics and Industrial Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, John T.

    1977-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that the bulk of academic research in industrial relations and economics in recent years has had very little impact on either public or private policy decisions. The thesis is illustrated by examining several policy problems, e.g., manpower programs and the relationship between wages and variables such as unemployment…

  5. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-21

    Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 5 most polls show Piñera in the lead, he continues to face the stigma of the...wants to legalize abortion , and would boost education and health spending—Enríquez-Ominami has suggested cutting the top personal income tax rate and

  6. Investment Returns and Economic Fundamentals in International Art Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Works of art are neither easily tradable across borders, nor evaluated according to globally identical standards. We examine geographical segmentation and its effects on price formation and returns in the international art auction market. We find (i) a close connection between the country of sale and the type (e.g., nationality) of artworks sold; (ii) substantial international variation in average returns to art investments over the period 1971-2007; (iii) an impact of both global a...

  7. International tourism and economic growth in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Jaforullah

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines whether the tourism-led growth hypothesis holds for the New Zealand economy. Using unit root tests, cointegration tests and vector error correction models, and annual data over the period 1972-2012 on international tourism expenditure, real gross domestic product (GDP) and the exchange rate for New Zealand, it finds that the tourism-led growth hypothesis holds for New Zealand. The long-run elasticity of real GDP with respect to international tourism expenditure is estimate...

  8. EXPERTISE OF POLITICAL ANALYSIS IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Bogaturov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a problem of political analysis in the fi eld of international relations. The author discusses the key rules, standards and requirements of correct political research as well as basic criteria of analytical correctness. The author formulates typology of analytical papers, assesses the state of environment and working conditions for today’s experts, analysis key problems and diffi culties at the stage of empirical data selection (including verifi cation of information sources, while choosing analytical methods and formulating conclusions. The article gives advice for experts, how to organize research, deal with diffi culties and fi nd non-standard solutions.

  9. Economic stress and lack of internal health locus of control: a life course approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2014-02-01

    To investigate associations between economic stress in childhood and adulthood, and lack of internal health locus of control (HLC), testing the accumulation and critical period life course hypotheses. A cross-sectional public health (postal) survey was conducted in Skåne in 2008, based on a random sample with 28,198 participants in the age interval 18-80 years, with 55% participation. Logistic regressions analyzed associations between childhood and current economic stress, and lack of internal HLC. A 33.7% prevalence of men and 31.8% of women lack internal HLC, which was significantly associated with the covariates included. The accumulation hypothesis was partly supported because combined childhood and adulthood economic stress exposures were significantly associated with lack of internal HLC in a graded manner. The critical period hypothesis was not supported since the association between economic stress in childhood and lack of internal HLC was partly significant in the final model, and the association with adult (current) economic stress was also significant. The accumulation hypothesis was partly supported. The critical period hypothesis was not supported since both childhood and current economic stress experience were significantly associated with lack of internal HLC. Economic conditions in childhood as well as adulthood are plausibly of relevance for HLC.

  10. International energy R and D spillovers and the economics of greenhouse gas atmospheric stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, Valentina; Carraro, Carlo; Massetti, Emanuele; Tavoni, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that technological change will play a substantial role in reducing GHG emissions without compromising economic growth; hence, any better understanding of the process of technological innovation is likely to increase our knowledge of mitigation possibilities and costs. This paper explores how international knowledge flows affect the dynamics of the domestic R and D sector and the main economic and environmental variables. The analysis is performed using WITCH, a dynamic regional model of the world economy, in which energy-related technological change is endogenous. The focus is on disembodied energy R and D international spillovers. The knowledge pool from which regions draw foreign ideas differs between High Income and Low Income countries. Absorption capacity is also endogenous in the model. The basic questions are as follows. Do knowledge spillovers enhance energy-related technological innovation in different regions of the world? Does the speed of innovation increase? Or do free-riding incentives prevail and international spillovers crowd out domestic R and D efforts? What is the role of domestic absorption capacity and of policies designed to enhance it? Do greenhouse gas stabilization costs drop in the presence of international technological spillovers? The new specification of the WITCH model presented in this paper enables us to answer these questions. Our analysis shows that international knowledge spillovers tend to increase free-riding incentives and decrease the investments in energy R and D. The strongest cuts in energy R and D investments are recorded among High Income countries, where international knowledge flows crowd out domestic R and D efforts. The overall domestic pool of knowledge, and thus total net GHG stabilization costs, remain largely unaffected. International spillovers, however, are also an important policy channel. We therefore analyze the implication of a policy-mix in which climate policy is combined with a

  11. China-USA economic relations: bilateral ties and multilateral economic projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Troush

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of problematic issues of the change of US-China trade is going up notwithstanding the slowdown of Chinese economy. Those US fi rms who placed production in China became more involved into Chinese internal market. Chinese investments into US prevail over the US investments in China. The decisions of the Chinese leadership to set up the new market priorities in the economic development are implemented with obvious diffi culties, but being implemented, could stimulate US-China ties.

  12. International Capital Market Integration, Educational Choice and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmut Egger; Peter Egger; Josef Falkinger; Volker Grossmann

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of capital market integration (CMI) on higher education and economic growth. We take into account that participation in higher education is non-compulsory and depends on individual choice. Integration increases (decreases) the incentives to participate in higher education in capital-importing (-exporting) economies, all other things equal. Increased participation in higher education enhances productivity progress and is accompanied by rising wage inequality. Fro...

  13. OPEC and the international oil market: can a cartel fuel the engine of economic development?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Noguera, Jose; Pecchenino, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2007), s. 187-199 ISSN 0167-7187 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : OPEC * International oil market * oil export Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.464, year: 2007

  14. 77 FR 1548 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs, at (202) 647-2231 or Enoch... Analysis and Public Diplomacy, U.S. Department of State. [FR Doc. 2012-232 Filed 1-9-12; 8:45 am] BILLING... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7721] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  15. 76 FR 4987 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic, Energy and Business Affairs, at (202) 647-2231 or EnochT... Analysis and Public Diplomacy, U.S. Department of State. [FR Doc. 2011-1785 Filed 1-26-11; 8:45 am] BILLING... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7238] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  16. 78 FR 24784 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs, at (202) 647-2231 or MaggioGFmailto... Public Diplomacy. [FR Doc. 2013-09962 Filed 4-25-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4710-07-P ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8300] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  17. Fundamental economic irreversibilities influence policies for enhancing international forest phytosanitary security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Will Allen; Robert G. Haight; E. Carina H. Keskitalo; Mariella Marzano; Maria Pettersson; Christopher P. Quine; E. R. Langer

    2017-01-01

    National and international efforts to manage forest biosecurity create tension between opposing sources of ecological and economic irreversibility. Phytosanitary policies designed to protect national borders from biological invasions incur sunk costs deriving from economic and political irreversibilities that incentivizes wait-and-see decision-making. However, the...

  18. International migration, remittances and economic welfare in the source country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-batiz, F L

    1986-01-01

    "This article provides a formal framework for the analysis of the impact of international migration in the presence of remittances. The discussion differentiates between temporary and permanent migration and between the effects of remittances that raise investment and those that raise consumption spending in the source country. Changes in prices, income distribution and national welfare are examined." The geographic focus is worldwide. excerpt

  19. The Principle of National Treatment in international economic law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman Sanders, A.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    This second volume in the European IP Institutes Network Series provides an exhaustive overview on the principle of national treatment that is enshrined in a number of international treaties. The non-discrimination principle ensures that foreign nationals, goods, services or investments are not

  20. Investment returns and economic fundamentals in international art markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.; Velthuis, O.; Baia-Curioni, S.

    Works of art are neither easily tradable across borders, nor evaluated according to globally identical standards. This chapter examines geographical segmentation and its effects on price formation and returns in the international art auction market. The chapter finds (1) a close connection between

  1. Investment Returns and Economic Fundamentals in International Art Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Works of art are neither easily tradable across borders, nor evaluated according to globally identical standards. We examine geographical segmentation and its effects on price formation and returns in the international art auction market. We find (i) a close connection between the country

  2. Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peter M.

    Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

  3. Problems of Foreign Economic Relations Development of Ural Regions with BRICS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Ivanovich Maslennikov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the basic vocabulary of BRICS countries, its regional tendencies of business development, and its share taken in the foreign-economic activity are analyzed. Contribution of different foreign trade fields of regions into economic development is revealed. Indicators of development levels of external economic links are reviewed. Alternative options of the foreign trade development, expenses and benefits from its reorientation, and the reason of low indicators of development of foreign trade activity of the Ural regions with BRICS countries are evaluated, and measures for their improvement and development are offered. The mechanism and tools of stimulation of foreign economic relations development of regions with BRICS countries are investigated. The internal and external motives and incentives of expansion of these relations are examined. The factors influencing the regional markets development and revealing multidirectional tendencies in activities of business, government, society for development of foreign economic relations of the Ural regions with BRICS countries, and first of all with Brazil, India, China and the Republic of South Africa are investigated. The export-import features of the foreign trade operations with these countries, and also possible ways and the directions of expansion of the prognostics of foreign economic relations in the conditions of toughening and restriction of similar operations and financial sources from the developed countries, first of all the USA and EU countries are represented. Author examines the reasons and scenario, problems and difficulties for the country and the Ural regions in refocusing of international economic relation from Western Europe to the South-East Asia countries. Real opportunities of participation of regions of the country in the import substitution and development of own resource and production base are analyzed. The research is focused on analysis of international economic

  4. International economic trade partners and competitions of the Russian on world agricultural market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Ivanovich Maslennikov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses common and specific problems of international trade in Russia and its regions in agricultural sector, specific situation and methods of reformation, adaptation and modernization of the national and regional agricultural complexes, its resources base on the way to globalization processes in the world, including such forms of international trade of agricultural products and formation on this base of an industrial agricultural economics plus rate of the international agricultural trade expansion. Regions of Russia are quickly developing territories with very active integration into world economy system, having high tempo of economic rate growth and adaptation of the economy to specific situation and methods of diversification of the agricultural base resources; the analysis is made on agricultural production of international trade in such countries as China, the USA, the European Union, Argentina, Canada, India and Brazil while searching for new economic partners on international agricultural market.

  5. The international economic position of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strube, J.

    1993-01-01

    In spite of a clear increase in the domestic demands the German industry has been investing about 175 billion marks abroad during the past decade. These investments abroad have not necessarily been undermining the economic status of the Federal Republic of Germany but can rather be explained by the importance of the market proximity to foreign locations. In the first place, the German industry's foreign investments reveal the efficiency and competiveness of the companies which have been succeeding in establishing themselves on the markets in Europe and outside of Europe and in qualifying the domestic industry for the world market. (orig.) [de

  6. Human Rights, Fundamental Freedoms and Universal Values in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev S. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the evolution of human rights and fundamental freedoms in domestic political life of individual states and in international relations as well over the latest two centuries. The article traces the role of struggle for liberal political human rights and civilian freedoms in the dismantling of the feudal-absolutist regimes as well as the challenges of radical left-wing (communist and far right-wing (national-socialistic threats to be met by the supporters of liberal political rights and civil freedoms in the interwar period. The list of human rights and fundamental freedoms had constantly been updating in the postwar period, including by the efforts of the UNO and other international organizations, and fixing in different international documents. The author emphasizes the import role of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE in transforming the issues of human rights and fundamental freedoms into the essential element of public diplomacy of contemporary states. He traces the process of the increasing utilization of liberal political rights and civilian freedoms, which are usually the effective tools for domestic democratic transformation, within the framework of diplomatic practice of European and North-American states, aimed at ensuring their political and economic interests on the world stage. In this regard the author addresses the attempts of Western countries to legalize "humanitarian"interventions in circumvention of the UN Security Council. The article emphasizes the necessity to replenish the understanding of universal human rights and freedoms by the values, developed both by the international community within the framework of implementing the Millennium Development Goals and by various countries and peoples, which in sum constitute the modern international civilizational baggage.

  7. The International Economic System in the Twentieth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Snowdon

    2000-01-01

    This wide-ranging discussion takes in globalisation, the causes of the Great Depression (and the likelihood of future recurrences), the Marshall Plan and post-war European recovery, growth in the 1950s and 60s followed by the problems of the 70s, and the strengths and weaknesses of the current international financial system, among other subjects. It provides a stimulating introduction to factors underlying important events in the history of the twentieth century and prospects for the century ...

  8. The International School Industry: Examining International Schools through an Economic Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James

    2006-01-01

    Based upon the results of a quantitative analysis of tuition revenues generated by international schools, it is argued that international schools can be examined in terms of a global multi-billion dollar industry and that business theory can be, and is being, applied in international schools today. This article proposes that international schools…

  9. Skepticism about Universalism: International Bankruptcy and International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Frederick

    2002-01-01

    There is no international bankruptcy law, but only the national bankruptcy laws of various states. The failure of a multinational firm therefore raises difficult questions of conflict and cooperation among national bankruptcy regimes. Theorists have proposed various reforms to the uncoordinated territorial approach that most states pursue when a multinational firm suffers financial distress. Among these reform proposals, universalism has long been the dominant idea. Under universalism, the ba...

  10. ECONOMY, ECONOMICS, ECONOMIC, ECONOMICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Monica Ariana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To speak and understand a language means - among many other things - knowing the words of that language. The average speaker knows, hears, understands and uses thousands of words daily. But does he use them appropriately? That is why this paper is about words and meanings. More specifically, it deals with the internal structure of complex words, i.e. derivatives. The purpose of the paper is to enable students and potentially other individuals dealing with English language on business basis to engage in their own analyses of some aspects of the language, namely the family tree of the word economy. After having read the paper, the reader should be familiar with the necessary knowledge regarding differences between meanings, misuse and actual sense of words deriving from economy, be able to systematically analyze data and relate his own findings on theoretical language problems. English is used by hundreds of millions speakers and still there is always need for improving our knowledge continuously. Knowing and speaking approximate English may not be enough at an advanced level as in the case of students who prepare themselves for careers that involve proficient communication in a foreign language on specific business issues. This is where the idea of such a paper appeared: students of the Faculty of Economic Sciences talk about economy and all the other terms deriving from it, with approximate knowledge of their meaning, without even being aware that some ‘minor' suffixes like –ic, -ical, -ics etc. really matter and do make a difference. Consequently, we started our teaching of Business English lecture in September 2012 with a working sheet based on the terms economic/ economical/ economics/ economy to assess students' awareness of these terms. The result was not a surprise as more than 90% misused economical instead of economic. That seemed a perfect introduction for students in economics. From that moment on, the building of their specific

  11. Hospital-physician relations: the relative importance of economic, relational and professional attributes to organizational attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Belgian hospitals face a growing shortage of physicians and increasingly competitive market conditions. In this challenging environment hospitals are struggling to build effective hospital-physician relationships which are considered to be a critical determinant of organizational success. Methods Employed physicians of a University hospital were surveyed. Organizational attributes were identified through the literature and two focus groups. Variables were measured using validated questionnaires. Descriptive analyses and linear regression were used to test the model and relative importance analyses were performed. Results The selected attributes predict hospital attractiveness significantly (79.3%). The relative importance analysis revealed that hospital attractiveness is most strongly predicted by professional attributes (35.3%) and relational attributes (29.7%). In particular, professional development opportunities (18.8%), hospital prestige (16.5%), organizational support (17.2%) and leader support (9.3%) were found to be most important. Besides these non-economic aspects, the employed physicians indicated pay and financial benefits (7.4%) as a significant predictor of hospital attractiveness. Work-life balance and job security were not significantly related to hospital attractiveness. Conclusions This study shows that initiatives aimed at strengthening physicians’ positive perceptions of professional and relational aspects of practicing medicine in hospitals, while assuring satisfactory financial conditions, may offer useful avenues for increasing the level of perceived hospital attractiveness. Overall, hospitals are advised to use a differentiated approach to increase their attractiveness to physicians. PMID:24884491

  12. Hospital-physician relations: the relative importance of economic, relational and professional attributes to organizational attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybou, Jeroen; Gemmel, Paul; Van Vaerenbergh, Yves; Annemans, Lieven

    2014-05-21

    Belgian hospitals face a growing shortage of physicians and increasingly competitive market conditions. In this challenging environment hospitals are struggling to build effective hospital-physician relationships which are considered to be a critical determinant of organizational success. Employed physicians of a University hospital were surveyed. Organizational attributes were identified through the literature and two focus groups. Variables were measured using validated questionnaires. Descriptive analyses and linear regression were used to test the model and relative importance analyses were performed. The selected attributes predict hospital attractiveness significantly (79.3%). The relative importance analysis revealed that hospital attractiveness is most strongly predicted by professional attributes (35.3%) and relational attributes (29.7%). In particular, professional development opportunities (18.8%), hospital prestige (16.5%), organizational support (17.2%) and leader support (9.3%) were found to be most important. Besides these non-economic aspects, the employed physicians indicated pay and financial benefits (7.4%) as a significant predictor of hospital attractiveness. Work-life balance and job security were not significantly related to hospital attractiveness. This study shows that initiatives aimed at strengthening physicians' positive perceptions of professional and relational aspects of practicing medicine in hospitals, while assuring satisfactory financial conditions, may offer useful avenues for increasing the level of perceived hospital attractiveness. Overall, hospitals are advised to use a differentiated approach to increase their attractiveness to physicians.

  13. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: What Happened Next

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter; Urban, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an update on what has happened over recent months with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's proposal for an International Early Learning Study, and review responses to the proposed International Early Learning Study, including the concerns that have been raised about this new venture in…

  14. The Economic Geography of South Africa’s International Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Myles Rogerson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The business of international tourism is a growth industry and key driver for economic development in many countries. For national and local policy makers the attraction of international tourists is of major importance for economic and social development. Understanding the flows and impacts of international tourism is a vibrant issue in global tourism scholarship. Although the global flows of international tourism are well documented, much less understood are the spatial patterns of international tourists within national territories. The objective in this paper is to analyse scientifically the overall economic geography of international tourism flows in South Africa. An uneven geographical pattern of development of international tourism is disclosed for the period 2001-2012. In interpreting this spatial distribution it is argued that a conceptual distinction be drawn between the different mobilities of South Africa’s cohorts of long haul as opposed to regional African visitors. The economic geography of international tourism in South Africa is a composite of these two sets of visitors and of their differential flows variously for purposes of leisure, business and VFR travel.

  15. The Trends in International Migration of Human Resources under Conditions of Geo-Economic Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shymanska Kateryna V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the influence of geo-economic transformations on the trends in international migration of human resources as an element of the resource potential of countries and regions. The current state of geo-economic transformations is analyzed, and their influence on the processes of international migration of human resources is revealed. The relevance of analyzing international movement of human resources, not labor ones, in building the geo-economic strategy of a country or a regional grouping is justified. The connection between the international migration of human resources and the trends in development of individual countries and regions (oil exporting countries, newly industrialized countries and least developed agrarian countries is determined, the general patterns of migration flows in these countries are described. Furthermore, the topical issues in studying international migration of human resources in the context of the directions of geo-economics identified by scientists are formulated. It is determined that the regional migration policy should contribute to maximizing the benefits of migration of human resources for the development of the region and the use of immigrants in the countries of the region as an economic resource that becomes strategically important under conditions of geo-economic transformations.

  16. Economic cost of tobacco-related cancers in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Hemantha; Ranaweera, Sajeeva; Ranasinghe, Thushara; Chandraratne, Nadeeka; Kumara, Dinesh Ruwan; Thavorncharoensap, Montarat; Abeykoon, Palitha; de Silva, Amala

    2017-10-27

    Cancer has a high mortality rate and morbidity burden in Sri Lanka. This study estimated the economic cost of smoking and smokeless tobacco (ST) related to cancers in Sri Lanka in 2015. Prevalence-based cost of illness is calculated according to the guidelines of the WHO (2011). The direct costs are costs of curative care (costs of inward patients and outpatient care borne by the state and out of pocket expenditure by households) for tobacco-related cancers, weighted by the attributable fractions for these cancers. Indirect costs are lost earnings due to mortality and morbidity (absenteeism of both patient and carers resulting from seeking care and recuperation).Data were obtained from the Registrar General's Department, National Cancer Registry, Department of Census and Statistics and the Central Bank of Sri Lanka. Household and systemic costs and relative risks were extracted from research studies. Oncologists (working in both public and private sectors), other clinical specialists, medical administrators and economists were consulted during the estimation and validation processes. The total economic cost of tobacco-related cancers for Sri Lanka in 2015 was estimated to be US$121.2 million. The direct cost of smoking and ST-related cancers was US$42.1 million, which was 35% of the total cost, while the indirect cost was US$79.1 million, which was 65% of the total cost. Burden of tobacco smoking and ST-related cancers as reflected in these economic costs is enormous: affecting the healthcare system and country's economy. Policymakers should take note of this burden and address tobacco consumption control as a priority. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Regulation of international energy markets: Economic effects of political actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.

    Recent increases in volatility of energy prices have led many governments to reevaluate their regard of national energy reserves and reconsider future exploration, production, and consumption patterns. The flurry of activity that has been generated by such price volatility has included large-scale nationalizations of energy sectors, unilateral renegotiations of foreign energy development contracts, and expropriations of resources from foreign energy firms on one hand, and on the other hand more rapid energy sector liberalization, intensified search for and development of renewable fuels and technologies, and development of incentives for increased energy efficiency and conservation. The aim of this dissertation is to examine and quantify the extent of positive and negative effects that have resulted from some of these activities. The first chapter focuses on quantifying the effect that nationalistic sentiment has had on economic attractiveness of energy sectors during the decade prior to the recent global economic crisis, as measured by foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Empirical results demonstrate that both political and economic conditions play an important role in investors' decisions. A combination of investment friendliness, corruption levels, and democracy all help to explain the trends in energy-sector investment levels over time in my sample countries, although differences in the types of corruption existing in these nations do not. Investment levels, in turn, appear to influence future levels of oil production, underscoring the significance of good investment policies for future success of energy sectors. Chapter two considers the response of energy stock prices to severe regulatory actions. It employs an event study framework to examine causal effects of critical informational announcements (i.e. events of expropriation and nationalization) on daily returns and cumulative losses in firm value of energy corporations. Results show that a firm

  18. Ethics and Economics in International Business Education: A Comparison of Kuwaiti and U.S. Students Using an Ultimatum Game Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmer, Dennis; Al-Kazemi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In the past 20 years a body of research in behavioral and experimental economics has challenged classical economic theory. Yet, this body of research seems relatively unknown in business education. One behavioral test with implications for international business education has been the use of ultimatum games, which has more recently expanded to…

  19. Economic status and temperature-related mortality in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Bell, Michelle L; Kan, Haidong; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Kim, Ho

    2015-10-01

    In developed countries, low latitude and high temperature are positively associated with the population's ability to adapt to heat. However, few studies have examined the effect of economic status on the relationship between long-term exposure to high temperature and health. We compared heterogeneous temperature-related mortality effects relative to the average summer temperature in high-socioeconomic-status (SES) cities to temperature-related effects in low-SES cities. In the first stage of the research, we conducted a linear regression analysis to quantify the mortality effects of high temperature (at or above the 95th percentile) in 32 cities in Taiwan, China, Japan, and Korea. In the second stage, we used a meta-regression to examine the association between mortality risk with average summer temperature and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In cities with a low GDP per capita (less than 20,000 USD), the effects of temperature were detrimental to the population if the long-term average summer temperature was high. In contrast, in cities with a high GDP per capita, temperature-related mortality risk was not significantly related to average summer temperature. The relationship between long-term average summer temperature and the short-term effects of high temperatures differed based on the city-level economic status.

  20. AN ASSESSMENT ON BILATERAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS TURKEY & AZERBAIJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study shortly deals with bilateral political and economic relations between Turkey and Azerbaijan, of which relations have acquired unique and irreplaceable dimension beyond brotherhood thanks to their common history, culture, religion and language. Within this frame the topic of article, there has been researched in depth as follows: short history of political and diplomatic relations between Azerbaijan and Turkey, bilateral foreign trade of the two states, energy cooperation of Azerbaijan and Turkey, cooperation of Azerbaijan and Turkey in transportation, investment and tourism as well. The topic of article is a current issue. On one hand, the world demands are increasing day by day and on the other hand, the world is shrinking due to fast developing technology and innovations. Considering such, that world we can apperceive the importance of two fields which sometimes interact with each other: energy and transportation. Within this frame, the joint projects of Turkey and Azerbaijan in these fields that will end in the future time have characteristics of creating a big reaction around the world. On this basis, the main aim of study was to reveal the intensive cooperation areas of Turkey and Azerbaijan, their bilateral foreign trade and to find out the problems underlying their bilateral economic relations despite those countries have pretty closed relations. The methodology of research. Literature research, historical method and comparison method have been used for this study.

  1. Financial Development, International Trade and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safana SHAHEEN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study utilizes the Autoregressive-distributed lag (ARDL approach for cointegration and Granger causality test, to explore the long run equilibrium relationship and the possible direction of causality between international trade, financial development and economic growth for the Pakistan economy. Imports plus exports of goods and services is used as a proxy for international trade, while broad money (M2 and gross domestic product (GDP are used as the proxies for financial development and economic growth, respectively. Result explores a long run relationship between the variables. In case of Pakistan, economy supply leading hypothesis is accepted. Moreover, unidirectional causality is observed from international trade to economic growth and from financial development to international trade.

  2. Cultural Dimension of International Relations During Interwar Period: International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation and the Scientific Study of International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara Popa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the past is highly influenced/leaded by the “lens” (readings, ideologies, etc. that have guided us through approaching realities of a specific period of time. In this article, we will discuss the cultural dimension of international relations characteristic for the interwar period , emphasizing , while tracing back on Romanian historiography, the aspects regarding the role that the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation had in organizing the scientifically study of IR and the specific participation of Romania within this League of Nations‘ body activity.

  3. INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF THE ECONOMIC SIMULATION SOFTWARE USAGE IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Antoniuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the research of foreign business simulation usage experience within courses of MBA programs, higher education institutions, as a part of scientific researches and also as a platform for competitions and championships. Development of the information and communication technologies that causes decrease of business simulation purchasing, development and support expenses, gives a chance to expect business simulations usage spreading and expanding to the other potential usage domains. Business simulation development and usage area dynamics enables to conduct tendencies analysis of the market and work out the hypothesis regarding potential new business simulations usage areas. Additionally, business simulation market leaders’ products and services development and adjustments observation is proved to be possible and necessary. Exact business simulations usage examples at the foreign higher education institutions and business schools are described. Systematization of the studied and described business simulations has been performed. Besides, business simulations are proved to be effective for complementing traditional teaching methods and supporting the different domain specialists’ economic competencies development. Foreign experience of the business simulation usage may help to build the basement for the implementation of this learning and scientific research tool at the educational and scientific institution in Ukraine

  4. Civil-Military Relations: Enhancing International Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fekete, Florian

    2003-01-01

    .... In particular, it focuses upon civil-military relationships in the League of Nations and the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and The International Committee of Red Cross...

  5. International Accounting Convergences Related to EU Admitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from January 1, 2005, member countries of the European Union began the obligatory or optional application of the international standards IAS/IFRS for consolidated accounts, what means a revolution in financial reporting of the enterprises. In regards to the individual accounts (generally based on the national book-keeping standards these will converge gradually to referential international book-keeper on short and medium term. At the world level the process which dominates the accounting systems is the convergence between american and international reference system, followed immediatly more or less by the convergence between national accounting systems and the international one. Where Romania and its specialists are situated confronting this process? A reflection subject which finalises this article.

  6. Human Rights and International Relations. Some Remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Mogens Chrom Jacobsen

    2017-01-01

    An introductory note to the this special issue of Nordicum-Mediterraneum, which contains select proceedings from the meeting of the Nordic Summer University (NSU) research circle “Human Rights and International Relations”.

  7. Transatlantic Economic Relations and the Prospects of a New Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Bonciu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the international context in which negotiations between the European Union and United States on a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership have been launched in July 2013. This context includes both the repeated failures of the Doha Round negotiations as well as the previous attempts and achievements of the European Union and United States to create a transatlantic partnership. The author considers that the current circumstances are more favourable for the successful finalization of the transatlantic partnership but, at the same time, stresses the sensitive issues that may delay or divert the negotiations. The paper concludes that there are many possible immediate positive consequences on economic growth and creation of jobs of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership as well as a high potential to expand its implementation in North America through NAFTA and in some other countries that have free trade agreements with either the European Union or the United States.

  8. Socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents: international comparative study in 37 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Currie, Candace; Boyce, Will

    2009-01-01

    ' absolute wealth and economic inequality explained part of the individual level socio-economic variation in health complaints. METHODS: The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) international study from 2005/06 provided data on 204,534 11-, 13- and 15-year old students from nationally random......OBJECTIVES: To use comparable data from many countries to examine 1) socio-economic inequality in multiple health complaints among adolescents, 2) whether the countries' absolute wealth and economic inequality was associated with symptom load among adolescents, and 3) whether the countries...... Affluence Scale FAS) and two macro level measures on the country's economic situation: wealth measured by Gross National Product (GNP) and distribution of income measured by the Gini coefficient. RESULTS: There was a significant socio-economic variation in health complaints in 31 of the 37 countries...

  9. Nuclear power in France: economic aspects and international prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, Y.; Vilain, L.

    2012-01-01

    Concerning the number of employees, nuclear industry is the third industrial sector in France behind car industry and aeronautics. Despite the Fukushima accident nuclear power keeps its prospects high. The huge need for electrical power of emerging countries makes China and India, today's leading countries for the development of nuclear power. China launches a coal plant every week and a reactor every 4 weeks. This Chinese development must be seen as an opportunity for the French nuclear industry that has a long history of cooperation with its Chinese counterpart. In the westernized world the very low growth of the power demand and the development of renewable energies have reduced the nuclear challenge to the life-extension and safety upgrading of today operating reactors. Only 2 European countries: United-Kingdom and Poland have nuclear programs. It is a necessity for the French nuclear industry to contribute to the international development of nuclear power for 2 reasons: first to stay innovative by using up-to-date technologies in building reactors and secondly to be ready and competitive for the future replacement of the French fleet of reactors. (A.C.)

  10. Techniques for Analyzing the Attractiveness of International Commodity Markets Under Conditions of Economic Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Pryhara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines existing techniques and proposes its own for analyzing the attractiveness of international commodity markets in light of the globalization of world economic processes. Taking into account the supranational nature of the world economic environment when examining categories in the attractiveness of international commodity markets, the author introduces a multilevel system of indicators: market attractiveness at the mega-level – global level; market attractiveness at the macro-level national level; market attractiveness at the mezo-level – level of an individual sector. The attractiveness of international commodity markets is considered to be the degree of conformity between market environment factors and the mega-, macro- and mezo-levels of the economic interests of enterprises concerning the entry into and strategies for their activity on the international commodity markets in the short-, medium- and long-term. The author designs a stage-by-stage technique for strategically analyzing the attractiveness of international commodity markets in order to frame efficient market strategies of enterprises. Relying on the proposed techniques, she rates the integrated indicators of market accessibility and the possibility of realizing the economic interests of enterprises in target markets, bringing the index data into a matrix of «market accessibility – opportunity for realizing the economic interests of enterprises.» The analysis of a country’s position in the matrix makes it possible to frame efficient market strategies for enterprises.

  11. Efficiency, equity or disagreement? The economics of international carbon abatement negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabey, N.; Smith, C.

    1995-01-01

    The current international effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as embodied in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, is often criticized as inefficient by economists because it uses uniform targets instead of more theoretically efficient instruments such as international taxes. However, the effectiveness of any international treaty in producing environmental benefits is not wholly dependent on its economic efficiency but also on its political stability and the ability to accurately monitor and enforce its conditions. Stability depends on the magnitude and distribution of costs and benefits between countries which have heterogeneous economies, environmental damages, trading partners and abatement costs. The distribution of costs between countries will also depend on the type of policy instrument used to coordinate international abatement efforts. This paper analyses trade-offs that must be made when negotiating international agreements in order to balance the need for administrative convenience and economic efficiency with the realization that any agreement is better than no agreement

  12. Influence Of International Financial And Economic Organizations On The Development Of Russian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy A. Pashencev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article characteristics and patterns of the impact of the international financial and economic organizations on the development of Russian law in the present-day conditions are described. It is noted, that the international financial and economic organizations firmly rooted in the world. They are based on international agreements, which participants could be also non-State structures. The role of international financial and economic organizations in the development of the negative effects of globalization and the production of global financial crisis is considered. The necessity to change the economic course of our country was proved because of the crisis and sanctions, as well as the need to find new ways of structuring the international financial and economic space, including the basis of the new inter-state unions and a new reserve currency. It is shown that the Russian domestic law should be the barrier against the destabilizing influence of transnational corporations. Legal acts of the Russian Federation defining the terms and scope of cooperation with international economic and financial organizations were analyzed. It is noted, that in accordance with applicable Russian legislation, international financial institutions have the right to invest in Russian companies, including and strategic. It is proved that the situation in the modern world and its negative manifestations determine the need for a number of effective measures and require changes in legislation. It is necessary to make changes in the current Russian legislation, first of all, investment, banking, trade, etc., to develop effective legal mechanisms for the protection of domestic producers and the national market from the expansion of multinational corporations.

  13. System aspects of managing international scientific and technical as well as manufacturing economic cooperation in the nuclear power field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahny, M.

    1988-01-01

    International scientific and technical cooperation in nuclear power is discussed from the angle of systems control aspects. Integration benefit and the development stages of the integration process are mainly treated. The researcher-user relations are analysed in detail in scientific and technical cooperation and its links to economic cooperation. In nuclear power within COMECON countries, the most important field of cooperation currently is the complex program of scientific and technical progress of the COMECON member countries till the year 2000, especially its third priority trend called Accelerated Development of Nuclear Power. The following new quality should be thereby provided for the participating states: the achievement of the world peak standards of technical and economic parameters; the reflection of scientific and technical and economic cooperation in a complete innovatory cycle Science-Technology-Production-Application; the achievement of direct labor relations of the participating research, development, production and end user organizations. (Z.M.). 1 fig., 16 refs

  14. Economic Liberalization and Trade Relations between Mexico and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Hernández Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the commercial relationship between Mexico and China in the context of the liberalization policies enacted by both countries. The policies were developed in the framework of economic globalization and worldwide strategic military power, starting from the end of the Cold War. Against this backdrop, the paper analyses the current trade relations between China and Mexico. The text emphasizes the public policy of both countries, presenting similarities and asymmetries along with the results of their commercial policies and specific business practices.

  15. Policy Analysis, International Relations, and European Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis; Tatham, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights the rationale of the special issue in terms of its objectives and guiding principles. It maps different evolutions and challenges within three analytical streams (1) regarding the field of policy analysis, (2) concerning the interaction between domestic and international...

  16. Internal and External Determinants of Economic Growth: A closer look at Pakistan’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jamil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impact of internal and external determinants of economic growth on the economic growth of Pakistan. Major internal determinants include stock of physical capital and developmental expenditures, while external determinants include trade openness and real effective exchange rate. In doing so, study utilizes the annual time series data from 1972 to 2011. Advanced Autoregressive Distributed Lag model (ARDL approach has been employed for co-integration and error correction model (ECM for short-run results. Empirical investigations indicate that developmental expenditures, physical capital and trade openness are positively correlated with economic growth in long run, while real effective exchange rate negatively and significantly affect economic growth in long run in case of Pakistan.

  17. International Financial Integration and Economic Growth in India: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayia MAHAJAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study endeavors to estimate relationship between international financial integration and economic growth in India during 1981-2011. Apart from direct impact of international financial integration on growth, indirect impact (via financial development has also been studied empirically. Models of co-integration and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM have been applied to examine the relationships. The study observes that international financial integration affects the growth of the economy positively; and change in economic growth due to it through financial development is approximately 8.63 percent. The study also suggests that the structural reforms that took place in India in early nineties did not affect the existing relationship of global financial integration and economic growth significantly.

  18. COMPARATIVE ECONOMIC ELEMENTS OF MINERAL RESOURCES IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kelmendi, Shyqri; Azemi, Fehmi

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of mineral resources or the ore reserves involves a range of technical and economical activities backed by the approved technical rules at the global level, including the laws and circumstances of action at the international trade level of mining activities – basic metals. In the contemporary environment the determination of mineral resources and consequently of ore reserves should be a product of a special technical-economical evaluation – which is widely known as Feasibil...

  19. Modelling economic interdependencies of international tourism Demand : the global vector autoregressive approach.

    OpenAIRE

    CAO, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Tourism demand is one of the major areas of tourism economics research. The current research studies the interdependencies of international tourism demand across 24 major countries around the world. To this end, it proposes to develop a tourism demand model using an innovative approach, called the global vector autoregressive (GVAR) model. While existing tourism demand models are successful in measuring the causal effects of economic variables on tourism demand for a single origin-destinat...

  20. Lived experience of economic and political trends related to globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushon, Jennifer A; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Labonte, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method case study examined how the economic and political processes of globalization have influenced the determinants of health among low-income children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. This paper presents the results from the qualitative interview component of the case study. The purpose of the interviews was to uncover the lived experience of low-income families and their children in Saskatoon with regards to political and economic trends related to globalization, an important addition to the usual globalization and health research that relies primarily on cross-country regressions in which the personal impacts remain hidden. In-depth phenomenological interviews with 26 low-income parents of young children (aged zero to five) who were residents of Saskatoon. A combination of volunteer and criterion sampling was used. Interview questions were open-ended and based upon an analytical framework. Analysis proceeded through immersion in the data, a process of open coding, and finally through a process of selective coding. The larger case study and interviews indicate that globalization has largely not been benefiting low-income parents with young children. Low-income families with young children were struggling to survive, despite the tremendous economic growth occurring in Saskatchewan and Saskatoon at the time of the interviews. This often led to participants expressing a sense of helplessness, despair, isolation, and/or anger. Respondents' experiences suggest that globalization-related changes in social conditions and public policies and programs have great potential to negatively affect family health through either psychosocial effects in individuals and/or decreased levels of social cohesion in the community.

  1. Social Structures in the Economics of International Education: Perspectives from Vietnamese International Tertiary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Lien

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the findings from in-depth interviews with Vietnamese international students studying at Australian universities, this article presents insights into the sociological influences that stem from international students' social networks, at home and abroad, and how they impact on students' aspirations and engagement in international…

  2. Study Of Socio- Economic Factors In Relation To Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahjabeen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: what are the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy and their implications? Objectives: (i To study the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy.(ii To assess the impact of disease on patients’ job/income. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting and Participants: Patients attending the dermatology OPD, J.N. Medical college hospital, A.M.U., Aligarh. Sample size: 200 leprosy patients. Study variables: education, occupation, social class, incapacitation, change in job, reduction in income. Statically analysis: Chi-square test Results: 46% of the leprosy patients were illiterate. A large majority of patients (78% were involved in heavy manual work as farmers and labourers. 68.5% patients belonged to low social classes (IV and V. More males (26.3% suffered from incapacitation than females (8.5%. 2.5% patients lost their job or were unable to work and 11.5% had to change their jobs due to the disease or disability caused by it. 17.5% patients had a history of reduction in their income after occurrence of leprosy.

  3. Carbon dioxide emission and economic growth of China-the role of international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Kofi Baah; Du, Jianguo; Bediako, Isaac Asare; Boamah, Angela Jacinta; Abdul-Rasheed, Alhassan Alolo; Owusu, Samuel Mensah

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the role of international trade in mitigating carbon dioxide emission as a nation economically advances. This study disaggregated the international trade into total exports and total imports. A multivariate model framework was estimated for the time series data for the period of 1970-2014. The quantile regression detected all the essential relationship, which hitherto, the traditional ordinary least squares could not capture. A cointegration relationship was confirmed using the Johansen cointegration model. The findings of the Granger causality revealed the presence of a uni-directional Granger causality running from energy consumption to economic growth; from import to economic growth; from imports to exports; and from urbanisation to economic growth, exports and imports. Our study established the presence of long-run relationships amongst carbon dioxide emission, economic growth, energy consumption, imports, exports and urbanisation. A bootstrap method was further utilised to reassess the evidence of the Granger causality, of which the results affirmed the Granger causality in the long run. This study confirmed a long-run N-shaped relationship between economic growth and carbon emission, under the estimated cubic environmental Kuznet curve framework, from the perspective of China. The recommendation therefore is that China as export leader should transform its trade growth mode by reducing the level of carbon dioxide emission and strengthening its international cooperation as it embraces more environmental protectionisms.

  4. International cost relations in electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.; Duengen, H.; Wilhelm, M.

    1986-01-01

    In spite of the fact that analyses of the cost of electric power generation as the result of international comparative evaluations are indisputably relevant, problems pending in connection with the costs of representative power plant technologies are of the methodological bind. German authors have hitherto also been failing to clear up and consider all aspects connected with the problems of data acquisition and the adequate interpretation of results. The analysis presented by the paper abstracted therefore aims at the following: 1) Systematization of the different categories of cost relevant in connection with international comparative evaluation. Classification into different categories of decision making and development of standards meeting the requirements of international comparative evaluation. 2) Calculation of relevant average financial costs of Western German, America and French fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants by means of adequate calculation models, that is the assessment of costs with regard to countries and power plant technologies which are relevant to the Federal Republic of Germany. 3) Analysis of the resulting differences and determinantal interpretation. (orig./UA) [de

  5. All projects related to | Page 349 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-02-25

    The Economic Committee of the National Assembly (ECNA) of Viet Nam is mandated to review drafts of legislation related to economic management, business activity and monetary affairs (including banking), and to supervise the implementation of state plans for socioeconomic development. Start Date: February 25, 2010.

  6. All projects related to | Page 350 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-02-25

    The Economic Committee of the National Assembly (ECNA) of Viet Nam is mandated to review drafts of legislation related to economic management, business activity and monetary affairs (including banking), and to supervise the implementation of state plans for socioeconomic development. Start Date: February 25, 2010.

  7. Conceptualizing threats to tobacco control from international economic agreements: the Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drope, Jeffrey; McGrady, Benn; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Lencucha, Raphael; Silva, Vera Luiza da Costa E

    2017-10-19

    Using the results of dozens of interviews with key actors involved in tobacco control policymaking, we examine these actors' perceptions of threats to tobacco control policy efforts from international economic policies on trade and investment. We also evaluate, from a legal perspective, the genuine threats that exist or potential challenges that economic policies may pose to the Brazilian government's public health efforts. We find that most actors did not perceive these economic policies as a major threat to tobacco control. Objectively, we found that some threats do exist. For example, Brazil's attempt to ban most tobacco additives and flavorings continues to met resistance at the World Trade Organization.

  8. Complexity Triggered by Economic Globalisation— The Issue of On-Line Betting-Related Match Fixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Andreff

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complexity in mainstream economics consists in high intermediary consumption of mathematics. A new approach to complexity economics dwells upon path-dependent global systems; their emergence and evolving organisation. The focus here is on the complexity of the real economic world due to globalisation. On-line betting related match-fixing is a case in point about which the article presents non-exhaustive empirical evidence and shows how it is analysed with the standard model of the economics of crime. There is no room for complexity in such an individualistic approach to corrupt behaviour applied to bet-related fixes. A more complex model is sketched based on interactions between a global (though underground market for fixes and the actual partly legal, partly illegal global sport betting market. These interactions exhibit how complex is the issue of combating betting-related match fixing. Reviewing those major policies envisaged for containing the latter—prohibition; sanctions; regulation; privatisation (betting rights—the article opts for a global ‘Sportbettobin’ tax on sport betting gains; in the same vein as the famous Tobin tax on international capital transfers. The novelty in this approach is a variable (increasing rate applied to increasing tranches of taxation (gains which should dry up the worst cases of on-line bettingrelated match fixing.

  9. All projects related to Philippines | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-07-19

    International labour migration is a salient feature of regional economic integration and an integral component of development among countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Start Date: July 19, 2009. End Date: December 20, 2011. Topic: MIGRANT WORKERS, FOREIGN WORKERS, WORKING ...

  10. All projects related to Burkina Faso | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Culture and the Exercise of Decision Making by Women in West Africa. Project. This research is grounded in the phenomenon of the simultaneous existence of a legal arsenal of national and international dispositions favorable to the integration of women in economic, political and social decision-making, and weak ...

  11. All projects related to | Page 609 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, South America, Iran, Middle East, Kenya, Pakistan, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, Far East Asia, ... Women (CEDAW) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) are legally bound to put their provisions into practice.

  12. All projects related to Nigeria | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-04-06

    Project. In West Africa, private sector information and communication technology (ICT) firms have demonstrated their capacity to create jobs and stimulate the growth of other economic sectors. Start Date: April 6, 2008. End Date: December 24, 2010. Topic: TRADE LIBERALIZATION, Globalization, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, ...

  13. All projects related to | Page 427 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-07-19

    International labour migration is a salient feature of regional economic integration and an integral component of development among countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Start Date: July 19, 2009. End Date: December 20, 2011. Topic: MIGRANT WORKERS, FOREIGN WORKERS, WORKING ...

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBERS OF INTERNATIONAL TOURIST ARRIVALS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE ASEAN-8: PANEL DATA APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Anggraeni, Garnis Nur

    2017-01-01

    In an open economy, economic growth is not only supported by international trade but may also be supported through the development of tourism. We can use international tourist arrivals as one of indicators of international tourism. This study aimed to examine the factors that influence international tourist arrivals as well as to analyze the relationship between the number of international tourist arrivals and economic growth in the Southeast Asian regions. This study uses panel data regressi...

  15. International Relations and the Paradiplomacy of Brazilian Cities: Crafting the Concept of Local International Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. S. Milani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the broader context of globalization as politics, this paper adopts the following assumption: cities through their transnational cooperation networks and economic projects are the expression of a new political actor that has shifted its scale of operations, and have thus partly emancipated themselves from the monopoly of the nation-state in the deployment of transborder public action. In pursuance of developing this assumption, this paper approaches the discussion on municipal paradiplomacy in three parts: firstly, it presents the historical and theoretical background of paradiplomacy in Brazil; secondly, it looks into the empirical reality of several Brazilian municipalities and their international actions; thirdly, it presents a series of critical questions for analyzing cities and their transnational networks as new political actors in the global arena. Empirically, this paper raises key issues related to the multiple ways in which municipalities throughout Brazil develop transnational activities, whereas analytically it aims to provide a better understanding of their soft-border approach, as well as their pragmatic association between a renewed identity in the global scenario and an innovative strategy of local international management.

  16. Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, engineering oriented work, rather than basic research and development (R&D), has led to significant progress in improving the economics of innovative fast reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities, while maintaining and even enhancing the safety features of these systems. Optimization of plant size and layout, more compact designs, reduction of the amount of plant materials and the building volumes, higher operating temperatures to attain higher generating efficiencies, improvement of load factor, extended core lifetimes, high fuel burnup, etc. are good examples of achievements to date that have improved the economics of fast neutron systems. The IAEA, through its Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) and Technical Working Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options and Spent Fuel Management (TWG-NFCO), devotes many of its initiatives to encouraging technical cooperation and promoting common research and technology development projects among Member States with fast reactor and advanced fuel cycle development programmes, with the general aim of catalysing and accelerating technology advances in these fields. In particular the theme of fast reactor deployment, scenarios and economics has been largely debated during the recent IAEA International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios, held in Paris in March 2013. Several papers presented at this conference discussed the economics of fast reactors from different national and regional perspectives, including business cases, investment scenarios, funding mechanisms and design options that offer significant capital and energy production cost reductions. This Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics addresses Member States’ expressed need for information exchange in the field, with the aim of identifying the main open issues and launching possible initiatives to help and

  17. Czechoslovak production of radioisotopes as part of international socialist economic integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sixteen years' participation is discussed of the Prague Institute for the Research, Production and Use of Radioisotopes (UVVVR) in the international agreement concluded by CMEA countries on the specialization of radioisotope production. The principles of the commitments proceeding from participation in the agreement are given as are statistical data on the range and distribution of production. Czechoslovakia's economic contribution to this area of international socialist division of labour is assessed. (author). 1 tab

  18. All projects related to Brazil | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, South Asia, Egypt, Canada ... Topic: PEACE RESEARCH, PEACE KEEPING, CONFLICT RESOLUTION, ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION, SOUTH SOUTH RELATIONS.

  19. 78 FR 2709 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... hosted by the Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and... meeting will examine the Anti- Bribery Convention, the OECD Working Group on Bribery and related anti... Economic and Business Affairs, at (202) 647-2231 or MaggioGFmailto:@state.gov. Dated: January 8, 2013...

  20. Relative costs to nuclear plants: international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1992-03-01

    This work approaches the relative costs to nuclear plants in the Brazil. It also presents the calculation methods and its hypothesis to determinate the costs, and the nacional experience in costs of investment, operating and maintenance of the nuclear plants

  1. Literacy Achievement and Economic Health: A Correlative Review of National and International Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Monica Fadel

    2012-01-01

    In the face of global economic recession, the competition and collaboration for innovation and future growth among nations has led to discussions of how young people are being prepared to become the next generation of workers and leaders. Although the U.S. has enjoyed a strong presence among the international community since the turn of the…

  2. Lobby of the International Gas Union (IGU) at the economical and political summits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorborg, L.

    1998-01-01

    The IGU (International Gas Union) plans to be the major player in the field of natural gas with respect to economical and political aspects. A brief overview is given of the IGU and its plans for the World Gas Conference in June 2000 in Nice, France

  3. Pacioli 18; Proceedings of the 18th international workshop on micro-economic databases in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.A.; Teeuwen, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The international Pacioli network shares knowledge on the management and use of agricultural micro-economic databases (such as Farm Accountancy Data Networks). Each year a workshop is organised by LEI, part of Wageningen UR, in close collaboration with a local organiser. The Pacioli 18 workshop took

  4. Proceedings of the second international symposium on fire economics, planning, and policy: a global view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando González-Cabán

    2008-01-01

    hese proceedings summarize the results of a symposium designed to address current issues of agencies with wildland fire protection responsibility at the federal and state levels in the United States as well as agencies in the international community. The topics discussed at the symposium included fire economics, theoretical and methodological approaches to strategic...

  5. 76 FR 33399 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... to the advent of cloud computing as a new business model in international trade, the implications of... of State for Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee Chair Ted... and Business Affairs, at (202) 647-2231 or [email protected] . This announcement might appear in the...

  6. The Economics of International Differences in Educational Achievement. NBER Working Paper No. 15949

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    An emerging economic literature over the past decade has made use of international tests of educational achievement to analyze the determinants and impacts of cognitive skills. The cross-country comparative approach provides a number of unique advantages over national studies: It can exploit institutional variation that does not exist within…

  7. Whose Knowledge Counts in International Student Assessments: Examining the AHELO Epistemic Community of Economics Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, David J.

    2016-01-01

    International student assessments have become the "lifeblood" of the accountability movement in educational policy contexts. Drawing upon Stuart Hall's concept of representation, I critically examined who comprises epistemic communities responsible for developing the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Assessment of…

  8. Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey: Economic Impact of COPD in 12 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foo, Jason; Landis, Sarah H; Maskell, Joe; Oh, Yeon-Mok; van der Molen, Thys; Han, MeiLan K; Mannino, David M; Ichinose, Masakazu; Punekar, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Background The Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey estimated the prevalence and burden of COPD across 12 countries. Using data from this survey we evaluated the economic impact of COPD. Methods This cross-sectional, population-based survey questioned 4,343 subjects aged 40 years

  9. Contribution to a Holistic Response to the International Financial and Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Boubacar

    2009-01-01

    The response to the ongoing international crisis is a holistic response due to the multiple effects impacting on the various segments of societies around the world. Since 1945, the world has to perform again, a new leap in terms of development process based on the pressing need for socio-economic reconstruction. The level of globalisation and…

  10. International political communication and influence of information and communication technologies on contemporary international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranješ Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available International political communication can be seen as an auxiliary but also constitutive discipline of the International relations in the wider field of the Political science. At the very core of International relations is Political communication through which the most important actors of world politics realize political goals. This paper presents a short genesis of the development of the International political communication and relation to the International relations. The key terms have been defined, the most important theories have been given and today's global character of International communication has been highlighted. The changes in International politics were analyzed as the consequence of the information and communication revolution and the emergence of modern Information and communication technologies that change the very nature of International relations. An overview of the new communication technologies impact on the main actors (subjects/entities of International relations was made, thus analyzing the impact of this factor on both state and non-state actors. We looked back at the impact of information and communication technologies on an individual who, thanks to the global communications network, became a real actor of world politics. There is also a section of the main theories of International relations and their relation to the challenges brought by the Informatics revolution (IT revolution and the Digital age.

  11. War and Peace in International Relations Theory: A Classroom Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Nathan Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Simulations are increasingly common pedagogical tools in political science and international relations courses. This article develops a classroom simulation that aims to facilitate students' theoretical understanding of the topic of war and peace in international relations, and accomplishes this by incorporating important theoretical concepts…

  12. Africa and the Principles and Theories of International Relations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To what extent have the principles and theories of international relations (as formulated) accommodated the specific needs and circumstances of Africa? In other words, how can the circumstances and peculiarities of Africa be made to shape and influence the established principles and theories of international relations as ...

  13. School Related Factors as Predictors of Internal Efficiency of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    constructed questionnaire tagged 'School Related Factors and Internal Efficiency. Questionnaire' (SRFIEQ) was ... related factors (students/teacher, curriculum deficiency and school organizational climate) and internal efficiency .... universities are not relevant to the needs of the labour market. He stressed that the lecturers ...

  14. Teaching Culture: The Challenges and Opportunities of International Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amiso M.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the challenges and opportunities for international public relations practice. Looks at current United States-Arab relations issues in international crisis communication. Discusses those issues, especially the role of culture and media. Proposes strategies including a case study that teachers can use to help students become effective…

  15. Communications and Public Relations Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Under the supervision of the Regional Director in Nairobi and in contact with the Director, Communications in Ottawa (Canada), the Communications and Public Relations Officer acts as a communications expert, increasing the visibility of the IDRC and its research partners in the Sub-Saharan Africa Region. The incumbent ...

  16. Communications and Media Relations Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Social Media. Working with the Social Media Officer in Ottawa, contributes to the development of IDRC's social media strategy and policy taking the lead for execution in the region. Monitors, reviews, and analyzes comments and conversations on IDRC's social media sites. Brings to the attention of the Media Relations ...

  17. Senior Media Relations Advisor | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Works with IDRC Regional Communications Officers as required as well as keeping staff abreast of media activities emanating from Headquarters. ... Develops monitoring and tracking systems to support high-level media relations services, to ensure consistency in approach and to track trends to highlight opportunities and ...

  18. All projects related to bangladesh | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 438,600.00. Reducing dietary related risks associated with non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh. Project. Bangladesh is undergoing a rapid demographic and epidemiological transition. Region: Bangladesh, Canada. Program: Food, Environment, and Health.

  19. A business to change the world – moral responsibility in textbooks for International Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Andersson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an empirical analysis of textbooks for International Economics in upper secondary schools with a focus on moral responsibility for environment and society. The purpose is to analyse the meanings offered to students regarding the scope of taking moral responsibility in relation to the role of a business person. Four different meanings are formulated as a result of the study: one states that a business only can take responsibility inorder to obey laws and respond to consumer demands, a second and third meaning imply that, a business can make demands, to different extents, on subcontractors. A fourth meaning includes that a business (apart from making profit also can be a tool for change. The different meanings are discussed in relation to different functions of education (Biesta 2008, Säfström 2005 and Education for Sustainable Development. The main argument is that a tool forchange-meaning, contributing to a subjectification function of education, ought to have an increased space in education, if we want students who are engaged in sustainability issues regarding the environment and the society also to see a future working within the business world. This is equally important if we want business students to see a future working for sustainable development.

  20. A hierarchy of needs in international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Hayden, Casey P.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Characterizing U.S.-Russian relations as a new Cold War is nostalgic for many, but it does not accurately describe Russian motivation behind its current behavior. Abraham Maslow, a prominent behavioral psychologist, investigated motivation behind human behavior and concluded that human motivation centers on satisfying five basic "needs." It is plausible to modify his hierarchy of basic human needs and develop a similar hierarchy of basic ...

  1. Economic burden of HPV-related cancers in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borget, I; Abramowitz, L; Mathevet, P

    2011-07-18

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with a range of diseases and cancers at different anatomical sites. In addition to its role as a necessary cause of cervical cancer, HPV is also associated with cancers of the vulva, vagina, anus, penis, head and neck. With the exception of cervical cancer, however, very few data are available on the economic burden of HPV-associated cancers. We assessed the annual costs associated with management of HPV-related cancers in France from the healthcare payers' perspective. We used data from studies that employed similar methodologies to estimate the costs during 2006 for cervical cancer, vulvar and vaginal cancers, anal cancer, and penile cancer, and during 2007 for head and neck cancers. Data on hospital-management costs for cancer were derived from the French national hospital database. The costs of outpatient care and daily allowance costs were estimated using data from the French National Institute of Cancer report for 2007. The costs for HPV-related cancers were estimated according to the percentage of each cancer type attributable to HPV infection. The estimated total costs associated with HPV-related cancers in France were €239.7 million. The overall costs in men were €107.2 million, driven mainly by head and neck cancers (€94.6 million). The total costs in women were €132.5 million, due mainly to invasive cervical cancer (€83.9 million). The costs associated with HPV-related cancers are important to consider when evaluating the overall benefits of HPV vaccination in males and females. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Global Health Cooperation: International Relations' New Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This issue of MEDICC Review appears in the wake of a media splash on the reopening of the Cuban and US embassies in Washington and Havana, signaling the renewal of full diplomatic relations between the two governments. Although the US embargo is still law and one of the thorniest bilateral issues remaining, the Obama administration's bold opening towards Cuba is being echoed in the chambers of Senate committees, calling for an end to the policy in place since 1962. Meanwhile, people from the United States have begun to travel to Cuba in droves, and for the first time in many years, we perceive real hope that cooperation may replace hostility-at least in the sectors that most matter to ordinary people in both nations.

  3. Cross-Strait Economic Relations: Opportunities Outweigh Risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roy, Denny

    2004-01-01

    ...." Taiwan finds the economic opportunities on the mainland irresistible. Yet Taiwan recognizes that trading with China supports the strategy of the country representing Taiwan's chief security threat...

  4. Computational Model for Internal Relative Humidity Distributions in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondwosen Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational model is developed for predicting nonuniform internal relative humidity distribution in concrete. Internal relative humidity distribution is known to have a direct effect on the nonuniform drying shrinkage strains. These nonuniform drying shrinkage strains result in the buildup of internal stresses, which may lead to cracking of concrete. This may be particularly true at early ages of concrete since the concrete is relatively weak while the difference in internal relative humidity is probably high. The results obtained from this model can be used by structural and construction engineers to predict critical drying shrinkage stresses induced due to differential internal humidity distribution. The model uses finite elment-finite difference numerical methods. The finite element is used to space discretization while the finite difference is used to obtain transient solutions of the model. The numerical formulations are then programmed in Matlab. The numerical results were compared with experimental results found in the literature and demonstrated very good agreement.

  5. Efficiency Assessment of Economic International Cooperation in Development of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina V. Beresneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is focused on efficiency assessment of economic cooperation in development of Arctic offshore oil and gas resources. The author developed an economic model based on cost-benefit analysis (CBA. CBA is used in some countries (EU, USA, Australia as an analytic tool to make public policy decisions. CBA is based on the method of discounting cash flows associated with costs and benefits of public policy. It is assumed that all public goals are equally important inter alia, hence public bodies should opt for those initiatives that maximize public benefits for every dollar spent from the state budget. There are five stages of economic modeling: 1 the definition of public benefits and costs associated with the public initiative; 2 monetary valuation of costs and benefits; 3 the definition of discounting period and discounting rate; 4 the calculation of net present value of cash flows; 5 the comparison of initiatives' net present values. The model is built with a number of hypotheses assumed. It allows making evaluation of investments into the technology to decrease the cost of Arctic offshore oil and gas development. Moreover, the model has two scenarios describing a public policy to support technology development with international economic cooperation and without it. Under given hypotheses both scenarios return positive net present value of policies which proves that governmental initiative to support Arctic technology development is economically justified. Also the model sows that the scenario with international cooperation is more efficient from economic point of view. It is explained by two factors: the higher speed of technology transfer (due W international cooperation and the opportunity to use financial leverage (attracting the funds from foreign partners. The model allows closing the existing scientific gap between the theory of CBA method and its practical use in public decision making.

  6. Construction of the economic indicators of performance in relation to environmental, social and corporate governance (ESG factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Kocmanová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on economic performance in relation to environmental, social and corporate governance indicators. Indicators are increasingly used by investors to understand the processes in company, focusing on the key factors. Many international institutions engaged in the development of environmental, social and corporate governance indicators and they are in accordance with financial institutions trying to find a common language in defining the environmental, social and corporate governance indicators affecting their common objectives to achieve sustainable, long-term growth and prosperity. The aim of the article is searching for the way of measuring economic performance of the company in relation to environmental, social and corporate governance indicators. On the basis of analysis of the environmental, social and corporate governance performance indicators of international organizations has been carried out empirical research of economic indicators for the companies in the manufacturing sector. The expected result of the research is the design of the economic indicators of performance in relation to environmental, social and corporate governance indicators. These proposed economic performance indicators should enable companies to measure the economic performance and added value towards sustainability.

  7. Economic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kholopov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO was due to the necessity of the world economy research, and the need to prepare highly skilled specialists in international economics. The school is developing a number of areas, which reflect the Faculty structure. - Economic theory is one of the most important research areas, a kind of foundation of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO. Economic theory studies are carried out at the chair of Economic theory. "The course of economic theory" textbook was published in 1991, and later it was reprinted seven times. Over the past few years other textbooks and manuals have been published, including "Economics for Managers" by Professor S.N. Ivashkovskaya, which survived through five editions; "International Economics" - four editions and "History of Economic Thought" - three editions. - International Economic Relations are carried out by the Department of International Economic Relations and Foreign Economic Activity. Its establishment is associated with the prominent economist N.N. Lyubimov. In 1957 he with his colleagues published the first textbook on the subject which went through multiple republications. The editorial team of the textbook subsequently formed the pride of Soviet economic science - S.M. Menshikov, E.P. Pletnev, V.D. Schetinin. Since 2007, the chair of Foreign Economic Activities led by Doctor of Economics, Professor I. Platonova has been investigating the problems of improving the architecture of foreign economic network and the international competitiveness of Russia; - The history of the study of problems of the world economy at MGIMO begins in 1958 at the chair baring the same name. Since 1998, the department has been headed by Professor A. Bulatov; - The study of international monetary relations is based on the chair of International Finance, and is focused on addressing the fundamental scientific and practical problems; - The chair "Banks, monetary circulation

  8. The Relational Concurrence of Global Warming and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt has been made to examine the concurrent relationship between global warming and economic development focusing on the danger it inheres in developing countries. To achieve this, the paper commenced with the conceptualization of global warming and economic development, the natural and human causes ...

  9. Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or…

  10. F.S. Northedge and English School of International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor V. Mironov

    2017-01-01

    This article is devoted to English historian F.S. Northedge (1918-1985) and his role in the development conception of international society and English School of International relations in 1960-1980. This school consists of small group of scientists and diplomats, who were well educated in elite British universities like Cambridge and Oxford. They were acquainted with each other personally. British Committee for the Theory of International Politics in 1960-1970 was the center for the stud...

  11. Global assemblages and structural models of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Rather than consigning assemblages to the micro-politics of international relations, the chapter argues that assemblages can also be seen to play a role in the ‘grand’ structures of international relations. Structural IR theory normally only considers how subjects are ordered – hierarchically......, anarchically, in core-periphery relations or in terms of networks. However, not only subjects but also assemblages – the bringing together of previously unconnected elements into novel constellations – play a critical role in structuring international relations. More specifically, one sub......-category of assemblages – those constructed as malleable and governable which I call ‘governance-objects’ – is central to structure in international relations. The chapter begins with standard definitions of what structures are – patterns of interaction between elements – and briefly covers the range of models currently...

  12. User Guide for the International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) model is a freely available economic model that estimates gross economic impacts from wind, solar, and geothermal energy projects for several different countries. Building on the original JEDI model, which was developed for the United States, I-JEDI was developed under the USAID Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to support countries in assessing economic impacts of LEDS actions in the energy sector. I-JEDI estimates economic impacts by characterizing the construction and operation of energy projects in terms of expenditures and the portion of these expenditures made within the country of analysis. These data are then used in a country-specific input-output (I-O) model to estimate employment, earnings, gross domestic product (GDP), and gross output impacts. Total economic impacts are presented as well as impacts by industry. This user guide presents general information about how to use I-JEDI and interpret results as well as detailed information about methodology and model limitations.

  13. Solidarity and its limits for economic integration in the EU’s internal market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2018-01-01

    Solidarity is applicable to multiple strands of Union law, including in the fostering of an internal market. Whereas the internal market has always held constitutional status, the objects that underlie it came about much later. The question of how solidarity, as a principle, value, and concept...... of the internal market, but also for the purposes of economic integration. The article demonstrates that solidarity in law can be a reason or justification for measures to promote the treaty-based aim of the internal market. Yet simultaneously, it finds that solidarity is not an all-encompassing principle, value......, or concept in absolute terms, and has limits for utilisation in the spirit of European integration. Conclusively, by demonstrating the limits of solidarity as a ‘legal’ principle, value, or concept, the article asks whether it is time to reassess the role that solidarity should play in Union law...

  14. POS 591: International Relations Seminar "The Modern World-System."

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Patrick J.

    The syllabus outlines a college level international relations seminar with a neo-Marxist theoretical orientation. The objective of the seminar is to present an historical and comparative approach to a study of the evolution of the international political economy. Following an introduction explaining seminar objectives, grading, and course…

  15. All projects related to South Africa | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    All projects related to South Africa. Keyword Search. Topics ... Improving Labour Market Outcomes for the Poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. Project ... Negotiations around intellectual property rights (IPR) are increasingly a key factor in international trade and an important item on the international development agenda. Start Date: ...

  16. All projects related to nigeria | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although birth and death rates are still relatively high in Africa, African populations display some of the most youthful age structures in the world. ... Consumer Unity &Trust Society (CUTS International) is an international research, advocacy and networking organization based in India, with resource centres in Kenya, Viet ...

  17. Argument in the greenhouse. The international economics of controlling global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabey, N.; Hall, S.; Smith, C.; Gupta, S.

    1997-01-01

    This book adds a significant new contribution to the crucial climate change/global warming debate. Incorporating the key political and legal considerations into 'real world' applied economic analysis, the authors provide a unique focus on the wider political economy of the problem. All the key issues of controlling climate change (costs, timing and degree of stabilisation, ecological tax reform, developing countries, and evolution of international agreements), are placed firmly within the current legal and political economy context, with state-of-the art economic techniques introduced to analyse different policy proposals. Covering both the developing and developed world, this book identifies important new policies to foster effective agreements on emissions and prevent global warming - realistic policies, likely to receive support at both international and domestic levels. (Author)

  18. Economic journal: problems and prospects of promotion at the national and international level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Valentinovna Tret’yakova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of scientific journals for the development of academic science in general, for outlining the main research priorities, for establishing the integrity of research space and continuity of scientific process sets out new issues connected with the development and promotion of scientific titles at the national and international level. The article generalizes the publishing experience of the journal “Economic and social changes: facts, trends, forecast”, issued by the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The author gives the characteristics of the Journal as a scientific publication devoted to the analysis and forecast of changes in the economy and social sphere in different countries, regions and local areas. Special attention is paid to the evaluation of the title according to several dynamic parameters. The article outlines long-term objectives for promotion of the Journal at the national and international level

  19. F.S. Northedge and English School of International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor V. Mironov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to English historian F.S. Northedge (1918-1985 and his role in the development conception of international society and English School of International relations in 1960-1980. This school consists of small group of scientists and diplomats, who were well educated in elite British universities like Cambridge and Oxford. They were acquainted with each other personally. British Committee for the Theory of International Politics in 1960-1970 was the center for the study of International Society. Such composition of the school demonstrated aristocratic character of the International relations study as intellectual pursuit in United Kingdom. Meanwhile, such people like Charles Manning, Fred Northedge, Edward Carr and some other famous people, who usually were English School members, did not taken part in the British Committee due to different reasons. Thus, F.S. Northedge was untypical participant of English school and his scientific heritage need to be studied. Key factors of his biography and his views on International Policy are studies in the article. “Diplomatic style”, “System of the state” and “International society” were the central concepts in his works. He met with these ideas in the London School of economy, where Charles Manning, Martin Wight and Headley Bull – founders of English School - had worked at International relations chair in different time. The analysis of these categories let make conclusion that F. Northedge agreed with main ideas of English School of International relations. But at the same time he understood them very originally. His system of the views demonstrated that British Committee for the Theory of International Politics, but not London School of economy, was the main center for the development conception of International Society in 1960-1980.

  20. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water... the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related... Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land...

  1. 29 CFR 2509.08-1 - Supplemental guidance relating to fiduciary responsibility in considering economically targeted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental guidance relating to fiduciary responsibility... guidance relating to fiduciary responsibility in considering economically targeted investments. This... “economically targeted investments,” that is, investments selected for the economic benefits they create apart...

  2. International labour migration in the Asian-Pacific region: patterns, policies and economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, P

    1993-11-01

    "This paper reviews the literature on international labour migration from and within the Asian-Pacific region. It deals with patterns and characteristics of migration flows, government policies towards labour migration, and economic implications of labour migration for both labour-exporting and importing countries in the region. The indications are that, despite gradual slowing down of labour flows to the western industrial countries and the Middle East, labour migration will continue to be a major economic influence on surplus-labour countries in the region. As an integral part of the growth dynamism in the region, labour migration has now begun to take on a regional dimension, with immense implications for the process of industrial restructuring in high growth economies and the changing pattern of economic interdependence among countries." excerpt

  3. Integrated Evaluation Method-Based Technical and Economic Factors for International Oil Exploration Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Guo; Dongkun Luo; Xu Zhao; Jianliang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing international oil exploration projects is one of the main challenges for oil companies in obtaining investment benefits. This paper establishes an integrated evaluation model to maximize investment benefits within the constraints of technical and economic factors, including geological factors, resource quality, geographic conditions, the investment environment, and oil contracts. The paper also proposes a dynamic calculation method of indicators’ weight associated with oil prices. ...

  4. The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    summits have, for example, focused on financial regulatory reform, global imbalances , funding for the International Monetary Fund (IMF), voting...presidency, which is held by Russia in 2013. The Russian government indicated that it wanted to use its presidency to focus on macroeconomic and financial...summit meetings. Macroeconomic policies discussed in the G-7 context included exchange rates, balance of payments, globalization, trade, and economic

  5. Back to the Future: International Education in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerness, Martin D.; Beaman, Ronda

    1994-01-01

    Finds few offerings of university courses emphasizing international public relations across the United States, despite global trends underlining increased internationalization. Argues that individuals and organizations must take account of those trends to stay abreast of the changing environment. (SR)

  6. All projects related to | Page 301 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH NETWORKS, INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT THEORY, STRATEGIC PLANNING. Region: Middle East, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, West Indies, North and Central America, South America, North of Sahara, Canada.

  7. Argentina: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2006-01-01

    .... Current President N stor Kirchner, elected in 2003, has made bold policy moves in the areas of human rights, institutional reform, and economic policy that have helped restore Argentines faith in democracy...

  8. Argentina: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2006-01-01

    Argentina's restructuring of over $100 billion in defaulted bond debt in June 2005 demonstrated the country's emergence from its 2001-2002 economic crisis that had caused severe stress on the political system...

  9. Global climate change. Economic dimensions of a cooperative international policy response beyond 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the economic implications of a range of international abatement strategies and to identify the most cost effective approaches to achieve given environmental objectives. International responses to concerns about global warming are discussed and trends in sectoral and global patterns of production, consumption and trade are examined with a view to providing a business as-usual scenario for carbon dioxide emissions to the year 2020. The study uses a dynamic general equilibrium model of the world economy, MEGABARE. Simulation results for alternative stabilisation and emission reduction targets are also presented. Policy options are evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in stabilizing carbon dioxide emissions and impact on economic welfare in various countries and regions, including an analysis of the feedhack effects of policies on developing countries. Equity principles and rules, and joint implementation issues are also considered. The focus is on designing approaches to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by the same amount as stabilisation policies, but at lower cost to the international community and with more equitable sharing of costs. An analysis of tradable carbon dioxide emission quota schemes is provided and some broad policy conclusions are noted in the final chapter on the economic impacts of emission abatement policies. 84 refs., 22 tabs., 50 figs

  10. Economic values of pork production related traits in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SERENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate economic values for sow efficiency and meat production traits in the Finnish pork production system including the consideration for subsidies. Economic values were estimated by developing a bio-economic model that describes the Finnish production system. Genetic improvement estimates for meat production traits were also developed in order to evaluate how much genetic gain is reduced due to selection for meat quality. Results showed that the highest economic values, when expressed in genetic standard deviations, were obtained for total number of piglets born (€2.07 per piglet, feed conversion ratio (€2.07 per feed unit per kg, and lean meat percentage (€1.69 per %. Economic values for litter size, piglet mortality, sows length of productive life, and lean meat percentage increased when subsidies were not accounted for in the bio-economic model. Results show further that meat quality should have 15–20 percent weight in the Finnish production trait index in order to prevent its deterioration. When the selection weights are 15–20% for meat quality, the expected loss in genetic gain is approximately 3 percent for other production traits when compared to selection indices where meat quality traits are not included.;

  11. Rethinking the "diseases of affluence" paradigm: global patterns of nutritional risks in relation to economic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ezzati

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases and their nutritional risk factors--including overweight and obesity, elevated blood pressure, and cholesterol--are among the leading causes of global mortality and morbidity, and have been predicted to rise with economic development.We examined age-standardized mean population levels of body mass index (BMI, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol in relation to national income, food share of household expenditure, and urbanization in a cross-country analysis. Data were from a total of over 100 countries and were obtained from systematic reviews of published literature, and from national and international health agencies. BMI and cholesterol increased rapidly in relation to national income, then flattened, and eventually declined. BMI increased most rapidly until an income of about ID 5,000 (international dollars and peaked at about ID 12,500 for females and ID 17,000 for males. Cholesterol's point of inflection and peak were at higher income levels than those of BMI (about ID 8,000 and ID 18,000, respectively. There was an inverse relationship between BMI/cholesterol and the food share of household expenditure, and a positive relationship with proportion of population in urban areas. Mean population blood pressure was not correlated or only weakly correlated with the economic factors considered, or with cholesterol and BMI.When considered together with evidence on shifts in income-risk relationships within developed countries, the results indicate that cardiovascular disease risks are expected to systematically shift to low-income and middle-income countries and, together with the persistent burden of infectious diseases, further increase global health inequalities. Preventing obesity should be a priority from early stages of economic development, accompanied by population-level and personal interventions for blood pressure and cholesterol.

  12. Rethinking the "Diseases of Affluence" Paradigm: Global Patterns of Nutritional Risks in Relation to Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzati Majid

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular diseases and their nutritional risk factors-including overweight and obesity, elevated blood pressure, and cholesterol-are among the leading causes of global mortality and morbidity, and have been predicted to rise with economic development. Methods and Findings We examined age-standardized mean population levels of body mass index (BMI, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol in relation to national income, food share of household expenditure, and urbanization in a cross-country analysis. Data were from a total of over 100 countries and were obtained from systematic reviews of published literature, and from national and international health agencies. BMI and cholesterol increased rapidly in relation to national income, then flattened, and eventually declined. BMI increased most rapidly until an income of about I$5,000 (international dollars and peaked at about I$12,500 for females and I$17,000 for males. Cholesterol's point of inflection and peak were at higher income levels than those of BMI (about I$8,000 and I$18,000, respectively. There was an inverse relationship between BMI/cholesterol and the food share of household expenditure, and a positive relationship with proportion of population in urban areas. Mean population blood pressure was not correlated or only weakly correlated with the economic factors considered, or with cholesterol and BMI. Conclusions When considered together with evidence on shifts in income-risk relationships within developed countries, the results indicate that cardiovascular disease risks are expected to systematically shift to low-income and middle-income countries and, together with the persistent burden of infectious diseases, further increase global health inequalities. Preventing obesity should be a priority from early stages of economic development, accompanied by population-level and personal interventions for blood pressure and cholesterol.

  13. Change, Institutions, and International Organisations : Essays on the English School of International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Friedner Parrat, Charlotta

    2017-01-01

    The overall topic of this thesis is the English School understanding of international order, which I approach specifically by analysing the English School idea of international institutions and their change. The purpose is to develop the theory in a meta-theoretically conscious and coherent way. The three essays in this volume are independent in relation to each other, yet in some ways cumulative. Essays I and II aim to address primarily the question of how to conceptualise the current intern...

  14. International organizations as corporate actors: Agency and emergence in theories of international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Maier-Rigaud, Remi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the implicit and explicit conceptualizations of international organizations found in the three major theories of international relations are outlined and compared. It turns out that in a neorealist framework, international organizations can be explained; however, they exhibit no autonomy and cannot therefore be conceptualized as a corporate actor. Principally, the same applies to rational choice institutionalism, although limited autonomy is conceivable. Both theories are reduc...

  15. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Hanson, M.E.; Huddleston, J.R. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively.

  16. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Wolsko, T.D.; Hanson, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively

  17. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Hanson, M.E.; Huddleston, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively

  18. All projects related to | Page 226 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Welfare Evaluation and the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Water Supply and Demand in Chile, Colombia, and Bolivia. Project. While countries in Latin America have a relatively plentiful supply of water on a per-capita basis and high coverage of water supply services, there is ample evidence that water scarcity is ...

  19. All projects related to colombia | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Welfare Evaluation and the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Water Supply and Demand in Chile, Colombia, and Bolivia. Project. While countries in Latin America have a relatively plentiful supply of water on a per-capita basis and high coverage of water supply services, there is ample evidence that water scarcity is ...

  20. All projects related to | Page 250 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Total Funding: CA$ 833,600.00. Contributions of Global Health Diplomacy to Health Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa:Evidence and Information to Support Capabilities for Health Diplomacy. Project. Health is becoming a core feature of global negotiations, whether they relate to trade, economic growth, or social development.

  1. All projects related to | Page 66 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will increase awareness and access to economic and policy data for tobacco and alcohol-related policies in sub-Saharan Africa among researchers, policymakers, and public health advocates. Topic: TOBACCO, DATA ANALYSIS, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, INFORMATION DISSEMINATION, POLICY ...

  2. All projects related to | Page 71 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will increase awareness and access to economic and policy data for tobacco and alcohol-related policies in sub-Saharan Africa among researchers, policymakers, and public health advocates. Topic: TOBACCO, DATA ANALYSIS, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, INFORMATION DISSEMINATION, POLICY ...

  3. All projects related to | Page 19 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Technologies like the Internet and mobiles are disrupting many things, including traditional economic systems, banking and communications systems, and socioeconomic and gender relations. Region: ... A number of studies in recent years have reported disturbingly high levels of violence against women in the workplace.

  4. All projects related to egypt | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-07-10

    All projects related to egypt. Keyword Search. Topics ... Displaying 31 - 40 of 41. Poverty, Job Quality and Labor Market Dynamics in the Middle East and North Africa ... Competitiveness on the part of Egyptian enterprises is regarded as one of the key factors in the country's economic development. Start Date: July 10, 2006.

  5. A Study in Historical Materialism and International Relations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historical materialism as a discourse assumes that the economic determines the political and other dimensions of society. Nigeria had set specific conditions for renewed relations with apartheid South Africa. These were yet to be met and the intensity that characterised Nigeria's pursuance of an aggressive anti-apartheid ...

  6. All projects related to Colombia | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: North and Central America, South America, Colombia, Canada. Total Funding: CA$ 2,800,000.00. Welfare Evaluation and the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Water Supply and Demand in Chile, Colombia, and Bolivia. Project. While countries in Latin America have a relatively plentiful supply of water on a ...

  7. All projects related to ethiopia | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ ... Studies have related maternal mortality to stage of economic development and access to reproductive services. Start Date: May 31, ... Linking Macro Development Policies to Child Poverty in Ethiopia's Second Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2006-2010). Project.

  8. All projects related to ethiopia | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ ... Studies have related maternal mortality to stage of economic development and access to reproductive services. Start Date: May 31, ... Linking Macro Development Policies to Child Poverty in Ethiopia's Second Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2006-2010). Project.

  9. All projects related to Senegal | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The feminization of poverty in Sénégal seems largely related to women's difficulty in accessing resources, notably land. Start Date: November ... Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: ... Topic: ECONOMIC RECESSION, Poverty, VULNERABLE GROUPS, SOCIAL SERVICES, Poverty alleviation. Region: Senegal ...

  10. All projects related to lebanon | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Displaying 11 - 20 of 39. Renegotiating Arab Civil-Military Relations: Political and Economic Governance in Transition ... Region: Middle East, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Philippines, Lebanon ... Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in Lebanon. Project.

  11. All projects related to | Page 203 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Welfare Evaluation and the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Water Supply and Demand in Chile, Colombia, and Bolivia. Project. While countries in Latin America have a relatively plentiful supply of water on a per-capita basis and high coverage of water supply services, there is ample evidence that water scarcity is ...

  12. A Dynamic Approach to the Analysis of Soft Power in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses soft power in international relations and the soft power of China’s foreign policy in recent years. After presenting a critique of the soft power theory developed by Joseph S. Nye, the paper provides an alternative interpretation of soft power. The author proposes a dynamic analysis of soft power in international relations, and argues that whether a power resource is soft or hard depends on the perceptions and feelings of various actors in specific situations. Due to the varying degrees of acceptance, power can be divided into hard power, soft power and bargaining power. An analysis should look at the soft or hard effectiveness of a power resource from three perspectives–horizontally, vertically and relatively. Recently, the soft power of China’s foreign policy and international behavior has mainly been manifested in multilateralism, economic diplomacy and a good-neighborly policy.

  13. Crisis and Dialectics of some Fundamental Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Pohoata

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenology of crisis is one of the most complex tasks that economics undertook and undertakes to discern. Crisis is not a new phenomenon. As a cycle sequence, either long or short, it entered the "normality" of the economic dynamics. The big ones, like the one in '29-'33 and the current one, escape this register. Their width, development and consequences make them special phenomena. In explaining them, thousands of pages were consumed. The fact they reoccur raises tormenting questions. The attempts to answer these questions followed either a technical line of one supported by the "human nature". As we use the first variant, we shall try to tackle this topical issue called crisis from the perspective of the correlations existing between economic variables. If when operating normally economy may be in extremis associated to a Newtonian mechanics, crisis changes things.

  14. INTERNAL AUDIT AS AN ATTRIBUTE OF MANAGEMENT DURING THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Susmanschi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Internal audit provides through its tasks reasonable assurance that decisions implemented and on-going objectives are under control. Internal audit has passed from a simple check to a role in assisting management in order to have better control over operations, thus the internal audit function overcomes its primordial role to provide simple stage directions functional, following his path to becoming a useful leverage to optimize the company. Any company, irrespective of its business and operating environment, faces a number of risks, frauds. The most effective tools in preventing fraud are management control and internal audit, the latter being of prime importance in the field of corporate governance. The present paper follows to highlight the place and role that internal audit has in the economic entities which it is labeled as an attribute of management. A negative element identified at the level of the affected companies is the failure to identify risk management, due to increasing complexity of services and risky nature of the business. Although internal audit is not responsible for implementation of actions as a response to risks, it is responsible for providing reports to the management of significant information showing key risk assessment and so helps the management to become more efficient.

  15. Population, Productivity and Economic Growth Relations: the Case of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationship between population, elderly population and economic growth is analyzed theoretically, taking into account the demographic change of the Bulgarian population and the more aging phenomenon. Thus, the change in the age structure of the Bulgarian population was investigated and the factors affecting the growth of the relationship between economic growth were investigated. In this study, attempts were made to determine the size of the changes taking place in the country's economy, depending on the livelihoods in Bulgaria.

  16. Integration of hydrothermal-energy economics: related quantitative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    A comparison of ten models for computing the cost of hydrothermal energy is presented. This comparison involved a detailed examination of a number of technical and economic parameters of the various quantitative models with the objective of identifying the most important parameters in the context of accurate estimates of cost of hydrothermal energy. Important features of various models, such as focus of study, applications, marked sectors covered, methodology, input data requirements, and output are compared in the document. A detailed sensitivity analysis of all the important engineering and economic parameters is carried out to determine the effect of non-consideration of individual parameters.

  17. A macro-economic framework for evaluation of cyber security risks related to protection of intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrijcic, Eva; Horowitz, Barry

    2006-08-01

    The article is based on the premise that, from a macro-economic viewpoint, cyber attacks with long-lasting effects are the most economically significant, and as a result require more attention than attacks with short-lasting effects that have historically been more represented in literature. In particular, the article deals with evaluation of cyber security risks related to one type of attack with long-lasting effects, namely, theft of intellectual property (IP) by foreign perpetrators. An International Consequence Analysis Framework is presented to determine (1) the potential macro-economic consequences of cyber attacks that result in stolen IP from companies in the United States, and (2) the likely sources of such attacks. The framework presented focuses on IP theft that enables foreign companies to make economic gains that would have otherwise benefited the U.S. economy. Initial results are presented.

  18. Effect of Environmental Risk and Externalizing Comorbidity on Internalizing Problems Among Economically Disadvantaged African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwen; Bolland, John; Dick, Danielle; Mustanski, Brian; Kertes, Darlene A

    2016-09-01

    This study examined effects of racial discrimination, community violence, and stressful life events on internalizing problems among African American youth from high poverty neighborhoods ( N = 607; 293 boys; M age = 16.0 years, SD = 1.44 years). Mediated effects via externalizing problems on these relations were also examined, given the high comorbidity rate between internalizing and externalizing problems. Externalizing problems partially mediated the effect of stressful life events on internalizing problems and fully mediated the effect of racial discrimination for boys but not for girls. Exposure to violence had a significant indirect effect on internalizing problems via externalizing problems. The findings call for greater attention to internalizing problems among African American youth and pathways to internalizing problems via externalizing problems.

  19. Relation between heavy metals level in soil and some economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekpo

    KEY WORDS: Biomagnification, heavy metals, soils, economic crops. INTRODUCTION. Quarrying is a major land used activity in. Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State,. Nigeria. Due to the availability of mineral deposits in commercial quantity in the area, the mining activity provides large tones of chippings ...

  20. Gender and Relative Economic Efficiency in Sweet Potato Farms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants in small-scale sweet potato production in Imo State, Nigeria on gender basis. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 sweet potato farmers (64 females and 56 males) in the ...

  1. The Relational Concurrence of Global Warming and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    global warming and economic development focusing on the danger it inheres in ... that both developing and developed countries should sink their differences, .... with time. Other fossils exist but are still under investigation. These fossil fuels contribute greatly to human existence in the areas of. Electricity generation and ...

  2. Testing for Long-Run Relation between Economic Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the short run, the results revealed that the previous GDP has positive effect on current GDP; and higher export earnings of cocoa have positive effect on GDP. Feedback causality is observed between economic growth (GDP) and export earnings of cocoa. This suggests a bi-directional causality from export earnings to ...

  3. Economic Implications of Patient-Related Factors in Diabetes Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Cobden (David)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDiabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by high blood sugar levels with serious complications, particularly if it is not adequately treated. It is increasingly prevalent and burdensome from both a health and economic standpoint globally, amounting to hundreds of billions of

  4. Testing for Long-Run Relation between Economic Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael O. Mensah

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... Abstract. In this study, we explore the causal influence of export earnings of cocoa towards economic growth (i.e., gross domestic product (GDP)). .... β β. = + such that t. Z is I(0). If we define the vectors. ( ). 1,. 1. 2,. 2 .... first column (GDP as the endogenous variable). The coefficients of the cointegrating ...

  5. International Information, Education and Cultural Relations: Recommendations for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC. Center for Strategic and International Studies.

    The report analyzes American government programs in international information, education, and cultural relations in order to provide recommendations for program improvement. A history of public diplomacy programs since World War II traces creation of the United States Information Agency (USIA) and the Bureau of Cultural Relations (CU) and analyzes…

  6. International academic cooperation on international relations in the interwar period : the International Studies Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, Michael

    Based on considerable archival research in Switzerland and France, this article considers the creation of specialised institutions and centres for scientific research, discussion and information on international questions after the First World War. It analyses the origins and development of the

  7. International Investment in Education for Development: Public Good or Economic Tool?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Draxler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Is education a human right or a driver of economic development? How international organisations frame their strategies is determined to a great extent by their response to this question. This chapter argues that a sound education system is one that is rights-based and seeks to achieve social cohesion, equality of access, and equity of opportunity. Efforts to generate economic returns from education to individuals and societies, while important, should not dominate development policies. As the post-2015 Development Agenda emerges, tensions between those who perceive education as a human right and those who see it as a tool of economic development are increasingly coming to the fore, notably due to growing influence and interest among international private entities, both foundations and corporations, in steering the agenda towards the development of market opportunities. The author argues that preserving the role of the state as the ultimate democratic arbiter of rights, equality, and equity is the only way, albeit imperfect, of guaranteeing education as a public good.

  8. How Relational Capabilities Matter? Organizational Context and Performance of Internationally Oriented SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Ciszewska-Mlinarič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article sheds light on the organizational context enhancing development of relational capabilities and examines the significance of relational capabilities for SMEs’ financial and non-financial performance. The firm relational capability is measured separately in customers’ and suppliers’ networks. The research results reveal that fostering internal social capital coupled with the usage of economic motivators augment a firm relational capability in a supplier network, which in turn is associated with better performance results, both financial and non-financial. The results on relational capability in a customer network with respect to performance are less conclusive, indicating that vertical ties that internationally oriented SMEs develop (with suppliers and customers are not of equal importance.

  9. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water... ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation... Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and...

  10. 78 FR 31521 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water... the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related.... L. 110-114) directed the Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles...

  11. All projects related to Mexico | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: MODELS, Fiscal policy, TAX SYSTEMS, TAX REFORM, TAXATION, INCOME DISTRIBUTION, DEMOGRAPHIC ASPECTS, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SOCIAL ... Topic: PEACE RESEARCH, CONFLICT RESOLUTION, DEMOCRATIZATION, ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION, Economic and social development.

  12. International Workshop on “Generalized Concavity, Fractional Programming and Economic Applications”

    CERN Document Server

    Castagnoli, Erio; Martein, Laura; Mazzoleni, Piera; Schaible, Siegfried

    1990-01-01

    Generalizations of convex functions have been used in a variety of fields such as economics. business administration. engineering. statistics and applied sciences.· In 1949 de Finetti introduced one of the fundamental of generalized convex functions characterized by convex level sets which are now known as quasiconvex functions. Since then numerous types of generalized convex functions have been defined in accordance with the need of particular applications.· In each case such functions preserve soine of the valuable properties of a convex function. In addition to generalized convex functions this volume deals with fractional programs. These are constrained optimization problems which in the objective function involve one or several ratios. Such functions are often generalized convex. Fractional programs arise in management science. economics and numerical mathematics for example. In order to promote the circulation and development of research in this field. an international workshop on "Generalized Concavi...

  13. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  14. Reading comics for the field of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    This article draws attention to a medium that has escaped the attention of International Relations scholars: comics. Comics are combinations of text and drawings and they come in a variety of formats: as newspaper strips, as stories printed in magazines and as long narratives presented in free...... through which central questions on the research agenda of International Relations scholars working on visuality, practices and intertextuality can be pursued. Drawing on comics scholarship, this article presents a theoretical framework aimed specifically at analysing comics as international relations......-standing books. Comics have been central to how generations of children have encountered foreign places and comics artists have successfully captured public attention, with comics offering explicit engagements with foreign policy events. Theoretically, comics provide a unique combination of text and images...

  15. Idealism and realism in International Relations: an ontological debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Ramon Fernandes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The debate between realism and idealism continues to mark the discipline of International Relations. On the one hand, realism argues that international politics is a struggle for power and a quest for survival, which results in a condition of permanent conflict between States without any possibility of evolution or progress. On the other hand, idealism considers it possible to build a world of peaceful coexistence, prosperity and well-being, achieved through cooperation and based on values and aspirations shared by humans. The object of this article is to analyse the debate between idealism and realism, considering it as an ontological debate and taking into account the controversy it has generated. The argument presented here is that both realism and idealism are two responses to the creation and maintenance of international order, that is, how States relate in international society; however these responses are not mutually exclusive and can coexist in constant tension with one another. An analysis of internationalist thought of two authors, Hans Morgenthau and Raymond Aron, is also presented, which relates to how they are positioned in this debate as well as International Relations as a whole.

  16. Host-Country Related Risk Factors in International Construction: Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güzin AYDOGAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization has been on the agenda of construction firms as a strategic option in global competition. Due to globalization every sector including the construction industry has faced with high levels of competitiveness, uncertainty, and risk. International construction involves common risks to domestic construction, as well as risks that are related to the host country. These risks have serious effects on the performance of international projects. Since the sustainable competitiveness of international contractors depends largely on the effective management of these risks, their assessment becomes vital for the success of international contractors. The main aim of this study is to analyse the risks for international construction projects that are related to the host country. Meta-analysis technique is used in order to determine these risks. This paper, therefore, reviews the literature that has been published in four most respected construction and management journals, these being; Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Journal of Management in Engineering, Construction Management and Economics, and International Journal of Project Management for the period of 2000-2010. International construction risk assessment models are also reviewed within the context of this study, since host country related risk factors were found to have serious effects on the profitability of international contractors due to literature review. As a result; political stability, law and regulations, exchange rate risk, cultural differences, inflation, expropriation, tax discrimination, language barrier, bribery and corruption, force majeure, and societal conflicts in the host country are found to be the most important risk factors in international construction. Findings of this study can be used in risk assessment models for international construction projects.

  17. Impact of the economic crisis on health-related behaviors in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Giorgio; De Vogli, Roberto; Ferrari, Silvia; Pingani, Luca; Rigatelli, Marco; Galeazzi, Gian Maria

    2017-11-01

    Evidence exists supporting the impact of the Great Recession on health-related behaviors internationally, though few studies are available concerning the Italian population. To assess the impact of the late 2000s economic crisis on health-related behaviors linked to population mental health in Italy. Descriptive study. Health indicators came from the Italian Institute of Statistics database (years 2000-2015). Statistics performed by means of linear regression models. Increased smokers (β = 1.68, p = .03), heavy smokers, that is, people smoking 11-20 cigarettes per day (β = 2.18, p = .04) or more than 20 cigarettes per day (β = 1.04, p < .01) and mean number of smoked cigarettes per day (β = 0.56, p = .02) were noticeable. Also, prevalence of overweight increased (β = 0.91, p = .04), while the Italian families' expenditure for alcoholic beverages decreased (β = -812.80, p = .01). Alcohol consumption decreased (β = -0.60, p < .01), especially in men (β = -0.95, p < .01); binge drinking increased in years 2009-2010. No change was noticeable in the diet indicators collected. The economic crisis may have increased smoking, overweight and binge drinking in Italy (though data on the latter phenomenon are not conclusive), and reduced overall alcohol consumption.

  18. All projects related to Tanzania | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ECONOMIC REFORM, ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION, ECONOMIC GROWTH, ECONOMIC BEHAVIOUR, MICROECONOMICS, Poverty alleviation. Region: Tanzania, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 193,000.00. Poverty and Information and Communication ...

  19. A Comparative Analysis of the Predictive Abilities of Economic Complexity Metrics Using International Trade Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex networks approach has proven to be an effective tool to understand and predict the evolution of a wide range of complex systems. In this work, we consider the network representing the exchange of goods between countries: the international trade network. According to the type of goods they export, the complex networks approach allows inferring which countries will have a bigger growth compared to others. The aim of this work is to study three different methods characterizing the complex networks and study their behaviour on two main topics. Can the method predict the economic evolution of a country? What happens to those methods when we merge the economies?

  20. The Concept of Security in International Relations Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Orozco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War and the emergence of globalisation have transformed the reality of International Relations, which has meant a change in the theories which this reality had assumed. The concept of security reveals itself as an organisational idea on the different phenomena of globalisation, carrying out a programme of research that goes beyond the realistic presumptions of military power or of the idealistic principles of research for peace. This article explores the new meanings of security for International Relations theory and discusses the theoretical models that influence policy design and that aim to confront the problems and challenges of security in globalisation.

  1. Economics methods in Cochrane systematic reviews of health promotion and public health related interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemilt, Ian; Mugford, Miranda; Drummond, Michael; Eisenstein, Eric; Mallender, Jacqueline; McDaid, David; Vale, Luke; Walker, Damian

    2006-11-15

    develop increased capacity for economic analyses alongside such reviews. Use of applicable economics methods in Cochrane reviews can help provide the international context within which economics data can be interpreted and assessed as a preliminary to full economic evaluation.

  2. [Water resource quality as related to economic activity and health patterns in Sonora, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares Rivera, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the spatial distribution of potential pollution pathways of water resources given the economic activity in the Mexican border state of Sonora and propose a regional distribution in relation to cancer mortality rates across the state. The methodology is based in an exploratory and inferential data analysis using two sources of primary data: wastewater discharge concessions registered in the Public Registry on Water Rights [Registro Público de Derechos de Agua] (REPDA) and the records generated by the National Health Information System [Sistema Nacional de Información en Salud] (SINAIS) in the period 1998-2011 based on the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10). The spatial concentration analysis allows for the identification of specific cancer mortality causes at the regional level. Results indicate that the projected adjustments to the regulation NOM-250-SSA1-2014, which controls a subset of pollutants common in mining activity surroundings, is a matter of regional concern.

  3. International Comparison of Water Resources Utilization Efficiency in the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Long; Ma, Jing; Deng, Wei; Wang, Yong

    2018-03-01

    In order to get knowledge of the standard of water utilization of the Silk Road Economic Belt from international point of view, the paper analyzes the annual variation of water resources utilization in the Silk Road Economic Belt, and compares with other typical countries. The study shows that Water resources utilization efficiency has been greatly improved in recent 20 years and the water consumption per USD 10000 of GDP has been declined 87.97%. the improvement of industrial water consumption efficiency is the key driving factors for substantial decrease in water consumption.The comparison of water utilization and human development shows that the higher HDI the country is, the more efficient water utilization the country has. water consumption per USD 10000 of GDP in country with HDI>0.9 is 194m³, being 8.5% of that in country with HDI from 0.5 to 0.6. On the premise of maintaining the stable economic and social development of the Silk Road Economic Belt, the realization of the control target of total water consumption must depend on the strict control over the disorderly expansion of irrigated area, the change in the mode of economic growth, the implementation of the development strategy for new industrialization and urbanization, vigorous development of the processing industry with low water consumption as well as the high-tech and high value-added industry. Only in this way, the control target of total water consumption can be realized in the process of completing the industrialization task.

  4. Long-Term Comparative Advantages of the Eurasian Economic Union Member States in International Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkowski Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On 1st January 2015 the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU - a new integration block comprising initially Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and later that year also Armenia and Kyrgyzstan - appeared on the world map. This paper endeavors to identify the EAEU countries’ long-term international comparative advantages within four basic groups of goods according to the OECD classification of manufacturing industries based on technology intensity. The analysis, using B. Balassa’s RCA methodology and covering the years 2000-2014, indicates that these countries lack competitiveness, with none of them possessing any RCAs in the high-technology category whereas in the medium-hightechnology category - only Belarus. In contrast, all the EAEU countries fared the best in the medium-low-technology category, which is mostly attributable to the resources-based character of their economies. Surprisingly, dramatically low international competitiveness was recorded by Kazakhstan and Russia.

  5. Training specialists in international relations: rethinking the new paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Voevoda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers new tasks of universities and faculties training students of international relations. The author analyzes the essence of the concept "paradigm" in education because paradigm serves as the basis of the educational process in universities. The content of professional education depends on the aims of professional education of specialists in international relations. The process of globalization, global changes, challenges and threats bring about the necessity to study specific features of international cooperation in ecology, psychology of conflict, psychology of leadership, etc. In the age of globalization, national economies are converging while national cultures are diverging. Representatives of different nations realize the importance of preserving cultural identity. It is of vital importance to instil tolerance in future specialists in international relations and prepare them for cross-cultural communication. At the same time, it is necessary that they should not only enjoy individual freedom and national cultural identity, but realize their own responsibility to the state. In the modern world, the axiological and educational functions of professional training are growing. At the same time, it is crucial to let the students build a number of professionally relevant competences that will make it possible for them to effectively perform their professional functions. It is the competence-based approach that makes the basis of Federal state education standards, including education standards for faculties of international relations. Another direction that needs developing is training and retraining lecturers for universities specializing in international relations. Foreign language training of lecturers in basic subjects will make it possible for the, to give lectures in foreign languages, particularly in English, which, in its turn, will help to make Russia's universities more competitive.

  6. International Relations and the environment: practical examples of environmental multilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Tiago Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “environmental crisis” we experience today and the international community’s struggle to develop environmental standards to reach the epic “sustainable development” are widely known topics. What is needed, then, is an urgent and determined practice, which is only possible if international governance is structured, coherent and effective. The optimization of Environmental Multilateralism (the joining of what are considered the “driving forces” of Environmental International Relations: Law, Politics and international Diplomacy contributes greatly to this end. To understand its basic concepts and systems, as for example, its actors, negotiation and implementation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs and the carrying out of their Regimes, as well as their development in the United Nations, these are all crucial elements for its improvement and optimization. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992 and “its” Conventions are important examples in the history of Environmental Multilateralism, still very up-to-date not only due to the 20th anniversary of the “Rio Conference” but also due to the continuity and importance that the “Rio Conventions” and their Conferences of Parties (COP still have. This papers aims to analyze this area of studies transversal to International Relations and to the Environment, namely by studying the relation between the theory of Environmental Multilateralism and its practice.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF THE FRANCHISE RELATIONS IN THE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Мазуренко, Валентина Петрівна

    2013-01-01

    The article is about the functioning patterns and modern development tendency of franchise system of the leading company relations of the economically developed countries under conditions of the globalizing business; the comparative analysis of the sectorial distribution of the franchising in U.S., Europe and Ukraine. Also in this article singled out the main factors that hinder the development of a national franchise service market and an improvement of the franchising in Ukraine. 

  8. Economic assessment factors relating to spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is in two parts. Part I discusses the factors to be applied in an economic assessment of reprocessing. It sets forth three basic cost components, namely capital costs, operating costs and the cost of capital utilization. It lists the various components of each cost area. Part II proposes a relationship between these respective cost areas, tabulates a range of costs and then develops unit costs for reprocessing operations. Finally, an addendum to the paper gives a more detailed breakdown of the capital costs of a reprocessing plant

  9. China’s Economic Relations with Indonesia: Threats and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Booth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the development of China’s economic ties with Southeast Asia over the last two decades, culminating in the inauguration of the ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA in 2010. Particular reference is made to China’s trade ties with Indonesia. Although two-way trade between China and Indonesia has grown rapidly since 2000, Indonesian exports to China are dominated by primary products, while imports from China are dominated by manufactures. While this pattern might reflect short-term comparative advantage in both economies, it is causing some concern in Indonesia. The paper assesses these concerns, and possible political reactions.

  10. Studying the Phenomenon of Intrasectoral Trade as a Factor of Competitiveness of Country in Foreign Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekhtyar Nadiya А.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to determine the sources of competitiveness of Ukraine’s national economy within the framework of preferential trade agreements, as well as comparison of the intrasectoral trade theory with the contemporary transformation of the conception of international economic relations. A review of the basic methods of calculation of indicators of efficiency of the country’s foreign economic operations and indices of the intrasectoral trade has been provided; the approaches to determination of factors of competitive advantages of the country in international trade have been allocated; the complex of contradictions of functioning of the global market which should be solved on the methodological level and which stimulate emergence of the newest economic theories of international trade has been substantiated; several provisions of modern economic theories have been clarified; an example of analytical assessing the structure of trading operations within the framework of macro integration associations has been provided; usage of advantages of intrasectoral trade in the process of elaborating an export activity strategy of Ukraine has been suggested.

  11. Assessing the risk of work-related international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Myles; Harber, Philip; Liu, Yihang; Quigley, Robert L

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting the likelihood of requiring medical services during international business trips. Data from more than 800,000 international trips and medical assistance cases provided to 48 multinational corporations in 2009. Travel destination countries were grouped into four a priori risk-related categories. Travel to "low" medical risk countries in aggregate accounted for more hospitalizations and medical evacuations than travel to "high" medical risk countries. Nevertheless, the risk per trip was much higher for travel to higher medical risk countries. Corporations with employees on international travel should allocate sufficient resources to manage and ideally prevent medical issues during business travel. Travel medicine must focus on more than infectious diseases, and programs are necessary for both high- and low-risk regions. Improved understanding of travel-related needs determines resource allocation and risk mitigation efforts.

  12. Evaluating internal public relations using the critical incident technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, K.H.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the critical incident technique (CIT) is one of the current methods in communication audits, little is known about the way it works. The validity of the CIT in the context of internal public relations depends on 3 assumptions: that participants can describe discrete communication events,

  13. Civic Consciousness in Professional Education of Specialists in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina V. Pekushkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses characteristic changes of civic and patriotic component in the modern world and notes characteristic features and problems in forming civic consciousness of university students. The author gives special attention to bringing up a citizen in the context of modernizing the system of education and studies the main aspects of building civic competence in students of international relations. The article further considers the correlation between the concepts of "civic consciousness" and "patriotism" at the present stage within the framework of professional training of international relations specialists who stand for state interests, and presents a historical survey of building civic consciousness in future diplomats at the Collegium of Foreign Affairs in the 18th-19th-century Russia. The author stresses the importance of building up civic responsibility and legal consciousness as a reflection of state interests. The author determines and gives solid grounding to the role of civic competence in the professional training of future international relations specialists in accordance with the Federal state education standards of higher education (3rd edition showing the necessity of developing high professional responsibility based on axiological and spiritual values. The writer comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to study the philosophical, psychological and pedagogical aspects of the process of forming civic consciousness of international relations specialists.

  14. All projects related to Ghana | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-06-30

    Health systems in sub-Saharan Africa face a “triple” burden: a high prevalence of childhood malnutrition, an increase in diet-related chronic diseases, and an HIV epidemic that disproportionately affects women. Start Date: June 30, 2009. End Date: July 1, 2014. Region: Ghana. Program: International Research Chairs ...

  15. "In-Awareness" Approach to International Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharna, R. S.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a three-tiered framework intended to expose hidden cultural assumptions and expectations that plague international public relations. Notes the country profile outlines what may be feasible within a particular country; the cultural profile speaks to what may be effective in that country; and the communication profile delineates…

  16. Beyond the Borders: Principles of International Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Connie

    1994-01-01

    Advice on international public relations for colleges and universities includes focusing efforts on one country or region at a time; researching the market and media outlets; involving faculty and administrators; using the local language; careful budgeting; providing photographs and copy; focusing story ideas; considering politics; and considering…

  17. All projects related to | Page 251 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: International cooperation, DEVELOPMENT AID, SOUTH SOUTH RELATIONS. Region: Far East Asia, Singapore, Central Asia, South Asia, Philippines. Total Funding: CA$ 87,800.00. Anchoring Singapore Philanthropy in Southeast Asia. Project. Philanthropy in Singapore has traditionally had a charitable and local ...

  18. THE IMPACT OF IFRS NORMS ON INTERNAL GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS WITH REGARD TO SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaya HERGLI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of International Financial Reporting Standards IFRS adoption on internal governance mechanisms with regard to socio-economic context. Empirical investigation was conducted to assess whether a company and an individual specifications can be presented as part of a general pattern. The results confirm that IFRS framework has introduced a new design of the accounting formalism facing a more complex activity leading to enlargement the discretionary space. Socio-economic factors explain perfectly the corporate governance behaviors and confirmed that the less powerful members of our firms sample expect and accept that power is distributed unequally, the leaders prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups, the management positions are generally held by men than by women, these members are threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and finally, managers stand for the fostering in a society of pragmatic virtues oriented to future rewards, in particular perseverance, thrift and adapting to changing circumstances.

  19. The Impact of International Tourism on the Economic Development and the Image of an Individual Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevtushenko Viktoriia А.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to study the dynamics of economic indicators of international tourism, the main problems, trends and prospects of the industry development in the world market and an individual country, the role of the country’s image and its impact of on the creation of a competitive tourist product. There considered the dynamics of statistical indicators of the international tourism structure, in particular the tourist flow, contribution to the world GDP and employment, and national economies. The analysis of the status of the tourist industry of Ukraine in the context of the main economic indicators and hotel infrastructure is conducted using the example of Kharkov region. The role of the image and its influence on the competitiveness of the national tourist product is revealed. On the basis of correlation analysis, forecast models for a number of indicators are created. The present trends in the development of the tourist industry of Ukraine are identified and recommendations on improving its competitiveness are given.

  20. How Expensive is Norway? New International Relative Price Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Kornelia Krajnyak; Volodymyr Tulin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we derive two new measures of international relative prices for Norway. Developments in these new measures follow rather closely movements in the CPI-based real effective exchange rate through the 1990s, but diverge after 2000—suggesting that the costs of living in Norway relative to its trading partners have risen in the recent years more than the real effective exchange rate would indicate.

  1. Discipline-Specific Language Instruction for International Students in Introductory Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trien T. Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores student perceptions of the effects of pairing discipline-specific language instruction with the traditional method of course delivery in economics. Our research involved teaching content-based English as an additional language (EAL tutorials to a small group of ten international students taking first-year introductory economics courses. These voluntary participants completed pre- and post-treatment assessments with exit interviews at the end of the project. Assessment results and interviews suggest that students perceive that discipline-specific language instruction such as our EAL tutorials assists in the development of increased content and language proficiency. They also believe that vocabulary development is one of the most critical activities to support these goals; reading skills are also important but require more time and commitment than students can afford to give. Despite the students’ interest in the project, their heavy class schedules prevented many from participating; our group was limited to ten students which precludes any assurance of statistical significance. In spite of the limitations, we believe that the project can still contribute valuable qualitative lessons to the literature of content-based language instruction in which the discipline of economics has not been well represented.

  2. Gender Relations and Economic Development: Hypotheses about the Reversal of Fortune in EurAsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Pleijt, A.M.; van Zanden, J.L.; Carmichael, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an interrelated set of hypotheses about the links between gender relations, family systems and economic development in EurAsia. Firstly, we briefly discuss a number of ideas from the recent literature about the links between gender relations and economic development. Secondly, we

  3. Professional Language Training of International Students in the Multicultural Environment of University for International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Glebova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the specific features of professional language training of international students in the multicultural environment of a Russian university teaching students of international relations. After a brief historical survey of teaching foreign students in the universities of Russia, the writer considers the factors that influence the choice of universities graduating specialists in international relations by foreign students. The author goes on to analyze the specifics of linguisticand socio-cultural environment in Russian universities and its impact on international students stressing the fact that the educational environment at MGIMO-University is multilingual and multicultural. That explains the relevance of studying the quality of professional language training of foreign students in the sphere of international relations. The language of teaching in most universities of the Russian Federation is Russian, besides, all MGIMO students are obliged to learn English either as their first or second foreign language, that is why international students have to study in a tri-lingual environment and the interfering influence of several cultures. The writer points out that under such circumstances it is necessary for future IR specialists to build a number of professionally relevant competences: linguistic, socio-cultural, communicative, and suggests educational technologies that have proved to be effective in building them: case-study, role-plays, etc. The article gives special attention to the place and role of translation in teaching English as translation is a system of encoding within the system of two language systems. Translating phrases from Russian into English the student does 'inner', mental translation using the mother tongue. That makes the author suggest using the students'mother tongues in the teaching process. While learning foreign languages, international students should, along with language material, study the system

  4. Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA 2006 - Opportunities, Trade Relation and Evolution of Macedonian Economic Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krum Efremov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Main activity in the foreign trade policy of the Republic of Macedonia during the past 10 years was the integration of the country on the Central European Free Trade Agreement – (CEFTA. The reason for this is the expectation that the membership of the Republic of Macedonia in CEFTA will significantly contribute to the continual efforts for strengthening the regional trade cooperation, further liberalisation of foreign trade exchange, and continuation of activities for harmonisation of trade rules with international standards. Additionally, CEFTA 2006 provides a much more comprehensive framework for development of mutual relations and economic cooperation among the countries of South Easte Europe. We will explain the concept of development of economic diplomacy in the Republic of Macedonia as a tool for supporting Macedonian economy. The purpose of these activities is to present the Republic of Macedonia as an attractive destination for foreign investments through the promotion of business advantages, and giving incentive to Macedonian export, as well as through strengthening of the country’s position as a attractive touristic destination.

  5. 6th International Conference on the History of General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenstaedt, Jean; The Universe of General Relativity; GR 6

    2005-01-01

    This volume from the Einstein Studies Series is based largely on papers presented at the Sixth International Conference on the History of General Relativity, held in Amsterdam on June 26-29, 2002. These contributions from notable experts offer both new and historical insights on gravitation, general relativity, cosmology, unified field theory, and the history of science. Topics discussed include the prehistory of special relativity, early attempts at a relativistic theory of gravitation, the beginnings of general relativity, the problem of motion in the context of relativity, conservation laws, the axiomatization of relativity, classical and contemporary cosmology, gravitation and electromagnetism, quantum gravity, and relativity as seen through the eyes of the public and renowned relativists. Contributors: K. Brading; G. Gale; H.F.M. Goenner; J. Goldberg; S. Katzir; D. Kennefick; H. Kragh; C. Lehner; U. Majer; J. Mattingly; E.T. Newman; J.D. Norton; J. Renn; R. Rynasiewicz; J.M. Sánchez-Ron; T. Sauer; C. Sm...

  6. Environmental issues and international relations, a new global (dis)order - the role of International Relations in promoting a concerted international system

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,Joana Castro

    2015-01-01

    Is it possible to talk about the rise of a new global (dis)order founded on the challenges posed by environmental issues? Through the review of the state of the art on the subject, this article analyzes the growing importance of the environment, and natural resources in particular, in international relations; and aims to raise awareness among International Relations scholars to the potential positive impact of the development of the discipline in integration with global environmental change s...

  7. The Place of Culture in the Current International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Frosin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Culture and international relations easily appear to be mutually contradictory terms. To speak of "culture" is to invoke the creative capacities of human beings, to point, for example, to the constitutive role of values and visions, to the power of language and aesthetic expression, to communities great and small engaged in reconstructing normative aspirations and reshaping the possibilities for a decent way of life. To speak of "international relations," by contrast, is to draw upon an altogether bleaker account of the human condition, to refer to missiles and bombs, trade figures and debts, statesmanship and diplomacy, intrigue and force. It is to echo assertions about naked power and the sacrifice of cultural creativity and normative aspiration to the supposedly more enduring determinations of survival or supremacy. From the dark depths of international relations, the term culture takes on an aura of frivolity. It appears to refer to the idealistic and utopian, to the veneer of civilized decency that is always stripped away by the harsh realities of power politics and international conflict. This work aims at showing the contrary.

  8. Has the economic crisis led to a new risk profile for international travellers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roure, S; Pérez-Quílez, O; Vallès, X; Martínez-Cuevas, O; Sabrià, M; Valerio, L

    2015-11-01

    The economic world crisis has led to the migration of European workers to developing countries with a high incidence of infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to assess whether this context has produced an increase in the risks to international travellers for work reasons (TWR). Observational, retrospective study. The study population included TWR who were attended before travelling at an International Health Unit in the year 2007 (the year before the initiation of the European crisis) and in the year 2012 (when the structural crisis was established). A comparative socioeconomic analysis was performed as well as an analysis of the risk factors present in both groups. In 2007 and 2012 a total of 9,197 travellers were attended. Of these, there were 344 TWR (3.4%); 101 TWR (2.8%) in 2007 and 243 TWR (4.5%) in 2012 (p<0.001). The average age of the travellers was 38.1 years (SD: 10.57). The most common destination was Sub-Saharan Africa, in 164 (47.6%) of the cases. Malaria chemoprophylaxis was prescribed to 152 travellers (44%) and 80 presented comorbidity (23.25%). The TWR from 2012 presented a significantly greater age (p=0.05), more comorbidity (p=0.018) and a greater proportion of stays in rural areas (p=0.0009) for longer time periods (p=0.001). At 5 years from the start of the economic crisis, there was a change in the profile of TWR. Their number has increased significantly, as has the proportion who present risk factors for contracting imported diseases. The International Health Units should adapt to these new circumstances and adopt preventive measures for this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  9. Economic Growth, Energy Consumption, Financial Development, International Trade and CO2 Emissions, in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Shahbaz; Qazi Muhammad Adnan, Hye; Aviral Kumar, Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the linkages among economic growth, energy consumption, financial development, trade openness and CO2 emissions over the period of 1975Q1-2011Q4 in the case of Indonesia. The stationary analysis is performed by using Zivot-Andrews structural break unit root test and the ARDL bounds testing approach for a long run relationship between the series in the presence of structural breaks. The causal relation between the concerned variable is examined by the VECM Granger causality...

  10. Toward an International Comparison of Economic and Educational Mobility: Recent Findings from the Japan Child Panel Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabayashi, Hideo; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Naoi, Michio; Shikishima, Chizuru

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, income inequality has risen in most developed countries. There is growing interest among economists in international comparisons of economic and educational mobility. This is aided by the availability of internationally comparable, large-scale data. The present paper aims to make three contributions. First, we introduce the…

  11. A Businessman's Guide to the Economic Geography and International Trade of the People's Republic of China: A Selected Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, James Joseph, Comp.; Madden, Gregory J., Comp.

    Intended to support undergraduate curricula in international business, this annotated listing cites English-language materials dealing mainly with international trade and the economic geography of China. Also included are materials dealing with demography, public health, historical geography, and the geography of cities. All materials included are…

  12. Trade across frontiers: an overview of International trade before the advent of modern economic system in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboyade Sunday Ariyo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El área ahora designadaNigeria tiene una larga historia de las comunidades de comercio a través de las fronteras con las tierras vecinas y distantes mucho antes de la llegada de los europeos y la introducción de los modernos sistema de comercio internacional. Las diversas organizaciones políticas que surgieron y que controlan diferentes partes de la zona participa-ron y se beneficiaron de manera efectiva del comercio de larga distancia, lo que les dio la oportunidad de intercambiar sus excedentes por lo que les faltaba, pero que estaba disponible en otros lugares, lejos o cerca. Con referencia a la naturaleza del medio ambiente de Nigeria, la especialización regional, las relaciones de comercio exterior y la capacidad de la economía tradicional, este trabajo examina el comercio internacional de la Nigeria precolonial y su im-pacto en la economía. Se concluye que la distorsión del comercio interregional y de la estructura de la economía nigeriana precolonial comenzó con la penetración gradual de los euro-peos en el interior del país para llevar a cabo la compra directa de palma a los productores después de la abolición del comercio de esclavos.     Palabras clave: Comercio, Comercio internacional, el comercio a larga distancia, el comercio exterior, la economía nigeriana.  _____________________ Abstract: The area now designated Nigeria has a long history of communities trading across frontiers with neighbours and distant lands long be-fore the arrival of the Europeans and the introduction of modern international trading system. The various polities that emerged and con-trolled different parts of the area participated effectively and benefited from long distance trade, which afforded them the opportunity to exchange their abundance for what they lacked but which was available elsewhere whether far or near. With reference to the nature of the Nigerian environment, regional specialisation, external trade relations and the capacity

  13. SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF ITALY: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR COOPERATION WITH THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Agapov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis in Italy after 2008 fully revealed the complexity of the socio-economic model of the country, which in our time is formed not only at national level but also at European and global levels. All these factors should also be taken into account in the analysis of Russian-Italian relations. Italy has traditionally been considered one of the main partners / allies of Russia in Europe / the West, which emphasizes the active economic ties.Socio-economic diffi culties in Italy, creating both challenges and opportunities for the world, Europe and Russia. One of the major challenges for the global economy is the impact of the crisis in Italy for the EU, as one of the world's economic centers.The challenge for the EU crisis in Italy can be the stability of the EU, the challenge for Russia could be the eff ect of reducing the role of the traditional economic and political partner of the EU. Regarding the new features are: the global level – the transformation of one of the major economies of the West and building relationships with updated economic leader of the Mediterranean on a new basis, the regional level - the further development of one of the other German centre’s of the EU, which could serve as a new "stimulus" for the further integration of the Union , national - improve the socio-economic standards of living of citizens in Italy, as well as creating additional opportunities for the development of mutually benefi cial cooperation with other countries, particularly with Russia. The article discusses the causes of the Italian crisis and the challenges and opportunities that are opened at the same time for the world, the EU and Russia. Subject articles relevant due to the perception of the impact of the crisis in Italy for the world economy, the economy of the EU and Russia.The goal / task. The main purpose of the presentation material in this article is to analyze the causes of the crisis in Italy using a three-level model of

  14. Replacing Relative Reinforcing Efficacy with Behavioral Economic Demand Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2006-01-01

    Relative reinforcing efficacy refers to the behavior-strengthening or maintaining property of a reinforcer when compared to that of another reinforcer. Traditional measures of relative reinforcing efficacy sometimes have led to discordant results across and within studies. By contrast, previous investigations have found traditional measures to be…

  15. Renegotiating Arab Civil-Military Relations: Political and Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research team will document how these transitions have influenced the nature of civil-military relations in the Middle East and North Africa over the past ... on the public policy agenda and -produce concrete policy recommendations for Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Syria, and Yemen on how to reshape civil-military relations to ...

  16. Economic development and declining vulnerability to climate-related disasters in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jidong; Han, Guoyi; Zhou, Hongjian; Li, Ning

    2018-03-01

    Exposure and vulnerability are the main contributing factors of growing impact from climate-related disasters globally. Understanding the spatiotemporal dynamic patterns of vulnerability is important for designing effective disaster risk mitigation and adaptation measures. At national scale, most cross-country studies have suggested that economic vulnerability to disasters decreases as income increases, especially for developing countries. Research covering sub-national climate-related natural disasters is indispensable to obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the effect of regional economic growth on vulnerability reduction. Taking China as a case, this subnational scale study shows that economic development is correlated with the significant reduction in human fatalities but increase in direct economic losses (DELs) from climate-related disasters since 1949. The long-term trend in climate-related disaster vulnerability, reflected by mortality (1978-2015) and DELs (1990-2015) as a share of the total population and Gross Domestic Product, has seen significant decline among all economic regions in China. While notable differences remain among its West, Central and East economic regions, the temporal vulnerability change has been converging. The study further demonstrated that economic development level is correlated with human and economic vulnerability to climate-related disasters, and this vulnerability decreased with the increase of per-capita income. This study suggested that economic development can have nuanced effects on overall human and economic vulnerability to climate-related disasters. We argue that climate change science needs to acknowledge and examine the different pathways of vulnerability effects related to economic development.

  17. Analysis of International Monetary Fund under conditions of globalization of economic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Ksendzuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization in the economy requires proper management of countries' financial resources as the regulation of international financial market is one of the most important tasks of the successful development of the world economy and individual national economies. The International Monetary Fund since the beginning of its creation was intended to regulate the financial situation in the post-war period in world space. In present conditions of information development of the world economic system the role and importance of international financial institutions are changing. Thus, the policies and activities of the IMF are increasingly criticized, that is substantiated and requires some restructuring and reforming areas of the Fund activity. During the research the basic aspects of IMF activities in 2015 have been analyzed and the suggestions for its further effective development have been presented. In particular, it is advisable to use the specific individual approach to the problems of particular economies and to view the sizes of quotas and their functional purposes that will allow to develop new funding mechanisms that are based on social and ecological needs of society. This, in turn, will reduce the impact of developed countries on the activities of the financial institution

  18. Modeling, simulation, parametric study and economic assessment of reciprocating internal combustion engine integrated with multi-effect desalination unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, Mohsen; Amidpour, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of small MED unit with gas engine power cycle is studied in this paper. • Modeling, simulation, parametric study and sensitivity analysis were performed. • A thermodynamic model for heat recovery and power generation of the gas engine has been presented. • Annualized Cost of System (ACS) has been employed for economic assessment. • Economic feasibilty dependence of integrated system on natural gas and water prices has been investigated. - Abstract: Due to thermal nature of multi-effect desalination (MED), its integration with a suitable power cycle is highly desirable for waste heat recovery. One of the proper power cycle for proposed integration is internal combustion engine (ICE). The exhaust gas heat of ICE is used to produce motive steam for the required heat for the first effect of MED system. Also, the water jacket heat is utilized in a heat exchanger to pre-heat the seawater. This paper studies a thermodynamic model for a tri-generation system composed of ICE integrated with MED. The ICE thermodynamic model has been used in place of different empirical efficiency relations to estimate performance – load curves reasonably. The entire system performance has been coded in MATLAB, and the results of proposed thermodynamic model for the engine have been verified by manufacturer catalogue. By increasing the engine load from 40% to 100%, the water production of MED unit will increase from 4.38 cubic meters per day to 26.78 cubic meters per day and the tri-generation efficiency from 31% to 56%. Economic analyses of the MED unit integrated with ICE was performed based on Annualized Cost of System method. This integration makes the system more economical. It has been determined that in higher market prices for fresh water (more than 7 US$ per cubic meter), the increase in effects number is more significant to the period of return decrement.

  19. All projects related to | Page 397 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-22

    Economic problems facing the West Bank and Gaza include high unemployment, low productivity, and an underperforming private sector. Start Date: January 22, 2012. End Date: July 22, 2014. Topic: ECONOMIC POLICY, ECONOMIC RESEARCH, PALESTINE, SMALL ENTERPRISES, EMPLOYMENT, PRODUCTIVITY.

  20. All projects related to | Page 61 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-07-16

    This research project will generate evidence on how women's political participation influences the connection between economic growth and women's economic empowerment. Start Date: July 16, 2015. Topic: AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, EMPOWERMENT, ECONOMIC GROWTH, POLITICAL PARTICIPATION, POLICY ...

  1. International trade and air pollution: estimating the economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kevin P

    2005-10-01

    Although there is a burgeoning literature on the effects of international trade on the environment, relatively little work has been done on where trade most directly effects the environment: the transportation sector. This article shows how international trade is affecting air pollution emissions in the United States' shipping sector. Recent work has shown that cargo ships have been long overlooked regarding their contribution to air pollution. Indeed, ship emissions have recently been deemed "the last unregulated source of traditional air pollutants". Air pollution from ships has a number of significant local, national, and global environmental effects. Building on past studies, we examine the economic costs of this increasing and unregulated form of environmental damage. We find that total emissions from ships are largely increasing due to the increase in foreign commerce (or international trade). The economic costs of SO2 pollution range from dollars 697 million to dollars 3.9 billion during the period examined, or dollars 77 to dollars 435 million on an annual basis. The bulk of the cost is from foreign commerce, where the annual costs average to dollars 42 to dollars 241 million. For NOx emissions the costs are dollars 3.7 billion over the entire period or dollars 412 million per year. Because foreign trade is driving the growth in US shipping, we also estimate the effect of the Uruguay Round on emissions. Separating out the effects of global trade agreements reveals that the trade agreement-led emissions amounted to dollars 96 to dollars 542 million for SO2 between 1993 and 2001, or dollars 10 to dollars 60 million per year. For NOx they were dollars 745 million for the whole period or dollars 82 million per year. Without adequate policy responses, we predict that these trends and costs will continue into the future.

  2. Relative Importance of Political Instability and Economic Variables on Perceived Country Creditworthiness

    OpenAIRE

    Suk Hun Lee

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the relative importance of political instability and economic variables on perceived country creditworthiness. Our results indicate that both political instability and economic variables are taken into account in evaluating country creditworthiness; however, it appears that bankers assign larger weight to economic performances, which we except of reflect longer term political stability. In addition, the frequency of changes in the regime and armed conflict, both proxying f...

  3. China's Economic Performance and Transition in Relation to Globalisation: From Isolation to Centre-Stage?

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers China’s global economic situation in relation to the general process of globalisation. After discussing the general process of economic globalisation, it examines political change and transition of the former communist planned economies, especially China’s, and their impact on globalisation. Then it provides measures of the recent expansion of economic globalisation and China’s involvement in this process. Positive and negative socioeconomic impacts of globalisation are h...

  4. The transformation of the global oil industry and its impact on international relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleyard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The transformations of ownership and control in the global oil industry since the first oil shock of 1974 are discussed and the impact of that change on several interconnected issues is explored. It is argued that structural changes in the industry affect interstate relations in ways that are of central concern to the discipline of international relations. Any likely future oil industry scenario will have considerable political and economic repercussions for both producer and consumer states, with a concommitant impact on the relations between those states more generally. There is a danger that interstate conflicts among oil producers will increase with perodic changes in the global supply and demand conditions for oil. Ways are suggested for international relations studies to take into account the change in the global oil industry and its impact on the distribution of power and on international order and justice. It is contended that a growing number of states must be considered as behaving much like firms in a competitive market, and the new international oil order both constrains and provides opportunities for those firm-like states. 20 refs

  5. Poor Kids? Economic Resources and Adverse Peer Relations in a Nationally Representative Sample of Swedish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjalmarsson, Simon

    2018-01-01

    There is limited knowledge on the impact of economic resources on adverse peer relations during adolescence. This study used a nationally representative sample (n = 4725, 51% girls) of Swedish eighth-grade students (approximately age fourteen) to examine associations between economic resources and adverse peer relations in the form of peer rejection and bullying victimization. Adolescents from households in the lowest within-school household income quintile were found to be rejected by school class peers to a greater extent than more advantaged students, but an association was not found between relative household income and bullying victimization. In contrast, adolescents unable to participate in activities with peers for economic reasons experienced more rejection and were at higher risk of victimization. The results underline the multidimensionality of adverse peer relations and advance our knowledge on how economic resources relate to peer relations in youth.

  6. International migration and related policies in europe 1950 - 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penninx Rinus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigration in Europe has been shaped by: a its particular development in time; b the geographical patterns of migration within and towards European countries; and c the shifting types of migration and characteristics of migrants involved. The first part of this contribution outlines changes in these three basic migration-related factors. Migration outcomes are not haphazard nor are these the result of unhindered economic push and pull factors in a free market. Immigration policies of receiving countries do greatly influence the volume and patterns of migration, the place of settlement and the characteristics of migrants. Regulations on conditions of residence and integration do furthermore influence significantly the position of immigrants in their new destination, among others by setting conditions for their stay (residence rights and access to the labour market. The second part of this chapter outlines the migration and integration regimes that have been developed by states of different parts of Europe and by the European Union. In conclusion, immigration has become a relevant phenomenon in all EU countries. However, as a consequence of different timing of immigration, different socio-economic contexts and varying governmental migration and integration policies, European countries are confronted with different forms migration (immigration, emigration, transit migration and with different types of migrants. European states have also developed different governmental policies of migration and integration. Historically, a common denominator in the framing of European policies is that countries do not see themselves as immigration countries; they are immigration countries against their will. In recent times, such framing is reinforced by populist and nationalist movements that see immigrants not only as economic competitors, but also as a threat to the national "culture and world views". The more Europe needs immigrants for economic and

  7. Brazilian nuclear politics in the context of contemporary international relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpes, Mariana Montez

    2006-09-01

    The present dissertation analyses the retaking of the debate over Brazilian nuclear Program's recovery by Luis Inacio Lula da Silva government, based on the defense of the utilization of an already acquired technology of its own to enrich uranium. In spite of the intrinsic duality on this subject and having in mind the pacific ends concerning the utilization of such technology by Brazil, the hypothesis sustained in this work is that the Program's defense is considered a strategy of sovereign international insertion with relative autonomy and an instrument of national valorization against other powers. In order to verify the hypothesis outlined above, we will analyse the actual government, comparing it to, two other moments in Brazilian History in which the nuclear issue also acquired preponderance on the national agenda, namely, Geisel and Sarney governments. Although these three moments differ in relation to their internal political regime, our goal is to identify their similarities. (author)

  8. The economic impact of insulin-related hypoglycemia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoskins, Nicki; Tikkanen, Christian Klyver; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the direct cost of hypoglycemia in insulin-treated adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Denmark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Local Impact of Hypoglycemia Tool (LIHT) was used to estimate the costs associated with insulin-related hypoglycemia. Average u...

  9. Selected Research Tools in Economics, Labor and Industrial Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Ronald J.

    Twenty-two indexing and abstracting services and general reference sources in the areas of labor and industrial relations are listed in this selective bibliography for users of State University of New York at Albany Libraries. Classification numbers are included for each source and most have annotations. Materials are listed under four…

  10. Relations over Time among Children's Shyness, Emotionality, and Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggum, Natalie D.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos; Sallquist, Julie; Michalik, Nicole M.; Liew, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Data regarding children's shyness and emotionality were collected at three time points, two years apart (T1: N = 214, M = 6.12 years; T2: N = 185, M = 7.67 years; T3: N = 185, M = 9.70 years), and internalizing data were collected at T1 and T3. Relations among parent-rated shyness, emotionality [parent- and teacher-rated anger, sadness, and…

  11. Propaganda and International Relations: an Outlook in Wartime

    OpenAIRE

    Marsili, Marco Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to highlight the role of propaganda during the conflicts in the contemporary age, particularly during the two World Wars. The propaganda developed during two major conflicts of the ‘900 as a true ‘weapon’ and instrument of government policy in international relations, has perfected the techniques of ‘news management’, and today is a real and relished ‘art’ applied to guide public opinion in favor of government decisions.

  12. Albanian-NATO Relations in the Fight Against International Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Mediation IEJ Islamic Egyptian Jihad IFOR Implementation Force IIRO Humanitarian Islamic Organization IMF International Monetary Fund IPP...In sum, NATO-Albanian relations in the counterterrorism realm suggest NATO’s ability to promote constructive cooperation and to wage “the war of...however, this progress was nearly undone by a popular uprising that was caused by the collapse of some financial pyramid schemes that swept away the

  13. Human Rights, Fundamental Freedoms and Universal Values in International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lev S. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    The author analyzes the evolution of human rights and fundamental freedoms in domestic political life of individual states and in international relations as well over the latest two centuries. The article traces the role of struggle for liberal political human rights and civilian freedoms in the dismantling of the feudal-absolutist regimes as well as the challenges of radical left-wing (communist) and far right-wing (national-socialistic) threats to be met by the supporters of liberal politic...

  14. Gender Relations and Economic Development: Hypotheses about the Reversal of Fortune in EurAsia

    OpenAIRE

    de Pleijt, A.M.; van Zanden, J.L.; Carmichael, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an interrelated set of hypotheses about the links between gender relations, family systems and economic development in EurAsia. Firstly, we briefly discuss a number of ideas from the recent literature about the links between gender relations and economic development. Secondly, we suggest a measure of historic gender relations via the classification and measurement of historical family systems, and offer a set of maps of the institutions concerning marriage, inheritance and...

  15. Unit costs in international economic evaluations: resource costing of the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdahl, H; Knapp, M; Edgell, E T; Ghandi, G; Haro, J M

    2003-01-01

    We present unit costs corresponding to resource information collected in the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes (SOHO) Study. The SOHO study is a 3-year, prospective, observational study of health outcomes associated with antipsychotic treatment in out-patients treated for schizophrenia. The study is being conducted across 10 European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the UK) and includes over 10,800 patients and over 1000 investigators. To identify the best available unit costs of hospital admissions, day care and psychiatrist out-patient visits, a tariff-based approach was used. Unit costs were obtained for nine of the 10 countries and were adjusted to 2000 price levels by consumer price indices and converted to US dollars using purchasing power parity rates (and on to Euro). The paper illustrates the need to balance the search for sound unit costs with pragmatic solutions in the costing of international economic evaluations.

  16. THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON THE DYNAMIC OF INTERNATIONAL FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenuţa Carp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FDI flows are internationally recognized for the benefits they generate (technological transfer, know – how, industrial reorganization, raising the number of working places. Foreign capitals increased significantly under the impact of globalization and accelerated the interdependencies between economies up to 2007, but, in the current crisis, the dynamic of FDI flows was affected in a negative manner, both in developed economies and in the developing ones. The aim of this paper is to reveal and analyze the evolution of FDI flows in the period 2007 – 2010, emphasizing the strong impact that economic crisis exerts. The results of the analysis presents the descending trend up to 2009, since 2010 being noticed a slight recovery which continued in the first trimester of 2011 and according to the forecasts will continue in the future.

  17. The role of cultural diplomacy in international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Saddiki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diplomacy, as a cornerstone of public diplomacy, plays an important role in today’s international relations, which are characterised by so-called culture shocks, and it should represent a decisive tool not only for transmitting culture and national values, but also for listening to what the cultures from the rest the world are saying to us. The main role of cultural diplomacy is to promote transnational dialogue between cultures and nations, especially between the West and the Muslim world. Cultural diplomacy, just like other new dimensions in diplomacy, is not exclusively controlled by nation-states, given that at present they are not the only actors on the international stage, since other non-state actors (civil society, NGOs, universities, academics, etc. are playing an important role in this field. The aim of this article is to analyse the role of culture in modern diplomacy and its impact on relations between peoples and nations. It also attempts to focus on the positive aspects of the influence of culture on contemporary international relations.

  18. ISVEE 14 Yucatan 2015 14th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Anda, Jorge Hernández

    2017-02-01

    The 14th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics (ISVEE 14) was held in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico during 3-7 November. 2015. The purpose of ISVEE 14 Yucatan 2015 was to provide a global forum for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, junior and senior investigators, as well as health policymakers to exchange information that can advance the fields of veterinary epidemiology and economics, and other disciplines in the health and social sciences. The main theme of ISVEE 14 was Planning Our Future. Human population growth is predicted to increase nearly 50% to 11 billion by 2050, and climate change and changing land use can have an impact on local and global food systems, interactions among humans, wildlife and domestic animals, as well as local, regional, and global public health alerts. How can we help our systems of education, research, and public policy adapt? Are new veterinary graduates and epidemiology practitioners prepared to become active protagonists in the solution of health issues that affect humans and animal populations in a changing environment? What innovative research is needed to understand and enhance the food systems of the future? What are the expected roles or contributions of veterinarians or epidemiology practitioners on future climate change, food systems, and health? Is our profession or discipline leading One Health initiatives? Are there current or new models that make national veterinary services more efficacious and efficient for disease control and eradication? To help us answer these questions, the organizing committee of ISVEE 14 invited five distinguished keynote speakers to share their vision and innovative ideas on education, technological developments, research, and public policy of our future with a concentration in the following five areas: (i) One Health (Jonna Mazet), (ii) climate change (Bernard Bett), (iii) animal health economics (Jonathan Rushton), (iv) national veterinary services

  19. Aspects of Spatial Economic Processes of Disadvantaged Areas in Hungarian and International Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KITTI NÉMEDI-KOLLÁR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The examination of disadvantaged regions goes back to a long history, greatly influenced by the ever-changing natural, economic and human resources. Consequently, while examining the disadvantaged areas, we face new systems of coherences. Today’s regional policy also needs to answer the question whether the spatial development funds of the past have been efficient or not and whether the land use distribution influences the spatial competitiveness or not. As we move towards 2015, we must consider the actual state of delivery of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs and address the above-mentioned issues in order to realise the international political commitment to leave no one behind. In this paper, we have shown some aspects of spatial economic processes through the example of the Hungarian disadvantaged areas. These issues are timely because the usefulness of the research is important, ranging from rural development to spatial planning and the elaboration of local and regional development strategies. Spatial discrepancies in Hungary cause the disadvantage of rural areas, contributing to their lagging behind compared to the urban areas (Kollár, 2012.

  20. The International Environmental Institute: Leveraging the investment in Hanford for economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkin, S.D.; Schwenk, R.M.

    1994-02-01

    Billions of dollars are being invested to achieve environmental compliance at the Hanford Site. The 30-yr-plan for the Site calls for remediation and restoration followed by rampdown and closure of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) mission at the Site. The investment of the Federal government during this restoration period provides a real opportunity to go beyond the cleanup mission and convert the Site's assets to other uses that benefit the region, nation, and world. The International Environmental Institute (Institute) was created to help realize this opportunity. This is accomplished by utilizing the assets of the Site -- it's land, equipment, facilities, technologies, and people -- to achieve economic growth and worldwide spinoff benefits from the Hanford investment. The Institute is developing new ways of getting the private sector involved with the Hanford Site. We are working with local and state governments, academia, and the private sector, to jointly develop and commercialize environmental technologies and to redeploy, loan, or lease those assets that are no longer needed by the DOE. The Institute is also interacting with other communities around the world to assess models, issues, and performance measures for successful defense conversion. Through these various worldwide partnerships, the investment in Hanford can be successfully leveraged to help create the desired economic future for the Northwest and environmental industry for the world

  1. The Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S.; Manko, V. I.

    1993-01-01

    This conference publication contains the proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations held in Moscow, Russia, on 25-29 May 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to study possible applications of squeezed states of light. The Workshop brought together many active researchers in squeezed states of light and those who may find the concept of squeezed states useful in their research, particularly in understanding the uncertainty relations. It was found at this workshop that the squeezed state has a much broader implication than the two-photon coherent states in quantum optics, since the squeeze transformation is one of the most fundamental transformations in physics.

  2. On the Relation Between Management and Economics from the Perspective of Institutional Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Every country's economic development affects all levels of its society and thus the results of its social science research. To make social science research better serve their economic development, many countries have established social science research institutes, among which are management research institutes more related to economic research institutes. Through comparative research of the locations and founding dates of the institutes in different countries, this article analyses the development trends and the relationship between economics and management research, providing us with the relevant experience and background for planning purposes.

  3. Global Risks as Factors that Affect the Current system of international Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Zaitseva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the globalization of risks is examined in this article. Based on the World Economic Forum (WEF report on global risks 2015-2017, the impact of global risks on the social and economic development of countries is examined. Economic, social, environmental, geopolitical, technological risks are analyzed in a coordinated fashion. The article notes that the main risks are in the field of environment and ecology. Anthropogenic pressure amplification, scientific and technological advance have an influence on the natural environment. The risks of infrastructure and environmental damage in danger zone are increased because of the growth of the frequency of extreme weather events. The measures for the protection of the environment are examined. The unilateral approach to solving international issues, instead of the collective efforts of the international community; the deployment of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical, biological and technologies for the production of radioactive materials; escalation of economic and resource nationalization (the desire of States to expropriate or restrict the export of important for the world economy of resources, etc. promote the increasing geopolitical risks.Economic risks include the risk in terms of their likelihood their impact on the macroeconomic, as from the financial systems and infrastructure to price volatility and regulatory issues. Social risks are the risks relating to instability of population dynamics, social crises and human survival.Technological risks include such problems as software defects, failure of important information systems, upon which today industrial production is depended, the services and communications sector; the escalation of large-scale cyber-attacks; theft of electronic information and the illegal usage of personal data. The trends that can intensify the global risks or to change the correlation between them are analyzed in this article.

  4. The economic value of One Health in relation to the mitigation of zoonotic disease risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häsler, Barbara; Gilbert, William; Jones, Bryony Anne; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo; Rushton, Jonathan; Otte, Martin Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The essence of One Health is an interdisciplinary approach combined with some degree of intersectoral integration that is aimed at mitigation of human and animal health risks, taking account of environmental, ecological, social and economic factors. While a large number of international stakeholders now consider the One Health approach necessary for more effective protection of the global community against health threats, there is still no systematic allocation of resources to integrated national or multinational programmes, partly due to the inertia of existing sectoral systems and the lack of convincing economic arguments in support of the approach. We propose different degrees of sectoral integration depending on system types and associated economic efficiency gains to be expected from a One Health approach. International and regional organisations have an important role in facilitating the adoption of the approach, since the costs and the benefits are often of a regional or even a global nature, such as in the case of avian influenza.

  5. Cultural Diplomacy and its Presentation in International Affairs Textbooks, 1945-1971. A Study of the Treatment Accorded International Education and Cultural Relations in 171 Textbooks on International Relations, Foreign Policy, and International Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Michael J.; And Others

    International education and cultural relations (IEC) are surveyed in the content of books from three areas of political science--international relations, foreign policy, and international organizations. One hundred seventy one texts published in the U.S. from 1945-mid 1971 are statistically analyzed in terms of amount of consideration of IEC;…

  6. Integrated Evaluation Method-Based Technical and Economic Factors for International Oil Exploration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing international oil exploration projects is one of the main challenges for oil companies in obtaining investment benefits. This paper establishes an integrated evaluation model to maximize investment benefits within the constraints of technical and economic factors, including geological factors, resource quality, geographic conditions, the investment environment, and oil contracts. The paper also proposes a dynamic calculation method of indicators’ weight associated with oil prices. The analysis describes the effects of contract terms and the investment environment on project value and quantifies the contractor income ratio for different types of contracts and the investment environment of the host country. Oil exploration projects in Africa are illustrated as examples in which the evaluation indicator Adjusted Concept Reserves (ACR is calculated for each project. The results show that remaining recoverable reserves and contract terms exert tremendous influences on ACR, and remaining recoverable reserves is the essential factor. Simultaneously, changes in oil prices lead to various rates of change in the contractor income ratio, which is determined by different fiscal terms. This study is important in helping oil companies optimize international oil projects and design reasonable investment strategies.

  7. Clean Energy-Related Economic Development Policy across the States: Establishing a 2016 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    States implement clean energy-related economic development policy to spur innovation, manufacturing, and to address other priorities. This report focuses on those policies most directly related to expanding new and existing manufacturing. The extent to which states invest in this policymaking depends on political drivers and jurisdictional economic development priorities. To date, no one source has collected all of the clean energy-related economic development policies available across the 50 states. Thus, it is unclear how many policies exist within each state and how these policies, when implemented, can drive economic development. Establishing the baseline of existing policy is a critical first step in determining the potential holistic impact of these policies on driving economic growth in a state. The goal of this report is to document the clean energy-related economic development policy landscape across the 50 states with a focus on policy that seeks to expand new or existing manufacturing within a state. States interested in promoting clean energy manufacturing in their jurisdictions may be interested in reviewing this landscape to determine how they compare to peers and to adjust their policies as necessary. This report documents over 900 existing clean energy-related economic development laws, financial incentives (technology-agnostic and clean energy focused), and other policies such as agency-directed programs and initiatives across the states.

  8. Economics methods in Cochrane systematic reviews of health promotion and public health related interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemilt, Ian; Mugford, Miranda; Drummond, Michael; Eisenstein, Eric; Mallender, Jacqueline; McDaid, David; Vale, Luke; Walker, Damian

    2006-01-01

    Cochrane reviewers and economists to develop increased capacity for economic analyses alongside such reviews. Use of applicable economics methods in Cochrane reviews can help provide the international context within which economics data can be interpreted and assessed as a preliminary to full economic evaluation. PMID:17107612

  9. Economics methods in Cochrane systematic reviews of health promotion and public health related interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaid David

    2006-11-01

    well as regular dialogue between Cochrane reviewers and economists to develop increased capacity for economic analyses alongside such reviews. Use of applicable economics methods in Cochrane reviews can help provide the international context within which economics data can be interpreted and assessed as a preliminary to full economic evaluation.

  10. Introduction: gender-based violence and international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brysk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women (according to the WHO, one in three women worldwide suffers from gender violence is an issue of global security as well as of human rights. Because these human security violations have a very significant impact on development, conflict, public health and transnational flows, they merit study from the international relations perspective. We find that academic research into the links between neoliberal development and insecurity, the response via the mobilisation of international institutions for legal and public policy reform, and the rise of transnational social movements contributes and enriches our understanding of the dynamics and the direction to of globalisation, as well as the well-being of over a billion of our planet’s female inhabitants.

  11. Relative deprivation and internal migration in the United States: A comparison of black and white men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2013-01-01

    While the link between geographic and social mobility has long been a cornerstone of sociological approaches to migration, recent research has cast doubt on the economic returns to internal U.S. migration. Moreover, important racial disparities in migration patterns remain poorly understood. Drawing on data from the 2000 census, I reappraise the link between migration and social mobility by taking relative deprivation into consideration. I examine the association between migration, disaggregated by region of origin and destination, and absolute and relative earnings and occupational prestige, separately by race. Findings lend new insight into the theoretical and stratification implications of growing racial disparities in migration patterns; while both blacks and whites who move north-south generally average lower absolute incomes than their stationary northern peers, they enjoy significantly higher relative social position. Moreover, the relative “gains” to migration are substantially larger for blacks than whites. The opposite patterns obtain for south-north migration. PMID:24391221

  12. Economic growth, inequality, and the economic position of the poor in 1985-1995: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Olli

    2002-01-01

    The "trickle-down" theory argues that wider income differences are good for economic growth, that growth is good for the poor, and therefore that widening income disparities benefit the poor. The theory thus fulfills Rawlsian principles of justice. The purpose of this article is to present a preliminary evaluation of the correctness of this theory. Income data for 21 countries were obtained from the Luxembourg Income Study, for the period 1985-95. The results of the analysis show no clear connections between inequality and economic prosperity. The wider the inequality, the worse is the absolute income of the poor. In this respect the theory is falsified. However, the trickle-down theory is partly correct in arguing for the beneficial effects of economic growth for the poor: the absolute income level of the poor is dependent on what is happening in the national economy, while the incidence and depth of poverty in advanced countries are not so much associated with economic factors as a result of national social policy programs.

  13. Globalization by the Souths. Chinese-African Relations and International Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Rajaoson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on worldwide governance. It will be related to the Assian approach of international relationships. This approach claiming by the Chinese is closed to the David Miller Nationalist and liberal way of thinking. But it remains very restrictive because it is only based on the liberal economic point of view. We will do a critical study of the principles which are regulating the governances and we will analyse a special sectorial field: the Sino-African relations. These thoughts and statements need to have a sectorial dimension of approaching matters. The management of the different governments can have effects on local realities of people's life and on investments. In thirty years China passed from an emerging country to the second worldwide economically powerful country just behind the United States. Now, they must have an interdependance relationship with the United States. It is very important and necessary to undermine this interdependance relationship in order to understand how its economic strategy has an influence upon the worldwide market. And from this study, we will understand how the Chinese relate to the balance of power they are dealing with.

  14. ASEAN-India Economic, Trade and Integration Relations: Modelling the Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Van Hoa

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides a rigorous analysis of ASEAN-India economic, trade and integration relations and presents evidence-based scenarios and policy options for improving these relations in the context of ‘Look East’ policy, ‘economic diplomacy’, globalisation and post-global financial crisis. The proposed options are robust in the sense of statistical efficiency and credible as meeting the Friedman (1953) and Kydland (2006) data-consistency criterion. Several plausible regional and global scenar...

  15. THE ECONOMIC AND POLITIC RELATIONS BETWEEN BULGARIA AND GERMANY. A SHORT HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian-Florian Enea; Irina-Elena Gentimir

    2012-01-01

    Members of the European Union, Germany and Bulgaria are united by the same values and expectations. Both countries aim to closer relations in order to insure economic growth and a high competitiveness level. The objective of this article is to present, from a historical approach, the evolution of the economic and political relations between Bulgaria and Germany. The methodological process adopted in the present analyses is of both qualitative and quantitative nature. The article uses data fro...

  16. Economic analysis of solar industrial process heat systems: A methodology to determine annual required revenue and internal rate of return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, W. C.; Brown, K. C.

    1981-08-01

    An economic evaluation of solar industrial process heat systems, is developed to determine the annual required revenue and the internal rate of return. First, a format is provided to estimate the solar system's installed cost, annual operating and maintenance expenses, and net annual solar energy delivered to the industrial process. The annual required revenue and the price of solar is calculated. The economic attractiveness of the potential solar investment can be determined by comparing the price of solar energy with the price of fossilfuel, both expressed in levelized terms. This requires calcuation of the internal rate of return on the solar investment or, in certain cases, the growth rate of return.

  17. All projects related to | Page 90 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will provide funding to the Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Economics Network (LACEEP) to build capacity in environmental and resource economics in the region, including collaborations with ... Topic: CROP YIELD, SMALL FARMS, FINANCING, WEST AFRICA, AGRICULTURE, Food security.

  18. All projects related to | Page 418 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Food, Environment, and Health ... There is growing demand for innovative yet rigorous measures of national wellbeing beyond gross domestic product. ... Topic: HOUSEHOLD SURVEYS, MEASUREMENT, Poverty, ECONOMIC INDICATORS, SOCIAL INDICATORS, Economic and social development, SOCIAL ...

  19. All projects related to Peru | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: SOCIAL INEQUALITY, ECONOMIC GROWTH, ECONOMIC DISPARITY, LATIN AMERICA, GOVERNMENT POLICY. Region: Peru. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 745,100.00. Indigenous Health, Social Inequity, and Interculturality: Research and Critical Evaluation of Interventions Implemented ...

  20. All projects related to | Page 106 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, WOMEN, SMALL SCALE INDUSTRY, AFRICA, ECONOMIC GROWTH, EMPOWERMENT, ARTISINAL AND SMALL SCALE GOLD MINING (ASGM). Region: Rwanda, Uganda, Canada, Republic of Congo, United Kingdom. Program: Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women.

  1. All projects related to | Page 483 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-10-31

    Start Date: October 31, 2008. End Date: December 31, 2011. Topic: MINING POLICY, SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS, Economic and social development, SOCIAL PARTICIPATION. Region: North and Central America, South America. Program: Foundations for Innovation.

  2. All projects related to | Page 426 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: MODELS, Fiscal policy, TAX SYSTEMS, TAX REFORM, TAXATION, INCOME DISTRIBUTION, DEMOGRAPHIC ASPECTS, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS, Economic and social ... Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore.

  3. All projects related to | Page 81 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Inclusive Information Societies: Creating Growth and Employment Opportunities in Asia. Project. How can information and technology increase economic opportunities in the developing world? Topic: SOUTH ASIA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ECONOMIC GROWTH, EMPLOYMENT CREATION, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ...

  4. All projects related to | Page 94 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: POLICY MAKING, TANZANIA, Economic and social development, TRAINING, NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, RESEARCH. Region: South of Sahara, Tanzania. Program: Think Tank Initiative. Total Funding: CA$ 1,328,143.00. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Economic and Social Research Foundation. Project.

  5. All projects related to | Page 429 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-02-11

    Both China and India are currently attempting to balance rapid economic growth, technological growth and globalization with social equity and sustainable economic growth. Start Date: February 11, 2009. End Date: November 30, 2012. Topic: Technological change, AGRICULTURAL INNOVATIONS, INDUSTRIAL ...

  6. All projects related to | Page 383 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-04-30

    India's Dalits have historically been subjected to devastating social and economic discrimination. Start Date: April 30, 2009. End Date: April 2, 2013. Topic: Poverty, DISADVANTAGED GROUPS, ETHNOGRAPHY, CASE STUDIES, Economic and social development. Region: India ... Program: Governance and Justice.

  7. All projects related to | Page 412 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: GENDER ANALYSIS, Poverty, ECONOMIC POLICY, Economic and social development, DEVELOPMENT PLANNING. Region: India, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 110,000.00. Harvesting Feminist Knowledge to Influence Public Policy. Project.

  8. All projects related to China | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ECONOMIC AGREEMENTS, FOREIGN INVESTMENT, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, TRADE LIBERALIZATION, ASIA, Economic and social development. Region: Myanmar ... Linking Emerging Infectious Diseases Research and Policy Networks in Southeast Asia and China: APEIR Phase II. Project. The Asian ...

  9. All projects related to | Page 446 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: RESEARCH CAPACITY, ECONOMIC RESEARCH, SOCIAL RESEARCH, Social Policy, LABOUR LEGISLATION, LABOUR ECONOMICS, COMPETITION, COMPETITIVENESS, ENTREPRENEURSHIP, INCOME DISTRIBUTION. Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam. Program: ...

  10. All projects related to | Page 259 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: Economic and social development, SOCIAL INEQUALITY, WAGE DETERMINATION, DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION, Poverty alleviation, ECONOMIC POLICY. Region: China, Far East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia ... Asymmetric Demography and Global Financial Governance. Project. Different countries are at different ...

  11. Cyborg pantocrator: international relations theory from decisionism to rational choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhot, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    International relations theory took shape in the 1950s in reaction to the behavioral social science movement, emphasizing the limits of rationality in a context of high uncertainty, weak rules, and the possibility of lethal conflict. Yet the same discipline rapidly developed "rational choice" models applied to foreign policy decision making or nuclear strategy. This paper argues that this transformation took place almost seamlessly around the concept of "decision." Initially associated with an antirationalist or "decisionist" approach to politics, the sovereign decision became the epitome of political rationality when it was redescribed as "rational choice," thus easing the cultural acceptance of political realism in the postwar years. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. All projects related to | Page 458 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: Economics, ECONOMISTS, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, RESEARCH NETWORKS. Region: Middle East, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Iran, Turkey. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 4,000,000.00. Economic Research Forum for the Arab Countries, ...

  13. Evaluation of economic loss from energy-related environmental pollution: a case study of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-09-01

    With the growth of energy consumption, energy-related environmental pollution has become increasingly serious, which in turn causes enormous economic loss because of public health damage, corrosion of materials, crop yield reduction, and other factors. Evaluating economic loss caused by energy-related environmental pollution can contribute to decision making in energy management. A framework for evaluating economic loss from environmental pollution produced during energy production, transportation, and consumption is proposed in this paper. Regarding SO2, PM10, and solid waste as the main pollutants, economic losses from health damage, materials corrosion, crop yield reduction, and solid waste pollution are estimated based on multiple concentration-response relationships and dose-response functions. The proposed framework and evaluation methods are applied to Beijing, China. It is evident that total economic loss attributable to energy-related environmental pollution fluctuated during 2000-2011 but had a general growth trend, with the highest value reaching 2.3 × 108 CNY (China Yuan) in 2006. Economic loss caused by health damage contributes most to the total loss among the four measured damage types. The total economic loss strongly correlates with the amount of energy consumption, especially for oil and electricity. Our evaluation framework and methods can be used widely to measure the potential impact of environmental pollution in the energy lifecycle.

  14. The historical aspects and current issues of the development of Russian-Lithuanian economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gennady

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on development of Russian-Lithuanian economic ties. The research and practical significance of this study lies in the identification of the sources of modern Russian-Lithuanian economic cooperation and the prospects of future mutually beneficial economic relations. The first attempt at establishing economic relations was made in 1919. However, young Lithuanian Republic gravitated towards the West, severing ties with the Russian market. However, the initiatives of Lithuanian authorities did not result in successful state building, and the economic situation remained unchanged. The USSR leadership made an effort to improve the living conditions in post-war Lithuania. There were some mistakes made in the relations with the local population that resulted in Lithuanians’ resistance to sovietisation. However, in the conditions of post-war restoration of national economy and acute deficit of material and human resources, the Soviet leadership managed not only to reform and develop a socialistic economy in Lithuania but also to turn it into an industrial republic with developed agriculture and modern manufacturing facilities, whose major industries manufactured products used in nuclear and space technologies, aviation and navigation. The research shows that the post-Soviet period led to a dramatic change in Russian-Lithuanian economic relations; however, these relations retained potential for future development.

  15. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF RUSSIAN-GERMAN RELATIONS IN 2000-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Олеговна Пучинская

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective collaboration between the Russian Federation and Germany at the beginning of the 21st century would be impossible without mutually beneficial economic cooperation of the two countries. The analysis of basic stages in the economic relations, achievements and problems are considered by the author to be important for lining-up an all-round picture of the Russian-German relations in the period under review. The main purpose of this article is the consideration and analysis of the economic aspects in the Russian foreign policy towards Germany. The problem considered in the article is of current importance, because in 2000-2013 the economic collaboration of Russia and the German Federal Republic was brought to a high level, but at the same time some considerable potential of cooperation was not fulfilled. With regard to complementarity of the Russian and German economies and their centuries-old experience of collaboration and mutual financial interest, it is possible to suppose that the economic sphere in particular would be a basis of optimization of the Russian-German relations in the long term. In such a way, this article deals with the basic directions of the Russian-German economic cooperation in 2000-2013.The contractual legal base of financial relations is examined with the purpose to reveal strengths and weaknesses as well as perspective possibilities of the optimization in the Russian-German relations in the future.

  16. Developing the organizational-economic relations during agricultural-industrial integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Okladchik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to substantiate the need for economic integration of agricultural enterprises. Methods abstractlogical monographic. Results economic integration in agriculture is needed due to the destruction of economic relations in the period of economy liberalization and decrease in efficiency and productivity in agriculture. The solution to the problems of financing pricing and marketing of agricultural products lies in the sphere of forming integrative relations between enterprises producing processing and marketing agricultural products. Basing on the analysis of theoretical provisions the main forms of enterprises integration is identified such as contractual relationship without creating new legal entities formation of associations unions holding companies financialindustrial groups. It was found that the most effective are those forms of associations that form a complete closed cycle of production and sales i.e. holdings and financialindustrial groups. Basing on the analysis of the economic integration principles the necessity was determined of implementing the principle of stability of economic relations which will allow to overcome the crisis in the agrarian sector. In addition the author has formulated principles for the implementing the economic mechanism in integrated groups based on equality freedom and integrity of such groups. The key components of economic relations in terms of integration were identified ndash organizational unity of the technological process as well as the transformation of the interests of technologically related actors towards a common result. Scientific novelty the principle of stability of economic links during integration of agricultural enterprises was formulated. The necessity was proved of integrating the enterprises providing comparable levels of capacity utilization and the possibility of complete product sales as well as the necessity of forming integration relations as a single object of ownership

  17. Middle east and North African oil in international relations (from 1970 to these days)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafie, Hossein

    1999-01-01

    Petroleum is not purely an economical product, its main role in world economy and its concentration in Middle East and North Africa (two third of world reserves) made influence international politics. Knowing the nature of the region, petroleum and politics make one. The politicization of oil in the region starts, first of all, with the efforts of some powers, through their companies, to dominate oil countries, which by reaction incite these countries to eliminate foreign domination and establish their national control on oil matters. The situation is changing progressively. The position of productive states got stronger with the beginning of the 1970's which permitted the use of oil, in a way relatively efficient, as an instrument of power. Consequently, the balance of power shifted deeply in the favor of producers. On this basis, the argument consists of three parts: the first puts theoretic bases - theory of economical arm - and defines geographical and historical environment of the research. The second part studies the period of force of the oil countries, from the fourth Israel-Arab war and oil embargo that followed it, to the end of the second oil slump. The third part explains the shift of power on the international scene and the relative decline of oil power for the states of the region. The analysis of impact of the oil slump in 1986 and the mini impact of the second Persian Gulf war, quickly dominated, lead to clear the actual situation and outline the viewpoint of the future. (author)

  18. Public-private re-alignments: the role of structural economic transformations in spurring the joint international engagement of agribusiness and the Brazilian State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Søndergaard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses upon how changes in global agricultural markets and the transformation of the Brazilian economic model from the 1990s have redefined relations between the state and agribusiness, and affected the country´s international strategy. The central objective is to evaluate the causal impact of structural factors at the global and the national level upon the dispositions and preferences of the group of actors examined. Public-private cooperation is analyzed through institutionalist IPE and liberal IR theory, in combination with a neopluralist perspective. The article concludes that changes in global food markets and the economic liberalizations of the 1990s have spurred an export-oriented consensus between the agricultural sector and the state, with strong repercussions within the country´s international engagement.

  19. Export-import economics of the northern regions of Russia at the crossroad of international sanctions: past and present, geopolitics of compromise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai P. Zalyvsky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author discussed historical prerequisites for the inclusion of the North in the world economy and analyzed the participation of the Arctic territories of the Russian Federation in international trade 2000–2016. The impact of the Western sanctions and their influence on the dynamics and structure of foreign trade is also in a focus of the present article as well as the political economy provisions that allow overcoming the negative nature of international economic relations between the Russian Federation and Western countries. The author proves the expediency of changing the geopolitical positions of the West and Russia with a view to moving towards a compromise model of economic cooperation between the North of Russia and the EU and other countries.

  20. International evaluation of the programme on engine-related combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcoumanis, D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Greenhalgh, D. [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom); Magnusson, B.F. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Peters, N. [Institut fuer Technische Mechanik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The 12 projects in the engine related combustion programme cover the entire range from fundamental and theoretical aspects of combustion to more applied subjects such as engine control. The common denominator in the programme clearly is the internal combustion engine, both the reciprocating as well as the gas turbine engine. Such a large coverage by a relatively small number of projects necessarily leads to an isolation of some of the projects in terms of their subject as well as the methodology that is used. On the other hand, all the research areas of interest in combustion technology are represented by at least one of the projects. These are: mathematical and numerical methods in combustion; modelling of turbulent combustion; laser diagnostics of flows with combustion; studies of engine performance and their control; semi-empirical model development for practical applications. As a conclusion, the evaluation committee believes that the programme is well balanced between fundamental and applied projects. It covers the entire range of modern methodologies that are used on the international level and thereby contributes to the application and further development of these research tools in Sweden