WorldWideScience

Sample records for international radiation protection association

  1. The role of the international radiation protection association in development and implementation of radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.; Lochard, J.; Webb, G.

    2002-01-01

    The International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) is an affiliation of national and regional professional societies. Its individual membership is approaching some 20 000 professionals from 42 societies and covering 50 countries. Its primary objective is to provide a platform for collaboration between members of its affiliate societies to further radiation protection and safety. The IRPA is mandated to promote and facilitate the establishment of radiation protection societies, support international meetings and to encourage international publications, research and education and the establishment and review of standards. Through its membership base and its observer status on bodies such as the ICRP and the safety standards committees of the IAEA, the IRPA is in a position to provide valuable input to the safety standards development process. This factor has been increasingly recognised more recently within the IRPA and the various organisations involved in the development of safety standards. This paper addresses the mechanisms that have been established to enhance the input of the IRPA into the safety standards development process and for their subsequent implementation. (author)

  2. The International radiation protection association (IRPA) 2010-2011 strategic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, K.

    2010-01-01

    The membership of IRPA consists of 46 national or regional associate societies, 58 countries and about 17,000 individual members. The goals of IRPA strategic Plan 2008-2012 are: Promote excellence in the conduct of IRPA Promote excellence in national and regional associate societies Promote excellence in radiation protection professionals IRPA is recognized by its members and stakeholders as the international voice of the radiation protection profession. The role of IRPA is to: Provide a medium for communication and advancement of radiation protection throughout the world Encourage the establishment of radiation protection societies Support international meetings Encourage international publications dedicated to radiation protection Encourage the establishment and continuous review of universally acceptable radiation protection standards and recommendations Encourage professional enhancement

  3. International standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.

    2011-01-01

    International standards for radiation protection are issued by many bodies. These bodies differ to a large extent in their organisation, in the way the members are designated and in the way the international standards are authorised by the issuing body. Large differences also exist in the relevance of the international standards. One extreme is that the international standards are mandatory in the sense that no conflicting national standard may exist, the other extreme is that national and international standards conflict and there is no need to resolve that conflict. Between these extremes there are some standards or documents of relevance, which are not binding by any formal law or contract but are de facto binding due to the scientific reputation of the issuing body. This paper gives, for radiation protection, an overview of the main standards issuing bodies, the international standards or documents of relevance issued by them and the relevance of these documents. (authors)

  4. International regulations for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daw, H.T.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the development of the IAEA Radiological Protection standards is given. The basic features of the latest revision recently adopted by the governing bodies of the sponsoring organizations, i.e. IAEA, WHO, ILO, NEA/OECD are discussed and some of the features of the future Agency programme for its implementation will be outlined. In particular, attention will be given to development of the basic principles for setting release limits of radioactive materials into the environment. An important aspect of this is when the release of radioactive materials into the environment crosses international boundaries. The Agency is best suited to try to reach a consensus on the minimum monetary value for the unit collective dose. (orig./RW)

  5. Recommendations of International Commission of Radiation Protection 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The book summarizes the recommendations on radiation protection of International of Radiation Protection. The main chapters are: 1.- Rates in radiation protection 2.- Biological aspects of radiation protection 3.- Framework of radiation protection. 4.- System of protection. 5.- Implantation of commission's recommendations. 6.- Summary of recommendations

  6. International Society of Radiology and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standertskjoeld-Nordenstam, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the International Society of Radiology (ISR), as being the global organization of radiologists, is to promote and help co-ordinate the progress of radiology throughout the world. In this capacity and as a co-operating organization of the IAEA, the ISR has a specific responsibility in the global radiological protection of patients. Globally, there are many users of medical radiation, and radiology may be practised in the most awkward circumstances. The individuals performing X ray studies as well as those interpreting them may be well trained, as in industrialized parts of the world, but also less knowledgeable, as in developing areas. The problems of radiological protection, both of patients and of radiation workers, still exist, and radiation equipment is largely diffused throughout the world. That is why a conference like this is today as important as ever. Radiation protection is achieved through education, on the one hand, and legislation, on the other. Legislation and regulation are the instruments of national authorities. The means of the ISR are education and information. Good radiological practice is something that can be taught. The ISR is doing this mainly through the biannual International Congress of Radiology (ICR), now arranged in an area of radiological need; the three previous ICRs were in China, in India and in South America; the next one is going to be in Mexico in 2002. The goal of the ICR is mainly to be an instructive and educational event, especially designed for the needs of its surrounding region. The ISR is aiming at producing educational material. The International Commission on Radiological Education (ICRE), as part of the ISR, is launching the production of a series of educational booklets, which also include radiation protection. The ICRE is actively involved in shaping and organizing the educational and scientific programme of the ICRs

  7. The International Commission of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection: meeting the challenges in NIR protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinlay, A [National Radiological Protection Board, Didcot (United Kingdom). ICNIRP

    2002-07-01

    This paper summarises ICNIRP's brief history from its beginnings as a committee of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) to the present as an independent International Commission, and examines how it has structured itself to meet the challenges in non-ionising radiation (NIR) protection now and in the future.

  8. Activities of Moroccan Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choukri, A.

    2010-01-01

    Encourage activities and information exchange in the field of radiation protection and related areas; Assist in informing both the public and the professionals on the problems and requirements related to radiation protection for the protection of man and the environment; Promote professional training in radiation protection. The use of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry is very advanced in Morocco. This technological progress has been accompanied by fairly detailed legislation and significant involvement on the part of Morocco in international conventions and agreements

  9. Abstracts of 20. International Symposium Radiation Protection Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    51 papers are presented as titles with abstracts which are processed individually for the INIS data base. They deal with general aspects of radiation protection physics, international activities in radiation protection, solid state dosimetry, models and calculation methods in radiation protection, and measuring techniques in radiation protection

  10. Greetings from Austrian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.; Brandl, A.

    2015-01-01

    Austrian Radiation Protection Association (OVS) share with others a long-standing tradition of common endeavours and close collaboration. We have been and are able to influence the European radiation protection environment and IRPA initiatives and policies. We are intrigued by the breadth and comprehensive nature of the symposium programme, covering the most important sub-fields in our profession, and spanning topics from radiation dosimetry to radiobiology, from instrumentation and measurement to radioecology, and from radiation protection for workers and in medicine to our professional responsibilities towards the general public. These topics are timeless and current, providing testimony to the fact that the science of radiation protection is not exhausted. Novel applications of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, including new modalities in the fields of medical therapy and diagnosis, a resurgence of nuclear energy generation in some parts of the globe, combined with increased efforts for decontamination and decommissioning of existing sites and facilities, they are all attest to the continued need for further research and our professional input and discussion. The national radiation protection associations will have a role to play in both, the advocacy of increased efforts to educate and train our future professionals and the retention of those professionals in our field.

  11. The development of the international and national radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, W.

    1978-01-01

    The author reports in detail about the development of the international radiation protection law, gives a general survey of domestic legislation in the FRG and abroad and presents the individual problems of the radiation protection laws in a comparative way, such as radiation protection principles/dose limit values, licensing and monitoring regulations disposal of radioactive wastes, application of ionising rays and radioactive substances to men as well as protection from non-ionising radiation. (UN) [de

  12. Radiation protection for humans and environment. 50 years competence in the professional association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, Benno; Wilhelm, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The conference proceedings of the IRPA (International radiation protection association) annual meeting 2016 contain the contribution of invited referents, other contributions and poster contributions concerning radiation protection in nuclear facilities, radiation protection of the public and environment, radioactive waste management, uranium mining, environmental monitoring, natural radioactivity, and radiation protection laws and regulations.

  13. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ures Pantazi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

  14. Croatian Radiation Protection Association: From Yugoslavia to Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcar Bronic, I.; Miljanic, S.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.

    2013-01-01

    On the occasion of the fifty years of organised radiation protection activities at the area known as f ormer Yugoslavia , the professional activities and achievements in this field are presented in this paper. Croatian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA, www.hdzz.hr) was founded in 1979. In 1992 it became a regular member of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA). The main activities of CRPA members are: scientific research, participation in professional committees, intense cooperation in professional and scientific matters with the IRPA, other international bodies and Croatian scientific and professional societies, and related administrative work. CRPA members continue to provide advice and assistance to authorities, professional societies and individuals within their fields of expertise. Nine national symposia of CRPA with international participation were organized since 1991. All presentations were published as full papers in the Proceedings. CRPA participated in the organization of all IRPA Regional Congresses in Central Europe from 1993 (Obergurgl, Austria) till 2007 (Brasov, Romania). In 2001 CRPA hosted IRPA Regional Congress in Dubrovnik, Croatia. Members of CRPA are taking part in the organization of IRPA international congresses and in the work of IRPA General Assembly. CRPA has been actively involved in the informal meetings of European radiation protection societies since 2004 and organized their 6th meeting in Zagreb in 2009.(author)

  15. Proceedings of 8th Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajcar Bronic, I; Kopjar, N; Milic, M; Branica, G

    2011-07-01

    The 8th symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association discussed the following topics: general topics; radiation dosimetry and instrumentation; public exposure; biological effects of radiation; radiation protection in medicine; radioecology and non-ionizing radiation. For each subject many investigations, experiments, examples and results are presented. International character of this symposium shows importance of these topics not only in region but world wide.

  16. Proceedings of 8th Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcar Bronic, I.; Kopjar, N.; Milic, M.; Branica, G.

    2011-01-01

    The 8th symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association discussed the following topics: general topics; radiation dosimetry and instrumentation; public exposure; biological effects of radiation; radiation protection in medicine; radioecology and non-ionizing radiation. For each subject many investigations, experiments, examples and results are presented. International character of this symposium shows importance of these topics not only in region but world wide.

  17. Proceedings of the 3. Regional Meeting on Radiological and Nuclear Safety, Regional Meeting on International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA)and 3. Peruvian Meeting on Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    There we show works of the Third Regional Meeting on Radiological and Nuclear Safety held on 23-27 October, 1995 in Cusco-Peru. Latin americans specialists talk about nuclear safety and radiological protection, radiation natural exposure, biological effect of radiation, radiotherapy and medical radiological safety, radiological safety in industry and research. Also we deal with subjects related to radiological safety of nuclear and radioactive facilities, radioactive waste management, radioactive material transport, environmental radiological monitoring program, radiological emergency and accidents, instruments and dosimetry, basic safety standards of protection against radiation. More than 225 works were presented on the meeting

  18. Radiation protection planning for the international FAIR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbacher, G.; Belousov, A.; Conrad, I.

    2015-01-01

    FAIR (=Facility for AntiProton and Ion Research) is an international accelerator facility which will be built near the GSI site in Darmstadt, where protons and heavy ion beams can be accelerated in a synchrotron to energies up to 30 GeV/nucleon with intensities partially up to 1E13/sec. The accelerated particles will be used for experiments in atomic, nuclear and plasma physics as well as for radiation biology and medicine and materials research. The radiation protection planning focuses on the estimation of radiation fields produced by heavy ions and its shielding. As examples, the radiation protection planning for the heavy ion synchrotron SIS100 as well as for two experiment caves are presented. Moreover, further important topics in this radiation protection planning are the estimation of the distribution and production of radionuclides in media and the handling before disposal.

  19. ICRP 2015. International symposium on the radiation protection system. Report and reflection on a significant symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The ICRP international symposium on the radiation protection system provides always extensive information on new developments in radiation protection. The ICRP 2105 discussed the following issues: radiation effects of low dose irradiation, dose coefficients for internal and external exposures, radiation protection in nuclear medicine, application of ICRP recommendations, environmental protection, studies on existing exposure situations, medical radiation protection today, science behind radiation doses, new developments in radiation effects, and ethics in radiation protection.

  20. Atoms, radiation, and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes basic atomic and nuclear structure, the physical processes that result in the emission of ionizing radiations, and external and internal radiation protection criteria, standards, and practices from the standpoint of their underlying physical and biological basis. The sources and properties of ionizing radiation-charged particles, photons, and neutrons-and their interactions with matter are discussed in detail. The underlying physical principles of radiation detection and systems for radiation dosimetry are presented. Topics considered include atomic physics and radiation; atomic structure and radiation; the nucleus and nuclear radiation; interaction of heavy charged particles with matter; interaction of beta particles with matter; phenomena associated with charged-particle tracks; interaction of photons with matter; neutrons, fission and criticality; methods of radiation detection; radiation dosimetry; chemical and biological effects of radiation; radiation protection criteria and standards; external radiation protection; and internal dosimetry and radiation protection

  1. Proceedings of 9th Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, Z.; Krajcar Bronic, I.; Majer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The 9th symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association discussed the following topics: general topics; radiation dosimetry; public exposure; biological effects of radiation; radiation protection in medicine; radioecology and instrumentation and measuring techniques. For each subject many investigations, experiments, examples and results are presented. International character of this symposium shows importance of these topics not only in region but world wide.

  2. Proceedings of 7th Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisic, D; Grahek, Z; Krajcar Bronic, I; Miljanic, S

    2008-07-01

    The 7th symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association discussed the following topics: general topics; radiation dosimetry and instrumentation; biological effects of radiation; radiation protection in medicine; radioecology and radon. For each subject many investigations, experiments, examples and results are presented. International character of this symposium shows importance of these topics not only in region but world wide.

  3. Proceedings of 7th Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Grahek, Z.; Krajcar Bronic, I.; Miljanic, S.

    2008-01-01

    The 7th symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association discussed the following topics: general topics; radiation dosimetry and instrumentation; biological effects of radiation; radiation protection in medicine; radioecology and radon. For each subject many investigations, experiments, examples and results are presented. International character of this symposium shows importance of these topics not only in region but world wide

  4. International news about radiation protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Garnier-Laplace, J.

    2016-01-01

    The new European Basic Safety Standards in Radiation Protection (2013/59/Euratom) introduce 'environmental criteria' to protect human health in the long term. This innovation results from work in progress and from the recent positioning of international organizations and authorities in charge of radiation protection and its implementation, regarding the protection of wildlife against ionizing radiation. On the basis of the international state of the art, from the current regulatory context to existing approaches, the ERICA method has been identified as fully consistent with the ICRP approach and the most operational at the moment, due to its richness, flexibility and traceability. Most of the radiological risk assessments for wildlife published in the 5 last years used part or all of the ERICA approach, generally screening the radiological risk for wildlife from the first stage of the assessment, except for a few areas among those most impacted by radioactive contamination (Chernobyl area, uranium mining sites in Central Asia, etc.). This update of the knowledge in the field at the international level and the feedback on the analysis of regulatory files presented by nuclear operators led to 10 recommendations from the IRSN on the radiation protection of the environment and its implementation. (authors)

  5. Professional radiation protection societies and the international organizations – exploiting the synergies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, Phil

    2013-07-01

    Radiation protection covers many disciplines from science through philosophy to law, and interacts with many human activities and endeavors. Professional societies for radiation protection were established and evolved throughout the second half of the twentieth century in many countries, and presently represent more than twenty thousand professionals working in more than fifty countries. During the same period a number of international organizations were established, some devoted to radiation safety, others with a role to play in radiation safety; such organizations being either independent non-governmental organizations or intergovernmental organizations of both regional and international dimensions. The national, regional and international radiation protection societies and associations have become the vehicle to provide this conduit from the profession to the international organizations. This is achieved by IRPA having representation within the relevant committees of the various international bodies, such as the Radiation Safety Standards Committee (RASSC) of the IAEA. At a national level radiation protection professionals can gain access to all international developments in radiation protection through the national societies and their interactions with IRPA and also as individual members of IRPA. The possibility to provide consolidated comment and feedback to the international organizations through national societies provides excellent opportunities for societies to organize national workshops and discussion platforms on all important areas of radiation protection.

  6. Proceedings of 11th Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Poje Sovilj, M.; Krajcar Bronic, I.

    2017-01-01

    The 11th symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association discussed the following topics: ethics and culture in radiation protection; general topics; radiation protection and dosimetry in medicine; biological effects of radiation; instrumentation and measuring techniques; radioecology; public exposure; radon; non-ionising radiation. For each subject many investigations, experiments, examples and results are presented. International character of this symposium shows importance of these topics not only in region but world wide.

  7. International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, A.

    2001-01-01

    The ISRRT was formed in 1962 with 15 national societies and by the year 2000 has grown to comprise more than 70 member societies. The main objects of the organization are to: Improve the education of radiographers; Support the development of medical radiation technology worldwide; Promote a better understanding and implementation of radiation protection standards. The ISRRT has been a non-governmental organization in official relations with the World Health Organization (WHO) since 1967. It is the only international radiographic organization that represents radiation medicine technology and has more than 200 000 members within its 70 member countries. Representatives of the ISRRT have addressed a number of assemblies of WHO regional committees on matters relating to radiation protection and radiation medicine technology. In this way, the expertise of radiographers worldwide contributes to the establishment of international standards in vital areas, such as: Quality control; Legislation for radiation protection; Good practice in radiographic procedures; Basic radiological services. The ISRRT believes that good and consistent standards of practice throughout the world are essential

  8. International and national radiation protection standards and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    The recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and their basis are discussed with particular emphasis on the extensive review of its earlier recommendations undertaken by the ICRP during the 1970s. The new recommendations issued in 1977 after this review are described. The dose limits for various organs and tissues before and after 1977 are compared. The optimization principle contained in the 1977 recommendations is assessed. The implementation of the 1977 recommendations, the subsequent changes to them and the ICRP's 1987 statement on cancer risk assessments are discussed. The National Radiological Protection Board's October 1987 radiation protection recommendations are outlined. 8 refs., 1 fig

  9. Abstracts of 21. International Symposium Radiation Protection Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    45 papers are presented as titles with abstracts which are processed individually for the INIS data base. They deal with general aspects of radiation protection physics, chiefly problems of radiation detection and measuring techniques in radiation protection

  10. Opening Address (by A.M. Bomben) [IRPA12: 12. Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association: Strengthening Radiation Protection Worldwide - Highlights, Global Perspective and Future Trends, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 19-24 October 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomben, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Dear colleagues from all over the world. Welcome to Argentina. Welcome to Buenos Aires. Welcome to IRPA12. On behalf of the Argentine Radiation Protection Society (SAR), I would like to share with you the story of a dream that came true. Ten years ago, a few dedicated Argentine scientists started dreaming of having an IRPA International Congress in Argentina - the first time in Latin America. At the IRPA International Congress in Hiroshima, an informal presentation was made, which was only supported by SAR and encouraged by IRPA. There was already a bid for the IRPA International Congress in Madrid, strongly supported by the Argentine Government, through the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Government of the City of Buenos Aires and national academic institutions. At that moment, many countries supported our proposal, sharing with us our dream. We worked very hard in these four years, but we were not alone. The strong support of authorities and staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina was essential in the organization of IRPA12. Around the world, the cooperation of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Pan-American Health Organization and the World Health Organization was also fundamental for fulfilment our dream. I would like to mention each of the national and international institutions and colleagues that are supporting IRPA12 with their work, with their funds or with their sponsorship, but there are so many! So, many thanks to all the national and international institutions that are supporting IRPA12; many, many thanks to all the Argentine colleagues and colleagues from all over the world of the different IRPA12 committees, and especially many thanks to all the authorities and colleagues who are here today, with us, sharing this IRPA12 and making real the motto of the Congress: Strengthening Radiation Protection Worldwide. Many thanks and welcome. (author)

  11. Proceedings of the third international congress of the International Radiation Protection Association, Washington, D. C. , September 9--14, 1973. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-02-01

    Complete texts of 123 communications to the Congress (in the original language; the majority in English, some in Russian, French), on the following topics; radiation perspective in the U.S., radiation and man, non-ionising radiation, radiation effects on animals, radiation quantities, radioecology, reactor experience, late radiation effects, dose calculations and radiation accidents.

  12. Assessment of the international meeting of radiation protection professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, Denisa; Cabanekova, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The conclusions from and main agenda of the conference are summarized. The conference was divided into 8 sections, dealing with biological effects of ionizing radiation, general aspects of radiation protection, dosimetry and metrology of ionizing radiation, radiation protection problems in nuclear power plants, management of nuclear radiation emergencies, radiation load of patients and staff during medical applications of ionizing radiation (radiodiagnosis, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology), control of exposure to radiation from natural sources in the environment and at workplaces, and education in radiation protection. The programme included round-table discussions devoted to the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, optimization of the radiation load of children in radiology, and recent advances in the radon risk countermeasures area. (orig.)

  13. Legal aspects of radiation protection at the international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazian, J.

    1981-01-01

    A review is made of the respective activities of the various international organizations concerned with radiation protection at the legal level. These organizations are either non-governmental (I.C.R.P., I.C.R.U.) or governmental in which case they can act at the world (U.N., I.A.E.A., I.L.O., W.H.O.) or regional level (N.E.A., EURATOM, COMECOM). The legal impact of the recommendations or directives they issue is specified [fr

  14. Experience of the international network in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Gironzini, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of exchanging information on various subjects about radiation protection and designing a site where the members can send and receive information on courses, scientific activities, articles, technical opinions, commentaries and everything that promotes the communication, collaboration and integration, the 15th March 2002 the networking: 'radioproteccion' is created with 11 persons from 11 countries. The number of members had been increased. By the first month it had 117 members and by the end of the year 2002 it had already 179 members, 315 messages were send by then. By December 2007, there were 726 members from 28 countries mainly from Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. There were also members from Austria, Canada, France, Israel, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States. There have been distributed 2049 messages about Congress, courses and activities on national and international radiation protection and related issues which initially were in Latin American and the Caribbean. This has allowed diverse specialists that work in different themes to interchange experiences and information about subjects of common interest. This objective is the continuation of the spreading of activities that since 1991 and for 10 consecutive years had been made through the Bulletin 'Proteccion Radiologica', from which 65000 samples were published and distributed to specialists from 40 countries thanks to the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO). This idea is complemented by the Web: www.radioproteccion.org. Interesting topics have been discussed in the network for example: Pregnancy and medical radiation, emergency response, occupational exposure, radiation protection responsibilities, lessons learned from accidental

  15. The international standard for protection from ionizing radiation and safety of radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, T [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1995-06-01

    This document is a review in hebrew of the new 1994 international standard of the IAEA. The new standard title is `Basic safety standards for radiation protection and for the safety of radiation sources`, which were published in the ICRP Pub. 9.

  16. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  17. Occupational radiation exposure in international recommendations on radiation protection: Basic standards under review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.

    1996-01-01

    The ICRP publication 60 contains a number of new recommendations on the radiological protection of occupationally exposed persons. The recommendations have been incorporated to a very large extent in the BSS, the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, a publication elaborated by the IAEA in cooperation with many other international organisations, and in the Euratom Basic Safety Standards (EUR) to be published soon. However, there exist some considerable discrepancies in some aspects of the three publications. The ICRP committee has set up a task group for defining four general principles of occupational radiation protection, and a safety guide is in preparation under the responsibility of the IAEA. ''StrahlenschutzPraxis'' will deal with this subject in greater detail after publication of these two important international publications. The article in hand discusses some essential aspects of the recommendations published so far. (orig.) [de

  18. The objectives and activities of the Canadian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Society and the Canadian Radiation Protection Association are working to develop an agreement between the organizations to facilitate working together on issues of common interest. This paper will present the objectives, the organizational structure and major areas of activity of the Canadian Radiation Protection Association. It is a reciprocal presentation of one given earlier this year by Mr. Fred Boyd of the CNS to the CRPA annual conference. The intent is to help the membership of each organization better understand the objectives and interests of the other. (author)

  19. Radiation protection in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.; Holmberg, O.; Perez, M. R.; Ortiz, P.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic used of ionizing radiation are beneficial for hundreds of millions of people each year by improving health care and saving lives. In March 2001, the first International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients was held in Malaga, Spain, which led to an international action plan for the radiation protection of patients. Ten years after establishing the international action plan, the International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine: Setting the Scene for the Next Decade was held in Bonn, Germany, in December 2012. the main outcome of this conference was the so called Bonn Call for Action that identifies then priority actions to enhance radiation protection in medicine for the next decade. The IAEA and WHO are currently working in close cooperation to foster and support the implementation of these ten priority actions in Member States, but their implementation requires collaboration of national governments, international agencies, researchers, educators, institutions and professional associations. (Author)

  20. Radiation protection in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E.; Holmberg, O.; Perez, M. R.; Ortiz, P.

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic used of ionizing radiation are beneficial for hundreds of millions of people each year by improving health care and saving lives. In March 2001, the first International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients was held in Malaga, Spain, which led to an international action plan for the radiation protection of patients. Ten years after establishing the international action plan, the International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine: Setting the Scene for the Next Decade was held in Bonn, Germany, in December 2012. the main outcome of this conference was the so called Bonn Call for Action that identifies then priority actions to enhance radiation protection in medicine for the next decade. The IAEA and WHO are currently working in close cooperation to foster and support the implementation of these ten priority actions in Member States, but their implementation requires collaboration of national governments, international agencies, researchers, educators, institutions and professional associations. (Author)

  1. Current radiation protection activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program of the Radiation Safety Section is described in this paper. The Section has two main components: (1) the development of consensus safety documentation and (2) the use of that documentation as the basis for assisting countries to deal safely with their applications of radiation and radioactivity. Main activities of the section are listed for each of these components. Activities include documentation, coordinated research programs, and assistance to developing countries. 14 tabs

  2. Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Kopjar, N.; Miljanic, S.

    2005-01-01

    Croatian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA) organised symposium with international participation. Co-organisers (Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia and Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia) show importance of this symposium, which was under the auspices of several ministries (Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction, Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia) and State Institute of Radiation Protection, State Office for Standardization and Metrology and APO Ltd. - Hazardous Waste Management Agency. All topics are of great interest for Croatia. They present recent researches in Croatia and in other almost same oriented countries in Europe.The distribution of topics at the Sixth symposium shows same parts with articles from radiation dosimetry and instrumentation, biological effects of radiation, public exposure, radiation protection in medicine, as well as radioecology. Also, non-ionising radiations take their share as very interesting topics at present. (S.P.)

  3. A History of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repacholi, M H

    2017-10-01

    Concern about health risks from exposure to non-ionizing radiation (NIR) commenced in the 1950s after tracking radars were first introduced during the Second World War. Soon after, research on possible biological effects of microwave radiation in the former Soviet Union and the U.S. led to public and worker exposure limits being much lower in Eastern European than in Western countries, mainly because of different protection philosophies. As public concern increased, national authorities began introducing legislation to limit NIR exposures from domestic microwave ovens and workplace devices such as visual display units. The International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) was formed in 1966 to represent national radiation protection societies. To address NIR protection issues, IRPA established a Working Group in 1974, then a Study Group in 1975, and finally the International NIR Committee (INIRC) in 1977. INIRC's publications quickly became accepted worldwide, and it was logical that it should become an independent commission. IRPA finally established the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), chartering its remit in 1992, and defining NIR as electromagnetic radiation (ultraviolet, visible, infrared), electromagnetic waves and fields, and infra- and ultrasound. ICNIRP's guidelines have been incorporated into legislation or adopted as standards in many countries. While ICNIRP has been subjected to criticism and close scrutiny by the public, media, and activists, it has continued to issue well-received, independent, science-based protection advice. This paper summarizes events leading to the formation of ICNIRP, its key activities up to 2017, ICNIRP's 25th anniversary year, and its future challenges.

  4. Croatian Participation at National Symposia and International Congresses on Radiation Protection 1992-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcar Bronic, I.; Ranogajec-Komor, M

    2003-01-01

    Croatian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA) was formed as an independent association in 1991, and since 1992 it is a member of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA). CRPA organises regular national symposia with international participation, and takes part in organisation of regional IRPA congresses. The members of CRPA take part also in international and European congresses. In this paper we analyse the participation of Croatian authors in national symposia and international congresses in the period from 1992 to 2002. The number of papers in proceedings of the national symposia is rather constant (about 60), while at the First symposium in 1992 it was slightly higher (68). The fraction of papers by Croatian authors was also the highest at the First Symposium (∼ 90%), while at the following symposia it varied between 70% and 80%. Although the analysed period is rather short, one can see slight changes in the research topics. Radioecology, including radon and related topics, was the most frequent research area (36% of all papers) at the national CRPA symposia 1992-1998, followed by the biological effects of radiation and radiation protection in medicine (24%), dosimetry, methods and instrumentation (21%), general topics (11%) and radioactive waste (7%). The distribution of topics at the Fifth symposium is: 27% radioecology and radon, 30% biological and medical topics, as well as professional and public exposure, 24% dosimetry, 14% general topics and 5% non-ionising radiations. In this Symposium we have separate sections for non-ionising radiations and public exposure, although several papers on these subjects were presented already at the previous symposia. (author)

  5. International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter termed radiation) and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards

  6. International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter termed radiation) and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards. Tabs

  7. Radiation protection for humans and environment. 50 years competence in the professional association; Strahlenschutz fuer Mensch und Umwelt. 50 Jahre Kompetenz im Fachverband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, Benno [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat, Brugg (Switzerland); Wilhelm, Christoph (ed.) [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The conference proceedings of the IRPA (International radiation protection association) annual meeting 2016 contain the contribution of invited referents, other contributions and poster contributions concerning radiation protection in nuclear facilities, radiation protection of the public and environment, radioactive waste management, uranium mining, environmental monitoring, natural radioactivity, and radiation protection laws and regulations.

  8. International recommendations[General radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, Bo [Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection (Sweden)

    1986-07-01

    Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed a certain threshold value. These effects, therefore, can only appear after high accidental exposures. After the Chernobyl accident, they only affected about 200 individuals involved in fire extinction and rescue work at the damaged nuclear power plant. Stochastic effects, with some simplification, may be seen as the result of initial changes in the genetic code of some surviving cells. If these cells are germ cells, this may lead to hereditary harm. If they are somatic cells, the result could be cancer

  9. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-11-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2014. It was held on Nov.19-21, 2014 in Jeju, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2014. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection 1, Medical treatment and Biology 1, Radiation measurement 1, Radiation environment and protection 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Radiation Measurement 2, Radiation environment and protection 2.

  10. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-12-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2016. It was held on Dec. 1, 2016 Phoenix Island in Jeju, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2016. This proceedings is comprised of 5 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection, Biotechnology of radiation, Radiation measurement, Radiation environment and prevention, Radiation epidemiography.

  11. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalaksh Shenoy, K.

    2013-01-01

    Three main pillars underpin the IAEA's mission: Safety and Security - The IAEA helps countries to upgrade their infrastructure for nuclear and radiation safety and security, and to prepare for and respond to emergencies. Work is keyed to international conventions, the development of international standards and the application of these standards. The aim is to protect people and the environment from the harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Science and Technology - The IAEA is the world's focal point for mobilizing peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology for critical needs in developing countries. The work contributes to alleviating poverty, combating disease and pollution of the environment and to other goals of sustainable development. Safeguards and Verification - The IAEA is the nuclear inspectorate, with more than four decades of verification experience. Inspectors work to verify that nuclear material and activities are not diverted towards military purposes. Quantities and Units: Dose equivalent is the product of absorbed dose of radiation and quality factor (Q). For absorbed dose in rads, dose equivalent is in rems. If absorbed dose is in gray, the dose equivalent is in sievert. Quality factor is defined without reference to any particular biological end point. Quality factors are recommended by committees such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) or the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), based on experimental RBE values but with some judgment exercised. Effective Dose Equivalent: It is the sum of the weighted dose equivalents for all irradiated tissues, in which the weighting factors represent the different risks of each tissue to mortality from cancer and hereditary effects. Committed dose equivalent: It is the integral over 50 years of dose equivalent following the intake of a radionuclide. Collective effective dose equivalent: It is a quantity for a population and is

  12. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-04-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting, 2017. It was held on 13 April 2017 Gunsan Saemangeum Covention Center in Gunsan, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2017. This proceedings is comprised of 5 ssessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection, Biotechnology of radiation, Radiation measurement and prevention, Radiation epidemiography.

  13. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-04-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting, 2017. It was held on 13 April 2017 Gunsan Saemangeum Covention Center in Gunsan, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2017. This proceedings is comprised of 5 ssessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection, Biotechnology of radiation, Radiation measurement and prevention, Radiation epidemiography.

  14. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting, 2016. It was held on Apr. 6-8, 2016 Daemyung Resort in Byeonsan, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2016. This proceedings is comprised of 4 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection, Biotechnology of radiation, Radiation Measurement, Radiation environment and prevention

  15. Radiation protection; Proteccion Radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ures Pantazi, M [Universidad de la Republica, Facultad de Quimica (Uruguay)

    1994-12-31

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection.

  16. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources international basic safety standards

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna

    2014-01-01

    The Board of Governors of the IAEA first approved Basic Safety Standards in June 1962; they were published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 9. A revised edition was issued in 1967. A third revision was published by the IAEA as the 1982 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 9 ; this edition was jointly sponsored by the IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA and the WHO. The next edition was International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 115 in February 1996, and jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and the WHO.

  17. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-10-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2015. It was held on Oct.23, 2015 Mayfield Hotel in Seoul, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2015. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection 1, Medical treatment and Biology 1, Radiation Measurement 1, Radiation environment and disasters prevention 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Radiation Measurement 2, Radiation environment and disasters prevention 2.

  18. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting, 2013. It was held on Apr.24-26, 2013 Hotel Hyundai Mokpo in Mokpo, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2013. This proceedings is comprised of 6 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Medical treatment and Biology 1, Measurement and Analysis 1, Radiation protection1, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Measurement and Analysis 2, Radiation protection 2.

  19. Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, M.

    2002-01-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2001 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department are enviromnental remediation, emergency planning, radiation protection research, low-level radioactvity measurements, safeguards and physics measurements, decision strategy research and policy support and social sciences in nuclear research. Main achievements for 2001 in these areas are reported

  20. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Aman; Sharma, Shivam; Parasher, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose measurement, field of radiobiology, is considered to be critical factor for optimizing radiation protection to the health care practitioners, patients and the public. This lead to equipment that has dose - area product meters permanently installed. In many countries and even institution, the range of equipment is vast and with the opportunity for radiation protection and dose recording varies considerably. Practitioners must move with the changed demands of radiation protection but in many cases without assistance of modern advancements in technology Keeping the three basic safety measures Time, Dose and Shielding we can say 'Optimum dose is safe dose' instead of 'No dose is safe dose'. The purpose enclosed within the title 'Radiation Protection'. The use of radiation is expanding widely everyday around the world and crossing boundaries of medical imaging, diagnostic and. The way to get the ''As low as reasonably achievable' is only achievable by using methodology of radiation protection and to bring the concern of general public and practitioners over the hazards of un-necessary radiation dose. Three basic principles of radiation protection are time, distance and shielding. By minimizing the exposure time increasing the distance and including the shielding we can reduce the optimum range of dose. The ability of shielding material to attenuate radiation is generally given as half value layer. This is the thickness of the material which will reduce the amount of radiation by 50%. Lab coat and gloves must be worn when handling radioactive material or when working in a labeled radiation work area. Safety glasses or other appropriate splash shields should be used when handling radioactive material. 1. Reached to low dose level to occupational workers, public as per prescribed dose limit. 2. By mean of ALARA principle we achieved the protection from radiation besides us using the radiation for our benefit

  1. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series explains in a simple but scientifically accurate way what radiation is, the biological effects and the relative sensitivity of different parts of the human body. The leaflet then discusses radiation protection principles, radiation protection in the UK and finally the effectiveness of this radiation protection as judged by a breakdown of the total dose received by an average person in the UK, a heavy consumer of Cumbrian seafood, an average nuclear industry worker and an average person in Cornwall. (UK)

  2. Basic safety standards for radiation protection and their application to internal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, M.

    Following a summary of the basic concepts on radiation protection units, the safety standards now in effect in France and those recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP Publication 9, 1965) to be used as a basis to the next Euratom regulations are developed [fr

  3. International conference on the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    An International Conference on the Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Ionizing Radiation, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in co-operation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the European Commission (EC) and the International Union of Radioecology (IUR), will be held in Stockholm, Sweden, from 6-10 October 2003. This Conference will be hosted by the Government of Sweden through the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). This publication contains contributed papers submitted on issues within the scope of the conference, which were accepted following a review by the Conference Programme Committee. The primary objective of this Conference is to foster information exchange, with the aim of promoting the development of a coherent international policy on the protection of the environment from effects attributable to ionizing radiation. This Conference is one in a series of meetings organized by, or held in co-operation with, the IAEA on this subject. It will include a review of recent developments in this area, and consideration of their implications for future work at national and international levels. The topics on which contributed papers were requested are as follows: Existing environmental protection approaches; Development of an international assessment framework; The scientific basis for environmental radiation assessment; Development of management approaches.

  4. Radiation protection, safety and associated problems in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    Industrial radiography is an indispensable tool for non-destructive testing. Its use entails potential radiation exposure to the operator as well as to the public. Since such radiation has the potential to be harmful, there is a need to limit radiation exposure to a level at which the risk is believed to be acceptable to the individual and to society. The Radiation Protection Society and the Department of National Health believe that the level of protection provided for radiation workers should be comparable with that in other 'safe' industries. The total risk for radiation workers includes the risk of non-radiation related accidents in the various occupations, as well as the special risks of radiation exposure. Industrial radiographers have one of the poorest safety records of all non-medical radiation workers. Operator errors and management errors seem to be the primary contributors to most accidental high exposures. It is necessary to remember that industrial radiography has to be carried out in a wide variety of work places under many different working conditions, both by day and by night. High energy end emissivity (X-ray output or source activity) is required for the radiation to be transmitted through specimens, because these are normally constructed of thick and dense materials such as steel. Additionally, most radiographic sources must be portable to permit use in field locations. On the negative side it must be mentioned that studies undertaken abroad conclude that the most important factors contributing to unsafe operations are human related. Careful planning of the method of work is essential if unnecessary risks are to be avoided. The most effective way of reducing accidents would seem to be to train employees to adhere to established and well documented procedures, to exercise common sense and sound judgement, and to use the protective equipment and devices provided in the manner specified. 2 tabs., 3 refs

  5. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 3 (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  6. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International basic safety standards. General safety requirements. Pt. 3 (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  7. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 3 (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  8. 7th Expert meeting radiation protection. International developments, waste management, challenges for the radiation protection in aging nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The proceedings of the 7th Expert meeting on radiation protection include contributions to the following topics: nuclear power and public opinion, IAEA safety standards, ISOE - information system on occupational exposure, European harmonization of the radiation protection education, WANO - challenges and results, CTBTO's global radiation measurement network, state of final radioactive waste disposal in Germany and worldwide, radioactive waste management and disposal in French NPPs, preparedness for final waste disposal in Schacht Konrad, actualization of the transport study Konrad, transport of NPPs' operational radioactive waste and waste from decommissioned reactor demolition to the final repository Konrad, qualification of radioactive waste casks for the final repository Konrad, radioactive waste disposal management concept in Switzerland, aging management and radiation protection, decontamination as effective measure for dose rate reduction - long-term and sustainable dose rate reduction by primary circuit decontamination, system and component decontamination for individual and collective dose reduction - practical examples, radiation protection map - electronic assistance for work planning, EPR dismantling already today? radiation protection register 2002-2010 - knowledge based on a decade of radiation monitoring, actual information on radiation protection in medicine, mobile telecommunication - actual research results.

  9. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2012. It was held on Nov. 28-30, 2012 Phoenix Island in Jeju, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2012. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: The main topic titles of session are as follows: Medical treatment and Biology 1, Measurement and Analysis 1, Measurement and Analysis 2, Radiation protection 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Measurement and Analysis 3, Radiation protection 3.

  10. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2013. It was held on Nov.20-22, 2013 Ramada Plaza Hotel in Suwon, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2013. This proceedings is comprised of 7 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Medical treatment and Biology 1, Measurement and Analysis 1, Radiation protection1, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Measurement and Analysis 2, Radiation protection 2, Radiation protection 3.

  11. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-04-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting, 2014. It was held on Apr.23-25, 2014 Grand Hotel in Busan, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2014. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Medical treatment and Biology 1, Measurement and Analysis 1, Measurement and Analysis 2, Radiation protection 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Measurement and Analysis 3, Radiation protection 3.

  12. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The lecture is divided into five sections. The introduction deals with the physical and radiological terms, quantities and units. Then the basic principles of radiological protection are discussed. In the third section attention is paid to the biological effects of ionizing radiation. The fourth section deals with the objectives of practical radiological protection. Finally the emergency measures are discussed to be taken in radiation accidents. (HP) [de

  13. Radiation protection seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Seminar, was organized by the Argentina Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine, and Bacon Laboratory, the 20 june 2012, in the Buenos Aires city of Argentina. In this event were presented some papers on the following topics: methods of decontamination, radiation protection of patients; concepts of radiation protection and dosimetry.

  14. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation. The development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. Proceedings of the third international symposium on the protection of the environment from ionising radiation (SPEIR 3). Unedited papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    In recent years, awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased, as evidenced by new and developing international policies for environmental protection, starting with the Rio Declaration of 1992. In the context of ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is largely based on providing for the protection of humans, but this is being critically reviewed in several international fora. It is in this context that the Third International Symposium on Protection of the Environment from Ionising Radiation (SPEIR 3) was held between 22 and 26 July 2002, in Darwin, Australia. The symposium focused on issues related to the development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. The symposium programme included sessions dedicated to: ongoing research on the effects, responses and mechanisms of the interactions of ionizing radiation with biota; policy and ethical dimensions of the development of a framework for environmental radiation protection; and the development and use of methods and models for evaluating radiation as a stressor to the environment. Three workshops were held to allow for detailed discussion of each of these subjects. This symposium was the third in a series. The first International Symposium on Ionising Radiation: Protection of the Natural Environment, was held in Stockholm, Sweden, 20-24 May 1996. This symposium was organized jointly by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) and the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada, and the proceedings were published by the Akademitryck AB, Edsbruk, Sweden in 1996. The second International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation: Environmental Protection Approaches for Nuclear Facilities, was held in Ottawa, Canada, 10-14 May 1999, and was organized by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Supervising Scientists Group of Environment Australia, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). The proceedings were published in April

  15. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation. The development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. Proceedings of the third international symposium on the protection of the environment from ionising radiation (SPEIR 3). Unedited papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased, as evidenced by new and developing international policies for environmental protection, starting with the Rio Declaration of 1992. In the context of ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is largely based on providing for the protection of humans, but this is being critically reviewed in several international fora. It is in this context that the Third International Symposium on Protection of the Environment from Ionising Radiation (SPEIR 3) was held between 22 and 26 July 2002, in Darwin, Australia. The symposium focused on issues related to the development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. The symposium programme included sessions dedicated to: ongoing research on the effects, responses and mechanisms of the interactions of ionizing radiation with biota; policy and ethical dimensions of the development of a framework for environmental radiation protection; and the development and use of methods and models for evaluating radiation as a stressor to the environment. Three workshops were held to allow for detailed discussion of each of these subjects. This symposium was the third in a series. The first International Symposium on Ionising Radiation: Protection of the Natural Environment, was held in Stockholm, Sweden, 20-24 May 1996. This symposium was organized jointly by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) and the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada, and the proceedings were published by the Akademitryck AB, Edsbruk, Sweden in 1996. The second International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation: Environmental Protection Approaches for Nuclear Facilities, was held in Ottawa, Canada, 10-14 May 1999, and was organized by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Supervising Scientists Group of Environment Australia, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). The proceedings were published in April

  16. Concepts of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This seventh chapter presents the concepts and principles of safety and radiation protection, emergency situations; NORM and TENORM; radiation protection care; radiation protection plan; activities of the radiation protection service; practical rules of radiation protection and the radiation symbol

  17. Radiation protection - Monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to a risk of internal contamination with radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the course of employment, individuals might work with radioactive materials that, under certain circumstances, could be taken into the body. Protecting workers against risks of incorporated radionuclides requires the monitoring of potential intakes and/or the quantification of actual intakes and exposures. The selection of measures and programmes for this purpose requires decisions concerning methods, techniques, frequencies etc. for measurements and dose assessment. The criteria permitting the evaluation of the necessity of such a monitoring programme or for the selection of methods and frequencies of monitoring usually depend upon the legislation, the purpose of the radiation protection programme, the probabilities of potential radionuclide intakes, and the characteristics of the materials handled. This International Standard offers guidance for the decision whether a monitoring programme is required and how it should be designed. Its intention is to optimise the efforts for such a monitoring programme consistent with legal requirements and with the purpose of the radiation protection programme. Recommendations of international expert bodies and international experience with the practical application of these recommendations in radiation protection programmes have been considered in the development of this International Standard. Its application facilitates the exchanges of information between authorities, supervisory institutions and employers. The International Standard is not a substitute for legal requirements. In the International Standard, the word 'shall' is used to denote a requirement and no deviation is allowed. The word 'should' is used to denote a recommendation from which justified deviations are allowed. The word 'may' is used to denote permission

  18. Radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, J.

    1981-01-01

    This article first reviews the general radiation protection law at international and national level, with particular reference to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which, although not mandatory, are nevertheless taken into consideration by international organisations establishing basic radiation protection standards such as the UN, IAEA, NEA and Euratom, at Community level, and by national legislation. These standards are therefore remarkably harmonized. Radiation protection rule applied in France for the different activities and uses of radioactive substances are then described, and finally, a description is given of the regulations governing artificial radioisotopes and radioactive effluents. (NEA) [fr

  19. Position of radiation protection associations and co-operation with civil society regarding nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milu, C.; Chiosila, I.

    1996-01-01

    The Romanian Society of Radiation Protection (RSRP), founded in May 1990, is an associate society to the International Radiation Protection Association since June 15, 1992. The main task of RSRP is to supply the Romanian public and the governmental organizations, promptly and competently, with information concerning the following three currently debated issues: 1. Long-term health effects of Chernobyl nuclear accident on population of this country; 2. Potential radioactive pollution impact on the environment and population of Romania from Kozloduy NPP (Bulgaria); 3. Development prospects of the nuclear power program based on CANDU type reactors at Cernavoda NPP. The public opinion is often exposed to panic-generating, unfounded 'information' launched by some sensational segments of the mass media and hence the role of professional and qualified bodies like RSRP to create by scientific arguments a sound opinion from a correctly informed public, a prerequisite of democratic debates and decisions

  20. Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    New Croatian Act on ionizing radiation protection is in a final stage of genesis. Ministry of Health is responsible to the Government of the Republic of Croatia, closely collaborating with the Croatian Radiation Protection Institute and the Croatian Institute for the Occupational Health. Responsibilities include all aspects relating sources of ionizing radiation in Croatia: practices, licenses, users, transport, in medicine and industry as well, workers with sources of ionizing radiation, emergency preparedness in radiological accidents, storage of radioactive wastes, x-ray machines and other machines producing ionizing radiation and radioactive materials in the environment. Papers from the Fourth Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association are presented in seven sessions: 1. General Topics of Interest for Radiation Protection 2. Biological Effects of Radiation 3. Radioactive Waste Management 4. Radioecology 5. Dosimetry and Instrumentation 6. Radiation Protection in Medicine 7. Radon

  1. Radiation protection glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The glossary is intended to be used as a terminology standard for IAEA documentation on radiation protection. An effort has been made to use definitions contained in internationally accepted publications such as recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), reports of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), with only slight modifications in order to tailor them more closely to IAEA needs. The glossary is restricted to ionizing radiation

  2. Proceedings of the International Conference on Modern Radiotherapy. Advances and Challenges in Radiation Protection of Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in medicine has led to major improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. While bringing new benefits for cancer treatment, modern radiotherapy also poses new challenges in terms of radiation protection of patients. Prevention of radiotherapy incidents and accidents is a major issue in this area. In December 2009, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) organised the 1. international conference on radiation protection of patients in radiotherapy. The major objective of the conference was to provide a platform for exchanging experience, and reviewing the actions implemented to improve the radiation safety in radiotherapy both at national and international level. The expected result was: - to reach a consensus about the necessity to strengthen existing international actions for prevention of incidents and accidents, - to set up an international cooperation to improve management for overexposed patients, - to outline a strategy for strengthening regulation, - to contribute to the elaboration of an international scale to rate patient related events for communication and reporting purpose. 360 delegates from 50 countries across the world participated at the 3-day conference. 41 presentations were made and 67 posters were displayed. The conference brought together a broad spectrum of expertise: scientists, health professionals, medical devices manufacturers, risk management specialists, radiation protection experts, representatives from Radiation Protection and Health Authorities as well as patient's associations. The programme covered both scientific and medical issues, such as patient sensitivity to ionising radiation and the treatment of complications. It also provided scope to discuss the benefits and risks of modern radiotherapy and to explore treatment safety issues from various perspectives, including human resources, expertise, education and training along with control and prevention strategies. The conference

  3. Manual of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.J.; Granier, R.; Boisserie, G.

    1992-01-01

    This manual explains the principles and practice of radiation protection for those whose work in research, in the field of medicine or in the industry requires the use of radiation sources. It provides the information radiation users need to protect themselves and others and to understand and comply with international recommendations, regulations and legislation regarding the use of radionuclides and radiation machines. It is designed to teach a wide audience of doctors, biologists, research scientists, technicians, engineers, students and others

  4. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2011. It was held on Nov.17-18, 2011 the ocean resort in Yeosu, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2011. This proceedings is comprised of 14 sessions.

  5. Radiation protection - Revision of French radiation protection regulations (1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayoux, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This article analyses the recent amendments to the 1966 and 1975 Decrees on general radiation protection principles and radiation protection of workers in large nuclear installations respectively and also describes national radiation protection law. In particular, the amendments incorporate the revised EURATOM basic radiation protection standards and the new international units (sievert and becquerel replace rem and curie) in the Decrees. (NEA) [fr

  6. The issue concerning the use of an annual as opposed to a committed dose limit for internal radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrable, K.W.; Chabot, G.E.; Alexander, E.L.; French, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    The scientific, technical, practical, and ethical considerations that relate to the use of an annual as opposed to a committed dose limitation system for internal radiation protection are evaluated and presented. The concerns about problems associated with the more recent ICRP committed dose recommendations that have been expressed by persons who are currently operating under an annual dose limitation system are reviewed and discussed in terms of the radiation protection programme elements that are required for an effective ALARA programme. We include in this and a follow-up article a comparison of how these alternative dose limitation systems affect the economic and professional livelihood of radiation workers and the requirements that they impose upon employers. Finally, we recommend the use of an ICRP based committed dose limitation system that provides protection of workers over an entire occupational lifetime without undue impact on their livelihood and without undue requirements for employers. (author)

  7. The Association of German Radiation Protection Physicians: Its origins, pathways and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper highlights three principles which will hold good for future development, too: 1) In terms of the protection of the health of personnel, patients and total population, radiation protection constitutes a primary task for the physician; 2) The association endeavours to make a realistic assessment of the radiation hazard and dismisses both its overestimation and its underestimation; 3) Training and vocational qualification appear to be more important for radiation protection than perfectionist-bureaucratic provisions. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcar Bronic, I.; Miljanic, S.; Obelic, B.

    2003-01-01

    Croatian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA) organised symposium with international participation. Co-organisers (Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia and Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia) show importance of this symposium, which was under the auspices of several ministries (Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Environmental Protection and Physical Planning, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of Croatia) and State Office for Standardization and Metrology. All topics are of great interest for Croatia. They present recent researches in Croatia and in other almost same oriented countries in Europe.The distribution of topics at the Fifth symposium shows same parts with articles from radioecology and radon, biological and medical topics, as well as professional and public exposure and dosimetry. Also, non-ionising radiations take its share as very interesting topics at present. (S.P.)

  9. The normative power of the international commission of radiation protection on the approval of the international and communal jurisprudence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajoinie, O.

    2006-01-01

    From an original synthesis of the jurisprudence given by the regular control agency of the international work organization concerning the Convention OIT 115 relative to the protection of workers against the ionizing radiations, as well as an alternative analysis of a communal jurisprudence (CJCE, C-376/90, 25 November 1992: Commission of the European Communities against the Belgium kingdom), this work aims to bring a new way to see the power that exerts a non governmental organization with a scientific character: the International Commission for Radiologic Protection (ICRP) when it gives its 'recommendations'. (O.M.)

  10. EURATOM radiation protection policy - in expectation of the European Internal Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriskat, H.

    1991-01-01

    Everything should be avoided in order that varying radiation protection regulations of individual member states may not hamper the realization of the EC Internal Market, whereby the EURATOM Treaty does not really allow variability because of the following: It is the task of the Community to set up and implement uniform safety standards for the public health of the population and the working force. From this can be deduced that member states may not deviate from EURATOM basic norms when putting these standards into practice. Summarizing, it can be said that on the basis of the EURATOM Treaty the implementation of industrial targets and of the aims of public health policy do not compete with each other in principle. When observing the regulations of the European Atomic Community Treaty, no serious obstacles are to be expected for radiation protection when the European Internal Market becomes reality. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. The Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1989-01-01

    The new Radiation Protection Act (1988:220) entered into force in Sweden on July 1st, 1988. This book presents the Act as well as certain regulations connected to it. As previously, the main responsibility for public radiation protection will rest with one central radiation protection authority. According to the 1988 Act, the general obligations with regard to radiation protection will place a greater responsibility than in the past on persons carrying out activities involving radiation. Under the act, it is possible to adjust the licensing and supervisory procedures to the level of danger of the radiation source and the need for adequate competence, etc. The Act recognises standardised approval procedures combined with technical regulations for areas where the risks are well known. The Act contains several rules providing for more effective supervision. The supervising authority may in particular decide on the necessary regulations and prohibitions for each individual case. The possibilities of using penal provisions have been extended and a rule on the mandatory execution of orders has been introduced. The Ordinance on Radiation Protection (1988:293) designates the National Institute of Radiation Protection (SSI) as the central authority referred to in the Radiation Protection Act. The book also gives a historic review of radiation protection laws in Sweden, lists regulations issued by SSI and presents explanations of radiation effects and international norms in the area. (author)

  12. Radiation protection instruments based on tissue equivalent proportional counters: Part II of an international intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.; Dietz, E.; Guldbakke, S.; Kluge, H.; Schumacher, H.

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the irradiation conditions and procedures of Part II of an international intercomparison of tissue-equivalent proportional counters used for radiation protection measurements. The irradiations took place in monoenergetic reference neutron fields produced by the research reactor and accelerator facilities of the PTB Braunschweig in the range from thermal neutrons to 14.8 MeV. In addition measurements were performed in 60 Co and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf radiation fields. Prototype instruments from 7 European groups were investigated. The results of the measurements are summarized and compared with the reference data of the irradiations. (orig.) [de

  13. Role of the IAEA in establishment of the international standards of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinak, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the presentation is to highlight the existing challenges in radiation protection, and provide insight into the role of the IAEA in establishment of the radiation safety standards. It will, inter alia, cover from the following areas: 1. global outreach of safety principles in radiation protection and safety; 2. IAEA and establishment of Safety Standards; 3. IAEA Standards and national regulations; 4. IAEA members states role in drafting and review of IAEA Safety Standards; 5. existing, novel issues and challenges. The role of the IAEA is to establish fundamental safety objectives in radiation protection and safety following fundamental safety objectives, safety principles and concepts. The main aim of Safety Standards is to provide for the establishment of a system for protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The requirements as included in the Safety Standards aim to assess, manage and control exposure to radiation so that radiation risks, including risks of health effects and risks to the environment, are reduced to the extent reasonably achievable.One of the novel feature adopted in the revised Basic Safety Standards (BSS) is the classification of exposures - planned, emergency and existing - each of them including several categories of exposure (occupational, public and medical), where appropriate.The revised BSS also addresses areas like exemption and clearance being particularly important in international trade and transport; significantly increases the number of requirements in medicine, in response to novel and/or expanding techniques in medicine using ionizing radiation; incorporates new regulatory limits for exposure to radon, and in protection of the lens of the eyes, as recommended by WHO and ICRP; newly introduces requirements for specific practices like, for example, airport security screenings; and addresses many other areas.While the principal approach to regulatory aspects in emergency exposure

  14. Comparison between Brazilian radiation protection standard and the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection published in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Kelecom, A.; Pereira, J.R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the differences between the CNEN's standard and the publication of ICRP-103, analyzing the philosophy for radiation protection, dose limits and other relevant aspects of radiation protection

  15. Radiation protection in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, E.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fry, R.J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

  16. Radiation protection in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakely, E.A.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space

  17. The nuclear industry contribution to the international norm elaboration. Phenomenon approach in radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajoinie, O.

    2002-01-01

    The object of this study,strictly speaking, will exceed the radiation protection law. The radiation protection law has been defined as the whole of legal standards aiming the workers and public protection (so natural environment of the public) against ionizing radiations. The look on standards will be broadened to specific standards out of these ones included in law. (N.C.)

  18. 12th Quadrennial Congress of the International Association for Radiation Research incorporating the 50th Annual Meeting of Radiation Research Society, RANZCR Radiation Oncology Annual Scientific Meeting and AINSE Radiation Science Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The 12th International Congress of Radiation Research (ICRR2003), for the first time held in the Southern Hemisphere under the auspices of the International Association of Radiation Research (IARR). The Australian affiliate of IARR is the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE). As with recent Congresses, the annual scientific meeting of the Radiation Research Society will be incorporated into the program. The Congress will be further enhanced by the integration of the annual scientific meeting of the Faculty of Radiation Oncology of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, and the AINSE Radiation Science Conference. An exciting programme was presented with the main threads being radiation oncology, radiation biology, radiation chemistry/physics, radiation protection and the environment. Items in INIS scope have been separately indexed

  19. Current problems of radiation hygiene, radiation protection and radiobiology. Proceedings of the national (jubilee) conference with international participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opopol, N.

    2009-01-01

    The proceedings content 28 articles in fields of radiological protection, radioactive pollution, preventive medicine, public health protection. The history of creation, development and activity of the national radiation protection service is described.

  20. Recent international regulations: low dose-low rate radiation protection and the demise of reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkalides, Demetrios

    2008-01-01

    The radiation protection measures suggested by the International Committee for Radiation Protection (ICRP), national regulating bodies and experts, have been becoming ever more strict despite the decrease of any information supporting the existence of the Linear no Threshold model (LNT) and of any adverse effects of Low Dose Low Rate (LDLR) irradiation. This tendency arises from the disproportionate response of human society to hazards that are currently in fashion and is unreasonable. The 1 mSv/year dose limit for the public suggested by the ICRP corresponds to a 1/18,181 detriment-adjusted cancer risk and is much lower than other hazards that are faced by modern societies such as e.g. driving and smoking which carry corresponding rate risks of 1/2,100 and 1/2,000. Even worldwide deadly work accidents rate is higher at 1/ 8,065. Such excessive safety measures against minimal risks from man made radiation sources divert resources from very real and much greater hazards. In addition they undermine research and development of radiation technology and tend to subjugate science and the quest for understanding nature to phobic practices.

  1. Optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Optimisation of radiation protection is one of the key elements in the current radiation protection philosophy. The present system of dose limitation was issued in 1977 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and includes, in addition to the requirements of justification of practices and limitation of individual doses, the requirement that all exposures be kept as low as is reasonably achievable, taking social and economic factors into account. This last principle is usually referred to as optimisation of radiation protection, or the ALARA principle. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) organised an ad hoc meeting, in liaison with the NEA committees on the safety of nuclear installations and radioactive waste management. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers presented at the meeting

  2. Concepts in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncescu, M.

    1996-01-01

    This monograph provides basic notions and principles in dosimetry and radiation protection in compliance with two fundamental works: IAEA Safety Series No.115 - International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - and Publication no. 60 of International Commission on Radiological Protection. After the review of quantities and units necessary in radiation protection, the book presents the new values of dose limits as well as the values of 'radiation weighting factor', 'tissue weighting factor' and 'conversion factor intake-dose' (committed effective dose per unit intake) by ingestion and inhalation for 30 most important radionuclides. The new values of dose limits, lower than the old values, are a challenge for the radiation protection, especially of the 'public' where the dose limit diminished by a factor of five relative to the earlier edition. The new value of dose limit for public, 1 mSv per year (obviously over the natural exposure of 2.4 mSv per year), imposes new action ways and levels in radiation protection, especially in some cases of exacerbated natural radioactivity. The book provides the calculus of external exposure with the Gamma constant expressed in adequate units, to make the calculation easier. In the calculus of protection shield for gamma sources one uses a method, which while approximate helps save time. The calculus of internal exposure is made using the conversion factor intake-dose. Finally, the 'dosimetric watch' of the natural and artificial radioactivity of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere is intended to comply with the International Basic Safety Standards. Each chapter ends with a set of illustrative problems which enhances the reader's understanding of underlying concepts and current methods used in the field

  3. Development of a personalized dosimetric tool for radiation protection in case of internal contamination and targeted radiotherapy in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiavassa, S.

    2005-12-01

    Current internal dosimetric estimations are based on the M.I.R.D. formalism and used standard mathematical models. These standard models are often far from a given patient morphology and do not allow to perform patient-specific dosimetry. The aim of this study was to develop a personalized dosimetric tool, which takes into account real patient morphology, composition and densities. This tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., a French acronym of Tool for the Evaluation of Personalized Internal Dose, is a user-friendly graphical interface. O.E.D.I.P.E. allows to create voxel-based patient-specific geometries and associates them with the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo code. Radionuclide distribution and absorbed dose calculation can be performed at the organ and voxel scale. O.E.D.I.P.E. can be used in nuclear medicine for targeted radiotherapy and in radiation protection in case of internal contamination. (author)

  4. International radiation protection recommendations. Five years experience of ICRP Publication 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.; Beninson, D.; Sowby, F.D.

    1983-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection has issued radiation protection recommendations since 1928. The latest set of basic recommendations was adopted by the Commission on 17 January 1977, and subsequently published as ICRP Publication 26. This document has met with a wider interest than any of the previous ICRP recommendations. It has been considered to mark a radical change in the protection policy advocated by ICRP. It is not often appreciated that recommendations which are believed to be 'new' in ICRP Publication 26 had already been made in ICRP Publication 9 more than ten years earlier. In any event, ICRP Publication 26 has had a substantial impact on regulatory work in countries all over the world. It forms the basis for the Basic Safety Standards of the international organizations IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA and WHO. The paper refers to the experience gained in using the new ICRP recommendations over the five years that have passed since ICRP Publication 26 was adopted and discusses some of the problems that have arisen in the practical application of the new recommendations in various countries. (author)

  5. Radiation Protection Proclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A proclamation of the Government of Ethiopia, cited as the radiation protection proclamation number 79/1993 was prepared with the objective to establish a national radiation protection authority that formulates policies, controls and supervises activities involving all sources of radiation and lay down laws governing such activities in order to ensure public safety against associated hazards while allowing radiation related activities to be carried out for the benefit of the public . The Authority is guided by an inter-ministerial board and is accountable to the Ethiopian Science and Technology Commission

  6. Comments to the German society's for radiation protection (Gesellschaft fur Strahlenschutz) proposed principles for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    2002-01-01

    The German Society for Radiation Protection (in German Gesellschaft fur Strahlenschutz) is a separate society for radiation protection in Germany in addition to the leading society named Association of German and Swiss Radiation Protection Specialists (in German Fachverband fur Strahlenschutz). The Society is an international professional society. There are several hundreds members of the German Society for Radiation Protection. The German Society for Radiation Protection is not a member of IRPA (the International Radiation Protection Society). The IRPA member is the Association of German and Swiss Radiation Protection Specialists. According to information given on the web site of the Society for Radiation Protection (www.gfstrahlenschutz.de) the Society was founded in 1990 because in the opinion of the founding members the older professional societies and associations have not adequately considered and implemented the present knowledge of radiation risks and radiation protection. In accordance with its statutes the society pursues besides other aims the best possible protection of humans and the environment from the detrimental action of ionising and non-ionising radiation. The dealing with ionising and non-ionising radiation can according to the Society only be justified on the basis of biological and medical state of the art knowledge

  7. Activities and future plans of the international commission on non-ionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    ICNIRP is an independent scientific organisation chartered by IRPA in May 1992. At that time ICNIRP took over the responsibility for Non-Ionizing Radiation (NIR) protection from its predecessor, the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee (INIRC) of IRPA, that commenced its work in 1977. ICNIRP was established for the purpose of advancing non-ionizing radiation protection for the benefit of people and the environment and in particular to provide guidance and recommendations on protection from non-ionising radiation exposure. Membership of ICNIRP comprises a Chairman, Vice-Chairman and up to twelve additional members. In addition, ICNIRP is served by four standing committees on Epidemiology, Biology, Physics and Optics. Members are selected on the basis of their independence, specialist expertise and geographical distribution. More information and a list of publications are available through ICNIRP's web page (http://www.icnirp.de). A revision of the Laser Guidelines were published in Health Physics in October 96, a confirmation of the UV-Guidelines in 12/96; guidelines on visible and infrared radiation in 9/97 and Guidelines on limiting exposure to electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields in 4/98. A revision of the Laser Guidelines is under consideration. Statements on health issues on radiotelephones and base transmitters were published in 4/96; about the Global Solar UV Index in 1/95 and on Laser pointers in 8/99. Statements on Light Emitting Diodes and on Pulsed Magnetic Fields are under consideration. A document on a General Approach to Protection against NIR will be finalized in 4/2000. Cooperation with International Organisations. The national societies of IRPA are involved in the review process of the draft ICNIRP guidelines. WHO is one of the most important INCIRP partners. Main issues are the WHO EMF Project and INTERSUN project and the collaboration in health risk assessment of exposure to NIR: Symposia on static, low and high frequency EMF

  8. ISO radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.; West, N.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief description of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and its Technical Committee (TC) 85 ''Nuclear Energy'', the work of its Sub-Committee (SC) 2 ''Radiation Protection'' is described in some detail. Several international standards on subjects closely related to radiation protection have already been published, for example ISO-361 (Basic radiation protection symbol), ISO-1757 (Photographic dosimeters), ISO-1758 and 1759 (Direct and indirect-reading pocket exposure meters), ISO-2889 (Sampling of airborne radioactive materials), ISO-4037 (X and gamma reference radiations for calibration) and ISO-4071 (Testing of exposure meters and dosimeters). TC 85/SC 2 has currently eight active Working Groups (WG) dealing with 14 standards projects, mostly in advanced stages, in such fields as neutron and beta reference radiations, and X and gamma radiations of high and low dose-rates and high energies for calibration purposes, reference radiations for surface contamination apparatus, ejection systems for gamma radiography apparatus, industrial and laboratory irradiators, lead shielding units, protective clothing, thermoluminescence dosemeters, radioelement gauges, and surface contamination and decontamination. (author)

  9. Radiation protection principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Bahari

    2007-01-01

    The presentation outlines the aspects of radiation protection principles. It discussed the following subjects; radiation hazards and risk, the objectives of radiation protection, three principles of the system - justification of practice, optimization of protection and safety, dose limit

  10. Proceedings. Protection of the natural environment. International symposium on ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.; Johansson, Gunnar; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Luening, M.

    1996-01-01

    The symposium was organised jointly by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute and the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada. The programme was organised around six major topics: Biological effects of ionising radiation; Ecological effects of ionising radiation; Behaviour and transport of radionuclides in the natural environment; Criteria for environmental protection; Assessment methodology; and Social and economic aspects. All 86 contributions (excluding the opening addresses) have been separately indexed

  11. Radiation. Protection. Health. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, Michael; Maringer, Franz Josef; Steurer, Andreas; Schwaiger, Martina; Timal, Guenter

    2015-01-01

    The topics of the meeting are the diagnostic and therapeutic application of ionizing radiations, the application of radiation in research, industry and engineering and radiation protection. The volume includes the following chapters: Radiation protection and society, radiation protection infrastructure, population and environment, metrology and measuring techniques, 1. Workshop on population and environment, NORM and radon, 2. Update: dose - extent of damage - limiting value definition, radiation protection for personnel (except medicine), radiation protection in medicine.

  12. Radiation protection for nurses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, R F

    1978-01-01

    Various aspects of radiation protection relevant to nurses are presented. The different radioisotopes used in internal radiotherapy and scintiscanning techniques and any necessary precautions which should be observed when nursing these patients are described. General information is also given on nuclear and atomic terminology, the physical half-life of radioisotopes, radiation dose as a function of distance, shielding, film badges and the maximum permissible dose.

  13. Proceedings of the Third symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Third Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association (20-22 Nov 1996) coorganized by Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health and 'Rudjer Boskovic' Institute, with the support of Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of Croatia, Hazardous Waste Management Agency Ltd., Ecotec Ltd. and Tourist Association of the City of Zagreb, covered a vast range of subjects concerning radiation protection, management of industrial and medical radioactive wastes, environmental transport of radionuclides, dosimetric methods and equipment, contamination and decontamination etc. 57 contributions were delivered

  14. Laser radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelic, D.; Muric, B.; Vasiljevic, D.

    2011-01-01

    We have presented the effects of laser radiation on human organism, with special emphasize on eye as the most sensitive organ. It was pointed-out that there are many parameters that should be taken into account when determining the level of protection from laser light. In that respect it is important to be aware of international standards that regulate this area. In addition, we have described a new material which efficiently protects human eye, by formation of microlens and carbonization. [sr

  15. Protective legislation, ionizing radiation and health: a new appraisal and international survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellman, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Restrictive regulations (protective legislation) on employment conditions of female workers limiting maximum hours of work and prohibiting certain toxic exposures have existed for decades. In some countries, such as the United States, Canada and the Nordic countries, the growth of civil rights and equal opportunity legislation has led to their elimination, either in fact or in practice, and only a small number of disparate regulations for male and female workers still exist. Most other industrialized countries, as well as the International Labour Office of the United Nations, still have active restrictive rules for women's employment. However, restrictive regulation is an area of active policy debate around the world. International examples of the debate on protective legislation are given here. A specific case study of the occupational health standards governing exposure to ionizing radiation is used and its technical rationale discussed as an illustration of the basic issues. These include: overbroad categorization of all women as potential childbearers, no matter what their childbearing intentions; failure to recognize the full range of potential adverse health effects to males; disparate application of the restrictive regulations, generally to occupations or areas of employment that are traditionally held by men, while traditional female jobs with the same exposures are excluded from the regulatory restriction

  16. Operational radiation protection and radiation protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.

    1989-01-01

    The radiation protection system in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) is reviewed. The competent authority (the SAAS) and its systems of licensing and supervision are described. Discussion covers the role of the Radiation Protection Officer, the types of radiation monitoring, medical surveillance programs and the classification of workers and work areas. Unusual occurrences in the GDR, 1963-1976, are presented and the occupational radiation protection problems at some specific types of workplaces are discussed. The GDR's system of training in radiation protection and nuclear safety is described. 5 figs., 18 tabs

  17. The development of an international framework for the radiation protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Jova Sed, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper comprises an overview of the Agency responsibilities, related to environmental radiation protection; its historical involvement in this issue; the context of its current work programme; and a number of issues for further consideration. (authors)

  18. ICRP 2015. International symposium on the radiation protection system. Report and reflection on a significant symposium; ICRP 2015. 3. Internationales Symposium zum System des Strahlenschutzes. Bericht und Reflexion ueber ein bedeutsames Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Bernd

    2016-08-01

    The ICRP international symposium on the radiation protection system provides always extensive information on new developments in radiation protection. The ICRP 2105 discussed the following issues: radiation effects of low dose irradiation, dose coefficients for internal and external exposures, radiation protection in nuclear medicine, application of ICRP recommendations, environmental protection, studies on existing exposure situations, medical radiation protection today, science behind radiation doses, new developments in radiation effects, and ethics in radiation protection.

  19. New radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The structure of the existing legislation and its contents and aims are reconsidered. New rules which correspond to the present situation are to be established. Also the fundamental principles of the task and methods of radiation protection are to be changed. The main effort will be to create conditions so that all human beings will be protected against the harmful effects of radiation. The effects on plants, animals and on the environment should be considered as well. The legislation should include both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The main responsibility of protection should stay with the central authority. Licensing of apparatus, liability for medical applications and radioactive waste is discussed. Granting of permissions and control should be accomplished by the authority. Cooperation with other national and international authorities is dealt with. (G.B.)

  20. Radiation protection training in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    An increasing number of radiation protection experts and of professionally exposed workers is temporarily or permanently working in a country other than the one where they received their radiation protection education or training. They all face the problem and the difficulties of recognition of radiation protection training programs by other countries. For this reason the German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association (Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz; FS) made a proposal to IRPA for an action on the mutual recognition of radiation protection education in Europe. In a first step contacts were made with two other European Associations of France and UK in order to establish a joint working group. (orig.) [de

  1. Epidemiology and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiology aims at providing direct evidence of the long term health effects in humans due to potentially dangerous exposures to various nuisance agents, including ionising radiation. Inappropriate interpretation and use of the results of epidemiological studies may result in inaccurate assessments of the risks associated with radiation exposure. This report presents the proceedings of a Workshop organised by the NEA to create an opportunity for epidemiologists and radiation protection specialists to exchange their experiences and views on the problems of methodology in epidemiological research and on the application of its results to the assessment of radiation risks

  2. Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association; Zbornik radova Sestog simpozija Hrvatskog drustva za zastitu od zracenja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garaj-Vrhovac, V; Kopjar, N; Miljanic, S

    2005-07-01

    Croatian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA) organised symposium with international participation. Co-organisers (Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia and Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia) show importance of this symposium, which was under the auspices of several ministries (Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction, Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia) and State Institute of Radiation Protection, State Office for Standardization and Metrology and APO Ltd. - Hazardous Waste Management Agency. All topics are of great interest for Croatia. They present recent researches in Croatia and in other almost same oriented countries in Europe.The distribution of topics at the Sixth symposium shows same parts with articles from radiation dosimetry and instrumentation, biological effects of radiation, public exposure, radiation protection in medicine, as well as radioecology. Also, non-ionising radiations take their share as very interesting topics at present. (S.P.)

  3. The development of international standards for the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Carol

    2004-01-01

    There has been an increasing awareness over recent years of the need to develop an approach that specifically addresses the protection of non-human species from the effects of ionizing radiation, largely in response to national and international environmental legal instruments. The IAEA has a long history of involvement in assessing the impact of ionizing radiation on non-human species and has, in recent years, established a programme of work to address the development of safety standards on this issue, in co-operation with other relevant international organizations. This paper provides an overview of the status of international work in this regard, paying particular attention to the work of the IAEA, and the relevant task groups of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). It includes a discussion of the ethics and principles of environmental protection, and issues related to the development of a practical framework for environmental assessment and decision-making. The future development of international safety standards for the control of releases of radionuclides to the environment will depend upon the findings and recommendations of the International Conference on Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Ionizing Radiation, held in Stockholm, Sweden, 6-10 October 2003. The main issues arising at that conference are summarised. (author)

  4. Foundations for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text; In 1996, the IAEA published the latest edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (Basic Safety Standards or BSS) comprising basic requirements to be filled in all activities involving radiation exposure. The standards define internationally harmonized requirements and provide practical guidance for public authorities and services, employers and workers, specialized radiation protection bodies, enterprises and health and safety communities. In the same year, the IAEA, through the technical cooperation programme, launched the Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure, a global initiative designed to help Member States establish the infrastructure needed to adhere to the BSS. To address the complexity of this task, the radiation protection team identified key elements, known as Thematic Safety Areas. These are: 1. Legislative Framework and Regulatory Infrastructure, Draft and put into effect radiation protection laws and regulations and establish and empower a national regulatory authority. 2. Occupational Exposure Control Protect the health and safety of each individual who faces the risk of radiation exposure in the workplace through individual and workplace monitoring programmes, including dose assessment, record keeping of doses and quality management. 3. Medical Exposure Control: Develop procedures and activities to control the exposure of patients undergoing diagnosis and/or treatment via diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine or radiotherapy through staff training, provision of basic quality control equipment, and the establishment of quality assurance programmes. 4. Public and Environmental Exposure Control: Develop means to protect both the public and the environment including: a) programmes to register, inventory and provide safe storage of unused radioactive sources and material; b) procedures to control and safely

  5. Focus radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebermann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The publication of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz on radiation protection covers the following issues: (i) exposure from natural sources: health hazard due to radon, radiation protection in residential homes, radon in Germany, natural raw materials in industrial processes; (ii) clearance of radioactive wastes: clearance in the frame of nuclear power plant dismantling, the situation in Germany and Europe; (iii) emergency management: principles of radiation protection, fictive sequence of accident events; (iiii) other actual radiation protection topics: more limits - more protection? radiation protection in medicine, occupational radiation protection.

  6. INTDOS: a computer code for estimating internal radiation dose using recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.

    1981-09-01

    INTDOS is a user-oriented computer code designed to calculate estimates of internal radiation dose commitment resulting from the acute inhalation intake of various radionuclides. It is designed so that users unfamiliar with the details of such can obtain results by answering a few questions regarding the exposure case. The user must identify the radionuclide name, solubility class, particle size, time since exposure, and the measured lung burden. INTDOS calculates the fractions of the lung burden remaining at time, t, postexposure considering the solubility class and particle size information. From the fraction remaining in the lung at time, t, the quantity inhaled is estimated. Radioactive decay is accounted for in the estimate. Finally, effective committed dose equivalents to various organs and tissues of the body are calculated using inhalation committed dose factors presented by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This computer code was written for execution on a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 computer and is written in Fortran IV. A flow chart and example calculations are discussed in detail to aid the user who is unfamiliar with computer operations

  7. Health protection of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    Essential information on the health protection of radiation workers which has accumulated since the advent of nuclear fission thirty years ago is presented in simple terms. Basic facts on ionizing radiation, its measurement, and dosimetry are presented. Acute and chronic somatic and genetic effects are discussed with emphasis on prevention. Radiation protection standards and regulations are outlined, and methods for maintaining these standards are described. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury from external radiation and/or internally deposited radionuclides is considered generally as well as specifically for each radioisotope. The medical supervision of radiation workers, radiation accidents, atomic power plants, and medicolegal problems is also covered. (853 references) (U.S.)

  8. Applied radiation biology and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granier, R.; Gambini, D.-J.

    1990-01-01

    This book grew out of a series of courses in radiobiology and radiation protection which were given to students in schools for radiology technicians, radiation safety officers and to medical students. Topics covered include the sources of ionizing radiation and their interactions with matter; the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; dosimetry; the biological effects of ionizing radiation; the effects of ionizing radiation on the human body; natural radioexposure; medical radio-exposure; industrial radioexposure of electronuclear origin; radioexposure due to experimental nuclear explosions; radiation protection; and accidents with external and/or internal radio-exposure. (UK)

  9. Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

  10. Radiation protection in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ashkar, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Full text: People are exposed to ionizing radiation in many different forms: cosmic rays that penetrate earth atmosphere or radiation from soil and mineral resources are natural forms of ionizing radiation. Other forms are produced artificially using radioactive materials for various beneficial applications in medicine, industry and other fields. The greatest concerns about ionizing radiation are tied to its potential health effects and a system of radiation protection has been developed to protect people from harmful radiation. The promotion of radiation protection is one of the International Atomic Energy Agency main activities. Radiation protection concerns the protection of workers, members of public, and patients undergoing diagnosis and therapy against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The report covers the responsibility of radiation protection officer in Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2) in Inshas - Egypt, also presents the protection against ionizing radiation from external sources, including types of radiation, sources of radiation (natural - artificial), and measuring units of dose equivalent rate. Also covers the biological effects of ionizing radiation, personal monitoring and radiation survey instruments and safe transport of radioactive materials. The report describes the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2), the survey instruments used, also presents the results obtained and gave a relations between different categories of data. (author)

  11. Radiation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landfermann, H.H.; Solbach, C.

    1992-11-01

    The brochure explains the major types of radiation, the radiation sources, effects, uses, and risks, as well as the regulatory system adopted by the government in order to keep the risks as low as possible. (orig./DG) [de

  12. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  13. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  14. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  15. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  16. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  17. Experience within international transport and direct rail services in meeting the IAEA requirement for a radiation protection programme(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billing, D.

    2003-01-01

    BNFL International Transport and Direct Rail Services have successfully developed appropriate Radiation Protection Programmes for their business. The business supports BNFL's worldwide Nuclear Fuel Services with key customer bases in Europe, Japan and the UK, utilising marine, rail and road modal transports. Experience in this business spans over 4 decades. The preparation of RPP's for each aspect of its operations has been made relatively straight forward in that the key elements within the internationally recognised model RPP (by WNTI) were already in place in BNFL's procedures to satisfy current National UK and International Regulations and supported by Management systems which comply with International Standards for Quality Assurance. (author)

  18. Radiation protection, measurements and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The introductory lectures discuss subjects such as radiation protection principles and appropriate measuring techniques; methods, quantities and units in radiation protection measurement; technical equipment; national and international radiation protection standards. The papers presented at the various sessions deal with: Dosimetry of external radiation (27 papers); Working environment monitoring and emission monitoring (21 contributions); Environmental monitoring (19 papers); Incorporation monitoring (9 papers); Detection limits (4 papers); Non-ionizing radiation, measurement of body dose and biological dosimetry (10 papers). All 94 contributions (lectures, compacts and posters) are retrievable as separate records. (HP) [de

  19. The Radiation Protection in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    A brief account of the activities on radiation safety carried out by the General Directorate of Nuclear Energy of Guatemala in the period 1991-1992 is presented. The activities are reported under organization, activities on occupational radiation protection in medicine, industry and research, personnel monitoring, radiation metrology, regulations and international cooperation are described

  20. Early national and international recommendations for X-ray and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesinska, E.

    2008-01-01

    The first three decades of pioneering work in the field of X-ray and natural radioactivity research and use took its toll all over the world because of lack of knowledge and caution. Coordinated, international cooperation in the field of X-ray and radium protection and standardization of measures was established after the World War I. The First and the Second International Congress of Radiology held in London in 1925 and in Stockholm in 1928 respectively, played a crucial role in it. Based on these congresses' initiatives and resolutions, the International X-ray Unit Committee and the International X-ray and Radium Protection Committee were established in 1828. The early recommendations on the international X-ray unit and on X-ray and radium protection, as passed by the Second International Congress of Radiology in Stockholm in 1928, are presented and compared with two related national initiatives, namely with the Memorandum No. 1 (July 1921) of the British X-ray and Radium Protection Committee, and with a draft of a legal measure regarding the X-ray and radium treatment regulation in Czechoslovakia, which was put together by the Czechoslovak Society of Radiology and the Vereinigung der deutschen Roentgenologen und Radiologen in der Tschechoslowakischen Republik in 1927 at a request of the Chamber of Doctor of Medicine for Bohemia and Moravia and in response to the international initiatives in that field. (author)

  1. Radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with: Objectives and basic concepts of radiation protection, basic radiobiological considerations, the ICRP system of dose limitation and with operational radiation protection (limits, reference levels, occupational exposure). (RW)

  2. Polonium in mainstream cigarette smoke and associated internal radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, M.; Rathod, T.D.; Bhangare, R.C.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Maity, S.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    210 Po activity concentrations in cigarettes tobacco, mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS), ash and post smoking filter were measured by alpha spectrometry using surface barrier detectors, following the radiochemical separation of polonium. The results of present study indicate that the average (range) activity concentration of 210 Po in cigarette tobacco were 9.77 to 15.34 mBq per cigarette. The combined annual effective doses due to internal exposure of 210 Po and 210 Pb for a smoker (considering on an average 20 cigarette a day and 50% of MCS getting deposited in respiratory tract) were found to be ranging from 0.28 to 0.40 mSv for tested brands of cigarette. (author)

  3. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volodin, V; Hanson, G P

    1993-12-31

    The goal of this Chapter is to give a general outline of the essential principles and procedures for radiation protection in a nuclear medicine department where radionuclides are used for diagnosis and therapy. More detailed recommendations regarding radiation protection in nuclear medicine are given in the publications of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP, publications 25, 57, 60) and in ILO/IAEA/WHO Manual on Radiation Protection in Hospitals and General Practice (Volume 2: Unsealed Sources, WHO, Geneva, 1975), on which this Chapter is based. This chapter is not intended to replace the above-mentioned international recommendations on radiation protection, as well as existing national regulations on this subject, but intended only to provide guidance for implementing these recommendations in clinical practice

  4. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodin, V.; Hanson, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this Chapter is to give a general outline of the essential principles and procedures for radiation protection in a nuclear medicine department where radionuclides are used for diagnosis and therapy. More detailed recommendations regarding radiation protection in nuclear medicine are given in the publications of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP, publications 25, 57, 60) and in ILO/IAEA/WHO Manual on Radiation Protection in Hospitals and General Practice (Volume 2: Unsealed Sources, WHO, Geneva, 1975), on which this Chapter is based. This chapter is not intended to replace the above-mentioned international recommendations on radiation protection, as well as existing national regulations on this subject, but intended only to provide guidance for implementing these recommendations in clinical practice

  5. Radiation Protection: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, M.

    2007-01-01

    As a federal research Centre, SCK-CEN has the statutory assignment to give priority to research related to safety, radioactive waste management, protection of man and environment, management of fissile and other strategic materials and social implications as part of the pursuit of sustainable development and to develop and gather the necessary knowledge and spread this knowledge through formation and communication. At the Division of Radiation Protection at SCK-CEN we are therefore active to maintain and enhance knowledge and expertise in each aspect of radiation protection: we study the risk of exposure - the way that radioactive materials spread in the environment and the potential for human contact - and the risk from exposure - how radiation affects human health; we perform health physics measurements; we are involved in emergency planning and preparedness and support to risk governance and decision taking. These activities are supported by radiation specific analysis and measurement techniques. These activities are not performed in isolation but in context of national and international collaborations or demands

  6. Radiation protection in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOuld, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    A book on radiation protection in hospitals has been written to cater for readers with different backgrounds, training and needs by providing an elementary radiation physics text in Part I and an advanced, comprehensive Part II relating to specific medical applications of X-rays and of radioactivity. Part I includes information on basic radiation physics, radiation risk, radiation absorption and attenuation, radiation measurement, radiation shielding and classification of radiation workers. Part II includes information on radiation protection in external beam radiotherapy, interstitial source radiotherapy, intracavitary radiotherapy, radioactive iodine-131 radiotherapy, nuclear medicine diagnostics and diagnostic radiology. (U.K.)

  7. Radiation protection in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Cuadros, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection in Bolivia has gone through a number of stages. Initially, in the 1970s, the focus was mainly on the analysis of environmental sources resulting from the nuclear tests carried out by France in the Pacific Ocean. Subsequently, the focus switched somewhat to radiation protection in connection with the mining of uranium and in the area of public health. During the third stage, radiation protection in other areas became important as the use of radiation sources was introduced. Finally, during the present -- fourth -- stage, radiation protection regulations are being introduced and mechanisms for the control of radiation sources are being established. (author)

  8. Radiation protection in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elamin, O.I.; Hajmusa, E.A.; Shaddad, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    The regulatory framework as established by the Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) Act, promulgated in 1996, is described in the report. Three levels of responsibility in meeting radiation protection requirements are established: the Board, the Radiation Protection Technical Committee as the competent authority in the field of radiation protection, and the SAEC Department of Radiation Protection and Environmental Monitoring as the implementing technical body. The report also refers to environmental activities, patient doses in diagnostic radiology, the management of disused sources, emergency preparedness and orphan sources, and the national training activities in the radiation protection field. (author)

  9. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

  10. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards

  11. Radiation protection in medical imaging and radiation oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Stoeva, Magdalena S

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Protection in Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology focuses on the professional, operational, and regulatory aspects of radiation protection. Advances in radiation medicine have resulted in new modalities and procedures, some of which have significant potential to cause serious harm. Examples include radiologic procedures that require very long fluoroscopy times, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, and intravascular brachytherapy. This book summarizes evidence supporting changes in consensus recommendations, regulations, and health physics practices associated with these recent advances in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology. It supports intelligent and practical methods for protection of personnel, the public, and patients. The book is based on current recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and is complemented by detailed practical sections and professional discussions by the world’s leading medical and health physics professionals. It also ...

  12. Measurement methods and optimization of radiation protection: the case of internal exposure by inhalation to natural uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrange, J.P.; Gibert, B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to discuss the ability of different measurement methods (air sampling and biological examinations) to answer to demands in the particular case of internal exposure by inhalation to natural uranium compounds. The realism and the sensitivity of each method are studied, on the base of new dosimetric models of the ICRP. The ability of analysis of these methods in order to optimize radiation protection are then discussed. (N.C.)

  13. On ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1996-01-01

    From an ethical viewpoint the author surveys existing international radiation protection recommendations and standards. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the author discusses ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. (author)

  14. Radiation protection forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, W.

    2010-01-01

    The National Director of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and Radiation Protection of Uruguay in the first forum for radiation protection set out the following themes: activity of regulatory body, radiation safety, physical security, safeguards, legal framework, committed substantive program, use of radiation, risks and benefits, major sources of radiation, the national regulatory framework, national inventory of sources, inspections, licensing, import and export of sources control , radioactive transport, materials safety, agreements, information and teaching, radiological emergencies and prompt response.

  15. Radiation protection instrument 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

  16. Optimization and radiation protection culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, In Young; Shin, Hyeong Ki; Lee, Chan Mi

    2013-01-01

    Safety culture or radiation protection culture is based in common on the term, 'culture'. Culture is defined as the learned, shared set of symbols and patterns of basic assumptions, which is invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration. Safety culture generally refers to the attitude and behaviors affecting safety performance. The concept of 'Safety Culture' was introduced after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For the accident, nuclear society reached the conclusion that the cause was the wrong management attitude of the NPP, that is, deficient 'Safety Culture'. Recently, 'Radiation Protection Culture' was introduced as the core concept of nuclear safety culture. There have been many efforts to establish definition and develop assessment tool for radiation protection culture in international level such as ICRP and IRPA as well as NRC. In the same context with the safety culture, radiation protection culture is defined as 'the core values and behaviors resulting from a collective commitment by leaders and individual's to emphasize safety over competing goals to ensure protection of people and the environment.' It is worthwhile to recognize that regulatory enforcement in establishing healthy radiation protection culture of operators should be minimized because culture is not in the domain of regulatory enforcement. However, as 'ALARA', the most important concept in radiation protection, may be successfully achieved only in well established radiation protection culture, the least regulatory intervention would be needed in promoting and nurturing radiation protection culture in licensee. In addition, the concept of radiation protection culture should be addressed in plant operational policy to achieve the goals of ALARA. The pre-condition of the successful radiation protection culture is a healthy organizational

  17. Optimization and radiation protection culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In Young; Shin, Hyeong Ki; Lee, Chan Mi [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Safety culture or radiation protection culture is based in common on the term, 'culture'. Culture is defined as the learned, shared set of symbols and patterns of basic assumptions, which is invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration. Safety culture generally refers to the attitude and behaviors affecting safety performance. The concept of 'Safety Culture' was introduced after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For the accident, nuclear society reached the conclusion that the cause was the wrong management attitude of the NPP, that is, deficient 'Safety Culture'. Recently, 'Radiation Protection Culture' was introduced as the core concept of nuclear safety culture. There have been many efforts to establish definition and develop assessment tool for radiation protection culture in international level such as ICRP and IRPA as well as NRC. In the same context with the safety culture, radiation protection culture is defined as 'the core values and behaviors resulting from a collective commitment by leaders and individual's to emphasize safety over competing goals to ensure protection of people and the environment.' It is worthwhile to recognize that regulatory enforcement in establishing healthy radiation protection culture of operators should be minimized because culture is not in the domain of regulatory enforcement. However, as 'ALARA', the most important concept in radiation protection, may be successfully achieved only in well established radiation protection culture, the least regulatory intervention would be needed in promoting and nurturing radiation protection culture in licensee. In addition, the concept of radiation protection culture should be addressed in plant operational policy to achieve the goals of ALARA. The pre-condition of the successful radiation protection culture is a healthy organizational

  18. Training in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, F.

    1998-01-01

    Persons who are exposed to ionizing radiation at their workplace have to be trained in radiation protection. According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance the person with responsibility in radiation protection has to guarantee that the training is performed twice a year. Our training material was created especially for the persons defined in the Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Ordinance. It enables persons who teach (generally the radiation protection officer) to perform the training without tedious study and preparation of the documents. Our material is not just another textbook for radiation protection but rather a folder with colour transparencies and explanatory texts which make a difference in volume and price in comparison to other existing materials. (orig.) [de

  19. Radiation Protection Infrastructure In Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriambololona, R.; Ratovonjanahary, J.F.; Zafimanjato, J.L.R.; Randriantseheno, H.F.; Ramanandraibe, M.J.; Randriantsizafy, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation sources are widely used in medicine, industry, research and education in Madagascar. Safety and security of these sources are the main statutory functions of the Regulatory Authority as defined by the regulations in Radiation Protection in Madagascar. These functions are carried out through the system of notification, authorization and inspection, inventory of radiation source and emergency preparedness. The law no 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar was promulgated on 2nd January 1998. It governs all activities related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Madagascar in order to protect the public, the environment and for the safety of radiation sources. This law complies with the International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS, IAEA Safety Series no 115). Following the promulgation of the law, four decrees have been enacted by the Malagasy Government. With an effective implementation of these decrees, the ANPSR will be the Highest Administrative Authority in the Field of Radiation Protection and Waste Management in Madagascar. This Regulatory Authority is supported by an Executive Secretariat, assisted by the OTR for Radiation Protection and the OCGDR for Managing Radioactive Waste.The paper includes an overview of the regulatory infrastructure and the organizations of radiation protection in Madagascar

  20. Occupational safety meets radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severitt, S.; Oehm, J.; Sobetzko, T.; Kloth, M.

    2012-01-01

    The cooperation circle ''Synergies in operational Security'' is a joint working group of the Association of German Safety Engineers (VDSI) and the German-Swiss Professional Association for Radiation Protection (FS). The tasks of the KKSyS are arising from the written agreement of the two associations. This includes work on technical issues. In this regard, the KKSyS currently is dealing with the description of the interface Occupational Safety / Radiation Protection. ''Ignorance is no defense'' - the KKSyS creates a brochure with the working title ''Occupational Safety meets radiation protection - practical guides for assessing the hazards of ionizing radiation.'' The target groups are entrepreneurs and by them instructed persons to carry out the hazard assessment. Our aim is to create practical guides, simple to understand. The practical guides should assist those, who have to decide, whether an existing hazard potential through ionizing radiation requires special radiation protection measures or whether the usual measures of occupational safety are sufficient. (orig.)

  1. Australia's radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In Australia, public exposure to ionizing radiation above background is considered to be negligible. Average occupational exposures are about 0.5 millisievert per year, although there are some specialized industries and professions where they are much higher. The National Health and Medical Research Council has therefore adopted a position similar to that of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. For the moment, no revision of exposure limits is recommended, but users are remined of their responsibility to ensure that exposures are kept low, particularly in those workplaces where significant exposures take place

  2. Epistemological basis of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouailhetas, Yannick; Acar, Maria E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Regarding natural phenomena understood or not, the absolute truth must be somewhere. In fact, there is no evidence that neither nature nor the phenomena that it includes were 'created' to be understood. Except for the fact that Man appeared through the same process, with his curiosity, capacity to perceive and manipulate, his greed for power and fears. In general, the attitude towards questions for which the absolute truth has not been reached varies from ignorance/indifference to the search of knowledge through scientific methodology, and may even be based on beliefs. The fact that the interaction between ionizing radiations and living beings results in biological effect is true. That the biological effect of high doses of radiation, absorbed outside the context of medicine, is hazardous for the irradiated individuals also seems to be true. That any dose is dangerous, or not, is debatable: the available information and knowledge are not consistent enough to end the question; and so, the absolute truth remains hidden. Radiological Protection is founded on the principle that any increase of dose results in an increase in the risk of cancer, and that this risk must be kept as low as possible. It is therefore based on this 'belief' that the international organisms of radiological protection emit recommendations aiming the protection of people and the environment. What is interesting about this question is that because of restrictions imposed by regulating agencies, populations, members of the public and the environment are properly protected against harmful effects of ionizing radiations, which makes the truth no longer interesting. Radiological Protection is a requirement associated to all activities involving nuclear energy. It satisfies several interests and opposes others. The greater the opposed interests and the perception that the absolute truth can represent dialectic advantage to one of the parts, the greater the perception of the importance of its

  3. Radiation biology and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    For protection purposes, the biological effects of radiation are separated into stochastic effects (cancer, hereditary effects) presumed to be unicellular in origin, and tissue reactions due to injury in populations of cells. The latter are deterministic effects, renamed ‘tissue reactions’ in the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection because of the increasing evidence of the ability to modify responses after irradiation. Tissue reactions become manifest either early or late after doses above a threshold dose, which is the basis for recommended dose limits for avoiding such effects. Latency time before manifestation is related to cell turnover rates, and tissue proliferative and structural organisation. Threshold doses have been defined for practical purposes at 1% incidence of an effect. In general, threshold doses are lower for longer follow-up times because of the slow progression of injury before manifestation. Radiosensitive individuals in the population may contribute to low threshold doses, and in the future, threshold doses may be increased by the use of various biological response modifiers post irradiation for reducing injury. Threshold doses would be expected to be higher for fractionated or protracted doses, unless doses below the threshold dose only cause single-hit-type events that are not modified by repair/recovery phenomena, or if different mechanisms of injury are involved at low and high doses.

  4. Radiation protection to firemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, E.S. de.

    1985-01-01

    The basic Knowledge about ionizing radiation oriented for firemen, are presented. The mainly damage and effects caused by radiation exposure as well as the method of radiation protection are described in simple words. The action to be taken in case of fire involving radiation such as vehicles transporting radioactive materials are emphasized. (author)

  5. Radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, J.

    1983-11-01

    Topics covered include biological radiation effects, radiation protection principles, recommendations of the ICRP and the National Health and Medical Research Council, and dose limits for individuals, particularly the limit applied to the inhalation of radon daughters

  6. Comparison between Brazilian radiation protection standard and the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection published in 2007; Comparacao entre a norma brasileira de radioprotecao e a recomendacao da International Commission on Radiological Protection - ICRP, publicadas em 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Itatiaia, RJ (Brazil). Fabrica do Combustivel Nuclear. Servico de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Pereira, J.R.S. [Universidade Veiga de Almeida (UVA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Graduacao em Direito

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the differences between the CNEN's standard and the publication of ICRP-103, analyzing the philosophy for radiation protection, dose limits and other relevant aspects of radiation protection.

  7. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, L.

    1997-01-01

    In this note the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection and risk assessment/management, the authors review ethical thinking on five key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these five issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) Equity vs. Efficiency, (2) Health vs. Economics, (3) Individual Rights vs. Societal Benefits, (4) Due Process vs. Necessary Sacrifice, and (5) Stakeholder Consent vs. Management Decisions (authors)

  8. Emerging radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, a number of radiation protection issues have emerged into the public forum. The perceived high risks associated with radiation exposure, and disproportionate media attention to such issues, have contributed to heightened concerns by the public and the individual occupationally exposed worker. This paper examines the new and controversial radiation risk estimates of the National Research Council's BEIR V committee, which are based on the most current atomic-bomb survivor data and a revised dosimetry model. These risk estimates are somewhat higher than past values, and may eventually impact the legal framework in the United States through the regulations of the EPA, NRC, DOE, OSHA, and other agencies that set radiation exposure standards. Additionally, present regulations and standards are often based upon differing levels of acceptable risk, which have led to conflicting exposure and effluent release criteria. Further, due to inherent boundaries in legal authority, many potentially significant sources of radiation exposure to the public remain unregulated Radiation exposure scenarios such as medical x-ray, radon, and other technology enhanced sources have no legal limits. These issues and others are examined and analyzed with respect to regulatory policy

  9. The development of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    The harm that might be caused by radiation exposure was recognised within months of Rontgen's discovery of X-rays, and recommendations for protection of patients and workers with radiation were formulated first in 1928. In the light of increasing radiobiological, genetic and human epidemiological evidence, it became clear that there might be no threshold, below which harmful effects did not occur. Recommendation and practice in radiation protection reflected this opinion from the early 1950's, and emphasised the consequent need for minimising exposures, quantifying risks and revising the dose limits appropriate for internal radiation of body organs. (author)

  10. Radiation exposure and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, F.; Scherer, E.

    1985-01-01

    The present volume is devoted to the radiation hazards and the protective measures which can be taken. It describes the current state of knowledge on the changes which exposure to ionizing rays and other forms of physical energy can induce in organs and tissues, in the functional units and systems of the organism. Special attention is paid to general cellular radiation biology and radiation pathology and to general questions of the biological effects of densely ionizing particle radiation, in order to achieve a better all-round understanding of the effects of radiation on the living organism. Aside from the overviews dealing with the effects of radiation on the abdominal organs, urinary tract, lungs, cerebral and nervous tissue, bones, and skin, the discussion continues with the lymphatic system, the bone marrow as a bloodforming organ, and the various phases of reaction in the reproductive organs, including damage and subsequent regeneration. A special section deals with environmental radiation hazards, including exposure to natural radiation and the dangers of working with radioactive substances, and examines radiation catastrophes from the medical point of view. Not only reactor accidents are covered, but also nuclear explosions, with exhaustive discussion of possible damage and treatment. The state of knowledge on chemical protection against radiation is reviewed in detail. Finally, there is thorough treatment of the mechanism of the substances used for protection against radiation damage in man and of experience concerning this subject to date. In the final section of the book the problems of combined radiotherapy are discussed. The improvement in the efficacy of tumor radiotherapy by means of heavy particles is elucidated, and the significance of the efficacy of tumor therapy using electron-affinitive substances is explained. There is also discussion of the simultaneous use of radiation and pharmaceuticals in the treatment of tumors. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Regulations in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    On the occasion of the twenty fifth anniversary of the Dutch Society for Radiation Protection, a symposium was held about Regulations in Radiation Protection. The program consisted of six contributions of which four are included in this publication. The posters presented are published in NVS-nieuws, 1985, vol. 11(5). (G.J.P.)

  12. Practical radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, G.; Van den Eijnde, J.H.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    This textbook aims at providing sufficient knowledge and insight to carry out correctly radiation protection activities and operations. The subjects are appropriate for the training of radiation protection experts for the levels 5A (encapsulated sources, X rays) and 5B (open sources, laboratory activities)

  13. Radiation protection legislation in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1992-01-01

    A close collaboration exists in the Nordic countries in the field of radiation protection. The radiation protection authorities attach major importance to a uniform interpretation of the international recommendations. The legal situation of the Nordic countries in the radiation protection field will be reviewed with the main emphasis on the new Swedish and Finnish laws. (author)

  14. Regulatory requirements for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, E.A.; Cunningham, R.E.; Hard, J.E.; Mattson, R.J.; Smith, R.D.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Regulatory requirements for radiation protection have evolved and matured over several decades. Due to the wide adoption of recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), there exists international agreement on the principles to be followed for radiation protection. This foundation will be increasingly important due to the growing need for international agreements and standards for radiation protection and radioactive materials management. During the infancy of the commercial nuclear industry, primary reliance was placed on the protection of the individual, both in the work force and as a member of the public. With the growth of nuclear power in the 1960's and 1970's, environmental impact assessments and expert reviews of bio-effects data have focused attention on statistical risks to large population groups and the use of the collective dose commitment concept to estimate potential effects. The potential release of long-lived radionuclides from the nuclear fuel cycle requires further consideration of radionuclide accumulation in the biosphere and calls for controls conceived and implemented at the international level. The initial development efforts for addressing these concerns already have been instituted by the ICRP and the IAEA. However, formal international agreements and a unified set of international standards may be required to implement the recommendations of these groups. Further international efforts in the field of radiation protection are also called for in developing waste management practices and radioactive effluent control technology, in site selection for fuel reprocessing plants and waste dispersal facilities, and for ensuring safe transport of high-level wastes in various forms. Since the regulation of very low dose rates and doses will be involved, it will be useful to reexamine dose-effect relationships and societal goals for health protection. Improved criteria and methodologies for ''as low as readily

  15. Radiation protection and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zi; Dong Liucan; Zhang Yongxing

    1994-01-01

    A collection of short papers is presented which review aspects of research in radiation and environmental protection carried out by the Chinese Institute of Atomic Energy in 1991. The topics covered are: the analysis of Po 210 in the gaseous effluent of coal-fired boilers; the determination of natural radionuclide levels in various industrial waste slags and management countermeasures; assessment of the collective radiation dose from natural sources for the Chinese population travelling by water; the preliminary environmental impact report for the multipurpose heavy water research reactor constructed by China for the Islamic Republic of Algeria. (UK)

  16. Proceedings of the 3. Regional Meeting on Radiological and Nuclear Safety, Regional Meeting on International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA)and 3. Peruvian Meeting on Radiological Protection; 3. Congreso Regional sobre Seguridad Radiologica y Nuclear, Congreso Regional IRPA y 3. Congreso Peruano de Proteccion Radiologica. Libro de Resumenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    There we show works of the Third Regional Meeting on Radiological and Nuclear Safety held on 23-27 October, 1995 in Cusco-Peru. Latin americans specialists talk about nuclear safety and radiological protection, radiation natural exposure, biological effect of radiation, radiotherapy and medical radiological safety, radiological safety in industry and research. Also we deal with subjects related to radiological safety of nuclear and radioactive facilities, radioactive waste management, radioactive material transport, environmental radiological monitoring program, radiological emergency and accidents, instruments and dosimetry, basic safety standards of protection against radiation. More than 225 works were presented on the meeting.

  17. Radiation protection housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, A

    1975-04-10

    The radiation protection housing consists of a foot rim with castor swivel wheels, a tubular frame tapering off at the top, and a crown. In the upper part of the tubular frame a lead glass window is permanently installed. The sides are covered with radiation attenuating curtains of leaded rubber. The housing has the shape of a truncated pyramid which can be dismantled into its constituent parts. It is used for protection from radiation encountered in X-ray facilities in dental radiology.

  18. Analysis of the experience of providing radiation protection of population and environment within the international collaboration network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergei Aleksanin; Eugene Zheleznyakov; Regina Fedortseva

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The All-Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine (ARCERM) in St. Petersburg is a specialized radiation health institution and World Health Organization (WHO) collaborating center within the Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network (REMPAN), which primary objectives are: - To promote medical preparedness for radiation accidents and radio-nuclear threats among WHO Member States; - To provide medical and public health advice, assistance and coordination of medical management at international and regional levels in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency; - To assist in follow-up studies and rehabilitation. ARCERM serves as a national focal point for advice and possible medical care in cases of radiation injuries in humans as well as assists WHO to prepare relevant documents and guidelines, provides training in radiation medicine, distributes relevant information to the medical community and the public and carries out scientific investigations on radiation effects on humans. The Center is prepared to undertake actions on medical management of possible radiation emergencies both on national and international level as a member of REMPAN network. The assistance provided by ARCERM may also include providing radiation medicine and other appropriate specialists, scientific services and expertise, equipment and medical services for diagnosis, prognosis, medical treatment and medical follow-up of persons affected by radiation. In case of radiation accident the Center has standard operating procedures at country level. It includes the system of warning and data collection, setting up special wards for receiving radiation victims, radioactivity control station, primary deactivation and treatment as well as providing personal protection for staff. WHO, as well as other co-operating international organizations, are notified and provided with relevant information through the International Atomic

  19. Ethics and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2007-01-01

    Some of the major problems in radiation protection are closely connected to issues that have a long, independent tradition in moral philosophy. This contribution focuses on two of these issues. One is the relationship between the protection of individuals and optimisation on the collective level, and the other is the relative valuation of future versus immediate damage. Some of the intellectual tools that have been developed by philosophers can be useful in radiation protection. On the other hand, philosophers have much to learn from radiation protectors, not least when it comes to finding pragmatic solutions to problems that may be intractable in principle

  20. Ethics and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Sven Ove [Department of Philosophy and the History of Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 78 B, 2tr, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Some of the major problems in radiation protection are closely connected to issues that have a long, independent tradition in moral philosophy. This contribution focuses on two of these issues. One is the relationship between the protection of individuals and optimisation on the collective level, and the other is the relative valuation of future versus immediate damage. Some of the intellectual tools that have been developed by philosophers can be useful in radiation protection. On the other hand, philosophers have much to learn from radiation protectors, not least when it comes to finding pragmatic solutions to problems that may be intractable in principle.

  1. Endodontic radiology, practice, and knowledge of radiation biology, hazard, and protection among clinical dental students and interns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Emien Enabulele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the practice and knowledge of endodontic radiology as well as assess the knowledge of radiation biology, hazard, and protection among clinical dental students and interns. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study of clinical dental students and interns at University of Benin and University of Benin Teaching hospital respectively. Data was collected using a questionnaire which covered practice and knowledge of endodontic radiography, knowledge of radiation biology, hazard, and protection. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0. Result: Seventy participants were included in the study, 40% were final year students and 24.3% house officers. Majority (95.7% agreed that they exposed radiographs as part of endodontic treatment. Only 18.6% knew that the apices of teeth should be 3mm from the border of the X-ray film, while 24.3% knew that 3mm of periapical bone should be visible on X-ray. Less than half (31.4% knew that paralleling technique was the technique of choice for endodontic radiography and this was statistically Significant in relationship to the status of the of the respondents. A few (4.3% of the respondents had knowledge of new horizons in endodontic imaging. Half of the respondents knew that damage by X-rays is mainly due to formation of free radicals. The most frequently reported radiation hazards was reduced salivary flow, while the least reported was rampant caries. Most knew how to protect patients, themselves, and other persons while exposing radiographs. Conclusion: There is need for inclusion of endodontic radiography in the undergraduate curriculum to ensure proper and correct radiographs during endodontic procedure.

  2. Perspectives for environmental radiation protection in EU radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, A.

    2000-01-01

    The basis of EU radiation protection legislation is the EURATOM Trealy. It is discussed whether the Treaty offers a legal basis for the protection of the natural environment. The incorporation of provisions pertaining to the nuclear fuel cycle or to radioactive substances in general environmental legislation is explained, as well as the possible implications of international conventions subscribed by the European Union. The European Commission is in the process of developing an overall approach to risk analysis for the protection of health, consumer interests, and the environment. It is examined to what extent the consideration of the impact of radiation on the natural environment fits in the overall framework and whether the principles underlying classical radiation protection are applicable to biota. Specific attention is given to situations where high levels of environmental radioactivity would require intervention. (Author)

  3. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management 'sharing practices and experiences'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the Workshop on Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management was to share practices and experiences in approaches to severe accident management. The workshop: provided an international forum for information and experience exchange amongst nuclear electricity utilities and national regulatory authorities on approaches to, and issues in severe accident management, including national and international implications. Focus was placed on sharing practices and experiences in many countries on approaches to severe accident management; identified best occupational radiation protection approaches in strategies, practices, as well as limitations for developing effective management. This included experiences in various countries; identified national experiences to be incorporated into the final version of ISOE EG-SAM report. The workshop included a series of plenary presentations that provided participants with an overview of practices and experiences in severe accident management from various countries. Furthermore, by taking into account the structure of the interim report, common themes and issues were discussed in follow-up breakout sessions. Sessions included invited speakers, moderated by designated experts, allowing participants to discuss their national experiences and possible inputs into the report. The outcomes of the breakout sessions were presented in plenary by the respective moderators followed by an open discussion, with a view towards elaborating ways forward to achieve more effective severe accident management. This document brings together the abstracts and the slides of the available presentations

  4. Radiation protection textbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.J.; Granier, R.

    2007-01-01

    This textbook of radiation protection presents the scientific bases, legal and statutory measures and technical means of implementation of the radioprotection in the medical and industrial sectors, research and nuclear installations. It collects the practical information (organization, analysis of post, prevention, evaluation and risks management, the controls, the training and the information) usually scattered and the theoretical knowledge allowing every person using ionizing radiation: To analyze jobs in controlled areas, to watch the respect for the current regulations, to participate in the training and in the information of the staffs exposed to intervene in accidental situation. This third edition is widely updated and enriched by the most recent scientific and legal data concerning, notably, the human exposure, the dosimetry, the optimization of the radiation protection and the epidemiological inquiries. The contents is as follows: physics of ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation: origin and interaction with matter, dosimetry and protection against ionizing radiation, detection and measurement of ionizing radiation, radiobiology, legal measures relative to radiation protection, human exposure of natural origin, human exposure of artificial origin, medical, dental and veterinarian radiology, radiotherapy, utilization of unsealed sources in medicine and research, electronuclear industry, non nuclear industrial and aeronautical activities exposing to ionizing radiation, accidental exposures. (N.C.)

  5. Radiation protection: Principles, recommendations and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitan, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation protection is a highly international dicipline with a high degree of international harmonization. Especially within the Nordic countries there is general agreement upon principles and standards, despite the actual practice may differ slightly. The basic recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) are accepted by the regulatory bodies and should be followed by all users of radiation. The users are in principle responsible for the radiation protection standard and activities themselves. Because most companies or hospitals lack sufficient expertise by themselves, they must rely upon recommendations from others. Primarily they should contact the national radiation protection agency. However, due to the international harmonization of radiation protection, information from other national or international agencies may be used with confidence. All users of radiation in the Nordic countries are obliged to act according to recognition and assessment of both risks and benefits, and they are responsible for updating their knowledge

  6. Physics for radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, James E

    2013-01-01

    A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided.

  7. Radiation protection in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Manuel

    1996-02-01

    It covers technical procedures in medical applications for cancer treatment. Radiation protection principles in brachytherapy. Medical uses in therapy for Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Ra-226, Ir-192, Au-198, Bi-214, Pb-214. (The author)

  8. Radiation Protection: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, M.

    2005-01-01

    The abstract gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection department. Main strategic developments and achievements in the field of life sciences, policy supports and medical applications are summarised

  9. Radiation protection and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1982-01-01

    The present paper deals with the following topics: - Radiological quantities and units - Principles of radiological protection - Limits of doses and activity uptake - Activity discharges and monitoring - Radiation exposure and its calculation - Environmental monitoring - Personnel dosimetry. (orig./RW)

  10. Radiation Protection Group

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to inform you that the Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre will be closed on the afternoon of Tuesday 19 December 2006. Thank-you for your understanding.

  11. Software for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graffunder, H.

    2002-01-01

    The software products presented are universally usable programs for radiation protection. The systems were designed in order to establish a comprehensive database specific to radiation protection and, on this basis, model in programs subjects of radiation protection. Development initially focused on the creation of the database. Each software product was to access the same nuclide-specific data; input errors and differences in spelling were to be excluded from the outset. This makes the products more compatible with each other and able to exchange data among each other. The software products are modular in design. Functions recurring in radiation protection are always treated the same way in different programs, and also represented the same way on the program surface. The recognition effect makes it easy for users to familiarize with the products quickly. All software products are written in German and are tailored to the administrative needs and codes and regulations in Germany and in Switzerland. (orig.) [de

  12. Radiation protecting clothing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mio, Kotaro; Ijiri, Yasuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To provide radiation protecting clothing materials excellent in mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, flexibility and flexing strength. Constitution: The radiation protecting clothing materials according to this invention has pure lead sheets comprising a thin pure lead foil of 50 to 150 μm and radiation resistant organic materials, for example, polyethylene with high neutron shielding effect disposed to one or both surfaces thereof. The material are excellent in the repeating bending fatigue and mechanical strength, corrosion resistance and flexibility and, accordingly, radiation protecting clothings prepared by using them along or laminating them also possess these excellent characteristics. Further, they are excellent in the handlability, particularly, durability to the repeated holding and extension, as well as are preferable in the physical movability and feeling upon putting. The clothing materials may be cut into an appropriate size, or stitched into clothings made by radiation-resistant materials. In this case, pure lead sheets are used in lamination. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Radiation protection philosophy alters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two significant events that have taken place this year in the field of radiation protection are reported. New SI units have been proposed (and effectively adopted), and the ICRP has revised its recommendations. Changes of emphasis in the latest recommendations (ICRP Publication 26) imply an altered radiation protection philosophy, in particular the relation of dose limits to estimates of average risk, an altered view of the critical organ approach and a new attitude to genetic dose to the population. (author)

  14. Radiation safety: New international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    This article highlights an important result of this work for the international harmonization of radiation safety: specifically, it present an overview of the forthcoming International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - the so-called BSS. They have been jointly developed by six organizations - the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

  15. Nordic society for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Damkjaer, A.

    1999-11-01

    The key themes of teh 12th ordinary general meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection were: RADIATION - ENVIRONMENT - INFORMATION. A number of outstanding international experts accepted to contribute on the meetings first day with invited presentations, which focussed on these themes. In all 38 oral presentations and 28 posters are included in the present Proceedings, which furthermore contains a resume of discussions from the special session on 'Controllable Dose'. (EHS)

  16. Radiation Protection. Chapter 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, D. [Ninewells Hospital, Dundee (United Kingdom); Collins, L. T. [Westmead Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Le Heron, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Chapter 21, in describing basic radiation biology and radiation effects, demonstrates the need to have a system of radiation protection that allows the many beneficial uses of radiation to be realized while ensuring detrimental radiation effects are either prevented or minimized. This can be achieved with the twin objectives of preventing the occurrence of deterministic effects and of limiting the probability of stochastic effects to a level that is considered acceptable. In a radiology facility, consideration needs to be given to the patient, the staff involved in performing the radiological procedures, members of the public and other staff that may be in the radiology facility, carers and comforters of patients undergoing procedures, and persons who may be undergoing a radiological procedure as part of a biomedical research project. This chapter discusses how the objectives given above are fulfilled through a system of radiation protection and how such a system should be applied practically in a radiology facility.

  17. Radiation protection zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Radiation being not visible, the zoning of an area containing radioactive sources is important in terms of safety. Concerning radiation protection, 2 work zones are defined by regulations: the monitored zone and the controlled zone. The ministerial order of 15 may 2006 settles the frontier between the 2 zones in terms of radiation dose rates, the rules for access and the safety standards in both zones. Radioprotection rules and the name of the person responsible for radiation protection must be displayed. The frontier between the 2 zones must be materialized and marked with adequate equipment (specific danger signs and tapes). Both zones are submitted to selective entrance, the access for the controlled zone is limited because of the radiation risk and of the necessity of confining radioactive contamination while the limitation of the access to the monitored zone is due to radiation risk only. (A.C.)

  18. Radiation Protection in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carazo, N.

    1979-01-01

    The tasks connected with radiation protection are allocated to the National Institute for Nuclear Energy in Guatemala. Regulatory measures are further needed to identify the responsibilities of various authorities to ensure that all radiation workers are provided with personal dosemeters. (author)

  19. History of international symbol for ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The year 1996 marks the 50th anniversary of the radiation warning symbol as we currently know it. It was (except the colours used) doodled out at the University of California, Berkeley, sometime in 1946 by a small group of people. The key guy responsible was Nelson Garden, then the head of the Health Chemistry Group, at the Radiation Laboratory. The radiation warning symbol should not be confused with the civil defence symbol (circle divided into six equal sections, three of these being black and three yellow), designed to identify fallout shelters. The basic radiation symbol was eventually internationally standardized by ISO code: 361-1975 (E). Variations of this symbol are frequently used in logotypes radiation protection organizations or associations. Particularly nice are those of International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) and Croatian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA) that combines traditional Croatian motives with high technology. However, apart from speculations, there is no definite answer why did the Berkeley people chose this particular symbol. Whatever the reason was, it was very good choice because the ionizing radiation symbol is simple, readily identifiable, i.e., not similar to other warning symbols, and discernible at a large distance. (author)

  20. Military radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Ministry of Defence and the military in particular have a very strong commitment to radiation protection of personnel in war and peace. MOD endeavours to do better all the time because it is essential that the armed forces have the confidence to fulfil their role and this is best achieved by providing them with the best possible protection irrespective of the hazard. (author)

  1. Radiation Protection Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, H.M.; Schnuer, K.

    1992-01-01

    The contributions presented during the seminar provided clear evidence that radiation protection of the patient plays an increasingly important role for manufacturers of radiological equipment and for regulatory bodies, as well as for radiologists, doctors and assistants. The proceedings of this seminar reflect the activities and work in the field of radiation protection of the patient and initiate further action in order to harmonize dosimetric measurements and calculations, to ameliorate education and training, to improve the technical standards of the equipment and to give a push to a more effective use of ionising radiation in the medical sector

  2. Radiation protection in education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viragh, Elemer

    1985-01-01

    The education of secondary school students in the fields of nuclear sciences was strictly limited according to the 9th recommendations of the ICRP issued in 1966 saying that people under age 18 are not allowed to deal with ionizing radiations. Due to the changes concerning the concept of radiation protection, new opportunities for teaching nuclear technology even in the secondary schools were opened. The 36th recommendations of the ICRP published in 1983 dealing with the maximum permissible doses and the measures taken for radiation protection should be kept in mind while organizing the education of the pupils between age 16 and 18. (V.N.)

  3. The normative power of the international commission of radiation protection on the approval of the international and communal jurisprudence; Le pouvoir normatif de la commission internationale de protection radiologique a l'epreuve de la jurisprudence internationale et communautaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoinie, O

    2006-01-15

    From an original synthesis of the jurisprudence given by the regular control agency of the international work organization concerning the Convention OIT 115 relative to the protection of workers against the ionizing radiations, as well as an alternative analysis of a communal jurisprudence (CJCE, C-376/90, 25 November 1992: Commission of the European Communities against the Belgium kingdom), this work aims to bring a new way to see the power that exerts a non governmental organization with a scientific character: the International Commission for Radiologic Protection (ICRP) when it gives its 'recommendations'. (O.M.)

  4. Instructed officers Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This law contains instructions on the prevention of radiological and contains 4 articles Article I: describe the responsibilities of the institutions that operate within the scope of radiological protection in terms of the number of radiation protection officers and personal Supervisors who available in the practices radiation field. Article II: talking about the conditions of radiation protection officers that must be available in the main officers and working field in larg institutions and thecondition of specific requirements for large enterprises of work permits in the field of radiological work that issued by the Council. Article III: the functions and duties of officers in the prevention of radiological oversee the development of radiation protection programmes in the planning stages, construction and preparing the rules of local labour and what it lead of such tasks.Article IV: radiation protection officers powers: to modify and approve the programme of prevention and radiation safety at the company, stop any unsafe steps, amend the steps of the usage, operation of materials, devices and so on

  5. [Radiation protection in interventional radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamus, R; Loose, R; Wucherer, M; Uder, M; Galster, M

    2016-03-01

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x‑ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X‑ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses.

  6. Education in Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodig, D.; Kasal, B.; Tezak, S.; Poropat, M.; Kubelka, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: This paper discussed the problem of the education in radiation protection. All aspects of education are included started with primary school and lasted with very specialised courses for the experts. In the last few years the lack of interest for education in radiation protection was recognised by many agencies included also IAEA and EU commission. In this paper the reasons for this situation will be presented and the way how to promote this subject again. It is not possible to prevent effects of radiation on environment and population if qualified and well educated experts do not exist. The situation in the field of education in radiation protection in Croatia will be presented, according to the new regulations in this field. (author)

  7. Global view on the radiological protection of patients: Position paper by the International Society for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, H.

    2001-01-01

    The International Society for Radiation Oncology (ISRO) is a federation of regional and national societies. These societies include about 80 000 radiation oncologists, physicists and related specialists. The incidence of cancer per year in developing countries is about 0.08 to about 0.2% of the population. In some developed countries, up to 0.5% of the population will be diagnosed with cancer each year - this is a very high figure. You must also look at prevalence: that is, how many of those that have had the diagnosis 'cancer' are still alive. In some developed countries, up to 3% of the population have had the diagnosis 'cancer' at some stage in their life. The projected number of new cases in the year 2000 is five million for developing and five million for developed countries. On the basis of practices exercised today in many advanced developed countries, it is estimated that 50% of these would need radiotherapy. In some countries, up to 60% of cancer cases receive at least one course of radiation treatment. Of course, good quality assurance is a matter of life and death for the patient, and radiation protection and quality assurance are in many situations much the same thing. What can the international societies do in this context? We can try to inform and teach our friends in less developed countries. For this reason, many educational meetings have been organized by the ISRO. The society tries to hold these meetings outside developed areas such as Europe and north America, and to convene them in developing regions of the world, instead. By including experienced teachers from more developed areas, the society seeks to help those who do not yet have all the knowledge they need

  8. Vitamins as radioprotectors in vivo II. protection by vitamin A and soybean oil against radiation damage caused by internal radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harapanhalli, R.S.; Narra, V.R.; Yaghmai, V.; Azure, M.T.; Goddu, M.; Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    Tissue-incorporated radionuclides impart radiation energy over extended periods of time depending on their effective half-lives. The capacity of vitamin A dissolved in soybean oil to protect against the biological effects caused by internal radionuclides is investigated. The radiochemicals examined are DNA-binding 125 IdU, cytoplasmically localized H 125 IPDM and the α-particle emitter 210 Po citrate. As in our previous studies, spermatogenesis in mice is used as the experimental model and spermatogonial cell survival is the biological end point. Surprisingly, soybean oil itself provides substantial and equal protection against the Auger effect of 125 IdU, which is comparable to a high-LET radiation effect, as well as the low-LET effects of H 125 IPDM, the dose modification factors (DMFs) being 3.6 ± 0.9 (SEM) and 3.4 ± 0.9, respectively. The protection afforded by the oil against the effects of 5.3 MeV α particles emitted by 210Po is also significant (DMF = 2.2 ± 0.4). The presence of vitamin A in the oil further enhanced the radioprotection against the effect of 125 IdU (DMF = 4.8 ± 1.3) and H 125 IKPDM (DMF = 5.1 ± 0.6); however, no enhancement is provided against the effects of α particles. These interesting results with soybean oil and vitamin A, together with data on the subcellular distribution of the protectors, provide clues regarding the mechanistic aspects of the protection. In addition, the data for vitamin A reaffirm our earlier conclusion that the mechanism by which DNA-bound Auger emitters impart biological damage is primarily indirect in nature. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  9. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  10. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database

  11. Principles of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamourtzounis, J. N. [World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1969-05-15

    In the rapidly developing areas of occupational and public health devoted to the protection of people from both immediate and delayed harmful (and sometimes Irreversible) effects of radiation exposure, industrial hygienists, radiological physicists and radiologists must now assume the additional responsibility of protection against radiation. Everyone during his life will have had one or more X-rays taken for diagnostic purposes. The doses received, depending upon the site, are not harmful to the individual, from the genetic aspect, however, the increasing use of X-ray examinations does present a danger,since almost the whole population is involved. Rapid progress in the development of nuclear energy and the practical extension of its use in medicine, agriculture and industry are steadily increasing the potential danger of large groups of the population being exposed to radiation, and radiation hazards are becoming an important aspect of industrial and public hygiene. WHO is concerned with the overall evaluation of population exposure from peaceful uses of atomic energy and through medical practice, the evaluation of radiation risks,and the control of medical radiation exposure. WHO stimulates and provides technical assistance for the development of appropriate programs of radiation protection with respect to the agricultural, industrial and medical applications of radioisotopes. X-rays and radium. (author)

  12. Radiation protection of non-human species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leith, I.S.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of radiation on non-human species, both animals and plants, have long been investigated. In the disposal of radioactive wastes, the protection of non-human species has been investigated. Yet no radiation protection standard for exposure of animals and plants per se has been agreed. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has long taken the view that, if human beings are properly protected from radiation, other species will thereby be protected to the extent necessary for their preservation. However, the International Atomic Energy Agency has found it necessary to investigate the protection of non-human species where radioactivity is released to an environment unpopulated by human beings. It is proposed that the basis of such protection, and the knowledge of radiation effects on non-human species on which it is based, suggest a practical radiation protection standard for non-human species. (1 tab.)

  13. Principles of Radiation Protection Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli

    2004-01-01

    The contents of this chapter are follows - Radiation Protection Concepts: justification, dose limitation, optimisation, potential exposures, situation requiring intervention; Special Considerations. Protection from Radiation Hazards, Remove the Hazard, Prevent the Hazard, Guard the Worker, Implementation of Radiation Protection and Safety Measures, Distance, Shielding, Time, Monitoring Programme, Safety System. Radiation Protection in Radiological Service: Specific Requirement in Diagnostic Radiological Service

  14. National congress of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The congress of radiation protection tackled different areas of radiation protection. The impact of ionizing radiations on environment coming from radioactive activities. The biological radiation effects, the dosimetry, the different ways of doing relative to radiation protection,the risks analysis and the communications with populations, information about accidents and the lessons learned from them are included in this congress. (N.C.)

  15. The historical development of radiation protection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettmann, W.

    1976-01-01

    The present internationally largely corresponding radiation protection limits are based on recommendations given by the ICRP in 1965. In order to better understand the underlying concepts, a historical sketch of the development is presented including actual discussions of trends to be excepted. Although exposure of healthy individuals by man-made sources up to these maximum levels is legally permissible, it should be emphasized again and again that any unavoidable exposure must be justified by the need for its associated cause. (author)

  16. Radiation protection - radiographer's role and responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popli, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Ever since discovery of x-rays, radiographers has been the prime user of radiation. With the passage of time, the harmful effects of radiation were detected. Some of radiographers, radiologists and public were affected by radiation, but today with enough knowledge of radiation, the prime responsibility of radiation protection lies with the radiographers only. The radiologist and physicist are also associated with radiation protection to some extent

  17. Introduction and fundamentals: Lecture No. 2. Course on advances in radiation, International School of Radiation Damage and Protection, Erice, Italy, September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1979-09-01

    This lecture discusses advances in the fundamental sciences which underlie that science variously called health physics or radiation. Some of the underlying assumptions of radiation protection are discussed, and some developments in the radiological sciences since 1975 described

  18. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  19. Radiation protection in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, H.

    1990-01-01

    Switzerland's present radiation protection regulations are based on only two paragraphs of the atomic law but have been very successful in practice. A new radiation protection law, separated from nuclear legislation and valid for all application of ionizing radiation and radioctive materials, was proposed and drafted by the Federal Commission on Radiation Protection and has now been accepted by parliament with only minor modifications. The draft of the revised regulations which also will cover all applications, should be ready for consultations next year. Both the law (which contains principles but no figures such as limits) and the regulations incorporate the latest state of ICRP recommendations and are formulated in such a way as to allow application of or quick adaptation to the new basic ICRP recommendation expected for 1991. The legislation is flexible, with a relatively low regulation density and leaves sufficient room for professional judgement on a case by case basis both for authorities and for the specialists responsible for radiation protection in practice. (orig./HSCH)

  20. Radiation protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Choshin; Takaura, Katsutoshi

    1998-01-01

    An external clothing as a main portion of the radiation protective clothing of the present invention is adapted to cover substantially the entire body of a wearer, comprises a moisture permeable material partially or entirely, and has an air supply device equipped with a filter for feeding air to a head portion of the wearer in the external clothing. Cleaned air filtered by the filter is supplied to the head portion of a wearer in the external clothing. The air passes through remarkably perspiratory head, face, shoulder, chest and back portions to remove heat and sweat at sensitively important upper portions of a body, so that humidity is released to remove fatigues and improve workability. In addition, since some extent of internal pressure is exerted to the inside of the external clothing by the air supply, contaminated air does not intrude from the outside to the external clothing. Since the air supply device is attached and carried to the external clothing, there is no air line hose which disturbs operation. (I.S.)

  1. Radiation protection - thirty years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper is discussed some questions in the field of Radiation Protection as like: historical prologue of radiations discovery and it's systematics; radiation and radiation protection; ALARA principle and 'de minimis' approach; radiation risks and dose limits and radiation and chemicals a risk comparison (author)

  2. Radiation protection - thirty years after

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninkovic, M M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1989-07-01

    In this paper is discussed some questions in the field of Radiation Protection as like: historical prologue of radiations discovery and it's systematics; radiation and radiation protection; ALARA principle and 'de minimis' approach; radiation risks and dose limits and radiation and chemicals a risk comparison (author)

  3. The principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of radiation protection is to avoid or to reduce the risks linked to ionizing radiation. In order to reduce these risks, the radiation protection uses three great principles: justification, optimization and limitation of radiation doses. to apply these principles, the radiation protection has regulatory and technical means adapted to three different categories of people: public, patients and workers. The nuclear safety authority elaborates the regulation, and carries out monitoring of the reliable application of radiation protection system. (N.C.)

  4. Radiation protection optimization of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents the contribution of CEPN (study center on protection evaluation in nuclear area) to the Days of the French Radiation Protection Society (SFRP) on optimization of workers radiation protection in electronuclear, industrial and medical areas

  5. Recent advances in radiation protection instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, D.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation protection instrumentation plays very important role in radiation protection and surveillance programme. Radiation detector, which appears at the frontal end of the instrument, is an essential component of these instruments. The instrumental requirement of protection level radiation monitoring is different from conventional radiation measuring instruments. Present paper discusses the new type of nuclear radiation detectors, new protection level instruments and associated electronic modules for various applications. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, such as nuclear power plants; mining and milling; medical institutions; educational and research establishments; and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection to workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radioactive materials for different applications. The radiation exposures to the individual radiation workers and records of their cumulative radiation doses need to be routinely monitored and recorded

  6. Evaluation of radiation protection in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Ezzeldien Mohammed Nour

    2013-05-01

    This study conducted to evaluate the radiation protection in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in four nuclear medicine departments in Sudan. The evaluated procedures followed in these departments were in accordance with the standards, International Recommendations and code of practice for radiation protection in nuclear medicine. The evolution included the optimum design for diagnostic nuclear medicine departments, dealing with radioactive sources, quality assurance and quality control, training and responsibilities for radiation worker taking into account economic factors in Sudan. Evaluation of radiation protection procedures in diagnostic investigations was carried out by taken direct measurements of dose rate and the contamination level in some areas where radiation sources, radiation workers and public are involved. Designated questionnaires covered thirteen areas of radiation protection based on inspection check list for nuclear medicine prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and American Association of Physicist in Medicine (AAPM) were used in the evaluation. This questionnaire has been Filled by Radiation Protection Officer (RPO), nuclear medicine technologist, nuclear medicine specialist in the nuclear medicine departments. Four hospitals, two governmental hospital and two private hospitals, have been assisted, the assessment shows that although the diagnostic nuclear medicine department in Sudan are not applying a fully safety and radiation protection procedures, but the level of radiation dose and the contamination level were found within acceptable limits. The private hospital D scored the higher level of protection (85.25%) while the governmental hospital C scored the lower level of protection (59.02%). Finally, this study stated some recommendations that if implemented could improve the level of radiation protection in nuclear medicine department. One of the most important recommendations is that a proper radiation protection

  7. Radiation protection in Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Maadheed, Khalid; Al Khatibeh, Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The State of Qatar has become a member State of IAEA since 1974. Later the Department of Industrial Development (DID) beam the focal point and the competent authority regarding all aspects of the peaceful application of Nuclear Technology. In July, 2000 the Supreme Council was established and charged with all matters related to environmental protection. The Supreme Council joined the IAEA Projects on upgrading protection infrastructure in West Asia region. A preliminary research was initiated to discover where radiation sources are being used, and the legal framework, if any, to regulate their use. The research indicated that radiation sources were being used in the industrial practices (well logging, industrial radiography and nuclear gauges) and in medical practices (mainly diagnostic radiology). The research also indicated that there was virtually no legal framework to regulate them. In less than five years, the State of Qatar was able to issue the radiation protection law, three sets of regulations, namely: Radiation Protection Regulations, Radioactive Waste Management Regulations and the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials Regulations. In addition, several specific regulation work, dose limits and radiation protection officers were issued. A radiation Protection Department, comprising three sections was established. We are providing individual exposure monitoring for most of the radiation workers in the public sector and some in the private sector. We have set up a proper licensing and inspections procedures, where our inspectors are enforcing the law. More recently, we established an early warning network for nuclear of radiological emergencies, consisting of 6 transplantable stations, five mobile stations and two navigating stations. This year, the network was augmented with five fixed station and an advanced early warning centre, which provides early warning via multiple means (MMS, Fax, E-mail and audio alarms). Last year we signed a nuclear

  8. Radiation and radiation protection; Strahlung und Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomaeus, Melanie (comp.)

    2017-04-15

    The publication of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz covers the following issues: (i) Human beings in natural and artificial radiation fields; (ii) ionizing radiation: radioactivity and radiation, radiation exposure and doses; measurement of ionizing radiation, natural radiation sources, artificial radiation sources, ionizing radiation effects on human beings, applied radiation protection, radiation exposure of the German population, radiation doses in comparison; (iii) non-ionizing radiation; low-frequency electric and magnetic fields, high-frequency electromagnetic fields, optical radiation; (iiii) glossary, (iv) units and conversion.

  9. Radiation protection for repairs of reactor's internals at the 2nd Unit of the Nuclear Power Plant Temelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapletal, P.; Konop, R.; Koc, J.; Kvasnicka, O.; Hort, M.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation describes the process and extent of repairs of the 2 nd unit of the Nuclear power plant Temelin during the shutdown of the reactor. All works were optimized in terms of radiation protection of workers.

  10. Biological Research for Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Jung, Il Lae; Choi, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Sik; Moon, Myung Sook; Byun, Hee Sun; Phyo, Ki Heon; Kim, Sung Keun

    2005-04-01

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H 2 O 2 (toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H 2 O 2 )-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H 2 O 2 (or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells

  11. Radiation protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinuma, Tadashi; Tamura, Shoji; Ijiri, Yasuo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain radiation protective clothings of excellent workability and durability. Constitution: Protective clothings of the present invention comprise shielding materials for the upper-half of the body having lead foils laminated on one surface and shielding materials for the lower-half of the body a resin sheet containing inorganic powders of high specific gravity. Such protective clothings have a frexibility capable of followings after the movement of the upper-half body and easily follow after the movement such as acute bending of the body near the waste in the lower-half body. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. The physics of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.; Schuricht, V.; Steuer, J.

    1996-01-01

    The book is aimed at both practising specialists and scientists wishing to learn about the fundamental science of radiation protection. The first part of the book, 'Physical Fundamentals of Radiation Protection', presents a concise description of radiation sources and radiation fields, interaction of radiation with matter, radiation effects and radiation damage, basic concept of radiation protection, radiation exposure of man, radiation protection measuring techniques and physical fundamentals for limiting radiation exposure. The second part, 'Calculational Exercises for Radiation Protection' is intended to supplement the first part by carrying out relevant calculations, amending and adding special aspects and to give guidance in solving practical problems. The book is written for scientists as well as for students and staff working in nuclear facilities, hospitals and institutions responsible for radiation and environmental protection. (UK)

  13. Radiation protection in nuclear energy. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The conference was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of international views on the principles of radiation protection for regulators and practitioners, to highlight issues of current importance, to examine the problems encountered in applying the principles of radiation protection, and, where possible, to identify generic solutions. A special session entitled ''The dose-response relationship: implications for nuclear energy'', and a panel on ''Radiation protection education and training'' were included in the conference programme. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Focus radiation protection; Schwerpunkt Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebermann, Lutz (comp.)

    2016-07-01

    The publication of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz on radiation protection covers the following issues: (i) exposure from natural sources: health hazard due to radon, radiation protection in residential homes, radon in Germany, natural raw materials in industrial processes; (ii) clearance of radioactive wastes: clearance in the frame of nuclear power plant dismantling, the situation in Germany and Europe; (iii) emergency management: principles of radiation protection, fictive sequence of accident events; (iiii) other actual radiation protection topics: more limits - more protection? radiation protection in medicine, occupational radiation protection.

  15. Radiation protection glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ibrahim; Abdul-Rahim, Maha

    1989-12-01

    This glossary contains the arabic equivalent of all the terms included in the IAEA Safety Series No.76 (which is a selected basic terms used in IAEA publications), thus this glossary contains English, French, Spanish, Russian, and Arabic. It is intended to facilitate the work of arabic speaking scientists involved in the field of radiation protection

  16. Environmental radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richings, L.D.G.; Morley, F.; Kelley, G.N.

    1978-04-01

    The principles involved in the setting of radiological protection standards are reviewed, and the differences in procedures used by various countries in implementing them are outlined. Standards are taken here to mean the specific numerical limits relating to radiation doses to people or to amounts of radioactive material released into the environment. (author)

  17. Precautionary radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    The German federal government annually reports about the development of radioactivity in the environment, providing the most important data and changes in environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure. These reports are based on the Act on Precautionary Protection of the Public against Radiation Exposure (Radiation Protection Provisions Act) of December 19, 1986 as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The purpose of the Act is protection of the public from health hazards arising from a nuclear accident or any other event with comparable radiological consequences, and to create the foundations for correct evaluation of the risks resulting from specific radiation exposures. After 1986, the Act was soon given concrete shape by legal ordinances, which made it a workable tool. The following points, among others, can be summarized form the report for 2004: - The calculated natural and manmade overall exposure is 4.0 mSv/a, as in the previous year, and happens to be exactly the same figure as in the report for 1994. - The contribution to radiation exposure by nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities is less than 0.01 mSv/a. Over a period of nearly twenty years, the Act and the annual reporting regime have proved to work. Standardized criteria prevent data abuse and misinterpretation, respectively. Definitions of limits have contributed to more transparency and more objectivity. (orig.)

  18. II International Conference: Radiation Protection Training. Future Strategies. Ciemat, 17-19 September, 2003. Book of Papers and Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Safety in the use of ionising radiation and protection against potential risks due to exposure to radiation sources are not static concepts, rather their evolution runs parallel with an increased knowledge of the technologies and basic concepts employed. Education and training, which are inherently tied to with research, are the means to disseminate the advances made to the scientists and professionals working with ionising radiation. At present, Radiation Protection (RP) training is considered to be the best means to promote a safety culture and to improve the competence of exposed workers. Indeed, progress in both RP teaching and training, which form part of this transfer of technology and specialized knowledge, are fields that are in continuous motion. The first conference on Radiation Protection training was celebrated in Saclay (France) under the slogan Radiation Protection: What are the Future Training needs?. It can be considered as the first such meeting dedicated to the community of professionals, from a wide range of scientific and technological backgrounds, related in some way to Radiation Protection training. (Author)

  19. Determining Nuclear Fingerprints: Glove Boxes, Radiation Protection, and the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentetzi, Maria

    2017-06-01

    In a nuclear laboratory, a glove box is a windowed, sealed container equipped with two flexible gloves that allow the user to manipulate nuclear materials from the outside in an ostensibly safe environment. As a routine laboratory device, it invites neglect from historians and storytellers of science. Yet, since especially the Gulf War, glove boxes have put the interdependence of science, diplomacy, and politics into clear relief. Standing at the intersection of history of science and international history, technological materials and devices such as the glove box can provide penetrating insight into the role of international diplomatic organizations to the global circulation and control of scientific knowledge. The focus here is on the International Atomic Energy Agency. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Lectures on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachsmann, F.; Consentius, K.

    1981-01-01

    All important subjects of radiation protection are presented in concise form; the explanations may serve as lecture manuscripts. The lectures are divided into 16 to 19 teaching units. Each teaching unit is supplemented by a slide to be projected on a screen while the text is read. This method of visual teaching has already been tried with good results in medicine and medical engineering. Pictures of the slides are given in the text so that the book may also be used for self-studies. The main facts are summarized at the end of each lesson. The finished book will consist of 8 lessons; the first three of these discuss 1. Radiation effects and hazards 2. Dose definitions and units and their role in radiology and radiation protection 3. Dose limits and legal specifications. (orig.) [de

  1. Advances in radiation protection monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The requirement to keep radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable, linked with the growing number of workers whose exposure to radiation must be strictly controlled, requires intensified efforts directed towards the provision of adequate radiation monitoring programmes. This symposium was intended to review the advances that have been made in methods, techniques and instrumentation for radiation protection monitoring. Thus the symposium complemented the detailed consideration that had already been given to two closely related topics, that of environmental monitoring and of monitoring radioactive airborne and liquid discharges from nuclear facilities. The first topic had been dealt with in detail in an Agency symposium held in November 1973 in Warsaw and the second was treated in an Agency symposium held in September 1977 in Portoroz. The present symposium covered a broad range of topics under the following main headings: Monitoring of external exposure (three sessions),Contamination monitoring (three sessions), Radiation monitoring programmes (one session), Calibration, and use of computers (two sessions). An introductory paper described the purpose of radiation protection monitoring and its historical development. It drew attention to the gradual change from the threshold dose hypothesis to the hypothesis of direct proportionality between dose and effect and discussed practical implications of the recommendations recently issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). It became apparent that guidance on the application of these recommendations is urgently needed. This guidance is presently being prepared by ICRP

  2. Preventive Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewer, H.

    1988-01-01

    The commentary is intended to contribute to protection of the population by a practice-oriented discussion and explanation of questions arising in connection with the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Leaving aside discussions about abandonment of nuclear power, or criticism from any legal point of view, the commentary adopts the practical approach that accepts, and tries to help implementing, the act as it is. It is a guide for readers who are not experts in the law and gives a line of orientation by means of explanations and sometimes by citations from other acts (in footnotes). The commentary also presents the EURATOM Directive No. 3954/87 dated 22 December 1987, the EC Directive No. 3955/87 dated 22 December 1987, and the EC Directive No. 1983/88 dated 5 July 1988. A tabular survey shows the system of duties and competences defined by the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. (RST) [de

  3. Radiation protection dosimetry and calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhavere, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    At the SCK-CEN different specialised services are delivered for a whole range of external and internal customers in the radiation protection area. For the expertise group of radiation protection dosimetry and calibrations, these services are organized in four different laboratories: dosimetry, anthropogammametry, nuclear calibrations and non-nuclear calibrations. The services are given by a dedicated technical staff who has experience in the handling of routine and specialised cases. The scientific research that is performed by the expertise group makes sure that state-of-the-art techniques are being used, and that constant improvements and developments are implemented. Quality Assurance is an important aspect for the different services, and accreditation according national and international standards is achieved for all laboratories

  4. Recent development of International Commission of Radiation Protection about the radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, David; Carboneras, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    ICRP has recently produced three Publications 77, 81 and 82 containing principles for disposal of radioactive waste, in order to complement its previous publication about this theme. The purpose of this paper was to describe the most relevant aspects of disposal presented in these three publications. The principles of management, optimization and dose limit were applied for radioactive waste disposal and the control of public exposure. This control has been defined to be done through the concepts of dose constraint, collective dose, potential exposures, intervention and protection of future generation. The problem of high-level radioactive waste and its disposal has been re-evaluated

  5. Radiation protection at reactors RA and RB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.

    2003-02-01

    Radiation protection activities at the RA and RB reactors are imposed by the existing legal regulations and international recommendations in this field. This annual report contains five parts which cover the following topics: Radiation safety, dosimetry control and technical radiation protection at reactors RA and RB; Handling of radioactive waste, actions and decontamination; Control of the environment (surroundings of RA and RB reactors) and meteorological measurements; Control of internal contamination and internal exposure; Health control od personnel exposed to radiation. Personnel as well as financial data are part of this report

  6. Standards of radiation protection in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora, H.; Quintero, R.; Barreto, G.

    1988-01-01

    The theoretical information about radiation protection was reviewed; special attention to those principles considered of mayor importance by the international organizations experienced in the subject. Particular consideration is made in today's view on legal aspects, and finally, recommendations are made on the standard that should be taken into account in our country for a more rational application of the radiation protection system

  7. Enhancing radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    When a new radiotherapy center in Gezira, Sudan, delivers its first therapeutic dose to a cancer patient, two things happen: A young man begins to regain his health and looks forward to being better able to support his family and contribute to his community; and a developing nation realizes an important step toward deriving the social and economic benefits of nuclear science. The strategic application of nuclear technology in particular fields- human health, industry, food and agriculture, energy, water resources and environmental protection - has enormous potential to help shape the future of developing countries. But past radiological incidents, several of which involved high levels of exposure or death (Bolivia, Brazil, Cost Rica, Georgia, Ghana, Morocco, Panama and Thailand), underscore the inherent and very serious risks. For this reason, the IAEA's Departments of Technical Cooperation and Nuclear Safety and Security partner closely, particularly in the area of radiation protection. They strive to consider every minute detail in the equation that brings together radiation sources, modern technologies, people and the environment. Launched in 1996, the Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure (the Model Project) aimed to help Member States: achieve capacities that underpin the safe and secure application of nuclear technologies; establish a legislative framework and regulatory infrastructure; develop exposure control mechanisms to protect workers, medical patients, the public and the environment; and achieve preparedness and planned response to radiological emergencies. In fact, the hospital scenario above typically marks several years of intense collaboration amongst scientists, legislators, regulators, politicians and administrators from both Member States and the IAEA, orchestrated and aided by regional managers and technical experts from the IAEA. As radiation protection team members can attest, every application of nuclear technology

  8. Radiation protection - the employer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinch, E.

    1983-01-01

    A brief report is given of a paper presented at the symposium on 'Radiation and the Worker - where do we go from here' in London 1983. The paper concerned the employers' viewpoint on the draft of the proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations in the Health and Safety Commission Consultative Document. It was concluded that there was already a very good standard of radiological protection in the UK and that any improvements could therefore only be fringe improvements, although the cost to the employer of introducing and implementing the new proposed Regulations was bound to be high. (U.K.)

  9. The German radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Klaus; Neider, Rudolf

    1977-01-01

    The German Standards Institute (DIN Deutsches Institut fuer Normung, Berlin) is engaged in health physics standards development in the following committees. The Nuclear Standards Committee (NKe), which deals mainly with nuclear science and technology, the fuel cycle, and radiation protection techniques. The Radiology Standards Committee (FNR), whose responsibilities are traditionally the principles of radiation protection and dosimetry, applied medical dosimetry, and medical health physics. The German Electrotechnical Commission (DKE), which is concerned mostly with instrumentation standards. The Material Testing Committee (FNM), which is responsible for radiation protection in nonmedical radiography. The current body of over one hundred standards and draft standards was established to supplement the Federal German radiation protection legislation, because voluntary standards can deal in more detail with the specific practical problems. The number of standards is steadily expanding due to the vigorous efforts of about thirty working groups, consisting of essentially all leading German experts of this field. Work is supported by the industry and the Federal Government. A review of the present status and future plans, and of the international aspects with regard to European and world (ISO, etc.) standards will be presented

  10. Radiation protection for human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevich, I.M.; Kenigsberg, Ya.Eh.; Minenko, V.F.; Mrochek, A.G.; Rolevich, I.V.; Skurat, V.V.; Sharovarov, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of researches is development of methods and means of reduction of radiation risk caused by the Chernobyl accident consequences by means of decrease of both individual and collective dozes by realization of special protective measures. The reconstruction of average collective accumulated irradiation dozes of the inhabitants of the contaminated populated localities of Belarus is carried out; the forecast of development of radiation induced oncologic diseases is given. The laws of formation of annual irradiation dozes are investigated; the prevailing role of internal irradiation dozes in formation of total dose loadings is detected. On this basis a number of practical projects directed on creation of effective land tenure and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production, as well as decontamination technologies and radioactive waste management are executed. Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1997 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories

  11. Protection from space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.K.; Wilson, J.W.; Shinn, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The exposures anticipated for astronauts in the anticipated human exploration and development of space will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than for any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from galactic cosmic rays for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate. The authors evaluate their current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods

  12. Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association; Zbornik radova Petog simpozija Hrvatskog drustva za zastitu od zracenja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajcar Bronic, I; Miljanic, S; Obelic, B [eds.

    2003-07-01

    Croatian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA) organised symposium with international participation. Co-organisers (Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia and Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia) show importance of this symposium, which was under the auspices of several ministries (Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Environmental Protection and Physical Planning, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of Croatia) and State Office for Standardization and Metrology. All topics are of great interest for Croatia. They present recent researches in Croatia and in other almost same oriented countries in Europe.The distribution of topics at the Fifth symposium shows same parts with articles from radioecology and radon, biological and medical topics, as well as professional and public exposure and dosimetry. Also, non-ionising radiations take its share as very interesting topics at present. (S.P.)

  13. Development of a personalized dosimetric tool for radiation protection in case of internal contamination and targeted radiotherapy in nuclear medicine; Developpement d'un outil dosimetrique personnalise pour la radioprotection en contamination interne et la radiotherapie vectorisee en medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiavassa, S

    2005-12-15

    Current internal dosimetric estimations are based on the M.I.R.D. formalism and used standard mathematical models. These standard models are often far from a given patient morphology and do not allow to perform patient-specific dosimetry. The aim of this study was to develop a personalized dosimetric tool, which takes into account real patient morphology, composition and densities. This tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., a French acronym of Tool for the Evaluation of Personalized Internal Dose, is a user-friendly graphical interface. O.E.D.I.P.E. allows to create voxel-based patient-specific geometries and associates them with the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo code. Radionuclide distribution and absorbed dose calculation can be performed at the organ and voxel scale. O.E.D.I.P.E. can be used in nuclear medicine for targeted radiotherapy and in radiation protection in case of internal contamination. (author)

  14. Radiation protection manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spang, A.

    1983-01-01

    According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance, radiation protection experts directing or supervising the handling of radioactive materials must have expert knowledge. The concept of expert knowledge has been clearly defined by the Fachverband e.V. in a catalogue of instruction goals. The manual follows the principles of this catalogue; it presents the expert knowledge required in a total of 15 subject groups. There is an index which helps the reader to find his specific subject group and the knowledge required of him in this subject group. However, the manual gives only an outline of the subject matter in many instances and should therefore not be regarded as a textbook in the proper sense. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Radiation protection: A correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    An error in translation inadvertently distorted the sense of a paragraph in the article entitled 'Ecological Aspects of Radiation Protection', by Dr. P. Recht, which appeared in the Bulletin, Volume 14, No. 2 earlier this year. In the English text the error appears on Page 28, second paragraph, which reads, as published: 'An instance familiar to radiation protection specialists, which has since come to be regarded as a classic illustration of this approach, is the accidental release at the Windscale nuclear centre in the north of England.' In the French original of this text no reference was made, or intended, to the accidental release which took place in 1957; the reference was to the study of the critical population group exposed to routine releases from the centre, as the footnote made clear. A more correct translation of the relevant sentence reads: 'A classic example of this approach, well-known to radiation protection specialists, is that of releases from the Windscale nuclear centre, in the north of England.' A second error appeared in the footnote already referred to. In all languages, the critical population group studied in respect of the Windscale releases is named as that of Cornwall; the reference should be, of course, to that part of the population of Wales who eat laver bread. (author)

  16. Course of radiation protection: technical level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The course handbook on radiation protection and nuclear safety, technical level prepared by scientists of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina Republic, describes the subjects in 19 chapters and 2 annexes. These topics detailed in the text have the following aspects: radioactivity elements, interaction of the radiation and the matter, radio dosimetry, internal contamination dosimetry, principles of radiation detection, biological radiation effects, fundamentals of radiation protection, dose limits, optimization, occupational exposure, radiation shielding, radioactive waste management, criticality accidents, safe transport of radioactive materials, regulatory aspects

  17. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  18. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs

  19. Some legal aspects related implementation at Brazil of the International Atomic Energy Agency recommendations related to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezrahi, Arnaldo; Matos, Gilberto Cardoso de; Wieland, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    The National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) - the Brazilian nuclear regulatory authority- applies the basic guidelines regarding Radiation Protection (CNEN standard NE-3.01) in force since June 1988, for the licensing and control of nuclear, industrial, medical and research facilities, as well as for the safety of sources and for radioactive material transportation. In 1996, the IAEA published a new recommendations that established patterns for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources and recommended Member States to adopt them. The adoption of the IAEA document, namely Safety Series 115, by a member state, does not imply to follow the whole text. The application of IAEA recommendations, contained in its documents, should take into consideration the autochthonous characteristics of each Member State. The Safety Series 115 has a very broad scope involving recommendation to countries at different development stages, especially those that do not even have a nuclear regulatory authority. In the specific case of Brazil, besides its advanced technological level, there exists a very complex and effective legal framework that hinders the establishment of norms and regulations regarding radiation protection guidelines. Therefore the direct application of the IAEA's recommendations requires a very careful legal evaluation in order to avoid conflicts of competence and duplication of efforts among the different involved authorities. This paper presents some of the important legal aspects especially in what concerns CNEN's competence, which is responsible for the issuance of the new radiation protection guidelines in accordance with the legislation. (author)

  20. Radiation protection medical care of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walt, H.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation protection medical care for radiation workers is part of the extensive programme protecting people against dangers emanating from the peaceful application of ionizing radiation. Thus it is a special field of occupational health care and emergency medicine in case of radiation accidents. It has proved helpful in preventing radiation damage as well as in early detection, treatment, after-care, and expert assessment. The medical checks include pre-employment and follow-up examinations, continued long-range medical care as well as specific monitoring of individuals and defined groups of workers. Three levels of action are involved: works medical officers specialized in radiation protection, the Institute of Medicine at the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection, and a network of clinical departments specialized in handling cases of acute radiation damage. An account is given of categories, types, and methods of examinations for radiation workers and operators. (author)

  1. Radiation protection, optimization and justification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoliani, Y.S.; Brisse, H.; Foucart, J.M.; Clement, J.P.; Ribeiro, A.; Gomes, H.; Marcus, C.; Rehel, J.L.; Talbot, A.; Aubert, B.; Scanff, P.; Roudier, C.; Donadieu, J.; Pirard, P.; Bar, O.; Maccia, C.; Benedittini, M.; Bouziane, T.; Brat, H.; Bricoult, M; Heuga, O.; Hauger, O.; Bonnefoy, O.; Diard, F.; Chateil, J.F.; Schramm, R.; Reisman, J.; Aubert, B.

    2005-01-01

    Nine articles in the field of radiation protection relative to the medical examinations concern the new legislation in radiation protection, the optimization of this one in order to reduce the radiation doses delivered to the patients, the side effects induced by irradiation and to give an evaluation of the medical exposure of french population to ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  2. Some perspectives on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1979-01-01

    A brief review of the history and organizational structure of the NCRP is given. Summaries are given of a number of NCRP radiation protection guides dealing with hazards from 85 Kr, radiation exposures from consumer products, basic radiation protection criteria, and doses from natural background radiation

  3. Environmental radiation protection - a brief history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapantis, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of ionising radiation on man has been studied intensely for decades, and the system of radiation protection for man has been continually refined in the light of those studies. That system assumes that if man is protected, non-human biota at the species level will also be adequately protected. However, an increasing recognition of the need to protect the environment, and international agreements signed in 1992, have resulted in that paradigm being questioned, with the onus shifting slowly towards demonstrating that the environment is protected. Further, radiation protection agencies and environmental protection agencies around the world have now started considering the issue of developing a system of radiation protection for the environment. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are also active in this area. The purpose of this paper is to briefly outline some of the issues confronting environmental and radiation protection specialists, and to mention some of the initiatives being taken by the international community to resolve those issues

  4. The national radiation protection infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.

    1999-01-01

    The state system of radiation protection is still being created after Lithuania regained its independancy and in connection with recommendations laid in the ICRP-60 publication and requirements of legislation of European Community. A new regulation institutions was established and a number of laws and regulations related to radiation protection was prepared. The Radiation Protection Centre of Ministry of Health is the regulatory authority responsible for radiation protection of public and of workers using sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. A new Radiation Protection Law, Nuclear Energy Law, Radioactive Waste Management Law and different regulations was approved. Preparation of legislation, creation of state system of radiation protection and its upgrading allow to presume that the necessary level of radiation protection is to be achieved. (au)

  5. Radiation protection standards for radioluminous timepieces. Recommendations of the European Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Users of radioluminous timepieces are exposed to ionizing radiations from the luminous paints contained in the timepieces. There standards have been prepared to ensure that users of radioluminous timepieces are exposed to as little ionizing radiation as practicable, and not to levels in excess of the maximum permissible levels laid down in basic radiation protection standards; and that the contribution to the dose received by the whole population from the use of radioluminous timepieces is kept within the limits adopted by the appropriate national authority.

  6. Problems of radiation protection optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morkunas, G.

    2003-01-01

    One of the basic principles - optimization of radiation protection - is rather well understood by everybody engaged in protection of humans from ionizing radiation. However, the practical application of this principle is very problematic. This fact can be explained by vagueness of concept of dose constraints, possible legal consequences of any decision based on this principle, traditions of prescriptive system of radiation protection requirements in some countries, insufficiency of qualified expertise. The examples of optimization problems are the different attention given to different kinds of practices, not optimized application of remedial measures, strict requirements for radioactive contamination of imported products, uncertainties in optimization in medical applications of ionizing radiation. Such tools as international co-operation including regional networks of information exchange, training of qualified experts, identification of measurable indicators used for judging about the level of optimization may be the helpful practical means in solving of these problems. It is evident that the principle of optimization can not be replaced by any other alternative despite its complexity. The means for its practical implementation shall be searched for. (author)

  7. Successful Mitigation of Delayed Intestinal Radiation Injury Using Pravastatin is not Associated with Acute Injury Improvement or Tumor Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydont, Valerie; Gilliot, Olivier; Rivera, Sofia; Bourgier, Celine; Francois, Agnes; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Bourhis, Jean; Vozenin-Brotons, Marie-Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether pravastatin mitigates delayed radiation-induced enteropathy in rats, by focusing on the effects of pravastatin on acute cell death and fibrosis according to connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and collagen inhibition. Methods and Materials: Mitigation of delayed radiation-induced enteropathy was investigated in rats using pravastatin administered in drinking water (30 mg/kg/day) 3 days before and 14 days after irradiation. The ileum was irradiated locally after surgical exteriorization (X-rays, 19 Gy). Acute apoptosis, acute and late histologic alterations, and late CTGF and collagen deposition were monitored by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry and colorimetric staining (6 h, 3 days, 14 days, 15 weeks, and 26 weeks after irradiation). Pravastatin antitumor action was studied in HT-29, HeLa, and PC-3 cells by clonogenic cell survival assays and tumor growth delay experiments. Results: Pravastatin improved delayed radiation enteropathy in rats, whereas its benefit in acute and subacute injury remained limited (6 h, 3 days, and 14 days after irradiation). Delayed structural improvement was associated with decreased CTGF and collagen deposition but seemed unrelated to acute damage. Indeed, the early apoptotic index increased, and severe subacute structural damage occurred. Pravastatin elicited a differential effect, protecting normal intestine but not tumors from radiation injury. Conclusion: Pravastatin provides effective protection against delayed radiation enteropathy without interfering with the primary antitumor action of radiotherapy, suggesting that clinical transfer is feasible

  8. Summary of radiation protection in exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcier, Yves; Guers, Rene; Bidard, Francoise; Colson, Philippe; Gonin, Michele; Delabre, Herve; Hemidy, Pierre-Yves; Corgnet, Bruno; Perrin, Marie-Claire; Phan Hoang, Long; Abela, Gonzague; Crepieux, Virginie; Guyot, Pierre; Haranger, Didier; Warembourg, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    This document proposes a large and detailed overview of notions and practices regarding radiation protection in relationship with an NPP exploitation framework. It presents the main notions: matter structure, radioactivity, interactions between matter and radiations, types of ionizing radiation, magnitudes and measurement units, exposure modes, main principles of radiation protection, means of protection against internal and external exposures. The second part proposes an overview of the origin of radiological risks in a nuclear power plant. This origin can be found in fission products, activation products, actinides, designed protections, or circuit contaminations. These radiological risks are more precisely identified and described in terms of detection and prevention (internal exposure risk, contamination risk, iodine-related risk, alpha radiation-related risk, access to the reactor building). The next part addresses the medical and radiological follow-up of exposed workers by a special medical control, by an individual exposure control, by a specific control of female personnel, and by attention to exceptional exposures. Measurement means are presented (detection principles, installation continuous control, workspaces control, personnel contamination control, follow-up of individual dose) as well as collective and individual protection means. The management of radiation protection is addressed through a presentation of decision and management structures for radiation protection, and of EDF objectives and ambitions in this domain. The organization of radiation protection during exploitation is described: responsibilities for radiation protection in a nuclear power station, requirements for workers, preparation of interventions in controlled zone, work execution in controlled zone, zone controls and radiological cleanness of installations. The two last chapters address issues and practices of radiation protection in the case of deconstruction or dismantling, and

  9. Radiation protection and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruecher, L.; Langmueller, G.; Tuerschmann, G.

    1997-01-01

    The safety, the quality and efficiency of the radiological monitoring systems for block one and two of the NPP Mochovce, designed and delivered by the general designer, should be increased by EUCOM Siemens. Modern, accident resistant and/or more powerful monitoring systems have been designed by Siemens will be added to the existing systems. To achieve this radiation measuring units will be installed inside the hermetic zone, in the reactor hall, at the stack, at the release water system and in the environment in the vicinity of the NPP. The presentation, the storage distribution and the processing of all measuring results also will be optimised by installing a modern high-performance computer system, the so-called Central Radiological Computer System 'CRCS', featuring a high availability. The components will be installed in the relevant control rooms all over the plant. With this computer system it is easy to control the radiation level inside and outside the NPP during normal operation and during and after an accident. Special programs, developed by Siemens support the staff by interpreting the consequences of radioactive releases into the environment and by initiating protection procedures during and after an accident. All functions of the system are available for emergency protection drills and training the staff interruption of the normal control procedure. For the personal protection a digital personal dosimetry system completely considering with the requirements of ICRP 60 and several contamination monitors will be installed. (authors)

  10. First Asian regional congress on radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Library and Technical Information Section

    1975-12-01

    Due to the rapid progress in the development of nuclear energy and its applications in medicine, agriculture and industry, the potential danger to targe groups of population due to radiation hazards has increased. Thus, radiation protection has become an important aspects of industrial and public hygiene. The article reviews the deliberations of the First Asian Regional Congress on Radiation Protection which was held during 15-20 December 1974 at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. 190 papers were presented on the following broad subjects: (1) organization of radiation protection services on a countrywide scale and significant problems and experiences; (2) research and cooperation, mutual assistance, education and training; (3) personnel monitoring; (4) nuclear industry risks and benefits; (5) radiation protection legislation and (6) panel discussions and regional international cooperation in the field of radiation protection.

  11. First Asian regional congress on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    Due to the rapid progress in the development of nuclear energy and its applications in medicine, agriculture and industry, the potential danger to targe groups of population due to radiation hazards has increased. Thus, radiation protection has become an important aspects of industrial and public hygiene. The article reviews the deliberations of the First Asian Regional Congress on Radiation Protection which was held during 15-20 December 1974 at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. 190 papers were presented on the following broad subjects: (1) organization of radiation protection services on a countrywide scale and significant problems and experiences; (2) research and cooperation, mutual assistance, education and training; (3) personnel monitoring; (4) nuclear industry risks and benefits; (5) radiation protection legislation and (6) panel discussions and regional international cooperation in the field of radiation protection. (S.K.K.)

  12. Radiation protection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanmarcke, H

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of radiation protection research performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for radioactively contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation; (5) to identify non nuclear industries producing NORM waste, to make an inventory of occurring problems and to propose feasible solutions or actions when required; (6) to maintain the know-how of retrospective radon measurements in real conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques. Main achievements in these areas for 2001 are summarised.

  13. Radiation protection research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of radiation protection research performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for radioactively contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation; (5) to identify non nuclear industries producing NORM waste, to make an inventory of occurring problems and to propose feasible solutions or actions when required; (6) to maintain the know-how of retrospective radon measurements in real conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques. Main achievements in these areas for 2001 are summarised

  14. Limited internal radiation exposure associated with resettlements to a radiation-contaminated homeland after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Tsubokura

    Full Text Available Resettlement to their radiation-contaminated hometown could be an option for people displaced at the time of a nuclear disaster; however, little information is available on the safety implications of these resettlement programs. Kawauchi village, located 12-30 km southwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, was one of the 11 municipalities where mandatory evacuation was ordered by the central government. This village was also the first municipality to organize the return of the villagers. To assess the validity of the Kawauchi villagers' resettlement program, the levels of internal Cesium (Cs exposures were comparatively measured in returnees, commuters, and non-returnees among the Kawauchi villagers using a whole body counter. Of 149 individuals, 5 villagers had traceable levels of Cs exposure; the median detected level was 333 Bq/body (range, 309-1050 Bq/kg, and 5.3 Bq/kg (range, 5.1-18.2 Bq/kg. Median annual effective doses of villagers with traceable Cs were 1.1 x 10(-2 mSv/y (range, 1.0 x 10(-2-4.1 x 10(-2 mSv/y. Although returnees had higher chances of consuming locally produced vegetables, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test showed that their level of internal radiation exposure was not significantly higher than that in the other 2 groups (p=0.643. The present findings in Kawauchi village imply that it is possible to maintain internal radiation exposure at very low levels even in a highly radiation-contaminated region at the time of a nuclear disaster. Moreover, the risks for internal radiation exposure could be limited with a strict food control intervention after resettlement to the radiation-contaminated village. It is crucial to establish an adequate number of radio-contaminated testing sites within the village, to provide immediate test result feedback to the villagers, and to provide education regarding the importance of re-testing in reducing the risk of high internal radiation exposure.

  15. Radiation protection considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Adorisio, C; Urscheler, C; Vincke, H

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the legal Radiation Protection (RP) framework to be considered in the design of HiLumi LHC. It details design limits and constraints, dose objectives and explains how the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) approach is formalized at CERN. Furthermore, features of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code are summarized that are of relevance for RP studies. Results of FLUKA simulations for residual dose rates during Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) are compared to measurements demonstrating good agreement and providing proof for the accuracy of FLUKA predictions for future shutdowns. Finally, an outlook for the residual dose rate evolution until LS3 is given.

  16. Radiation Protection Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorisio, C.; Roesler, S.; Urscheler, C.; Vincke, H.

    This chapter summarizes the legal Radiation Protection (RP) framework to be considered in the design of HiLumi LHC. It details design limits and constraints, dose objectives and explains how the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) approach is formalized at CERN. Furthermore, features of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code are summarized that are of relevance for RP studies. Results of FLUKA simulations for residual dose rates during Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) are compared to measurements demonstrating good agreement and providing proof for the accuracy of FLUKA predictions for future shutdowns. Finally, an outlook for the residual dose rate evolution until LS3 is given.

  17. Health protection of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    This textbook is addressed to all those concerned with the protection of radiation workers. It provides full coverage of the implications of radiation in exposed workers, and, after a chapter outlining, in simple terms, the basic facts about radiation, deals with measurement of ionising radiation; radiation dosimetry; effectiveness of absorbed dose; general biological effects of ionising radiation; somatic effects of radiation; the acute radiation syndrome; other somatic effects; hereditary effects; radiation protection standards and regulations; radiation protection; medical supervision of radiation workers; general methods of diagnosis and treatment; metabolism and health problems of some radioisotopes; plutonium and other transuranium elements; radiation accidents; emergency plans and medical care; atomic power plants; medico-legal problems

  18. Modeling Internal Radiation Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Theo E.; Pellegrini, M.; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.

    2011-01-01

    A new technique is described to model (internal) radiation therapy. It is founded on morphological processing, in particular distance transforms. Its formal basis is presented as well as its implementation via the Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transform. Its use for all variations of internal

  19. Radiation Protection in Paediatric Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade and a half, special issues have arisen regarding the protection of children undergoing radiological examinations. These issues have come to the consciousness of a gradually widening group of concerned professionals and the public, largely because of the natural instinct to protect children from unnecessary harm. Some tissues in children are more sensitive to radiation and children have a long life expectancy, during which significant pathology can emerge. The instinct to protect children has received further impetus from the level of professional and public concern articulated in the wake of media responses to certain publications in the professional literature. Many institutions have highlighted the need to pay particular attention to the special problems of protecting paediatric patients. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has noted it and the IAEA's General Safety Requirements publication, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (BSS), requires it. This need has been endorsed implicitly in the advisory material on paediatric computed tomography scanning issued by bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and the National Cancer Institute in the United States of America, as well as by many initiatives taken by other national and regional radiological societies and professional bodies. A major part of patient exposure, in general, and paediatric exposure, in particular, now arises from practices that barely existed two decades ago. For practitioners and regulators, it is evident that this innovation has been driven both by the imaging industry and by an ever increasing array of new applications generated and validated in the clinical environment. Regulation, industrial standardization, safety procedures and advice on best practice lag (inevitably) behind industrial and clinical innovations. This Safety Report is designed to consolidate and provide timely advice on

  20. New general radiation protection training course

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Some members of CERN personnel, including users, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be involved in activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety Rules all persons whose work may be associated with ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, the basic principles of radiation protection and the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses for its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This new ½ day cours...

  1. Radiation risks and radiation protection at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation exposure is an occupational hazard at CRNL. The predicted health effects of low levels of radiation are described and compared with other hazards of living. Data related to the health of radiation workers are also considered. Special attention is given to the expected effects of radiation on the unborn child. Measures taken to protect CRNL employees against undue occupational exposure to radiation are noted

  2. Phosphorus-32: practical radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballance, P.E.; Morgan, J.

    1987-01-01

    This monograph offers practical advice to Radiation Protection Advisors, Radiation Protection Supervisors and Research Supervisors, together with research workers, particularly those in the field of molecular biological research. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: physical properties, radiation and measurement methods, radiation units, phosphorus metabolism and health risks, protection standards and practical radiation protection, administrative arrangements, accidents, decontamination, emergency procedures, a basic written system for radiochemical work, with specialised recommendations for 32 P, and guidance notes of accident situations involving 32 P. (U.K.)

  3. Radiation protection and safety infrastructures in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paci, Rustem; Ylli, Fatos

    2008-01-01

    The paper intends to present the evolution and actual situation of radiation protection and safety infrastructure in Albania, focusing in its establishing and functioning in accordance with BBS and other important documents of specialized international organizations. There are described the legal framework of radiation safety, the regulatory authority, the services as well the practice of their functioning. The issue of the establishing and functioning of the radiation safety infrastructure in Albania was considered as a prerequisite for a good practices development in the peaceful uses of radiation sources . The existence of the adequate legislation and the regulatory authority, functioning based in the Basic Safety Standards (BSS), are the necessary condition providing the fulfilment of the most important issues in the mentioned field. The first document on radiation protection in Albania stated that 'for the safe use of radiation sources it is mandatory that the legal person should have a valid permission issued by Radiation Protection Commission'. A special organ was established in the Ministry of Health to supervise providing of the radiation protection measures. This organization of radiation protection showed many lacks as result of the low efficiency . The personnel monitoring, import, transport, waste management and training of workers were in charge of Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP). In 1992 an IAEA RAPAT mission visited Albania and proposed some recommendations for radiation protection improvements. The mission concluded that 'the legislation of the radiation protection should be developed'. In 1995 Albania was involved in the IAEA Model Project 'Upgrading of Radiation Protection Infrastructure'. This project, which is still in course, intended to establish the modern radiation safety infrastructures in the countries with low efficiency ones and to update and upgrade all aspects related with radiation safety: legislation and regulations, regulatory

  4. 'Controllable dose'. Results and proposals from discussions within the German-Swiss radiation protection association (FS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, H.H.

    2000-01-01

    The FS has translated the proposal by Roger Clarke into German and has published it both on its webpage and in its journal 'Strahlenschutz PRAXIS' 2/99 interesting discussions have taken place among members, within the Board and within Working Groups, and a workshop is planned for early 2000. Results of these discussions and some recommendations and suggestions for the development of the proposal will be presented. The spread of opinions is shown, but no attempt is yet made to develop a formal opinion or position of the FS on this matter. The FS is ready to co-operate in the further development of this topic and will deal with it also in its coming annual congresses. A fundamental question is, whether the new concept can become a mere addition to the existing concepts and recommendations, or whether ICRP will have to reconsider and renew the entire concept and fundamentals of radiation protection. One consequence might be to go all the way and stop to base the 'limits' on risk considerations. Risk as a term and as a concept is mostly misunderstood and misused. The new concept should not simply add a new quantity and unit to the too many already existing ones but reduce the number or quantities to the indispensable ones for application. Another problem which ICRP will have to manage in future recommendations independently of the fate of the Clarke proposal is to provide unequivocal and equivalent translations of any special terminology into the major languages (German, French, Spanish, Russian, Japanese, Chinese). Abolishing collective dose is welcomed. For special purposes such as comparing the radiation protection efficiency of specific tasks, the sum of individual doses should rather be called 'group dose' or 'team dose'. The coming discussions will also have to include proposals and guidance on how to implement a new or revised concept and how to make the transition to it. Therefore, once ICRP will have decided to proceed, a first draft of new Basic Safety

  5. Workstations studies and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahaye, T.; Donadille, L.; Rehel, J.L.; Paquet, F.; Beneli, C.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Vrigneaud, J.M.; Gauron, C.; Petrequin, A.; Frison, D.; Jeannin, B.; Charles, D.; Carballeda, G.; Crouail, P.; Valot, C.

    2006-01-01

    This day on the workstations studies for the workers follow-up, was organised by the research and health section. Devoted to the company doctors, for the competent persons in radiation protection, for the engineers of safety, it presented examples of methodologies and applications in the medical, industrial domain and the research, so contributing to a better understanding and an application of regulatory measures. The analysis of the workstation has to allow a reduction of the exposures and the risks and lead to the optimization of the medical follow-up. The agenda of this day included the different subjects as follow: evolution of the regulation in matter of demarcation of the regulated zones where the measures of workers protection are strengthened; presentation of the I.R.S.N. guide of help to the realization of a workstation study; implementation of a workstation study: case of radiology; the workstation studies in the research area; Is it necessary to impose the operational dosimetry in the services of radiodiagnostic? The experience feedback of a competent person in radiation protection (P.C.R.) in a hospital environment; radiation protection: elaboration of a good practices guide in medical field; the activities file in nuclear power plant: an evaluation tool of risks for the prevention. Methodological presentation and examples; insulated workstation study; the experience feedback of a provider; Contribution of the ergonomics to the determiners characterization in the ionizing radiation exposure situations;The workstations studies for the internal contamination in the fuel cycle facilities and the consideration of the results in the medical follow-up; R.E.L.I.R. necessity of workstation studies; the consideration of the human factor. (N.C.)

  6. Basic standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The basic standards for radiation protection have been based, for many years, on the recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection. The three basic standards recommended by the Commission may be summarized as ''justification, optimization of protection and adherence to dose limitations. The applications of these basic principles to different aspects of protection are briefly summarized and the particular ways in which they have been applied to waste described in more detail. The application of dose limits, both in the control of occupational exposure and in regulating routine discharges of radioactive effluents is straight forward in principle although the measurement and calculational requirements may be substantial. Secondary standards such as derived limits may be extremely useful and the principles underlying their derivation will be described. Optimization of protection is inherently a more difficult concept to apply in protection and the various techniques used will be outlined by with particular emphasis on the use of cost benefit analysis are recommended by the ICRP. A review will be given of the problems involved in extending these basic concepts of the ICRP to probabilistic analyses such as those required for assessing the consequences of accidents or disruptive events in long term repositories. The particular difficulties posed by the very long timescales involved in the assessment of waste management practices will be discussed in some detail. (orig./RW)

  7. What is good radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, B.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation protection is based on the ICRP-System with its pillars justification, limitation and optimization. From this radiation protection should be the same irrespective of the application of radiation. But radiation protection in the nuclear industry is much different from the use of radiation sources or X-ray units. This is by far not due to the different technologies. It originates from the different interpretation of the system. For one person good radiation protection would mean to have no radiation exposures, to avoid radiation at all as best option and to use it only if there are no alternatives. For another person the best radiation protection would be the one which does not produce much efforts and costs. So what is reasonable? In reality the first interpretation prevails, at least in Germany. A change is needed. If we continue to exercise radiation protection as we do it today the beneficial application of radiation will be restricted unduly and might become impossible at all. A stronger orientation towards the naturally occurring radiation would help instead to regulate natural radiation in the same way as it is done for artificial radiation. The system of ICRP has to be changed fundamentally.

  8. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating

  9. Radiation protection and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skryabin, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The radiological protection of population, living on the contaminated territories, is actual 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. Eventually, the whole system of countermeasures application is aimed to protect society as a complex community of individuals . The variety of levels of society, i.e. family, settlement on the whole, can be considered as certain harmonic systems differing in their public consciousness levels and lifestyles, this explain the difference in their 'behaviour' in terms of radiation protection and attitude to the information obtained. Each level of society possesses a certain degree of liberty of choice, that finally influence the magnitude and the character of dose distribution within certain population groups. In general, the dose distribution in the settlement can be explained only on the bases of 'family' analysis. This concerns the rural settlement as a society too. All rural settlement can be divided into two or three classes: with low, high and intermediate social features. Small settlements (< 100 persons), where the advanced in age persons with low material income and high degree of natural economy are applied to the first class. This results in higher doses (2-3 fold), than in the settlements with higher social level. The analysis shows that in socially 'waning' settlements the countermeasures are less efficient and the term of their action is shorter. (this class is the largest, About 50% among all the rural settlements). Due to the deterioration of the economic situation in the Republic of Belarus after 1991-1992 resulted in the increase of doses mainly in the habitants first of all of this class of settlements. It seems problematic to increase countermeasures efficiency in this class of settlements without the refuse of the accustomed lifestyle and radical improvement of social-demographic and economic conditions. The present material shows the necessity of the differential approach based on 'society-analysis' in the

  10. Radiation Protection Officer certification scheme. Malaysian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pungut, Noraishah; Razali, Noraini; Mod Ali, Noriah

    2011-01-01

    In Malaysia, the need for maintaining competency in radiation protection is emerging, focusing on the qualification of Radiation Protection Officers (RPO). Regulation 23 of Malaysian Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standards) Regulations 1988, requires the applicant to employ an RPO, with the necessary knowledge, skill and training, enabling effective protection of individuals and minimizing danger to life, property and the environment for all activities sought to be licensed. An RPO must demonstrate the knowledge required, by attending RPO courses organised by an accredited agency and pass the RPO certification examination. Maintaining a high level of competency is crucial for future development of safe applications of ionising radiation. The major goal of training is to provide essential knowledge and skills and to foster correct attitudes on radiation protection and safe use of radiation sources. Assessment of the competency is through theoretical and practical examination. A standard criterion on the performance of the individuals evaluated has been established and only those who meet this criterion can be accepted as certified RPO. The National Committee for the Certification of Radiation Protection Officer (NCCRPO), comprising experts in various fields, is responsible to review and update requirements on competency of a certified RPO. With increasing number of candidates (i.e. 701 in 2008) and the international requirement for radioactive source security, it is incumbent upon the NCCRPO to improve the syllabus of the certification scheme. The introduction of a Radiation Protection Advisor (RPA) to provide service and advice to the radiation industry in Malaysia is also seriously considered. (author)

  11. Radiation protection for human spaceflight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic radiation exposure is one of the most significant risks associated with human space exploration. Except for the principles of justification and optimization (ALARA), the concepts of terrestrial radiation protection are of limited applicability to human spaceflight, as until now only few experimentally verified data on the biological effectiveness of heavy ions and the dose distribution within the human body exist. Instead of applying the annual dose limits for workers on ground also to astronauts, whose careers are of comparatively short duration, the overall lifetime risk is used as a measure. For long-term missions outside Earth's magnetic field, the acceptable level of risk has not yet been defined, since there is not enough information available to estimate the risk of effects to the central nervous system and of potential non-cancer radiation health hazards. (orig.)

  12. Practical radiation protection for radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, S.K.; Proudfoot, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Nondestructive Testing Applications and Radiological Engineering at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory have developed radiation protection procedures, radiation work procedures, and safe practice procedures to assure safe operation for all radiographic work. The following topics are discussed: training in radiation safety; radiation exposure due to operations at Hanford; safeguards employed in laboratory radiography; field radiographic operations; and problems

  13. On ethical issues in radiation protection. Radiation protection recommendations and standards seen from an ethical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.H.; Persson, L.

    2004-01-01

    International radiation protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, the European Union and the ILO are surveyed from an ethical perspective. The authors come to the conclusion that the insights of ethical theories provide a number of ways in which current recommendations and standards for radiation protection could improve. (orig.) [de

  14. Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

  15. The purpose of radiation protection monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, K.Z.

    1979-01-01

    In the early period (1942-1960) of nuclear energy programmes with which I was associated, most radiation protection standards seem to have been formulated on the assumption that there is a threshold dose of ionizing radiation below which no radiation damage is expected to result in the lifetime of the exposed individual. It was in this climate of opinion that health physics began as a profession, and levels of maximum permissible exposure (MPE) to external sources of radiation, maximum permissible concentrations in air, water and food, and maximum permissible body burdens of radionuclides inside the human body were set and enforced. Some of the levels of MPE were quite high in comparison with present standards but, fortunately, the health physicists at the national laboratories in which most radiation workers were employed were very conservative; in most cases the average annual exposures were less than 10% of the MPE levels. However, there was not much concern with the man-rem concept, as exemplified by rather high levels of radioactive waste discharged from the plants or placed in temporary holding facilities - where there was a likely possibility of seepage into the environment. This situation was understandable and justifiable at a time when the purpose of radiation protection monitoring was simply to prevent individuals from exceeding a threshold dose. The period of the recent past up to the present time (1978) has been one in which there has been a gradual change from the concept of a threshold dose hypothesis to the linear hypothesis. In this period the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the national standards setting bodies have pointed out that the levels they have selected are based on the linear hypothesis, but in most respects they leave us with the impression that this is most probably a conservative assumption, subject to revision when better data become available. Also, during this period, the concept of exposure As Low As

  16. National Sessions of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sociedad Argentina de Radioproteccion

    2012-01-01

    The Radioprotection Argentine Society (SAR) was organized the National Sessions on Radiation Protection 2012 in order to continue the exchange in the radiation protection community in the country, on work areas that present a challenge to the profession. The new recommendations of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Standards (2011), among others, includes several topics that are necessary to develop. The SAR wants to encourage different organizations from Argentina, to submit projects that are developing in order to strengthen radiation protection.

  17. Plowshare radiation protection guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, H.M.

    1969-01-01

    The recommendations of the ICRP and the NCRP were developed primarily for occupational radiation exposures. They were later modified and applied to non-occupational exposures of populations. These, with appropriate interpretations, can be used to provide Plowshare radiation protection guidance. Exposures from Plowshare operations will tend to be acute, arising from radionuclides of relatively short half-life, but will have some chronic aspects due to small amounts of long-lived radionuclides generated. In addition, the neutron activation process of Plowshare technology will produce radionuclides not commonly encountered in routine nuclear energy programs. How these radionuclides contribute to personnel exposure is known for only a few situations that may not be representative of Plowshare exposure. Further complications arise from differences in radionuclide deposition and physiological sensitivity among individuals of different ages and states of health in the exposed population. All parameters necessary to evaluate such exposures are not available, even for good quantitative approximations, resulting in the need for interpretive experience. (author)

  18. Plowshare radiation protection guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, H M [Environmental and Life Sciences Division, Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The recommendations of the ICRP and the NCRP were developed primarily for occupational radiation exposures. They were later modified and applied to non-occupational exposures of populations. These, with appropriate interpretations, can be used to provide Plowshare radiation protection guidance. Exposures from Plowshare operations will tend to be acute, arising from radionuclides of relatively short half-life, but will have some chronic aspects due to small amounts of long-lived radionuclides generated. In addition, the neutron activation process of Plowshare technology will produce radionuclides not commonly encountered in routine nuclear energy programs. How these radionuclides contribute to personnel exposure is known for only a few situations that may not be representative of Plowshare exposure. Further complications arise from differences in radionuclide deposition and physiological sensitivity among individuals of different ages and states of health in the exposed population. All parameters necessary to evaluate such exposures are not available, even for good quantitative approximations, resulting in the need for interpretive experience. (author)

  19. Setting new protection standards for radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for dose limits will be published this spring. The recommendations represent a comprehensive review of the state of knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation, and incorporate this knowledge into a conceptual framework for radiological protection. The background to the recommendations is discussed. (author)

  20. Proposals for changes in radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowker, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection has proposed changes to its recommendations on radiation protection standards. The proposed new control regime would distinguish between planned, potential and pre-existing exposure situations and between occupational, medical and public exposures. The proposals are expected to be published formally later this year. (author)

  1. Blended learning specialists in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, P.; Campayo, J. M.; Verdu, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a blended learning Radiation Protection Technician through an approved degree from the Polytechnic University of Valencia, which covers the knowledge and skills of functions relating to operators and supervisors in various areas and skilled workers to be to perform their work in technical units or Radiation Protection Radiation Protection Services. The benefits of this work are those related to achieving quality training flexible and adapted to follow the check off the person conducting the course, adapted to internal and external training of the applicant companies.

  2. Radiation protection primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigner, R.; Melzer, E.; Seissler, H.

    1986-01-01

    This 'radiation protection primer' does not pretend to give absolute, final answers to the many questions that have been arising after the Chernobyl accident. What it is intended to supply, as a schematic overview of problems resulting from nuclear accidents, and a likewise systematic outline of possible solutions and sensible reactions to such an event. The book takes up questions such as: What has happened to the soil. Will future harvests be 'clean' again. What does radioactivity to our drinking water and other waters. What are the effects of a radioactive fallout on food. What may we eat or drink. What happens to the human body after intake of radioactive air, or - even only slightly - contaminated food or water. What can we do to protect our health, and the health of our children. Is there anything else we can do in order to avoid such a disaster in future, except from shutting-off all reactors. The book itself presents some answers and advice, along with a list of terms and explanations, and addresses to apply to for further advice and information. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Radiation protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yasuo; Fujinuma, Tadashi; Aso, Tsutomu.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns radiation protective clothings suitable for medical protective clothings, aprons, etc. A primary sheet comprises a lead-incorporated organic polymer layer having a less frictional layer on one side and a contamination-resistant layer on the other side. A secondary sheet comprises a lead-incorporated organic polymer layer having a less frictional layer on one side and a comfortable skin-feeling layer on the other side. The less frictional layers of the primary and the secondary layer are laminated so as to be in contact with each other. Then, they are formed so that the comfortable skin-feeling layer of the secondary sheet is on the inner side, in other words, on the side of a wearer, and the contamination-resistant layer of the primary sheet is on the outer side. With such a constitution, although it involves the lead-incorporated organic polymer sheets of a large weight, it is comfortable to wear because of excellent flexibility and causes less feeling of fatigue even during wearing for a long period of time. (I.N.)

  4. The risk philosophy of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1996-01-01

    The processes of risk assessment and risk evaluation are described. The assumptions behind current radiation risk assessments, which are focused on the probability of attributable death from radiation-induced cancer, are reviewed. These assessments involve projection models to take account of future cancer death in irradiated populations, the transfer of risk estimates between populations and the assumptions necessary to derive risk assessments for low radiation doses from actual observations at high doses. The paper ends with a presentation of the basic radiation protection recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in the context of a risk philosophy. (author)

  5. Radiation protection program for assistance of victims of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, P.W.; Costa Silva, L.H. da; Rosa, R.

    1991-11-01

    The principles aspects of a radiological protection program for hospitals in case of medical assistance to external and internal contaminated persons are showed. It is based on the experience obtained at Centro Medico Naval Marcilio Dias during the assistance to the victims of Goiania accident in 1987. This paper describes the basic infrastructure of a nursery and the radiation protection procedures for the access control of people and materials, area and personal monitoring, decontamination and the support activities such as calibration of radiation monitors and waste management. Is is also estimated the necessary radiation protection materials and the daily quantity of waste generated. (author)

  6. Radiation protection programme for nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzongomerwa, A.

    2014-04-01

    Ionizing radiation including the use of nuclear gauges can be very hazardous to humans and steps must be taken to minimize the risks so as to prevent deterministic effects and limiting chances for stochastic effects. The availability of a Radiation Protection Programme and its effective implementation ensures appropriate safety and security provisions for sealed radiation sources and promotes a safety culture within a facility that utilizes these sources. This study aims at establishing a guide on the radiation protection programme in nuclear gauges that comply with national requirements derived from current international recommendations. Elements that form part of a radiation protection programme are covered in detail as well as recommendations. The overall objective is to protect people (operators and the public) and the environment from the harmful effects of these sources if they are not properly controlled. Nuclear gauges for well logging and X-ray based gauges are outside the scope of this study. (au)

  7. Radiation protection and radiation fear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czeizel, E.

    1982-01-01

    Some data are cited from Japanese statistics analyzing the genetic injuries stemming from the nuclear explosion in Hiroshima. It is shown that neither the number of the unsuccesful pregnancies nor the mortality of the born offsprings increased in those cases there the mother or the father had been exposed to 1-100 rad radiation. There was no significant difference in the chromosomal aberrations amoung the children of irradiated and control parents. (L.E.)

  8. Radiation Protection Training in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankauskiene, D.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation Protection Training is an important component of Radiation Protection and serves for human radiation safety. According to the Lithuanian Law on Radiation Protection the legal persons and enterprises without the status of legal persons to conduct practices with sources or which workers work under exposure must organize at their own expenses a compulsory training and assessment of knowledge of the workers engaging in activities with the sources and radiation protection officers. Such training has been started in 1999. In Lithuania there are few institutions executing Radiation Protection training. Under requirements of legal act On Frequency and Procedure of Compulsory Training and Assessment Knowledge of the Workers Engage in Activities with the Sources of Ionising Radiation and Radiation Protection Officers these institutions have to prepare and coordinate training programs with the Radiation Protection Center. There are adopted different educating programs for Radiation Protection Training to the Workers and Radiation Protection Officers depending on character of work and danger of sources. The duration of Training is from 30 to 270 hours. The Training shall be renewed every five years passing 30 hors course. To ensure the adequate quality of training a great deal of attention is paid to qualifying the lectures. For this purpose, it was established an Evaluation commission to estimate the adequacy of lecturer's knowledge to requirements of Training programs. After passing exams the lectures get the qualification confirming certificates. The main task of our days is to establish and arrange the National Training Centre on Radiation Protection Training that would satisfy requirements and recommendations of legal documents of IAEA and EU for such kind of institutions of institutions. (Author)

  9. Some radiation protection problems in a cancer hospital and associated research institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, N.G.; Anderson, W.; Davis, R.P.; Carden, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Experience gained at the Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research has shown that with attention to the design of facilities and procedures and an active personnel monitoring policy, relatively large scale radiation commitments can proceed with individual whole body doses to staff being held well below 15 mSv/annum. In spite of detailed attention to control of radiation work, traumatic radiation incidents may still occur. (H.K.)

  10. The implementation of the operational dose quantities into radiation protection dosimetry (NRPB Association)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.; Chartier, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The main objectives of this project are to improve the measurement of spectral and angular distributions of external radiations in the workplace and to examine the implications of these measurements for personal dosimetry. They include measurement techniques for X-ray, γ-radiation and neutron radiation, performance testing of personal dosemeters, the implications of spectral and spatial distributions measurements on personal dosimetry. (R.P.)

  11. An outlook to radiation protection development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martincic, R.; Strohal, P.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation protection and safety have developed over many decades as the effects of ionizing radiation have been better and better understood. Some events in the last decade had essential impact on radiation protection policy/philosophy and related safety standards. Among them are available data of some long term radio-epidemiological studies of populations exposed to radiation. Investigations of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki illustrated that exposure to radiation has also a potential for the delayed induction of malignancies. They also showed that irradiation of pregnant women may result with certain mental damage in foetus. Several big radiation accidents which appeared in the last decade also had an impact on developments in radiation protection philosophy and practices. A well known Chernobyl accident showed that limited knowledge was available at the time of the accident on transfer of radionuclides in a specific environment, radioecological effects and pathways of highly radioactive atmospheric precipitation generated during the accident on various components of the environment. New scientific data indicated also that in some parts of human environment there are measurable effects of chronic exposure resulting from natural radiation. UNSCEAR is periodically publishing the most valuable set of data as compilation, and disseminates information on the health effects of radiation and on levels of radiation exposure due to different sources. These data are also the best guidelines for the necessary improvements and updating of radiation protection practices and philosophies. The latest ICRP-60 publication and recently issued International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources are reflecting many of the above mentioned findings. On the other hand the use of radiation sources is increasing day by day, and many new facilities applying radiation in radiotherapy

  12. Radiation protection guidelines for radiation emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessard, E.T.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    The system of dose limitation and present guidance for emergency workers and guidance for intervention on behalf of the public are discussed. There are three elements for the system of dose limitation: justification, optimization and dose limits. The first element is basically a political process in this country. Justification is based on a risk-benefit analysis, and justification of the use of radioactive materials or radiation is generally not within the authority of radiation protection managers. Radiation protection managers typically assess detriments or harm caused by radiation exposure and have very little expertise in assessing the benefits of a particular practice involving nuclear material

  13. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    2000-03-01

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report

  14. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars (ed.)

    2000-03-15

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

  15. The role of NCRRP in education and training on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chobanova, N.

    2017-01-01

    Radiological protection is in constant motion, raised by new developments and research in the medical and industrial sectors. Radiation protection and safety associated with the application of ionizing radiation depends strongly on the skills and expertise of the professionals. The International Basic Safety Standard places great emphasis on education and training for all persons engaged in activities relevant to the protection and safety. For the professionals involved the most critical aspect it is the radiation protection. NCRRP is an established research center for education and training in radiation protection. Training is conducted by expert trainers with years of experience in the field of radiation protection. NCRRP organized courses and individual training on topics related to radiation protection: enhancing the qualifications of professionals from the medical and non medical fields; specialized training in radiation protection of different groups of professionals working with ionizing radiation sources; postgraduate education in radiation protection education of PhD within existing academic programs and give guidance to Master Students. In parallel the NCRRP aims to play a role in national and international policy through participation in European programs. Such is “CONCERT European Joint Programme for the integration of Radiation Protection Research”. The NCRRP develops, publish and distribute programs, newsletters, manuals and information materials for the benefit of the society. The implementation of a coherent approach to education and training becomes crucial in a world of dynamic markets and increasing workers’ mobility. Keywords: education, training, radiation protection, NCRRP

  16. Ethical codes. Fig leaf argument, ballast or cultural element for radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The international association for radiation protection (IRPA) adopted in May 2004 a Code of Ethics in order to allow their members to hold an adequate professional level of ethical line of action. Based on this code of ethics the professional body of radiation protection (Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz) has developed its own ethical code and adopted in 2005.

  17. Development of Australia's radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.C.; Lokan, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    Australia is revising its existing recommendations concerning radiation protection in the light of guidance from the International Commission on Radiological Protection's Publication 60 and the International Atomic Energy Agency's revision of its Basic Safety Standards. The paper discusses the major refinements of the ICRP's recommendations and the additional guidance on its practical implementation offered by the IAEA's new Basic Safety Standards. Following public comment, the revised Australian recommendations are expected to be adopted by the end of 1994. 15 refs

  18. Radiation protection in the field of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yamin

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of radiation protection with environmental protection, the sources that may give rise to the environmental radiation contamination, and the system of radiation protection and the fundamental principles and requirements for radiation environmental management are introduced. Some special radiation protection problems faced with in the radiation environmental management are discussed. (author)

  19. Bioassay programs for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report discusses the rationale for the establishment of bioassay programs as a means of protection for radiation workers in the nuclear industry. The bioassay program of the Radiation Protection Bureau is described for the years 1966-1978 and plans for future changes are outlined. (auth)

  20. Radiation protection - quality and metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broutin, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation protection gathers three occupations: radiation protection agents; environment agents ( control and monitoring); metrology agents ( activities measurement and calibration). The quality and the metrology constitute a contribution in the technique competence and the guarantee of the service quality. This article, after a historical aspect of quality and metrology in France explains the advantages of such a policy. (N.C.)

  1. Nuclear safety and radiation protection in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitzlack, G.; Scheel, H.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation protection organization in the GDR is outlined laying emphasis on the tasks of the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. In addition to the basic tasks, the various forms of radiation protection monitoring, the management of radioactive wastes, and international responsibilities are briefly explained. (author)

  2. Ethics in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    Ethics is a branch of philosophy. Its object is the study of both moral and immoral behaviour in order to make well founded judgements and to arrive at adequate recommendations. The Collins English Dictionary provides the following definitions of the word ethic: Ethic: a moral principle or set of moral values held by an individual or group; Ethics(singular): the philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it; Ethics(pleural): a social, religious or civil code of behaviour considered correct, especially that of a particular group, profession or individual; Ethics(pleural): the moral fitness of a decision, course of action, etc. Ethics has a two-fold objective: Firstly it evaluates human practices by calling upon moral standards; it may give prescriptive advice on how to act morally in a specific kind of situation. This implies analysis and evaluation. Sometimes this is known as Normative ethics. The second is to provide therapeutic advice, suggesting solutions and policies. It must be based on well-informed opinions and requires a clear understanding of the vital issues. In the medical world, we are governed by the Hippocratic Oath. Essentially this requires medical practitioners (doctors) to do good, not harm. There is great interest and even furore regarding ethics in radiation protection

  3. Obligatory Radiation Protection Course

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Since February 2008, participation in the radiation protection course has been a prerequisite for obtaining a CERN personal dosimeter for all Staff Members and Users. All Staff and Users holding a personal dosimeter were informed by the Bulletin and by a personal e-mail sent in February 2008 that they were required to participate in the course before the annual exchange of their dosimeter. Many people had not done so by that time and the Dosimetry Service exceptionally classified them for 2 months as short-term visitors (VCT), a category of monitored personnel to whom the training requirement does not presently apply. As all personnel concerned have since had time to participate in an RP course, this "grace period" will no longer be granted as of 1 October 2008 and the RP course must be completed before the personal dosimeter is exchanged. For newcomers to CERN, and for those returning to CERN after an absence of more than 1 year, one registration as a VCT for two months ...

  4. New instruments for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, D.; Ciobanu, M.; Constantin, F.; Petcu, M.; Plostinaru, V.D.; Rusu, Al.; Lupu, A.C.; Lupu, F.

    2003-01-01

    Though a century old, the radiation protection is actual by its purpose: a dose as low as reasonable achievable is to be received either by involved professionals or population. This threshold is dependent on the technical progress. Some major developments like surface mounted device technology, consumer almost ideal operational amplifiers, microcontrollers and the news signal digital processing techniques, offer the opportunity to design improved instruments for radioprotection. To put in a light portable instrument both the whole measuring system and the 'intelligence' - a microcontroller and the associated software - are the main ideas applied by the authors. The result is presented: a family of eight members, at least, based on two parents. (authors)

  5. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, Jacov

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The

  6. Radiation and man. From radiology to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    Man first became aware of the invisible radiation surrounding him in 1895, when Wilhelm Roentgen showed that a photographic plate could be affected by an invisible radiation capable of passing through matter. He called this radiation 'X-rays' from X, the unknown. Doctors immediately saw the usefulness of this type of radiation and began to use it in medical research. This was the birth of radiology. 'Mankind has been exposed to radiation since his first appearance on Earth. We first became aware of this at the end of the 19. century'. However, it was not long before some of the doctors and radiologists treating their patients with X-rays began to fall ill. It began to be understood that exposure to high doses of radiation was dangerous and protective measures were necessary. From the 1920's onwards, international commissions were established to specify regulations for the use of radiation and for the radiological protection of personnel. (authors)

  7. XXXVI. Days of Radiation Protection. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 93 abstracts are published. The Conference consists of following sections: (I) General aspects and new trends of radiation protection); (II) Radiation protection in medicine; (III): Dosimetry and metrology of external and internal radiation exposure; (IV) Regulation of radiation exposure to natural sources and control of radon exposure; (V) Radiation protection in nuclear power plants, their decommissioning and waste management; (VI) Application of radiation protection standards in the emergency management; (VII) Biological effects of ionizing radiation and risk estimation; (VIII) Education and training in radiation protection in the light of new recommendations of EU, ICRP and IAEA.

  8. Development of radiation protection and measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, J. L.; Kim, B. H.; Lee, B. J.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, K. C.; Chung, R. I.; Han, Y. D.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Yoon, K. S.; Jeong, D. Y.; Yoon, S. C.; Yoon, Y. C.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. K.; Lee, J. K. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called {alpha} value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs.

  9. Radiation protection. Basic concepts of ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Tsutomu; Hirata, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The title subject is easily explained. Main international organizations for radiation protection are United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The UNSCEAR objectively summarizes and publishes scientific findings; ICRP, an NGO, takes part in recommending the radiological protection from the expertized aspect; and IAEA, a UN autonomy, aims at peaceful usage of atomic power. These organizations support the legal regulation and standard of nations. The purpose of the ICRP recommendation (Pub. 103, 2007) is to contribute to the appropriate protection of radiation hazardous effects, which are assumed to be linearly proportional (the model of linear no-threshold, LNT) that radiation risk exists even at the lowest dose. When a change in the single cell results in hazardous alteration, the causative effects are called stochastic effects, which include the mutation leading to cancer formation and genetic effect in offspring (not observed in man). ICRP says the validity of LNT for the stochastic effects essentially from the protective aspect, although epidemiological data support it at >100 mSv exposure. The deterministic effects are caused by loss of cell itself or of its function, where the threshold is defined to be the dose causing >1% of disorder or death. Radiation protective system against exposure is on the situation (programmed, emergent and natural), category (occupational, public and medical) and 3 principles of justification, optimization and application of dose limit. (T.T.)

  10. BNFL's experience in preparing and implementing radiation protection programmes for the control of exposure to workers involved with the international transport of nuclear cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billing, D.

    2004-01-01

    BNFL International Transport have successfully developed appropriate Radiation Protection Programmes for their business. The business supports BNFL's worldwide Nuclear Fuel Services with key customer bases in Europe, Japan and the UK, utilising marine, rail and road modal transports. Experience in the business spans over 4 decades. The preparation of RPP's for each aspect of its operations has been made relatively straight forward in that the key elements within the internationally recognised model RPP (by WNTI) were already in place in BNFL's procedures to satisfy current National UK and International Regulations. Arrangements are supported by Management systems which comply with International Standards for Quality Assurance. Exposure to key worker groups continues to be within Category 1 (less than 1mSv/y) of the IAEA Transport Regulations TS-R-1 (ST-1 revised)

  11. Radiation protection databases of nuclear safety regulatory authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.; Vokal, B.; Krizman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation protection and nuclear safety of nuclear installations have a common objective, protection against ionising radiation. The operational safety of a nuclear power plant is evaluated using performance indicators as for instance collective radiation exposure, unit capability factor, unplanned capability loss factor, etc. As stated by WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) the performance indicators are 'a management tool so each operator can monitor its own performance and progress, set challenging goals for improvement and consistently compare performance with that of other plants or industry'. In order to make the analysis of the performance indicators feasible to an operator as well as to regulatory authorities a suitable database should be created based on the data related to a facility or facilities. Moreover, the international bodies found out that the comparison of radiation protection in nuclear facilities in different countries could be feasible only if the databases with well defined parameters are established. The article will briefly describe the development of international databases regarding radiation protection related to nuclear facilities. The issues related to the possible development of the efficient radiation protection control of a nuclear facility based on experience of the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration will be presented. (author)

  12. Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.; Kraus, W.

    Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the exposure risk on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Based upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high exposure risk. As a consequence the following recommendations are presented: occupationally exposed persons with small exposure risk should be monitored using only a long-term desimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence desimeter). In the case of internal exposure, the surface and air contamination levels should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed

  13. Current situation of radiation protection in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Toan Ngoc

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam was one of the earliest countries, who applied ionizing radiation in medicine, since 1923, Dr. Marie Curie had supplied radium sources to Hanoi cancer hospital for radiotherapy. However, we did not give sufficient attention to radiation protection involving, e.g. technology, legislation, until 1980s. Recently with the strong support from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Vietnam government nuclear technology has been strongly and widely developed in different branches and radiation protection situation in Vietnam has been improved step by step. Strategy for Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy up to 2020 approved by the prime minister on January 3th, 2006 confirms that nuclear power plant will be put in operation by 2020. To ensure the implementation of the strategy, the first priority should be given to radiation protection and nuclear safety. This paper presents shortly some activities of radiation safety in Vietnam. The requirements for developing this field in Vietnam are also discussed. (author)

  14. Survey of International Rules and Practices Regarding Delineation of and Access to Regulated Areas for Radiation Protection - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Crouail, P.; Beltrami, L.-A.; Reaud, C.; Lehtinen, Maaret; Stritt, Nicolas; Thomas, Gareth

    2013-06-01

    European requirements for radiological protection, especially work on transposing the new EURATOM Directive on the basic radiological protection standards, are currently being revised. The Direction generale du travail (DGT - General Directorate of Labour) and the Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (ASN - Nuclear Safety Authority) therefore commissioned the Radiological Protection Standing Groups of experts (GPRAD and GPMED)1 to engage in a forward-looking debate on the delimitation of and access to regulated areas, within an ad hoc working group (called hereafter 'Classification of Area WG'). To fuel its debates, the 'Classification of Area WG' sought elements on international regulations and practices focusing on problem exposure situations in various areas of activity (nuclear, industrial, research, medical, transport and natural boosted). CEPN was entrusted with this study. This report presents a summary of rules applicable in seven countries in terms of delimitation of and access to regulated radiological protection areas. The countries are: Belgium, Spain, United States, Finland, United Kingdom, Sweden and Switzerland. Detailed sheets for each country can be found in the Annex. Based on these summaries, three countries have been selected to apply their rules and practices in force to a dozen or so particular cases put together by the 'Classification of Area WG' that are representative of exposure situations. The three countries are Finland, United Kingdom and Switzerland. The case studies applied to each country are presented in the second part of this report

  15. European Radiation Protection Course - Basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massiot, Philippe; Ammerich, Marc; Viguier, Herve; Jimonet, Christine; Bruchet, Hugues; Vivier, Alain; Bodineau, Jean-Christophe; Etard, Cecile; Metivier, Henri; Moreau, Jean-Claude; Nourredine, Abdel-Mijd

    2014-01-01

    Radiation protection is a major challenge in the industrial applications of ionising radiation, both nuclear and non-nuclear, as well as in other areas such as the medical and research domains. The overall objective of this textbook is to participate to the development of European high-quality scheme and good practices for education and training in radiation protection (RP), coming from the new Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation. These ERPTS (European Radiation Protection Training Scheme) reflects the needs of the Radiation Protection Expert (RPE) and the Radiation Protection Officer (RPO), specifically with respect to the Directive 2013/59/Euratom in all sectors where ionising radiation are applied. To reflect the RPE training scheme, six chapters have been developed in this textbook: Radioactivity and nuclear physics; Interaction of ionising radiation with matter; Dosimetry; Biological effects of ionising radiation; Detection and measurement of ionising radiation; Uses of sources of ionising radiation. The result is a homogeneous textbook, dealing with the ERPTS learning outcomes suggested by ENETRAPII project (European Network on Education and Training in Radiological Protection II) from the 7. Framework Programme. A cyber-book is also part of the whole training material to develop the concept of 'learning more' (http://www.rpe-training.eu). The production of this first module 'basics' training material, in the combined form of a textbook plus a cyber-book as learning tools, will contribute to facilitate mutual recognition and enhanced mobility of these professionals across the European Union. (authors)

  16. Safety Culture on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollet, E.

    1996-01-01

    It can be defined radiation protection culture as the set of technical and social standards applied to the management of the operation of a nuclear facility concerning the reduction of the exposure to radiation of workers and members of the public, together with the behaviour and attitudes of the individuals from the organization towards that objective. Because the basic principles of radiation protection are self-evident and are totally justified, and the thesis drawn from the article is that no effective radiation protection culture yet exists within the organization, it must be concluded that what is wrong from the system are the attitudes and behavior of the individuals. In this article some factors and elements needed to motivate all persons within the organization towards the creation of a radiation protection culture are delineated and presented. (Author)

  17. Training aspects contributing to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation Protection assumes special significance with increasing use of radioactive materials and processes. Scientific and industrial organisations dealing with radioactive materials have prime responsibility of ensuring effective control of all activities which may lead to radiation exposure. Training of all the persons involved in the work associated with radioactivity is absolutely necessary to develop radiation protection skill, radiation measurement proficiency and special precautions to be taken in abnormal situations. NPCIL having responsibility for design, construction, operation and de-commissioning of nuclear power plants, employs about 10,000 workers on several project/station sites all over the country. NPCIL has developed a good training system to accurately control the exposure of workers to radiation. This paper covers the system and other relevant details of radiation protection training organised by NPCIL. (author)

  18. Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructures in Africa: Towards Establishing Effective and Sustainable Co-operations and Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The third African IRPA 2010 conference on Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructures in Africa: Towards Establishing Effective and Sustainable Co-operations and Networks. IAEA's role in radiation protection with focus in Africa. The controlling of exposure to indoor Radon. And Measure of activities and calculation of effective dose of indoor 222 Rn in some dwelling and enclosed areas in Africa - capacity building for radiation protection. It had also address Patient Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy, challenges for advancing medical physic globally, Heath effects and medical applications of non-ionizing radiation, nuclear safety and radiation protection consideration in the design of research and development. The International radiation protection association (IRPA) 2010-2011 strategic plan that address among other issues educations and training activities (2000-2020) and the current UNSCLEAR activities

  19. Strengthening the radiation protection culture: a priority of EDF radiation protection policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcier, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to improve the management of radiation protection at EDF nuclear power plants, the Human Factors Group of the Research and Development Division of EDF has performed some studies on the appropriation process of the radiation protection requirements. These studies have notably shown that an efficient application of the radiation protection requirements lies on a comprehension by all workers of the meaning of these requirements. Furthermore, they should not be applied under the constraint or because of the fear of a sanction, but the workers need to perceive and understand the benefits in terms of protection associated with the radiation protection requirements. The strengthening of the radiation protection culture is therefore a key element of the radiation protection policy developed by EDF. This culture lies on an awareness of the health risks potentially associated with low levels of ionising radiations, as well as on the knowledge of tools, techniques and good practices developed to control the level of exposures and improve the radiation protection. Various type of actions have been undertaken to reinforce among the relevant players (exposed and non-exposed workers, contractors, all levels of management,... ) an awareness of radiation protection in order to integrate it in their day to day work: elaboration of a 'radiation protection system of reference' explaining how the radiation protection regulatory requirements are applied at EDF, publication of a 'radiation protection handbook' available for all workers (including contractors), training sessions, creation of networks of specialists from the various nuclear power plants on specific radiation protection issues, organisation of feed-back experience forum, etc. Beyond these specific actions, i t is also important to ensure a support and an assistance on the field by dedicated specialists. In this perspective, the health physicists have to play a key role in order to

  20. IRPA's contribution to E and T activities for radiation protection professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, E.; Hefner, A.

    2009-01-01

    The International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) promotes excellence in the practice of radiation protection through national and regional Associate Societies for radiation protection professionals. IRPA has recently prepared and E and T Plan structured around three main lines: the cooperation with international and regional organizations dealing with E and T in Radiation Protection; the internal stimulation of E and T by organizing discussion forums during IRPA Congresses; and the stimulation and support to the organization of E and T activities either by IRPA or by its Associate Societies. The main innovations are in the possibility of undertaking common activities by two or more Associate Societies; the promotion of E and T networks sharing language or regional proximity; and the emergence of activities to attract young generations to the profession. (authors)

  1. Radiation protection experience in Yugoslavia from the Vinca accident to nowadays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.M

    2000-01-01

    This Paper is the expression of the author opinion about development of radiation protection in Yugoslavia from its beginning forty years ago, which might affect its status in the foreseeable future at the first decades of the 21st century. It focuses on key events in this field starting from the Vinca Accident, which happened in the October 1958, to nowadays. Shortly reviewed some of key events are: Vinca Accident; Foundation of the Radiation Protection Laboratory in the Vinca Institute; International Vinca Dosimetry Experiment; First National Symposium and foundation of the Yugoslav Radiation Protection Association; International Intercomparison Experiment on Nuclear Accident Dosimetry and, International Summer Schools and Symposium on Radiation Protection organized in Yugoslavia. Finally, some specific experimental data obtained during and after Chernobyl Accident up to nowadays in radiation protection action in Yugoslavia are presented also. (author)

  2. The International Employment Protection Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Pavlo V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the need for corporate protection of staff in accordance with both the European and the International labor law. The author defines the essence of the category of «protection of staff», its constituent elements and the importance of function of this mechanism in terms of corporate security. The main methods used in the international practice to achieve a high degree of protection of staff have been systematized and presented. The main stages of development and tendencies concerning the formation of instruments for protection of staff have been analyzed, and the principal indices to assess the degree of protection of staff have been determined.

  3. Radiation protection in civil defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlborn, K.

    The brochure contains the information given to the participants of an advanced training course in civil defence, on the subject of radiation protection. The course was held by teachers of Bundesverband fuer den Selbstschutz (BVS). (orig.) [de

  4. Radiation protection. Terms and definitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    An alphabetical list in German is given of all terms and definitions important to radiation protection under consideration of all Austrian laws concerning this subject scope as also pertinent standards of ISO, DIN and OENORM.

  5. Regulations for ionizing radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    General regulations and principles of radiation protection and safety are presented. In addition, the regulations for licensing and occupational and medical exposure as well as for safe transport of radioactive materials and wastes are given

  6. Epistemology of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, C.

    2010-01-01

    The scientific committee had assess Status of levels, effects and risks of ionizing radiation for General assembly, scientific community and public. The review of levels, sources and exposures. The natural sources of radiation include cosmic rays, terrestrial and artificial sources include medical issues, military activities, civil nuclear power occupational exposure and accidents. The global average exposure is 80% natural source, 20% medical examination 0.2% weapon fallout < 0.1% cherbonyl accidents and < 0.1 nuclear power. The effects of radiation incudes health effects, hereditable effects, bystander effects, and abscopal effects. The randon risks include lancer risk, plant and animal

  7. International Conference Medical Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The second edition of the international conference Medical radiation : research and applications which took place in Marrakech (Morocco) from 7 to 9 April 2010, was designed to bring together researchers and physicians from different countries who dedicated their talents and time to this endeavour. The conference's program defined goals were is to identify the most reliable techniques among the several tested so far and to establish the most practical standardized methodologies, taking into account such recent technological development in radiation medical research. The scientific objectives of this conference are as follows : present the state of the art of the various topics of the congress, give a progress report on the impact of the interaction of the various scientific and technical disciplinary fields (Medicine, Biology, Mathematics, Physics,..) on the applications of radiations in medicine, promote the interdisciplinary efforts of research among researchers, present new technologies and research and development tasks prepared in the field of medical radiations, contribute to the emergence of new ideas of research and development of new collaborations [fr

  8. Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act is concerned with regulating the registration, installation, operation, inspection and safety of X-ray machines. The Act provides for the establishment of the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Commission which is responsible for reporting on all the above matters to the Ontario Minister of Health. In addition the board is responsible for the continuing development of an X-ray safety code and for the submission of an annual report of their activities to the minister

  9. Quality management in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehrle, H.G.

    1997-01-01

    Quality Management in Radiation Protection Quality management (QM) in the field of Radiation Protection was discussed in a previous issue (2/97) using the example of QMS at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The present article describes the major features involved in the establishment of a functional QMS. Establishment of the QMS lead to a deeper understanding of administrative and operational aspects of the working methods involved. (orig.) [de

  10. Radiation protection for veterinary practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A.

    1993-01-01

    This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.)

  11. Radiation Protection and Civil defence Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.; Elshinawy, R.M.K.; Abdelfattah, A.T.

    1991-01-01

    This conference involves subjects of radiation protection, programming of civil defence, on the implementation of 1990 ICRP recommendation, thermoluminescence properties of bone equivalent calcium phosphate ceramics, potassium body burdens in occupational users of egyptian nuclear research centre, transport of radionuclides in fresh water stream, water treatment process for nuclear reactor, research activities related to internal contamination and bioassay and experience and environmental radiation monitoring in inshass. it contains of figures and tables

  12. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeburrun, V.

    2013-04-01

    Radiation protection in nuclear medicine in this project is concerned with the reduction of doses to workers, patients and members of the public. Protection of workers is achieved by adopting good personal habits, good housekeeping, proper use of personal protective devices and equipment, attend training and have continuous education. Exposure to radiation of workers and the members of the public are minimised by proper management of radioactive waste and safe transport of radioactive material. The design and shielding of a nuclear medicine department shall further provide for the protection of the worker, the patient and the general public. Protection of patient is achieved by justifying the procedure, delivering the minimum radiation dose possible to the patient while obtaining the best image quality and applying guidance levels. Special considerations shall be given to pregnant and breast-feeding patients. Quality assurance programme through image quality, radiopharmaceutical quality and patient records on nuclear medicine procedures shall provide assurance to the patient. (au)

  13. Radiation protection information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the measurements and discussion presented in this report, the following conclusions may be drawn: The population doses from naturally occuring radiation is on average lower in Denmark and much lower in Iceland than in the other Nordic countries. In Sweden, Finland and Norway the largest contributors to the population doses from naturally occuring radiation are radon daughters in indoor air. For Denmark and Iceland, radon daughters contribute about the same to the total effective dose equivalent as the external gamma radiation. Some groups of people in the Nordic countries are highly exposed to radon daughters. In some cases, the received doses are very high (higher than the dose limit for radiation workers). From the conclusions above, the radon daughter problem should be given priority, at least in Sweden, Finland and Norway, especially regarding the search for population groups receiving the highest doses

  14. Occupational radiation protection: Protecting workers against exposure to ionizing radiation. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, mining and milling; medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The term 'occupational exposure' refers to the radiation exposure incurred by a worker, which is attributable to the worker's occupation and committed during a period of work. According to the latest (2000) Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), an estimated 11 million workers are monitored for exposure to ionizing radiation. They incur radiation doses attributable to their occupation, which range from a small fraction of the global average background exposure to natural radiation up to several times that value. It should be noted that the UNSCEAR 2000 Report describes a downward trend in the exposure of several groups of workers, but it also indicates that occupational exposure is affecting an increasingly large group of people worldwide. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), which are co-sponsored by, inter alia, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO), establish a system of radiation protection which includes radiation dose limits for occupational exposure. Guidance supporting the requirements of the BSS for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the ILO. These Guides describe, for example, the implications for employers in discharging their main responsibilities (such as setting up appropriate radiation protection programmes) and similarly for workers (such as properly using the radiation monitoring devices provided to them). The IAEA i organized its first International Conference on Occupational Radiation Protection. The

  15. XXXIX Days of Radiation Protection. Proceedings of Presentations and Posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of presented presentations and posters on the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 55 presentations and posters are included. The Conference consists of following sections: (I) Radiation protection, consequences of implementation of the EU2013/59 directive in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic); (II) Radiation protection in the application of ionizing radiation in medicine; (III) Dosimetry and metrology of external and internal irradiation; (IV) Natural sources of ionizing radiation, national radon programs; (V) Nuclear energy, the concept of decommissioning of nuclear power plants in terms of radiation protection; (VI) Use of standards of radiation protection in emergency management; (VII) Biological effects of radiation and estimation of irradiation risk.

  16. XXXIX Days of Radiation Protection. Proceedings of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 91 abstracts are published. The Conference consists of following sections: (I) Radiation protection, consequences of implementation of the EU2013 / 59 directive in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic); (II) Radiation protection in the application of ionizing radiation in medicine; (III) Dosimetry and metrology of external and internal irradiation; (IV) Natural sources of ionizing radiation, national radon programs; (V) Nuclear energy, the concept of decommissioning of nuclear power plants in terms of radiation protection; (VI) Use of standards of radiation protection in emergency management; (VII) Biological effects of radiation and estimation of irradiation risk.

  17. Radiation protection, 1975. Annual EPA review of radiation protection activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The EPA, under its Federal Guidance authorities, is responsible for advising the President on all matters pertaining to radiation and, through this mechanism, to provide guidance to other Federal agencies on radiation protection matters. Highlights are presented of significant radiation protection activities of all Federal agencies which were completed in 1975, or in which noteworthy progress was made during that period, and those events affecting members of the public. State or local activities are also presented where the effects of those events may be more far-reaching. At the Federal level significant strides have been made in reducing unnecessary radiation exposure through the efforts of the responsible agencies. These efforts have resulted in the promulgation of certain standards, criteria and guides. Improved control technologies in many areas make it feasible to reduce emissions at a reasonable cost to levels below current standards and guides. This report provides information on the significant activities leading to the establishment of the necessary controls for protection of public health and the environment. Radiation protection activities have been undertaken in other areas such as medical, occupational and consumer product radiation. In the context of radiation protection, ancillary activities are included in this report in order to present a comprehensive overview of the events that took place in 1975 that could have an effect on public health, either directly or indirectly. Reports of routine or continuing radiation protection operations may be found in publications of the sponsoring Federal agencies, as can more detailed information about activities reported in this document. A list of some of these reports is included

  18. Protective prostheses during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, T.S.; Flaxman, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    Current applications and complications in the use of radiotherapy for the treatment of oral malignancy are reviewed. Prostheses are used for decreasing radiation to vital structures not involved with the lesion but located in the field of radiation. With a program of oral hygiene and proper dental care, protective prostheses can help decrease greatly the morbidity seen with existing radiotherapy regimens

  19. Policy support on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of activities related to policy support on radiation protection is: (1) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionizing radiation in normal and accidental situations,;(2) to improve and support nuclear emergency-response decisions in industrial areas from an economical point of view. The main achievements for 1997 are described

  20. Radiation protection in the application of ionizing radiation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Yusof Mohamad Ali

    1987-01-01

    There is a substantial increase in the use of ionizing radiation in industry throughout the country especially in the last five years or so. With this growth in the number of users and activity of sources used, and together with the introduction of the new Atomic Energy Licensing Act (AELA) in 1984, the question of radiation safety and protection of workers and members of the public in general, can no longer be taken lightly. It has to be dealt with effectively. In this paper, a general discussion and clarification on certain practical aspects of radiation protection as recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is presented. Amongst the topics chosen are those on area monitoring, personnel monitoring, leak testing of sealed sources and training of personnel. Also presented in the paper is a brief discussion about UTN's experience in giving out radiation protection services to various agencies throughout the country. (author)

  1. Radiation protection: Philosophy, recommendations and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    The philosophy developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the control of human radiation exposure will be described. The application of the ICRP recommendations to the authorization and control of the disposal of radioactive wastes to the sea will be discussed in the context of the practice in the United Kingdom. (author)

  2. Radiation Protection, Nuclear Safety and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faye, Ndeye Arame Boye; Ndao, Ababacar Sadikhe; Tall, Moustapha Sadibou

    2014-01-01

    Senegal has put in place a regulatory framework which allows to frame legally the use of radioactive sources. A regulatory authority has been established to ensure its application. It is in the process of carrying out its regulatory functions. It cooperates with appropriate national or international institutions operating in fields related to radiation protection, safety and nuclear safety.

  3. Implication on future priorities in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchmann, R.

    1986-01-01

    As a result of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the aspects of health effects from radiation as well as the protection norms are reviewed. In particular the radioprotection of the workers and the population, the emergency planning and the information of the public at national and international levels are discussed. (A.F.)

  4. Radiation protection in thorium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, A.

    1977-01-01

    The evaluation of radiation doses in a monazite processing plant (thorium production cycle) aiming to getting information on the exposure levels to beta and gamma radiation, is discussed. It is observed that, excluding places where monazite is stored,or during transportation, or in silos, or waste deposits, or in places where high activity materials are stored or treated, the externa exposure stay below the maximum pemissible limit. Some recommendations are made based on the results found and according to radiation protection standards

  5. Radiation in perspective applications, risks and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Everyone on earth is exposed to natural radiation. Radiation produced artificially is no different, either in kind or in effect, from that originating naturally. Although radiation has many beneficial applications, throughout medicine, industry and research, it can be harmful to human beings who must be adequately protected from unnecessary or excessive exposures. For this purpose, a thorough system of international principles and standards and stringent national legislations have been put in place. Yet radiation continues to be the subject of much public fear and controversy. This clearly written report, intended for the nonspecialist reader, aims to contribute to an enlightened debate on this subject by presenting the most up-to-date and authoritative material on sources, uses and affects of radiation, and ways in which people are protected from its risks. It discusses the development of radiation protection measures, its internationally agreed principles, and also addresses social and economic issues such as ethical questions, risk perceptions, risk comparisons, public participation in decision-making and the cost of protection. (author)

  6. Proceedings of Asia congress on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    203 articles were collected in the proceedings. The contents of the proceedings included the principle and practices of radiation protection, biological effects of radiation, radiation monitoring, protection in medical and other fields, radiation dosimetry, nuclear energy and the environment, natural radiation, radioactive waste management, and other radiation protection issues

  7. Proceedings of the Third symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association; Zbornik radova treceg simpozija Hrvatskog drustva za zastitu od zracenja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Third Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association (20-22 Nov 1996) coorganized by Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health and `Rudjer Boskovic` Institute, with the support of Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of Croatia, Hazardous Waste Management Agency Ltd., Ecotec Ltd. and Tourist Association of the City of Zagreb, covered a vast range of subjects concerning radiation protection, management of industrial and medical radioactive wastes, environmental transport of radionuclides, dosimetric methods and equipment, contamination and decontamination etc. 57 contributions were delivered.

  8. Radiation Protection. Chapter 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, S. T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Uddevalla Hospital, Uddevalla (Sweden); Le Heron, J. C. [Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    Medical exposure is the largest human-made source of radiation exposure, accounting for more than 95% of radiation exposure. Furthermore, the use of radiation in medicine continues to increase worldwide — more machines are accessible to more people, the continual development of new technologies and new techniques adds to the range of procedures available in the practice of medicine, and the role of imaging is becoming increasingly important in day to day clinical practice. The introduction of hybrid imaging technologies, such as positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, means that the boundaries between traditional nuclear medicine procedures and X ray technologies are becoming blurred. Worldwide, the total number of nuclear medicine examinations is estimated to be about 35 million per year.

  9. Radiation Protection Research: Radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desaintes, C.

    2000-01-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium; to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (2) to participate in the IARC study; (3) to elucidate the molecular basis of the effects of ionising radiation in the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (4) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (5) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 1999 are reported

  10. Radiation Protection Research: Radiobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desaintes, C

    2000-07-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium; to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (2) to participate in the IARC study; (3) to elucidate the molecular basis of the effects of ionising radiation in the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (4) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (5) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 1999 are reported.

  11. Radiation protection and occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassels, B.M.; Carter, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines trends in occupational and public health standard setting including those which apply to radiation protection practices. It is the authors' contention that while regulators, unions and employees demand higher standards of radiation protection and industry attempts to comply with tight controls of radiation exposure in the workplace, these standards are out of step with standards applied to health away from the workplace, recreational activity and other areas of industrial hygiene. The ultimate goal of an improvement in the health of the nation's workforce may no longer be visible because it has been submerged beneath the predominating concern for one aspect of health in the workplace. 35 refs., 5 tabs

  12. Europe's contribution to implementation of a radiation protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    What is commonly referred to as a radiation protection system is a range of scientific considerations, principles and rules, the aim of which is to contribute to an appropriate level of protection of individuals and the environment against the harmful effects of exposure to ionising radiation, without excessively limiting desirable human activities which can be associated with such exposure (see ICRP Publication 103). This system is essentially based on an international consensus. The European level only concerns the Member States of the Union but it is crucial that it constitute the final, legally binding step prior to the definition of national regulations. The European radiation protection system (the EURATOM Treaty and its derived legislation) is presented below, not from the legal perspective but from a contextual viewpoint. Research activities are not discussed here. (author)

  13. On the Occasion of the 50th Anniversary of Organised Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Kovacevic, M.; Pantelic, G.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation protection, both as a multidisciplinary scientific discipline and as an attitude, has largely contributed to the protection of man and the environment against the potential harm of ionizing radiation, allowing its beneficial and safe use. Over the past decades, almost a century, professionals active in the domain of radiation protection have immensely contributed to the development of legislation and regulations, to monitoring and control, to prediction of consequences and to the assessment of risks. This paper summarizes evolution and achievements of the radiation protection professionals in the region known as former Yugoslavia the occasion of the fifty years of organized professional activities in the area of radiation protection. The paper covers activities related to the early days of the radiation protection association brings the information about relevant activities as organization of symposia and other meetings, participation in international organizations and publishing activities of the society.(author)

  14. Radiation protection day - Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    This document brings together the abstracts of all presentations given at the Radiation protection day organised in May 2000 by the French association for radiation protection techniques and sciences (ATSR) on the topic of the new European and French radiation protection regulations and their conditions of application in hospitals. Content: 1 - Presentation of the Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations (O.P.R.I.), status of texts and evolution, practical implementation of operational dosimetry (Alain Valero, O.P.R.I.); 2 - Presentation of the Radiation Protection Service of the Army (S.P.R.A.) and its role in French army's hospitals (Jean-Baptiste Fleutot, S.P.R.A.); 3 - 96/29 European directive and water quality - transposition in French law (Daniel Robeau, I.P.S.N. Fontenay-Aux-Roses); 4 - Presentation of an automatized active dosimetry system (Michel Deron, G.E.M. System); 5 - Euratom 97/43 Directive from June 30, 1997 - assessment of the existing framework for patients protection in medical environment (Pierre Muglioni, APAVE Nord Ouest); 6 - Specificities of the ionising radiations risk in medical environment - presentation of a ionising radiations risk assessment grid (Marie-Christine Soula, Labour regional direction Ile de France); 7 - Low dose effects (B. Le Guen, E.D.F. G.D.F.); 8 - Operational dosimetry in the medical domain - the Saphydose dosemeter (Frederico Felix - Saphymo); 9 - Positrons and radiation protection (Luc Cinotti - C.E.R.M.E.P.); 10 - Workplace studies in medical environment - areas and personnel classification (Jean-Claude Houy, Sandrine Laugle, Eugene Marquis Cancer Centre Rennes); 11 - Experience feedback after 4 years of active dosimetry in a nuclear medicine service (Albert Lisbona, Centre Rene Gauducheau Nantes/Saint-Herblain); 12 - Operational dosimetry as it is performed today in CNRS laboratories (Helene Dossier - C.N.R.S. Orsay); 13 - Radiation protection in submarine naval forces (Pierre Laroche, Army's health service

  15. Radiation protection and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    The activities developed at Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria from the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear in the field of developing and using radiation monitoring techniques and/or radioactive materials in health, industry, research and teaching, are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  16. Foundations of radiation physics and radiation protection. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, Hanno

    2017-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Types of radiation and radiation fields, the atomic structure, radioactive decays, decay law, natural and artificial radioactivity, interactions of ionizing photon radiation, attenuation of neutral-particle beams, interactions of neutron radiation, interactions of charged particles, ionization and energy transfer, radiation doses, radiation protection phantoms, foundations of the radiation biology of cells, effects and risks of ionizing radiation, radiation expositions of men with ionizing radiation, radiation protection law, practical radiation protection against ionizing radiations, radiation eposures in medical radiology. (HSI)

  17. New trends in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1977-10-01

    The introduction of new concepts such as the effective dose equivalent, the collective dose and the dose commitment, and the application of the basic principles of justification, optimization and individual dose limitation has had a major impact on the planning and implementation of radiation protection during the last few years. The basic principles are summarized in ICRP Publication 26. It is a chalenge to research in radiobiology, genetics and health physics to explore the scientific foundation of the current principles of radiation protection. The most interesting trend to-day, however, is the observation that the principles applied in radiation protection have now been generally recognized and accepted to the extent that they become utilized in the protection of man against non-radioactive carcinogenic substances and environmental pollutants. (author)

  18. Present status of standards relating to radiation control and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kentaro

    1996-01-01

    Japanese and international standards related to radiation control and radiation protective management are presented focusing on the forming condition, significance, current situation, and their relationship. Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) is quite useful in the field of atomic energy as well as other fields in terms of optimization and rationalization of the management. JIS includes JIS Z 4001 Atomic Energy Terminology which corresponds to internationl standards ISO 921 Nuclear Glossary, and JIS Z 4005 Medical Radiation Terminology, covering about 500 articles, which corresponds to IEC 788 Medical Radiology-Terminology. The first standards regarding radiation protection was established in X-ray Film Badge, which is included in the field of personal dosimeter, in 1956. Currently, 36 JIS has been established in the field of radiation management dosimeter and 3 are under arrangement. As for radiation protective supplies, 9 JIS has been established so far. Before proposal of JIS, investigation had been conducted to improve, simplify, and standardize the standards of radiation dosimetric technique, dosimeters, dosimetric procedures, and improvement. In this article, the results of material surface contamination monitoring and body surface monitoring conducted in Atomic Energy Safety Association and Radiation Dosimetry Associationare reported, and ISO and IEC are also treated. (S.Y.)

  19. Standard radiation protection instructions. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, F.; Bauer, N.; Haug, T.; Koehler, G.; Poulheim, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    The booklet presents case-specific standard instructions compiled by the Arbeitskreis Ausbildung of the Fachverband Strahlenschutz (Radiation Protection Association) for: (1) work requiring a permit according to section 20 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, performed by external personnel; (2) the installation, maintenance, transport and storage of ionization smoke detectors; (3) application of gamma-ray and X-ray equipment; (4) the testing of X-ray equipment and equipment emitting stray radiation at the stage of manufacturing; (5) application of Ni-63 electron capture detectors. (HP) [de

  20. Radiation protection measurement. Philosophy and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recht, P.; Lakey, J.R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A selection from the proceedings of the International Symposium held by the U.K. Society for radiological protection in June 1974 was presented. The central theme was the philosophy of radiation protection measurement and its interpretation although some specific areas of good health physics practice were included. The 28 papers selected were chosen to be either representative of the central theme or of wider interest. The papers have been grouped in 6 main sections: philosophy of measurements; interpretation of measurements; implementation by legislation and monitoring; radiation exposure and control; reactor safety and siting; accidents

  1. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations

  2. Internal Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    When getting internal radiation therapy, a source of radiation is put inside your body, in either liquid or solid form. It can be used treat different kinds of cancer, including thyroid, head and neck, breast, cervix, prostate, and eye. Learn more about how what to expect when getting internal radiation therapy.

  3. Radiation protection Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    This Ordinance lays down the licensing system for activities in Switzerland involving possible exposure to radiation, with the exception of nuclear installations, fuels and radioactive waste which, under the 1959 Atomic Energy Act, are subject to licensing. The Ordinance applies to the production, handling, use, storage, transport, disposal, import and export of radioactive substances and devices and articles containing them; and generally to any activity involving hazards caused by ionizing radiation. The Federal Public Health Office is the competent authority for granting licences. Provision is also made for the administrative conditions to be complied with for obtaining such licences as well as for technical measures required when engaged in work covered by the Ordinance. This consolidated version of the Ordinance contains all the successive amendments up to 26 September 1988. (NEA) [fr

  4. Problems of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkova, M.

    1991-01-01

    A brief review is presented on the dose-dependent radiation injuries and possibilities of the classical chemical radioprotectors. Data are given on different substances of biological origin, including some natural for the body admixtures with a confirmed radioprotective action: biogenic amines (serotonin, mexamine), adenylic nucleotides, amino acids, polyamines, immunomodulators (bacterial endotoxines), prostaglandins, leucotrienes, antioxidants, vitamines (A, E, B 2 , B 6 , P, biotin, flavenoids), natural fats, plant oils and unsaturated fat acids, extracts from green seaweeds and adaptogens. 81 refs

  5. Encouraging the radiation protection practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Natanael O.; Cunha, Paulo C.N.; Junior, Jose N.S.; Silva, Jessyca B.

    2013-01-01

    The radiological protection of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation (X-ray diagnoses, Nuclear Medicine, Radiotherapy and Dental) is essential to minimize the appearance of radiation effects. The ways to reduce the potential for exposure of workers are: Time, Distance , and Shielding. The most important purpose of radiation protection is to provide safe conditions for activities involving ionizing radiation, basic safety conditions that must be observed in professional practice. The professional must have full knowledge of the subject and deepen in the revision of norms and guidelines related to radiation protection establish by the Vigilancia Sanitaria - ANVISA, and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Brazil. The study was conducted in a technical school for the Technical Training Course in Radiology, where the students are invited to think deeply about the radiation protection of themselves, the patients and the environment. Developed since July 2012, with the participation of 30 students, with a leading class -three teachers assisting in the development of the project . With this project there was an awareness of both students, as instructors stage accompanying the daily lives of students and their own colleagues. Following the same objective in 2013 the project continues with more adept at radioprotection

  6. Electron microscopy - principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This 8 minute programme explains the nature of the possible radiation hazard in Electron Microscopy and outlines the ways in which modern equipment is designed and made so that in normal use the worker is not exposed to radiation. The interlock principle is explained and illustrated by an example from the field of X-ray crystallography. By filming machines while they were dismantled for servicing, details of several internal safety devices have been included. In this way workers who normally use the equipment as a 'black box' get some insight into the principles and practice of radiation protection in the field. (author)

  7. New radiobiological, radiation risk and radiation protection paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodhead, Dudley T.

    2010-01-01

    The long-standing conventional paradigm for radiobiology has formed a logical basis for the standard paradigm for radiation risk of cancer and heritable effects and, from these paradigms, has developed the internationally applied system for radiation protection, but with many simplifications, assumptions and generalizations. A variety of additional radiobiological phenomena that do not conform to the standard paradigm for radiobiology may have potential implications for radiation risk and radiation protection. It is suggested, however, that the current state of knowledge is still insufficient for these phenomena, individually or collectively, to be formulated systematically into a new paradigm for radiobiology. Additionally, there is at present lack of direct evidence of their relevance to risk for human health, despite attractive hypotheses as to how they might be involved. Finally, it remains to be shown how incorporation of such phenomena into the paradigm for radiation protection would provide sufficient added value to offset disruption to the present widely applied system. Further research should aim for better mechanistic understanding of processes such as radiation-induced genomic instability (for all radiation types) and bystander effects (particularly for low-fluence high-LET particles) and also priority should be given to confirmation, or negation, of the relevance of the processes to human health risks from radiation.

  8. Indium 111. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafstroem, G.; Joensson, B.A.; Strand, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    The radiopharmaceutucal 111 In-oxine is used in labelling of different blood cells and proteins. Due to its liquid state, there is always a risk for contamination during handling procedures. The aim of the project was to evaluate the contamination risks, when using this radiopharmaceutical. The investigation includes calculations of the absorved dose to the skin after a contamination of 111 In-oxine, including the radionuclide impurity 114 In m / 114 In. Investigations of 288 protection gloves shows that there is always a risk for contamination, when working with 111 In-oxine. On the protection gloves, we found activities normally ranging from a 100 Bq up to a few kBq. Noticeable is the contamination on the vials, already before their use. Besides 111 In we found most of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, with activities up to tens of kBq. The radionuclide impurity was cleary detectable but below the recommended value. The penetration of 111 In-oxine protection gloves of latex was negligible. Measurements of penetration in skin was evaluated with two independent methods; in vivo using a surface barrier detector, and by autoradiography. The measured penetration was less than a few micrometers. Calculation from the experimental contamination values show that the absorbed dose to the basal cell layer could be in order of several Gy. (authors)

  9. Radiation protection in pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendel, H.; Stieve, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Because of the high growth rate of cell systems in phases of radiation exposure radiological investigations on children should not be considered unless there is a strong indication. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has worked out recommendations on radiation protection which have been published as an NCRP report. This report is most important even outside the USA. The present translation is aimed to contribute to better understanding of the bases and aims of radiation protection during radiological investigations on children. It addresses not only those physicians who carry out radiological investigations on children themselves but also all physicians requiring such investigations. For these physicians, but also for parents who are worried about the radiation risk to their children the report should be a useful source of information and decision aid ensuring, on the one hand, that necessary radiological investigations are not shunned for unjustified fear of radiation and that, on the other hand, all unnecessary exposure of children to radiation is avoided. Thus, it is to be hoped, the quality of pediatric radiological diagnostics will be improved. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Radiation protection in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacc, R.A.; Rubiolo, J.; Herrero, F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The goal of this paper is to identify the areas in which radiation protection is actually needed and the relative importance of protection measures. A correlation between the different medical applications of the ionizing radiations and the associated risks, mainly due to ignorance, has been a constant throughout the history of mankind. At the beginning, the accidents were originated in research nuclear laboratories working on the atomic bomb, while the incidents occurred in medical areas because of virtual ignorance of the harmful effects on humans. The 60's were characterized by the oil fever, which produced innumerable accidents due to the practice of industrial radiography; in the 70's the use of radiations on medical applications was intensified, to such and extent that a new type of victim appeared: the patient. Unfortunately, during 80's and 90's the number of accidents in different medical practices has increased, projecting the occurred in Zaragoza (Spain) on 1990 with a linear accelerator for radiotherapy treatments. In some developed countries, foreseeing the probability of producing biological effects as a result of different radiology practices, more strict security rules are adopted to guarantee the application of the three principles of the radioprotection: justification, optimization and limitation of individual dose. In this way, in the U.S.A., the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organization (JCAHO), favors a vigilance politics in the different departments of Radiodiagnostic and Nuclear Medicine to secure an effective management in security, communications and quality control, in which the medical physicists play an important role. One of the requirements for example is to attach the value of entrance exposition dose in the radiological diagnostic report. So, the doses in the different organs are compared with the tabulated doses. Basically, a quality control programme is designed to minimize the risks for patients

  11. Discussion on several problems in evolution of radiation protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziqiang, P.

    2004-01-01

    As viewed from the standpoint of radiation protection practice, it is necessary that the current system of radiological protection should be made more simple and coherent. The human-based protective measures alone are far from having met the requirements of environmental protection in many circumstances. Protecting the environment from ionising radiation would be implicated in radiation protection. Collective dose is an useful indicator, of which applicable extent should be defined. Using such an quantity could help improve radiation protection level, but applicable conditions should be indicated, temporal or spatial. Natural radiation is the largest contributor to the radiation exposure of human. Occupational exposure from natural radiation should be controlled, for occupations such as underground miners and air crew. Controlling both man-made and natural radiation exposure of pregnant women and children needs to be enhanced, especially radiological diagnosis and treatment. China radiation protection community, as a whole, is paying considerable attention to the ICRP's new Recommendations. Prof. Clarke's article 'A Report on Progress towards New Recommendations', a communication from the International Commission on Radiological Protection, has been translated into Chinese and published on Radiation Protection, the Official Journal of China Radiation Protection Society with a view of intensifying awareness of the new Recommendations within more radiation protection workers and people concerned. In addition, a special meeting was convened in early 2002 to address the comments on the new Recommendations. (author)

  12. Problems of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkova, M [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya

    1991-01-01

    A brief review is presented on the dose-dependent radiation injuries and possibilities of the classical chemical radioprotectors. Data are given on different substances of biological origin, including some natural for the body admixtures with a confirmed radioprotective action: biogenic amines (serotonin, mexamine), adenylic nucleotides, amino acids, polyamines, immunomodulators (bacterial endotoxines), prostaglandins, leucotrienes, antioxidants, vitamines (A, E, B{sub 2}, B{sub 6}, P, biotin, flavenoids), natural fats, plant oils and unsaturated fat acids, extracts from green seaweeds and adaptogens. 81 refs.

  13. Actual global problems of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.

    1995-01-01

    Personal views on some actual problems in radiation protection are given in this paper. Among these problems are: evolution methodology used in radiation protection regulations; radiation protection, nuclear energy and safety, and new approaches to the process of the hazardous substances management. An interesting fact relating to the X-ray, radiation protection and Nikola Tesla are given also. (author)

  14. Evolution of the concept of reduction the exposure levels to natural radiation and the new international standards in protection of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, R.; Pavlovic, S.

    1995-01-01

    The new scientific information in last decade have caused significant changes in radiation protection standards. The subject of reduction the exposure to natural radiation is now regulated in more details. Some new aspects in protection against Rn exposure at home and work are discussed. (author)

  15. Deficiencies in radiation protection record systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.B.; Lyon, M.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation protection records are a fundamental part of any program for protecting radiation workers. Records are essential to epidemiological studies of radiation workers and are becoming increasingly important as the number of radiation exposure litigation cases increases. Ready retrievability of comprehensive records is also essential to the adequate defense of a radiation protection program. Appraisals of numerous radiation protection programs have revealed that few record-keeping systems comply with American National Standards Institute, Standard Practice N13.6-1972. Record-keeping requirements and types of deficiencies in radiation protection records systems are presented in this paper, followed by general recommendations for implementing a comprehensive radiation protection records system

  16. Deficiencies in radiation protection record systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.B.; Lyon, M.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation protection records are a fundamental part of any program for protecting radiation workers. Records are essential to epidemiological studies of radiation workers and are becoming increasingly important as the number of radiation exposure litigation cases increases. Ready retrievability of comprehensive records is also essential to the adequate defense of a radiation protection program. Appraisals of numerous radiation protection programs have revealed that few record-keeping systems comply with American National Standards Institute, Standard Practice N13.6-1972. Record-keeping requirements and types of deficiencies in radiation protection records systems are presented in this paper, followed by general recommendations for implementing a comprehensive radiation protection records system. 8 refs

  17. IAEA occupational radiation protection programme: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deboodt, P.; Mrabit, K.

    2006-01-01

    As stated in Art.III.A.6 of its Statute, the International Atomic Energy Agency (commonly referred to as the Agency) is authorized to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property (including such standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the application of these standards to its own operation as well as to the operations making use of materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its control or supervision. The Agency s Occupational Radiation Protection Programme aims at harmonizing infrastructures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and for optimizing radiation protection in situation s of exposures due to external radiation and intakes of radionuclides from both artificial and natural sources of radiation. Under its regular and technical cooperation programmes, the Agency has been assigning high priority to both the establishment of safety standards for labour conditions and for the application of these standards through, Interalia, direct assistance under its technical cooperation (TC) programme, the rendering of services, the promotion of education and training, the fostering of information exchange and the coordination of research and development. The purpose of this paper is to present the current status and future IAEA activities in support of occupational radiation protection. (authors)

  18. Radiation protection in nuclear energy. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The conference was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of international views on the principles of radiation protection for regulators and practitioners, to highlight issues of current importance, to examine the problems encountered in applying the principles of radiation protection, and, where possible, to identify generic solutions. The highlights of the conference were the sessions on the interface between nuclear safety and radiation protection, the evolution of radiation protection principles, exemption rules and accident experiences. The special session on the practical implications of the linear dose-response relationships also provoked particular interest. Although the session on optimization and decision aiding did not reveal any new developments, it did indicate an increasing emphasis on the optimization of radiation protection. A clear trend towards attaining lower collective doses per unit practice over a given time period, despite the increase in nuclear power plant capacity, is also apparent, although very few data on job-related worker doses have been published to date in the open literature. From the regulators' viewpoint, a very strong desire was expressed for a move towards regulatory strategies that exempt practices and sources causing insignificant individual and collective doses. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Designing radiation protection signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.A.; Richey, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Entry into hazardous areas without the proper protective equipment is extremely dangerous and must be prevented whenever possible. Current postings of radiological hazards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) do not incorporate recent findings concerning effective warning presentation. Warning information should be highly visible, quickly, and easily understood. While continuing to comply with industry standards (e.g., Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines), these findings can be incorporated into existing radiological sign design, making them more effective in terms of usability and compliance. Suggestions are provided for designing more effective postings within stated guidelines

  20. Radiation protection for human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, Ya.Eh.; Bogdevich, I.M.; Rolevich, I.V.; Sharovarov, G.A.; Skurat, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1996 on the following directions: study of features of formation of the population irradiation doze; definition of collective irradiation dozes of the population of Belarus for 10 years after the Chernobyl accident and forecast of risk of radiation induced diseases; study of influence of the radioactive contamination on agricultural ecosystems; development of technologies of manufacture on the contaminated soils of plant and cattle-breeding production and food products with the permissible contents of radionuclides in according to the requirements of radiation protection; development and perfection of complex technologies, ways and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development and substantiation of actions for increase of radiation security of the population of Belarus; development of combined system of an estimation on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories

  1. International Physical Protection Advisory Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo Hoo, M.S.; Ek, D.; Hageman, A.; Jenkin, T.; Price, C.; Weiss, B.

    1998-01-01

    Since its inception in 1996, the purpose of the International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) has been to provide advice and assistance to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Member States on strengthening and enhancing the effectiveness of their state system of physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. Since the protection of nuclear materials and facilities is a Member State's responsibility, participation within the IPPAS program is voluntary. At the request of a Member State, the IAEA forms a multinational IPPAS team consisting of physical protection specialists. These specialists have broad experience in physical protection system design, implementation, and regulatory oversight. The exact make-up of the team depends upon the needs of the requesting state. IPPAS missions to participating states strive to compare the domestic procedures and practices of the state against international physical protection guidelines (IAEA Information Circular 225) and internationally accepted practice. The missions utilize a top to bottom approach and begin by reviewing the legal and regulatory structure and conclude with reviews of the implementation of the state regulations and international guidelines at individual facilities. IPPAS findings are treated as IAEA Safeguards Confidential Information. To date, IPPAS missions have been concluded in Slovenia, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, and Poland

  2. Developing a Radiation Protection Hub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, Nolan E [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The WARP report issued by the NCRP study committee estimates that in ten years there will be a human capital crisis across the radiation safety community. The ability to respond to this shortage will be amplified by the fact that many radiation protection (health physics) academic programs will find it difficult to justify their continued existence since they are low volume programs, both in terms of enrollment and research funding, compared to the research funding return and visibility of more highly subscribed and highly funded academic disciplines. In addition, across the national laboratory complex, radiation protection research groups have been disbanded or dramatically reduced in size. The loss of both of these national resources is being accelerated by low and uncertain government funding priorities. The most effective solution to this problem would be to form a consortium that would bring together the radiation protection research, academic and training communities. The goal of such a consortium would be to engage in research, education and training of the next generation of radiation protection professionals. Furthermore the consortium could bring together the strengths of different universities, national laboratory programs and other entities in a strategic manner to accomplish a multifaceted research, educational and training agenda. This vision would forge a working and funded relationship between major research universities, national labs, four-year degree institutes, technical colleges and other partners.

  3. Preventive radiation protection in Hamburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boikat, U.; Lauer, R.; Plath, S.; Sachde, Z.G.

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring of environmental radioactivity as well as complex investigations for precautionary radiation protection are carried out in Hamburg by two radiation monitoring labs. The spectrum of their tasks is specified by the media to be investigated. The tasks are originating from the Federal Precautionary Radiation Protection Act and from local needs. Mostly since a lot of years all interesting materials are analysed for their radioactivity content, as a safe and precautionary radiation protection demands. Until today samples show the influence of global nuclear weapon fallout of the period until 1964. Partly they show the radioactivity of Caesium originating from the Chernobyl accident. Since ten years the radioactivity contents in the material investigated are decreasing. Mostly the activity reached levels as at the end of 1985. The basic food stuff investigated in Hamburg can be considered as to be uncontaminated by radioactivity. With the introduction of the Federal Precautionary Radiation Protection Act, a series of new investigation programs and investigation methods were developed. This allows a better preparedness for extraordinary situations of increased radioactivity in the environment as 12 years ago. Thus a precise assessment of situations of increased radioactivity levels can be given together with coordinated and solid information to the public concerning provisions and actions. (orig.) [de

  4. Radiation and Environmental Protection Programme for the First Upcoming Nuclear Power Plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahrir

    2007-01-01

    Indonesia plans to operate the first nuclear power plant (NPP) by 2016. A radiation and environmental protection arrangement for NPPs is part of the whole safety system which is embedded in every practice involved radiation exposure to workers and members of public. A radiation and environmental protection programme for the NPP should adhere to international standards and mainstream in order to be acceptable to the public and international communities. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has recommended a radiation protection standard for NPPs as studied in this paper. Focus is given to the operational aspects of radiation protection program and discharge control to the environment. Some documents related to Safety Analysis Reports were used as working examples on its implementation. The study includes the classification of working areas and access control; local rules and supervision of work; work planning and work permits; protective clothing and protective equipment; facilities, shielding and equipment; application of the principle of optimization of protection; and removal or reduction in intensity of sources of radiation. The radiological protection aspects blend together in the whole NPP practices, each individual has his/her own responsibility in association with the radiation protection program implementation. It also present in the whole steps of NPP preparation up to its decommissioning. Promise on safety improvement and significant dose reduction in the recent development in NPP technology should scrutinized so that the option of proven technology as required in commercial power reactor licensing considers this tendency. (author)

  5. Traceability of radiation protection instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Y.; Kurosawa, T.

    2007-08-01

    Radiation protection instruments are used in daily measurement of dose and activities in workplaces and environments for safety management. The requirements for calibration certificates with traceability are increasing for these instruments to ensure the consistency and reliabilities of the measurement results. The present traceability scheme of radiation protection instruments for dose and activity measurements is described with related IEC/ISO requirements. Some examples of desirable future calibration systems with recent new technologies are also discussed to establish the traceability with reasonable costs and reliabilities.

  6. PET scan and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, F.; Lahmi, A.; Rousseau, A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose was the optimization of the radiation protection during examinations with 18 F-FDG, The immediate validation by the D.G.S.N.R., the results of dosimetry (h.p.10 = 12 μ sievert (average value/ technician / day for 6 patients) demonstrate the efficiency of the implemented means. From the very beginning, the installation of a PET-scanner requires a multidisciplinary conception. This essential thought contributes to an optimal radiation protection of the entire personnel of the service. (N.C.)

  7. Radiation protection/shield design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation protection/shielding design of a nuclear facility requires a coordinated effort of many engineering disciplines to meet the requirements imposed by regulations. In the following discussion, the system approach to Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) radiation protection will be described, and the program developed to implement this approach will be defined. In addition, the principal shielding design problems of LMFBR nuclear reactor systems will be discussed in realtion to LWR nuclear reactor system shielding designs. The methodology used to analyze these problems in the U.S. LMFBR program, the resultant design solutions, and the experimental verification of these designs and/or methods will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  8. Flexibility in radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, P.F.; Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The UK approach to radiation protection legislation is described in detail. The advantages are outlined of a flexible approach whereby the objectives of the legislation are clearly identified but the means of achieving these are left open or qualified by terms such as 'where reasonably practicable'. The roles and viewpoints of management and unions in such an approach are discussed especially with respect to legislation such as the Health and Safety at Work Act. Specific topics include requirements for notification of use, criteria for controlled areas and the tasks of the radiation protection adviser. (UK)

  9. Code of practice of radiation protection in fixed nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, M. A. M.

    2012-09-01

    The present work aims at developing and updating a code of practice of radiation protection in fixed nuclear gauges that comply with current international recommendations. The work also intended to evaluate the current radiation protection situation in two selected companies using nuclear gauges in Sudan. A draft of the code is proposed which includes the basic principle of protection such as source construction and gauges radiation monitoring, storage maintenance and leak testing as well as specific issues related to nuclear gauges. The practical part of this study included investigation of radiation protection in the comparisons using nuclear gauges for level detection, to evaluate the level of radiation protection and the compliance to the regulatory authority regulations. The result revealed that the two companies do not have an effective radiation protection program and that can lead to exposure of workers to unnecessary doses. Some recommendations were stated, if implemented they could improve the status of radiation protection in those companies. (Author)

  10. Philosophy of radiological protection and radiation hazard protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki; Kawano, Takao

    2013-01-01

    The radiation protection and the human safety in radiation facilities are strictly controlled by law. There are rules on the radiation measurement, too. In the present review, philosophy of the radiological protection and the radiation hazard protection law is outlined with reference to ICRP recommendations. (J.P.N.)

  11. Procedure and methodology of Radiation Protection optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hengde

    1995-01-01

    Optimization of Radiation Protection is one of the most important principles in the system of radiation protection. The paper introduces the basic principles of radiation protection optimization in general, and the procedure of implementing radiation protection optimization and methods of selecting the optimized radiation protection option in details, in accordance with ICRP 55. Finally, some economic concepts relating to estimation of costs are discussed briefly

  12. Radiation protecting sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makiguchi, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    As protection sheets used in radioactivity administration areas, a thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet with a thickness of less 0.5 mm, solid content (ash) of less than 5% and a shore D hardness of less than 60 is used. A composite sheet with thickness of less than 0.5 mm laminated or coated with such a thermoplastic polyurethane composition as a surface layer and the thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet applied with secondary fabrication are used. This can satisfy all of the required properties, such as draping property, abrasion resistance, high breaking strength, necking resistance, endurance strength, as well as chemical resistance and easy burnability in burning furnace. Further, by forming uneveness on the surface by means of embossing, etc. safety problems such as slippage during operation and walking can be overcome. (T.M.)

  13. Non-ionizing radiation and health protection problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, Henri.

    1979-01-01

    Wavelength and frequency are two closely related properties which determine the characteristics of any particular type of electromagnetic radiation and which can be used interchangeably to describe it. For protection purposes the determination of the energy absorbed (absorbed dose) and of its distribution within living systems, whatever the radiation concerned, is still one of the chief problems to be solved. Therefore, although thermal effects are often prevailing, no appropriate dose-effect relationships could be established in most cases and more particularly as far as non-thermal effects are concerned. The problems associated with the different types of NIR are briefly reviewed. An increasing number of countries is promulgating regulatory measures for limiting exposure to NIR of occupationally exposed individuals and of the general population. Harmonization of basic concepts and internationally acceptable protection standards are therefore urgently needed. IRPA is probably the only international, non-governmental scientific organization able to promote wide international and interdisciplinary cooperation in the field of health protection against NIR. Therefore, after having carefully considered the situation, IRPA felt that it was its responsibility to produce guidance on basic protection criteria and standards and created the International NIR-Committee with the objective of developing background documents and internationally accepted recommendations

  14. Symposium on radiation protection in neighbouring countries in Central Europe - 1995. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavic-Cidro, D.

    1996-01-01

    The 1995 Symposium on Radiation Protection in Neighbouring Countries in Central Europe was a continuation of a series of conferences held by radiation protection societies and/or associations in Central Europe to promote the knowledge in radiation protection and to exchange scientific information and experience between countries in this region. Radiation hazards present a small part of all hazards to which the mankind is exposed these days. However, radiation protection do have a leading role in creating a strategy to minimize and regulate practices where various hazards are involved. This time the symposium was organized by Radiation Protection Association of Slovenia and J. Stefan Institute in cooperation with Austrian Association for Radiation Protection, Croatian Radiation Protection Association, Czech Society for Radiation Protection, Health Physics Section of Hungary, Italian Radiation Protection Association and Slovak Society of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene. It was held in Portoroz, Slovenia. 112 papers were contributed as oral or poster presentations by 194 authors from 15 countries and two international organizations. Papers and posters covered a wide range of subjects, including: radiation protection at work place, natural radioactivity, nuclear instrumentation and dosimetry, emergency exposure situations, waste management, radiation protection principles and policies, radiation protection infrastructure, education, training and public relations and non-ionizing radiation. The well being of humans and other biota is tied in a very fundamental way to the environment, which make the environment a primary target for protection. That's why we believe that the activities of our Societies in future should be aimed at the protection of the environment in general, through a global and multi-disciplinary approach and the symposium demonstrated that there is a clear need for international communication and co-operation. The symposium was sponsored by

  15. Symposium on radiation protection in neighbouring countries in Central Europe - 1995. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glavic-Cidro, D [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1996-01-01

    The 1995 Symposium on Radiation Protection in Neighbouring Countries in Central Europe was a continuation of a series of conferences held by radiation protection societies and/or associations in Central Europe to promote the knowledge in radiation protection and to exchange scientific information and experience between countries in this region. Radiation hazards present a small part of all hazards to which the mankind is exposed these days. However, radiation protection do have a leading role in creating a strategy to minimize and regulate practices where various hazards are involved. This time the symposium was organized by Radiation Protection Association of Slovenia and J. Stefan Institute in cooperation with Austrian Association for Radiation Protection, Croatian Radiation Protection Association, Czech Society for Radiation Protection, Health Physics Section of Hungary, Italian Radiation Protection Association and Slovak Society of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene. It was held in Portoroz, Slovenia. 112 papers were contributed as oral or poster presentations by 194 authors from 15 countries and two international organizations. Papers and posters covered a wide range of subjects, including: radiation protection at work place, natural radioactivity, nuclear instrumentation and dosimetry, emergency exposure situations, waste management, radiation protection principles and policies, radiation protection infrastructure, education, training and public relations and non-ionizing radiation. The well being of humans and other biota is tied in a very fundamental way to the environment, which make the environment a primary target for protection. That's why we believe that the activities of our Societies in future should be aimed at the protection of the environment in general, through a global and multi-disciplinary approach and the symposium demonstrated that there is a clear need for international communication and co-operation. The symposium was sponsored by

  16. Radium organisation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, D.R.; Negi, P.S.; Dutta, T.K.; Gupta, B.D.

    1977-01-01

    In India, the brachytherapy sources used are mostly 226 Ra, 137 Cs and 60 CO. Radiotherapy of patients with these sources may also result in some degree of radiation exposure of radiologists, technologists, radiation source porters and even other workers in rooms around radiotherapy unit. Proper organization of radiotherapy unit leads to accuracy in treatment and protection to patients as well as medical and paramedical personnel. With this objective in view, a set of instructions to be followed while working with radiation sources, particularly radium; guidelines for the physical layout of the unit and staffing and a list of essential monitoring instruments are given. (M.G.B.)

  17. XXX. Days of Radiation Protection. Conference Proceedings of the 30-th Days of Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 107 papers are published. The Conference consists of following sections: Effects of ionizing radiation; Regulation of radiation protection; Dosimetry and Metrology of ionizing radiation; Radiation protection in nuclear Power plants; Medical exposure and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology; Natural radioactivity issues in radiation protection; Education, societal aspects and public involvement in radiation protection, trends and perspectives.

  18. XXX. Days of Radiation Protection. Conference Proceedings of the 30-th Days of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 107 papers are published. The Conference consists of following sections: Effects of ionizing radiation; Regulation of radiation protection; Dosimetry and Metrology of ionizing radiation; Radiation protection in nuclear Power plants; Medical exposure and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology; Natural radioactivity issues in radiation protection; Education, societal aspects and public involvement in radiation protection, trends and perspectives

  19. Radiation protection in the sand pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewson, Greg

    1997-01-01

    Radiation protection in the Western Australian minerals sands industry has attracted considerable controversy over the last 20 years: firstly, in relation to environmental and public health issues associated with the indiscriminate disposal of radioactive tailings as landfill in the mid to late 1970s and, secondly, in relation to occupational health issues associated with excessive radiation exposures to some workers at some plants in the mid to late 1980s. The industry also attracts attention through its proximity to coastal regions and population centres and consequent land use conflicts. Owing to intense political and societal scrutiny, and the emotional responses evoked by radiation, the industry's survival depends on a continuing high level of environmental and safety performance. This article summarises the successes and failures of the mineral sands industry in managing radiation protection and highlights some future issues and challenges for the industry. (Author)

  20. Radiation leaking protection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunami, Yoshio; Mitsumori, Kojiro

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent radioactivity from leaking outside of a reactor container by way of pipeways passing therethrough, by supplying pressurized fluid between each of a plurality of valves for separating the pipeways. Constitution: Pressurized fluid is supplied between each of a plurality of valves for separating pipeways. For instance, water in a purified water tank is pressurized by a pressure pump and the pressure of the pressurized water is controlled by a differential pressure detector, a pressure controller and a pressure control valve. In the case if a main steam pipe is ruptured outside of the reactor container or to be repaired, the separation valves are wholly closed and then the pressurizing device is actuated to supply pressurized water containing no radioactivity from the purified water tank to the position between the valves. The pressure in the pressurized water is controlled such that it is always higher by a predetermined level than the pressure in the reactor. This prevents the radioacitivity in the reactor core from leaking outside of the container passing through the valves, whereby radiation exposure in the working can be reduced and the circumferential contamination upon accident of pipeway rupture can be decreased. (Kawakami, Y.)

  1. RCA - a regional approach to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.; Easey, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Asia and Oceania is the oldest of four International Atomic Energy Agency Member State regional programs. Organized in 1972, 17 countries are now members of RCA - Australia, Bangladesh, Peoples Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. A number of projects related to the application of a wide range of nuclear technologies are conducted through RCA. The program is established by national coordinators for each project area, in consultation with IAEA technical officers. Most of the funding comes directly from RCA regional donor countries, with about one third supplied through the IAEA Technical Cooperation program. In 1986, following the Chernobyl accident, national coordinators and the IAEA staff recognized the value of establishing an RCA project aimed at strengthening regional radiation protection programs. The potential importance of RCA involvement in radiation protection is underscored by the fact that its member states comprise more than half of the world's population. The regional approach to addressing radiation protection issues allows member states to take advantage of regional resources to solve common regional problems. RCA provides the opportunity for specialists who may have few professional colleagues in their country to develop valuable contacts with regional radiation protection experts. In a very real way, specialists can network with their neighbours, often establishing bilateral programs outside of the RCA auspices. The current five year RCA Project to strengthen radiation protection infrastructure, with the IAEA designation - RAS/9/006, will be completed at the end of 1997. The project was developed to address five mayor areas of activity: Off-site emergency response; individual monitoring, internal and external; characterization of the physical, anatomical, physiological

  2. Radiation Protection Research: Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandecasteele, C.; Vandenhove, H

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's Radioecology programme are (1) to evaluate, based on laboratory and field experiments, the mechanisms and dynamic (fluxes) of radionuclide transfers in the biosphere, considering all factors affecting the transfer parameters and their variability; (2) to develop and optimise models to predict the fate of radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) to advise on appropriate countermeasures and remediation options to reduce public exposure to artificial and man-enhanced natural radioactivity and to evaluate their feasibility, cost effectiveness and sustainable character; (4) to provide information to national and international authorities to enable these to assess the consequences of routine and accidental releases for populations and to select the most adequate mitigation actions. Main achievements in 1999 are reported.

  3. Radiation Protection Research: Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.; Vandenhove, H.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's Radioecology programme are (1) to evaluate, based on laboratory and field experiments, the mechanisms and dynamic (fluxes) of radionuclide transfers in the biosphere, considering all factors affecting the transfer parameters and their variability; (2) to develop and optimise models to predict the fate of radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) to advise on appropriate countermeasures and remediation options to reduce public exposure to artificial and man-enhanced natural radioactivity and to evaluate their feasibility, cost effectiveness and sustainable character; (4) to provide information to national and international authorities to enable these to assess the consequences of routine and accidental releases for populations and to select the most adequate mitigation actions. Main achievements in 1999 are reported

  4. Quality control in environmental radioactivity measurements: experience of the Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiation, acting as International Reference Center Of the World Health Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, M L; Gahinet, M E; Moroni, J P; De Zertucha, J; Pellerin, P [Service Central de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 - Le Vesinet (France)

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to make known the experiences in the Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (SCPRI) in two fields: (i)in relation to the survey of, and research on, environmental radiation in France for 15 years, and (ii) as the International Reference Center (IRC), a responsibility which has been assigned to it by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for more than 7 years. The SCPRI has no permanent activity in pure metrology but the control which it exerts on a national scale (more than 30,000 environmental samples analyzed each year) and the periodic intercomparisons which it organizes with a large number of foreign Public Health Laboratories have led to the development of a strict quality control program for the techniques of preparation and verification of standard sources and reference samples which are essential in the use of counters, the application and development of spectrometric and radiochemical analytical methods and in the distribution of samples for intercomparison purposes. A description is given of practical experience of quality control in the preparation of standards and in international inter-comparisons organized under the sponsorship of the World Health Organization.

  5. The standards of Radiation Protection of IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butragueno, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection are technological disciplines whose international character have been recognised since the very beginning. Safety culture and the defense in depth criterium address in the same way this international collaboration. The International Atomic Energy Agency, with headquater in Vienna, is specially sensitive to this aspect and a significant amount of resources has been dedicated to the promotion of a closer international collaboration through the promotion of two complementary programs: the Convention on Nuclear Safety and the Convention on Rad waste Management, and the reconstruction of a great piramide of standards, that staring with Fundamental Principles, is followed with a set of Basic Safety Standards and completed with Safety Requirements and additional technical information, that provide practical ways to implement the Fundamental Principles. This article describe briefly the RASS Program of the IAEA (Radiation Safety Standards) and the work of the Technical Committees established to assess the Director General of the IAEA in this task. (Author)

  6. Radiation protection glossary. Selected basic terms used in IAEA publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The glossary is intended to be used as a terminology standard for IAEA documentation on radiation protection. An effort has been made to use definitions contained in internationally accepted publications such as recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), reports of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), with only slight modifications in order to tailor them more closely to IAEA needs. The glossary is restricted to ionizing radiation.

  7. Radiation protection in technical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, H.

    1980-01-01

    In on-site inspections, e.g. double-plate radiography of circumferential pipe welds Ir-192 is most frequently used. Methods, controlled area, possible personnel doses, and radiation protection measures for the inspection and construction personnel are briefly discussed. (HP) [de

  8. Radiation protection in veterinary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, C.P.

    1989-06-01

    This Code of Practice is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons in ensuring that workers and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of x-ray equipment in veterinary practice. (author)

  9. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Over 40 years have passed since the research of the Manhattan Project suggested the possibility of chemical protection against ionizing radiation. During that time, much has been learned about the nature of radiation-induced injury and the factors governing the expression of that injury. Thousands of compounds have been tested for radioprotective efficacy, and numerous theories have been proposed to account for these actions. The literature on chemical radioprotection is large. In this article, the authors consider several of the mechanisms by which chemicals may protect against radiation injury. They have chosen to accent this view of radioprotector research as opposed to that research geared toward developing specific molecules as protective agents because they feel that such an approach is more beneficial in stimulating research of general applicability. This paper describes the matrix of biological factors upon which an exogenous radioprotector is superimposed, and examines evidence for and against various mechanisms by which these agents may protect biological systems against ionizing radiation. It concludes with a brief outlook for research in chemical radioprotection

  10. Radiation protection training programmes Spanish approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arboli, M. Marco; Suarez, M. Rodriguez; Cabrera, S. Falcon

    2002-01-01

    Radiation Protection Programmes are being considered the best way to promote safety culture and to spread and propagate European basic safety standards. It is widely accepted that training is an important tool to upgrade competence for radiation exposed workers. The Spanish Radiation Protection Education and Training Programmes provide a solid and integrated educational model, which takes into account the variety of applied fields, the different levels of responsibilities, the technological and methodological advances, as well as the international tendencies. The needs for a specialised training on Radiation Protection (RP) for exposed workers appears into the Spanish regulation in 1964. National initial training programmes are well established since 1972. Individual certifications, based on personal licences are required for exposed workers. The Spanish regulation also includes continuous and on the job RP training. The educational programmes are being continuously updating and improving. CIEMAT plays an important role in RP Spanish training, improving and modifying the previous RP courses and developing new programmes in order to complete the RP training levels. To achieve Radiation Protection objectives, new technological media for educational methods and material are taking into account. Nevertheless, Spanish RP education and training model has to be improved in some aspects. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the situation and the future needs to be considered in order to complete the RP training processes

  11. Radiation protection in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechowski, J.; Lochard, J.; Lefaure, Ch.; Schieber, C.; Schneider, Th; Lecomte, J.F.; Delmont, D.; Boitel, S.; Le Fauconnier, J.P.; Sugier, A; Zerbib, J.C.; Barbey, P.

    1998-01-01

    Close ties exist between nuclear safety and radiation protection. Nuclear safety is made up of all the arrangements taken to prevent accidents occurring in nuclear facilities, these accidents would certainly involved a radiological aspect. Radiation protection is made up of all the arrangements taken to evaluate and reduce the impact of radiation on workers or population in normal situations or in case of accident. In the fifties the management of radiological hazards was based on the quest for minimal or even zero risk. This formulation could lead to call some activities in question whereas the benefits for the whole society were evident. Now a new attitude more aware of the real risks and of no wasting resources prevails. This attitude is based on the ALARA principle whose purpose is to maintain the exposure to radiation as low as reasonably achievable taking into account social and economic concerns. This document regroups articles illustrating different aspects of the radiation protection in nuclear facilities such as a research center, a waste vitrification workshop and a nuclear power plant. The surveillance of radiological impacts of nuclear sites on environment is examined, a point is made about the pending epidemiologic studies concerning La Hague complex. (A.C.)

  12. Radiation protection in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology is an essential part of present-day veterinary practice. The need for radiation protection exists because occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can result in deleterious effects that may manifest themselves not only in exposed individuals but in their descendants as well. These are respectively called somatic and genetic effects. Somatic effects are characterized by observable changes occurring in the body organs of the exposed individual. These changes may appear from within a few hours to many years later, depending on the amount and duration of exposure of the individual. In veterinary medicine, the possibility that anyone may be exposed to enough radiation to create somatic effect is extremely remote. Genetic effects are more a cause for concern at the lower doses used in veterinary radiology. Although the radiation doses may be small and appear to cause no observable damage, the probability of chromosomal damage in the germ cells, with the consequence of mutations, does exist. These mutations may give rise to genetic defects and therefore make these doses significant when applied to a large number of individuals. There are two main aspects of the problem to be considered. First, personnel working with X-ray equipment must be protected from excessive exposure to radiation during their work. Secondly, personnel in the vicinity of veterinary X-ray facilities and the general public require adequate protection

  13. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corstens, F.

    1989-01-01

    Aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine and the role of the Dutch Society for Nuclear Medicine in these are discussed. With an effective dose-equivalence of averaged 3 mSv per year per nuclear medical examination and about 200.000 examinations per year in the Netherlands, nuclear medicine contributes only to a small degree to the total averaged radiation dose by medical treating. Nevertheless from the beginning, besides to protection of environment and personnel, much attention has been spent by nuclear physicians to dose reduction with patients. Replacing of relatively long living radionuclides like 131 I by short living radionuclides like 99m Tc is an example. In her education and acknowledgement policy the Dutch Society for Nuclear Medicine spends much attention to aspects of radiation reduction. (author). 3 tabs

  14. 78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0268] Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear..., ``Radiation Sources,'' Section 12.3 -12.4, ``Radiation Protection Design Features,'' and Section 12.5, ``Operational Radiation Protection Program.'' DATES: The effective date of this Standard Review Plan update is...

  15. Regulations for radiation protection in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    These Regulations specify that responsibility for applying radiation protection regulations in industrial radiography rests with the owner of the establishment who will designate a radiation protection officer to this effect. They provide for the organisation of radiation protection, including the measures to be observed, exposure limits, etc. The competent authority for these questions is the State Institute of Radiation Hygiene [fr

  16. Radiation protection at nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Momose, T.; Furuta, S.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation protection methodologies concerning individual monitoring, workplace monitoring and environmental monitoring in nuclear fuel facilities have been developed and applied to facilities in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories (NCL) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for over 40 y. External exposure to photon, beta ray and neutron and internal exposure to alpha emitter are important issues for radiation protection at these facilities. Monitoring of airborne and surface contamination by alpha and beta/photon emitters at workplace is also essential to avoid internal exposure. A critical accident alarm system developed by JAEA has been proved through application at the facilities for a long time. A centralised area monitoring system is effective for emergency situations. Air and liquid effluents from facilities are monitored by continuous monitors or sampling methods to comply with regulations. Effluent monitoring has been carried out for 40 y to assess the radiological impacts on the public and the environment due to plant operation. (authors)

  17. Seventh meeting of radiation protection skilled persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhel, Th.; Briandchamplong, J.; Gambini, D.J.; Ammerich, M.; Aubert, B.; Barbey, P.; Biau, A.; Bruchet, H.; Capelle, M.H.; Flon, E.; Gauron, Ch.; Gravelotte, D.; Guerin, Ch.; Le Denmat, D.; Lemoine, Th.; Lombard, J.; Lucas, St.; Menechal, Ph.; Mignien, S.; Million, M.; Mozziconacci, J.G.; Prevot, S.; Radecki, J.J.; Rigaud, S.; Taillandier, P.; Timbert, M.; Vidal, J.P.; Bardelay, Ch.; Lahaye, Th.; Balduyck, S.; Chasson, E.; Rehel, J.L.; Chatellier, Ch.; Barret, Ch.; Guersen, J.; Degrange, J.P.; Sevestre, B.; Lahaye, Th.; Rodde, S.; Marchal, C.; Lefaure, Ch.; Bouk'il, H.; Gneiting, M.; Auboiroux, B.; Riedel, A.; Feuardent, J.; Scanff, P.; Bof, M.; Lochard, J.; Godet, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Twenty-three presentations out of 25 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - the evolution of workers' international protection rules against ionizing radiation risks (C. Bardelay); 2 - presentation of the report of the working group on radiation protection (P. Barbey); 3 - position of the French nuclear safety authority and of the labor general direction about the position of permanent expert groups in radiation protection concerning the expected evolutions in the occupation and training of radioprotection skilled persons (RSP), (T. Lahaye); 4 - experience feedback: RSP in surgery operating theater - a sometimes delicate intervention (S. Balduyck); 5 - workplace analysis in dental surgery: constraints and specificities (D. Le Denmat); 6 - workplace analysis: tritium atmospheric contamination (S. Rigaud); 7 - revision of the NFC 15-160 standard relative to radiology facilities (J.L. Rehel); 8 - example of area tele-dosimetry usage - the Pitie Salpetriere hospital experiment (C. Chatellier and C. Barret); 9 - contribution of radio-attenuation lead gloves in interventional radiology (J. Guersen); 10 - zoning in the medical domain: encountered problems typology and evaluation of possible solutions (Degrange, J.P.); 11 - management of used sealed sources distributed by the CEA and CISBIO (B. Sevestre); 12 - how to perform a measurement in radiation protection - how about measurement uncertainty (M. Ammerich); 13 - national campaign of control about the application of workers radiation protection rules (T. Lahaye); 14 - transparency and inspection approach in local nuclear applications: gamma-graphy, research, nuclear medicine, interventional radiography and radiotherapy (S. Rodde and C. Marchal); 15 - local/regional networks of RSPs and radiation protection actors: 2008 audit results and recent evolutions (C. Lefaure); 16 - role and missions of the external RSP

  18. Implementation of organizational measures in radiation protection in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freerk Boersma, H.

    2004-01-01

    The Regulation Administrative and Organizational Measures in Radiation Protection is an important part of new legislation concerning radiation protection in the Netherlands. In this contribution we pay attention to the implementation of two obligations resulting from this regulation, being the creation of a radiation protection organization, and the realization of a system of internal permits. These obligations apply to holders of comprehensive licenses. Relevant aspects of the regulation will be explained in some detail. The first draft of a guideline, initiated by the Dutch Radiation Protection Society and meant to facilitate putting up a system for internal permits, is discussed. We also describe the radiation protection organization and the system of internal permits at Groningen University, and focus on the major successes and flaws of both. (Author) 7 refs

  19. Applied radiation biology and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granier, R.; Gambini, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Written by two eminent expects in the field with many years of teaching experience between them, this book presents a concise coverage of the physical and biological basics of radiation biology and protection. The book begins with a description of the methods of particle detection and dosimetric evaluation. The effects of ionizing radiation on man are treated from the initial physico-chemical phase of interaction to their conceivable pathological consequences. Regulations, limits and safeguards on nuclear power plants, radioisotope installations and medical centers which make use of ionizing radiation are given and the risks of exposure to natural, industrial and scientific radiation sources evaluated. The final chapter takes a look at some of the more important nuclear accidents, including Windscale, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl, and describes basic procedures to be carried out in the eventuality of a nuclear emergency. Twelve chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  20. Data for radiation protection and nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Endo, Akira; Sakamoto, Yukio

    2001-01-01

    Various conversion coefficients have been used in external and internal dosimetry in radiation protection practices. Radiation doses in the human body cannot be directly measured in general situation and the conversion coefficient has been used to correlate the human body dose with physical quantities such as radioactivity, particle fluence and other dosimetric quantities to be used to describe the radiation field. Fluence-to-organ dose conversion coefficients have been calculated using Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in conjunction with an anthropomorphic mathematical phantom. Neutron and photon interaction cross-section libraries are indispensable for these calculations. ICRP Publication 74 gives tables of conversion coefficients for estimation of organ doses and effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons. Based on these results, shielding calculation parameters have been prepared for simple and easy dose estimation in radiation facilities. Dose factors, organ doses and effective dose per unit intake of radionuclide, have been also calculated for internal dosimetry purpose. ICRP Publications 68 and 72 give tables of dose factors for a variety of radionuclides. Revision of radiation data library has been made to reflect updated information on radionuclides to internal dosimetry. (author)

  1. Dose evaluation and protection of cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Satoshi; Takagi, Toshiharu

    2004-01-01

    This paper explained the effects of cosmic radiation on aircraft crews and astronauts, as well as related regulations. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends the practice of radiation exposure management for the handling/storage of radon and materials containing natural radioactive substances, as well as for boarding jet aircraft and space flight. Common aircraft crew members are not subject to radiation exposure management in the USA and Japan. In the EU, the limit value is 6 mSv per year, and for the crew group exceeding this value, it is recommended to keep records containing appropriate medical examination results. Pregnant female crewmembers are required to keep an abdominal surface dose within 1 mSv. For astronauts, ICRP is in the stage of thinking about exposure management. In the USA, National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement has set dose limits for 30 days, 1 year, and lifetime, and recommends lifetime effective dose limits against carcinogenic risk for each gender and age group. This is the setting of the dose limits so that the risk of carcinogenesis, to which space radiation exposure is considered to contribute, will reach 3%. For cosmic radiation environments at spacecraft inside and aircraft altitude, radiation doses can be calculated for astronauts and crew members, using the calculation methods for effective dose and dose equivalent for tissue. (A.O.)

  2. Radiation Protection at Light Water Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Prince, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This book is aimed at Health Physicists wishing to gain a better understanding of the principles and practices associated with a light water reactor (LWR) radiation protection program. The role of key program elements is presented in sufficient detail to assist practicing radiation protection professionals in improving and strengthening their current program. Details related to daily operation and discipline areas vital to maintaining an effective LWR radiation protection program are presented. Programmatic areas and functions important in preventing, responding to, and minimizing radiological incidents and the importance of performing effective incident evaluations and investigations are described. Elements that are integral in ensuring continuous program improvements are emphasized throughout the text.

  3. Radiation protection aspects in importing metallic scraps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risica, S.; Di Ciaccio, P.

    1996-09-01

    The meeting deals with radiation protection problems caused by the possibility that radioactive metal scraps or radioactive sources hidden in the scraps, may arrive in a foundry. The importance of this issue and of rational and systematic solutions is showed by several accidents, happened in the past in numerous countries, by many signals in Italy and by some papers published in international scientific journals or reports issued by authorities and institutions in different countries

  4. Research projects in radiobiology and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    Of the research projects sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency quite a large number are concerned with the biological effects of ionizing radiation. That itself, of course, is a very wide field covering such subjects as the nature and mechanism of radiation damage, genetic mutations, the varying radiosensitivity of different organisms, ways of modifying the natural sensitivity or resistance, and biological and chemical means of protection. In all these branches of enquiry, the Agency has awarded research contracts to scientific institutes or laboratories in different countries

  5. Research projects in radiobiology and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Of the research projects sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency quite a large number are concerned with the biological effects of ionizing radiation. That itself, of course, is a very wide field covering such subjects as the nature and mechanism of radiation damage, genetic mutations, the varying radiosensitivity of different organisms, ways of modifying the natural sensitivity or resistance, and biological and chemical means of protection. In all these branches of enquiry, the Agency has awarded research contracts to scientific institutes or laboratories in different countries

  6. Apoptosis signaling and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Akinori; Suzuki, Norio; Hosoi, Yoshio

    2005-01-01

    Radiation protection by apoptosis control is the suppression of cell death in highly radiosensitive tissues. This paper describes the outline of radiation-induced apoptosis framework, apoptosis-concerned target molecules possibly related to apoptosis by radiation and their inhibitors. Although there are intrinsic (via mitochondria) and extrinsic (via death receptor) pathways in apoptosis, this review mainly mentions the former which is more important in radiation-induced apoptosis. Those molecules known at present in the apoptosis are caspase, Bcl-2 family and p53. Caspase, a group of cystein proteases, initiates apoptosis but its inhibition is known not always to result in apoptosis suppression, suggesting the existence of caspase-independent pathways. Bcl-2 family involves apoptosis-suppressing (possessing BH domains) and -promoting (lacking BH domains or possessing BH3 domain alone/BH3-only protein) groups. Two p53-transcription-dependent and one -independent pathways in p53-induced apoptosis are known and p53 can be a most possible target molecule since it positions at the start of apoptosis. Authors have found a vanadate inactivates p53. Inhibitors affecting upstream molecules of apoptosis will be the most useful candidate for apoptosis suppression/radiation protection. (S.I.) 106 refs

  7. Radiation protection at new reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brissaud, A.

    2000-01-01

    The theoretical knowledge and the feedback of operating experience concerning radiations in reactors is now considerable. It is available to the designer in the form of predictive softwares and data bases. Thus, it is possible to include the radiation protection component throughout all the design process. In France, the existing reactors have not been designed with quantified radiation protection targets, although considerable efforts have been made to reduce sources of radiation illustrated by the decrease of the average dose rates (typically a factor 5 between the first 900 MWe and the last 1300 MWe units). The EDF ALARA PROJECT has demonstrated that good practises, radiation protection awareness, careful work organization had a strong impact on operation and maintenance work volume. A decrease of the average collective dose by a factor 2 has been achieved without noticeable modifications of the units. In the case of new nuclear facilities projects (reactor, intermediate storage facility,...), or special operations (such as steam generator replacement), quantified radiation protection targets are included in terms of collective and average individual doses within the frame of a general optimization scheme. The target values by themselves are less important than the application of an optimization process throughout the design. This is because the optimization process requires to address all the components of the dose, particularly the work volume for operation and maintenance. A careful study of this parameter contributes to the economy of the project (suppression of unecessary tasks, time-saving ergonomy of work sites). This optimization process is currently applied to the design of the EPR. General radiation protection provisions have been addressed during the basic design phase by applying general rules aiming at the reduction of sources and dose rates. The basic design optimization phase has mainly dealt with the possibility to access the containment at full

  8. Global view on radiation protection in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.

    2011-01-01

    When planning good management of ionising radiation in medicine, key factors such as ensuring that health professionals work together and convincing them that radiation protection (RP) represents a substantial part of the quality management system in their clinical practice are of utmost importance. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation has decided that one of the thematic priorities will be medical radiation exposure of patients. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has recently updated the report on RP in medicine and continues to work on focused documents centred on specific areas where advice is needed. The roles of the International Atomic Energy Agency, World Health Organization and the European Commission, in the area of RP in medicine, are described in the present document. The industry, the standardisation organisations as well as many scientific and professional societies are also dedicating significant effort to radiation safety aspects in medicine. Some of the efforts and priorities contemplated in RP in medicine over the coming years are suggested. The best outcome will be accomplished when all the actors, i.e. medical doctors, other health professionals, regulators, health authorities and the industry manage to work together. (authors)

  9. Radiation protection in hospital radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kini, K.S.; Gaur, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    Short-lived radiopharmaceuticals, such as 99m Tc labelled compounds, are prepared in the in-house pharmacy of the hospital. In addition, preparation of smaller doses for administration from the bulk material of the finished product received from the manufacturers, also involves considerable work for the radiopharmacist in the hospital. Hence they should be well informed about the radiation hazards and should be aware of the protective measures to be taken while handling radioactive materials for keeping the radiation levels in the laboratory and their personnel doses well within the specified limits. 3 refs., 5 tabs

  10. Days of Radiation Protection 2001. Conference Proceedings of the 24th Days of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohunice NPP

    2001-11-01

    Already the 24 th annual international conference 'Days of Protection from Radiation' was taking place in Jan Sverma Hotel in Demaenova dolina on 26-29 November 2001. More than 180 participants from the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic participated in the meetings of experts on protection from radiation. Representative of IAEA Division for Protection from Radiation and the representatives of several European companies securing the project, advisory and supplier's activities in dosimetry of ionising radiation also participated in the conference. The participants discussed in 7 expert panels the issue of protection from radiation in the legislative field, in the nuclear facilities operation and in medicine. The expert part of the other panels concerned the issues of ionising radiation impact on the environment and working environment, natural radio-nuclides, including radon and biologic impacts of radiation. One separate panel was dedicated to device techniques and methods of dosimetry of ionising radiation. More than 45 expert lectures and more than 40 poster presentations were presented at the conference during 3 days. The exhibition and presentation of measuring technique products and devices and of materials used in the area of radiation protection and nuclear medicine was prepared during the course of the conference. Participation in the conference showed that a great interest in problems of protection from radiation persists. This was proved by rich lecturing activity and wide discussions on the floor and during the poster presentations. Participants were satisfied since the organisers of the event prepared a worthy event with the rich expert themes at a good organisational and social level in a beautiful environment of Low Tatras

  11. Protection in handling ionizing radiation sources in national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The collection of study texts is divided into 13 chapters giving an explanation of the structure of the atom, the properties of ionizing radiation and its interactions, quantities and units used, basic dosimetric methods, biological radiation effects, the sources of population exposure, the principles of radiation protection, technological applications of ionizing radiation, the monitoring of personnel and environment, the method of recording and filing, the method of protection from external radiation and internal contamination, health care, and requirements for protection in handling nonsealed sources. (M.D.)

  12. Training courses on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Many Member States are developing or already have developed their own national training programmes. The IAEA is actively involved in promoting training in radiological protection, and this report has been prepared to provide the guidance that may be required in this development. The original version of the report on this subject was published in 1964 as Technical Reports Series No. 31 entitled ''Training in Radiological Protection: Curricula and Programming''. In 1975 a second version was published entitled ''Training in Radiological Protection for Nuclear Programmes'' as Technical Reports Series No. 166. This publication is intended mainly for use by persons who are responsible for organizing training programmes in radiation protection. It also reflects the policy of the Agency to have continuing standardized training in radiation protection. In addition to a small change in the title of the report, some concepts and ideas which are no longer applicable have been omitted and new information included. An important part of this report is the list of courses now offered in many Member States

  13. Minimum exposure limits and measured relationships between the vitamin D, erythema and international commission on non-ionizing radiation protection solar ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio; Butler, Harry; Turner, Joanna; Wainwright, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has established guidelines for exposure to ultraviolet radiation in outdoor occupational settings. Spectrally weighted ICNIRP ultraviolet exposures received by the skin or eye in an 8 h period are limited to 30 J m(-2). In this study, the time required to reach the ICNIRP exposure limit was measured daily in 10 min intervals upon a horizontal plane at a subtropical Australian latitude over a full year and compared with the effective Vitamin D dose received to one-quarter of the available skin surface area for all six Fitzpatrick skin types. The comparison of measured solar ultraviolet exposures for the full range of sky conditions in the 2009 measurement period, including a major September continental dust event, show a clear relationship between the weighted ICNIRP and the effective vitamin D dose. Our results show that the horizontal plane ICNIRP ultraviolet exposure may be used under these conditions to provide minimum guidelines for the healthy moderation of vitamin D, scalable to each of the six Fitzpatrick skin types. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  14. Pre-criticality testing of radiation monitors associated with protective and regulatory channels of PHWRs and related work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.M.; Rao, Suresh; Mahant, A.K.; Sathian, V.; Ghodke, Shobha; Satam, R.A.; Singh, Yashoda; Phadnis, U.V.; Shaha, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the various experiments that are regularly carried out for each PHWR since RAPS-2. The work involves performance evaluation of start-up counters and ion chambers used in Protective and Regulatory channels and start-up counters used both in-core and out of core. In addition, Radiation Safety Systems Division (RSSD) also carries out calibration of Delayed Neutron Monitors (DNM) and Self Powered Neutron Detectors (SPND). Except SPND, all other detectors are tested not only at BARC but also at reactor sites prior to initial flushing of heavy water, using the actual circuitry and control instruments at site. The performance evaluation of SPNDs is carried out at A-1 location of APSARA reactor core. Apart from these, RSSD also carries out calibration of zonal classification monitors and health physics related radiation monitors at BARC. (author)

  15. Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.; Kraus, W.

    1975-10-01

    'Risk of damage' and 'exposure risk' are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the 'exposure risk' on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Basing upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high 'exposure risk'. As a consequence the following recommendations are given for discussion: (a) occupationally exposed persons with small 'exposure risk' should be monitored using only a long-term dosimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence dosimeter), (b) in the case of internal exposure the surface and, if necessary, air contamination should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed. (author)

  16. Evolution of Radiation Protection System in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maina, J. A. W.

    2004-01-01

    attainment of the objectives of the National policy on radiation protection and waste safety. The current Radiation Protection Act is limited in scope, regulatory independence and empowerment. A new draft of the revised Act was submitted to the IAEA for review and comments. The revised version is aimed, inter alia, at meeting the principal requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards and incorporating aspects of non-ionizing radiation. The revised draft is now under discussion with stakeholders for their input before enactment. Development of a sustainable national infrastructure requires years of national effort and government commitment. Over the last two years, there has been sufficient government commitment and there have been solid achievements. Kenya has placed the issue of human resource development high on her development agenda and has provided support for expanding technical staffing of the Regulatory Authority with an initial recruitment of ten (10) Radiation Protection Officers. Other factors impacting on quality, effectiveness and efficiency of radiation protection programmes, are being appropriately addressed in order to realize a fully sustainable radiation protection infrastructure. (Author)

  17. The Radioecological Aspects OF Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branica, G.; Franic, Z.; Marovic, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the links between radioecology and radiation protection. The traditional radiation protection framework of the International Commission Radiological Protection (ICRP), adopted by the legislation of most countries, is shifting from the paradigm that 'if man is adequately protected from ionizing radiation, then other living things are also likely to be sufficiently protected' towards more efficient protection of non-human biota. However, the estimation of radiation doses, especially low ones, to non-human organisms is very complex issue since they have been studied to a far lesser extent compared to human doses. The first step in dose calculations (i.e. risk assessment) is the measurement of real field data for various radionuclides in various compartments of the biosphere as well as dose rate measurements. Once we obtain relevant data, it is reasonable to argue that biota is adequately protected if the dose rates to the maximally exposed individual from this population are below a certain (safe) limit. The problem arises when one attempts to identify such an individual within a contaminated environment described by measured radioecological parameters. Computer simulation techniques, like Monte Carlo methods are used to generate a 'population' of doses with known distributional qualities. Then, using statistical methods, a part of this population is mathematically 'sampled' to compare the ability of the various statistics at estimating the representative sample of maximally exposed individuals. This exposure, depending on environmental conditions is subject to radioecological investigations. Radioecological investigations regarding fission products in Croatia are implemented as part of an extended and still ongoing radioactive contamination monitoring programme of the human environment that has been fully harmonized with European legislation, i.e. the European Commission's recommendation of June 2000 on the

  18. Rule concerning sanitary protection against ionizing radiations: novelties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercedo, A.; Carmena, P.; Prieto, J. A.; Rubio, G.; Sollet, E.; Sustacha, D.

    2002-01-01

    Last July the a new legal Rule concerning Sanitary Protection against Ionising Radiation was published, as a transposition of the EU Directive about the Basic Norms related to the sanitary protection of workers and population against the risks resultant of the ionising radiation. The origin of this legislation goes back to the revision of the protection doctrine by the International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) en the year 1990. El scope of the revised Rule is the regulation of the protection of population and workers against ionising radiation, the establishment of the national protection system with its exposition and dose limits and the correspondent penalty regime. It also modifies the maximum radiation dose limits and reinforces the application of the optimisation principle in the use of ionising radiation. In this article, the novelties introduced by the new Rule are commented in detail, ordered by the Titles I to IX in which the Rule is divided. (Author)

  19. A National Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    The practice of radiation protection within Australia is fragmented on a number of different levels. Each state has its own radiation protection organisation. Within the Commonwealth there is also a large number of bodies which deal with different aspects of radiation protection or nuclear safety. There is also an interest in occupational radiation protection by Departments responsible for Occupational Health and Safety. It is estimated that this fragmentation affects the practice of radiation protection at a State level and also the role which Australia can play internationally. The establishment of a National Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety is therefore proposed. Possible structures and organizational arrangements for such an institute are discussed. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  20. Excellence through radiation protection practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.A.; Armitage, G.; Popple, R.T.; Carrigan, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear generation program at Ontario Hydro was initiated in the early 1960s. Over the last two decades the program has expanded to a planned capacity of ∼ 14,000 MW(electric) by 1992. Each of the nuclear stations consists of four identical reactor units and they range in size from 520 to 880 MW(electric). The overall objectives of Ontario Hydro's radiation protection program are stated as follows: (1) to prevent detrimental nonstochastic health effects to employees and the public; (2) to limit detrimental stochastic health effects occurring in employees or the public to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), social and economic factors being taken into account; and (3) to provide a level of health and safety that is as good as, or better than, comparable safe industries. Although many elements of the radiation protection program are similar to those adopted by other electrical utilities around the world, there are some unique features that have played an important part in the improvements achieved. These include: management commitment, design responsibility, radiation protection training, operations control, and work planning. The issues that need to be addressed in striving for overall excellence in radiological safety over the next decade are summarized

  1. Units for radiation protection work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, L.

    1997-06-01

    ICRU has defined special measurable (operational) quantities for radiation protection. A consequence of using the operational quantities is that hand-held and personal dosemeters can give different measuring results in the same radiation situation. The differences vary and are caused by the geometry of the radiation field. The units have well documented relations to e.g. the ICRP effective dose and equivalent dose to an organ or tissue. Therefore, it is possible to estimate these doses from a measured value of e.g. the ambient dose equivalent. ICRU and ICRP have recently reviewed these relations in two important commonly issued reports (Report 57 and Publication 74). This report tries to show the value of understanding these units and their relations and is primarily meant to be used for educational purposes. 11 refs

  2. Radiation Protection Legislation in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, Lars.

    1990-01-01

    Recent alterations in the radiation protection laws of the Nordic countries are presented. The report amends the previous SS-report 87-37 with the title Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Legislation in the Nordic Countries. (au)

  3. Establishments of scientific radiation protection management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1988-01-01

    Some aspects for establishing the radiation protection management program have been discussed. Radiation protection management program includes: definite aims of management, complete data register, strict supervision system, and scientific management methodology

  4. Development of a training programme for radiation protection officers in industrial irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumuni, I. I.

    2014-01-01

    The International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources establish the basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. One important aspect of the Safety Standard is education and training of all personnel involved in the activities of radiation and radioactive sources. According to the BSS a Radiation Protection Officer is an individual technically competent in radiation protection matters relevant for a given type of practice who is designated by the registrant or licensee to oversee the application of the requirements of the standards. By this assigned role, radiation protection officers for industrial irradiators should be adequately trained since these facilities involve very high dose rates during irradiation, such that a person accidentally exposed can receive a lethal dose within minutes or seconds and fatalities can occur. This training among others things will enable the radiation protection officers to understand practical application of the IAEA Safety Standard to industrial irradiator facilities, understand the requirements for safety assessments and emergency plans, be able to develop a radiation protection programme for irradiators, be familiar with the different types of industrial irradiators and their applications and understand the safety philosophy and design requirements for industrial irradiators. (author)

  5. Chemical protection from high LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko; Matsushita, Satoru; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Ohara, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Radioprotection by WR151327 from high LET fast neutrons was investigated and compared with that from low LET radiation. Radiation damage in bone marrow, intestine, skin and leg length were all protected by a pretreatment with 400 mg/kg WR151327. Most prominent protection was observed for bone marrow, which gave a Dose Modifying Factor (DMF) of 2.2 against γ rays. Identical protection was observed between early and late radiation damage. WR151327 protected fast neutrons less efficiently than γ rays; 40% for bone marrow and 80% for skin leg. Pathological findings indicated that hyperplastic change in both dermis and epidermis associated with late skin shrinkage. Laser doppler flow-metry showed a good relationship between reduction of blood flow and late skin shrinkage. Irradiation of skin by heavy particle Carbon-12 indicated that skin shrinkage was modified by unirradiated surrounding normal tissues, which proposed a significant role of 'Volume Effect' in radiation damage. Tumor tissues were less protected by WR151327 than normal tissues. Dependence of radioprotection by WR151327 on tissue oxygen concentration is a probable reason to explain the difference between normal and tumor tissues. (author)

  6. Introduction to radiation protection practical knowledge for handling radioactive sources

    CERN Document Server

    Grupen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The book presents an accessible account of the sources of ionising radiation and the methods of radiation protection. The basics of nuclear physics which are directly related to radiation protection are briefly discussed. The book describes the units of radiation protection, the measurement techniques, biological effects of radiation, environmental radiation, and many applications of radiation. For each chapter there is a problem section with full solutions. A detailed glossary and many useful information in appendixes complete the book. The author has addressed the issue of internationality to make sure that the text and, in particular, the complicated regulations can be easily interpreted not only in Europe and the United States but also in other countries. The subject of radiation protection requires a certain amount of mathematics. For those who have forgotten the basic rules of calculus a short refresher course in the form of a mathematical appendix is added.

  7. New Radiation Protection training room

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    From now on, the theory and practical components of the Radiation Protection training, developed by the RP Group and offered by the HSE Unit’s Safety Training team to people working in a Controlled Radiation Area, will take place in a dedicated teaching room, designed specifically for this kind of training.   The new room is in the Safety Training Centre on the Prévessin site and has been open since 16 October. It has an adjoining workshop that, like the room itself, can accommodate up to 12 people. It is also equipped with an interactive board as well as instruments and detectors to test for ionising radiation. This room is located near the recently inaugurated LHC tunnel mock-up where practical training exercises can be carried out in conditions almost identical to those in the real tunnel. To consult the safety training catalogue and/or sign up for Radiation Protection training, please go to: https://cta.cern.ch For further information, please contact the Safety Trainin...

  8. Coastal sea radiation environment and biodiversity protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Senming; Shang Zhaorong

    2009-01-01

    This paper characterizes the types, trend and the potential of radiation contamination in the sea against the development of nuclear power stations. Combined with the present status of radioactive contamination and marine biodiversity in China seas, it is pointed out that non-human radiation protection should be considered on the bases of marine biodiversity protection. Besides, the reference species for marine radiation protection and some viewpoints on the work of marine radiation protection in China are pro- posed. (authors)

  9. Radiation protection and the development of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.; Fitoussi, L.

    1975-01-01

    Radiological hazards are defined. Following a short explanation of the International Commission on Radiation Protection's permissible values of exposure, some indicators are given about the component of natural radioactivity [fr

  10. Current trends in radiation protection in Egypt. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomma, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The treatise presents the development of radiation protection in egypt over the past four decades. The contents will include a historical synopsis, and the current state of art regarding competent authorities, the hierarchy involved, and the respective responsibilities. The recent publications of the international trends in radiation protection are also mentioned. The efforts made towards the implementation of the new recommendations on radiation protection, and updating of the radiation protection legislations are also discussed. The 1994 international safety standards, and the collective opinion of the committee on radiation protection and public health (CRPPH) of the organization for economic Co-operation and development of the Nuclear energy agency OECD/NEA are also summarized

  11. Current trends in radiation protection in Egypt. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomma, M A [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The treatise presents the development of radiation protection in egypt over the past four decades. The contents will include a historical synopsis, and the current state of art regarding competent authorities, the hierarchy involved, and the respective responsibilities. The recent publications of the international trends in radiation protection are also mentioned. The efforts made towards the implementation of the new recommendations on radiation protection, and updating of the radiation protection legislations are also discussed. The 1994 international safety standards, and the collective opinion of the committee on radiation protection and public health (CRPPH) of the organization for economic Co-operation and development of the Nuclear energy agency OECD/NEA are also summarized.

  12. Radiation protection in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado M, H.

    2008-12-01

    The justification of the practices is the fundamental principle on which rests the peaceful use of ionizing radiations. They actually contain as aspirations to improve the quality of people's lives, contributing to sustainable development through environmental protection, so that the sources security and the individuals protection will be conditions which are not and should can not be operated. For medical applications is a highly illustrative example of this, since both for the diagnosis and therapy, the goal is to achieve what is sought for the white tissue, secured the least possible damage to the neighboring tissues so that in turn reduce the negative effects for the patient. As a basis for achieving the above, it is essential to have qualified personnel in all areas incidents, for example users, workers, officials and staff members. There are a variety of specialists in the field of medical applications as, nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, radiation protection, medical physics, radiation physics and others. Among the human resource in the country must make up the majority are medical radiologists, highlighting gaps in the number of radiotherapy and nuclear medicine but specially in the medical physics, who is in some way from a special viewpoint of the formal school, new to the country. This is true for the number of facilities which are in the country. The radiation protection responsibilities in medical applications focus primarily on two figures: the radiology safety manager, who is primarily dedicated to the protection of occupationally exposed personnel and the public, and the medical physicist whose functions are geared towards the radiological protection of the patient. The principal legislation in the medical applications area has been enacted and is monitored by the Health Secretary and National Commission on Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, entities that have reached agreements to avoid overlap and over-regulation. Medical applications in the

  13. State Radiation Protection Supervision and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 2002 is presented

  14. Radiation protection. The past and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    After a short summary of the history of radiation protection and its scientific basis a survey is given on the actual state of radiation protection, thereby entering into open questions like risk perception and communication with the general public. Finally, the future tasks of radiation protection are described.

  15. State Radiation Protection Supervision and Control

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 2002 is presented.

  16. State Supervision and Control of Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 1999-2001 is presented.

  17. Judgement in achieving protection against radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    This article includes the following topics: Ionizing radiation as a toxic agent; value judgement in establishing protection standards; origin of radiation protection standards; numerical radiation protection standards; exposure of populations; the proportional dose-effect relationship; assumptions involved in the proportional dose-effect relationship and a continued need for value judgement

  18. An introduction to radiation protection principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, R.W.; Kalos, F.; Bond, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of the document is to outline the fundamentals of radiation protection, to describe methods that enable employees to work safely with radiation and to aquaint employees with CRNL's radiation and industrial safety organization

  19. Radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation, particularly in medicine and industry, is growing throughout the world, with further expansion likely as technical developments result from research. One of the longest established applications of ionizing radiation is industrial radiography, which uses both X radiation and gamma radiation to investigate the integrity of equipment and structures. Industrial radiography is widespread in almost all Member States. It is indispensable to the quality assurance required in modern engineering practice and features in the work of multinational companies and small businesses alike. Industrial radiography is extremely versatile. The equipment required is relatively inexpensive and simple to operate. It may be highly portable and capable of being operated by a single worker in a wide range of different conditions, such as at remote construction sites, offshore locations and cross-country pipelines as well as in complex fabrication facilities. The associated hazards demand that safe working practices be developed in order to minimize the potential exposure of radiographers and other persons who may be in the vicinity of the work. The use of shielded enclosures (fixed facilities), with effective safety devices, significantly reduces any radiation exposures arising from the work. This Safety Report summarizes good and current state of the art practices in industrial radiography and provides technical advice on radiation protection and safety. It contains information for Regulatory Authorities, operating organizations, workers, equipment manufacturers and client organizations, with the intention of explaining their responsibilities and means to enhance radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography

  20. Space radiation protection: Destination Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco

    2014-04-01

    National space agencies are planning a human mission to Mars in the XXI century. Space radiation is generally acknowledged as a potential showstopper for this mission for two reasons: a) high uncertainty on the risk of radiation-induced morbidity, and b) lack of simple countermeasures to reduce the exposure. The need for radiation exposure mitigation tools in a mission to Mars is supported by the recent measurements of the radiation field on the Mars Science Laboratory. Shielding is the simplest physical countermeasure, but the current materials provide poor reduction of the dose deposited by high-energy cosmic rays. Accelerator-based tests of new materials can be used to assess additional protection in the spacecraft. Active shielding is very promising, but as yet not applicable in practical cases. Several studies are developing technologies based on superconducting magnetic fields in space. Reducing the transit time to Mars is arguably the best solution but novel nuclear thermal-electric propulsion systems also seem to be far from practical realization. It is likely that the first mission to Mars will employ a combination of these options to reduce radiation exposure. Copyright © 2014 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Operational radiation protection: A guide to optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide practical guidance on the application of the dose limitation system contained in the Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection to operational situations both in large nuclear installations and in much smaller facilities. It is anticipated that this Guide will be useful to both the management and radiation protection staff of operations in which there is a potential for occupational radiation exposures and to the competent authorities with responsibilities for providing a programme of regulatory control. Contents: Dose limitation system; Optimization and its practical application to operational radiation protection; Major elements of an effective operational radiation protection programme; Review of selected parts of the basic safety standards with special reference to operational radiation protection; Optimization of radiation protection; Techniques for the systematic appraisal of operational radiation protection programmes. Refs and figs

  2. Radiation protection in well logging: case studies in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    This study is performed to improve radiation protection level in well logging include tow case studies in Sudan (Lost or misplaced sources). General review of radiation and radiation protection basic concept is highlighted discussed. Also preview of well logging practice and source of radiation use in well logging, safety of radiation sources, storage and manage of not use sources (weak sources) and protection of worker and potential exposure for public and worker, investigations in cause of lost or misplaced sources in well. Assessment was made in well logging using checklist prepared in accordance with the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA basic safety standard, International Committee for Radiological Protection ICRP and safety in transport of radiation sources. The checklist includes all requirement of radiation protection. It is found that all requirement was present except the delay of calibration of radiation detectors, the movement of radiation sources form storage to base of manipulated area need adequate care for shielding and safe transport and personal monitoring service must be provide in Sudan. Investigation was made in cause of lose of nine radiation source in well it is found that all those sources were loss in different depth in the well and with deferent location and there was no risk because there was no contamination of fluids which caused by damage of loss sources. Some recommendations were stated that, if implemented could improve the status of radiation protection in well logging. (Author)

  3. Radiation protection programme for emergency exposure situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoah, Peter Atta

    2016-04-01

    An assessment of the Radiation Protection of Emergency Exposure Situations in Ghana was carried out in relation to documents provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). As realized in the document of the “Method for Developing Arrangements for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency” of the IAEA, the National Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response Plan (NNRERP) of Ghana also discusses the Infrastructural and Functional Requirements necessary for the intervention of a nuclear or radiological emergency. The NNRERP describes the concept of operations for a response designed to facilitate the delivery of coordinated assistance to government authorities such as the National Disaster Management Organisation (NADMO), the Radiation Protection Board (RPB) and other participating organizations. From the NNRERP, practices in Ghana, fall into emergency planning category III and IV. As part of the planning measures, one of Ghana Atomic Energy Commission’s primary functions is to provide technical support with a mechanism for timely, interagency coordination of advice and recommendations to NADMO concerning protective actions, environmental concerns, health matters and other related matters. It has been realized from this assessment that there is an urgent need to upgrade infrastructure with logistics for training, exercises and drills to achieve its optimum expectations which will eventually lead to high level of confidence in meeting the standard of a Radiation Protection Programme in Emergency Exposure Situations. (au)

  4. Radiation protection requirements for medical application of ionizing radiation in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestoroska, Svetlana; Angelovski, Goran; Shahin, Nuzi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the regulatory infrastructure in radiation protection in the Republic of Macedonia is presented. The national radiation protection requirements for the medical application of ionizing radiation are reviewed for both occupational exposed persons and patients undergoing a medical treatment with ionizing radiation and their compliance with the international standards is considered. The gaps identified on the national level are presented and steps for overcoming such gaps are analyzed.(Author)

  5. Radiation Protection of Patients program (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, R.; Perez, M. R.; Buzzi, A.; Andisco, D.

    2006-01-01

    After an initial period of conviction for installing an active discussion on Radiation Protection of Patients inside the medical community, there were organized working groups in Radiodiagnosis, Radiotherapy, Nuclear Medicine and on radiation protection of pregnant women. These groups began systematical activities, which received a strong institutional support of the Argentine Society of Radiology, toward the implementation of a Program of RPP that is being put nowadays into practice. This program has three aims and a series of targets to be fulfilled in successive stages: Basic aims and short term targets: 1) To guarantee the Justification. First goal: Development of the Prescription Guide (achieve) 2) To optimize the radioprotection: First goal: Development of a Manual of Procedures (achieved) 3) To prevent potential exposures. First goal: Design of a Basic Quality System in Health (achieved) The effective participation of the professional's and technician's associations in the development of the program of radiological protection of the patient is a key aspect for the success. (Author)

  6. Patient Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Role of Radiotherapy is treatment modalities for cancer which is generally assumed that 50 to 60% of cancer patients will benefit from radiotherapy. It constitutes a peaceful application of ionizing radiation and an essential part of cancer management. The two aims of radiation protection Prevention is of deterministic effect and Reduction of the probability of stochastic effects. The Shielding fundamentals is to limit radiation exposure of staff, patients, visitors and the public to acceptable levels it also optimize protection of patients, staff and the public. Diagnosis is important for target design and the dose required for cure or palliation while Simulator is often used twice in the radiotherapy process where Patient data acquisition - target localization, contours, outlines and Verification. The Prescription is the responsibility of individual clinicians, depending on the patient’s condition, equipment available, experience and training. An ultimate check of the actual treatment given can only be made by using in vivo dosimetry. Treatment records must be kept of all relevant aspects of the treatment – including Session and Summary Record information, Records all treatment parameters, Dose Calculations and Dose Measurements

  7. Training for Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartal, G.; Sapoval, M.; Ben-Shlomo, A.

    1999-01-01

    Program in radiological equipment has incorporated more powerful x-ray sources into the standard Fluoroscopy and CT systems. Expanding use of interventional procedures carries extensive use of fluoroscopy and CT which are both associated with excessive radiation exposure to the patient and personnel. During cases of Intravenous CT Angiography and direct Intraarterial CT Angiography, one may substitute a substantial number of diagnostic angiography checks. Basic training in interventional radiology hardly includes some of the fundamentals of radiation protection. Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology must be implemented in daily practice and become an integral part of procedure planning strategy in each and every case. Interventional radiological most master all modern imaging modalities in order to choose the most effective, but least hazardous one. In addition, one must be able to use various imaging techniques (Fluoroscopy, CTA, MM and US) as a stand-alone method, as well as combine two techniques or more. Training programs for fellows: K-based simulation of procedures and radiation protection. Special attention should be taken in the training institutions and a basic training in radiation protection is advised before the trainee is involved in the practical work. Amendment of techniques for balloon and stent deployment with minimal use of fluoroscopy. Attention to the differences between radiation protection in cardiovascular and nonvascular radiology with special measures that must be taken for each one of them (i.e., peripheral angiography vs. stenting, Endo luminal Aortic Stent Graft, or nonvascular procedures such as biliary or endo urological stenting or biliary intervention). A special emphasis should be put on the training techniques of Interventional Radiologists, both beginners and experienced. Patient dose monitoring by maintaining records of fluoroscopic time is better with non-reset timer, but is optional. Lee of automated systems that

  8. Distributed radiation protection console system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhokra, R.S.; Deshpande, V.K.; Mishra, H.; Rajeev, K.P.; Thakur, Bipla B.; Munj, Niket

    2004-01-01

    Radiation exposure control is one of the most important aspects in any nuclear facility . It encompasses continuous monitoring of the various areas of the facility to detect any increase in the radiation level and/or the air activity level beyond preset limits and alarm the O and M personnel working in these areas. Detection and measurement of radiation level and the air activity level is carried out by a number of monitors installed in the areas. These monitors include Area Gamma Monitors, Continuous Air Monitors, Pu-In-Air Monitors, Criticality Monitors etc. Traditionally, these measurements are displayed and recorded on a Central Radiation Protection Console(CRPC), which is located in the central control room of the facility. This methodology suffers from the shortcoming that any worker required to enter a work area will have to inquire about the radiation status of the area either from the CRPC or will get to know the same directly from the installed only after entering the area. This shortcoming can lead to avoidable delays in attending to the work or to unwanted exposure. The authors have designed and developed a system called Distributed Radiation Protection Console (DRPC) to overcome this shortcoming. A DRPC is a console which is located outside the entrance of a given area and displays the radiation status of the area. It presents to health physicist and the plant operators a graphic over-view of the radiation and air activity levels in the particular area of the plant. It also provides audio visual annunciation of the alarm status. Each radioactive area in a nuclear facility will have its own DRPC, which will receive as its inputs the analog and digital signals from radiation monitoring instruments installed in the area and would not only show those readings on its video graphic screen but will also provide warning messages and instructions to the personnel entering the active areas. The various DRPCs can be integrated into a Local Area Network, where the

  9. The development of radiation protection in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisztray-Balku, S.; Bozoky, L.; Koblinger, L.

    1982-01-01

    This book contains the short history, development and present status of radiation protection and health physics in Hungary. The first chapter discusses the radiation protection standards and practices used in scientific, technical and medical radiology in this country, with their development history. The next chapter is devoted to the radiation protection techniques applied for medical uses of radioisotopes and accelerators including the organizational and management problems. The last chapter presents a review on radiation protection and health physics aspects of the Hungarian industry and agriculture, on radiation protection research and management, on instruments and dosimeters. A national bibliography on the subject up to 1979 is included. (Sz.J.)

  10. Radiation protection technologist training and certification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of this program is to establish training requirements and methods for certifying the technical competence of Radiation Protection Technologists. This manual delineates general requirements as well as academic training, on-the-job training, area of facility training, and examination or evaluation requirements for Radiation Protection Trainees (Trainees), Junior Radiation Protection Technologists (JRPT), Radiation Protection Technologists (RPT), and Senior Radiation Protection Technologists (SRPT). This document also includes recertification requirements for SRPTs. The appendices include training course outlines, on-the-job training outlines, and training certification record forms

  11. Radiation protection safety in Uganda -- Experience and prospects of the National Radiation Protection Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisolo, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Uganda National Radiation Protection Service (NRPS) is a technical body under the Atomic Energy Control Board, established by Law - the Atomic Energy Decree of 1972, Decree No. 12, to oversee and enforce safety of radiation sources, practices and workers; and to protect the patients, members of the public and the environment from the dangers of ionizing radiation and radioactive wastes. The Ionizing Radiation Regulations (Standards) - Statutory Instruments Supplement No. 21 of 1996 -- back up the Law. The Law requires all users, importers and operators of radiation sources and radioactive materials to notify the NRPS for registration and licensing. The NRPS is responsible for licensing and for the regulatory enforcement of compliance to the requirements for the safety of radiation sources and practices. There are about 200 diagnostic X-ray units, two radiotherapy centres, one nuclear medicine unit, several neutron probes, about three level gauges and two non-destructive testing sources and a number of small sealed sources in teaching and research institutions. About 50% of these sources have been entered in our inventory using the RAIS software provided by the IAEA. There are about 500 radiation workers and 250 underground miners. The NRPS covers about 50% of the radiation workers. It is planned that by June 2001, all occupational workers will be monitored, bringing coverage to 100%. The Government of Uganda is making the necessary legal, administrative and technical arrangements aimed at establishing the National Radiation Protection Commission as an autonomous regulatory authority. The Atomic Energy Decree of 1972 and Regulations of 1996 are being revised to provide for the National Radiation Protection Commission and to make it comply with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards Safety Series No. 115. (author)

  12. Comparison of Radiation Protection Training in European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozelj, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Practice and implementation of radiation protection in European countries and in majority of other countries all over the world relies on common principles and recommendations established by international organisations. These principles and recommendations were incorporated in national legislation ensuring similar and compatible standards of protection for occupationally exposed workers and members of the public. One of the basic requirements derived from international recommendations is also formal request for training of occupationally exposed workers. The final goals of the training are defined only indirectly through standards of safety and protection. Therefore national regulation regarding radiation protection training in particular country is a result of general approach to education and training, historical circumstances, influence and importance of nuclear technology and other factors influencing health protection and national well-being in general. The result is variety of national regulations ranging from very stringent and detailed to rather general and flexible. Nevertheless, results of implemented training do not differ sufficiently to significantly affect achieved standards of radiation protection. According to available information European countries implement radiation protection training in dissimilar ways. Institutions and organisations involved, as well as form and duration of training varies from country to country. Therefore, it is not possible to determine common rules just by reviewing radiation protection training in different countries. It is the intention of this contribution to analyse and discuss available information regarding radiation protection training and point out the necessity of international co-operation in this field, especially in the sense of the future trends. (author)

  13. Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

    2010-01-01

    BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.

  14. Radiation protection in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozani, F.; Parnianpour, H.

    1976-08-01

    In considering the special provisions required in dental radiography, investigations were conducted in Iran. Radiation dose levels in dental radiography were found to be high. Patient exposure from intraoral radiographic examination was calculated, using 50kV X-ray. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were fastened to the nasion, eyes, lip, philtrum, thyroid, gonads and to the right and left of the supra-orbital, infra-orbital temporomandibular joints of live patients. The highest exposure value was for the lower lip. Recommendations concerning educational training and protection of staff and patients were included

  15. SI units in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, D.

    1976-10-01

    In the field of radiation protection all hitherto used units for activity, activity concentrations, exposure, absorbed dose, and dose rates have to be replaced by SI units during the next years. For this purpose graphs and conversion tables are given as well as recommendations on unit combinations preferentially to be used. As to the dose equivalent, it is suggested to introduce a new special unit being 100 times greater than the rem, instead of maintaining the rem or using the gray for both absorbed dose and dose equivalent. Measures and time schedule relating to the gradual transition to SI units in measuring techniques, training, and publishing et cetera are explained. (author)

  16. CEC radiation protection research and training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Program (RPP), initiated as a consequence of the Euratom Treaty aims to promote: scientific knowledge to evaluate possible risks from low doses of natural, medical and man-made radiation; development of methods to assess radiological risks; incentive and support for cooperation between scientists of Member States; expertise in radiation protection by training scientists and the scientific basis for continual updating of the 'Basic Safety Standards', and the evolution of radiation protection concepts and practices. 3 refs

  17. Nuclear analysis methods. Rudiments of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear analysis methods are generally used to analyse radioactive elements but they can be used also for chemical analysis, with fields such analysis and characterization of traces. The principles of radiation protection are explained (ALARA), the biological effects of ionizing radiations are given, elements and units used in radiation protection are reminded in tables. A part of this article is devoted to how to use radiation protection in a nuclear analysis laboratory. (N.C.)

  18. Standard Guide for Radiation Protection Program for Decommissioning Operations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides instruction to the individual charged with the responsibility for developing and implementing the radiation protection program for decommissioning operations. 1.2 This guide provides a basis for the user to develop radiation protection program documentation that will support both the radiological engineering and radiation safety aspects of the decommissioning project. 1.3 This guide presents a description of those elements that should be addressed in a specific radiation protection plan for each decommissioning project. The plan would, in turn, form the basis for development of the implementation procedures that execute the intent of the plan. 1.4 This guide applies to the development of radiation protection programs established to control exposures to radiation and radioactive materials associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The intent of this guide is to supplement existing radiation protection programs as they may pertain to decommissioning workers, members of...

  19. Radiation protection of the public: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of radiation protection standards for the public, the present system in the United States for limiting radiation exposures of the public primarily by means of environmental radiation standards for specific practices or sources, and recent developments that may affect future standards and policies for radiation protection of the public. The radiobiological and epidemiological basis for radiation protection standards and policies is emphasized. Difficulties associated with the current regulatory framework are discussed, and proposal for addressing these difficulties are presented. 16 refs., 1 tab

  20. Proceedings of the International Conference on Modern Radiotherapy. Advances and Challenges in Radiation Protection of Patients; Actes de la conference internationale sur la radiotherapie moderne. Defis et progres dans le domaine de la radioprotection des patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    The use of ionizing radiation in medicine has led to major improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. While bringing new benefits for cancer treatment, modern radiotherapy also poses new challenges in terms of radiation protection of patients. Prevention of radiotherapy incidents and accidents is a major issue in this area. In December 2009, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) organised the 1. international conference on radiation protection of patients in radiotherapy. The major objective of the conference was to provide a platform for exchanging experience, and reviewing the actions implemented to improve the radiation safety in radiotherapy both at national and international level. The expected result was: - to reach a consensus about the necessity to strengthen existing international actions for prevention of incidents and accidents, - to set up an international cooperation to improve management for overexposed patients, - to outline a strategy for strengthening regulation, - to contribute to the elaboration of an international scale to rate patient related events for communication and reporting purpose. 360 delegates from 50 countries across the world participated at the 3-day conference. 41 presentations were made and 67 posters were displayed. The conference brought together a broad spectrum of expertise: scientists, health professionals, medical devices manufacturers, risk management specialists, radiation protection experts, representatives from Radiation Protection and Health Authorities as well as patient's associations. The programme covered both scientific and medical issues, such as patient sensitivity to ionising radiation and the treatment of complications. It also provided scope to discuss the benefits and risks of modern radiotherapy and to explore treatment safety issues from various perspectives, including human resources, expertise, education and training along with control and prevention strategies. The