WorldWideScience

Sample records for international power generation

  1. International cost relations in electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.; Duengen, H.; Wilhelm, M.

    1986-01-01

    In spite of the fact that analyses of the cost of electric power generation as the result of international comparative evaluations are indisputably relevant, problems pending in connection with the costs of representative power plant technologies are of the methodological bind. German authors have hitherto also been failing to clear up and consider all aspects connected with the problems of data acquisition and the adequate interpretation of results. The analysis presented by the paper abstracted therefore aims at the following: 1) Systematization of the different categories of cost relevant in connection with international comparative evaluation. Classification into different categories of decision making and development of standards meeting the requirements of international comparative evaluation. 2) Calculation of relevant average financial costs of Western German, America and French fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants by means of adequate calculation models, that is the assessment of costs with regard to countries and power plant technologies which are relevant to the Federal Republic of Germany. 3) Analysis of the resulting differences and determinantal interpretation. (orig./UA) [de

  2. The changing face of international power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, I. [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The author limits his remarks to a discussion of the international generator`s marketplace, especially aimed at the developing countries. He discusses future global electricity demand, generating capacity build, its financing issues, and to the commercial generating opportunities which now abound outside the US.

  3. Outlook of nuclear power generation and international situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekulund, S [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power generation is advancing at rapid rate over the world, without any major accident. For the base load of electric power, when choice is made between nuclear energy and petroleum, Nuclear energy has larger economic advantages over petroleum as compared with the days before the oil crisis. The costs of its fuel and fuel cycle technology are reasonable. However, nuclear power generation currently has a number of problems. What causes this uncertainty is not technological, but political, i.e. governmental policy changes, and this is based on the apprehension about nuclear proliferation. What is necessary is to strengthen the existing international framework of nuclear nonproliferation. In this respect, IAEA through comprehensive safeguards will make contributions largely to reduction of the political uncertainty. It is important that the new initiatives toward international nuclear cooperation should eliminate the current trends of restraint and denial.

  4. Progress of international cooperation of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Sadaaki; Ishikawa, Hidetaka; Eda, Hisao; Noda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Kawahara, Akira; Nagano, Akira

    1999-01-01

    International cooperation on nuclear power technology under promotion of the Japan Electric Power Information Center can be divided roughly to two items: one is an assistant project of Japan Keirin Association and another is an international training of operation management and so forth on nuclear power plant trusted by Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Among upgrading needs of technical cooperation on nuclear power to the developing nations, the electric companies were received a request on private cooperation by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. In 1985, it was decided that the nuclear power technical cooperation through an subsidy project of the Japan Keirin Association was advanced mainly by every electric companies as a window of the Japan Electric Power Information Center in Japan Electric Industry Association. And, by receiving another request, the Japan Electric Power Information Center began an international training on operation management and so one of the nuclear power plant since October, 1992. Here were introduced outlines of both technical cooperation on nuclear power and international training on operation management. (G.K.)

  5. Biomass Gasification for Power Generation Internal Combustion Engines. Process Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme-Jaén, René; Garcia-Faure, Luis; Oliva-Ruiz, Luis; Pajarín-Rodríguez, Juan; Revilla-Suarez, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy sources worldwide greater prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By different processes and energy conversion technologies is possible to obtain solid, liquid and gaseous fuels from any biomass.In this paper the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification of Integral Forestry Company Santiago de Cuba is presented, designed to electricity generation from waste forest industry. The gasifier is a downdraft reactor, COMBO-80 model of Indian manufacturing and motor (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was conducted at different loads (electric power generated) of the motor from experimental measurements of flow and composition of gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25 %. (author)

  6. Prototype testing and analysis of a novel internal combustion linear generator integrated power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhaoping; Chang, Siqin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A novel four-stroke free-piston engine equipped with a linear electric generator (namely internal combustion linear generator integrated power system) is proposed in this paper to achieve efficient energy conversion from fuel to electricity. Unique features of the novel power system are presented and their effects on the continuous running are discussed, along with potential advantages and disadvantages compared to conventional engines. A single cylinder, gasoline and spark ignition prototype is fabricated with reference to the geometric and control parameters of an existing conventional four-stroke engine. Stable running of the prototype is realized, and a 2.2 kW average output power with the generating efficiency of 32% has been obtained up to now. The feasibility and performance of the proposed design are verified. Detailed testing results from the continuous running prototype are analyzed in this paper for giving insight into the performance and dynamic behaviors of the novel power system. (author)

  7. Power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Anibal D.

    2001-01-01

    In the second half of twentieth century, nuclear power became an industrial reality. Now the operating 433 power plants, the 37 plants under construction, near 9000 years/reactor with only one serious accident with emission of radioactive material to the environment (Chernobyl) show the maturity of this technology. Today nuclear power contribute a 17% to the global generation and an increase of 75 % of the demand of electricity is estimated for 2020 while this demand is expected to triplicate by 2050. How this requirement can be satisfied? All the indicators seems to demonstrate that nuclear power will be the solution because of the shortage of other sources, the increase of the prices of the non renewable fuels and the scarce contribution of the renewable ones. In addition, the climatic changes produced by the greenhouse effect make even more attractive nuclear power. The situation of Argentina is analyzed and compared with other countries. The convenience of an increase of nuclear power contribution to the total national generation seems clear and the conclusion of the construction of the Atucha II nuclear power plant is recommended

  8. The internal flow pattern analysis of a tidal power turbine operating on bidirectional generation-pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y Y; Xiao, Y X; Wang, Z W

    2013-01-01

    Using tidal energy can reduce environment pollution, save conventional energy and improve energy structure, hence it presents great advantage and is developing potential. Influenced by flood tide and low tide, a fully functional tidal power station needs to experience six operating modes, including bidirectional generation, pumping and sluice; the internal unsteady flow pattern and dynamic characters are very complicated. Based on a bidirectional tidal generator unit, three-dimensional unsteady flows in the flow path were calculated for four typical operating conditions with the pressure pulsation characteristics analyzed. According to the numerical results, the internal flow characteristics in the flow path were discussed. The influence of gravity to the hydraulic performance and flow characteristics were analysed. The results provide a theoretical analysis method of the hydraulic optimization design of the same type unit as well as a direction for stable operation and optimal scheduling of existing tidal power unit

  9. Impact of financial institution environmental guidelines on international power generation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macak, J.J. III; Schott, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Where financing is concerned, two major players for US based international power projects are The World Bank and the Export-Import Bank of the US (Ex-Im Bank). The concern for environmental protection is a global issue, yet many countries still have no enforceable environmental regulations for power generation facilities. In the past, many projects were developed with little or no environmental controls. However, designing a power generation project to meet The World Bank environmental guidelines is now generally regarded as standard practice for independent power projects in the developing world (Price et al, 1994). The World Bank standards are mandatory for projects financed by The World Bank, through the International Finance Corporation (IFC), or associated programs like the Expanded Cofinancing Program of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). The Ex-Im Bank has recently established new environmental procedures and guidelines that went into effect on February 1, 1995. In order to avoid a competitive disadvantage for US exporters and still provide a means for global environmental protection, Ex-Im Bank has taken a leadership role in encouraging the adoption of common environmental procedures and standards by leading export credit agencies around the world. Until such procedures are established, Ex-Im Bank is seeking to establish common lines in specific cases with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on environmental standards for appropriate projects (Ex-Im, 1994)

  10. Emissions trading in the real world : Ontario Power Generation's domestic and international trading activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzi, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this presentation, the author discussed Ontario Power Generation's voluntary commitment to stabilize carbon dioxide equivalent emissions at 1990 levels. To do so, Ontario Power Generation is implementing a series of green energy initiatives, a corporate tree planting program, internal energy efficiency, and an emission reduction trading (ERT). The emphasis was placed on emission trading, where Ontario Power Generation is a leader in the field of greenhouse gas, nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide trading in Canada. The approach to trading adopted was explained, with the specifics provided for each of the different categories of emissions. Some examples further illustrated the process. The outlook for the future was outlined, with plans for the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide and enhanced oil recovery, low nitrogen oxide gasoline additive. The benefits of emission trading were discussed from the perspective of Ontario Power Generation and the environment, such as allowing real reductions in emissions in a cost effective manner, enhanced risk management, investments in emissions reductions. The author argued that emission reduction is the way of the future, representing the only way in which the greenhouse gas emissions reductions required to minimize global climate change will be accomplished

  11. EDITORIAL: The Fourth International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shuji; Toriyama, Toshiyuki

    2005-09-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering features papers selected from the Fourth International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2004). The workshop was held in Kyoto, Japan, on 28-30 November 2004, by The Ritsumeikan Research Institute of Micro System Technology in cooperation with The Global Emerging Technology Institute, The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, The Sensors and Micromachines Society, The Micromachine Center and The Kyoto Nanotech Cluster. Power MEMS is one of the newest categories of MEMS, which encompasses microdevices and microsystems for power generation, energy conversion and propulsion. The first concept of power MEMS was proposed in the late 1990s by Epstein's group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where they continue to study MEMS-based gas turbine generators. Since then, the research and development of power MEMS have been promoted by the need for compact power sources with high energy and power density. Since its inception, power MEMS has expanded to include not only various MEMS-based power generators but also small energy machines and microdevices for macro power generators. At the last workshop, various devices and systems, such as portable fuel cells and their peripherals, micro and small turbo machinery, energy harvesting microdevices, and microthrusters, were presented. Their power levels vary from ten nanowatts to hundreds of watts, spanning ten orders of magnitude. The first PowerMEMS workshop was held in 2000 in Sendai, Japan, and consisted of only seven invited presentations. The workshop has grown since then, and in 2004 there were 5 invited, 20 oral and 29 poster presentations. From the 54 papers in the proceedings, 12 papers have been selected for this special issue. I would like to express my appreciation to the members of the Organizing Committee and Technical Program Committee. This special issue was

  12. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    It is our great pleasure to welcome you to the 14th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, or PowerMEMS 2014, in Awaji Island, Japan. The aim of PowerMEM is to present the latest research results in the field of miniature, micro- and nano-scale technologies for power generation and energy conversion. The conference will also- give us the opportunity to exchange informations and new ideas in the field of Power MEMS/NEMS. The current status of the field of PowerMEMS spans the full spectrum from basic research to practical applications. We will enjoy valuable discussions not only from the viewpoint of academia but from commercial and industrial perspectives. In the conference, three invited speakers lead the technical program. We received 172 abstracts and after a careful reviewing process by the Technical Program Committee a total of 133 papers were selected for presentation. These have been organized into 16 Oral sessions in two parallel streams and two poster sessions including some late-news papers. The oral and regular poster papers are published by the Institute of Physics (IOP). We have also organized a PowerMEMS School in Kobe-Sannomiya contiguous to the main conference. This two-day school will cover various topics of energy harvesting. World leading experts will give invited lectures on their main topics. This is a new experiment to broaden the technology remit of our conference by organizing mini symposiums that aim to gather the latest research on the following topics by the organizers: Microscale Combustion, Wideband Vibration Energy Harvesting, RF Energy Transfer and Industrial Application. We hope this, and other activities will make PowerMEMS2014 a memorable success. One of the important programs in an international conference is the social program, and we prepare the PowerMEMS2014 banquet in the banquet room at the Westin Awaji Island Hotel. This will provide an opportunity to

  13. The 13th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitcheson, Paul; Beeby, Steve

    2013-12-01

    It is a pleasure to welcome you to The Royal Society in London and the 13th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, or PowerMEMS 2013. The objective of PowerMEMS 2013 is to catalyse innovation in miniature, micro- and nano-scale technologies for power generation and energy conversion. The conference aims to stimulate the exchange of insights and information, and the development of new ideas in the Power MEMS/NEMS field as well as at the meso-scale. It will allow the attendees to interact and network within our multidisciplinary community that includes professionals from many branches of science and engineering. The technical program is led by four invited speakers covering inductive power transfer, chip scale power sources, thermal energy harvesting and implantable biofuel cells. We received 177 abstracts and following a careful reviewing process by the Technical Program Committee a total of 137 papers were selected for presentation. These have been organised into 16 oral sessions in two parallel streams and two poster sessions that have been augmented by 10 late news papers. The oral and regular poster papers are, for the first time, being published by the Institute of Physics. We have made every effort to make PowerMEMS 2013 the busiest yet and have included for the first time the PowerMEMS School. This two-day school held at Imperial College London covered a wide range of power-MEMS topics including technologies for power generation, power transmission, energy storage, power electronics interfaces and metrology. Registrations for the School exceeded our expectations and it was full by early November. We hope this, and other activities such as the Discussion Panel and the inclusion of late news papers, will make PowerMEMS 2013 a memorable success. We have also reached out to new communities, such as those working in wireless power transfer and RF harvesting to broaden the technology remit of

  14. 16th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    It is our great pleasure to welcome you to PowerMEMS’16 - the 16th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications - in Paris at the UIC Espace Congrès, a few meters away from the Eiffel Tower. The objective of the PowerMEMS conference is to catalyse innovation in micro- and nano- scale technologies for the energy domain. The scope of the meeting ranges from basic principles, to materials and fabrication, to devices and systems, to applications. The many applications of Power MEMS concern the harvesting, storage, conversion and conditioning of energy, to integrated systems that manage these processes, to actuation, pumping, and propulsion. Our Conference aims to stimulate the exchange of insights and information, as well as the development of new ideas, in the Power MEMS field. Our goal is to allow the attendees to interact and network within our multidisciplinary community that includes professionals from many branches of science and engineering, as well as energy, policy, and entrepreneurial specialists interested in the commercialization of Power MEMS technologies. This year's technical program is highlighted by four plenary talks from prominent experts on M/NEMS for ultra-low power in electronics, advanced nanomaterial for solar cells and thermal transistor. The contributed program received 159 abstract submissions this year. After careful review by the 33-members of the Technical Program Committee, a total of 123 papers will be presented. The 40 contributed oral presentations are arranged in two parallel sessions. The 83 posters are arranged in a ''two-in-one'' poster session in which the poster session time is divided in two; half the posters will be presented during each half-session, allowing the poster presenters to also browse the posters during the poster session. Posters will remain up during the meeting, so please feel free to peruse them at your leisure. The

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheindlin, A.E.; Jackson, W.D.; Brzozowski, W.S.; Rietjens, L.H.Th.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes research and development in the field of magnetohydrodynamic power generation technology, based on discussions held in the Joint IAEA/UNESCO International Liaison Group on MHD electrical power generation. Research and development programmes on open cycle, closed cycle plasma and liquid-metal MHD are described. Open cycle MHD has now entered the engineering development stage. The paper reviews the results of cycle analyses and economic and environmental evaluations: substantial agreement has been reached on the expected overall performance and necessary component specifications. The achievement in the Soviet Union on the U-25 MHD pilot plant in obtaining full rated electrical power of 20.4 MW is described, as well as long duration testing of the integrated operation of MHD components. Work in the United States on coal-fired MHD generators has shown that, with slagging of the walls, a run time of about one hundred hours at the current density and electric field of a commercial MHD generator has been achieved. Progress obtained in closed cycle plasma and liquid metal MHD is reviewed. Electrical power densities of up to 140 MWe/m 3 and an enthalpy extraction as high as 24 per cent have been achieved in noble gas MHD generator experiments. (Auth.)

  16. International power opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, A.

    1995-01-01

    Key factors in international development were discussed, using TransAlta Energy Corporation as an example. Trans-Alta is a company generating 4,500 MW of electricity from coal, hydro and natural gas. It has operating facilities in Canada, Argentina and New Zealand, including extensive coal mining interests in Canada. The climate for international opportunities in the energy field were judged to be very good in view of the projected requirement for some 900,000 MW of new power generation in different parts of the world by the year 2003. The five key factors identified for international power development were: (1) using core skills to add value, (2) have a long-term focus, (3) focus on specific countries and selected regions, (4) develop strong relationships with local partners, and (5) develop appropriate projects. 2 figs

  17. International ITER fusion energy organization. Paving the way to power generation from nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuschen-Liebenstein, R. von

    2006-01-01

    ITER (Latin: the way) is the acronym of a new international large research facility gradually taking shape after the meeting of Gorbachev and Reagan in Reykjavik in 1985. Under the auspices of the IAEA, worldwide scientific and industrial cooperation with 'home teams' of each of the ITER partners began at that time which were commissioned to accumulate the knowledge and the technology of nuclear fusion in the participating countries. At the end of the preparation and decisionmaking process, the design draft of the ITER reactor was elaborated in international cooperation as the basis of the ITER Convention. After lengthy negotiations among the international ITER partners, a European site for the ITER organization and its reactor was found at Cadarache, France. As the first ITER member, Europe now initiated worldwide cooperation in research and development, seeking to demonstrate the technical and scientific feasibility of tapping fusion power for peaceful purposes. The Council of the European Union (competitiveness), at its meeting on September 25, 2006, decided to sign the ITER Convention about the establishment of the International ITER Fusion Energy Organization ('ITER Organization') and about the mutual obligation to make the necessary contributions towards the construction of ITER. (orig.)

  18. Power generation choices: an international perspective on costs, risks and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.; Moynet, G.

    1994-01-01

    In France, as in other countries, it is no longer possible to discuss issues relating to the power or electricity generating sector without taking account of a wide range of sociological, political and environmental factors. Given the uncertainty regarding either the short-or long-term impact of such factors, analysts can no longer rely on forecasts and need to adopt an approach based on the use of extremely wide-ranging scenarios. Many researchers are currently examining ways in which these factors might be incorporated into economic calculations in the form of externalities. Such externalities cannot be properly taken into account, however, until we have reliable methods and databases with which to quantify them. At present they are taken into account implicitly. Thus the extensive nuclear power programme launched by the French Government in the 1970s was aimed at securing advantages in both economic and environmental terms. These advantages may be seen today in the structure of France's energy supply. (authors). 1 tab

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Avinash

    1980-01-01

    The concept of MHD power generation, principles of operation of the MHD generator, its design, types, MHD generator cycles, technological problems to be overcome, the current state of the art in USA and USSR are described. Progress of India's experimental 5 Mw water-gas fired open cycle MHD power generator project is reported in brief. (M.G.B.)

  20. Proceedings of the first MIT international conference on the next generation of nuclear power technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-07-01

    The overall goal of advanced nuclear reactor development is to provide technological options which will be broadly acceptable to the different interested communities - electric utilities, environmental protection interests and electricity consumers. These constituencies will differ greatly in their priorities and understandings of what is feasible. However they all will collectively determine the definition of what constitutes an acceptable technology. The purpose of the Conference reported here was to aid the process reaching a greater consensus concerning acceptable technologies. The Conference was structured to permit all of those involved to gain a common understanding of the performance attributes which can reasonably be expected from the next generation of nuclear power plants, and to assist the process of communication among the various interest groups - ranging from reactor manufacturers and electric utilities to groups which have been strongly critical of nuclear power. This Conference is the first of an indefinite series of Conferences to be sponsored by the Program. The purpose of having a series of Conferences is to permit them to serve as a vehicle for sustained discussion among the communities which will determine whether future nuclear power plants are acceptable as national strategic options. The hope in organizing these Conferences is to improve the technologies which will eventually emerge, as a consequence of early effective communication among those concerned with the results. In order to do this, however, it is necessary for the people involved in such communication to have opportunities for sustained exposure to the ideas of others whom they would not otherwise have met. To do this it is necessary that these various communities interact repeatedly. The Conference series is intended to assist in that process. The Conference consisted of six focused topical sessions and two panel discussions. In each topical session keynote and respondent papers

  1. Proceedings of the first MIT international conference on the next generation of nuclear power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The overall goal of advanced nuclear reactor development is to provide technological options which will be broadly acceptable to the different interested communities - electric utilities, environmental protection interests and electricity consumers. These constituencies will differ greatly in their priorities and understandings of what is feasible. However they all will collectively determine the definition of what constitutes an acceptable technology. The purpose of the Conference reported here was to aid the process reaching a greater consensus concerning acceptable technologies. The Conference was structured to permit all of those involved to gain a common understanding of the performance attributes which can reasonably be expected from the next generation of nuclear power plants, and to assist the process of communication among the various interest groups - ranging from reactor manufacturers and electric utilities to groups which have been strongly critical of nuclear power. This Conference is the first of an indefinite series of Conferences to be sponsored by the Program. The purpose of having a series of Conferences is to permit them to serve as a vehicle for sustained discussion among the communities which will determine whether future nuclear power plants are acceptable as national strategic options. The hope in organizing these Conferences is to improve the technologies which will eventually emerge, as a consequence of early effective communication among those concerned with the results. In order to do this, however, it is necessary for the people involved in such communication to have opportunities for sustained exposure to the ideas of others whom they would not otherwise have met. To do this it is necessary that these various communities interact repeatedly. The Conference series is intended to assist in that process. The Conference consisted of six focused topical sessions and two panel discussions. In each topical session keynote and respondent papers

  2. Philosophy of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amein, H.; Joyia, Y.; Qureshi, M.N.; Asif, M.

    1995-01-01

    In view of the huge power demand in future, the capital investment requirements for the development of power projects to meet the future energy requirements are so alarming that public sector alone cannot manage to raise funds and participation of the private sector in power generation development has become imperative. This paper discusses a power generation philosophy based on preference to the exploitation of indigenous resources and participation of private sector. In order to have diversification in generation resources, due consideration has been given to the development of nuclear power and even non-conventional but promising technologies of solar, wind, biomass and geothermal etc. (author)

  3. EDITORIAL: The 6th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnologies for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Luc G.

    2007-09-01

    Energy is a sector of paramount importance over the coming decades if we are to ensure sustainable development that respects our environment. The research and development of novel approaches to convert available energy into usable forms using micro and nanotechnologies can contribute towards this goal and meet the growing need for power in small scale portable applications. The dominant power sources for handheld and other portable electronics are currently primary and rechargeable batteries. Their limited energy density and adverse effects on the environment upon disposal suggest that alternative approaches need to be explored. This special issue will showcase some of the leading work in this area, initially presented at PowerMEMS 2006, the 6th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnologies for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications. Power MEMS are defined as microsystems for electrical power generation and other energy conversion applications, including propulsion and cooling. The range of power MEMS technologies includes micro thermodynamic machines, such as microturbines, miniature internal combustion engines and micro-coolers; solid-state direct energy conversion, such as thermoelectric and photovoltaic microstructures; micro electrochemical devices, such as micro fuel cells and nanostructure batteries; vibration energy harvesting devices, such as piezoelectric, magnetic or electrostatic micro generators, as well as micro thrusters and rocket engines for propulsion. These can either be driven by scavenging thermal, mechanical or solar energy from the environment, or from a stored energy source, such as chemical fuel or radioactive material. The unique scope leads to unique challenges in the development of power MEMS, ranging from the integration of novel materials to the efficient small scale implementation of energy conversion principles. In this special issue, Mitcheson et al provide a comparative assessment of three inertial vibration

  4. Cutting-in control of the variable speed constant frequency wind power generator based on internal model controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Jindong; Xu Honghua; Zhao Dongli [Inst. of Electrical Engineering, CAS, BJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    The no-impact-current cutting-in-network control is the key of variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) wind power control system. Based on the stator flux linkage oriented control theory of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), the field-oriented vector control technique and the internal model controller (IMC) are transplanted into the voltage control of DFIG and a novel cutting-in control strategy is obtained. The strategy does not need the exact inductor generator model, and has perfect performance without overshoot. The structure of the controller is simple, and the only parameter to be adjusted is directly related to system performance, so the strategy is easy to realize. Finally the strategy is studied by simulation using Matlab, the results of the simulation show that the control strategy can effectively control the stator voltage. (orig.)

  5. Power generation technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The new edition of Power Generation Technologies is a concise and readable guide that provides an introduction to the full spectrum of currently available power generation options, from traditional fossil fuels and the better established alternatives such as wind and solar power, to emerging renewables such as biomass and geothermal energy. Technology solutions such as combined heat and power and distributed generation are also explored. However, this book is more than just an account of the technologies - for each method the author explores the economic and environmental costs and risk factor

  6. Power generation in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, J.A. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines the main characteristics of power generation in Southern Africa, in terms of primary energy resources, existing and projected power supply and demand, types and location of power plants, regional integration, and environmental management aspects. Various options for future development of power generation are presented as part of an overall integrated resource planning (IRP) process for the power industry. These include coal and natural gas based options, hydro power and other renewable energy, and nuclear power plants. A specific option, the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR), under development by Eskom Enterprises and other international and local partners, is described in terms of overall design parameters, inherent safety features, economics and environmental aspects. Included is a high level discussion on the selection of materials for the design of this PBMR plant, an advanced design version of a high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). (orig.)

  7. Power generation statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, H.

    2001-01-01

    The frost in February increased the power demand in Finland significantly. The total power consumption in Finland during January-February 2001 was about 4% higher than a year before. In January 2001 the average temperature in Finland was only about - 4 deg C, which is nearly 2 degrees higher than in 2000 and about 6 degrees higher than long term average. Power demand in January was slightly less than 7.9 TWh, being about 0.5% less than in 2000. The power consumption in Finland during the past 12 months exceeded 79.3 TWh, which is less than 2% higher than during the previous 12 months. In February 2001 the average temperature was - 10 deg C, which was about 5 degrees lower than in February 2000. Because of this the power consumption in February 2001 increased by 5%. Power consumption in February was 7.5 TWh. The maximum hourly output of power plants in Finland was 13310 MW. Power consumption of Finnish households in February 2001 was about 10% higher than in February 2000, and in industry the increase was nearly zero. The utilization rate in forest industry in February 2001 decreased from the value of February 2000 by 5%, being only about 89%. The power consumption of the past 12 months (Feb. 2000 - Feb. 2001) was 79.6 TWh. Generation of hydroelectric power in Finland during January - February 2001 was 10% higher than a year before. The generation of hydroelectric power in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was nearly 2.7 TWh, corresponding to 17% of the power demand in Finland. The output of hydroelectric power in Finland during the past 12 months was 14.7 TWh. The increase from the previous 12 months was 17% corresponding to over 18% of the power demand in Finland. Wind power generation in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was exceeded slightly 10 GWh, while in 2000 the corresponding output was 20 GWh. The degree of utilization of Finnish nuclear power plants in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was high. The output of these plants was 3.8 TWh, being about 1% less than in Jan. - Feb. 2000. The main cause for the

  8. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2001-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1999 and 2000. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (CLS)

  9. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M. K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2002-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 2000 and 2001. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (SM)

  10. Impacts on power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.; Sidebotton, P.

    1998-01-01

    The future impact of the arrival of natural gas in the Maritime provinces on electricity generation in the region was discussed. Currently, electrical generation sources in Nova Scotia include hydro generation (9 per cent), coal generation (80 per cent), heavy fuel oil generation (8 per cent), and light oil, wood chips and purchased power (3 per cent). It is expected that with the introduction of natural gas electric utilities will take advantage of new gas combustion turbines which have high efficiency rates. An overview of Westcoast Power's operations across Canada was also presented. The Company has three projects in the Maritimes - the Courtney Bay project in New Brunswick, the Bayside Power project, the Irving Paper project - in addition to the McMahon cogeneration plant in Taylor, B.C. figs

  11. Power generating device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Toshihiro

    1989-05-02

    The existing power generating device consisting of static components only lacks effective measures to utilize solar energy and maintain power generation, hence it is inevitable to make the device much larger and more complicated in order to utilize it as the primary power source for artificial satellites. In view of the above, in order to offer a power generating device useful for the primary power source for satellites which is simple and can keep power generation by solar energy, this invention proposes a power generating device composed of the following elements: (1) a rectangular parallelopiped No. II superconductor plate; (2) a measure to apply a magnetic field to one face of the above superconductor plate; (3) a measure to provide a temperature difference within the range between the starting temperature and the critical temperature of superconductivity to a pair of faces meeting at right angles with the face to which the magnetic field was applied by the above measure; (4) a measure to provide an electrode on each of the other pair of faces meeting at right angles with the face to which the magnetic field was applied by the above measure and form a closed circuit by connecting the each electrode above to each of a pair of electrodes of the load respectively; and (5) a switching measure which is installed in the closed circuit prepared by the above measure and shuts off the closed circuit when the direction of the electric current running the above closed circuit is reversed. 6 figs.

  12. Electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinske, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Apart from discussing some principles of power industry the present text deals with the different ways of electric power generation. Both the conventional methods of energy conversion in heating and water power stations and the facilities for utilizing regenerative energy sources (sun, wind, ground heat, tidal power) are considered. The script represents the essentials of the lecture of the same name which is offered to the students of the special subject 'electric power engineering' at the Fachhochschule Hamburg. It does not require any special preliminary knowledge except for the general principles of electrical engineering. It is addressing students of electrical engineering who have passed their preliminary examination at technical colleges and universities. Moreover, it shall also be of use for engineers who want to obtain a quick survey of the structure and the operating characteristics of the extremely different technical methods of power generation. (orig.) [de

  13. Nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Katumi; Sato, Akira; Kaimori, Kimihiro; Kumano, Tetsuji

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power generation for commercial use in Japan has passed 35 years since beginning of operation in the Tokai Nuclear Power Station in 1966, and has 51 machines of reactor and about 44.92 MW of total output of equipment scale in the 21st century. However, an environment around nuclear energy becomes severer at present, and then so many subjects to be overcome are remained such as increased unreliability of the public on nuclear energy at a chance of critical accident of the JCO uranium processing facility, delay of pull-thermal plan, requirement for power generation cost down against liberalization of electric power, highly aging countermeasure of power plant begun its operation as its Genesis, and so on. Under such conditions, in order that nuclear power generation in Japan survives as one of basic electric source in future, it is necessary not only to pursue safety and reliability of the plant reliable to the public, but also to intend to upgrade its operation and maintenance by positively adopting good examples on operational management method on abroad and to endeavor further upgrading of application ratio of equipments and reduction of generation cost. Here were outlined on operation conditions of nuclear power stations in Japan, and introduced on upgrading of their operational management and maintenance management. (G.K.)

  14. The nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serres, R.

    1999-01-01

    The French nuclear generating industry is highly competitive. The installations have an average age of fifteen years and are half way through their expected life. Nuclear power accounts for 70% of the profits of the French generating company, EDF. Nuclear generation has a minimal effect on the atmosphere and France has a level of CO 2 emissions, thought to be the main cause of the greenhouse effect, half that of Europe as a whole. The air in France is purer than in neighbouring countries, mainly because 75% of all electrical power is generated in nuclear plants and 15% in hydroelectric stations. The operations and maintenance of French nuclear power plants in the service and distribution companies out of a total of 100 000 employees in all, 90 % of whom are based in mainland France. (authors)

  15. Power generation and gaseous emissions performance of an internal combustion engine fed with blends of soybean and beef tallow biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Waldir Nagel; Gauer, Mayara Ananda; Tomaz, Edson; Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Pinto; de Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari; Chaves, Luiz Inácio; Villetti, Lucas; Olanyk, Luciano Zart; Cabral, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the performance of an internal combustion engine fed with blends of biodiesel produced from soybean and diesel, and blends of biodiesel produced from beef tallow and diesel. Performance was evaluated in terms of power generated at low loading conditions (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kW) and emission of organic and inorganic pollutants. In order to analyse inorganic gases (CO, SO2 and NOx), an automatic analyser was used and the organic emissions (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene - BTEX) were carried out using a gas chromatograph. The results indicate that the introduction of the two biodiesels in the fuel caused a reduction in CO, SO2 and BTEX emissions. In addition, the reduction was proportional to the increase in loading regime. Beef tallow biodiesels presented better results regarding emission than soybean biodiesels. The use of pure biodiesels also presented a net reduction in pollutant gas emissions without hindering the engine generator performance.

  16. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 11th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2011) Selected papers from the 11th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Ho

    2012-09-01

    This special section of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering features papers selected from the 11th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2011), held at Sejong Hotel in Seoul, Korea during 15-18 November 2011. Since the first PowerMEMS workshop held in Sendai, Japan in 2000, the workshop has developed as the premier forum for reporting research results in micro and nanotechnology for power generation, energy conversion, harvesting and processing applications, including in-depth technical issues on nanostructures and materials for small-scale high-density energy and thermal management. Potential PowerMEMS applications cover not only portable power devices for consumer electronics and remote sensors, but also micro engines, impulsive thrusters and fuel cells for systems ranging from the nanometer to the millimeter scale. The 2011 technical program consists of 1 plenary talk, 4 invited talks and 118 contributed presentations. The 48 oral and 70 poster presentations, selected by 27 Technical Program Committee Members from 131 submitted abstracts, have stimulated lively discussion maximizing the interaction between participants. Among them, this special section includes 9 papers covering micro-scale power generators, energy converters, harvesters, thrusters and thermal coolers. Finally, we are grateful to the members of the International Steering Committee, the Technical Program Committee, and the Local Organizing Committee for their efforts and contributions to PowerMEMS 2011. We also thank the two companies Samsung Electro-Mechanics and LG Elite for technical tour arrangements. Special thanks go to Dr Ian Forbes, the editorial staff of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, as well as to the staff of IOP Publishing for making this special section possible.

  17. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-12-31

    During the wind power generator project a design algorithm for a gearless permanent magnet generator with an axially orientated magnetic flux was developed and a 10 kW model machine was constructed. Utilising the test results a variable wind speed system of 100 kW was designed that incorporates a permanent magnet generator, a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. This system produces about 5-15% more energy than existing types and stresses to the blades are minimised. The type of generator designed in the project represents in general a gearless solution for slow-speed electrical drives. (orig.)

  18. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  19. Power companies international year book 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-12-01

    The Power Companies International Yearbook covers around 250 major international power generating and distributing companies worldwide, giving a comprehensive overview of this dynamic global industry. Both publicly and privately owned companies are features. It details financial performance, ownership status, affiliated businesses, activities, operations, key personnel, type/capacity of generation, subsidiary activities and plans for diversification within and outside the global power sector. (Author)

  20. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groening, B.; Koch, M.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    1995-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1988 and 1989. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. The statistics for December 1994 comprise 2328 wind turbines

  1. Nuclear power generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.R.; Kati, S.L.; Raman, R.; Nanjundeswaran, K.; Nadkarny, G.V.; Verma, R.S.; Mahadeva Rao, K.V.

    1983-01-01

    Indian experience pertaining to investment and generation costs of nuclear power stations is reviewed. The causes of investment cost increases are analysed and the increases are apportioned to escalation, design improvements and safety related adders. The paper brings out the fact that PHWR investment costs in India compare favourably with those experienced in developed countries in spite of the fact that the programme and the unit size are relatively much smaller in India. It brings out that in India at current prices a nuclear power station located over 800 km from coal reserves and operating at 75% capacity factor is competitive with thermal power at 60% capacity factor. (author)

  2. Risks of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostert, P.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison is made between the various ways of power generation in the Netherlands and the hazards attached to them. Tables are presented of fuels used, the quantities used per annum and in the course of the last 20 years, accidents and pollution types and percentages, as well as the toxicity and waste disposal risks. (Auth.)

  3. EDITORIAL: The 7th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnologies for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebling, C.; Woias, P.

    2008-10-01

    This special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (JMM) contains a selection of papers from the 7th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnologies for Power Generation and Energy Conversion (PowerMEMS 2007). The workshop was held in Freiburg, Germany on 27-29 November 2007 under the joint organization of the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (FhG-ISE), Freiburg and the Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK) of the Albert-Ludwig-University of Freiburg. PowerMEMS 2007 continues a series of workshops initiated in 2000 in Japan to create an annual discussion forum in the emerging field of micro energy technology. With a single exception in 2001, the workshop has continued as an annual meeting ever since, with a continuous increase in the number of presentations and participants. The program of PowerMEMS 2007 was composed of 2 invited talks, 25 oral talks and 61 poster presentations. From these 88 presentations 16 have been selected for this special issue. It was at the end of 1959 when the Caltech physicist Richard Feynman gave his famous lecture entitled 'There Is Plenty of Room at the Bottom' in which he discussed the possibilities of miniaturization for both storage capacity ('Encyclopaedia Britannica on the head of a pin') as well as micro machining ('rearranging the atoms'), although there were absolutely no technological possibilities in sight for an adequate realization of such ideas. Now, nearly 50 years later, we not only have incredible knowledge about the nanoworld, but even more we are now able to generate microelectromechanical devices which, next to their electronic properties, can integrate physical and analytical functions. Today, Feynman might easily have added a second lecture entitled 'There is Plenty of Energy at the Bottom'. Micro energy technology has seen a tremendous rise in MEMS and material sciences and is regarded today as one of their hot topics. Also, there are more and more companies in this

  4. Future nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosbah, D.S.; Nasreddine, M.

    2006-01-01

    The book includes an introduction then it speaks about the options to secure sources of energy, nuclear power option, nuclear plants to generate energy including light-water reactors (LWR), heavy-water reactors (HWR), advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR), fast breeder reactors (FBR), development in the manufacture of reactors, fuel, uranium in the world, current status of nuclear power generation, economics of nuclear power, nuclear power and the environment and nuclear power in the Arab world. A conclusion at the end of the book suggests the increasing demand for energy in the industrialized countries and in a number of countries that enjoy special and economic growth such as China and India pushes the world to search for different energy sources to insure the urgent need for current and anticipated demand in the near and long-term future in light of pessimistic and optimistic outlook for energy in the future. This means that states do a scientific and objective analysis of the currently available data for the springboard to future plans to secure the energy required to support economy and welfare insurance.

  5. PREFACE: The 15th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, C.; Velásquez-García, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Greetings, and welcome to Boston, MA and PowerMEMS 2015 - the 15th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications! The objective of PowerMEMS 2015 is to catalyze innovation in micro- and nano-scale technologies for the energy domain. The scope of the meeting ranges from basic principles, to materials and fabrication, to devices and systems, to applications. The many applications of Power MEMS range from the harvesting, storage, conversion and conditioning of energy, to integrated systems that manage these processes, to actuation, pumping, and propulsion. Our Conference aims to stimulate the exchange of insights and information, as well as the development of new ideas, in the Power MEMS field. Our goal is to allow the attendees to interact and network within our multidisciplinary community that includes professionals from many branches of science and engineering, as well as energy, policy, and entrepreneurial specialists interested in the commercialization of Power MEMS technologies. Since the first PowerMEMS in Sendai, Japan in 2000, the Conference has grown in size, reputation, impact, and technical breadth. This continuing growth is evident in this year's technical program, which includes an increasing number of papers on nanomaterials, additive manufacturing for energy systems, actuators, energy storage, harvesting strategies and integrated energy harvesting systems, for example. This year's technical program is highlighted by six plenary talks from prominent experts on piezoelectrics, robotic insects, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, nanocomposite cathodes, and thermal energy conversion systems. The contributed program received a large number of abstract submissions this year, 169 in total. After careful review by the 34-member Technical Program Committee, a total of 135 papers were selected for presentation. The 60 contributed oral presentations are arranged in two parallel sessions. The 75 posters

  6. Electric power generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    An electric power generator of the type employing a nuclear heat source and a thermoelectric converter is described wherein a transparent thermal insulating medium is provided inside an encapsulating enclosure to thermally insulate the heat source and thermoelectric generator. The heat source, the thermoelectric converter, and the enclosure are provided with facing surfaces which are heat-reflective to a substantial degree to inhibit radiation of heat through the medium of the encapsulating enclosure. Multiple reflective foils may be spaced within the medium as necessary to inhibit natural convection of heat and/or further inhibit radiation

  7. International power plant business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohe, R.

    1986-03-03

    At the Brown Boveri press seminar 'Energy' in Baden-Baden Rainer Grohe, member of the Brown Boveri board, Mannheim, gave a survey of the activities on the international power plant market in recent years. He showed the vacuities which must be taken into account in this sector today. The drastic escalation of demands on power plant suppliers has lead not to a reduction of protagonists but to an increase. (orig.).

  8. Wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. The data are arranged according to the size of the turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and type of turbine is given as well as the production during the last 3 months in 1998, and the total production in 1997 and 1998. Data on the operation is given

  9. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  10. Super power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; Johnson, D.L.; McDaniel, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    PROTO II, a super power generator, is presently undergoing testing at Sandia Laboratories. It has operated with an 80 ns, 50 ns, 35 ns, and 20 ns positive output pulse high voltage mode and achieved total current rates of rise of 4 x 10 14 A/s. The two sided disk accelerator concept using two diodes has achieved voltages of 1.5 MV and currents of 4.5 MA providing a power exceeding 6 TW in the electron beam and 8 TW in the transmission lines. A new test bed named MITE (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment) was designed and is now being tested. The pulse forming lines are back to back short pulse Blumleins which use untriggered water switching. Output data showing a ten ns half width power pulse peaking above one terrawatt were obtained. MITE is a module being investigated for use in the Electron Beam Fusion Accelerator and will be used to test the effects of short pulses propagating down vacuum transmission lines

  11. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  12. Generation of electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hursen, T.F.; Kolenik, S.A.; Purdy, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, the thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element

  13. Internal film cooling of permanent magnet external rotor machine using the example of a small wind power generator; Innenkuehlung permanentmagneterregter Aussenlaeufermaschinen am Beispiel eines Kleinwindenergiegenerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miersch, Soeren; Eckart, Martin; Michalke, Norbert [HTW Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This article discusses the fluid flow and thermal cooling system design of a permanent magnet small wind power generator in external rotor construction. Analytical calculation attachment pieces and numerical simulations will be served as authoring tool. Calculation and simulation results will be exhibited in comparing with model and prototype measurements. With the help of stationary temperature allocation, the effectiveness of intensive internal film cooling will be shown. (orig.)

  14. Generation of electricity by wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golding, E W

    1976-01-01

    Information on wind power is presented concerning the history of windmills; estimation of the energy obtainable from the wind; wind characteristics and distribution; wind power sites; wind surveys; wind flow over hills; measurement of wind velocity; wind structure and its determination; wind data and energy estimation; testing of wind driven ac generators; wind-driven machines; propeller type windmills; plants for isolated premises and small communities; economy of wind power generation; construction costs for large wind-driven generators; relationship of wind power to other power sources; research and development; and international cooperation.

  15. Power generation by nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plays an important role in the world, European (33%) and French (75%) power generation. This article aims at presenting in a synthetic way the main reactor types with their respective advantages with respect to the objectives foreseen (power generation, resources valorization, waste management). It makes a fast review of 50 years of nuclear development, thanks to which the nuclear industry has become one of the safest and less environmentally harmful industry which allows to produce low cost electricity: 1 - simplified description of a nuclear power generation plant: nuclear reactor, heat transfer system, power generation system, interface with the power distribution grid; 2 - first historical developments of nuclear power; 3 - industrial development and experience feedback (1965-1995): water reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu), RBMK, fast neutron reactors, high temperature demonstration reactors, costs of industrial reactors; 4 - service life of nuclear power plants and replacement: technical, regulatory and economical lifetime, problems linked with the replacement; 5 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  16. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-10-01

    In the project a 100 kW axial flux permanent magnet wind power generator has been designed. The toroidal stator with air gap winding is placed between two rotating discs with permanent magnets. The magnet material is NdBFe due to its excellent magnetic properties compared to other materials. This type of topology enables a very large number of poles compared to conventional machine of the same size. A large number of poles is required to achieve a low rotational speed and consequently a direct driven system. The stator winding is formed by rectangular coils. The end winding is very short leading to small resistive losses. On the other hand, the absence of iron teeth causes eddy current losses in the conductors. These can be restricted to an acceptable level by keeping the wire diameter and flux density small. This means that the number of phases should be large. Several independent three phase systems may be used. The toothless stator also means that the iron losses are small and there exists no cogging torque

  17. Solar thermal aided power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Eric; Yang, YongPing; Nishimura, Akira; Yilmaz, Ferdi; Kouzani, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Fossil fuel based power generation is and will still be the back bone of our world economy, albeit such form of power generation significantly contributes to global CO 2 emissions. Solar energy is a clean, environmental friendly energy source for power generation, however solar photovoltaic electricity generation is not practical for large commercial scales due to its cost and high-tech nature. Solar thermal is another way to use solar energy to generate power. Many attempts to establish solar (solo) thermal power stations have been practiced all over the world. Although there are some advantages in solo solar thermal power systems, the efficiencies and costs of these systems are not so attractive. Alternately by modifying, if possible, the existing coal-fired power stations to generate green sustainable power, a much more efficient means of power generation can be reached. This paper presents the concept of solar aided power generation in conventional coal-fired power stations, i.e., integrating solar (thermal) energy into conventional fossil fuelled power generation cycles (termed as solar aided thermal power). The solar aided power generation (SAPG) concept has technically been derived to use the strong points of the two technologies (traditional regenerative Rankine cycle with relatively higher efficiency and solar heating at relatively low temperature range). The SAPG does not only contribute to increase the efficiencies of the conventional power station and reduce its emission of the greenhouse gases, but also provides a better way to use solar heat to generate the power. This paper presents the advantages of the SAPG at conceptual level.

  18. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 10th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2010) Selected papers from the 10th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaerts, Dominiek; Vullers, Ruud

    2011-10-01

    This special section of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering features papers selected from the 10th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2010). The workshop was organized in Leuven, Belgium from 30 November to 3 December 2010 by Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and the imec/Holst Centre. This was a special PowerMEMS Workshop, for several reasons. First of all, we celebrated the 10th anniversary of the workshop: the first PowerMEMS meeting was organized in Sendai, Japan in 2000. None of the organizers or participants of this first meeting could have predicted the impact of the workshop over the next decade. The second reason was that, for the first time, the conference organization spanned two countries: Belgium and the Netherlands. Thanks to the advances in information technology, teams from Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium) and the imec/Holst Centre in Eindhoven (the Netherlands) have been able to work together seamlessly as one team. The objective of the PowerMEMS Workshop is to stimulate innovation in micro and nanotechnology for power generation and energy conversion applications. Its scope ranges from integrated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for power generation, dissipation, harvesting, and management, to novel nanostructures and materials for energy-related applications. True to the objective of the PowerMEMSWorkshop, the 2010 technical program covered a broad range of energy related research, ranging from the nanometer to the millimeter scale, discussed in 5 invited and 52 oral presentations, and 112 posters. This special section includes 14 papers covering vibration energy harvesters, thermal applications and micro power systems. Finally, we wish to express sincere appreciation to the members of the International Steering Committee, the Technical Program Committee and last but not least the Local Organizing Committee. This special issue was edited in

  19. Efficient turbine control. Advantages through controlling internal turbine power in place of turbo generator output; Effektive Turbinenregelung. Vorteile durch die Regelung der inneren Turbinenleistung anstelle der Turbogeneratorleistung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.

    1999-07-01

    Hitherto, the electrical output of turbo generators has generally been controlled by means of power output controllers. Load changes caused, for example, by changeovers to isolated unit operation where the load requirements are unknown at first, often resulted in `wrong way control` effects that sometimes even caused entire turbine generator sets to fail. Controlling the internal turbine power makes it possible to avoid such consequences. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die elektrische Leistung eines Turbogenerators wurde bislang durch Leistungsregler geregelt. Im Falle einer Lastaenderung, wie sie beispielsweise beim Uebergang in den Betrieb auf ein Teilnetz (Insel-) mit vorher unbekannter Last vorkommt, trat ein Falschregeleffekt auf. Auf diesen wurden bereits Turbosatzausfaelle zurueckgefuehrt. Wird anstelle der elektrischen Leistung allerdings die innere Turbinenleistung geregelt, so tritt der Falschregeleffekt nicht ein. (orig.)

  20. Renewable energies for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freris, L.; Infield, D.

    2009-01-01

    Power generation from renewable energy sources is different from power generation from classical energies (nuclear, thermal..). Therefore, the integration into the grid of the electricity supplied by renewable sources requires a deep thinking. The reason is that these power sources are controlled by variable elements, like wind, water and sun, which condition production. This book deals with the following aspects in detail: characteristics of classical and intermittent generators; grid balancing between supply and demand; conversion methods of renewable energies into electricity; power systems; privatizing of power generation and birth of new markets, in particular the 'green' power market; development of renewable energies thanks to technical advances. It gives a comprehensive overview of the present day available renewable energy sources for power generation. (J.S.)

  1. Thermoelectric coolers as power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, E.J.; Buist, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    There are many applications where thermoelectric (TE) coolers can be used effectively as power generators. The literature available on this subject is scarce and very limited in scope. This paper describes the configuration, capability, limitations and performance of TE coolers to be used as power generators. Also presented are performance curves enabling the user to design the optimum TE module for any given power generation application

  2. Power generation costs. Coal - nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This supplement volume contains 17 separate chapters investigating the parameters which determine power generation costs on the basis of coal and nuclear power and a comparison of these. A detailed calculation model is given. The complex nature of this type of cost comparison is shown by a review of selected parameter constellation for coal-fired and nuclear power plants. The most favourable method of power generation can only be determined if all parameters are viewed together. One quite important parameter is the load factor, or rather the hours of operation. (UA) 891 UA/UA 892 AMO [de

  3. Power generation and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, L.E.J.; Liss, P.S.; Saunders, P.A.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reviews environmental aspects of large-scale power generation. It includes historic background of present-generation patterns and a discussion of fossil fuel, nuclear energy, and renewable technologies

  4. Distributed power generation using microturbines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, the bulk of the world is electricity is generated in central power stations. This approach, one of `economy of size generates electricity in large power stations and delivers it to load centres via an extensive network of transmission...

  5. Investments in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The power consumption in the common Nordic power market continues to grow. All potential production technologies entail more or less reduction in quality of the environment. This gives each of the Nordic countries incentives to limit the development of capacity and base themselves increasingly on import, which means that other countries take the political burden with the environmental issues (''free rider problem''). The uncertainty about the climate problem may make it rational to postpone investments which are expensive to reverse, like gas power. If the decisions are delayed too long, however, considerable socio-economic costs may accumulate because the price of electricity becomes too high. The present regulations of the environmental concerns in connection with the granting of concession are expensive and unpredictable and put society unnecessarily to expense

  6. Power generation in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, N.T.

    1976-01-01

    There have been extensive developments in the power supply industry in South Africa. The most evident of these has been the increase in the size of generating units. Escom has recently placed orders for 600 MW units. In South Africa, with its large indigenous reserves of cheap coal, there was no need to rush into a nuclear power programme before it would be economic and, accordingly the first serious study of nuclear power generation was not undertaken until 1966. A final aspect of power generation which is becoming very important is the control of pollution and protection of the environment

  7. Competitiveness of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Yoshihiko

    1998-01-01

    In view of the various merits of nuclear power generation, Japanese electric utilities will continue to promote nuclear power generation. At the same time, however, it is essential to further enhance cost performance. Japanese electric utilities plan to reduce the cost of nuclear power generation, such as increasing the capacity factor, reducing operation and maintenance costs, and reducing construction costs. In Asia, nuclear power will also play an important role as a stable source of energy in the future. For those countries planning to newly introduce nuclear power, safety is the highest priority, and cost competitiveness is important. Moreover, financing will be an essential issue to be resolved. Japan is willing to support the establishment of nuclear power generation in Asia, through its experience and achievements. In doing this, support should not only be bilateral, but should include all nuclear nations around the Pacific rim in a multilateral support network. (author)

  8. Power Generation for River and Tidal Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donegan, James [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); Marnagh, Cian [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy sources are the second largest contributor to global electricity production, after fossil fuels. The integration of renewable energy continued to grow in 2014 against a backdrop of increasing global energy consumption and a dramatic decline in oil prices during the second half of the year. As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded from primarily wind and solar to include new types with promising future applications, such as hydropower generation, including river and tidal generation. Today, hydropower is considered one of the most important renewable energy sources. In river and tidal generation, the input resource flow is slower but also steadier than it is in wind or solar generation, yet the level of water turbulent flow may vary from one place to another. This report focuses on hydrokinetic power conversion.

  9. Power generation systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Chao, Yi (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A power generation system includes a plurality of submerged mechanical devices. Each device includes a pump that can be powered, in operation, by mechanical energy to output a pressurized output liquid flow in a conduit. Main output conduits are connected with the device conduits to combine pressurized output flows output from the submerged mechanical devices into a lower number of pressurized flows. These flows are delivered to a location remote of the submerged mechanical devices for power generation.

  10. Power generation, operation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Allen J; Sheblé, Gerald B

    2013-01-01

    Since publication of the second edition, there have been extensive changes in the algorithms, methods, and assumptions in energy management systems that analyze and control power generation. This edition is updated to acquaint electrical engineering students and professionals with current power generation systems. Algorithms and methods for solving integrated economic, network, and generating system analysis are provided. Also included are the state-of-the-art topics undergoing evolutionary change, including market simulation, multiple market analysis, multiple interchange contract analysis, c

  11. Environmental impact of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, R.E.; Harrison, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of articles offers answers to questions on the environmental consequences and impact on man of the power generation industry. Subjects discussed in detail include: (i) acid rain and climate change and how the generators of electricity have been expected to play a role disproportionate to their deleterious contributions in improving the situation; (ii) recently adopted air quality management approaches with regard to airborne emissions from power stations and motor vehicles; (iii) the evolution of the UK power industry towards sustainability through considerations for the environment and use of resources in a liberalised market; (iv) the Best Practicable Environmental Option approach to the design and siting of power stations; (v) the environmental impact of nuclear power generation and (vi) electromagnetic fields and the possible effects on man of transmitting electricity in overhead power lines

  12. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  13. Working environment in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 21 papers, of which 7 are devoted to nuclear power generation. They are concerned with the working environment in the controlled areas of the Bohunice nuclear power plant, the unsuitable design of the control rooms with respect to reliability and safety of operation of the nuclear power plant, optimization of the man-working conditions relation, operation of transport facilities, refuelling and fuel element inspection, the human factor and the probabilityy assessment of the nuclear power plant operating safety, a proposal to establish a universal ergonometric programme for the electric power distribution system, and physical factors in the ergonometric analysis of the working environment. (J.B.)

  14. Power generation from waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, H

    1980-04-18

    Since the energy crisis, power generation from waste wood has become increasingly important. The most profitable way to use waste wood in woodworking plants with an annual production of 100 to 150,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark is by combustion and thermal energy recovery. In plants with an annual production of 10,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark, electric power generation is a suitable application.

  15. Nuclear power generation cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Bowers, H.I.

    1980-08-01

    A simplified calculational procedure for the estimation of nuclear power generation cost is outlined. The report contains a discussion of the various components of power generation cost and basic equations for calculating that cost. An example calculation is given. The basis of the fixed-charge rate, the derivation of the levelized fuel cycle cost equation, and the heavy water charge rate are included as appendixes

  16. Subsidized project for development of technology in putting photovoltaic power generation system into practice. Report of international joint demonstrative R and D on photovoltaic power generation system; Taiyoko hatsuden system kokusai kyodo jissho kaihatsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The following joint researches are in progress utilizing natural conditions and social systems in Nepal, Mongolia, Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam for the purpose of enhancing environmental adaptability, reliability, etc., of technologies. (1) Nepal; accelerated demonstrative research utilizing highland conditions, (2) Mongolia; demonstrative research of movable type photovoltaic power generation system, (3) Thailand; demonstrative research of photovoltaic generation system for battery-charging stations, (4) Malaysia; accelerated demonstrative research utilizing tropical conditions, and (5) Vietnam; demonstrative research of hybrid system on photovoltaic power generation and micro hydro power generation. The research assets of (1) and (3) whose researches have been finished were provided gratis for the co-researcher countries. In (5), on the basis of the geographical conditions such as annual average quantity of solar radiation, conduit for water-turbine, energy complementing relation, load demand, and degree of installation difficulty, Trang Village in Vietnam was selected, with a system decided on PV:100 kW/MH:25 kW/control system. The MH is an induction generator. The primary pieces of equipment are a generator, a storage battery, an inverter and a system control panel. (NEDO)

  17. Proceedings of the 2. MIT international conference on the next generation of nuclear power technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The goal of the conference was to try to attract a variety of points of view from well-informed people to debate issues concerning nuclear power. Hopefully from that process a better understanding of what one should be doing will emerge. In organizing the conference lessons learned from the previous one were applied. A continuous effort was made to see to it that the arguments for the alternatives to nuclear power were given abundant time for presentation. This is ultimately because nuclear power is going to have to compete with all of the energy technologies. Thus, in discussing energy strategy all of the alternatives must be considered in a reasonable fashion. The structure the conference used has seven sessions. The first six led up to the final session which was concerned with what the future nuclear power strategy should be. Each session focused upon a question concerning the future. None of these questions has a unique correct answer. Rather, topics are addressed where reasonable people can disagree. In order to state some of the important arguments for each session`s question, the combination of a keynote paper followed by a respondent was used. The respondent`s paper is not necessarily included to be a rebuttal to the keynote; but rather, it was recognized that two people will look at a complex question with different shadings. Through those two papers the intention was to get out the most important arguments affecting the question for the session. The purpose of the papers was to set the stage for about an hour of discussion. The real product of this conference was that discussion.

  18. Generation IV international forum 2002 - remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, S.

    2002-01-01

    Analyses and forecasts underscore the important role of nuclear power in energy supply in the 21st century. Important aspects in this respect are the conservation of fossil resources, the protection of the world's climate, and the continuity of supply. Present 1st and 2nd generation nuclear power plants ensure an economical and technically mature electricity supply. Advanced systems offering, e.g., higher efficiency of fuel utilization, simplified systems technology, and advanced safety characteristics, can make available additional benefits in using nuclear power. Upon an initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ten countries combine their efforts in developing such reactor concepts in the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States pursue the common objective in GIF to identify suitable nuclear power systems and promote their development up to the envisaged readiness for construction in 2030. Besides technical and economic questions of nuclear power generation, also other aspects must be considered with a view to the future use of nuclear power. The particularly relevant issues, such as the management of radioactive waste, the intensification of research and development, and international cooperation, have been taken up by the Bush administration at an early point in time and have been, or will be, incorporated in practical solutions, as in the case of the Yucca Mountain repository project. (orig.)

  19. ISO 14000 - the International Environmental Management Standard: Potential impacts on environmental management and auditing in the electric power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauntlett, S.B.; Pierce, J.L.; Pierce, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    In the framework of environmental management, the concept of voluntary environmental compliance auditing is not in itself a new development. Environmentally conscious firms have for more than a decade, undertaken voluntary audits to help achieve and maintain compliance with environmental regulations and to help identify and correct unregulated or poorly regulated environmental hazard. The firms undertaking the audits were motivated by a desire to mitigate legal and financial risks and/or the desire to be a highly responsible member of the corporate community. Much of the early attention to environmental auditing was in the chemical process industries. Today, there are four current trends affecting environmental auditing: (1) the practice is becoming widespread in all industry groups in both large and small firms; (2) environmental management and audit methodolgies and approaches are being codified in the form of written national and International standards; (3) environmental management programs and in-house audits are increasingly being certified by independent auditors (who are not associated with regulatory agencies); and (4) the certifications are being viewed as marketing and public relations tools. The adoption of ISO 14000 is destined to become the most significant development in international environmental management and auditing. International standards for the development of Environmental Management Systems and the execution of environmental audits do not currently exist. Individual countries, such as England and France, have national standards. One multi-national standard currently exists--the European Economic Community's Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). The United States does not have a national environmental management and auditing standard

  20. Evaluation of the methodologies used to generate random pavement profiles based on the power spectral density: An approach based on the International Roughness Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Jesús Goenaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pavement roughness is the main variable that produces the vertical excitation in vehicles. Pavement profiles are the main determinant of (i discomfort perception on users and (ii dynamic loads generated at the tire-pavement interface, hence its evaluation constitutes an essential step on a Pavement Management System. The present document evaluates two specific techniques used to simulate pavement profiles; these are the shaping filter and the sinusoidal approach, both based on the Power Spectral Density. Pavement roughness was evaluated using the International Roughness Index (IRI, which represents the most used index to characterize longitudinal road profiles. Appropriate parameters were defined in the simulation process to obtain pavement profiles with specific ranges of IRI values using both simulation techniques. The results suggest that using a sinusoidal approach one can generate random profiles with IRI values that are representative of different road types, therefore, one could generate a profile for a paved or an unpaved road, representing all the proposed categories defined by ISO 8608 standard. On the other hand, to obtain similar results using the shaping filter approximation a modification in the simulation parameters is necessary. The new proposed values allow one to generate pavement profiles with high levels of roughness, covering a wider range of surface types. Finally, the results of the current investigation could be used to further improve our understanding on the effect of pavement roughness on tire pavement interaction. The evaluated methodologies could be used to generate random profiles with specific levels of roughness to assess its effect on dynamic loads generated at the tire-pavement interface and user’s perception of road condition.

  1. Analysis of Linear MHD Power Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witalis, E A

    1965-02-15

    The finite electrode size effects on the performance of an infinitely long MHD power generation duct are calculated by means of conformal mapping. The general conformal transformation is deduced and applied in a graphic way. The analysis includes variations in the segmentation degree, the Hall parameter of the gas and the electrode/insulator length ratio as well as the influence of the external circuitry and loading. A general criterion for a minimum of the generator internal resistance is given. The same criterion gives the conditions for the occurrence of internal current leakage between adjacent electrodes. It is also shown that the highest power output at a prescribed efficiency is always obtained when the current is made to flow between exactly opposed electrodes. Curves are presented showing the power-efficiency relations and other generator properties as depending on the segmentation degree and the Hall parameter in the cases of axial and transverse power extraction. The implications of limiting the current to flow between a finite number of identical electrodes are introduced and combined with the condition for current flow between opposed electrodes. The characteristics of generators with one or a few external loads can then be determined completely and examples are given in a table. It is shown that the performance of such generators must not necessarily be inferior to that of segmented generators with many independent loads. However, the problems of channel end losses and off-design loading have not been taken into consideration.

  2. Power Generation from Coal 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report focuses mainly on developments to improve the performance of coal-based power generation technologies, which should be a priority -- particularly if carbon capture and storage takes longer to become established than currently projected. A close look is taken of the major ongoing developments in process technology, plant equipment, instrumentation and control. Coal is an important source of energy for the world, particularly for power generation. To meet the growth in demand for energy over the past decade, the contribution from coal has exceeded that of any other energy source. Additionally, coal has contributed almost half of total growth in electricity over the past decade. As a result, CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation have increased markedly and continue to rise. More than 70% of CO2 emissions that arise from power generation are attributed to coal. To play its role in a sustainable energy future, its environmental footprint must be reduced; using coal more efficiently is an important first step. Beyond efficiency improvement, carbon capture and storage (CCS) must be deployed to make deep cuts in CO2 emissions. The need for energy and the economics of producing and supplying it to the end-user are central considerations in power plant construction and operation. Economic and regulatory conditions must be made consistent with the ambition to achieve higher efficiencies and lower emissions. In essence, clean coal technologies must be more widely deployed.

  3. International nuclear power status 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    2002-04-01

    This report is the eighth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2001, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Nuclear terrorism; 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2000); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2001; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  4. International nuclear power status 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    2003-03-01

    This report is the ninth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2002, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory: 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2001); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2002; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  5. Power generation from solid fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Spliethoff, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Power Generation from Solid Fuels introduces the different technologies to produce heat and power from solid fossil (hard coal, brown coal) and renewable (biomass, waste) fuels, such as combustion and gasification, steam power plants and combined cycles etc. The book discusses technologies with regard to their efficiency, emissions, operational behavior, residues and costs. Besides proven state of the art processes, the focus is on the potential of new technologies currently under development or demonstration. The main motivation of the book is to explain the technical possibilities for reduci

  6. Generation 'Next' and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    My generation was labeled by Russian mass media as generation 'Next.' My technical education is above average. My current position is as a mechanical engineer in the leading research and development institute for Russian nuclear engineering for peaceful applications. It is noteworthy to point out that many of our developments were really first-of-a-kind in the history of engineering. However, it is difficult to grasp the importance of these accomplishments, especially since the progress of nuclear technologies is at a standstill. Can generation 'Next' be independent in their attitude towards nuclear power or shall we rely on the opinions of elder colleagues in our industry? (authors)

  7. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. International cooperation projects (Collection of information on IEA photovoltaic power generation program); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kokusai kyoryoku jigyo (IEA taiyoko hatsuden program ni kansuru joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Items of information were collected on development of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use, the international cooperation projects, and the IEA photovoltaic power generation program. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In the activities of IEA/REWP/PVPS in the current fiscal year, the 13th and 14th Executive Committee meetings, and the 3rd Executive Conference were held. The Task 1 has performed such activities as ISR, NSR, Newsletters, and opening the Internet homepage. The Task 2 activities included structuring about 260 databases for the operation characteristics of photovoltaic power generation systems, and completing the internal material handbooks on measurement and monitoring. A new work plan was prepared for the Task 3 regarding an independent photovoltaic power generation plant for use in an island. For the building integrated photovoltaic power generation system in the Task 7, survey activities were executed by utilizing expertise conferences on building designs, system technologies, and non-technical impediments. In the feasibility survey and research on large-scale photovoltaic power generation utilizing unused land such as desert for the Task 8, the programs were established. (NEDO)

  8. The electric power engineering handbook electric power generation, transmission, and distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Grigsby, Leonard L

    2012-01-01

    Featuring contributions from worldwide leaders in the field, the carefully crafted Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) provides convenient access to detailed information on a diverse array of power engineering topics. Updates to nearly every chapter keep this book at the forefront of developments in modern power systems, reflecting international standards, practices, and technologies. Topics covered include: * Electric Power Generation: Nonconventional Methods * Electric Power Generation

  9. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  10. International nuclear power status 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoejerup, C.F.; Majborn, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    1995-02-01

    This report is the first in a planned series of annual reports covering the international development in the field of nuclear power. The report deals with: statistical information on the electricity produced by nuclear power plants; major safety-related incidents in 1994; the development in Sweden, Eastern Europe, and the rest of the world; the trends of development of a number of reactor types; the trends of development in the fuel cycle. (au)

  11. Adoption of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommers, P.

    1980-01-01

    This article develops a model of the innovation-adoption decision. The model allows the economic situation of a utility and its perception of uncertainty associated with an innovation to affect the probability of adopting it. This model is useful when uncertainties affecting decisions about adoption persist throughout the diffusion process, thereby making the usual adoption model implicit in rate-of-diffusion studies inappropriate. An empirical test of the model finds that firm size, power pool size, and selected aspects of uncertainty about the innovation are significant predictors of US utility companies' decisions on whether or not to adopt nuclear power generation. 17 references, 2 tables

  12. Fear of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higson, D.J. [Paddington, NSW (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Communicating the benefits of nuclear power generation, although essential, is unlikely to be sufficient by itself to counter the misconceptions which hinder the adoption of this technology, viz: that it is unsafe, generates intractable waste, facilitates the proliferation of nuclear weapons, etc. Underlying most of these objections is the fear of radiation, engendered by misunderstandings of the effects of exposure - not the actual risks of radiation exposure themselves. Unfortunately, some aspects of current radiation protection practices promote the misconception that there is no safe dose. A prime purpose of communications from the nuclear industry should be to dispel these misconceptions. (author)

  13. International nuclear power status 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    2001-03-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2000, the report contains: 1. General trends in the development of nuclear power. 2. Deposition of low-level radioactive waste. 3. Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 1999). 4. An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2000. 5. The development in Sweden. 6. The development in Eastern Europe. 7. The development in the rest of the world. 8. Trends in the development of reactor types. 9. Trends in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. (au)

  14. Reference costs for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    The first part of the 2003 study of reference costs for power generation has been completed. It was carried out by the General Directorate for Energy and Raw Materials (DGEMP) of the French Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industry, with the collaboration of power-plant operators, construction firms and many other experts. A Review Committee of experts including economists (Forecasting Department, French Planning Office), qualified public figures, representatives of power-plant construction firms and operators, and non-governmental organization (NGO) experts, was consulted in the final phase. The study examines the costs of power generated by different methods (i.e. nuclear and fossil-fuel [gas-, coal-, and oil-fired] power plants) in the context of an industrial operation beginning in the year 2015. - The second part of the study relating to decentralized production methods (wind, photovoltaic, combined heat and power) is still in progress and will be presented at the beginning of next year. - 1. Study approach: The study is undertaken mainly from an investor's perspective and uses an 8% discount rate to evaluate the expenses and receipts from different years. In addition, the investment costs are considered explicitly in terms of interest during construction. - 2. Plant operating on a full-time basis (year-round): The following graph illustrates the main conclusions of the study for an effective operating period of 8000 hours. It can be seen that nuclear is more competitive than the other production methods for a year-round operation with an 8% discount rate applied to expenses. This competitiveness is even better if the costs related to greenhouse-gas (CO 2 ) emission are taken into account in estimating the MWh cost price. Integrating the costs resulting from CO 2 emissions by non-nuclear fuels (gas, coal), which will be compulsory as of 2004 with the transposition of European directives, increases the total cost per MWh of these power generation methods

  15. Economics of generating electricity from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boadu, H.O.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews and compares experiences and projected future construction and electricity generation costs for nuclear and fossil fired power plants. On the basis of actual operating experience, nuclear power has been demonstrated to be economically competitive with other base load generation options, and international studies project that this economic competitiveness will be largely maintained in the future, over a range of conditions and in a number of countries. However, retaining and improving this competitive position requires concerted efforts to ensure that nuclear plants are constructed within schedule and budgets, and are operated reliably and efficiently. Relevant cost impacting factors is identified, and conclusions for successful nuclear power plant construction and operation are drawn. The desire to attain sustainable development with balanced resource use and control of the environmental and climate impacts of energy systems could lead to renewed interest in nuclear power as an energy source that does not emit greenhouse gases, thus contributing to a revival of the nuclear option. In this regard, mitigation of emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants could lead to restrictions of fossil fuel use and/or result in higher costs of fossil based generation, thus improving the economic competitiveness of nuclear power (au)

  16. Managing strategic alliances in the power generation industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the challenges for power development developers in initiating alliances in the power generation industry. Importance of strategic alliances in the industry; Nature of the alliances in the independent power industry; Strategies for creating and sustaining value in global power development......; Management of tensions inherent in internal and external alliances....

  17. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2015-04-14

    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  18. Cheaper power generation from surplus steam generating capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, K.

    1996-01-01

    Prior to independence most industries had their own captive power generation. Steam was generated in own medium/low pressure boilers and passed through extraction condensing turbines for power generation. Extraction steam was used for process. With cheaper power made available in Nehru era by undertaking large hydro power schemes, captive power generation in industries was almost abandoned except in sugar and large paper factories, which were high consumers of steam. (author)

  19. Transforming Ontario's Power Generation Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, J.; Epp, J.; Godsoe, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    The OPG Review Committee was formed by the Ontario Ministry of Energy to provide recommendations and advice on the future role of Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) in the electricity sector. This report describes the future structure of OPG with reference to the appropriate corporate governance and senior management structure. It also discusses the potential refurbishing of the Pickering A nuclear generating Units 1, 2 and 3. The electricity system in Ontario is becoming increasingly fragile. The province relies heavily on electricity imports and the transmission system is being pushed to near capacity. Three nuclear generating units are out of service. The problems can be attributed to the fact that the electricity sector has been subjected to unpredictable policy changes for more than a decade, and that the largest electricity generator (OPG) has not been well governed. OPG has had frequent senior management change, accountability has been weak, and cost overruns have delayed the return to service of the Pickering nuclear power Unit 4. It was noted that the generating assets owned and operated by OPG are capable of providing more than 70 per cent of Ontario's electricity supply. Decisive action is needed now to avoid a potential supply shortage of about 5,000 to 7,000 megawatts by 2007. In its current state, OPG risks becoming a burden on ratepayers. Forty recommendations were presented, some of which suggest that OPG should become a rate-regulated commercial utility focused on running and maintaining its core generating assets. This would require that the government act as a shareholder, and the company operate like a commercial business. It was also emphasized that the market must be allowed to bring in new players. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Fiscal 2000 report on the international joint verification of photovoltaic power generation system. Verification of hybrid system comprising photovoltaic power generation system and micro-hydroelectric power generation systems; 2000 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system kokusai kyodo jissho kaihatsu hokokusho. Taiyoko micro suiryoku hybrid system jissho kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    Research was conducted in Vietnam for the development of a hybrid system comprising a photovoltaic power generation system and a micro-hydroelectric power generation system. In verification test operation, data measurement had been under way for approximately 18 months since it was started in September 1999. The rate of days on which effective data were obtained throughout this period was 93.4%. Power generated by the micro-hydroelectric power generation system was 19.4kWh/d with so small a capacity factor of 3.2%. The capacity factor of the photovoltaic power generation system was again very small at 4.5% since the amount consumed by the load was as small as 131.0kWh/d. Weather data of solar radiation and precipitation were being collected smoothly. In the study of hybrid system optimization, the effect of inductor generator activation upon the inverter was taken up. In the study of capacity balance optimization between the constituent elements of the hybrid system, methodology was established and verified, and calculations were carried out. (NEDO)

  1. Generation IV reactors: international projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Fiorini, G.L.; Kupitz, J.; Depisch, F.; Hittner, D.

    2003-01-01

    Generation IV international forum (GIF) was initiated in 2000 by DOE (American department of energy) in order to promote nuclear energy in a long term view (2030). GIF has selected 6 concepts of reactors: 1) VHTR (very high temperature reactor system, 2) GHR (gas-cooled fast reactor system), 3) SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor system, 4) SCWR (super-critical water-cooled reactor system), 5) LFR (lead-cooled fast reactor system), and 6) MFR (molten-salt reactor system). All these 6 reactor systems have been selected on criteria based on: - a better contribution to sustainable development (through their aptitude to produce hydrogen or other clean fuels, or to have a high energy conversion ratio...) - economic profitability, - safety and reliability, and - proliferation resistance. The 6 concepts of reactors are examined in the first article, the second article presents an overview of the results of the international project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO) within IAEA. The project finished its first phase, called phase-IA. It has produced an outlook into the future role of nuclear energy and defined the need for innovation. The third article is dedicated to 2 international cooperations: MICANET and HTR-TN. The purpose of MICANET is to propose to the European Commission a research and development strategy in order to develop the assets of nuclear energy for the future. Future reactors are expected to be more multiple-purposes, more adaptable, safer than today, all these developments require funded and coordinated research programs. The aim of HTR-TN cooperation is to promote high temperature reactor systems, to develop them in a long term perspective and to define their limits in terms of burn-up and operating temperature. (A.C.)

  2. Situation of nuclear power generation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toukai, Kunihiro

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear power plants began to be built in Europe in the latter half of 1960. 146 plants are operating and generating about 33% of total power in 2002. France is top of Europe and operating 59 plants, which generate about 75% of power generation in the country. Germany is second and 30%. England is third and 30%. However, Germany decided not to build new atomic power plant in 2000. Movement of non-nuclear power generation is decreasing in Belgium and Switzerland. The liberalization of power generation decreased the wholesale price and BE Company in England was financial difficulties. New nuclear power generation is planning in Finland and France. (S.Y.)

  3. Selected papers from the 12th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2012) (Atlanta, GA, USA, 2-5 December 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark G.; Lang, Jeffrey

    2013-11-01

    Welcome to this special section of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (JMM). This section, co-edited by myself and by Professor Jeffrey Lang of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, contains expanded versions of selected papers presented at the Power MEMS meeting held in Atlanta, GA, USA, in December of 2012. Professor Lang and I had the privilege of co-chairing Power MEMS 2012, the 12th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications. The scope of the PowerMEMS series of workshops ranges from basic principles, to materials and fabrication, to devices and systems, to applications. The many applications of power MEMS (microelectromehcanical systems) range from MEMS-enabled energy harvesting, storage, conversion and conditioning, to integrated systems that manage these processes. Why is the power MEMS field growing in importance? Smaller-scale power and power supplies (microwatts to tens of watts) are gaining in prominence due to many factors, including the ubiquity of low power portable electronic equipment and the proliferation of wireless sensor nodes that require extraction of energy from their embedding environment in order to function. MEMS manufacturing methods can be utilized to improve the performance of traditional power supply elements, such as allowing batteries to charge faster or shrinking the physical size of passive elements in small-scale power supplies. MEMS technologies can be used to fabricate energy harvesters that extract energy from an embedding environment to power wireless sensor nodes, in-body medical implants and other devices, in which the harvesters are on the small scales that are appropriately matched to the overall size of these microsystems. MEMS can enable the manufacturing of energy storage elements from nontraditional materials by bringing appropriate structure and surface morphology to these materials as well as fabricating the electrical interfaces

  4. Radioisotope-powered photovoltaic generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; Uselman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Disposing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants has become one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry. In a new concept, called a radioisotope photovoltaic generator, a portion of this waste would be used in conjunction with a scintillation material to produce light, with subsequent conversion into electricity via photovoltaic cells. Three types of scintillators and two types of silicon cells were tested in six combinations using 32 P as the radioisotope. The highest system efficiency, determined to be 0.5% when the light intensity was normalized to 100 mW/cm 2 , was obtained using a CsI crystal scintillator and a Helios photovoltaic cell

  5. Nuclear excited power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.Z.; Cox, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A power generation system is described, comprising: a gaseous core nuclear reactor; means for passing helium through the reactor, the helium being excited and forming alpha particles by high frequency radiation from the core of the gaseous core nuclear reactor; a reaction chamber; means for coupling chlorine and hydrogen to the reaction chamber, the helium and alpha particles energizing the chlorine and hydrogen to form a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen chloride plasma; means for converting the plasma to electromechanical energy; means for coupling the helium back to the gaseous core nuclear reactor; and means for disassociating the hydrogen chloride to form molecular hydrogen and chlorine, to be coupled back to the reaction chamber in a closed loop. The patent also describes a power generation system comprising: a gaseous core nuclear reactor; means for passing hydrogen through the reactor, the hydrogen being excited by high frequency radiation from the core; means for coupling chlorine to a reaction chamber, the hydrogen energizing the chlorine in the chamber to form a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen chloride plasma; means for converting the plasma to electromechanical energy; means for disassociating the hydrogen chloride to form molecular hydrogen and chlorine, and means for coupling the hydrogen back to the gaseous core nuclear reactor in a closed loop

  6. Power Generation from Coal 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Coal is the biggest single source of energy for electricity production and its share is growing. The efficiency of converting coal into electricity matters: more efficient power plants use less fuel and emit less climate-damaging carbon dioxide. This book explores how efficiency is measured and reported at coal-fired power plants. With many different methods used to express efficiency performance, it is often difficult to compare plants, even before accounting for any fixed constraints such as coal quality and cooling-water temperature. Practical guidelines are presented that allow the efficiency and emissions of any plant to be reported on a common basis and compared against best practice. A global database of plant performance is proposed that would allow under-performing plants to be identified for improvement. Armed with this information, policy makers would be in a better position to monitor and, if necessary, regulate how coal is used for power generation. The tools and techniques described will be of value to anyone with an interest in the more sustainable use of coal.

  7. Nuclear power - international and national dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Ya.

    1994-01-01

    A strong internationalization of nuclear problems is observed recently. International links have acted as a powerful force for improvement of safety standards and plant performance. The prospects for nuclear industry, its safety and excellent operation, its acceptance and tolerance from society in general will strongly influence the future of nuclear power generation in Bulgaria. The most important problems of Bulgarian nuclear energy are: implementation of safety upgrading program; building and operating new nuclear units; developing infrastructure which will permit safe and reliable operation of the existing units and solve the fuel cycle problems in a reliable and acceptable by the society manner. (I.P.)

  8. Proceedings of the 1998 international joint power generation conference (FACT-Vol.22). Volume 1: Fuels and combustion technologies; Gas turbines; Environmental engineering; Nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Natole, R.; Sanyal, A.; Veilleux, J.

    1998-01-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Fuels and combustion technologies; Low NOx burner applications; Low cost solutions to utility NOx compliance issues; Coal combustion--Retrofit experiences, low NOx, and efficiency; Highly preheated air combustion; Combustion control and optimization; Advanced technology for gas fuel combustion; Spray combustion and mixing; Efficient power generation using gas turbines; Safety issues in power industry; Efficient and environmentally benign conversion of wastes to energy; Artificial intelligence monitoring, control, and optimization of power plants; Combustion modeling and diagnostics; Advanced combustion technologies and combustion synthesis; Aero and industrial gas turbine presentations IGTI gas turbine division; NOx/SO 2 ; Plant cooling water system problems and solutions; Issues affecting plant operations and maintenance; and Costs associated with operating and not operating a nuclear power plant. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database

  9. Nuclear power generation: challenge in the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the lecture ''Nuclear power generation - challenge in the 1980s'', attempt is made to predict the events arising in 1980s on the basis of the data available in the International Atomic Energy Agency. By the term ''challenge'', emphasis is placed on the potentiality of nuclear power for solving the world energy problem. This is indicated clearly by nuclear power currently accounting for 8%, of the total power generation in the world. The explanation in the above connection with figures and tables is made, including geographical distribution of reactors, nuclear power generation and total power generation in various countries, future capacity of nuclear power generation, situation of reactor operation, future installation of nuclear power plants, uranium demand/supply situation, spent fuel storage, etc. Then, discussion and analysis are made on such problems as waste management, economy, safety, and safeguards. (J.P.N.)

  10. The price of fuel oil for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, G.J.Y.; Liaw, Y.Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    This study establishes a break-even analysis model for fuel oil generation. The authors calculate the break-even points of the international fuel oil prices for the existing coal-fired power plants, the nuclear power plants and the newly-built coal/oil-fired power plants

  11. International comparison of electricity generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.; Stevens, G.H.; Wigley, K.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reviews the principal findings of successive studies of projected comparative generation costs for base-load electricity production conducted by Nuclear Energy Agency working groups, including a current study jointly sponsored by the International Energy Agency. It concludes that over the six years 1983-1989 nuclear generation costs have remained steady or slightly declined in the majority of OECD countries. This represents an excellent result in view of the difficulties that have arisen in many countries during the period. Nuclear power is projected to maintain a significant advantage in most OECD countries on an assessment basis reflecting utility experience and discount rates employed by the majority of participants. However, nuclear's projected advantage has declined due to a significant fall in projected coal prices which have decreased by 50% since 1983. This decline is only slightly offset by increased capital and operating costs for coal-fired plant. If rates of return sought by utilities were higher or if coal prices prove lower than utilities project then the economic balance between nuclear and coal-fired power would be further reduced and could in some instances be reversed. To improve on its competitiveness nuclear power will have to continue to control capital costs through replication and reduced construction schedules and to improve plant availability to maximise output

  12. Pec power generation system using pure energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K; Sonai, A; Kano, A [Toshiba International Fuel Cells Corp. (Japan). Cell Technology Development Dept.; Yatake, T [Toshiba International Fuel Cells Corp. (Japan). Plant Engineering Dept.

    2002-07-01

    A polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) power generation system using pure hydrogen was developed by Toshiba International Fuel Cells (TIFC), Japan, under the sponsorship of the World Energy Network (WE-NET) Project. The goals of the project consist of the construction of 30 kilowatt power generation plant for stationary application and target electrical efficiency of over 50 per cent. Two critical technologies were investigated for high utilization stack, as high hydrogen utilization operation represents one of the most important items for the achievement of target efficiency. The first technology examined was the humidification method from cathode side, while the second was the two-block configuration, which is arranged in series in accordance with the flow of hydrogen. Using these technologies as a basis for the work, a 5 kilowatt short stack was developed, and a steady performance was obtained under high hydrogen utilization of up to 98 per cent. It is expected that by March 2003 the design of the hydrogen fueled 30 kilowatt power generation plant will be completed and assembled. 1 ref., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  13. Cost of nuclear power generation judged by power rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Takaharu

    1981-01-01

    According to estimation guidance, power rates in general are the proper cost plus the specific compensation and adjustment addition. However, the current system of power rates is of power-source development promotion type involving its tax. The structure of power rate determination must be restudied now especially in connection of nuclear power generation. The cost of nuclear power generation as viewed from power rate is discussed as follows: the fear of military application of power plants, rising plant construction costs, the loophole in fuel cost calculation, unreasonable unit power cost, depreciation and repair cost, business compensation, undue business compensation in nuclear power, the costs of nuclear waste management, doubt concerning nuclear power cost, personnel, pumping-up and power transmission costs in nuclear power, energy balance analysis, nuclear power viewed in entropy, the suppression of power consumption. (J.P.N.)

  14. Nuclear Power and Ghana's Future Electricity Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennison, I.; Dzobo, M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing Ghana in her developmental efforts is the generation of adequate and affordable electricity to meet increasing demand. Problems with the dependency on hydro power has brought insecurity in electricity supply due to periodic droughts. Thermal power systems have been introduced into the electricity generation mix to complement the hydro power supply but there are problems associated with their use. The high price of crude oil on the international market has made them expensive to run and the supply of less expensive gas from Steps are being taken to run the thermal plants on less expensive gas from Nigeria has delayed due to conflicts in the Niger Delta region and other factors. The existing situation has therefore called for the diversification of the electricity generation mix so as to ensure energy security and affordable power supply. This paper presents the nuclear option as a suitable alternative energy source which can be used to address the energy supply problems facing the nation as well the steps being taken towards its introduction in the national energy mix. In addition, electricity demand projections using the MAED model as well as other studies are presented. The expected electricity demand of 350000 GWh (4000MWyr) in 2030, exceeds the total electricity supply capability of the existing hydropower system, untapped hydro resources and the maximum amount of gas that can be imported from Nigeria through the West Africa pipeline. Also presented is a technological assessment on the type of nuclear reactor to be used. The technological assessment which was done based on economics, grid size, technological maturity, passive safety and standardization of reactor design, indicate that a medium sized pressurized water reactor (i.e. a PWR with capacity 300MW to 700MW) is the most favourable type of reactor. In addition the challenges facing the implementation of the nuclear power programme in Ghana are presented. (author)

  15. Reactive power supply by distributed generators

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, M.

    2008-01-01

    Distributed reactive power supply is necessary in distribution networks for an optimized network operation. This paper presents first the reactive power supply capabilities of generators connected to the distribution network (distributed generators). In a second step an approach is proposed of determining the energy losses resulting from reactive power supply by distributed generators. The costs for compensating these losses represent the operational costs of reactive power supply. These cost...

  16. Power generation from residual industrial heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.Q.; Slawnwhite, J.D.; Boulama, K.Goni

    2010-01-01

    Industrial plants continuously reject large amounts of thermal energy through warm liquid or gaseous effluents during normal operation. These energy losses contribute to an inflation of production costs and also threaten the environment. This paper investigates methods of recovering the residual low grade thermal energy and converting it into higher quality mechanical energy using the thermodynamic Rankine cycle principle. For the temperature range of the available thermal energy, water was shown to be a poor working fluid for the conversion system, thus several potential working fluids, including ammonia, synthetic refrigerants, and organic compounds have been considered as alternatives. A comparative analysis led to the identification of different performance evaluation criteria. For example, the water-based Rankine cycle and, to a lesser extent, the ammonia-based Rankine cycle proved to be interesting when the power generation potential per unit working fluid mass flow rate was considered. On the other hand, Rankine-like cycles using dry hydrocarbon working fluids proved much more interesting in terms of energy conversion efficiency, as well as in terms of the net mechanical power generation potential for a given heat source. All performance indicators were low at low temperatures, and improved as the primary heat source was available at higher temperatures. This paper also discusses the influence of various external and internal operating parameters, such as heat source and heat sink temperatures, turbine and pump isentropic efficiencies and the addition of an internal heat exchanger on the overall performance of the energy recovery and conversion system.

  17. Seeing power in international development cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim; Axelsson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    is proposed, combining a governmentality perspective with Stewart Clegg's theory of circuits of power. The framework is applied in a case study of experimentation by the World Bank with a new tool for Environmental Policy Integration (EPI). Rather than conceptualising the EPI tool as a governmental technology......The aim of this paper is to sharpen the ways in which power dynamics can be analytically ‘seen’ in complex governance contexts where particular ways of governing, and their associated horizons of thought, shape and are in turn shaped by intricate interactions between actors. A theoretical approach...... through which the World Bank could promote its favoured vision of political culture in a local setting (here urban planning in Dhaka, Bangladesh), an alternative account is generated that reveals a will to power among the international development community, realised through the construction of knowledge...

  18. H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} filtration of biogas used in internal combustion engines for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huertas, Jose Ignacio; Izquierdo, Sebastian [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, (Mexico)]. E-mail: jhuertas@itesm.mx

    2009-09-15

    Currently, there is an increasing interest in connecting thousands of small electrical plants powered by renewable energy sources to national electrical grids. The use of biogas as fuel for internal combustion engines connected to an electric generator is emerging as one of the most attractive alternatives because of its very low cost benefit ratio and very high positive impact on the environment. However, the use of biogas to generate electricity has been limited by its high content of H{sub 2}S ({approx}3500 ppm) and CO{sub 2} ({approx}40%). CO{sub 2} presence reduces the energetic density of the fuel and therefore the power output of the system. The high content of H{sub 2}S corrodes important components of the engine like the combustion chamber, bronze gears and the exhaust system. This work aims to design and manufacture a low-cost industrial filter for this application. Among the different available methodologies, CaO, NaOH and amines where selected as the most appropriate for a typical farm application of 100 kW electric generations. Since there is not reported data for the H{sub 2}S absorbing capacity of these substances, it was proposed to measure it by means of a bubbler. It is an experimental set up where the gas stream passes through a fixed amount of the absorbing substance until it becomes saturated. The absorbing capacity is determined as the amount of substance being trapped divided by the mass of the absorbing substance being used. Results showed an absorbing capacity of 2.8, 41.4 and 124.8 g of H{sub 2}S per Kg of NaOH, CaO and monoethanolamine respectively. A gas absorbing system of amines was designed and manufactured for H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} biogas filtration. Three different types of amines were evaluated: Monoethanolamine, Diethanolamine, and methyldiethanolamine. Results show that all the amines require a ratio of amines to biogas flow of 0.7 to obtain a 95% of H{sub 2}S filtering efficiency. This data represent only a 30% of H{sub 2}S

  19. Wind Generators and Market Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misir, Nihat

    price thresholds are significantly higher when the monopolist at the peakload level owns both types of generators. Furthermore, when producing electricity with the peakload generator, the monopolist can avoid facing prices below marginal cost by owning a certain share of the wind generators.......Electricity production from wind generators holds significant importance in European Union’s 20% renewable energy target by 2020. In this paper, I show that ownership of wind generators affects market outcomes by using both a Cournot oligopoly model and a real options model. In the Cournot...... oligopoly model, ownership of the wind generators by owners of fossil-fueled (peakload) generators decreases total peakload production and increases the market price. These effects increase with total wind generation and aggregate wind generator ownership. In the real options model, start up and shut down...

  20. Power Quality Improvements in Wind Diesel Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Feddaoui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generation of electricity using diesel is costly for small remote isolated communities. At remote location electricity generation from renewable energy such as wind can help reduce the overall operating costs by reducing the fuel costs. However, the penetration of wind power into small diesel-based grids is limited because of its effect on power quality and reliability. This paper focuses on the combination of Wind Turbine and Diesel Generator systems for sustained power generation, to improve the power quality of wind generation system. The performances of the optimal control structure are assessed and discussed by means of a set of simulations.

  1. Integrated Control for Small Power Wind Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The control strategies of the small power wind generator are usually divided into the maximum power point tracking (MPPT case, which requires the wind generator produce power as much as possible, and the power limited control (PLC case that demands the wind generator produce a power level following the load requirement. Integration of these two operating cases responding to flexible and sophisticated power demands is the main topic of this article. A small power wind generator including the sluggish mechanical dynamic phenomenon, which uses the permanent magnet synchronous generator, is introduced to validate different control methods integrating MPPT and PLC cases and based on hysteresis control. It is a matter of an indirect power control method derived from three direct methods following perturb and observe principle as well as from a look-up table. To analyze and compare the proposed power control methods, which are implemented into an emulator of a small power wind generator, a power demand profile is used. This profile is randomly generated based on measured rapid wind velocity data. Analyzing experimental results, from the power viewpoint, all proposed methods reveal steady-state error with big amount of peak resulting from the nature of perturb and observe.

  2. Optimal Control of Wind Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Pijarski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Power system control is a complex task, which is strongly related to the number and kind of generating units as well as to the applied technologies, such as conventional coal fired power plants or wind and photovoltaic farms. Fast development of wind generation that is considered as unstable generation sets new strong requirements concerning remote control and data hubs cooperating with SCADA systems. Considering specific nature of the wind power generation, the authors analyze the problem of optimal control for wind power generation in farms located over a selected remote-controlled part of the Operator grid under advantageous wind conditions. This article presents an original stepwise method for tracing power flows that makes possible to eliminate current (power overloading of power grid branches. Its core idea is to consider the discussed problem as an optimization task.

  3. Decentralized power generation from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Areva Bioenergies proposes ready-to-use biogas production and valorization units that use industrial effluents (liquid effluents, spent water, solid wastes). Biogas valorization is performed through cogeneration plants with an output power of 500 kW to 10 MW. This brochure presents Areva's global offer in methanation projects (support, engineering, optimization). Areva Bioenergies counts 20 dual-purpose power plants in operation or under construction in the world which represent an installed power of 220 MW

  4. Generation of rotary vibrations in internal combustion engines with elastically coupled electric power systems; Erzeugung von verbrennungsmotorischen Drehschwingungen mit elastisch gekoppelten elektrischen Antrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstein, Jens Werner [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik und Mechatronik

    2004-07-01

    The design of motor car powertrains requires simulations as well as prototype tests. For the simulations, prototype parameters must be identified on test rigs, simulation results must be verified, and life tests must be carried out. This necessitates realistic and reproducible excitation of vibrations. Thee book describes the development and construction of a test rig which, with the aid of electric power systems, induces rotary vibrations like those which may occur in internal combustion engines due to gas forces and unbalanced mass forces. In combination with excess resonance, the test stand achieves high dynamics with average rotary momenta up to 600 Nm. The development process is documented, from test stand design with specially developed servo-engines to the control hardware to modelling, control element design, and commissioning. (orig.)

  5. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  6. Pulse power applications of flux compression generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Freeman, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics are presented for two different types of explosive driven flux compression generators and a megavolt pulse transformer. Status reports are given for rail gun and plasma focus programs for which the generators serve as power sources

  7. Power generator in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kenji.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to perform stable and dynamic conditioning operation for nuclear fuels in BWR type reactors. Constitution: The conditioning operation for the nuclear fuels is performed by varying the reactor core thermal power in a predetermined pattern by changing the predetermined power changing pattern of generator power, the rising rate of the reactor core thermal power and the upper limit for the rising power of the reactor core thermal power are calculated and the power pattern for the generator is corrected by a power conditioning device such that the upper limit for the thermal power rising rate and the upper limit for the thermal power rising rate are at the predetermined levels. Thus, when the relation between the reactor core thermal power and the generator electrical power is fluctuated, the fluctuation is detected based on the variation in the thermal power rising rate and the limit value for the thermal power rising rate, and the correction is made to the generator power changing pattern so that these values take the predetermined values to thereby perform the stable conditioning operation for the nuclear fuels. (Moriyama, K.)

  8. Directly driven generators for wind power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampola, P [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics

    1996-12-31

    The article deals with an analysis of directly driven, low-speed wind generators. The generators studied were a permanent-magnet synchronous machine and an asynchronous machine. The machines were compared with a typical generator of a wind power plant. The electromagnetic optimization of the machines was done by the finite element method. The rated power of the generators was 500 kW and the rotational speed was 40 rpm. (author)

  9. Directly driven generators for wind power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampola, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics

    1995-12-31

    The article deals with an analysis of directly driven, low-speed wind generators. The generators studied were a permanent-magnet synchronous machine and an asynchronous machine. The machines were compared with a typical generator of a wind power plant. The electromagnetic optimization of the machines was done by the finite element method. The rated power of the generators was 500 kW and the rotational speed was 40 rpm. (author)

  10. Powering Kuwait into the 21. century: Alternatives for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncourt, Maite de

    2012-01-01

    Kuwait is facing a surge in the consumption of power. The current power fuel mix, based on oil, appears unsustainable. Yet Kuwait has a large number of assets. The power fuel mix can be optimized and diversified to include alternatives to oil such as gas or renewables, so as to benefit from the opportunity cost of oil (the price at which this oil could be sold on international market). The country has gas reserves and a good potential in renewable technologies. If energy efficiency can be considered as a potential resource, then much can be achieved in this area as well, given Kuwait's current power and water per capita consumption rates, which are among the highest in the world. The present tendency has been to go for step-by-step fixes, adding emergency power plants which have increased power generation costs and a non-optimized system. Kuwait is on the verge of defining a new power fuel mix, with more gas, and developing new R and D projects. In this context, this memorandum looks at alternatives, and concludes that in the long term a diversified power mix has to be developed. The current gas glut at the world level, resulting both from the production of unconventional gas resources and the economic recession hitting Europe, offers a sizable opportunity for gas imports. A transition strategy for the power sector could make use of gas imports. In the longer term, however, Kuwait should not make a one-way bet and develop its domestic gas resources. This paper urges the adoption of a common gas strategy integrated into a power sector strategy, through consultation with all actors. It would include reserves, costs, feasibility and potential uses, as well as economic opportunities. As the region is facing gas shortages and Kuwait ranks independence of supply among its policy priorities, renewable, and in particular solar have their own place in the power mix. The country indeed disposes of substantial and relatively predictable renewable energy resources. Those are

  11. RF Power Generation in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, O C; Valuch, D

    2003-01-01

    The counter-rotating proton beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be captured and then accelerated to their final energies of 2 x 7 TeV by two identical 400 MHz RF systems. The RF power source required for each beam comprises eight 300 kW klystrons. The output power of each klystron is fed via a circulator and a waveguide line to the input coupler of a single-cell super-conducting (SC) cavity. Four klystrons are powered by a 100 kV, 40A AC/DC power converter, previously used for the operation of the LEP klystrons. A five-gap thyratron crowbar protects the four klystrons in each of these units. The technical specification and measured performance of the various high-power elements are discussed. These include the 400MHz/300kW klystrons with emphasis on their group delay and the three-port circulators, which have to cope with peak reflected power levels up to twice the simultaneously applied incident power of 300 kW. In addition, a novel ferrite loaded waveguide absorber, used as termination for port No...

  12. Nuclear power reactors of new generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Slesarev, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents discussions on the following topics: fuel supply for nuclear power; expansion of the sphere of nuclear power applications, such as district heating; comparative estimates of power reactor efficiencies; safety philosophy of advanced nuclear plants, including passive protection and inherent safety concepts; nuclear power unit of enhanced safety for the new generation of nuclear power plants. The emphasis is that designers of new generation reactors face a complicated but technically solvable task of developing highly safe, efficient, and economical nuclear power sources having a wide sphere of application

  13. Power generation investment in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Most IEA countries are liberalizing their electricity markets, shifting the responsibility for financing new investment in power generation to private investors. No longer able to automatically pass on costs to consumers, and with future prices of electricity uncertain, investors face a much riskier environment for investment in electricity infrastructure. This report looks at how investors have responded to the need to internalize investment risk in power generation. While capital and total costs remain the parameters shaping investment choices, the value of technologies which can be installed quickly and operated flexibly is increasingly appreciated. Investors are also managing risk by greater use of contracting, by acquiring retail businesses, and through mergers with natural gas suppliers. While liberalization was supposed to limit government intervention in the electricity market, volatile electricity prices have put pressure on governments to intervene and limit such prices. This study looks at several cases of volatile prices in IEA countries' electricity markets, and finds that while market prices can be a sufficient incentive for new investment in peak capacity, government intervention into the market to limit prices may undermine such investment

  14. Conscience of Japanese on nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Chikio

    1995-01-01

    There are considerably many investigations and researches on the attitude of general public to nuclear power generation, but those which analyzed the contents of attitude or the research which got into the problem of what method is desirable to obtain the understanding of nuclear power generation for power generation side is rarely found. Therefore, the research on where is its cause was begun. As the result, since the attitude to nuclear power generation is related to the attitudes to many things that surround nuclear power generation in addition to that directly to nuclear power generation, it is necessary to elucidate the problem synthetically. The social investigation was carried out for the public of from 18 to 79 years old who live in the supply area of Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. The data were obtained from those selected by probabilistic sampling, 1000 in urban area (rate of recovery 76%) and 440 in country area (rate of recovery 77%). The way of thinking on making questionnaire is shown. The investigation and the analysis of the obtained data were carried out. What do you recollect as a dangerous matter, the attitude to nuclear power generation, the structure of the conscience to nuclear power generation and its significance, the type classification of people and its features are reported and discussed. (K.I.)

  15. Power generation using photovoltaic induction in an isolated power network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, M.; Jiang, J.

    2001-01-01

    Owing to increased emphasis on renewable resources, the development of suitable isolated power generators driven by energy sources, the development of suitable isolated power generators driven by energy sources such as photovoltaic, wind, small hydroelectric, biogas and etc. has recently assumed greater significance. A single phase capacitor self excited induction generator has emerged as a suitable candidate of isolated power sources. This paper presents performance analysis of a single phase self-excited induction generator driven by photovoltaic (P V) system for low power isolated stand-alone applications. A single phase induction machine can work as a self-excited induction generator when its rotor is driven at suitable speed by an photovoltaic powered do motor. Its excitation is provided by connecting a single phase capacitor bank at a stator terminals. Either to augment grid power or to get uninterrupted power during grid failure stand-alone low capacity ac generators are used. These are driven by photovoltaic, wind power or I C engines using kerosene, diesel, petrol or biogas as fuel. Self-excitation with capacitors at the stator terminals of the stator terminals of the induction machines is well demonstrated experimentally on a P V powered dc motor-induction machine set. The parameters and the excitation requirements of the induction machine run in self-excited induction generator mode are determined. The effects of variations in prime mover speed,terminal capacitance and load power factor on the machine terminal voltage are studied

  16. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use - international joint demonstration and development of photovoltaic power generation systems (Demonstrative research on photovoltaic power and micro hydraulic power hybrid system); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system kokusai kyodo jissho kaihatsu (taiyoko micro suiryoku hybrid system jissho kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) power plant is compounded with a micro hydroelectric (MH) power plant in Vietnam, who has a dry season and a rainy season, to structure a stabilized power supply system to compensate drawbacks of the respective systems. Full load operation is being performed to advance the development of technologies to optimize and improve the performance and reliability of the system. The works include (1) site surveys, and decision on a location to execute the demonstration research, (2) design of the system, and design and fabrication of devices, and (3) the building construction thereof. In Item (1), the location was decided at Trang Village, Vietnam from such installing conditions as annual average insolation, water channels for wheel turbines, energy complementing relations, load demand amount, and difficulty of installation. In Item (2), the system consists of PV:100 kW/MH:25 kW/control system, wherein the MH is an inductive generator. The Main devices include generators, batteries, inverters, system control panels, and a meteorological data recording device. In Item (3) land survey and development were completed. (NEDO)

  17. Powerful nanosecond pulse train generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isakov, I.F.; Logachev, E.I.; Opekunov, M.S.; Pechenkin, S.A.; Remnev, G.E.; Usov, Yu.P.

    1987-01-01

    A generator permitting to shape on the load pulsed with the repetition frequency of 10 3 -10 6 Hz and more is described. The amplitude of shaped voltage pulses is up to 150 kV at pulse duration equal to 50 ns. The generator comprises connected in-series with the load two shaping and two transmission lines realized on the base of the KVI-300 low-ohmic cable. The shaping lines are supplied from two independently connected pulse voltage generators for obtaining time interval between pulses > 10 -6 s; they may be also supplied from one generator for obtaining time interval -6 s. At the expense of reducing losses in the discharge circuit the amplitude of the second pulse grows with increase of time interval between pulses up to 300 ns, further on the curve flat-topping exists. The described generator is used in high-current accelerators, in which the primary negative pulse results in generation of explosive-emission plasma, and the second positive pulse provides ion beam shaping including ions of heavy metal used for production of a potential electrode. The generator multipulse mode is used for successive ion acceleration in the transport system

  18. A large capacity turbine generator for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Susumu; Miki, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kazuichi

    2000-01-01

    In future large capacity nuclear power plant, capacity of a generator to be applied will be 1800 MVA of the largest class in the world. In response to this, the Mitsubishi Electric Co., Ltd. began to carry out element technology verification of a four-pole large capacity turbine generator mainly using upgrading technique of large capacity, since 1994 fiscal year. And, aiming at reliability verification of the 1800 MVA class generator, a model generator with same cross-section as that of an actual one was manufactured, to carry out some verifications on its electrified tests, and so on. Every performance evaluation result of tests on the model generator were good, and high reliability to design and manufacturing technique of the 1800 MVA class generator could be verified. In future, on the base of these technologies, further upgrading of reliability on the large capacity turbine generator for nuclear power generation is intended to be carried out. (G.K.)

  19. Advanced energy utilization MHD power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The 'Technical Committee on Advanced Energy Utilization MHD Power Generation' was started to establish advanced energy utilization technologies in Japan, and has been working for three years from June 2004 to May 2007. This committee investigated closed cycle MHD, open cycle MHD, and liquid metal MHD power generation as high-efficiency power generation systems on the earth. Then, aero-space application and deep space exploration technologies were investigated as applications of MHD technology. The spin-off from research and development on MHD power generation such as acceleration and deceleration of supersonic flows was expected to solve unstart phenomena in scramjet engine and also to solve abnormal heating of aircrafts by shock wave. In addition, this committee investigated researches on fuel cells, on secondary batteries, on connection of wind power system to power grid, and on direct energy conversion system from nuclear fusion reactor for future. The present technical report described results of investigations by the committee. (author)

  20. Integration of stochastic generation in power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaefthymiou, G.; Schavemaker, P.H.; Sluis, van der L.; Kling, W.L.; Kurowicka, D.; Cooke, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic generation, i.e., electrical power production by an uncontrolled primary energy source, is expected to play an important role in future power systems. A new power system structure is created due to the large-scale implementation of this small-scale, distributed, non-dispatchable

  1. Microwave power engineering generation, transmission, rectification

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C

    1968-01-01

    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 1: Generation, Transmission, Rectification considers the components, systems, and applications and the prevailing limitations of the microwave power technology. This book contains four chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic concept and developments of microwave power technology. The second chapter deals with the development of the main classes of high-power microwave and optical frequency power generators, such as magnetrons, crossed-field amplifiers, klystrons, beam plasma amplifiers, crossed-field noise sources, triodes, lasers. The third

  2. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-08-08

    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  3. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Gun; Lee, Han Myung; Song, Ki Dong; Lee, Man Ki; Kim, Seung Su; Moon, Kee Hwan; Chung, Whan Sam; Kim, Kyung Pyo; Cho, Sang Goo

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of nuclear power generation under the circumstances of growing concerns about environmental impact and to help decision making in electricity sector. In this study, efforts are made to estimate electricity power generation cost of major power options by incorporating additional cost to reduce environmental impact and to suggest an optimal plant mix in this case. (Author)

  4. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  5. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues.

  6. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues

  7. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues.

  8. Generator technology for HTGR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomba, D.; Thiot, D.

    1997-01-01

    Approximately 15% of the worlds installed capacity in electric energy production is from generators developed and manufactured by GEC Alsthom. GEC Alsthom is now working on the application of generators for HTGR power conversion systems. The main generator characteristics induced by the different HTGR power conversion technology include helium immersion, high helium pressure, brushless excitation system, magnetic bearings, vertical lineshaft, high reliability and long periods between maintenance. (author)

  9. Power: towards a third generation definition

    OpenAIRE

    13250612 - Zaaiman, Stephanus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Power is a well-established concept in the social sciences especially in the political sciences. Although it is widely used in scientific discourse, different definitions and perspectives prevail with regard to it. This article aims to explore the possibilities of taking the debate further towards a third generation definition of social power. Although first generation definitions (associated with Weber and Dahl) and second generation definitions (associated with inter alia Giddens and Morris...

  10. Ergonomics and nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, C.J.; Bogie, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    The design and construction of nuclear power plants are executed to rigorous standards of safety and reliability. Similarly the human interface within the nuclear power plant must meet very high standards, and these must be demonstrated to be maintained and assured through time. The control room, as the operating nerve-centre of the plant, carries a large part of this responsibility. It is the work space dimension within which the operator-instrumentation interface must function as efficiently as possible. This paper provides an overview of how ergonomics has been used as a major tool in reshaping the man-machine interface within the control room in the interest of safety and reliability. Topics covered in the paper include workspace design, control panel layout, demarcation and labelling, switch and meter types, and annunciated and unannunciated alarms

  11. Capacity value evaluation of photovoltaic power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, I.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents an example of capacity value (kW-value) evaluation of photovoltaic generation from power companies generation planning point of view. The method actually applied to evaluate the supplying capability of conventional generation plants is briefly described. 21 figs, 1 tab

  12. Nigeria nuclear power generation programme: Suggested way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesanmi, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    It has now been established worldwide that nuclear power generation is needed to meet growing energy demands. The gases emitted from fossil fuel have serious adverse effects on the environment. The message from the 50th Annual General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held in Vienna, September 2006 was very clear on this issue. There was a unanimous support for more nuclear power generation to meet the world energy demand. All the member states that can afford the nuclear power technology and willing to abide by the international regulations and safeguards were encouraged to do so. The requirements to participate in the nuclear power generation programme are political will and organized diplomacy, legislative and statutory framework, international safety obligations, institutional framework, public acceptability, capacity building and technology transfer, environmental concern , waste management and financing. Nigeria's performance on all the criteria was evaluated and found satisfactory. All these coupled with Nigeria's dire need for more power and better energy mix, are sufficient and undisputable reasons for the whole world to support Nigeria nuclear power generation programme. Definitely the programme poses serious challenges to the Nigerian Physicists. Therefore, Departments of Physics should endeavour to include nuclear physics option in their programme and work in collaboration with the faculty of Engineering in their various tertiary institutions in order to attain the necessary critical human capacity that will be needed to man the nuclear power industry within the next 10 years

  13. An Implanted, Stimulated Muscle Powered Piezoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Gustafson, Kenneth; Kilgore, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    A totally implantable piezoelectric generator system able to harness power from electrically activated muscle could be used to augment the power systems of implanted medical devices, such as neural prostheses, by reducing the number of battery replacement surgeries or by allowing periods of untethered functionality. The features of our generator design are no moving parts and the use of a portion of the generated power for system operation and regulation. A software model of the system has been developed and simulations have been performed to predict the output power as the system parameters were varied within their constraints. Mechanical forces that mimic muscle forces have been experimentally applied to a piezoelectric generator to verify the accuracy of the simulations and to explore losses due to mechanical coupling. Depending on the selection of system parameters, software simulations predict that this generator concept can generate up to approximately 700 W of power, which is greater than the power necessary to drive the generator, conservatively estimated to be 50 W. These results suggest that this concept has the potential to be an implantable, self-replenishing power source and further investigation is underway.

  14. Centralized power generation: what share for gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honore, A.; Pharabod, E.; Lecointe, O.; Poyer, L.

    2007-01-01

    Up to a recent past, most energy scenarios were foreseeing a fast growth of natural gas consumption thanks to an assumed strong penetration of gas-fueled power plants. The share of natural gas in the centralized power generation has been the subject of a meeting of the French gas association (AFG) which aimed at answering the following questions: today's position of gas power generation in Europe in the present day context of gas prices (level, volatility), the share of natural gas in the French power mix in the coming years, the strategies of development of gas power plants by historical operators and newcomers, the gas arbitration between its sale to end-users and its use for power generation, and the integration of the CO 2 risk. (J.S.)

  15. Regenerative Heater Optimization for Steam Turbo-Generation Cycles of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants with a Comparison of Two Concepts for the Westinghouse International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.C.

    2002-01-01

    The intent of this study is to discuss some of the many factors involved in the development of the design and layout of a steam turbo-generation unit as part of a modular Generation IV nuclear power plant. Of the many factors involved in the design and layout, this research will cover feed water system layout and optimization issues. The research is arranged in hopes that it can be generalized to any Generation IV system which uses a steam powered turbo-generation unit. The research is done using the ORCENT-II heat balance codes and the Salisbury methodology to be reviewed herein. The Salisbury methodology is used on an original cycle design by Famiani for the Westinghouse IRIS and the effects due to parameter variation are studied. The vital parameters of the Salisbury methodology are the incremental heater surface capital cost (S) in $/ft 2 , the value of incremental power (I) in $/kW, and the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) in Btu/ft 2 -degrees Fahrenheit-hr. Each is varied in order to determine the effects on the cycles overall heat rate, output, as well as, the heater surface areas. The effects of each are shown. Then the methodology is then used to compare the optimized original Famiani design consisting of seven regenerative feedwater heaters with an optimized new cycle concept, INRC8, containing four regenerative heaters. The results are shown. It can be seen that a trade between the complexity of the seven stage regenerative Famiani cycle and the simplicity of the INRC8 cycle can be made. It is desired that this methodology can be used to show the ability to evaluate modularity through the value of size a complexity of the system as well as the performance. It also shows the effectiveness of the Salisbury methodology in the optimization of regenerative cycles for such an evaluation

  16. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use (International cooperation project - collection of information on IEA photovoltaic power generation program); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kokusai kyoryoku jigyo (IEA taiyoko hatsuden program ni kansuru joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Research and development, verification, analysis and information exchange have been performed based on the 'Treaty to Execute the Research and Cooperation Program on Photovoltaic Power Generation System'. The IEA/REWP/PVPS activities in fiscal 1999 include the participation to the two executive committee meetings (Valencia and Sydney), and the subcommittee activities. The subcommittee activities are as follows: Task I: information exchange on and proliferation of the photovoltaic power generation systems, Task II: operation performance and design of the photovoltaic power generation systems, Task III: design and operation of the independent type and the island use power plants, Task VII: Building integrated photovoltaic power generation systems, Task VI, Sub-task 5: investigations and researches on possibility for photovoltaic power generation systems utilizing unutilized lands including deserts, and Task IX: technical cooperation to expand photovoltaic power generation system markets. (NEDO)

  17. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use (International cooperation project - collection of information on IEA photovoltaic power generation program); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kokusai kyoryoku jigyo (IEA taiyoko hatsuden program ni kansuru joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Research and development, verification, analysis and information exchange have been performed based on the 'Treaty to Execute the Research and Cooperation Program on Photovoltaic Power Generation System'. The IEA/REWP/PVPS activities in fiscal 1999 include the participation to the two executive committee meetings (Valencia and Sydney), and the subcommittee activities. The subcommittee activities are as follows: Task I: information exchange on and proliferation of the photovoltaic power generation systems, Task II: operation performance and design of the photovoltaic power generation systems, Task III: design and operation of the independent type and the island use power plants, Task VII: Building integrated photovoltaic power generation systems, Task VI, Sub-task 5: investigations and researches on possibility for photovoltaic power generation systems utilizing unutilized lands including deserts, and Task IX: technical cooperation to expand photovoltaic power generation system markets. (NEDO)

  18. Liberation of electric power and nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, as the Rule on Electric Business was revised after an interval of 35 years in 1995, and a competitive bid on new electric source was adopted after 1996 fiscal year, investigation on further competition introduction to electric power market was begun by establishment of the Basic Group of the Electric Business Council in 1997. By a report proposed on January, 1999 by the Group, the Rule was revised again on March, 1999 to start a partial liberation or retail of the electric power from March, 2000. From a viewpoint of energy security and for solution of global environmental problem in Japan it has been decided to positively promote nuclear power in future. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate how the competition introduction affects to development of nuclear power generation and what is a market liberation model capable of harmonizing with the development on liberation of electric power market. Here was elucidated on effect of the introduction on previous and future nuclear power generation, after introducing new aspects of nuclear power problems and investigating characteristic points and investment risks specific to the nuclear power generation. And, by investigating some possibilities to development of nuclear power generation under liberation models of each market, an implication was shown on how to be future liberation on electric power market in Japan. (G.K.)

  19. Microscale combustion and power generation

    CERN Document Server

    Cadou, Christopher; Ju, Yiguang

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in microfabrication technologies have enabled the development of entirely new classes of small-scale devices with applications in fields ranging from biomedicine, to wireless communication and computing, to reconnaissance, and to augmentation of human function. In many cases, however, what these devices can actually accomplish is limited by the low energy density of their energy storage and conversion systems. This breakthrough book brings together in one place the information necessary to develop the high energy density combustion-based power sources that will enable many of these devices to realize their full potential. Engineers and scientists working in energy-related fields will find: An overview of the fundamental physics and phenomena of microscale combustion; Presentations of the latest modeling and simulation techniques for gasphase and catalytic micro-reactors; The latest results from experiments in small-scale liquid film, microtube, and porous combustors, micro-thrusters, a...

  20. Converters for Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng

    2015-01-01

    Power electronics technology has become the enabling technology for the integration of distributed power generation systems (DPGS) such as offshore wind turbine power systems and commercial photovoltaic power plants. Depending on the applications, a vast array of DPGS-based power converter...... topologies has been developed and more are coming into the market in order to achieve an efficient and reliable power conversion from the renewables. In addition, stringent demands from both the distribution system operators and the consumers have been imposed on the renewable-based DPGS. This article...... presents an overview of the power converters for the DPGS, mainly based on wind turbine systems and photovoltaic systems, covering a wide range of applications. Moreover, the modulation schemes and interfacing power filters for the power converters are also exemplified. Finally, the general control...

  1. Power and the future generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummery, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    In this keynote address, the author, who was acting president of AECL at the time of the conference, emphasizes the importance of nuclear energy to Canada, and its future importance to the developing countries. In 1992, nuclear energy supplied 15% of Canada's electricity, employed 30,000 people in Canada, created at least 10,000 jobs in other sectors, generated federal tax revenues of C$700 million, and by supplanting coal and gas imports saved about C$1 billion. Export sales prospects in China, Korea, Turkey, the Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand are indicated. AECL is presently undergoing reorganization for greater efficiency. A public opinion poll indicated about 70% Canadian public support for nuclear energy

  2. Fiscal 2000 project of inviting proposals for international joint research - invitation for international proposal (Power generation No.10). Achievement report on independent distributed type power generation technology of using now-unused gas pressure difference energy; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (hatsuden No.10). Miriyo gas atsuryokusa energy ni yoru dokuritsu bunsangata hatsuden gijutsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Development is under way of a power generation system utilizing pressure difference during fuel gas transportation, independent from the outside and installable in the vicinity of the load. It is assumed that power is supplied to a decompression device in a fuel gas supply pipeline. Fuel gas placed under high pressure in the mainline is decompressed upon arriving at a consumer area. The intended technology of utilizing the now-unused pressure difference will be employed for power generation, and energy will be collected accordingly. Activities are conducted in the three fields of (1) the acquisition of heat sources for heating, (2) the development of technologies for compensating for seasonal and daily load variations on gas or power, and (3) the development of control technologies to cope with emergency. In field (1), a system is developed, independent from external heat sources, to operate on an indirect heating system based on a heating furnace. In domain (2), it is proved that high efficiency system operation will be available if the influence of gas pipeline transportation parameters on load variations is analyzed for the effective utilization of the pipeline operating system. (NEDO)

  3. Electrical Power Conversion of River and Tidal Power Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wright, Alan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath

    2016-11-21

    As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. Although the utilization of power electronics and electric machines in industry is phenomenal, the emphasis on system design is different for various sectors of industry. In precision control, robotics, and weaponry, the design emphasis is on accuracy and reliability with less concern for the cost of the final product. In energy generation, the cost of energy is the prime concern; thus, capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operations and maintenance expenditures (OPEX) are the major design objectives. This paper describes the electrical power conversion aspects of river and tidal generation. Although modern power converter control is available to control the generation side, the design was chosen on the bases of minimizing the CAPEX and OPEX; thus, the architecture is simple and modular for ease of replacement and maintenance. The power conversion is simplified by considering a simple diode bridge and a DC-DC power converter to take advantage of abundant and low-cost photovoltaic inverters that have well-proven grid integration characteristics (i.e., the capability to produce energy with good power quality and control real power and voltage on the grid side).

  4. Uranium availability for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoller, S.M.; Hogerton, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    Utilities are encouraged to participate in the effort to explore and develop adequate supplies of uranium in order to assure a high level of effort and have some control over production rates. Regulatory commissions are likewise encouraged to be receptive to utility initiatives by granting assurances of favorable rate treatment to cover investments. Confusion arises over the difference between forward coverage based on proven reserves of commercial-grade uranium and long-range availability based on potential resources. Cancellations and delays in the licensing of nuclear power plants have made it difficult for uranium suppliers to proceed with confidence. Drilling difficulties and the short productive life of most uranium mines will probably keep proven reserve levels lower than long-term plant requirements. Several approaches are outlined for developing uranium reserve estimates. ERDA projections are based on ''favorable ground'' areas where uranium deposits are most probable. It is assumed that, where a market exists, minerals will be extracted and traditional procurement methods will evolve. Since utilities are the only industry committed to a viable fuel cycle, they are justified in joining in the search for supplies

  5. International trade with electric power

    OpenAIRE

    Årdal, Frode

    2009-01-01

    In 2003 the European Commission introduced the Directive 2003/54/EC and Regulation 1228/2003/EC which increased the focus on the liberalization of the European electricity market. The international electricity trade has increased and created new challenges related to cross-border transmission and compensation mechanisms. The focus of the report has been to discuss the development of the electricity market in Europe, and the status of international exchange. The report also discusses the con...

  6. Steam generators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillequin, Jean

    1975-01-01

    The role and the general characteristics of steam generators in nuclear power plants are indicated, and particular types are described according to the coolant nature (carbon dioxide, helium, light water, heavy water, sodium) [fr

  7. Solar power generation in a rural region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The book contains the papers discussions and results of a German/Senegalese seminar on photovoltaic power generation in rural regions of Senegal which was held in Dakar on 19-23 November 1990. (HP) [de

  8. The third generation of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Developing nations use the nuclear plant option to satisfy important overall national development objectives, in addition to providing economical electric power. The relative importance of these two objectives changes as the nuclear program develops and the interim milestones are reached. This paper describes the three typical stages of nuclear power development programs. The first and the second generations are development phases with the third generation reaching self sufficiency. Examples are presented of European and Far East countries or regions which have reached of are about to step into the third generation phase of development. The paper concludes that to achieve the objective of a nuclear power self sufficiency, other than merely filling the need of economical electric power, a careful technology transfer plan must be followed which sets realistic and achievable goals and establishes the country as a reliable and technically competent member of the nuclear power industry. (author)

  9. Third generation of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    Developing nations use the nuclear plant option to satisfy important overall national development objectives, in addition to providing economical electric power. The relative importance of these two objectives changes as the nuclear program develops and the interim milestones are reached. This paper describes the three typical stages of nuclear power development programs. The first and the second generations are development phases with the third generation reaching self sufficiency. Examples are presented of European and Far East countries or regions which have reached or are about to step into the third generation phase of development. The paper concludes that to achieve the objectives of a nuclear power self sufficiency, other than merely filling the need of economical electric power, a careful technology transfer plan must be followed which sets realistic and achievable goals and establishes the country as a reliable and technically competent member of the nuclear power industry

  10. Bike-powered electricity generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞTEFAN MOCANU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding new energy sources is an important challenge of our times. A lot of research focuses on identifying such sources that can also be exploited with relatively simple and efficient systems. These sources can be either new materials that can be used to generate energy, or solutions to scavenge already existing forms of energy. Part of the latter class of solutions, the system presented in this paper converts the energy consumed by many people in gyms (or even at home, during exercise into electric energy. This energy exists anyway, because people want to be healthier or to look better. Currently, this significant (in our opinion amount of energy is actually wasted and transformed into heat. Instead, in this study, a prototype scavenging system (dedicated to fitness/stationary bikes to collect and (reuse this energy is presented. Specifically, we depict the design of a low-budget system that uses existing, discrete components and is able to scavenge some of the energy spent by the biker. The experimental results show that the system is functional, but its efficiency is limited by (mechanical losses before the collection.

  11. Reactive power management of power networks with wind generation

    CERN Document Server

    Amaris, Hortensia; Ortega, Carlos Alvarez

    2012-01-01

    As the energy sector shifts and changes to focus on renewable technologies, the optimization of wind power becomes a key practical issue. Reactive Power Management of Power Networks with Wind Generation brings into focus the development and application of advanced optimization techniques to the study, characterization, and assessment of voltage stability in power systems. Recent advances on reactive power management are reviewed with particular emphasis on the analysis and control of wind energy conversion systems and FACTS devices. Following an introduction, distinct chapters cover the 5 key

  12. Review of pulsed rf power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.

    1992-04-01

    I am going to talk about pulsed high-power rf generation for normal-conducting electron and positron linacs suitable for applications to high-energy physics in the Next Linear Collider, or NLC. The talk will cover some basic rf system design issues, klystrons and other microwave power sources, rf pulse-compression devices, and test facilities for system-integration studies

  13. improvement of hydroelectric power generation using pumped

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    1, 4 DEPARTMENT OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS, AKOKA, YABA, ... pumped storage system for generating hydroelectric power all year round. ... Power supply situation in Nigeria has no doubt ..... (objective functions), criteria for evaluation of control .... adsen H “Para eter esti ation in distributed.

  14. High-Altitude Wind Power Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagiano, L.; Milanese, M.; Piga, D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—The paper presents the innovative technology of highaltitude wind power generation, indicated as Kitenergy, which exploits the automatic flight of tethered airfoils (e.g., power kites) to extract energy from wind blowing between 200 and 800 m above the ground. The key points of this

  15. Apparatus and method for thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.; Redding, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    An improved thermal power plant and method of power generation is described which minimizes thermal stress and chemical impurity buildup in the vaporizing component, particularly beneficial under loss of normal feed fluid and startup conditions. The invention is particularly applicable to a liquid metal fast breeder reactor plant

  16. Entropy-generated power and its efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, N.; Imparato, A.; Esposito, M.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a simple model for a motor that generates mechanical motion by exploiting an entropic force arising from the topology of the underlying phase space. We show that the generation of mechanical forces in our system is surprisingly robust to local changes in kinetic and topological paramet...... parameters. Furthermore, we find that the efficiency at maximum power may show discontinuities....

  17. Nuclear power generation incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Myerscough, PB

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power generation has undergone major expansion and developments in recent years; this third edition contains much revised material in presenting the state-of-the-art of nuclear power station designs currently in operation throughout the world. The volume covers nuclear physics and basic technology, nuclear station design, nuclear station operation, and nuclear safety. Each chapter is independent but with the necessary technical overlap to provide a complete work on the safe and economic design and operation of nuclear power stations.

  18. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, H. [ed.] [IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H. [ed.] [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V. [ed.] [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.

  19. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, H [ed.; IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H [ed.; VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V [ed.; Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.

  20. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomisto, H.; Purhonen, H.; Kouhia, V.

    1997-01-01

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries

  1. Situation of nuclear power generation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, S [Swedish Atomic Forum

    1978-01-01

    In Sweden, nuclear power generation was received initially favorably. In the end of 1960s, however, nuclear power generation got involved in the activities of environment preservation. Then, political parties became opposed to nuclear power generation, and now, the need of nuclear power generation itself is regarded as questionable. In the general election in 1976, the Government opposing the nuclear power generation won. As the result, the conditional nuclear power development law and the energy committee were set up. The committee composed of parliament members, experts, and representatives of enterprises and trade unions is to submit its report so that the parliament can prepare a new energy program in the fall of 1978. Meanwhile, the nuclear fuel safety project formed newly has studied to satisfy the conditions of the law. In Sweden, which has developed nuclear reactors independently from the technology of USA, the oppositions are on the decrease, however. It is awaited what decision will be made by the Government in this fall.

  2. Conditional prediction intervals of wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Kariniotakis, Georges

    2010-01-01

    A generic method for the providing of prediction intervals of wind power generation is described. Prediction intervals complement the more common wind power point forecasts, by giving a range of potential outcomes for a given probability, their so-called nominal coverage rate. Ideally they inform...... on the characteristics of prediction errors for providing conditional interval forecasts. By simultaneously generating prediction intervals with various nominal coverage rates, one obtains full predictive distributions of wind generation. Adapted resampling is applied here to the case of an onshore Danish wind farm...... to the case of a large number of wind farms in Europe and Australia among others is finally discussed....

  3. Nuclear power generation and automation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korei, Yoshiro

    1985-01-01

    The proportion of nuclear power in the total generated electric power has been increasing year after year, and the ensuring of its stable supply has been demanded. For the further development of nuclear power generation, the heightening of economical efficiency which is the largest merit of nuclear power and the public acceptance as a safe and stable electric power source are the important subjects. In order to solve these subjects, in nuclear power generation, various automation techniques have been applied for the purpose of the heightening of reliability, labor saving and the reduction of radiation exposure. Meeting the high needs of automation, the automation technology aided by computers have been applied to the design, manufacture and construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Computer-aided design and the examples of design of a reactor building, pipings and a fuel assembly, an automatic welder for pipings of all position TIG welding type, a new central monitoring and control system, an automatic exchanger of control rod-driving mechanism, an automatic in-service inspection system for nozzles and pipings, and a robot for steam generator maintenance are shown. The trend of technical development and an intelligent moving robot, a system maintenance robot and a four legs walking robot are explained. (Kako, I.)

  4. Power Generation and Distribution via Distributed Coordination Control

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Byeong-Yeon; Oh, Kwang-Kyo; Ahn, Hyo-Sung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents power coordination, power generation, and power flow control schemes for supply-demand balance in distributed grid networks. Consensus schemes using only local information are employed to generate power coordination, power generation and power flow control signals. For the supply-demand balance, it is required to determine the amount of power needed at each distributed power node. Also due to the different power generation capacities of each power node, coordination of pow...

  5. Certification of power generation from sewage gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchetti, C.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the certification of power generated from sewage gas in packaged co-generation units in Switzerland. Since 2003, such electricity can be sold as 'green power' to consumers, who pay an additional charge for this ecologically generated power. Since the eco-balance of this electricity generated in wastewater treatment plant is considered as being excellent, the prestigious 'Naturemade Star' label has been awarded to it. This label sets most stringent requirements. The Canius wastewater treatment plant in the 'Lenzerheide' in eastern Switzerland is taken as an example to illustrate the procedure that has to be gone through to receive certification. This certification is carried out by independent auditors and guarantees that the 'green' electricity offered by the utility meets the high ecological criteria set by the label

  6. New Generation Power System for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loren; Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treicler, John; Wester, Gene; Sauers, Jim; hide

    2004-01-01

    The Deep Space Avionics (DSA) Project is developing a new generation of power system building blocks. Using application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and power switching modules a scalable power system can be constructed for use on multiple deep space missions including future missions to Mars, comets, Jupiter and its moons. The key developments of the DSA power system effort are five power ASICs and a mod ule for power switching. These components enable a modular and scalab le design approach, which can result in a wide variety of power syste m architectures to meet diverse mission requirements and environments . Each component is radiation hardened to one megarad) total dose. The power switching module can be used for power distribution to regular spacecraft loads, to propulsion valves and actuation of pyrotechnic devices. The number of switching elements per load, pyrotechnic firin gs and valve drivers can be scaled depending on mission needs. Teleme try data is available from the switch module via an I2C data bus. The DSA power system components enable power management and distribution for a variety of power buses and power system architectures employing different types of energy storage and power sources. This paper will describe each power ASIC#s key performance characteristics as well a s recent prototype test results. The power switching module test results will be discussed and will demonstrate its versatility as a multip urpose switch. Finally, the combination of these components will illu strate some of the possible power system architectures achievable fro m small single string systems to large fully redundant systems.

  7. International nuclear power status 2002; International kernekraftstatus 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.)

    2003-03-01

    This report is the ninth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2002, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory: 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2001); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2002; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  8. International nuclear power status 2001; International kernekraftstatus 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.)

    2002-04-01

    This report is the eighth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2001, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Nuclear terrorism; 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2000); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2001; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  9. Nuclear power proliferation. Problems of international control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B [International Inst. for Environment and Development, London (UK)

    1977-09-01

    The nuclear industry is experiencing a multiple crisis in which economic, technical and ethical aspects are blended inextricably. Nuclear hardware costs have everywhere soared far beyond inflation in the last five years, largely as a result of delays in programme completion arising from problems of reactor and fuel cycle. Meanwhile, partly as a result of this cost escalation, there is widespread and growing doubt as to whether capital will be available to finance the electricity generating levels projected by the industry and by governments for the 1990s. The nuclear industry is now in trouble at every stage of the fuel cycle. The industry's difficulties have also revealed a lack of overall - but particularly nuclear - energy strategy at either national or international levels, and a lack of will to create regulations and institutional machinery at either of these levels which might reassure both concerned publics and the energy industries themselves. This paper appraises some of the present limitations of international institutions in achieving control and management of nuclear power.

  10. Nuclear power proliferation: problems of international control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B

    1977-09-01

    Some of the present limitations of international institutions in achieving control and management of nuclear power are reviewed and appraised. The nuclear industry is experiencing a multiple crisis in which economic, technical, and ethical aspects are blended. Nuclear hardware costs have increased faster than inflation in the last five years, largely as a result of delays in program completion arising from reactor and fuel-cycle safety problems. Meanwhile, there is a widespread and growing doubt, partly as a result of this cost escalation, as to whether capital will be available to finance the electricity-generating levels projected by the industry and by governments for the 1990s. The nuclear industry is now in trouble at every stage of the fuel cycle. The industry's difficulties have also revealed a lack of overall--but particularly nuclear--energy strategy at either national or international levels, and a lack of will to create regulations and institutional machinery at either of these levels that could reassure the concerned public and the energy industries.

  11. Economics of power generation from imported biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lako, P.; Van Rooijen, S.N.M.

    1998-02-01

    Attention is paid to the economics of import of biomass to the Netherlands, and subsequent utilisation for power generation, as a means to reduce dependence on (imported) fossil fuels and to reduce CO2 emission. Import of wood to the extent of 40 PJ or more from Baltic and South American states seems to be readily achievable. Import of biomass has various advantages, not only for the European Union (reduced CO2 emissions) but also for the countries of origin (employment creation). However, possible disadvantages or risks should be taken into account. With that in mind, import of biomass from Baltic states seems very interesting, although it should be noted that in some of those countries the alternative of fuel-switching to biomass seems to be more cost-effective than import of biomass from those countries. Given the expected increase in inland biomass consumption in the Baltic countries and the potential substantial future demand for biomass in other Western European countries it is expected that the biomass supply from Baltic countries will not be sufficient to fulfill the demand. An early focus on import from other countries seems advisable. Several power generation options are available with short to medium term potential and long term potential. The margin between costs of biomass-fuelled power and of coal fired power will be smaller, due to substantial improvements in power generating efficiency and reductions of investment costs of options for power generation from biomass, notably Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle. 18 refs

  12. Accelerator magnet power supply using storage generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karady, G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, a study investigated the feasibility of a large, 60 GeV accelerator. This paper presents the conceptual design of the magnet power supply (PS() and energy storage system. The main ring magnets are supplied by six, high-voltage and two, low-voltage power supplies. These power supplies drive a trapezoidal shaped current wave through the magnets. The peak current is 10 kA and the repetition frequency is 3.3 Hz. During the acceleration period the current is increased from 1040 A to 10,000 A within 50 msec which requires a loop voltage of 120 kV and a peak power of 1250 MW. During the reset period, the PS operates as an inverter with a peak power of -1250 MW. The large energy fluctuation necessitates the use of a storage generator. Because of the relatively high operation frequency, this generator operates in a transient mode which significantly increases the rotor current and losses. The storage generator is directly driven by a variable speed drive, which draws a practically constant power of 17 MW from the ac supply network and eliminates the pulse loading. For the reduction of dc ripple, the power supplies operate in a 24 pulse mode

  13. Wind power, distrubted generation and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    the possibilities for integration of even more wind power using new power balancing strategies that exploit the possibilities given by the existence of CHP plants as well as the impact of heat pumps for district heating. The analyses demonstrate that it is possible to accommodate 50% or more wind power without......Denmark has the World?s highest penetration of wind power in electricity generation with a share of 15.0% of total domestic demand in 2002 (DEA, 2004). This is unevenly distributed in the two electricity systems of Denmark giving a share as high as 20.7% in Western Denmark in 2003 up from 18...... power balancing strategies are not applied, costly grid expansions will follow expansions in installed wind power capacity....

  14. Generation 4 International Forum. 2007 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This annual report is the first to be issued by GIF (Generation IV International Forum). It summarizes the GIF goals and accomplishments throughout 2007, describes its membership and organization, and provides an overview of its cooperation with other international endeavors for the development of nuclear energy. Future editions will focus on technical progress. Chapter 2 provides an overview on the goals of Generation IV nuclear energy systems and outlines the main characteristics of the six systems selected for joint development by GIF (VHTR - Very High Temperature Reactor; SFR - Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor; SCWR - Super-Critical Water cooled Reactor; GFR - Gas-cooled Fast Reactor; LFR - Lead-cooled Fast Reactor; and MSR - Molten Salt Reactor). Chapter 3 describes the membership and organization of the GIF, the structure of its cooperative research and development (R-D) arrangements, and the status of Member participation in these arrangements. Chapter 4 summarizes the R-D plans and achievements of the Forum until now. It highlights the R-D challenges facing the teams developing Generation IV systems and the major milestones towards the development of these systems. It also describes the progress made regarding the development of methodologies for assessing Generation IV systems with respect to the established goals. Chapter 5 reviews other major international collaborative projects in the field of nuclear energy and explains how the GIF interacts and cooperates with them. Bibliographical references are provided in each chapter in order to facilitate access to public information about the GIF objectives, goals and outcomes

  15. Generation 4 International Forum. 2008 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This 2008 Annual Report is the second annual report issued by GIF (Generation IV International Forum). It provides an update on the GIF organization, membership, and participation in research and development (R-D) projects for each Generation IV system. It summarizes the milestones for development of each system and progress of the R-D toward their accomplishment. Finally, it includes a brief description of the cooperation between GIF and other international endeavors for the development of nuclear energy. Chapter 2 describes the membership and organization of the GIF, the structure of its cooperative research and development arrangements, and the status of Member participation in those arrangements. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the GIF R-D plans, and its activities and achievements during 2008. It highlights the R-D challenges facing the teams developing Generation IV systems and the major milestones towards the development of these systems. It also describes the progress made regarding the development of methodologies for assessing Generation IV systems with respect to the established goals of GIF. Chapter 4 reviews other major international collaborative projects in the field of nuclear energy and explains how the GIF interacts and cooperates with them. Appendix 1 provides an overview on the goals of Generation IV nuclear energy systems and outlines the main characteristics of the six systems selected for joint development by GIF. The list of abbreviations and acronyms given at the end of the report defines terms used in the various chapters including various nuclear energy systems and international programs referred to in connection with GIF R-D activities. Some bibliographical references are given in order to facilitate access to public information about R-D progress and achievements on specific technical issues for GIF systems

  16. LPGC, Levelized Steam Electric Power Generator Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coen, J.J.; Delene, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generation cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor. Costs for plant having either one or two units may be obtained. 2 - Method of solution: LPGC consists of nine individual menu-driven programs controlled by a driver program, MAINPWR. The individual programs are PLANTCAP, for calculating capital investment costs; NUCLOM, for determining operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for nuclear plants; COALOM, for computing O and M costs for coal-fired plants; NFUEL, for calculating levelized fuel costs for nuclear plants; COALCOST, for determining levelized fuel costs for coal-fired plants; FCRATE, for computing the fixed charge rate on the capital investment; LEVEL, for calculating levelized power generation costs; CAPITAL, for determining capitalized cost from overnight cost; and MASSGEN, for generating, deleting, or changing fuel cycle mass balance data for use with NFUEL. LPGC has three modes of operation. In the first, each individual code can be executed independently to determine one aspect of the total

  17. Worldwide experience in nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stueger, R.; Krejsa, P.; Putz, F.

    1982-01-01

    Five years after their own big conference on nuclear energy and the nuclear fuel cycle of 1977 in Salzburg, and one year before the new Geneva conference planned by the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Organization (IAEO) organized from 13. to 17.9.82 in Vienna in connection with their 25 years' existence an international conference on nuclear power experience. The NPE differs from other big international conferences of the present year and the last years with similar overall topics mainly by the fact that the Soviet Union and other Eastern countries as well as a great number of developing countries were very much represented, with contributions. (orig.) [de

  18. International nuclear power status 1999; International kernekraftstatus 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejerup, C.F.; Oelgaard, P.L. [eds.

    2000-03-01

    This report isthe sixth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 1999, the report contains: General trends in the development of nuclear power; The past and possible future of Barsebaeck Nuclear Power Plant; Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 1998); An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 1999; The development in Sweden; The development in Eastern Europe; The development in the rest of the world; Trends in the development of reactor types; Trends in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. (au)

  19. Power import or domestic power generation using gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saettler, M.; Bohnenschaefer, W.; Schlesinger, M.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents expert opinion on the question of how Switzerland could meet its demands for power in the future. The results of the analysis of two options - the import of electrical power or its generation using natural-gas-fired power stations - made in the light of gas market liberalisation are presented. These include the assessment of the use of 'GuD' (combined gas and steam-turbine) power stations in the 100 MW e l to 400 MW e l class regarding their cost, their emissions and primary energy consumption. The authors discuss the assessments from the political and economic points of view. An appendix supplies characteristic data for 'GuD' power stations and an example of a model calculation for a 400 MW e l 'GuD' power station

  20. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Choi, Young Myung; Kim, Hwa Sup; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Kee Hwan; Kim, Seung Su

    1997-12-01

    The major contents in this study are as follows : - long-term forecast to the year of 2040 is provided for nuclear electricity generating capacity by means of logistic curve fitting method. - the role of nuclear power in a national economy is analyzed in terms of environmental regulation. To do so, energy-economy linked model is developed. By using this model, the benefits from the introduction of nuclear power in Korea are estimated. Study on inter-industry economic activity for nuclear industry is carried out by means of an input-output analysis. Nuclear industry is examined in terms of inducement effect of production, of value-added, and of import. - economic analysis of nuclear power generation is performed especially taking into consideration wide variations of foreign currency exchange rate. The result is expressed in levelized generating costs. (author). 27 refs., 24 tabs., 44 figs

  1. Climatological effects on heliohydroelectric (HHE) power generation. [Based on evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettani, M A

    1973-12-01

    Large scale conversion of solar energy into electricity can be efficiently made by transforming first the solar energy into hydraulic energy by evaporation. This concept has been presented at the International Conference of 1971. Since then work has been done to correlate the power generated by an HHE plant to the climatological variables of a region. The effects of such variables as air temperature, relative humidity, station pressure, and wind speed on the generated power are discussed. The Dawhat Salwah area is being emphasized; however, the results could be generalized to other arid zones.

  2. Impact of externalities on various power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubow, L.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis develops and compares the cost of electricity of the envisioned nuclear power plant at Belene1 (with approximately 2000 MW of installed capacity), with the cost of electricity from alternate generation sources, with a view toward the Bulgarian economy. The logical alternate generating sources are: New Lignite fueled Thermal Electric Power Plants (TEPPs) New Coal fueled TEPPs (based on imported coal), and New Natural gas fueled TEPPs. The developed economic cost of electricity considers the internalized costs such as capital, fuel and operating costs, as well as the external costs, such as health and environmental impacts, to the extent possible

  3. Outline of geothermal power generation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezaki, Y

    1960-01-01

    The utilization of geothermal energy in electrical power generation throughout the world is described. Details of generating capacity and cost are given for Larderello, Italy; Wairakei, New Zealand: and the Geysers, USA. In Japan three types of conversion systems are used. These include the direct use of steam, direct use of hot water and binary fluid type systems. The history of Japanese investigation and exploitation of geothermal energy is reviewed and the status of the Matsukawa, Hakone, Otake and Takenoyu geothermal power plants is discussed. It is recommended that laws be enacted in Japan to encourage the development of this form of energy conversion.

  4. Mechanism of power generation - the MHD way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangachari, S.; Ramash, V.R.; Subramanian, C.K.

    1975-01-01

    The basic physical principles of magnetohydrodynamics and the application of this principle for power generation (direct energy conversion) are explained. A magnetohydrodynamic generator (MHDG) is described both in the Faraday and Hall modes. The advantages of the Faraday mode and the Hall mode for different geometries of the generator are mentioned. The conductor used is a fluid - an ionised gas (plasma) or a liquid metal at high temperature. The difficulties in maintaining high temperature and high velocity for the gas and very low temperature at the same time side by side for superconducting magnets to produce a strong magnetic field, are pointed out. The most commonly used gas is purified air. The advantages of MHD generators and the present power crisis have compelled further research in this field in spite of the high costs involved. (A.K.)

  5. International examples of steam generator replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechmann, K.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1979-1980 a total of twelve nuclear power plants world-wide have had their steam generators replaced. The replacement of the Combustion steam generators in the Millstone-2 plant in the United States was completed very recently. Steam generator replacement activities are going on at present in four plants. In North Anna, the steam generators have been under replacement since January 1990. In Japan, preparations have been started for Genkai-1. Since January 1992, the two projects in Beznau-1, Switzerland, and Doel-3, Belgium, have bee planned and executed in parallel. Why steam generator replacement? There are a number of defect mechanisms which give rise to the need for early steam generator replacement. One of the main reasons is the use of Inconel-600 as material for the heating tubes. Steam generator heating tubes made of Inconel-600 have been known to exhibit their first defects due to stress corrosion cracking after less than one year of operation. (orig.) [de

  6. Power generator system for HCL reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scragg, R. L.; Parker, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    A power generation system includes a nuclear reactor having a core which in addition to generating heat generates a high frequency electromagnetic radiation. An electromagnetic radiation chamber is positioned to receive at least a portion of the radiation generated by the reactor core. Hydrogen and chlorine are connected into the electromagnetic reactor chamber and react with controlled explosive violence when exposed to the radiation from the nuclear reactor. Oxygen is fed into the reactor chamber as a control medium. The resulting gases under high pressure and temperature are utilized to drive a gas turbine generators. In an alternative embodiment the highly ionized gases, hydrogen and chlorine are utilized as a fluid medium for use in magnetohydrodynamic generators which are attached to the electromagnetic reactor chambers

  7. PEOPLE - The cutting edge in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, M.J.; Hankal, S.

    1995-01-01

    As competition for the United States power consumer increases, generating companies must seek new ways to do business. One way to keep up with the pace of change is to implement unique ideas into various areas of daily operation at the generating station. From subtle new management styles to ambitious employee education programs, changes in operating the management techniques can produce valuable results over time. An educated confident workforce is capable of vast improvement in efficiency and technical competence. We become empowered

  8. Life cycle management at Ontario Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spekkens, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the Life Cycle Management (LCM) program at Ontario Power Generation. LCM is carried out at different levels that includes components, systems, unit and fleet. A system involves cumulative effect of individual component aging. These components include steam generators, pressure tubes and feeders. A unit involves an overall unit aging strategy integrating all systems. At the fleet level, there is an optimal strategy for plant-level investments including end-of-life of a unit

  9. Electric power generation and uranium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szergenyi, Istvan

    1989-01-01

    Assuming the present trend of nuclear power generation growth, the ratio of nuclear energy in the world power balance will double by the turn of the century. The time of reasonably exploited uranium resources can be predicted as a few decades. Therefore, new nuclear reactor types and more rational uranium management is needed to prolong life of known uranium resources. It was shown how can a better uranium utilization be expected by closed fuel cycles, and what advantages in uranium management can be expected by a better co-operation between small countries and big powers. (R.P.) 16 refs.; 4 figs

  10. Feasibility study for international collaboration on photovoltaic power generation and long-distance energy transmission technologies utilizing desert areas environment; Sabaku chiiki wo riyoshita taiyoko hatsuden chokyori yuso gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A workshop was held at Tokyo in March, 1997 on the research and development and feasibility study for international collaboration on photovoltaic (PV) power generation and long-distance energy transmission technologies utilizing desert areas environment. Two speakers from the USA, one from Italy, and two from China were invited, and four speakers in Japan presented papers. A total of 48 persons participated. In the technical sessions, `World energy demand and PV system potential` by Prof. Kurokawa, `Long distance transmission of PV power` by Mr. A. Invenizzi, `Case studies of large scale PV systems distributed throughout desert areas of the world` by Mr. Hirasawa, `Linking renewable energy resources around the world` by Mr. P. Meisen, `Properties of large scale PV plant in the USA` by Mr. J. Benner, `Future prospect of PV electrification in China` by Mr. Kong Li, `Application of large-scale PV systems in deserts in China` by Mr. Isomura, and `Effects of large-scale PV power plant in a climatic desert areas` by Prof. Ihara were presented. 38 refs., 62 figs., 29 tabs.

  11. Generation 4 International Forum. 2009 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This 2009 Annual Report is the third annual report issued by GIF (Generation 4. International Forum). It includes 3 chapters in addition to an introduction plus 4 appendices, as follows. Chapter 2 describes the membership and organization of GIF, the structure of its cooperative research and development arrangements as well as the status of Members' participation in such arrangements. Chapter 3 summarizes GIF research and development plans, activities and achievements during 2009. It highlights the scientific and technical challenges facing the teams developing Generation IV systems and the major milestones towards the development of these systems. It also describes the progress made on the development of methodologies for assessing Generation IV systems with respect to the established goals of GIF. Chapter 4 reviews the cooperation between GIF and other international programs dealing with the development of nuclear energy. Appendix 1 provides an overview on the goals of Generation IV nuclear energy systems and an outline of the main characteristics of the six systems selected for joint development by GIF. Appendix 2 presents the objectives that have been set for the various System Steering Committees and the associated Project Management Boards for the next 5 years. Appendix 3 reproduces the Table of Contents of the Proceedings from the GIF Symposium held in Paris (France) in 2009. Appendix 4 provides a list of abbreviations and acronyms (with the corresponding definitions) which are used in this report or are relevant to GIF activities

  12. International nuclear power status 1994; International kernekraftstatus 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejerup, C.F.; Majborn, B.; Oelgaard, P.L. [eds.

    1995-02-01

    This report is the first in a planned series of annual reports covering the international development in the field of nuclear power. The report deals with: statistical information on the electricity produced by nuclear power plants; major safety-related incidents in 1994; the development in Sweden, Eastern Europe, and the rest of the world; the trends of development of a number of reactor types; the trends of development in the fuel cycle. (au).

  13. Wind power generation and dispatch in competitive power markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Lisias

    Wind energy is currently the fastest growing type of renewable energy. The main motivation is led by more strict emission constraints and higher fuel prices. In addition, recent developments in wind turbine technology and financial incentives have made wind energy technically and economically viable almost anywhere. In restructured power systems, reliable and economical operation of power systems are the two main objectives for the ISO. The ability to control the output of wind turbines is limited and the capacity of a wind farm changes according to wind speeds. Since this type of generation has no production costs, all production is taken by the system. Although, insufficient operational planning of power systems considering wind generation could result in higher system operation costs and off-peak transmission congestions. In addition, a GENCO can participate in short-term power markets in restructured power systems. The goal of a GENCO is to sell energy in such a way that would maximize its profitability. However, due to market price fluctuations and wind forecasting errors, it is essential for the wind GENCO to keep its financial risk at an acceptable level when constituting market bidding strategies. This dissertation discusses assumptions, functions, and methodologies that optimize short-term operations of power systems considering wind energy, and that optimize bidding strategies for wind producers in short-term markets. This dissertation also discusses uncertainties associated with electricity market environment and wind power forecasting that can expose market participants to a significant risk level when managing the tradeoff between profitability and risk.

  14. Virtual Generation (Energy Efficiency) The Cheapest Source For Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasnie, Sohail

    2010-09-15

    Energy efficiency is the cheapest source of energy that has escaped the minds of the politicians in the developing countries. This paper argues for large scale utility led end use efficiency programs in a new paradigm, where 1 million efficient light bulbs is synonymous to a 50 MW power station that costs only 2% of the traditional fossil fuel power station and zero maintenance. Bulk procurement, setting up new standards and generation of certified emissions reduction is part of this strategy. It discusses implementation of a $20 million pilot in the Philippines supported by the Asian Development Bank.

  15. Green power perspectives on sustainable electricity generation

    CERN Document Server

    Neiva de Figueiredo, Joao

    2014-01-01

    Green Power: Perspectives on Sustainable Electricity Generation; João Neiva de Figueiredo and Mauro GuillénAn Overview of Electricity Generation Sources; Akhil Jariwala and Saumil JariwalaGermany's Energy Revolution; José Carlos Thomaz, Jr. and Sean MichalsonChina's Energy Profile and the Importance of Coal; Julia Zheng and Xiaoting ZhengChina's Search for Cleaner Electricity Generation Alternatives; Julia Zheng and Xiaoting ZhengRenewable Energy in Spain: A Quest for Energy Security; José Normando Bezerra, Jr.Renewable Energy in French Polynesia: From Unpredictable to Energy Independence? Dia

  16. Some thoughts on power: International context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a polemical essay that enters into broad dialogue with the contemporary literature concerning the dynamic of power. It refers to the appropriate material and results from the research of different theories. It proposes the constitutive position of the power in the international situation. In contrast to some current theories, we emphasize the importance of the politicoeconomical approach, denoting that only the methodology based on the logics of political economy can explain the dynamics of power in the international context. The main thread of this essay is that the international constellation is not a neutral environment, but a framework that is deeply determined by the power-relations. The central idea is that these relations should be explicated by the complex relationships between freedom and order. We analyze the interaction between the politics and economy as the constitutive feature of the structure of international context. This essay is divided into three sections. First, we are treating the meaning of order in an international context, in respect to the political-economic aspects of late capitalism. The notion of this order has a great importance in the economic reflections. The dynamic of the interconnectedness of global capitalism is examined considering the systematic aspects of power. After that we are analyzing different, and selected, aspects of the international sphere including: the spatiality of the world order, that is, the spatial aspects of the international dynamics in the context of globalization, the convergence or divergence between the capitalist and territorial logic, the “legaleconomic nexus” in international “chain”, the processes of the modification of the forms of competition within recent globalization, and the political-economic conflicts in relation to the regime of economic measurement. Starting with these considerations we explain the current debates on “demondialization”, or the

  17. International project GT-MHR - New generation of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasyaev, A.; Kodochigov, N.; Kuzavkov, N.; Kuznetsov, L.

    2001-01-01

    Gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) is the reactor of new generation, which satisfies the requirements of the progressing large-scale nuclear power engineering. The activities in GT-MHR Project started in 1995. In 1997 the Conceptual Design was developed under four-side Agreement (MINATOM, General Atomics, FRAMATOME, Fuji Electric); it has passed through the internal and international reviews, has been approved and recommended for further development as one of new trends in creation of new generation plants. Starting from 1999, the activities in the development of the Preliminary Design of the plant were deployed under the Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation on Scientific and Technical Cooperation in the Management of Plutonium That Has Been Withdrawn From Nuclear Military Programs dated July 24, 1998. The activities are established under the Contract between MINATOM and OKBM Russia, and under the General Agreement between Department of Energy (DOE), USA and OKBM. The GT-MHR Project is included into 'Development Strategy of Russian Nuclear Power in the first Half of the XXI-st Century' providing for 'the participation in an international project on the development and construction of GT-MHR nuclear power plant till year 2010 and 'operation of GT-MHR prototype unit and creation of fuel fabrication facility (within framework of International Project) till year 2030'. (author)

  18. Fuel cycle comparison of distributed power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M.Q.

    2008-01-01

    The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions

  19. Improvement of hydroelectric power generation using pumped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By principle, hydroelectric power generation relies on the law of conservation of energy where kinetic energy that resulted from the movement of the mass of water from the river is translated into electr icity, the quantum of which depends on systemic variables viz: plant efficiency, volumetric water flow through the turbine and ...

  20. Power generation choices: costs, risks and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document from OECD deals with the choices between the different means of producing electricity: supply and demand trends, power generation choices, management of development and technologies, environmental impacts and costs around energy sources. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers of this volume. (TEC)

  1. Method and apparatus for thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for power generation from a recirculating superheat-reheat circuit with multiple expansion stages which alleviates complex control systems and minimizes thermal cycling of system components, particularly the reheater. The invention includes preheating cold reheat fluid from the first expansion stage prior to its entering the reheater with fluid from the evaporator or drum component

  2. Magnetic field generation device for magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Yoshihiko.

    1993-01-01

    An existent magnetic field generation device for magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation comprises at least a pair of permanent magnets disposed to an inner circumferential surface of a yoke having such a cross sectional area that two pairs of parallel sides are present, in which different magnetic poles are opposed while interposing a flow channel for a conductive fluid therebetween. Then, first permanent magnets which generate main magnetic fields are disposed each at a gap sandwiching a plane surface including a center axis of a flow channel for the conductive fluid. Second permanent magnets which generate auxiliary magnetic fields are disposed to an inner circumferential surface of a yoke intersecting the yoke to which the first permanent magnets are disposed. The magnetic poles on the side of the flow channel for the second permanent magnets have identical polarity with that of the magnetic poles of the adjacent first permanent magnets. As a result, a magnetic flux density in the flow channel for the conductive fluid can be kept homogeneous and at a high level from a position of the axial line of the flow channel to the outer circumference, thereby enabling to remarkably improve a power generation efficiency. (N.H.)

  3. Free piston linear generator for low grid power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Izzeldin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating power is of great importance nowadays across the world. However, recently, the world became aware of the climatic changes due to the greenhouse effect caused by CO2 emissions and began seeking solutions to reduce the negative impact on the environment. Besides, the exhaustion of fossil fuels and their environmental impact, make it is crucial to develop clean energy sources, and efforts are focused on developing and improving the efficiency of all energy consuming systems. The tubular permanent magnet linear generators (TPMLGs are the best candidate for energy converters. Despite being suffering problem of attraction force between permanent magnets and stator teeth, to eliminate such attraction force, ironless-stator could be considered. Thus, they could waive the presence of any magnetic attraction between the moving and stator part. This paper presents the design and analysis of ironless -cored TPMLG for low grid power generation. The main advantages of this generator are the low cogging force and high efficiency. Therefore, the magnetic field computation of the proposed generator has been performed by applying a magnetic vector potential and utilizing a 2-D finite element analysis (FEA. Moreover, the experimental results for the current profile, pressure profile and velocity profile have been presented.

  4. Ocean Current Power Generator. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, G. A.

    2002-07-26

    The Ocean Power Generator is both technically and economically suitable for deployment in the Gulf Stream from the US Navy facility in Dania, Florida. Yet to be completed is the calibration test in the Chesapeake Bay with the prototype dual hydroturbine Underwater Electric Kite. For the production units a revised design includes two ballast tanks mounted as pontoons to provide buoyancy and depth control. The power rating of the Ocean Power Generator has been doubled to 200 kW ready for insertion into the utility grid. The projected cost for a 10 MW installation is $3.38 per watt, a cost that is consistent with wind power pricing when it was in its deployment infancy, and a cost that is far better than photovoltaics after 25 years of research and development. The Gulf Stream flows 24 hours per day, and water flow is both environmentally and ecologically perfect as a renewable energy source. No real estate purchases are necessary, and you cannot see, hear, smell, or touch an Ocean Power Generator.

  5. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Choi, Young Myung; Kim, Hwa Sup; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Kee Hwan; Kim, Seung Su; Lim, Chae Young

    1998-12-01

    An energy security index was developed to measure how the introduction of nuclear power generation improved the national security of energy supply in Korea. Using the developed index, a quantitative effort was made to analyze the relationship between the nuclear power generation and the national energy security. Environmental impacts were evaluated and a simplified external cost of a specific coal-fired power plant in Korea was estimated using the QUERI program, which was developed by IAEA. In doing so, efforts were made to quantify the health impacts such as mortality, morbidity, and respiratory hospital admissions due to particulates, SOx, and Nox. The effects of CO 2 emission regulation on the national economy were evaluated. In doing so, the introduction of carbon tax was assumed. Several scenarios were established about the share of nuclear power generation and an effort was made to see how much contribution nuclear energy could make to lessen the burden of the regulation on the national economy. This study re-evaluated the methods for estimating and distributing decommissioning cost of nuclear power plant over lifetime. It was resulted out that the annual decommissioning deposit and consequently, the annual decommissioning cost could vary significantly depending on estimating and distributing methods. (author). 24 refs., 44 tabs., 9 figs

  6. Isolated Power Generation System Using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator with Improved Power Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Sabha Raj; Patel, Ashish; Giri, Ashutosh

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals wind energy based power generation system using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). It is controlled using advanced enhanced phase-lock loop for power quality features using distribution static compensator to eliminate the harmonics and to provide KVAR compensation as well as load balancing. It also manages rated potential at the point of common interface under linear and non-linear loads. In order to have better efficiency and reliable operation of PMSG driven by wind turbine, it is necessary to analyze the governing equation of wind based turbine and PMSG under fixed and variable wind speed. For handling power quality problems, power electronics based shunt connected custom power device is used in three wire system. The simulations in MATLAB/Simulink environment have been carried out in order to demonstrate this model and control approach used for the power quality enhancement. The performance results show the adequate performance of PMSG based power generation system and control algorithm.

  7. Power Generation Using Mechanical Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Chandrasekaran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean wave energy plays a significant role in meeting the growing demand of electric power. Economic, environmental, and technical advantages of wave energy set it apart from other renewable energy resources. Present study describes a newly proposed Mechanical Wave Energy Converter (MEWC that is employed to harness heave motion of floating buoy to generate power. Focus is on the conceptual development of the device, illustrating details of component level analysis. Employed methodology has many advantages such as i simple and easy fabrication; ii easy to control the operations during rough weather; and iii low failure rate during normal sea conditions. Experimental investigations carried out on the scaled model of MWEC show better performance and its capability to generate power at higher efficiency in regular wave fields. Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA shows rare failure rates for all components except the floating buoy.

  8. Electric power generation the changing dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Tagare, D M

    2011-01-01

    "This book offers an analytical overview of established electric generation processes, along with the present status & improvements for meeting the strains of reconstruction. These old methods are hydro-electric, thermal & nuclear power production. The book covers climatic constraints; their affects and how they are shaping thermal production. The book also covers the main renewable energy sources, wind and PV cells and the hybrids arising out of these. It covers distributed generation which already has a large presence is now being joined by wind & PV energies. It covers their accommodation in the present system. It introduces energy stores for electricity; when they burst upon the scene in full strength are expected to revolutionize electricity production. In all the subjects covered, there are references to power marketing & how it is shaping production. There will also be a reference chapter on how the power market works"--Provided by publisher.

  9. Optical generation of radio-frequency power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Meyer, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    An optical technique for high-power radio-frequency (RF) signal generation is described. The technique uses a unique photodetector based on a traveling-wave design driven by an appropriately modulated light source. The traveling-wave photodetector (TWPD) exhibits simultaneously a theoretical quantum efficiency approaching 100 % and a very large electrical bandwidth. Additionally, it is capable of dissipating the high-power levels required for the RF generation technique. The modulated light source is formed by either the beating together of two lasers or by the direct modulation of a light source. A system example is given which predicts RF power levels of 100's of mW's at millimeter wave frequencies with a theoretical ''wall-plug'' efficiency approaching 34%

  10. High power RF oscillator with Marx generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Izumi

    1980-01-01

    A method to maintain RF oscillation by using many Marx generators was proposed and studied experimentally. Many charging circuits were connected to an oscillator circuit, and successive pulsed charging was made. This successive charging amplified and maintained the RF oscillation. The use of vacuum gaps and high power silicon diodes improved the characteristics of RF current cut-off of the circuit. The efficiency of the pulsed charging from Marx generators to a condenser was theoretically investigated. The theoretical result showed the maximum efficiency of 0.98. The practical efficiency obtained by using a proposed circuit with a high power oscillator was in the range 0.50 to 0.56. The obtained effective output power of the RF pulses was 11 MW. The maximum holding time of the RF pulses was about 21 microsecond. (Kato, T.)

  11. Steam generator life cycle management: Ontario Power Generation (OPG) experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruska, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    A systematic managed process for steam generators has been implemented at Ontario Power Generation (OPG) nuclear stations for the past several years. One of the key requirements of this managed process is to have in place long range Steam Generator Life Cycle Management (SG LCM) plans for each unit. The primary goal of these plans is to maximize the value of the nuclear facility through safe and reliable steam generator operation over the expected life of the units. The SG LCM plans integrate and schedule all steam generator actions such as inspection, operation, maintenance, modifications, repairs, assessments, R and D, performance monitoring and feedback. This paper discusses OPG steam generator life cycle management experience to date, including successes, failures and how lessons learned have been re-applied. The discussion includes relevant examples from each of the operating stations: Pickering B and Darlington. It also includes some of the experience and lessons learned from the activities carried out to refurbish the steam generators at Pickering A after several years in long term lay-up. The paper is structured along the various degradation modes that have been observed to date at these sites, including monitoring and mitigating actions taken and future plans. (author)

  12. International nuclear power status 2000; International kernekraftstatus 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. [eds.

    2001-03-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2000, the report contains: 1. General trends in the development of nuclear power. 2. Deposition of low-level radioactive waste. 3. Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 1999). 4. An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2000. 5. The development in Sweden. 6. The development in Eastern Europe. 7. The development in the rest of the world. 8. Trends in the development of reactor types. 9. Trends in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. (au)

  13. Prospect of laser fusion power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    Inertial fusion ignition, burn and energy gain are expected to be achieved within the first decade of next century with new Megajoule laser facilities which are under construction in the USA and France. Fusion reactor design studies indicate that Inertial Fusion Energy(IFE) power plants are technically feasible and have attractive safety and environmental features. The recent progress on implosion physics and relevant technologies require us to consider a strategic approach toward IFE development. The design study for a laser fusion power plant KOYO has been conducted as a joint program of universities, national laboratories and industries in Japan and also with international collaborations. The progress of high power laser technology gives us feasible project toward a laser driven IFE Power Plant. The technical breakthrough in the field of diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) has opened wide application of power laser to industrial technologies. Laser fusion energy development will be proceeded jointly with industrial photonics research and development. International collaborations are also promoted for efficient progress and activation of R and D on advanced technologies which are required for IFE and also useful for modern industries. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  14. Present state and prospect of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Akira

    1980-01-01

    Energy resources are scarce in Japan, therefore Japan depends heavily on imported petroleum. However, the international situation of petroleum became more unstable recently, and the promotion of the development and utilization of nuclear power generation was agreed upon in the summit meeting and the IEA. In order to achieve the stable growth of economy and improve the national welfare in Japan, it is urgent subject to accelerate the development of nuclear power generation. Japan depends the nuclear fuel also on import, but the stable supply is assured by the contract of long term purchase. It is not necessary to replace nuclear fuel usually for three years, and the transport and storage of nuclear fuel are easy because the quantity is not very large. By establishing the independent nuclear fuel cycle in Japan, it is possible to give the character similar to domestically produced energy to nuclear fuel. Moreover, uranium resources can be effectively utilized by the development of nuclear reactors of new types, such as FBRs. The cost of generating 1 kWh of electricity was about 8 yen in case of nuclear power and 15 yen in petroleum thermal power as of January, 1980. 21 nuclear power plants of about 15 million kW capacity are in operation in Japan, and about 30 million kW will be installed by 1985. The measures to promote the development of nuclear power generation are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  15. Thermoelectrical generator powered by human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasyova, Zuzana; Vala, David; Slanina, Zdenek; Idzkowski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    This article deals with the possibility of using alternative energy sources for power of biomedical sensors with low power consumption, especially using the Peltier effect sources. Energy for powering of the target device has been used from the available renewable photovoltaic effect. The work is using of "energy harvesting" or "harvest energy" produced by autonomous generator harvesting accumulate energy. It allows to start working from 0.25 V. Measuring chain consists of further circuit which is a digital monitoring device for monitoring a voltage, current and power with I2C bus interface. Using the Peltier effect was first tested in a thermocontainer with water when the water heating occurred on the basis of different temperature differential between the cold and hot side of the Peltier element result in the production of energy. Realized prototype was also experimentally tested on human skin, specifically on the back, both in idle mode and under load.

  16. Improvement of power quality using distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Munoz, A.; Lopez-Rodriguez, M.A.; Flores-Arias, J.M.; Bellido-Outerino, F.J. [Universidad de Cordoba, Departamento A.C., Electronica y T.E., Escuela Politecnica Superior, Campus de Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); de-la-Rosa, J.J.G. [Universidad de Cadiz, Area de Electronica, Dpto. ISA, TE y Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior Avda, Ramon Puyol, S/N, E-11202-Algeciras-Cadiz (Spain); Ruiz-de-Adana, M. [Universidad de Cordoba, Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Termodinamica Aplicada, Campus de Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    This paper addresses how Distributed Generation (DG), particularly when configured in Combined Heat and Power (CHP) mode, can become a powerful reliability solution in highlight automated factories, especially when integrated with complimentary Power Quality (PQ) measures. The paper presents results from the PQ audit conducted at a highly automated plant over last year. It was found that the main problems for the equipment installed were voltage sags. Among all categories of electrical disturbances, the voltage sag (dip) and momentary interruption are the nemeses of the automated industrial process. The paper analyzes the capabilities of modern electronic power supplies and the convenience of embedded solution. Finally it is addressed the role of the DG/CHP on the reliability of digital factories. (author)

  17. Electrical power systems for distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, T.A.; Huval, S.J. [Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}Distributed Generation{close_quotes} has become the {open_quotes}buzz{close_quotes} word of an electric utility industry facing deregulation. Many industrial facilities utilize equipment in distributed installations to serve the needs of a thermal host through the capture of exhaust energy in a heat recovery steam generator. The electrical power generated is then sold as a {open_quotes}side benefit{close_quotes} to the cost-effective supply of high quality thermal energy. Distributed generation is desirable for many different reasons, each with unique characteristics of the product. Many years of experience in the distributed generation market has helped Stewart & Stevenson to define a range of product features that are crucial to most any application. The following paper will highlight a few of these applications. The paper will also examine the range of products currently available and in development. Finally, we will survey the additional services offered by Stewart & Stevenson to meet the needs of a rapidly changing power generation industry.

  18. Isotope powered Stirling generator for terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, G.L.; Sorensen, G.C.; Ross, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    An electric power supply, small enough to be man-portable, is being developed for remote, terrestrial applications. This system is designed for an operating lifetime of five years without maintenance or refueling. A small Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) has been developed. The energy source of the generator is a 60 watt plutonium-238 fuel clad used in the General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) developed for space applications. A free piston Stirling Engine drives a linear alternator to convert the heat to power. The system weighs about 7.5 kg and produces 11 watts AC power with a conversion efficiency of 18.5%. Two engine models have been designed, fabricated, and tested to date: (a) a developmental model instrumented to confirm and test parameters, and (b) an electrically heated model with an electrical heater equipped power input leads. Critical components have been tested for 10,000 to 20,000 hours. One complete generator has been operating for over 11,000 hours. Radioisotope heated prototypes are expected to be fabricated and tested in late 1995

  19. Gas-fired electric power generating technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The workshop that was held in Madrid 25-27 May 1994 included participation by experts from 16 countries. They represented such diverse fields and disciplines as technology, governmental regulation, economics, and environment. Thus, the participants provided an excellent cross section of key areas and a diversity of viewpoints. At the workshop, a broad range of topics regarding gas-fired electric power generation was discussed. These included political, regulatory and financial issues as well as more specific technical questions regarding the environment, energy efficiency, advanced generation technologies and the status of competitive developments. Important technological advances in gas-based power and CHP technologies have already been achieved including higher energy efficiency and lower emissions, with further improvements expected in the near future. Advanced technology trends include: (a) The use of gas technology to reduce emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. (b) The wide-spread application of combined-cycle gas turbines in new power plants and the growing use of aero-derivative gas turbines in CHP applications. (c) Phosphoric acid fuel cells that are being introduced commercially. Their market penetration will grow over the next 10 years. The next generation of fuel cells (solid oxide and molten carbonate) is expected to enter the market around the year 2000. (EG)

  20. Generating units performances: power system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourment, C; Girard, N; Lefebvre, H

    1994-08-01

    The part of generating units within the power system is more than providing power and energy. Their performance are not only measured by their energy efficiency and availability. Namely, there is a strong interaction between the generating units and the power system. The units are essential components of the system: for a given load profile the frequency variation follows directly from the behaviour of the units and their ability to adapt their power output. In the same way, the voltage at the units terminals are the key points to which the voltage profile at each node of the network is linked through the active and especially the reactive power flows. Therefore, the customer will experience the frequency and voltage variations induced by the units behaviour. Moreover, in case of adverse conditions, if the units do not operate as well as expected or trip, a portion of the system, may be the whole system, may collapse. The limitation of the performance of a unit has two kinds of consequences. Firstly, it may result in an increased amount of not supplied energy or loss of load probability: for example if the primary reserve is not sufficient, a generator tripping may lead to an abnormal frequency deviation, and load may have to be shed to restore the balance. Secondly, the limitation of a unit performance results in an economic over-cost for the system: for instance, if not enough `cheap` units are able to load-following, other units with higher operating costs have to be started up. We would like to stress the interest for the operators and design teams of the units on the one hand, and the operators and design teams of the system on the other hand, of dialog and information exchange, in operation but also at the conception stage, in order to find a satisfactory compromise between the system requirements and the consequences for the generating units. (authors). 11 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Scheduling of Power System Cells Integrating Stochastic Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L.M.

    2008-12-01

    Energy supply and climate change are nowadays two of the most outstanding problems which societies have to cope with under a context of increasing energy needs. Public awareness of these problems is driving political willingness to take actions for tackling them in a swift and efficient manner. Such actions mainly focus in increasing energy efficiency, in decreasing dependence on fossil fuels, and in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, power systems are undergoing important changes in the way they are planned and managed. On the one hand, vertically integrated structures are being replaced by market structures in which power systems are un-bundled. On the other, power systems that once relied on large power generation facilities are witnessing the end of these facilities' life-cycle and, consequently, their decommissioning. The role of distributed energy resources such as wind and solar power generators is becoming increasingly important in this context. However, the large-scale integration of such type of generation presents many challenges due, for instance, to the uncertainty associated to the variability of their production. Nevertheless, advanced forecasting tools may be combined with more controllable elements such as energy storage devices, gas turbines, and controllable loads to form systems that aim to reduce the impacts that may be caused by these uncertainties. This thesis addresses the management under market conditions of these types of systems that act like independent societies and which are herewith named power system cells. From the available literature, a unified view of power system scheduling problems is also proposed as a first step for managing sets of power system cells in a multi-cell management framework. Then, methodologies for performing the optimal day-ahead scheduling of single power system cells are proposed, discussed and evaluated under both a deterministic and a stochastic framework that directly integrates the

  2. Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2008-02-15

    Although electrokinetic effects are not new, only recently have they been investigated for possible use in energy conversion devices. We have recently reported the electrokinetic generation of molecular hydrogen from rapidly flowing liquid water microjets [Duffin et al. JPCC 2007, 111, 12031]. Here, we describe the use of liquid water microjets for direct conversion of electrokinetic energy to electrical power. Previous studies of electrokinetic power production have reported low efficiencies ({approx}3%), limited by back conduction of ions at the surface and in the bulk liquid. Liquid microjets eliminate energy dissipation due to back conduction and, measuring only at the jet target, yield conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%.

  3. Distributed Power-Generation Systems and Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng; Yang, Dongsheng

    2017-01-01

    the challenging issues and, more importantly, to leverage the energy generation, stringent demands from both utility operators and consumers have been imposed on the DPGS. Furthermore, as the core of energy conversion, numerous power electronic converters employing advanced control techniques have been developed...... for the DPGS to consolidate the integration. In light of the above, this paper reviews the power-conversion and control technologies used for DPGSs. The impacts of the DPGS on the distributed grid are also examined, and more importantly, strategies for enhancing the connection and protection of the DPGS...

  4. International power projections and capital requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ann, H.

    1989-01-01

    This work is related to the international power projections and capital requirements of all kinds of energy and the share of electricity. It is also related to the so-called greenhouse effect carbon dioxide concentration in atmosphere. (A.C.A.S.)

  5. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-04

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ∼3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs.

  6. Network integration of distributed power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Peter; Bayoumi, Deia; Haederli, Christoph; Julian, Danny; Suter, Marco

    The world-wide move to deregulation of the electricity and other energy markets, concerns about the environment, and advances in renewable and high efficiency technologies has led to major emphasis being placed on the use of small power generation units in a variety of forms. The paper reviews the position of distributed generation (DG, as these small units are called in comparison with central power plants) with respect to the installation and interconnection of such units with the classical grid infrastructure. In particular, the status of technical standards both in Europe and USA, possible ways to improve the interconnection situation, and also the need for decisions that provide a satisfactory position for the network operator (who remains responsible for the grid, its operation, maintenance and investment plans) are addressed.

  7. High power, repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davanloo, F; Borovina, D L; Korioth, J L; Krause, R K; Collins, C B [Univ. of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Quantum Electronics; Agee, F J [US Air Force Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Kingsley, L E [US Army CECOM, Ft. Monmouth, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse power generators developed at the University of Texas at Dallas consist of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines are charged in parallel and synchronously commuted with a single switch at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages are multiplied to give a high discharge voltage across an arbitrary load. Extensive characterization of these novel pulsers have been performed over the past few years. Results indicate that they are capable of producing high power waveforms with rise times and repetition rates in the range of 0.5-50 ns and 1-300 Hz, respectively, using a conventional thyratron, spark gap, or photoconductive switch. The progress in the development and use of stacked Blumlein pulse generators is reviewed. The technology and the characteristics of these novel pulsers driving flash x-ray diodes are discussed. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  8. ICAN: High power neutral beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustaizis, S.D.; Lalousis, P.; Perrakis, K.; Auvray, P.; Larour, J.; Ducret, J.E.; Balcou, P.

    2015-01-01

    During the last few years there is an increasing interest on the development of alternative high power new negative ion source for Tokamak applications. The proposed new neutral beam device presents a number of advantages with respect to: the density current, the acceleration voltage, the relative compact dimension of the negative ion source, and the coupling of a high power laser beam for photo-neutralization of the negative ion beam. Here we numerically investigate, using a multi- fluid 1-D code, the acceleration and the extraction of high power ion beam from a Magnetically Insulated Diode (MID). The diode configuration will be coupled to a high power device capable of extracting a current up to a few kA with an accelerating voltage up to MeV. An efficiency of up to 92% of the coupling of the laser beam, is required in order to obtain a high power, up to GW, neutral beam. The new high energy, high average power, high efficiency (up to 30%) ICAN fiber laser is proposed for both the plasma generation and the photo-neutralizer configuration. (authors)

  9. Generation 4 International Forum. 2014 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This eighth edition of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Annual Report highlights the main achievements of the Forum in 2014, and in particular progress made in the collaborative RandD activities of the eleven existing project arrangements for the six GIF systems: the gas-cooled fast reactor, the sodium-cooled fast reactor, the supercritical-water-cooled reactor and the very-high-temperature reactor. Progress made under the memoranda of understanding for the lead-cooled fast reactor and the molten salt reactor is also reported. In May 2014, China joined the supercritical-water-cooled reactor system arrangement; and in October 2014, the project arrangement on system integration and assessment for the sodium-cooled fast reactor became effective. GIF also continued to develop safety design criteria and guidelines for the sodium-cooled fast reactor, and to engage with regulators on safety approaches for generation IV systems. Finally, GIF initiated an internal discussion on sustainability approaches to complement ongoing work on economics, safety, proliferation resistance and physical protection

  10. Fiscal 2000 report on data of international joint demonstrative development of photovoltaic power generation system. Demonstrative research on photovoltaic power generation system interconnection system (Myanmar); 2000 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system kokusai kyodo jissho kaihatsu hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden keito renkei system jissho kenkyu (Myanmar) - shiryohen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the fiscal 2000 report on research data of joint demonstrative development with Myanmar concerning photovoltaic power generation system interconnection system. The purpose is an operation research in the case where a small-scale electric power generation system in an remote island or the like in Japan is linked with a severely output-fluctuating power generation system using energy of nature such as photovoltaic and wind power generation. In particular, among the system control (demand side management) methods by adjustment from a loading side, ballast load control was employed that adjustably operates load of an ice machine for example. As the contents of the data, the quantity of solar radiation and wind velocity at the Chaungthar site were shown as meteorological observation data. In addition, a graph was made on the meteorological observation data at the Chaungthar and Letkhokekone sites. The paper also explains the final explanatory data for selecting the sites in implementing the demonstrative research. As to the operation method of the hybrid power generation system, assumption was made for the daytime load in four cases from 50% (30kW) to 0% (0kW) of the nighttime. Storage batteries and diesel generators were installed and used in combination. Simulation results were also presented. (NEDO)

  11. Unregulated generation relationships at Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrayshuen, H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the contractual and mandated power generation pricing relationships between an electric utility and unregulated power generation stations. The topics of the paper include types of generation facilities, current capacity of unregulated generators, rights to power markets, utility planning, responding to a changing market, power purchase agreement relationships, enforcement and renegotiation

  12. EARTHQUAKE RESEARCH PROBLEMS OF NUCLEAR POWER GENERATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Housner, G. W.; Hudson, D. E.

    1963-10-15

    Earthquake problems associated with the construction of nuclear power generators require a more extensive and a more precise knowledge of earthquake characteristics and the dynamic behavior of structures than was considered necessary for ordinary buildings. Economic considerations indicate the desirability of additional research on the problems of earthquakes and nuclear reactors. The nature of these earthquake-resistant design problems is discussed and programs of research are recommended. (auth)

  13. Grid code requirements for wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djagarov, N.; Filchev, S.; Grozdev, Z.; Bonev, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper production data of wind power in Europe and Bulgaria and plans for their development within 2030 are reviewed. The main characteristics of wind generators used in Bulgaria are listed. A review of the grid code in different European countries, which regulate the requirements for renewable sources, is made. European recommendations for requirements harmonization are analyzed. Suggestions for the Bulgarian gird code are made

  14. Feasibility study on volcanic power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    Investigations were carried out to determine the feasibility of volcanic power generation on Satsuma Io Island. Earthquakes were studied, as were the eruptions of subaerial and submarine hot springs. Hydrothermal rock alteration was studied and electrical surveys were made. General geophysical surveying was performed with thermocameras and radiation monitoring equipment. In particular, the Toyoba mine was studied, both with respect to its hot spring and its subsurface temperatures.

  15. Power generation from refuse derived fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surroop, Dinesh; Mohee, Romeela

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The beginning of the third millennium has been characterized by a progressive increase in the demand for fossil fuels, which has caused a steep rise in oil price. At the same time, several environmental disasters have increased the sensitivity of world-wide public opinion towards the effect that environmental pollution has on human health and climate change. These conditions have fostered a renewed interest in renewable energy like solar energy, wind energy, biomass and solid wastes. In addition, the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a critical and costly problem. The traditional landfill method requires large amounts of land and contaminates air, water and soil. The increase in socio-economic condition during the past ten years has also significantly increased the amount of solid waste generated. There are around 1200 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated daily, of which the combustibles namely plastics, paper and textile waste represent 28%, and with the present generation rate, the landfill will be filled by 2012. The study was, therefore, initiated to assess the potential of power generation from refused derived fuels (RDF) from municipal solid waste (MSW) in order to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels. There are 336 tons which is equivalent to 12 tons/ h of RDF that can be generated daily from the MSW and this would generate 19.2 MW power. There will be 312 kg/ h of ash that would be generated and the NO x and SO 2 concentration were found to be 395.5 and 43.3 mg/ Nm 3 respectively. It was also found that the amount of non-biogenic CO 2 produced was 471 g/ kWhe. (author)

  16. Photovoltaic technologies for commercial power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Photovoltaic power generation is an attractive source of energy since it involves the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity with no moving parts and no pollution. Following the demonstration of the first solar cell 35 years ago at Bell Laboratories, a steady stream of scientific and commercial progress has led to a rapid increase in applications in recent years. The first commercial application of solar cells occurred more than 20 years ago when they were used to supply power for space satellites, and even today photovoltaic arrays are used to supply electricity for most satellites and space probes. This paper reviews the status of the various photovoltaic technologies as well as present applications. The prospects for both distributed and central station grid-connected systems are discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the institutional and political factors that will affect the introduction of grid-connected photovoltaic power systems

  17. Photovoltaic technologies for commerical power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    The author reports photovoltaic power generation is an attractive source of energy since it involves the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity with no moving parts and no pollution. Following the demonstration of the first solar cell 35 years ago at Bell Laboratories, a steady stream of scientific and commercial progress has led to a rapid increase in applications in recent years. The first commercial application of solar cells occurred more than 20 years ago when they were used to supply power for space satellites, and even today photovoltaic arrays are used to supply electricity for most satellites and space probes. This paper reviews the status of the various photovoltaic technologies as well as present applications. The prospects for both distributed and central station grid-connected systems are discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the institutional and political factors that will affect the introduction of grid-connected photovoltaic power systems

  18. Problems of coal-based power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskievic, P.

    1996-01-01

    Current problems of and future trends in coal-based power generation are discussed. The present situation is as follows: coal, oil and gas contribute to world fossil fuel resources 75%, 14%, and 11%, respectively, and if the current trend will continue, will be depleted in 240, 50, and 60 years, respectively; the maximum resource estimates (including resources that have not yet been discovered) are 50% higher for oil and 100% higher for gas, for coal such estimates have not been made. While the world prices of coal are expected to remain virtually constant, the prices of gas will probably increase to be twice as high in 2010. Thus, the role of coal may be higher in the next century than it is now, provided that due attention is paid to improving the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reducing their adverse environmental effects. A comparison of economic data for coal-fired and gas-fired power plants is as follows: Investment cost (USD/kW): 1400, 800; fixed running cost (USD/kW.y): 33.67, 9.0; variable running cost (USD/kWh): 0.30, 0.15; power use (kJ/kWh): 10.29, 7.91; annual availability (%): 70, 50; fuel price (USD/GJ): 1.00, 4.30; power price (USD/kWh): 4.28, 5.52. The investment cost for coal-fired plants covers new construction including flue gas purification. The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) seems to be the future of coal-based power generation. The future problems to be addressed include ways to reduce air pollution, improving the efficiency of the gas-steam cycle, and improving the combustion process particularly with a view to reducing substantially its environmental impact. (P.A.). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 9 refs

  19. Facing the challenges of nuclear power at Ontario Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howes, H.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear power represents a major portion of Ontario Power Generation's generation mix and it will be the bedrock upon which we build a successful, competitive company. Our nuclear units offer many environmental and economic benefits, the one most relevant to this meeting is their significant contribution to the relatively low carbon intensity of Ontario's and Canada's electricity supply. In recent weeks, we have listened with great interest to the endorsement by our federal Minister of the Environment of nuclear technology as a means of reducing global warming. But endorsements of this type alone are not sufficient to ensure that nuclear remains an acceptable option for managing greenhouse gas emissions. Without public acceptance and support, the entire nuclear investment is endangered. At OPG we face three challenges to building this public support: we must continue to improve our safety margins and operating performance; we must continue to improve the environmental performance at our stations; and we must increase our community outreach. Today I would like to focus on the last two challenges and the actions that we are taking to maintain our social and environmental 'licence to operate.' But before I describe these initiatives, I will tell you about: the new company - Ontario Power Generation; the changes in store for Ontario's electricity sector; and our greenhouse gas emissions - the legacy from Ontario Hydro. (author)

  20. Steam generator replacement at Surry Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    The purposes of the steam generator repair program at Surry Power Station were to repair the tube degradation caused by corrosion-related phenomena and to restore the integrity of the steam generators to a level equivalent to new equipment. The repair program consisted of (1) replacing the existing lower-shell assemblies with new ones and (2) adding new moisture separation equipment to the upper-shell assemblies. These tasks required that several pieces of reactor coolant piping, feedwater piping, main steam piping, and the steam generator be cut and refurbished for reinstallation after the new lower shell was in place. The safety implications and other potential effects of the repair program both during the repair work and after the unit was returned to power were part of the design basis of the repair program. The repair program has been completed on Unit 2 without any adverse effects on the health and safety of the general public or to the personnel engaged in the repair work. Before the Unit 1 repair program began, a review of work procedures and field changes for the Unit 2 repair was conducted. Several major changes were made to avoid recurrence of problems and to streamline procedures. Steam generator replacements was completed on June 1, 1981, and the unit is presently in the startup phase of the outrage

  1. Parylene-based electret power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Hsi-wen; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2008-01-01

    An electret power generator is developed using a new electret made of a charged parylene HT® thin-film polymer. Here, parylene HT® is a room-temperature chemical-vapor-deposited thin-film polymer that is MEMS and CMOS compatible. With corona charge implantation, the surface charge density of parylene HT® is measured as high as 3.69 mC m −2 . Moreover, it is found that, with annealing at 400 °C for 1 h before charge implantation, both the long-term stability and the high-temperature reliability of the electret are improved. For the generator, a new design of the stator/rotor is also developed. The new micro electret generator does not require any sophisticated gap-controlling structure such as tethers. With the conformal coating capability of parylene HT®, it is also feasible to have the electret on the rotors, which is made of either a piece of metal or an insulator. The maximum power output, 17.98 µW, is obtained at 50 Hz with an external load of 80 MΩ. For low frequencies, the generator can harvest 7.7 µW at 10 Hz and 8.23 µW at 20 Hz

  2. Fifth CNS international steam generator conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Fifth CNS International Steam Generator Conference was held on November 26-29, 2006 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. In contrast with other conferences which focus on specific aspects, this conference provided a wide ranging forum on nuclear steam generator technology from life-cycle management to inspection and maintenance, functional and structural performance characteristics to design architecture. The 5th conference has adopted the theme: 'Management of Real-Life Equipment Conditions and Solutions for the Future'. This theme is appropriate at a time of transition in the industry when plants are looking to optimize the performance of existing assets, prevent costly degradation and unavailability, while looking ahead for new steam generator investments in life-extension, replacements and new-build. More than 50 technical papers were presented in sessions that gave an insight to the scope: life management strategies; fouling, cleaning and chemistry; replacement strategies and new build design; materials degradation; condition assessment/fitness for service; inspection advancements and experience; and thermal hydraulic performance

  3. Integrating Renewable Generation into Grid Operations: Four International Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mylrea, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-22

    International experiences with power sector restructuring and the resultant impacts on bulk power grid operations and planning may provide insight into policy questions for the evolving United States power grid as resource mixes are changing in response to fuel prices, an aging generation fleet and to meet climate goals. Australia, Germany, Japan and the UK were selected to represent a range in the level and attributes of electricity industry liberalization in order to draw comparisons across a variety of regions in the United States such as California, ERCOT, the Southwest Power Pool and the Southeast Reliability Region. The study draws conclusions through a literature review of the four case study countries with regards to the changing resource mix and the electricity industry sector structure and their impact on grid operations and planning. This paper derives lessons learned and synthesizes implications for the United States based on answers to the above questions and the challenges faced by the four selected countries. Each country was examined to determine the challenges to their bulk power sector based on their changing resource mix, market structure, policies driving the changing resource mix, and policies driving restructuring. Each countries’ approach to solving those changes was examined, as well as how each country’s market structure either exacerbated or mitigated the approaches to solving the challenges to their bulk power grid operations and planning. All countries’ policies encourage renewable energy generation. One significant finding included the low- to zero-marginal cost of intermittent renewables and its potential negative impact on long-term resource adequacy. No dominant solution has emerged although a capacity market was introduced in the UK and is being contemplated in Japan. Germany has proposed the Energy Market 2.0 to encourage flexible generation investment. The grid operator in Australia proposed several approaches to maintaining

  4. The economics of coal power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Changhong; Zhang, Weirong; Wang, Yang; Liu, Qilin; Guo, Jingsheng; Xiong, Minpeng; Yuan, Jiahai

    2017-01-01

    The Chinese government recently released the 13th FYP (five-year plan) power development plan and proposed a capacity installation target of 1100 GW for coal power. Considering the weak demand growth of coal power since 2014, continuous decline in the annual utilisation hour and the coming market competition, such a planning target is unwelcome and could further the economic deterioration of coal power. In this paper, we employ LCOE (levelised cost of electricity) and project evaluation models to conduct a nationwide survey on the economics of coal power. The economic analysis has clearly indicated that the recent boom of coal power investment in China, which is absurd in many perspectives, is largely the aftermath of uncompleted market reform in the power sector. However, the fundamentals of electricity demand and supply are changing at a speed beyond the imagination of power generators and have foreboded a gloomy prospect for coal power. Our study shows that by 2020, with several exceptions, in most provinces the internal rate of return for coal power will drop below the social average return rate or will even be negative. In this regard, the 13th FYP capacity planning target for coal power is economically untenable and requires radical revision. - Highlights: • Conduct a first-of-its-kind nationwide economic analysis for coal power in China. • Distorted price by improper regulation is the root of investment bubble since 2014. • Cost uplift and market competition foretell a gloomy prospect of coal power. • The 1100 GW capacity planning target for coal power should be abandoned.

  5. Maturing Technologies for Stirling Space Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Nowlin, Brentley C.; Dobbs, Michael W.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Huth, James

    2016-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) could offer space missions a more efficient power system that uses one fourth of the nuclear fuel and decreases the thermal footprint of the current state of the art. The RPS Program Office, working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), manages projects to develop thermoelectric and dynamic power systems, including Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs). The Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project, located at Glenn Research Center (GRC), is developing Stirling-based subsystems, including convertors and controllers. The SCTD Project also performs research that focuses on a wide variety of objectives, including increasing convertor temperature capability to enable new environments, improving system reliability or fault tolerance, reducing mass or size, and developing advanced concepts that are mission enabling. Research activity includes maturing subsystems, assemblies, and components to prepare them for infusion into future convertor and generator designs. The status of several technology development efforts are described here. As part of the maturation process, technologies are assessed for readiness in higher-level subsystems. To assess the readiness level of the Dual Convertor Controller (DCC), a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) was performed and the process and results are shown. Stirling technology research is being performed by the SCTD Project for NASA's RPS Program Office, where tasks focus on maturation of Stirling-based systems and subsystems for future space science missions.

  6. Impact of power generation on air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, B.E.A.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the impact of the electric power industry on air quality. Much of the data are presented in chronological order starting with the London smogs in the late nineteenth century and the Clean Air Act of 1956. With the building of bigger and bigger coal-fired power stations, apparatus to restrict emissions of dust became common and a Royal Commission reported on the progress of smoke control in 1974 and 1976. The article is presented under the sub-headings of (i) role of Local Authorities; (ii) weather and smog; (iii) trends in emissions; (iv) dispersal and dilution; (v) smoke and sulfur dioxide exported; (vi) atmospheric lifetime of sulfur dioxide; (vii) proportionality between emissions and deposition; (viii) critical loads; (ix) international agreements on transboundary pollution; (x) road transport pollution; (xi) local air quality management and (xii) climate change

  7. Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik

    Increasing levels of penetration of wind power and other renewable generations in European power systems pose challenges to power system security. The power system operators are continuously challenged especially when generations from renewables are high thereby reducing online capacity of conven......Increasing levels of penetration of wind power and other renewable generations in European power systems pose challenges to power system security. The power system operators are continuously challenged especially when generations from renewables are high thereby reducing online capacity......, one of them being the North East area with high share of wind power generation.The aim of this study is to investigate how renewable generations like wind power can contribute to the power system defence plans. This PhD project “Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans...

  8. Internal ultrasonic testing of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, J.; Soleille, G.; Chalaye, H.

    1983-01-01

    The ''in situ'' inspection of steam generator tubes uses generally Foucault currents before starting and along its life. This inspection aims at searching cracks and corrosion defects. The Foucault current method is quite badly adapted to ''closed crack'' detection, for it doesn't introduce neither resistivity or magnetic permeability variation, or lack of matter. More, it is sensible to the magnetic properties of the tube itself and to its environment (tubular or support plates). It is why, this first systematic inspection has to be completed by an ultrasonic one allowing to bring new elements in the uncertain cases. A device with an internal probe has been developed. It ''lights'' the tube wall with the aid of a transducer of which beam reflects on a mirror. Operating conditions are the same as for Foucault current testing, that is to say the probe moves inside the tube without rotation of the device (bent parts are excluded) [fr

  9. Development of the ultra high efficiency thermal power generation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Toshihiro

    2010-09-15

    In order to prevent global warming, attention is focused on nuclear power generation and renewable energy such as wind and solar power generation. The electric power suppliers of Japan are aiming to increase the amount of nuclear and non-fossil fuel power generation over 50% of the total power generation by 2020. But this means that the remaining half will still be of thermal power generation using fossil fuel and will still play an important role. Under such circumstances, further efficiency improvement of the thermal power generation and its aggressive implementation is ongoing in Japan.

  10. Miniature Gas-Turbine Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Dean; Vargo, Stephen; White, Victor; Shcheglov, Kirill

    2003-01-01

    A proposed microelectromechanical system (MEMS) containing a closed- Brayton-cycle turbine would serve as a prototype of electric-power generators for special applications in which high energy densities are required and in which, heretofore, batteries have been used. The system would have a volume of about 6 cm3 and would operate with a thermal efficiency >30 percent, generating up to 50 W of electrical power. The energy density of the proposed system would be about 10 times that of the best battery-based systems now available, and, as such, would be comparable to that of a fuel cell. The working gas for the turbine would be Xe containing small quantities of CO2, O2, and H2O as gaseous lubricants. The gas would be contained in an enclosed circulation system, within which the pressure would typically range between 5 and 50 atm (between 0.5 and 5 MPa). The heat for the Brayton cycle could be supplied by any of a number of sources, including a solar concentrator or a combustor burning a hydrocarbon or other fuel. The system would include novel heat-transfer and heat-management components. The turbine would be connected to an electric power generator/starter motor. The system would include a main rotor shaft with gas bearings; the bearing surfaces would be made of a ceramic material coated with nanocrystalline diamond. The shaft could withstand speed of 400,000 rpm or perhaps more, with bearing-wear rates less than 10(exp -)4 those of silicon bearings and 0.05 to 0.1 those of SiC bearings, and with a coefficient of friction about 0.1 that of Si or SiC bearings. The components of the system would be fabricated by a combination of (1) three-dimensional xray lithography and (2) highly precise injection molding of diamond-compatible metals and ceramic materials. The materials and fabrication techniques would be suitable for mass production. The disadvantages of the proposed system are that unlike a battery-based system, it could generate a perceptible amount of sound, and

  11. Thermophotovoltaic Arrays for Electrical Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarnoff Corporation

    2003-01-01

    Sarnoff has designed an integrated array of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells based on the In(Al)GaAsSb/GaSb materials system. These arrays will be used in a system to generate electrical power from a radioisotope heat source that radiates at temperatures from 700 to 1000 C. Two arrays sandwich the slab heat source and will be connected in series to build voltage. Between the arrays and the heat source is a spectral control filter that transmits above-bandgap radiation and reflects below-bandgap radiation. The goal is to generate 5 mW of electrical power at 3 V from a 700 C radiant source. Sarnoff is a leader in antimonide-based TPV cell development. InGaAsSb cells with a bandgap of 0.53 eV have operated at system conversion efficiencies greater than 17%. The system included a front-surface filter, and a 905 C radiation source. The cells were grown via organo-metallic vapor-phase epitaxy. Sarnoff will bring this experience to bear on the proposed project. The authors first describe array and cell architecture. They then present calculated results showing that about 80 mW of power can be obtained from a 700 C radiator. Using a conservative array design, a 5-V output is possible

  12. Development of wind power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiquan, Y.; Yan, C.; Lijun, X.

    1995-01-01

    Present status and development of wind power generation in China is described in this paper. China is vast in territory with abundant wind resources. The exploitable wind energy in China is estimated up to 253,000 MW. At present, more than 150 thousand small WTGs of a total capacity of 17 MW are used to provide residential electricity uses in non-grid connected areas and 13 wind farms, with above 160 medium and large scale grid connected WTGs (50-500 kW) of a total capacity of 30 MW, have been constructed. At the same time, some progress has been made in the fields of nation-wide wind resource assessment, measurement technology of wind turbine performance, the assimilation of foreign wind turbine technology, grid connected WTG technology and the operation of wind farm etc. It is planned that the total installed capacity of WTGs will reach 1000 MW by the end of 2000. Wind power generation could be a part of electric power industry in China. (Author)

  13. Power Generator with Thermo-Differential Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, John R.; Nguyen, James

    2010-01-01

    A thermoelectric power generator consists of an oven box and a solar cooker/solar reflector unit. The solar reflector concentrates sunlight into heat and transfers the heat into the oven box via a heat pipe. The oven box unit is surrounded by five thermoelectric modules and is located at the bottom end of the solar reflector. When the heat is pumped into one side of the thermoelectric module and ejected from the opposite side at ambient temperatures, an electrical current is produced. Typical temperature accumulation in the solar reflector is approximately 200 C (392 F). The heat pipe then transfers heat into the oven box with a loss of about 40 percent. At the ambient temperature of about 20 C (68 F), the temperature differential is about 100 C (180 F) apart. Each thermoelectric module, generates about 6 watts of power. One oven box with five thermoelectric modules produces about 30 watts. The system provides power for unattended instruments in remote areas, such as space colonies and space vehicles, and in polar and other remote regions on Earth.

  14. Is nuclear energy power generation more dangerous than power generation by wind and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y

    1979-03-01

    Since the occurrence of the petroleum crisis, many countries have devoted a great deal of effort to search for substitute energy sources. Aside from nuclear energy, forms of power generation with wind, solar energy, and geothermal energy have all been actually adopted in one place or another. Most recently, a research report was published by the Canadian Bureau of Nuclear Energy Management stating that the use of wind and solar energy to generate electricity is much more dangerous than power generation with nuclear energy. When mining, transportation, machine manufacturing, etc. are included in the process of producing unit power, i.e. kilowatt/year, the data of various risks of death, injury, and diseases are computed in terms of man/day losses by the bureau. They indicate that of the ten forms of power generation, the danger is the least with natural gas, only about a 6 man/day, and nuclear energy is the next least dangerous, about 10 man/day. The danger of using temperature differential of sea water to generate electricity is about 25 man/day, and the most dangerous form of power generation is coal, amounting to three thousand man/day.

  15. Thermoelectric generators for efficiency improvement of power generation by motor generators – Environmental and economic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patyk, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► TEGs can save costs and reduce environmental burden in a wide range of conditions. ► Reduction of the environmental burden is still possible under worse conditions. ► Under the same conditions steam expanders produce bigger amounts of electricity. ► Steam expanders are more eco-efficient in the upper performance range. ► TEG production plays only a small role for the overall assessment. -- Abstract: The use of waste heat from exhaust gas of internal combustion engines in power plants and CHP plants is considered a promising application field for thermoelectrics (TE). Some recent studies have provided important knowledge on the energy efficiency of current and future thermoelectric generators (TEGs). The focus of these studies has been primarily on the precise modelling of power units and their operation, i.e., the quantification of power production by TEGs. One of the studies additionally assessed the costs and the CO 2 emissions of fuel combustion, without equipment and fuel supply. Until now, there was no life cycle-related analysis considering TEG and power unit manufacture, environmental impacts beyond climate change and competing technologies for waste heat utilisation. In order to fill this gap, the present study applies the life cycle approach, takes account of a variety of environmental impacts and costs and compares TEGs with the competing steam expander technology. The results show that, under many conditions, TEGs in power units can save energy costs and reduce the environmental burden, i.e., they are eco-efficient. With additional expenditure, energy savings and environmental benefits can be achieved even under disadvantageous conditions. However, in the upper power range the performance of steam expanders in terms of electricity production and eco-efficiency is better. The reduction costs of greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts as eco-efficiency indicators show identical patterns. Under reasonable operating

  16. Evaluation Of Different Power Conditioning Options For Stirling Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigos, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Carrasco, J. A.; Maset, E.; Montalban, G.; Ejea, J.; Ferreres, A.; Sanchis, E.

    2011-10-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines are an interesting alternative for electrical power systems, especially in deep space missions where photovoltaic systems are not feasible. This kind of power generators contains two main parts, the Stirling machine and the linear alternator that converts the mechanical energy from the piston movement to electrical energy. Since the generated power is in AC form, several aspects should be assessed to use such kind of generators in a spacecraft power system: AC/DC topologies, power factor correction, power regulation techniques, integration into the power system, etc. This paper details power generator operation and explores different power conversion approaches.

  17. Fiscal 2000 report on result of international joint demonstrative development of photovoltaic power generation system. Demonstrative research on photovoltaic power generation system interconnection system (Myanmar); 2000 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system kokusai kyodo jissho kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden keito renkei system jissho kenkyu (Myanmar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Joint research was conducted with Myanmar on a photovoltaic power generation system interconnection system, for which fiscal 2000 results were described in this paper. Power generating facilities were set up consisting of 80kW photovoltaic, 40kW wind and 60kW diesel systems. With the photovoltaic and wind power generation connected to a small-scale power system as a ballast load, the system interconnection is formed through load adjusting equipment such as storage batteries. The hybrid system feeding is from 6 o'clock early in the morning until 23 late at night. The diesel power generation is free from restrictions. The operating method was set on system control (demand side management) by adjustment from the load side, with ballast load control employed that adjustably operates an ice machine load. The basic design was drafted in terms of a storage battery capacity of 1,000Ah and an ice machine load of 32kW. The daytime load was assumed to be 25% of the night load. On the equipment specifications set in this basic design, arrangement design was conducted for the equipment in the premises, making a land development plan and a basic construction plan including a temporary work site, construction steps, transportation and delivery of the equipment. Quantity of solar radiation and wind data were continuously observed. (NEDO)

  18. Operating of Small Wind Power Plants with Induction Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Nevrala; Stanislav Misak

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes different systems of small wind power plants with induction generators used in the Czech Republic. Problems of wind power plants running with induction generators are solved within partial target of the research project MSM 6198910007. For small wind power plants is used induction motor as a generator. Parameters of the name plate of motor must be resolved for generator running on measuring base. These generators are running as a separately working generators or generator...

  19. Clean fossil-fuelled power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Using fossil fuels is likely to remain the dominant means of producing electricity in 2030 and even 2050, partly because power stations have long lives. There are two main ways of reducing CO 2 emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants. These are carbon capture and storage (CCS), which can produce near-zero CO 2 emissions, and increases in plant efficiency, which can give rise to significant reductions in CO 2 emissions and to reduced costs. If a typical UK coal-fired plant was replaced by today's best available technology, it would lead to reductions of around 25% in emissions of CO 2 per MW h of electricity produced. Future technologies are targeting even larger reductions in emissions, as well as providing a route, with CCS, to zero emissions. These two routes are linked and they are both essential activities on the pathway to zero emissions. This paper focuses on the second route and also covers an additional third route for reducing emissions, the use of biomass. It discusses the current status of the science and technologies for fossil-fuelled power generation and outlines likely future technologies, development targets and timescales. This is followed by a description of the scientific and technological developments that are needed to meet these challenges. Once built, a power plant can last for over 40 years, so the ability to upgrade and retrofit a plant during its lifetime is important

  20. The environmental challenges of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelling, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    In two decades, three momentous changes have occurred that will influence power generation for decades to come. Coal has become a culprit responsible for respiratory disease and acid rain; carbon dioxide has become a culprit widely believed capable of changes in climate greater than any that have occurred in ten thousand years; and nuclear power in many countries has become an outcast. The irony is that nuclear power promised clean air and no greenhouse effect. The great gathering of heads of state in Rio in 1992 was the celebration of a problem; whether it was the beginning of a solution remains to be seen. The paper is followed by a discussion by Dominique Finon, Director, Institut d'Economie et de Politique de l'Energie, CNRS and Universite of Grenoble, France. He presents a divergent view to the wait-and-see attitude that appears from Schelling's discourse. He points to the increasing array of technological options available to the power industry and discusses the need for dynamic approaches to problems such as global warming. 5 refs

  1. Self-Powered Functional Device Using On-Chip Power Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-26

    An apparatus, system, and method for a self-powered device using on-chip power generation. In some embodiments, the apparatus includes a substrate, a power generation module on the substrate, and a power storage module on the substrate. The power generation module may include a thermoelectric generator made of bismuth telluride.

  2. Self-Powered Functional Device Using On-Chip Power Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method for a self-powered device using on-chip power generation. In some embodiments, the apparatus includes a substrate, a power generation module on the substrate, and a power storage module on the substrate. The power generation module may include a thermoelectric generator made of bismuth telluride.

  3. French nuclear power plants for heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The considerable importance that France attributes to nuclear energy is well known even though as a result of the economic crisis and the energy savings it is possible to observe a certain downward trend in the rate at which new power plants are being started up. In July 1983, a symbolic turning-point was reached - at more than 10 thousand million kW.h nuclear power accounted, for the first time, for more than 50% of the total amount of electricity generated, or approx. 80% of the total electricity output of thermal origin. On the other hand, the direct contribution - excluding the use of electricity - of nuclear energy to the heat market in France remains virtually nil. The first part of this paper discusses the prospects and realities of the application, at low and intermediate temperatures, of nuclear heat in France, while the second part describes the French nuclear projects best suited to the heat market (excluding high temperatures). (author)

  4. Next-Generation Shipboard DC Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zheming; Sulligoi, Giorgio; Cuzner, Rob

    2016-01-01

    sources (RES) are commonly recognized as the major driven force of the revolution, the outburst of customer electronics and new kinds of household electronics is also powering this change. In this context, dc power distribution technologies have made a comeback and keep gaining a commendable increase...... in research interests and industrial applications. In addition, the concept of flexible and smart distribution has also been proposed, which tends to exploit distributed generation and pack the distributed RESs and local electrical loads as an independent and self-sustainable entity, namely microgrid....... At present, the research of dc microgrid has investigated and developed a series of advanced methods in control, management and objective-oriented optimization, which would found the technical interface enabling the future applications in multiple industrial areas, such as smart buildings, electric vehicles...

  5. Integrated control of next generation power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2010-02-28

    The multi-agent system (MAS) approach has been applied with promising results for enhancing an electric power distribution circuit, such as the Circuit of the Future as developed by Southern California Edison. These next generation power system results include better ability to reconfigure the circuit as well as the increased capability to improve the protection and enhance the reliability of the circuit. There were four main tasks in this project. The specific results for each of these four tasks and their related topics are presented in main sections of this report. Also, there were seven deliverables for this project. The main conclusions for these deliverables are summarized in the identified subtask section of this report. The specific details for each of these deliverables are included in the “Project Deliverables” section at the end of this Final Report.

  6. Wind power plant for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsiedel, E

    1978-11-09

    The invention concerns a wind power plant which rotates on a vertical axis and is suitable for the generation of electricity. This wind power machine with a vertical axis can be mounted at any height, so that it can catch the wind on the vertical axis of rotation. Further, it does not have to be turned into the direction of the wind and fixed. The purpose of the invention is to obtain equal load on the structure due to the vertical axis. The purpose of the invention is fulfilled by having the wind vanes fixed above one another from the bottom to the top in 6 different directions. The particular advantage of the invention lies in the fact that the auxiliary blades can bring the other blades to the operating position in good time, due to their particular method of fixing.

  7. The international cooperation for 4. generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.

    2007-01-01

    This series of slides begins with a likely scenario for the demand of nuclear power in 2050: 3.2 Gtep compared to the 0.7 Gtep of today. The demand could be even bigger if more constraints were appearing on the use of fossil energies. Today's industrial offer of nuclear reactors is based on second and third generation design of reactors but sustainable development implies to close the fuel cycle to spare uranium resource and to minimize the volume of high-level radioactive wastes produced so a new generation of reactors is required. 6 concepts have been selected for the fourth generation of reactors. 1) VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactors) for the production of hydrogen. The countries interested in VHTR are: EURATOM countries, France, the Usa, Japan, Switzerland and South-Korea. 2) SFR (Sodium cooled Fast Reactors), the countries interested in SFR are: EURATOM countries, France, Japan, the Usa and South-Korea. 3) LFR (Lead or Bismuth/Lead cooled Fast Reactors), the LFR steering committee is composed of Switzerland, Japan, the Usa and South-Korea. 4) GFR (Gas cooled Fast Reactors), the countries interested in GFR are EURATOM countries, France, Japan and Switzerland. 5) SCWR (Super-Critical Water cooled Reactors), the countries interested in this concept are Canada, EURATOM countries and Japan. 6) MSR (Molten Salt Reactors), the MSR steering committee is composed of France, EURATOM countries and the Usa. Other countries like Argentina, Brazil and United-Kingdom have shown interest in the VHTR concept but have lacked willingness till now to take part into the program. (A.C.)

  8. Recent international trends on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tetsuya

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power generation is now sluggish from economical reason or sometimes together from political reason, except some exceptions in Western Europe, and U.S.A. It tends now to keep its present state or to decrease gradually as cannot say to be out of nuclear power generation. At these areas, anxiety on energy security becomes lower at present, and economics under liberation of market is preceded to everything because of without anxiety on environmental theory at a viewpoint of the global warming protection, either. However, when considering on finiteness of fossil fuel and long-term countermeasure of the global warming protection, no longer that any break-through on energy technology will form in future, it seems to occur that nuclear power would be re-recognized. For the Renaissance of the nuclear power, it is essential to correspond to some problems shown as follows: processing and disposal of high level radioactive wastes, upgrading of economics containing its initial cost, safe operation, maintenance of scientific technology standard on nuclear power, and nuclear non-scattering. And, on the energy problem, it is essential to recognize that Japan is a nation with a number of differences in its circumstance from those in U.S.A. and European nations. (G.K.)

  9. Corrosion products in power generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, D.H.

    1980-06-01

    The important mechanisms of corrosion and corrosion product movement and fouling in the heat transport systems of thermal electric generating stations are reviewed. Oil- and coal-fired boilers are considered, along with nuclear power systems - both direct and indirect cycle. Thus, the fireside and waterside in conventional plants, and the primary coolant and steam-raising circuits in water-cooled reactors, are discussed. Corrosion products in organic- and liquid-metal-cooled reactors also are shown to cause problems if not controlled, while their beneficial effects on the cooling water side of condensers are described. (auth)

  10. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointon, K.; Langan, M.

    2002-07-01

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects.

  11. Ontario Power Generation Nuclear: results and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermarkar, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the accomplishments of Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Nuclear and outlines future opportunities. OPG's mandate is to cost effectively produce electricity, while operating in a safe, open and environmentally responsible manner. OPG's nuclear production has been increasing over the past three years - partly from the addition of newly refurbished Pickering A Units 1 and 4, and partly from the increased production from Darlington and Pickering B. OPG will demonstrate its proficiency and capability in nuclear by continuing to enhance the performance and cost effectiveness of its existing operations. Its priorities are to focus on performance excellence, commercial success, openness, accountability and transparency

  12. Sparking investment in Ontario's power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the business strategy needed to spark investment in Ontario's power generation industry. It examines the process of decision making and investing in an uncertain environment. The paper suggests that any strategy based on one view of the future courts trouble and that strategic flexibility can prepare for what cannot be predicted. Finally the paper suggests that Ontario needs to create a stable policy and regulatory environment that allows investors to fulfill reasonable expectations and investors need to place bets that provide the flexibility to respond quickly to changing market conditions

  13. British power generation/delivery handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagley, R.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the British electricity-supply system and covers: the CEGB, nuclear power - AGR design, boiler plant development coal-fired boilers and oil-fired boilers, steam turbine/generators, boiler-feed pumps, pumped storage, gas turbine plants, transmission system including the link to France, the Sizewell-BPWR, future AGR development, future coal-fired stations, fluidized bed combustion, coal gasification, and wind energy developments. Also included is a list of British equipment suppliers to the electricity supply industry, and a buyer's guide to British equipment and services.

  14. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointon, K.; Langan, M.

    2002-01-01

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects

  15. Bringing customer focus to power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.V. [USGen Power Services (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The restructuring of the power generation industry and the impact it will have on a company`s success was discussed. Some companies are following one of three distinct strategies for survival, the GENCO, MARKETCO and TRADECO. The GENCO focuses on aggregating low cost, kick butt generation assets that could be either regionally concentrated or geographically distributed. The TRADECO invests in few, or even no, assets. Its only objective is to maximize net income. The MARKETCO structure focuses on understanding and meeting customers` needs. The MARKETCO puts as much value in aggregating `load` as it does on assets. It was suggested that the MARKETCO was the quickest path to success in the restructured electric industry, since it is plainly evident that in the New Millenium the customer will be king, and companies will not survive unless they focus the majority of their efforts on the customer.

  16. Neutron generator power supply modeling in EMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.C.; Farnsworth, A.V.; Montgomery, S.T.; Peery, J.S.; Merewether, K.O.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prime responsibility for neutron generator design and manufacturing, and is committed to developing predictive tools for modeling neutron generator performance. An important aspect of understanding component performance is explosively driven ferroelectric power supply modeling. EMMA (ElectroMechanical Modeling in ALEGRA) is a three dimensional compile time version of Sandia's ALEGRA code. The code is built on top of the general ALEGRA framework for parallel shock-physics computations but also includes additional capability for modeling the electric potential field in dielectrics. The overall package includes shock propagation due to explosive detonation, depoling of ferroelectric ceramics, electric field calculation and coupling with a general lumped element circuit equation system. The AZTEC parallel iterative solver is used to solve for the electric potential. The DASPK differential algebraic equation package is used to solve the circuit equation system. Sample calculations are described

  17. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 of energy and environment technology verification project formation assisting project and international joint verification and research project. Verification of discrete power generation system utilizing mini-power generation that utilizes micro gas turbine; 1999 nendo micro gas turbine riyo mini hatsuden wo riyoshita bunsangata hatsuden system no kensho seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the verification test on power generation by using natural gas driven micro gas turbines (rated at 28 kW) in Thailand. The turbine presented excellent result of providing a maximum power generation output of 25 kW, having no efficiency deterioration even at the 50% output point (about 22%). Its exhaust gas emitted under the normal operation is clean. The waste heat is as low as 290 degrees C, which can be used for hot water supply, but may be difficult for steam generation. Under the severe condition for building large power plants in remote areas due to environmental issues and power transmission loss, proliferation of the discrete power generation system in the suburbs of the city of Bangkok draws expectation. This system can be more advantageous than the existing facilities if the end user gas price is 6.7 Bht/m{sup 3} or less. Discussions were given on a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus driven by electric power generated from the gas turbine mounted on the bus. The bus is overwhelmingly superior in the environmental aspect to diesel fueled buses. The HEV bus emits no black smoke at all, and NOx emission is as low as about 1/70. Fuel consumption is less than half (when regenerative braking is used). However, the vehicle body cost is higher by 40%. Smooth operation of the buses requires indispensably deployment of compressed natural gas service stations (to be located at 40-km interval ideally). Assistance is required also on the fund for gas line installations, and civil engineering construction technologies. (NEDO)

  18. 4th International Conference on Power Transmissions

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This books contains the Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Power Transmissions, that was held in Sinaia, Romania from June 20 -23, 2012. Power Transmissions is a very complex and multi-disciplinary scientific field of Mechanical Engineering that covers the different types of transmissions (mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic) as well as all the machine elements involved, such as gears, bearings, shafts, couplings and a lot more. It concerns not only their basic theory but also their design, analysis, testing, application and maintenance. The requirements set to modern power transmissions are really tough to meet: They need to be more efficient, stronger, smaller, noiseless, easier to produce and to cost less. There is a strong demand to become easier in operation and maintenance, or even automatic and in maintenance-free. Last but not least, they should be easily recycled and respect the environment. Joint efforts of specialists from both academia and industry can significantly contribute to fulf...

  19. Enhancing power generation of floating wave power generators by utilization of nonlinear roll-pitch coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrapragada, Karthik; Ansari, M. H.; Karami, M. Amin

    2017-09-01

    We propose utilization of the nonlinear coupling between the roll and pitch motions of wave energy harvesting vessels to increase their power generation by orders of magnitude. Unlike linear vessels that exhibit unidirectional motion, our vessel undergoes both pitch and roll motions in response to frontal waves. This significantly magnifies the motion of the vessel and thus improves the power production by several orders of magnitude. The ocean waves result in roll and pitch motions of the vessel, which in turn causes rotation of an onboard pendulum. The pendulum is connected to an electric generator to produce power. The coupled electro-mechanical system is modeled using energy methods. This paper investigates the power generation of the vessel when the ratio between pitch and roll natural frequencies is about 2 to 1. In that case, a nonlinear energy transfer occurs between the roll and pitch motions, causing the vessel to perform coupled pitch and roll motion even though it is only excited in the pitch direction. It is shown that co-existence of pitch and roll motions significantly enhances the pendulum rotation and power generation. A method for tuning the natural frequencies of the vessel is proposed to make the energy generator robust to variations of the frequency of the incident waves. It is shown that the proposed method enhances the power output of the floating wave power generators by multiple orders of magnitude. A small-scale prototype is developed for the proof of concept. The nonlinear energy transfer and the full rotation of the pendulum in the prototype are observed in the experimental tests.

  20. Power Generation Strategy Development in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curkovic, A.; Androcec, I.; Tarnik, T.

    2010-01-01

    Electricity generation as an economic sector contributes to the national GDP through increasing investments and exports. In the period from 2000 to 2008 the annual growth rate of final electricity demand was 3,8% which was higher than for any other energy form. Almost 1200 MW of thermal power plants will go out of system due to lifetime (more than 30 years). Energy Strategy is a basic document of the Energy Act with the purpose to define energy policy and future plans for energy development of the Republic of Croatia till 2020. Based on the adopted strategy the Government will create the Energy Strategy Implementation Programme for the four-year period. Croatian's energy development should be based on best available technologies as well as on energy-related, economic and environmental assessment of all available energy options. Energy strategy of Croatia (NN 130/09) puts up next goals: 300 MW hydro power plants (bigger than 10 MW), 1200 MW gas-fired thermal power plants (including 300 MW of cogeneration), 1200 MW of coal-fired thermal power plants, and 35% of renewable (including hydro). The market, i.e. a competitive generation, is the driving force in the construction of new power plants. The main stimulus for the construction is the possibility of definite return of invested capital as well as earning of reasonable profit for investors. Choose of location, environmental impact and competitiveness are main criteria for decision making. Technological and financial terms of new power plant is under influence of the law of supply and demand, so short marginal costs are in the first view - power plant life is at least 30 years - how to deal with this conditions, who will invest in long-term projects with condition of short pay-back period. Climate change and greenhouse gas emissions have become a priority development issue. The main challenge is a long-term development of economy with decreased emission of carbon dioxide. Kyoto protocol obligations, Copenhagen Accord

  1. Global movement in reviewing nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yoshiyasu

    2007-01-01

    The price of crude oil, natural gas and coal has increased since 2004 with the rapid increase of primary energy demand in China, India and other developing countries. Moreover due to the political uncertainty in the Middle East, and the state control of energy resources in countries like Russia, the issue of energy security has become a critical issue. Nuclear power has been reconsidered in recent years in the US and European countries, because nuclear power is one of the cheapest sources of low carbon energy and also has relatively stable costs, and is thereby useful to energy security and to prevent climate change. Electricity demand is growing very rapidly in China and additional reactors are planned to give a fivefold increase in nuclear capacity to 40,000 MWe by 2020. India has a largely indigenous nuclear power program and expects to have 20,000 MWe nuclear capacity by 2020. Russia is moving steadily forward with plans for a much expanded role of nuclear energy, and the restructuring of nuclear industries has begun to strengthen competitiveness in international nuclear markets. (author)

  2. Biomass combustion technologies for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.A. Jr. [Appel Consultants, Inc., Stevenson Ranch, CA (United States); McGowin, C.R.; Hughes, E.E. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Technology in power production from biomass has been advancing rapidly. Industry has responded to government incentives such as the PURPA legislation in the US and has recognized that there are environmental advantages to using waste biomass as fuel. During the 1980s many new biomass power plants were built. The relatively mature stoker boiler technology was improved by the introduction of water-cooled grates, staged combustion air, larger boiler sizes up to 60 MW, higher steam conditions, and advanced sootblowing systems. Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) technology achieved full commercial status, and now is the leading process for most utility-scale power applications, with more complete combustion, lower emissions, and better fuel flexibility than stoker technology. Bubbling fluidized-bed (BFB) technology has an important market niche as the best process for difficult fuels such as agricultural wastes, typically in smaller plants. Other biomass power generation technologies are being developed for possible commercial introduction in the 1990s. Key components of Whole Tree Energy{trademark} technology have been tested, conceptual design studies have been completed with favorable results, and plans are being made for the first integrated process demonstration. Fluidized-bed gasification processes have advanced from pilot to demonstration status, and the world`s first integrated wood gasification/combined cycle utility power plant is starting operation in Sweden in early 1993. Several European vendors offer biomass gasification processes commercially. US electric utilities are evaluating the cofiring of biomass with fossil fuels in both existing and new plants. Retrofitting existing coal-fired plants gives better overall cost and performance results than any biomass technologies;but retrofit cofiring is {open_quotes}fuel-switching{close_quotes} that provides no new capacity and is attractive only with economic incentives.

  3. Power generation enhancement in a salinity-gradient solar pond power plant using thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziapour, Behrooz M.; Saadat, Mohammad; Palideh, Vahid; Afzal, Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermoelectric generator was used and simulated within a salinity-gradient solar pond power plant. • Results showed that the thermoelectric generator can be able to enhance the power plant efficiency. • Results showed that the presented models can be able to produce generation even in the cold months. • The optimum size of area of solar pond based on its effect on efficiency is 50,000 m 2 . - Abstract: Salinity-gradient solar pond (SGSP) has been a reliable supply of heat source for power generation when it has been integrated with low temperature thermodynamics cycles like organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Also, thermoelectric generator (TEG) plays a critical role in the production of electricity from renewable energy sources. This paper investigates the potential of thermoelectric generator as a power generation system using heat from SGSP. In this work, thermoelectric generator was used instead of condenser of ORC with the purpose of improving the performance of system. Two new models of SGSP have been presented as: (1) SGSP using TEG in condenser of ORC without heat exchanger and (2) SGSP using TEG in condenser of ORC with heat exchanger. These proposed systems was evaluated through computer simulations. The ambient conditions were collected from beach of Urmia lake in IRAN. Simulation results indicated that, for identical conditions, the model 1 has higher performance than other model 2. For models 1 and 2 in T LCZ = 90 °C, the overall thermal efficiency of the solar pond power plant, were obtained 0.21% and 0.2% more than ORC without TEG, respectively.

  4. Present state of research and development of MHD power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Shigeru

    1978-01-01

    MHD power generation can obtain electric energy directly from the heat energy of high speed plasma flow, and the power generating plant of 1 million kW can be realized by this method. When the MHD power generation method is combined before conventional thermal power generation method, the thermal efficiency can be raised to about 60% as compared with 38% in thermal power generation plants. The research and development of MHD power generation are in progress in USA and USSR. The research and development in Japan are in the second stage now after the first stage project for 10 years, and the Mark 7 generator with 100 kW electric output for 200 hr continuous operation is under construction. The MHD power generation is divided into three types according to the conductive fluids used, namely combustion type for thermal power generation, unequilibrated type and liquid metal type for nuclear power generation. The principle of MHD power generation and the constitution of the plant are explained. In Japan, the Mark 2 generator generated 1,180 kW for 1 min in 1971, and the Mark 3 generator generated 1.9 kW continuously for 110 hr in 1967. The MHD generator with superconducting magnet succeeded in 1969 to generate 25 kW for 6 min. The second stage project aimes at collecting design data and obtaining operational experience for the construction of 10 MW class pilot plant, and the Mark 7 and 8 generators are planned. (Kako, I.)

  5. Power supply controlled for plasma torch generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Z, S.

    1996-01-01

    The high density of energy furnished by thermal plasma is profited in a wide range of applications, such as those related with welding fusion, spray coating and at the present in waste destruction. The waste destruction by plasma is a very attractive process because the remaining products are formed by inert glassy grains and non-toxic gases. The main characteristics of thermal plasmas are presented in this work. Techniques based on power electronics are utilized to achieve a good performance in thermal plasma generation. This work shown the design and construction of three phase control system for electric supply of thermal plasma torch, with 250 kw of capacity, as a part of the project named 'Destruction of hazard wastes by thermal plasma' actually working in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The characteristics of thermal plasma and its generation are treated in the first chapter. The A C controllers by thyristors applied in three phase arrays are described in the chapter II, talking into account the power transformer, rectifiers bank and aliasing coil. The chapter III is dedicated in the design of the trigger module which controls the plasma current by varying the trigger angle of the SCR's; the protection and isolating unit are also presented in this chapter. The results and conclusions are discussed in chapter IV. (Author)

  6. Power consumption analysis DBD plasma ozone generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, M.; Restiwijaya, M.; Muchlisin, Z.; Arianto, F.; Susan, I. A.; Widyanto, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the consumption of energy by an ozone generator with various constructions electrodes of dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBDP) reactor has been carried out. This research was done to get the configuration of the reactor, that is capable to produce high ozone concentrations with low energy consumption. BDBP reactors were constructed by spiral- cylindrical configuration, plasma ozone was generated by high voltage AC voltage up to 25 kV and maximum frequency of 23 kHz. The reactor consists of an active electrode in the form of a spiral-shaped with variation diameter Dc, and it was made by using copper wire with diameter Dw. In this research, we variated number of loops coil windings N as well as Dc and Dw. Ozone concentrations greater when the wire's diameter Dw and the diameter of the coil windings applied was greater. We found that impedance greater will minimize the concentration of ozone, in contrary to the greater capacitance will increase the concentration of ozone. The ozone concentrations increase with augmenting of power. Maximum power is effective at DBD reactor spiral-cylinder is on the Dc = 20 mm, Dw = 1.2 mm, and the number of coil windings N = 10 loops with the resulting concentration is greater than 20 ppm and it consumes energy of 177.60 watts (paper)

  7. International construction trends for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armor, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    In this review of trends in new, worldwide plant construction it is apparent that the technologies being applied are often geared to the cost of money issue. In an era when interest rates can fluctuate widely, particularly in Third World countries, the need to put new power plants on-line quickly has become a key issue. For example, this has largely triggered the move to smaller, more dispersed plants, with unit sizes 400 MW and below, compared with the 1,000 MW + sizes of 10-20 years ago. It has also renewed the emphasis on modular methods of building components, and on innovative transportation procedures. It has given support to the packaged power plants, such as PFBC, which can be largely pre-assembled. In the US, it has spawned a new infrastructure of independent constructors and power generators, who have partially lifted the burden of new plant financing from the shoulders of the utilities. Yet, national needs are not always the same. Fuels may or may not be indigenous. Environmental restrictions are nationally, or even locally, imposed. Government subsidies and strategic needs can override the short-term objectives. This paper briefly surveys current approaches to new generating plants in some key areas of the world. One aspect of electric power generation seems clear. In terms of power consumption, the world is on the move again - not only in third world countries, but also in the developed nations as the memories of the oil embargo of 15 years ago fade. Trends are discussed for the US, Japan, the rest of Asia, South Africa, Western Europe, Russia, and Eastern Europe

  8. Nuclear power generation and global heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, Horacio

    1999-01-01

    The Professionals Association and Nuclear Activity of National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) are following with great interest the worldwide discussions on global heating and the role that nuclear power is going to play. The Association has an active presence, as part of the WONUC (recognized by the United Nations as a Non-Governmental Organization) in the COP4, which was held in Buenos Aires in November 1998. The environmental problems are closely related to human development, the way of power production, the techniques for industrial production and exploitation fields. CO 2 is the most important gas with hothouse effects, responsible of progressive climatic changes, as floods, desertification, increase of average global temperature, thermal expansion in seas and even polar casks melting and ice falls. The consequences that global heating will have on the life and economy of human society cannot be sufficiently emphasized, great economical impact, destruction of ecosystems, loss of great coast areas and complete disappearance of islands owing to water level rise. The increase of power retained in the atmosphere generates more violent hurricanes and storms. In this work, the topics presented in the former AATN Meeting is analyzed in detail and different technological options and perspectives to mitigate CO 2 emission, as well as economical-financial aspects, are explored. (author)

  9. Rotary-Atomizer Electric Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trieu; Tran, Tuan; de Boer, Hans; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C. T.

    2015-03-01

    We report experimental and theoretical results on a ballistic energy-conversion method based on a rotary atomizer working with a droplet acceleration-deceleration cycle. In a rotary atomizer, liquid is fed onto the center of a rotating flat surface, where it spreads out under the action of the centrifugal force and creates "atomized" droplets at its edge. The advantage of using a rotary atomizer is that the centrifugal force exerted on the fluid on a smooth, large surface is not only a robust form of acceleration, as it avoids clogging, but also easily allows high throughput, and produces high electrical power. We successfully demonstrate an output power of 4.9 mW and a high voltage up to 3120 V. At present, the efficiency of the system is still low (0.14%). However, the conversion mechanism of the system is fully interpreted in this paper, permitting a conceptual understanding of system operation and providing a roadmap for system optimization. This observation will open up a road for building power-generation systems in the near future.

  10. Cost related to nuclear power plants: the international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This report about the international costs of nuclear electricity generations is divided in two distinct parts: the first one shows the competitiveness of the main sources of electricity generation for base load operation according to studies carried on by OECD and UNIPEDE since 1983; the second one discusses the most recent OECD study about the different types of power plants to be constructed in its number states, based on the experience of each country and the technology evolution of the different fuels used. (F.E.). 4 refs, 2 figs, 27 tab

  11. Telecommunications: international opportunities for power utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, A. [Teleglobe Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    International telecommunications services markets and trends were reviewed in an effort to identify business opportunities for Canadian power utilities. With increasing deregulation in the U.S. and Canada, and other countries around the globe, market opportunities are beginning to open up. In monopoly markets opportunities exist in providing dual infrastructures to upgrade both the power delivery services (frequently poor), and telecommunications. Billing, collection and customer service expertise might be other marketable commodities, perhaps packaged as part of a network provision project as a service to existing power and telecommunications service providers. In countries with directed competition markets local partnerships may be the only vehicle for entering the market. In managed competition markets opportunities were said to exist in cellular radio technology, as well as in switched telephone service, local, long distance, or international. In general, opportunities outside telecommunications-rich North America were considered to have better potential, due to rapid deregulation and higher current growth rates in telecommunications. Careful examination and research of the political and business environment prior to entering any of the potentially fertile areas was advised.

  12. Environmental impact of power generation: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima-e-Silva, Pedro Paulo de

    1996-01-01

    The increasing worldwide concern about the planet health is reflected in the willing-to-pay behavior in face of environmentally sound products (the case of American unleaded gasoline) and also in the recently approved international standards as ISO-14000. Considering this, a comparison between major energy sources, like Hydro, Thermal and Nuclear electricity, strictly in terms of environmental impact, becomes relevant. this paper intends to trace a critical analysis of the actual environmental impact occurred in the last 20 years, comparing it with the imagined impact that was foreseen 20 years ago, and making some comments about the future. What one sees nowadays is quite a different situation as it was seen by the environmentalists in Brazil at that time (1976). The cost of land around rivers has increased significantly; social problem with flooding land is even critical in several areas; forests are given higher value than ever; the CO 2 yield has become a world concern, as SOx and NOx as well; C H4 released from flooded forests is a powerful greenhouse gas; the safety of Nuclear Power Plants are still questioned, as well whether or not the uranium reserves are going to support an increasing demand for more 20 years; new standards in public acceptance of pollution has been established. A greater dose of rationale should be put into this discussion. (author)

  13. Internal Dosimetry for Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wo, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Internal dosimetry which refers to dosage estimation from internal part of an individual body is an important and compulsory component in order to ensure the safety of the personnel involved in operational of a Nuclear Power Program. Radionuclides particle may deposit in the human being through several pathways and release wave and/or particle radiation to irradiate that person and give dose to body until it been excreted or completely decayed from the body. Type of radionuclides of concerning, monitoring program, equipment's and technique used to measure the concentration level of such radionuclides and dose calculation will be discussed in this article along with the role and capability of Malaysian Nuclear Agency. (author)

  14. Piezoelectric Structures and Low Power Generation Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irinela CHILIBON

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A short overview of different piezoelectric structures and devices for generating renewable electricity under mechanical actions is presented. A vibrating piezoelectric device differs from a typical electrical power source in that it has capacitive rather than inductive source impedance, and may be driven by mechanical vibrations of varying amplitude. Several techniques have been developed to extract energy from the environment. Generally, “vibration energy” could be converted into electrical energy by three techniques: electrostatic charge, magnetic fields and piezoelectric. Mechanical resonance frequency of piezoelectric bimorph transducers depends on geometric size (length, width, and thickness of each layer, and the piezoelectric coefficients of the piezoelectric material. Manufacturing processes and intended applications of several energy harvesting devices are presented.

  15. Development of a portable thermophotovoltaic power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Frederick E.; Doyle, Edward F.; Shukla, Kailash

    1997-03-01

    A 150 Watt thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power generator is being developed. The technical approach taken in the design focused on optimizing the integrated performance of the primary subsystems in order to yield high energy conversion efficiency and cost effectiveness. An important aspect of the approach is the use of a selective emitter radiating to a bandgap matched photovoltaic array to minimize thermal and optical recuperation requirements, as well as the non-recoverable heat losses. For the initial prototype system, fibrous ytterbia emitters radiating in a band centered at 980 nm are matched with high efficiency silicon photoconverters. The integrated system includes a dielectric stack filter for optical energy recovery and a ceramic recuperator for thermal energy recovery. The system has been operated with air preheat temperatures up to 1350K. The design of the system and development status are presented.

  16. Safety improvement technologies for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Koji; Adachi, Hirokazu; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Takeshi, Noriaki; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Itou, Kanta; Kurihara, Takao; Hino, Tetsushi

    2015-01-01

    As the Hitachi Group's efforts in nuclear power generation, this paper explains the safety improvement technologies that are currently under development or promotion. As efforts for the decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, the following items have been developed. (1) As for the spent fuel removal of Unit 4, the following items have mainly been conducted: removal of the debris piled up on the top surface of existing reactor building (R/B), removal of the debris deposited in spent fuel pool (SFP), and fuel transfer operation by means of remote underwater work. The removal of all spent fuels was completed in 2014. (2) The survey robots inside R/B, which are composed of a basement survey robot to check leaking spots at upper pressure suppression chamber and a floor running robot to check leaking spots in water, were verified with a field demonstration test at Unit 1. These robots were able to find the leaking spots at midair pipe expansion joint. (3) As the survey robot for reactor containment shells, robots of I-letter posture and horizontal U-letter posture were developed, and the survey on the upper part of first-floor grating inside the containment shells was performed. (4) As the facilities for contaminated water measures, sub-drain purification equipment, Advanced Liquid Processing System, etc. were developed and supplied, which are now showing good performance. On the other hand, an advanced boiling water reactor with high safety of the United Kingdom (UK ABWR) is under procedure of approval for introduction. In addition, a next-generation light-water reactor of transuranic element combustion type is under development. (A.O.)

  17. Power generation operations management : due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.; Paul, G.

    1998-01-01

    The practical applications of an emergency planning process within Edmonton Power's power generation operations management were discussed. A project was initiated to develop a corporate emergency planning standard which incorporates existing emergency procedures into a unified management system. The need for an emergency planning standard which would establish planning criteria became evident after a tornado hit Edmonton on July 31, 1987, killing 27 and causing $330 million in damages. The emergency plans in effect at the time were less than adequate. The components of the new emergency planning standards include: (1) policy and hazard analysis, (2) functional responsibilities, (3) initial response, (4) emergency support, (5) mutual aid, (6) business protection and recovery, (7) emergency response debriefing, (8) training and exercises, and (9) emergency plan distribution and maintenance. A brief summary of the intent of each section, and some of the experiences learned during the development of this emergency plan are described for the benefit of those who may be called upon to develop an integrated emergency plan in the future. 1 ref

  18. Nuclear power generation and nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Yasujiro

    1985-01-01

    As of June 30, 1984, in 25 countries, 311 nuclear power plants of about 209 million kW were in operation. In Japan, 27 plants of about 19 million kW were in operation, and Japan ranks fourth in the world. The present state of nuclear power generation and nuclear fuel cycle is explained. The total uranium resources in the free world which can be mined at the cost below $130/kgU are about 3.67 million t, and it was estimated that the demand up to about 2015 would be able to be met. But it is considered also that the demand and supply of uranium in the world may become tight at the end of 1980s. The supply of uranium to Japan is ensured up to about 1995, and the yearly supply of 3000 st U 3 O 8 is expected in the latter half of 1990s. The refining, conversion and enrichment of uranium are described. In Japan, a pilot enrichment plant consisting of 7000 centrifuges has the capacity of about 50 t SWU/year. UO 2 fuel assemblies for LWRs, the working of Zircaloy, the fabrication of fuel assemblies, the quality assurance of nuclear fuel, the behavior of UO 2 fuel, the grading-up of LWRs and nuclear fuel, and the nuclear fuel business in Japan are reported. The reprocessing of spent fuel and plutonium fuel are described. (Kako, I.)

  19. Flexible power generation systems and their planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzenbach, A.; Wunsch, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    By determining their specific annual costs and expressing them in relation to the period of utilization or to the load factor, it is possible to compare the relative merits of different combinbations of power generation systems. This method, with which unsuitable planning variants can be eliminated without having to go through long, intricate calculations and without taking up costly computer time, has the advantage that it points up the origin of the costs and at the same time makes clear how improvement can be achieved by combining base-load, medium-load and peak-load plants. The different types of power plant (hydro-electric, nuclear, steam, gas-turbine, combined cycle, cogeneration and coal gasification) are characterized by their approximate specific capital investment, construction period, efficiency, fuel, duty, and time from cold start to full load. They are compared by plotting their total specific annual costs in SFr/kWa against the load factor. The special benefits which combined cycle plants, with gas turbines, heat-recovery boilers and steam plant, can offer today (not only high fuel utilization and relatively low first-time costs, but also the short time needed for planning and construction) are underlined. 5 refs.; 9 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Lawsuits concerning nuclear power generation in FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Osamu

    1980-01-01

    The confirmation of the courts of justice is required for the permission of power stations. This proposition is not in the laws in FRG, but in view of the recent judicatory regulation, it seems to be the norm established experimentally. From the character of German nation, more than 40 specialists and the committees independent of administration take part in the procedure of administrative permission, but considering the temporary procedure, the processes of five classes of courts join in these. Based on the background of such situation, the author outlined the traditional practice in the legislation and administration in the field of nuclear power generation, then investigated into the decisions of Freiburg and Wuerzburg courts of administrative litigation in 1977 and the decision of the federal constitutional court in 1978. Confronting the same technology of light water reactors, the Freiburg court said that the device protecting from the burst of a pressure vessel is necessary, but the Wuerzburg court did not demand it. The confrontations similar to it were seen in the requirements for the utilization of radioactive substances and the final storage of them. The recent decision of the federal constitutional court is concerned with FBRs, and the court discussed the problem of ''residual risks''. The studies on the German decisions are useful for Japan. (Kako, I.)

  1. Electric power plant international. 1976--1977 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    ''Electric Power Plant International'' is intended to provide a comprehensive commercial and technical information source for use by suppliers, operators, and potential purchasers of power plant, and also by suppliers of materials and services to such organizations. It contains information that will help those considering the purchase of power plant to gain a reasonable understanding of the factors that should be taken into account when making a purchasing decision. Consideration is given to the operation, maintenance, and modification of power systems that will be of relevance to those currently operating plant. The publication is designed to act as an interface between suppliers and users of power plant. As part of this function, reference sections contain listings of all the companies that have been located throughout the world, supplying prime movers, generators, generator sets, and fixed-frequency inverter systems. Details of products currently available from these companies are included wherever possible and this is being continuously up-dated and extended to give increased coverage in future editions. The Electrical Research Association Ltd. does not manufacture or supply power plant (apart from some special-purpose static inverter systems), but would be pleased to receive requirement details from any company wishing to inquire about plant purchase. These will be forwarded to appropriate suppliers throughout the world who will be able to submit tenders for suitable products. Inquiry forms are included in Chapter 6 for this purpose.

  2. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, Han Myeong; Lee, Man Kee; Moon, Ki Hwan; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Seong Ki; Lee, Yeong Ki

    1993-12-01

    As CO 2 emission is recognized as the one of the major causes of the global worming, international CO 2 emission regulation has been of great concern and has been discussed actively on the global level. Several means of CO 2 emission regulation have been raised and have received much attention recently. CO 2 emission regulation is expected to affect the national economy as well as the national energy policy. Since the electricity sector closely interacts with CO 2 emission, environmental regulation has the possibility of implementation in this sector. Considering the enormous role played by electricity in the national economy, it is very important to study the effect of environmental regulation on the electricity sector. The main purpose of this study is to estimate the marginal cost of CO 2 emission by analyzing the effect of CO 2 emission regulation on the electricity sector in terms of capacity and generation mix. This information can be used effectively in energy policy establishment. In addition, the effect of CO 2 emission regulation on economic viability of electricity generating type is also being studied in order to contribute to the establishment of Electric System Expansion Planning in Korea

  3. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric power generation. 801.12 Section 801.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made...

  4. Some consideration on nuclear power development. Topics aroused by U.S. proposed 'Generation IV Nuclear Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuanying; Chen Shiqi

    2001-01-01

    U.S. proposed 'Generation IV Nuclear Power System' concept. Its origin and proposed goals for it are analyzed; goals are compared with requirements of URD. In particular, discussed issues on nuclear fuel cycle and Non-proliferation. A well-considered nuclear power development plan, paying close attention to international trend and considering comprehensively domestic situation, is expected

  5. Fiscal 2000 project of inviting proposals for international joint research - invitation for international proposal (Power generation No.4). Achievement report on effective utilization of waste heat energy; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (hatsuden No.4). Hainetsu energy no yuko riyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Endeavors are exerted to develop a medium temperature thermoelectric module technology, which is one of energy/environment related technologies, in cooperation with Russia. The ultimate goal of this technology is to develop a hybrid power generation system which utilizes waste heat. Activities are conducted in three fields involving (1) the basic concept and design of thermoelectric power generation systems, (2) development of thermoelectric power generation systems, and (3) others, including the goal and self-evaluation. Summarized in field (2) are the overall activity plan, development of medium temperature thermoelectric power generation modules, development of cascade type hybrid modules, development of thermoelectric power generation systems, results of thermoelectric power generation system evaluation tests, and technical problems. Carried out for the development of thermoelectric power generation systems are the development of a medium temperature p-type thermoelectric power generation material Mn-Si, development of a method for synthesizing the Mn-Si material, and the development of a medium temperature n-type thermoelectric power generation material Co-Sb. Various methods are studied relative to the fabrication of electrodes, and the thermal spraying method is employed for a success in the development of a medium temperature thermoelectric power generation module of Mn-Si(p)/Co-Sb(n) for the first time in the world. (NEDO)

  6. International status and prospects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    Nuclear power plants are primarily used for electricity production. Currently, 439 reactors are operating in 30 countries and are contributing approximately 14% to global electricity generation. The share of nuclear in global electricity generation has declined slightly in recent years. However, the total amount of nuclear electricity generation is increasing as plant availability, power uprating, and new plants offset the loss from older plants that are being shut down. Due to the economic benefits of continuing operation of a plant after the capital cost has been repaid, and with careful plant life management assessments, a number of reactors have had their operating licences extended for an additional 20 years. Light water reactors (LWRs) are by far the most prevalent reactors in use today, followed by pressurized heavy water reactors, gas cooled reactors and, currently, two fast reactors. The safety and reliability of nuclear facilities have been steadily improving. Strong networks among countries with operating nuclear power plants have enabled operators to learn from each other and to address common issues. Ongoing efforts have continuously strengthened safety culture and regulatory oversight. The current available supply of uranium meets the demand. Current enrichment and fuel fabrication capacities are adequate to meet the expected demand for the next decade. There is also substantial experience in the storage and reprocessing of spent fuel and the treatment of high level waste. Existing reprocessing capacity is adequate to meet present demand. Most spent fuel continues, however, to be stored awaiting a decision on future policy, i.e. whether to reprocess and recycle it or to dispose of it as waste. To date, no ultimate disposal facilities are available. Only a few countries currently use civil nuclear energy for purposes other than electricity production - mainly for seawater desalination and district heating - and even then only to a limited extent

  7. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. International cooperation projects (Collection of information on Task 9 in IEA photovoltaic power generation program); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kokusai kyoryoku jigyo (IEA taiyoko hatsuden program task IX ni kansuru joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports activities performed by the Task 9 in the execution treaty of the IEA photovoltaic power generation system program. The Task 9 calls for the 'proliferation of photovoltaic power generation technologies under coordination with developing countries{sup .} It is intended to compile the recommendation guides, hold workshops in the model developing countries, and coordinate with assisting organizations on technological and economical issues that may occur when introducing photovoltaic power generation systems into developing countries. The current fiscal year is the first year of the five-year plan, whereas, with structuring the basic plan placed in the center, such activities were carried out as verification of the 12 member countries and two organizations, establishment of the basic programs for the work plan, selection of work divisions, the sharing thereof, and the subjected developing countries, and the way the coordination should be with the related tasks and the assisting organizations. Two expertise conferences were held in Holland and America, and three working group meetings in Japan to have discussed the activity targets in the first fiscal year. (NEDO)

  8. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. International cooperation projects (Collection of information on Task 9 in IEA photovoltaic power generation program); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kokusai kyoryoku jigyo (IEA taiyoko hatsuden program task IX ni kansuru joho shushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports activities performed by the Task 9 in the execution treaty of the IEA photovoltaic power generation system program. The Task 9 calls for the 'proliferation of photovoltaic power generation technologies under coordination with developing countries{sup .} It is intended to compile the recommendation guides, hold workshops in the model developing countries, and coordinate with assisting organizations on technological and economical issues that may occur when introducing photovoltaic power generation systems into developing countries. The current fiscal year is the first year of the five-year plan, whereas, with structuring the basic plan placed in the center, such activities were carried out as verification of the 12 member countries and two organizations, establishment of the basic programs for the work plan, selection of work divisions, the sharing thereof, and the subjected developing countries, and the way the coordination should be with the related tasks and the assisting organizations. Two expertise conferences were held in Holland and America, and three working group meetings in Japan to have discussed the activity targets in the first fiscal year. (NEDO)

  9. Stand-alone induction generators for small water power schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Adam [Intermediate Technology Development Group, Rugby (United Kingdom); Smith, Nigel [Smith Associates, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    Conventional technology for isolated power generation is the synchronous generator. Using stand-alone induction generators has proved to have tremendous advantages in remote regions of developing countries, where electricity has significant social benefits. (author)

  10. Nuclear Power for Electricity Generation in Ghana: Issues and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarko, B.J.B.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Ennison, I.

    2011-01-01

    Ghana's electricity demand has been estimated to be growing at a high rate of about 7% per annum over the last ten years. This is due to the relatively high population growth, economic aspiration of the country and the extension of electricity to rural areas. Electricity supply, on the contrary, has been unable to meet the demand due to high dependency on rain-fed hydropower plants, which started operating in 1965 and currently account for about 68% of the total installed capacity. Within the last 28 years, climatic changes and draughts have caused the nation to experience three major power crises. These climate changes resulted in low inflows and thus reduced power generation from hydropower systems. To complement the hydropower systems, the Government in 1997 installed thermal plants based on light crude oil. However, due to the high crude oil prices on the international market in recent times have made the operation of these plants very expensive. Ghana's crude oil find can boost its energy supply when the oil exploration begins somewhere in 2010. For rural cooking, domestic biomass is employed. Ghana has no domestic coal resources. The Government of Ghana is concerned with: limited further growth potential of domestic hydro; high cost of imported oil and gas and environmental issues associated with use of imported coal. Small Solar and wind generation exist in some sectors, but potential large-scale development is not envisioned for the near future. With these in mind, the President of Ghana set up a Committee involving Stakeholder Institutions to formulate the Nuclear Power Policy and develop the basic elements of Nuclear Infrastructure and to assess the viability of introducing the nuclear power option in Ghana's energy mix. Cabinet took a decision to include the nuclear power for electricity generation after the Committee submitted his report to the President in 2008. (author)

  11. Heat-Pipe-Associated Localized Thermoelectric Power Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pan-Jo; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock; Hwang, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Ji-Su; Jang, Ju-Chan; Lee, Wook-Hyun; Lee, Ki-Woo

    2014-06-01

    The present study focused on how to improve the maximum power output of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system and move heat to any suitable space using a TEG associated with a loop thermosyphon (loop-type heat pipe). An experimental study was carried out to investigate the power output, the temperature difference of the thermoelectric module (TEM), and the heat transfer performance associated with the characteristic of the researched heat pipe. Currently, internal combustion engines lose more than 35% of their fuel energy as recyclable heat in the exhaust gas, but it is not easy to recycle waste heat using TEGs because of the limited space in vehicles. There are various advantages to use of TEGs over other power sources, such as the absence of moving parts, a long lifetime, and a compact system configuration. The present study presents a novel TEG concept to transfer heat from the heat source to the sink. This technology can transfer waste heat to any location. This simple and novel design for a TEG can be applied to future hybrid cars. The present TEG system with a heat pipe can transfer heat and generate power of around 1.8 V with T TEM = 58°C. The heat transfer performance of a loop-type heat pipe with various working fluids was investigated, with water at high heat flux (90 W) and 0.05% TiO2 nanofluid at low heat flux (30 W to 70 W) showing the best performance in terms of power generation. The heat pipe can transfer the heat to any location where the TEM is installed.

  12. The central government power generating capacity- reforms and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rajendra

    1995-01-01

    The alarming resource gap that the states were facing in 1970's has prompted the Central Government to augment the resources for power generation by creating two new entities in November 1975 viz the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) and National Hydro Power Corporation (NHPC). Few other organisations also exist in central sector which are engaged in power generation like Nuclear Power Corporation (NPC). NTPC being the leading player in the power sector, it can neither be indifferent nor dissociate itself from the reforms sweeping the sector today. The article describes the Central Government's role in power generation, reforms and NTPC and further prospects of NTPC

  13. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. International demonstrative development of photovoltaic power generation system (Demonstrative study on grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system in Thailand); 2000 nendo seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system kokusai kyodo jissho kaihatsu - Taiyoko hatsuden keitou renkei system jissho kenkyu (Tai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    A demonstrative study was conducted in Thailand for grasping the effect on small electricity grids when several photovoltaic power generation systems, including AC modules, are connected to the grid. In fiscal 2000, surveys and studies were conducted about the data of the local power system, where to install the demonstrative system, and how to install the same, which were necessary for working out a basic design for Libong Island newly designated as the site for the demonstrative system. It was then concluded that the demonstrative system be a grid-connected 100 kW-level photovoltaic system comprising one main photovoltaic power station (85 kW), photovoltaic power systems for school buildings (3-6 kW, three schools), and AC modules (110 W, 10 locations). The manufacture of solar cell modules, grid-connected power conditioners, and measuring devices were completed. Civil engineering work and construction were under way on the site, including the construction of a management building, installation of concrete bases for solar cell arrays, construction of fences surrounding the site, and so forth. (NEDO)

  14. Nuclear power generation and nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathjens, G.

    1979-01-01

    The main points existing between nuclear energy development and nuclear non-proliferation policy are reviewed. The solar energy and other energy will replace for nuclear fission energy in the twenty first century, but it may not occur in the first half, and the structure has to be established to continue the development of nuclear fission technology, including breeder reactor technology. In the near future, it should be encouraged to use advanced thermal reactors if they are economic and operated with safety. Miserable results may be created in the worldwide scale, if a serious accident occurs anywhere or nuclear power reactors are utilized for military object. It is estimated to be possible to develop the ability of manufacturing nuclear weapons within two or three years in the countries where the industry is highly developed so as to generate nuclear power. It is also difficult to take measures so that nuclear power generation does not increase nuclear proliferation problems, and it is necessary to mitigate the motive and to establish the international organization. Concensus exists that as the minimum security action, the storage and transportation of materials, which can be directly utilized for nuclear weapons, should be decided by the international system. The most portions of sensitive nuclear fuel cycle should be put under the international management, as far as possible. This problem is discussed in INFCE. Related to the nuclear nonproliferation, the difference of policy in fuel cycle problems between USA and the other countries, the enrichment of nuclear fuel material, especially the reasons to inhibit the construction of additional enrichment facilities, nuclear fuel reprocessing problems, radioactive waste disposal, plutonium stock and plutonium recycle problems are reviewed. (Nakai, Y.)

  15. International energy technology collaboration: wind power integration into electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justus, D.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid growth of wind power since the 1990s has led to notable market shares in some electricity markets. This growth is concentrated in a few countries with effective Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) programmes and with policies that support its diffusion into the market place. The speed and depth of its penetration in these electricity markets have amplified the need to address grid integration concerns, so as not to impede the further penetration of wind power. Research on technologies, tools and practices for integrating large amounts of wind power into electricity supply systems is attempting to respond to this need. In recent years, existing international collaborative research efforts have expanded their focus to include grid integration of wind power and new consortia have been formed to pool knowledge and resources. Effective results benefit a few countries that already have a significant amount of wind in their electricity supply fuel mix, as well as to the potential large markets worldwide. This paper focuses on the challenge of bringing significant amounts of intermittent generating sources into grids dominated by large central generating units. It provides a brief overview of the growth of wind power, mainly since 1990, the technical and operational issues related to integration and selected collaborative programmes underway to address grid integration concerns. (author)

  16. Power generation from nuclear reactors in aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere. A program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion.

  17. Power Generation from Nuclear Reactors in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere; a program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion.

  18. Power generation from nuclear reactors in aerospace applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere. A program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion

  19. Argue internal audit on how to promote the nuclear power enterprise internal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    In order to strengthen and standardize enterprise internal control, improve the management level and risk prevention ability, five departments jointly established the basic rules of internal control in enterprises, large and medium-sized enterprises as the national power enterprise, the enterprise internal audit executive power in strengthening and perfecting internal control, and in the enterprise internal control of play an active role. (author)

  20. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999. Development of technology to put photovoltaic power generation system into practical use by international cooperation project (Executive Committee meetings for treaty of executing IEA photovoltaic power generation system research cooperation program - IEA/PVPS); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Kokusai kyoryoku jigyo (IEA taiyoko hatsuden system kenkyu kyoryoku program jisshi kyotei (shikko iinkai))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The 13th and 14th Executive Committee meetings were held. The resolutions adopted at the 13th Executive Committee meeting (Lausanne, Switzerland, May 3 through 5, 1999) were the approval of the Task VIII as a new IEA/PVPS task, the feasibility study on large scale photovoltaic power generation utilizing unused land such as desert (the operating agent country being Japan headed by Mr. Kando, chief researcher at NEDO and Professor Kurokawa) and the Task IX, proliferation of photovoltaic power generation under coordination with developing countries (the operating agent country being England headed by Mr. Bernard McNelis (IT Power) and that the task I operating agent country is substituted jointly by the three countries of Australia, Holland and Switzerland for six months. The resolutions adopted at the 14th Executive Committee meeting (Oslo, Norway, October 18 through 20, 1999) were appointing Australia as the Task I operating agent country headed by Mr. G. Watt, setting a web site of IEA/PVPS, issuing the annual report for fiscal 1998 in early 2000, and holding the Executive Committee meetings for fiscal 2000 in Canada (Quebec, April 17 through 19, 2000), and Italy (October 16 through 18, 2000). (NEDO)

  1. A realistic way for graduating from nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikkawa, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, fundamental reform of Japanese energy policy was under way. As for reform of power generation share for the future, nuclear power share should be decided by three independent elements of the progress: (1) extension of power generation using renewable energy, (2) reduction of power usage by electricity saving and (3) technical innovation toward zero emission of coal-fired thermal power. In 2030, nuclear power share would still remain about 20% obtained by the 'subtraction' but in the long run nuclear power would be shutdown judging from difficulties in solution of backend problems of spent fuel disposal. (T. Tanaka)

  2. The international power market: Myth and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, H.C.; Roseman, E.

    1992-01-01

    As the market for independent power (IP) explodes overseas, a number of companies that have been active in project development in the United States are looking hungrily abroad. Some developers view the international market as less competitive than in the U.S., and many are attracted by its size. The backlog of IP activity overseas has now reached over 140,000 MW, primarily in Asia and Europe. The U.S. has about a ten-year head start on IP projects abroad, where project activity has taken off only in the last three years. In 1978, the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Acr (PURPA) required U.S. utilities to purchase power from developers of qualified facilities (QFs), and in the process, created a business that has thrown to over $10 billion in annual sales. Since 1985, IP has added as much new capacity as utilities. The authors project that in the 1990s, IP will add 45-50 GW of new capacity, or between 40%-50% of total U.S. capacity. With nearly 3,200 IP projects (over 46,000 MW) on line in the U.S., many developers are hoping that their U.S. experience will serve them well in developing projects elsewhere. Moreover, many developers expect that such experience will give them a leg up on foreign competitors, who have few, if any, megawatts on line. Do these hopes reflect the emerging reality, or are they dangerous misinformation? As U.S. developers approach projects elsewhere, what are the key advantages and constraints their U.S. experience confers? This paper reviews five common myths about the international market for IP and compares the U.S. market with the opportunities abroad. In the process, the authors explore issues specific to IP, not general issues of doing business outside the U.S

  3. An approach to the conversion of the power generated by an offshore wind power farm connected into seawave power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzitta, Vicenzo; Messineo, Antonio; Trapanese, Marco

    2011-07-01

    The development of renewable energy systems has been undergoing for the past decades but sea wave's energy resource has been under-utilized. This under-utilization has several reasons: the energy concentration is low in sea waves, extraction of this energy requires leading edge technologies and conversion of the energy into electrical energy is difficult. This study compares two different methods to connect the sea waves' generator to the network and to the offshore wind power farm. The first method consists in a decentralized approach: each generator is connected to the grid through an AC converter. The second method is a partially centralized approach: a rectifier is connected to each generator, all of the generators are then connected together to a common DC bus and power is then converted in AC to be connected to the grid. This study has shown that the partially centralized approach is more reliable and efficient than the decentralized approach.

  4. Power generation in India: analysing trends and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide up-to-date data, critical analysis and information encompassing all aspects of power generation in India. The report provides historic and future outlook for power generation in India. It also provides an evaluation of private participation in power generation segment of India and investment opportunities in Indian power sector. In addition, the report examines policies, regulatory framework and financing of power generation in India. It also highlights key issues and challenges that are restricting the accelerated development of this sector. The report has thirteen chapters in total. (author)

  5. Establishment of the International Power Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Julius E.

    2000-04-29

    Building on the two previous trips to Central America last year, International Power Institute (IPI) and its partner Tennessee Valley Infrastructure Group (TVIG) have focused their attention this quarter on project sites in Honduras. TVIG's unit--an Integrated Infrastructure Platform or IIP--combines water and electricity production in a single integrated unit, thereby providing both products at a lower cost than could be attained for each one separately. Because of the unmet demand for clean drinking water and electricity in remote towns throughout the developing world, the need for such units is widespread. Previous visits to Honduras have resulted in strong in-country commercial interest, support in the form of memorandums of understanding by key government agencies, and identification of four prospective project sites for IIP installations. From March 5 to March 15 and with IPI support and participation, representatives from the TVIG, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), IPI, and market research firm International Business Initiatives (IBI) conducted an intensive survey of project opportunities in the four communities, to establish how IIPs might help these four communities enhance their economic development, A key aspect of the projects examined is the need to make them economically self-supporting so that they will be viable in the private sector. Summary of specific project site studies follow here, and feasibility studies for the four sites are included as attachments.

  6. Thermodynamic, energy efficiency, and power density analysis of reverse electrodialysis power generation with natural salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Vermaas, David A; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-05-06

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) can harness the Gibbs free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for sustainable power generation. In this study, we carry out a thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of RED power generation, and assess the membrane power density. First, we present a reversible thermodynamic model for RED and verify that the theoretical maximum extractable work in a reversible RED process is identical to the Gibbs free energy of mixing. Work extraction in an irreversible process with maximized power density using a constant-resistance load is then examined to assess the energy conversion efficiency and power density. With equal volumes of seawater and river water, energy conversion efficiency of ∼ 33-44% can be obtained in RED, while the rest is lost through dissipation in the internal resistance of the ion-exchange membrane stack. We show that imperfections in the selectivity of typical ion exchange membranes (namely, co-ion transport, osmosis, and electro-osmosis) can detrimentally lower efficiency by up to 26%, with co-ion leakage being the dominant effect. Further inspection of the power density profile during RED revealed inherent ineffectiveness toward the end of the process. By judicious early discontinuation of the controlled mixing process, the overall power density performance can be considerably enhanced by up to 7-fold, without significant compromise to the energy efficiency. Additionally, membrane resistance was found to be an important factor in determining the power densities attainable. Lastly, the performance of an RED stack was examined for different membrane conductivities and intermembrane distances simulating high performance membranes and stack design. By thoughtful selection of the operating parameters, an efficiency of ∼ 37% and an overall gross power density of 3.5 W/m(2) represent the maximum performance that can potentially be achieved in a seawater-river water RED system with low

  7. Stochastic Modeling and Analysis of Power System with Renewable Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan

    Unlike traditional fossil-fuel based power generation, renewable generation such as wind power relies on uncontrollable prime sources such as wind speed. Wind speed varies stochastically, which to a large extent determines the stochastic behavior of power generation from wind farms...... that such a stochastic model can be used to simulate the effect of load management on the load duration curve. As CHP units are turned on and off by regulating power, CHP generation has discrete output and thus can be modeled by a transition matrix based discrete Markov chain. As the CHP generation has a strong diurnal...

  8. Optimal Output of Distributed Generation Based On Complex Power Increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Bao, H.

    2017-12-01

    In order to meet the growing demand for electricity and improve the cleanliness of power generation, new energy generation, represented by wind power generation, photovoltaic power generation, etc has been widely used. The new energy power generation access to distribution network in the form of distributed generation, consumed by local load. However, with the increase of the scale of distribution generation access to the network, the optimization of its power output is becoming more and more prominent, which needs further study. Classical optimization methods often use extended sensitivity method to obtain the relationship between different power generators, but ignore the coupling parameter between nodes makes the results are not accurate; heuristic algorithm also has defects such as slow calculation speed, uncertain outcomes. This article proposes a method called complex power increment, the essence of this method is the analysis of the power grid under steady power flow. After analyzing the results we can obtain the complex scaling function equation between the power supplies, the coefficient of the equation is based on the impedance parameter of the network, so the description of the relation of variables to the coefficients is more precise Thus, the method can accurately describe the power increment relationship, and can obtain the power optimization scheme more accurately and quickly than the extended sensitivity method and heuristic method.

  9. Assessment of Environmental External Effects in Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Henrik Jacob; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1996-01-01

    to the production of electricity based on a coal fired conventional plant. In the second case heat/power generation by means of a combined heat and power plant based on biomass-generated gas is compared to that of a combined heat and power plant fuelled by natural gas.In the report the individual externalities from...

  10. Reliability analysis of wind embedded power generation system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a method for Reliability Analysis of wind energy embedded in power generation system for Indian scenario. This is done by evaluating the reliability index, loss of load expectation, for the power generation system with and without integration of wind energy sources in the overall electric power system.

  11. The 'CETO' wave power generation devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profitt, Michael

    2007-07-01

    Renewable Energy Holdings plc (REH) is an international company established to be an operator of, and undertake active investments in both proven and innovative renewable energy technologies. The CETO devices have been developed in Western Australia by Seapower Pacific PTY Ltd (SPPL), a subsidiary of Renewable Energy Holdings Plc (REH). This paper reports on the technology and also includes the findings from an independent technical appraisal undertaken by PB Power. The CETO device consists primarily of a novel pump anchored to the seabed and driven by a spherical buoyant actuator that collects wave energy and transmits it to the pump. High pressure seawater is delivered ashore where it can be used to drive a turbine to generate electricity or passed through a reverse osmosis desalination unit to produce fresh water. The competitive edge of CETO against other current wave and tidal generation devices: Electricity generated onshore (using well-proven hydro-power technology); Low cost mass produced device; Simplified infrastructure from pumping pressurised sea water ashore rather than electricity; Allows shore-based desalination; Modular design and self deployment; and, Transport in standard containers.

  12. Novel Power Conditioning Circuits for Piezoelectric Micro Power Generators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    von Jouranne, Annette

    2003-01-01

    .... The objective of this research is to design a power conditioning circuit "PCC" for use in conjunction with low voltage microelectromechanical systems "MEMS"-based Palouse Piezoelectric Power "P3...

  13. Turning up the power of internal communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven-Howe, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    Of all the things that separate human beings from the rest of the animal world it is that we are addicted to communication. When we are deprived of human interaction we show visible, and often permanent, signs of distress. There can be few areas of human endeavour which are not reliant on high levels of communication which I will define as the creation of understanding. It is not uncommon for people in our profession to spend up to half of each working day in two-way conversation with colleagues. Beyond the office we see that everyone is an avid consumer of passive communication. Despite watching more television with each passing year, most of us read more now than any generation that has preceded us. As your organisation's internal communications professional you will achieve excellence when: the interests of internal communications are directly represented in your organisation's executive team; you personally have the confidence of senior management senior management fully understands that in-house communications cannot make up for poor leadership; everyone understands what communications can do well and what it should not be expected to do; management messages are made attractive; individual groups of employees recognise that their special needs are taken care of; resources are committed to undertake regular quality assurance programmes; you can demonstrate that you are prepared to act on what your audiences tell you

  14. Alternative power generation concepts for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.; Juhasz, A.J.; Jones, B.I.

    1994-01-01

    With the advent of the NASA Space Station, there has emerged a general realization that large quantities of power in space are necessary and, in fact, enabling. This realization has led to the examination of alternative options to the ubiquitous solar array/battery power system. Several factors led to the consideration of solar dynamic and nuclear power systems. These include better scaling to high power levels, higher efficiency conversion and storage subsystems, and lower system specific mass. The objective of this paper is to present the results of trade and optimization studies that high-light the potential of solar and nuclear dynamic systems relative to photovoltaic power systems

  15. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the 12th generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thébault, Erwan; Finlay, Chris; Beggan, Ciarán D.

    2015-01-01

    The 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014 by the Working Group V-MOD appointed by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch ...

  16. The PBMR electric power generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez S, G.; Santacruz I, I.; Martin del Campo M, C.

    2003-01-01

    This work has as purpose to diffuse in a general way the technology of the one modulate reactor of pebble bed. Because our country is in developing ways, the electric power demand goes in increase with that which it is presented the great challenge of satisfying this necessity, not only being in charge of the one fact per se, but also involving the environmental aspect and of security. Both factors are covered by the PBMR technology, which we approach in their basic aspects with the purpose that the public opinion knows it and was familiarized with this type of reactors that well could represent a solution for our growing electricity demand. We will treat this reactor visualizing it like part of a generation plant defining in first place to the itself reactor. We will see because that the system PBMR consists of 2 main sections: the reactor and the unit of energy conversion, highlighting that the principle of the PBMR reactor operation is based on the thermodynamic Brayton cycle cooled by helium and that, in turn, it transmits the energy in form of heat toward a gas turbine. In what concerns to the fuel, it peculiar design due to its spherical geometry is described, aspect that make to this reactor different from the traditional ones that use fuel rods. In fact in the fuel spheres of the PBMR it is where it resides great part of it inherent security since each particle of fuel, consistent in uranium dioxide, is lined one with coal and silicon carbide those which form an impenetrable barrier containing to the fuel and those radioactive products that result of the nuclear reactions. Such particles are encapsulated in graphite to form the sphere or 'pebble', of here born the name of this innovative technology. (Author)

  17. Prospects for nuclear power international after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Full-text: The Fukushima accident in March 2011 has imposed a number of significant challenges for the world nuclear industry, in terms of enhancing safety at both existing and prospective reactor sites and in regaining public trust for its operations. Yet despite setbacks in a number of countries (notably Germany in addition to Japan itself) the overall outlook for nuclear power around the world is little changed from before the accident. The front end of the nuclear fuel cycle is fully internationalised and operates as a series of competitive markets, guaranteeing economic supply to the operating reactors around the world. Although new reactor types with potentially different fuelling modes are on the horizon, nothing much is likely to change before 2030. The back end is, however, comparatively less developed and there remain substantial uncertainties how it will develop in the future. Technical solutions exist, but governments have failed to grasp realities in used fuel management and waste disposal. Although many commentators argue that low levels of public acceptance are the prime reason for nuclear power failing to take a more substantial part of the energy mix, the root cause is relatively poor economics (at least in much of the Western world). Plants cost too much to build, essentially taking too long to complete, by comparison with rival generating technologies. Additionally, cheap natural gas has become a barrier in certain markets. The risk profile of nuclear projects therefore makes it difficult to attract financing but there are some possible solutions to these issues. (author)

  18. Effect of Heat Generation of Ultrasound Transducer on Ultrasonic Power Measured by Calorimetric Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Takeyoshi; Kikuchi, Tsuneo

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasonic power is one of the key quantities closely related to the safety of medical ultrasonic equipment. An ultrasonic power standard is required for establishment of safety. Generally, an ultrasonic power standard below approximately 20 W is established by the radiation force balance (RFB) method as the most accurate measurement method. However, RFB is not suitable for high ultrasonic power because of thermal damage to the absorbing target. Consequently, an alternative method to RFB is required. We have been developing a measurement technique for high ultrasonic power by the calorimetric method. In this study, we examined the effect of heat generation of an ultrasound transducer on ultrasonic power measured by the calorimetric method. As a result, an excessively high ultrasonic power was measured owing to the effect of heat generation from internal loss in the transducer. A reference ultrasound transducer with low heat generation is required for a high ultrasonic power standard established by the calorimetric method.

  19. Permit processes for nuclear power. International lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaahlin, Emil; Nilsson, Isabelle; Pettersson, Maria; Soederholm, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    permitting process in the country as well as important planned (or recently introduced) changes in the relevant legislation. The analysis also presents the role of the regulating authorities as well as other key actors in the process, and outlines the different steps of the permitting processes, including the relationships between the different permits. We also address the responsibility for the radioactive waste and dismantling, and how these issues come into the licensing process. Important differences and similarities across the various countries are highlighted, with special emphasis on parallels to the Swedish legislation. The report then analyzes a number of important legal and political issues of a principal nature in the permitting of nuclear power plants. We compare how the different countries differ on these grounds, and also emphasize some overall lessons and practical experiences of nuclear power development internationally. Three broad issues are discussed. The first of these concerns the notion of nuclear power as a highly political issue, and we analyze the role of the public opinion, the extent to which the regulatory process is independent of policy decisions, as well as the allocation of political power between the national and local levels in the respective countries. Not the least the last issue has been in focus in some of the countries that have reformed their permitting process, and there exist significant inter-country differences. The second issue concerns how a number of countries - most notably the USA and Great Britain - have attempted to streamline their plant permitting processes for new nuclear power. These reforms are characterized by, for instance, a combined construction and operation license, the selection (and exclusion) of geographical locations for new installations, as well as attempts to achieve standardizations of nuclear reactor designs. We pay particular attention to the issues of reactor design standardization, including the scope

  20. Grid Monitoring and Advanced Control of Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timbus, Adrian Vasile

    . As an example, the latest published grid codes stress the ability of distributed generators, especially wind turbines, to stay connected during short grid disturbances and in addition to provide active/reactive power control at the point of common coupling. Based on the above facts, the need for improving...... reported in some countries creating concerns about power system stability. This leads to a continuous evolution of grid interconnection requirements towards a better controllability of generated power and an enhanced contribution of distributed power generation systems to power system stability...... and adding more features to the control of distributed power generation systems (DPGS) arises. As a consequence, this thesis focuses on grid monitoring methods and possible approaches in control in order to obtain a more reliable and  exible power generation system during normal and faulty grid conditions...

  1. Numerical Calculation of the Output Power of a MHD Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian CARABINEANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using Lazăr Dragoş’s analytic solution for the electric potential we perform some numerical calculations in order to find the characteristics of a Faraday magnetohydrodymamics (MHD power generator (total power, useful power and Joule dissipation power.

  2. Internal current generation in respiration chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saborowski, R.; Buchholz, F.

    1998-06-01

    A technical device generating a constant and directed current within a sealed respiration chamber is described. It does not involve any external pumps or tubing. This system is easy to handle, and improved the maintenance of rheotactic pelagic species like the Northern krill ( Meganyctiphanes norvegica, Crustacea) or small fishes ( Gasterosteus aculeatus) under experimental conditions.

  3. Capacity expansion model of wind power generation based on ELCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Zong, Jin; Wu, Shengyu

    2018-02-01

    Capacity expansion is an indispensable prerequisite for power system planning and construction. A reasonable, efficient and accurate capacity expansion model (CEM) is crucial to power system planning. In most current CEMs, the capacity of wind power generation is considered as boundary conditions instead of decision variables, which may lead to curtailment or over construction of flexible resource, especially at a high renewable energy penetration scenario. This paper proposed a wind power generation capacity value(CV) calculation method based on effective load-carrying capability, and a CEM that co-optimizes wind power generation and conventional power sources. Wind power generation is considered as decision variable in this model, and the model can accurately reflect the uncertainty nature of wind power.

  4. Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ... from Hybrid System, power delivered to or from grid and phase voltage of the inverter leg. ... Renewable Energy, Electrical Network 220 kV, Hybrid System, Solar, MPPT.

  5. Public acceptance of nuclear power generation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liverman, J.L.; Thorne, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    Within the United States environmental awareness has spread and matured since the early 1960's. Evidence of this is found in cautious attitudes toward the installation of nuclear power reactors and other components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Hazards associated with nuclear energy technologies appear to attract a greater share of public attention than the hazards of nonnuclear counterparts. The association of nuclear power with nuclear weapons may be at the root of this concern. The explicit identification of increased incidences of cancer and genetic effects in humans as potential consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation and knowledge that radiation exposures and health consequences arising from nuclear power operations might occur many generations after operations cease also underlie this concern. Based in large part on these concerns, a number of actions have been taken in the United States to prevent and to delay installation and development of nuclear technology. These actions are reviewed and analyzed with emphasis on the 1976 California nuclear moratorium referendum and other more recent actions at state and national levels. They are compared with the status and outcome of similar actions in other nations as is possible. Additionally, ERDA's current approaches to public involvement in the decision making process is discussed, including the value of comprehensive analyses of health, environmental, and socioeconomic aspects of alternative energy sources in responding to public needs. U.S. plans for providing such analyses for all installed and developing energy technologies are presented with special reference to areas which require international cooperation for implementation. The value of international analysis and internationally accepted environmental control strategies for all energy technologies is also addressed

  6. Microscale air quality impacts of distributed power generation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, Eduardo P; Knipping, Eladio; Shaw, Stephanie; Ravindran, Satish

    2016-08-01

    The electric system is experiencing rapid growth in the adoption of a mix of distributed renewable and fossil fuel sources, along with increasing amounts of off-grid generation. New operational regimes may have unforeseen consequences for air quality. A three-dimensional microscale chemical transport model (CTM) driven by an urban wind model was used to assess gaseous air pollutant and particulate matter (PM) impacts within ~10 km of fossil-fueled distributed power generation (DG) facilities during the early afternoon of a typical summer day in Houston, TX. Three types of DG scenarios were considered in the presence of motor vehicle emissions and a realistic urban canopy: (1) a 25-MW natural gas turbine operating at steady state in either simple cycle or combined heating and power (CHP) mode; (2) a 25-MW simple cycle gas turbine undergoing a cold startup with either moderate or enhanced formaldehyde emissions; and (3) a data center generating 10 MW of emergency power with either diesel or natural gas-fired backup generators (BUGs) without pollution controls. Simulations of criteria pollutants (NO2, CO, O3, PM) and the toxic pollutant, formaldehyde (HCHO), were conducted assuming a 2-hr operational time period. In all cases, NOx titration dominated ozone production near the source. The turbine scenarios did not result in ambient concentration enhancements significantly exceeding 1 ppbv for gaseous pollutants or over 1 µg/m(3) for PM after 2 hr of emission, assuming realistic plume rise. In the case of the datacenter with diesel BUGs, ambient NO2 concentrations were enhanced by 10-50 ppbv within 2 km downwind of the source, while maximum PM impacts in the immediate vicinity of the datacenter were less than 5 µg/m(3). Plausible scenarios of distributed fossil generation consistent with the electricity grid's transformation to a more flexible and modernized system suggest that a substantial amount of deployment would be required to significantly affect air quality on

  7. Operating of Small Wind Power Plants with Induction Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Nevrala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes different systems of small wind power plants with induction generators used in the Czech Republic. Problems of wind power plants running with induction generators are solved within partial target of the research project MSM 6198910007. For small wind power plants is used induction motor as a generator. Parameters of the name plate of motor must be resolved for generator running on measuring base. These generators are running as a separately working generators or generators connected to the power grid. Methods of control these systems as a separately working, directly connecting to power grid, control by frequency converter and wiring by synchronous cascade are confronted on the measuring base too.

  8. Pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Sueda, T.; Katschinski, U.; Katsuki, S.; Maeda, S.

    1996-01-01

    The pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system are extremely compact and lightweight in comparison with those using a capacitive energy storage system. The reliable and repetitively operated opening switch is necessary to realize the inductive pulsed power generator. Here, the pulsed power generators using the inductive energy storage system, which have been developed in Kumamoto University, are summarized. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Solar photovoltaic power generation system and understanding of green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chun Sik

    2004-03-01

    This book introduces sunlight generation system and green energy, which includes new and renewable energy such as photovoltaic power generation, solar thermal, wind power, bio energy, waste energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy and fuel cell photovoltaic industry like summary, technology trend, market trend, development strategy of the industry in Korea, and other countries, design of photovoltaic power generation system supporting policy and related business of new and renewable energy.

  10. Financing of nuclear power plant using resources of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slechta, V.; Milackova, H.

    1987-01-01

    It is proved that during the lifetime of a power plant, financial resources are produced from depreciation and from the profit for the delivered electrical power in an amount allowing to meet the cost of construction, interests of credits, the corporation taxes, and the means usable by the utility for simple reproduction of the power plant, additional investment, or for the ultimate decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. The considerations are simplified to 1 MW of installed capacity of a WWER-440 nuclear power plant. The breakdown is shown of the profit and the depreciation over the power plant lifetime, the resources of regular payments of credit instalments for the construction and the method of its calculation, and the income for the state budget and for the utility during the plant liofetime. (J.B.). 5 tabs., 5 refs

  11. Aggregated wind power generation probabilistic forecasting based on particle filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Pai; Guan, Xiaohong; Wu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method for probabilistic forecasting of aggregated wind power generation. • A dynamic system is established based on a numerical weather prediction model. • The new method handles the non-Gaussian and time-varying wind power uncertainties. • Particle filter is applied to forecast predictive densities of wind generation. - Abstract: Probability distribution of aggregated wind power generation in a region is one of important issues for power system daily operation. This paper presents a novel method to forecast the predictive densities of the aggregated wind power generation from several geographically distributed wind farms, considering the non-Gaussian and non-stationary characteristics in wind power uncertainties. Based on a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model, a dynamic system is established to formulate the relationship between the atmospheric and near-surface wind fields of geographically distributed wind farms. A recursively backtracking framework based on the particle filter is applied to estimate the atmospheric state with the near-surface wind power generation measurements, and to forecast the possible samples of the aggregated wind power generation. The predictive densities of the aggregated wind power generation are then estimated based on these predicted samples by a kernel density estimator. In case studies, the new method presented is tested on a 9 wind farms system in Midwestern United States. The testing results that the new method can provide competitive interval forecasts for the aggregated wind power generation with conventional statistical based models, which validates the effectiveness of the new method

  12. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    generation unit, are becoming crucial in the wind turbine system. The objective of this project is to study the power electronics technology used for the next generation wind turbines. Some emerging challenges as well as potentials like the cost of energy and reliability are going to be addressed. First...... conversion is pushed to multi-MW level with high power density requirement. It has also been revealed that thermal stress in the power semiconductors is closely related to many determining factors in the wind power application like the reliability, cost, power density, etc. therefore it is an important......The wind power generation has been steadily growing both for the total installed capacity and for the individual turbine size. Due to much more significant impacts to the power grid, the power electronics, which can change the behavior of wind turbines from an unregulated power source to an active...

  13. Nuclear reactors for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    In this article the operation of a nuclear power plant, the status quo about the application of nuclear energy in the world are explained, the subjects of discussion between supporters and adversaries nowadays and the prospects for prolonged usage of nuclear power are summarized, viewed from the actual technical possibilities. 2 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. New generation low power radiation survey instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waechter, D.A.; Bjarke, G.O.; Trujillo, F.; Umbarger, C.J.; Wolf, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A number of new, ultra-low-powered radiation instruments have recently been developed at Los Alamos. Among these are two instruments which use a novel power source to eliminate costly batteries. The newly developed gamma detecting radiac, nicknamed the Firefly, and the alpha particle detecting instrument, called the Simple Cordless Alpha Monitor, both use recent advances in miniaturization and powersaving electronics to yield devices which are small, rugged, and very power-frugal. The two instruments consume so little power that the need for batteries to run them is eliminated. They are, instead, powered by a charged capacitor which will operate the instruments for an hour or more. Use of a capacitor as a power source eliminates many problems commonly associated with battery-operated instruments, such as having to open the case to change batteries, battery storage life, availability of batteries in the field, and some savings in weight. Both line power and mechanical sources are used to charge the storage capacitors which power the instruments

  15. statistical analysis of wind speed for electrical power generation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    sites are suitable for the generation of electrical energy. Also, the results ... Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH). Vol. 36, No. ... parameter in the wind-power generation system. ..... [3] A. Zaharim, A. M Razali, R. Z Abidin, and K Sopian,.

  16. Simulation of the energy - environment economic system power generation costs in power-stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weible, H.

    1978-09-01

    The costs of power generation are an important point in the electricity industry. The present report tries to supply a model representation for these problems. The costs of power generation for base load, average and peak load power stations are examined on the basis of fossil energy sources, nuclear power and water power. The methods of calculation where dynamic investment calculation processes are used, are given in the shape of formulae. From the point of view of long term prediction, power generation cost sensitivity studies are added to the technical, economic and energy-political uncertainties. The sensitivity of models for calculations is examined by deterministic and stochastic processes. In the base load and average region, power generation based on nuclear power and water power is economically more favourable than that from fossilfired power stations. Even including subsidies, this cost advantage is not in doubt. In the peak load region, pumped storage power stations are more economic than fossilfired power stations. (orig.) [de

  17. New generation of reactors for space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudreau, J.E.; Buden, D.

    1982-01-01

    Space nuclear reactor power is expected to enable many new space missions that will require several times to several orders of magnitude anything flown in space to date. Power in the 100-kW range may be required in high earth orbit spacecraft and planetary exploration. The technology for this power system range is under development for the Department of Energy with the Los Alamos National Laboratory responsible for the critical components in the nuclear subsystem. The baseline design for this particular nuclear sybsystem technology is described in this paper; additionally, reactor technology is reviewed from previous space power programs, a preliminary assessment is made of technology candidates covering an extended power spectrum, and the status is given of other reactor technologies

  18. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hajizadeh; F. Hassanzadeh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid ...

  19. Synchrophasor Applications for Wind Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Y. C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Allen, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singh, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wan, Y. H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. power industry is undertaking several initiatives that will improve the operations of the electric power grid. One of those is the implementation of wide-area measurements using phasor measurement units to dynamically monitor the operations and status of the network and provide advanced situational awareness and stability assessment. The overviews of synchrophasors and stability analyses in this report are intended to present the potential future applications of synchrophasors for power system operations under high penetrations of wind and other renewable energy sources.

  20. Biomass gasification for electric power generation. Biomassa vergassing voor elektriciteitsopwekking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H J

    1992-10-01

    Attention is paid to power generation by means of the use of synthesis gas, produced by biomass gasification, in internal combustion engines and gas turbines. Descriptions are given of the biomass gasification process and several types of gasifiers: cocurrent or downcraft gasifiers, countercurrent gasifiers, crosscurrent gasifiers and fluidized bed gasifiers. The first aim of this report is to assess which gasifier is the most appropriate gasifier to be used in combination with an internal combustion engine or a gas turbine. The second aim is to determine the quality of the biomass fuel, which must be gasified in a particular gasifier. In chapter two the notion biomass is discussed, and in chapter three attention is paid to the gasification process. An overview of the characteristics of available gasifiers is presented in chapter four (performance, quality of the synthesis gas and the biomass fuel, investment costs, and state of the art). In chapter five and six the internal combustion engine and the gas turbine are dealt with, as well as the experiences with and the consequences of the use of synthesis gas. Also the economic feasibility of the application of combined gasifier/engine systems and gasifier/gas turbine systems is discussed. 39 figs., 20 tabs., 43 refs.

  1. Future independent power generation and implications for instruments and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the independent power producers market is comprised of cogeneration, small power generation, and independent power production (IPP) segments. Shortfalls in future electric supply are expected to lead to significant growth in this market. The opportunities for instruments and controls will shift from traditional electric utility applications to the independent power market with a more diverse set of needs. Importance will be placed on system reliability, quality of power and increased demand for clean kWh

  2. International organizations and their exercise of sovereign powers

    CERN Document Server

    Sarooshi, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This book considers the exercise of sovereign powers by international organizations that include the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, and the European Union in order to answer fundamental questions about the relationship between an international organization and its member states. In their membership of international organizations, states must confer some of their sovereign powers upon those organizations. This book develops a three-tiered typology of conferrals which ranges from agency relationships, to delegations of authority, to full transfers of power. The legal aspects of these conferrals are examined, and their implications for the growing importance of international organizations in international relations are assessed.

  3. An overview of advanced power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, D.; Shaw, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is intended as a brief review of the technologies currently applied in Australian electricity generation and the technologies which are likely to be employed in the future. The paper opens with a review of the primary energy resources available for the generation of electricity in Australia, and the technologies currently employed. The development of advanced generation technologies around the world is reviewed, and the most likely technologies to be employed in Australia are described. There are a number of renewable and alternative technologies, such as generation from sewage digester, landfill or mine gases. Their impact would, however, be disproportionate because of the strong climate forcing effect of methane. Of the wide range of other emerging renewable technologies examined, solar thermal offers the best prospect of maturing into a financially-competitive technology for large scale generation in the next 20 years. However, will remain unable to compete with non-renewable technologies in normal financial terms, at least until 2005 and probably well beyond that date. Generation using the fission of nuclear fuels is a mature, proven technology. Based on the most likely fuel and other assumptions made in this study, the costs of nuclear generation are only moderately higher than conventional coal-fired options. Nuclear generation is thus a relatively low cost route to reductions in carbon dioxide emission for new plant, at $19/tonne CO 2 saved, in comparison with conventional black coal technology, and $13/tonne CO 2 compared with conventional brown coal firing. While major considerations of societal acceptance clearly exist, nuclear generation has the necessary technical and financial qualifications for serious consideration as an element in any greenhouse strategy. 5 tab., 2 figs

  4. Power Maximization Control of Variable Speed Wind Generation System Using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Shigeo; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Takeda, Yoji

    This paper proposes the sensorless output power maximization control of the wind generation system. A permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is used as a variable speed generator in the proposed system. The generator torque is suitably controlled according to the generator speed and thus the power from a wind turbine settles down on the maximum power point by the proposed MPPT control method, where the information of wind velocity is not required. Moreover, the maximum available generated power is obtained by the optimum current vector control. The current vector of PMSG is optimally controlled according to the generator speed and the required torque in order to minimize the losses of PMSG considering the voltage and current constraints. The proposed wind power generation system can be achieved without mechanical sensors such as a wind velocity detector and a position sensor. Several experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  5. CHP in Switzerland from 1990 to 1998. Thermal power generation including combined heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, U.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a study on thermal power generation in Switzerland show that combined heat and power (CHP) systems have grown rapidly. Statistics are presented on the development of CHP-based power and also on thermal power stations without waste heat usage. Figures are given for gas and steam turbine installations, combined gas and steam turbine stations and motor-driven CHP units. Power production is categorised, separating small and large (over 1 Megawatt electrical) power generation facilities. On-site, distributed power generation at consumers' premises and the geographical distribution of plant is described

  6. Rated power factor and excitation system of large turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumitsu, Iwao; Watanabe, Takashi; Banjou, Minoru.

    1979-01-01

    As for the rated power factor of turbine generators for thermal power stations, 90% has been adopted since around 1960. On the other hand, power transmission system has entered 500 kV age, and 1,000 kV transmission is expected in the near future. As for the supply of reactive power from thermal and nuclear turbine generators, the necessity of supplying leading reactive power has rather increased. Now, the operating power factor of thermal and nuclear generators becomes 96 to 100% actually. As for the excess stability of turbine generators owing to the strengthening of transmission system and the adoption of super-high voltage, the demand of strict conditions can be dealt with by the adoption of super-fast response excitation system of thyristor shunt winding self exciting type. The adoption of the turbine generators with 90 to 95% power factor and the adoption of the thyristor shunt winding self exciting system were examined and evaluated. The rated power factor of generators, excitation system and economy of adopting these systems are explained. When the power factor of generators is increased from 0.9 to 0.95, about 6% of saving can be obtained in the installation cost. When the thyristor shunt winding self excitation is adopted, it is about 10% more economical than AC excitation. (Kako, I.)

  7. High-power generator of singlet oxygen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Čenský, Miroslav; Špalek, Otomar; Kodymová, Jarmila

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 10 (2013), s. 1755-1763 ISSN 0930-7516 Grant - others:Laser Science and Technology Centre(IN) LASTEC/FE/RKT/54/10-11 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : high-pressure singlet oxygen generator * spray generator * centrifugal separation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.175, year: 2013

  8. Variable structure unit vector control of electric power generation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A variable structure Automatic Generation Control (VSAGC) scheme is proposed in this paper for the control of a single area power system model dominated by steam powered electric generating plants. Unlike existing, VSAGC scheme where the selection of the control function is based on a trial and error procedure, the ...

  9. DOWNHOLE POWER GENERATION AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS FOR INTELLIGENT COMPLETIONS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Tubel

    2004-02-01

    The development work during this quarter was focused in the assembly of the downhole power generator hardware and its electronics module. The quarter was also spent in the development of the surface system electronics and software to extract the acoustic data transmitted from downhole to the surface from the noise generated by hydrocarbon flow in wells and to amplify very small acoustic signals to increase the distance between the downhole tool and the surface receiver. The tasks accomplished during this report period were: (1) Assembly of the downhole power generator mandrel for generation of electrical power due to flow in the wellbore. (2) Test the piezoelectric wafers to assure that they are performing properly prior to integrating them to the mechanical power generator mandrel. (3) Coat the power generator wafers to prevent water from shorting the power generator wafers. (4) Test of the power generator using a water tower and an electric pump to create a water flow loop. (5) Test the power harvesting electronics module. (6) Upgrade the signal condition and amplification from downhole into the surface system. (7) Upgrade the surface processing system capability to process data faster. (8) Create a new filtering technique to extract the signal from noise after the data from downhole is received at the surface system.

  10. Windfarm Generation Assessment for ReliabilityAnalysis of Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, Nicola Barberis; Holmstrøm, Ole; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fast development of wind generation in the past ten years, increasing interest has been paid to techniques for assessing different aspects of power systems with a large amount of installed wind generation. One of these aspects concerns power system reliability. Windfarm modelling plays...

  11. Windfarm generation assessment for reliability analysis of power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, N.B.; Holmstrøm, O.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fast development of wind generation in the past ten years, increasing interest has been paid to techniques for assessing different aspects of power systems with a large amount of installed wind generation. One of these aspects concerns power system reliability. Windfarm modelling plays...

  12. Survey, design, development, and installation of micro hydel power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaz, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the survey, design, development and installation Of micro hydel power generation using low head Kaplan water turbine. Electricity production from hydro power has been and still is today, the first renewable source used to generate electricity. The development of energy from renewable is very important step in reduction of carbon emissions(CO/sub 2/).

  13. Modeling of Optimal Power Generation using Multiple Kites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, P.; Lansdorp, B.; Ockels, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Kite systems have the potential to revolutionize energy generation. Large scale systems are envisioned that can fly autonomously in “power generation” cycles which drive a ground-based generator. In order for such systems to produce power efficiently, good models of the system are required. This

  14. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3 must... or sources must be sufficient to supply those services necessary to provide normal operational...

  15. Human factor problem in nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Kenji; Fujimoto, Junzo

    1999-01-01

    Since a nuclear power plant accident at Threemile Island in U.S.A. occurred in March, 1979, twenty years have passed. After the accident, the human factor problem became focussed in nuclear power, to succeed its research at present. For direct reason of human error, most of factors at individual level or work operation level are often listed at their center. Then, it is natural that studies on design of a machine or apparatus suitable for various human functions and abilities and on improvement of relationship between 'human being and machine' and 'human being and working environment' are important in future. Here was, as first, described on outlines of the human factor problem in a nuclear power plant developed at a chance of past important accident, and then was described on educational training for its countermeasure. At last, some concrete researching results obtained by human factor research were introduced. (G.K.)

  16. Direct Drive Generator for Renewable Power Conversion from Water Currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segergren, Erik

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis permanent magnet direct drive generator for power conversion from water currents is studied. Water currents as a power source involves a number of constrains as well as possibilities, especially when direct drive and permanent magnets are considered. The high power fluxes and low current velocities of a water current, in combination with its natural variations, will affect the way the generator is operated and, flowingly, the appearance of the generator. The work in this thesis can, thus, be categorized into two general topics, generator technology and optimization. Under the first topic, fundamental generator technology is used to increase the efficiency of a water current generator. Under the latter topic, water current generators are optimized to a specific environment. The conclusion drawn from this work is that it is possible to design very low speed direct drive generators with good electromagnetic properties and wide efficiency peak

  17. Gas-fired Power Generation in India: Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    India's fast growing economy needs to add 100,000 MW power generating capacity between 2002-2012. Given limitations to the use of coal in terms of environmental considerations, quality and supply constraints, gas is expected to play an increasingly important role in India's power sector. This report briefs NMC Delegates on the potential for gas-fired power generation in India and describes the challenges India faces to translate the potential for gas-fired power generation into reality.

  18. Is there a tomorrow for nuclear power generation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanoh, T.

    1996-01-01

    Critical comments are publicly made about nuclear power generation and the nuclear fuel cycle. This criticism is directed at three areas of concern: accidents, radioactive waste disposal, and proliferation of nuclear weapons. In addition, there are other comments that ask 'Why are there countries pushing for nuclear power generation when other countries around the world are giving it up?' and 'Will further efforts to develop new energy sources and energy conservation not eliminate the nneed for nuclear power generation?' Such critical comments appear in some media more often than those expressing other opinions. Is there really no tomorrow for nuclear power? This question is studied below. (author)

  19. Market stimulation of renewable-based power generation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Rena; Monroy, Carlos Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify the types of renewable-based power generation technologies available in Australia that have the capacity to contribute to the growth of the renewable energy sector and then suggest what type of economic incentive instruments could be applied in order to stimulate investment in that sector. Currently in Australia there are hydro, wind, bioenergy, solar, geothermal and ocean technologies being used to produce renewable power. Of these all except hydro power has large amounts of potentially useful resources. In the cases of wind, bioenergy, solar, and geothermal, the technology is mature enough to be immediately deployed in large-scale. However, only in the cases of wind and bioenergy the costs and return on investments are proven to be viable in the current market. What is required on all fronts is an improved return on investments. Within the current electricity market competition with fossil-fuel based power is very difficult considering the ample supply of coal available in Australia and the heavy subsidies it receives. To become more competitive with electricity generated from coal-fired power plants, a feed-in tariff scheme could be implemented, and subsidies to the coal industry should be reduced if not removed. Another aspect impeding the growth of certain renewable power technologies is the high capital cost. This issue could be addressed with direct subsidies or tax exemptions, or aiding with easier access of finance options. However for particular industries such as wind and solar, it would be a further benefit if some effort is made to encourage component manufacturing within Australia. For technologies that require further technical development, funding towards R and D or pilot projects, and support for international collaboration projects would accelerate their path to deployment. It is critical that the Australian government continues to be a leader. In addition to the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS) and an

  20. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The order is defined under the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Establishers of power generating facilities shall be hereunder general electric enterprisers, wholesale electric enterprisers and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of power generating facilities provided by the order is 350,000 kilo-watts for atomic and steam power generation and 5,000 kilo-watts for hydroelectric power. Equipment closely related to atomic power generation shall include facilities for reprocessing and examination of nuclear fuel materials spent for power generating reactors, reactors used for research of the safety of power generating reactors, experimental fast breeding reactors and experimental uranium enrichment facilities. Requisites for the extent of industrial accumulation are that the area belongs to those self-governing bodies whose industrial accumulation is more than the 8th degree. Public facilities specified are those for communication, sports or recreation, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting and heat supplying, etc. Governors of the prefectures shall file arrangement programs to the Minister in charge through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission stipulated by the law. Subsidies shall not be paid to those enterprises which are executed by the government or a part of the expenses is born or supported by it. (Okada, K.)

  1. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Order is based on the prescriptions of the Law for the Arrangement of Surrounding Areas of Power Generating Facilities. Those establishing power generating facilities are general and wholesale electric enterprisers provided for by the Electricity Enterprises Act as well as the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The generating capacity is specified as 350,000 kilowatts for nuclear and steam power generating facilities, 150,000 kilowatts for those set up by the Corporation, 100,000 kilowatts for those using coal as main fuel, and 10,000 kilowatts for water power generation and geothermal plants. The facilities closely connected to nuclear power generation include the reprocessing facilities and test and examination facilities for nuclear fuel materials used for power-generating nuclear reactors, reactors used for the research on the safety of power generating reactors, and experimental reactors for fast breeder reactors. The public facilities consist of communication facilities, and the facilities for sports and recreations, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Prefectural governors ought to file the arrangement plans to the competent minister through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission prescribed by the Law. The subsidy is not granted to the expenses of the enterprises undertaken by the nation or those enterprises, a part of the expenses of which is borne or subsidized by the nation. (Okada, K.)

  2. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East

  3. Conceptual survey of Generators and Power Electronics for Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.H.; Helle, L.; Blaabjerg, F.; Ritchie, E.; Munk-Nielsen, S.; Bindner, H.; Soerensen, P.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2001-12-01

    This report presents a survey on generator concepts and power electronic concepts for wind turbines. The report is aimed as a tool for decision-makers and development people with respect to wind turbine manufactures, utilities, and independent system operators as well as manufactures of generators and power electronics. The survey is focused on the electric development of wind turbines and it yields an overview on: State of the art on generators and power electronics; future concepts and technologies within generators and power electronics; market needs in the shape of requirements to the grid connection, and; consistent system solutions, plus an evaluation of these seen in the prospect of market needs. This survey on of generator and power electronic concepts was carried out in co-operation between Aalborg University and Risoe National Laboratory in the scope of the research programme Electric Design and Control. (au)

  4. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East.

  5. Method and apparatus for thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A thermal power plant reheat cycle system is described in which the discharge from a first expansion stage is reheated prior to expansion in a subsequent expansion stage. The primary coolant has a high sheet transfer rate and can accommodate temperature changes in the reheat vapor. (U.K.)

  6. Nuclear energy resources for electrical power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, K.F.

    1974-01-01

    'Nuclear Energy Resources' is interpreted as the nuclear power systems currently available commercially and those at an advanced stage of development, together with full and associated resources required to implement large-scale nuclear programs. Technical advantages and disadvantages of the established power reactor systems are reviewed, and the uranium fuel situation is outlined in terms of supply and demand, the relationship of resources to the requiremnts of current reactor types, and the likely future implications of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). Because of its importance for the future, the problems, status, and likely time scale of the FBR are discussed in some detail. It is concluded that the most important areas for nearterm attention in Australia are the criteria and conditions that would apply to nuclear installations, and the possible development of uranium fuel cycle industries. The pattern of development of reactor and fuel cycle strategies overseas is important for uranium industry planning, and in the long term plutonium availability may be a key factor in power and energy planning. Finally, acceptance of nuclear power includes acceptance that its radioactive wastes will have to be stored on earth, and recent developments to demonstrate that this can be done safely and economically are very important in terms of longterm public attitudes. (author)

  7. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    1997-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond

  8. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the redevelopment of the surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Persons who install power generating facilities under the law include general electric power enterprises and wholesale electric power enterprises defined under the electric enterprises act and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of these facilities defined under the law is 350,000 kilo-watts output for atomic and thermal power generating facilities, 10,000 kilo-watts output for the facilities utilizing geothermal energy, 100,000 kilo-watts output for facilities whose main fuel is coal, and 1,000 kilo-watts output for hydraulic power generating facilities, etc. The facilities closely related to atomic power generation include the reprocessing and examination facilities of fuel materials spent in atomic power reactors, the reactors installed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for studying on the safety of atomic power reactors, the experimental fast reactors and the uranium enrichment facilities established by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The public facilities in this rule are those for communication, sport and recreation, environment hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Governors of prefectures who intend to get approval under the law shall file redevelopment plans to the competent minister through the Minister of the International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  9. Automatic motion inhibit system for a nuclear power generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musick, C.R.; Torres, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is an automatic motion inhibit system for a nuclear power generating system for inhibiting automatic motion of the control elements to reduce reactor power in response to a turbine load reduction. The system generates a final reactor power level setpoint signal which is continuously compared with a reactor power signal. The final reactor power level setpoint is a setpoint within the capacity of the bypass valves to bypass steam which in no event is lower in value than the lower limit of automatic control of the reactor. If the final reactor power level setpoint is greater than the reactor power, an inhibit signal is generated to inhibit automatic control of the reactor. 6 claims, 5 figures

  10. Power generation planning: a survey from monopoly to competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagiannas, A.G.; Askounis, D.T.; Psarras, J.

    2004-01-01

    During the last two decades electric power generation industry in many countries and regions around the world has undergone a significant transformation from being a centrally coordinated monopoly to a deregulated liberalized market. In the majority of those countries, competition has been introduced through the adoption of a competitive wholesale electricity spot market. Short-term efficiency of power generators under competitive environment has attracted considerable effort from researchers, while long-term investment performance has received less attention. In this context, the paper aims to serve as a comprehensive review basis for generation planning methods applied in a competitive electric power generation market. The traditional modeling techniques developed for generation expansion planning under monopoly are initially presented in an effort to assess the evolution of generation planning according to the evolution of the structure of the electric power market. (author)

  11. Protective, Modular Wave Power Generation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vvedensky, Jane M.; Park, Robert Y.

    2012-11-27

    The concept of small wave energy conversion modules that can be built into large, scalable arrays, in the same vein as solar panels, has been developed. This innovation lends itself to an organic business and development model, and enables the use of large-run manufacturing technology to reduce system costs. The first prototype module has been built to full-scale, and tested in a laboratory wave channel. The device has been shown to generate electricity and dissipate wave energy. Improvements need to be made to the electrical generator and a demonstration of an array of modules should be made in natural conditions.

  12. Hybrid biomass-wind power plant for reliable energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro, A.; Alfonso, D.; Alvarez, C.; Ibanez, F.; Sanchez, C.; Segura, I.

    2010-01-01

    Massive implementation of renewable energy resources is a key element to reduce CO 2 emissions associated to electricity generation. Wind resources can provide an important alternative to conventional electricity generation mainly based on fossil fuels. However, wind generators are greatly affected by the restrictive operating rules of electricity markets because, as wind is naturally variable, wind generators may have serious difficulties on submitting accurate generation schedules on a day ahead basis, and on complying with scheduled obligations in real-time operation. In this paper, an innovative system combining a biomass gasification power plant, a gas storage system and stand-by generators to stabilize a generic 40 MW wind park is proposed and evaluated with real data. The wind park power production model is based on real data about power production of a Spanish wind park and a probabilistic approach to quantify fluctuations and so, power compensation needs. The hybrid wind-biomass system is analysed to obtain main hybrid system design parameters. This hybrid system can mitigate wind prediction errors and so provide a predictable source of electricity. An entire year cycle of hourly power compensations needs has been simulated deducing storage capacity, extra power needs of the biomass power plant and stand-by generation capacity to assure power compensation during critical peak hours with acceptable reliability. (author)

  13. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  14. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included

  15. Life cycle analysis of advanced nuclear power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yoji; Yokoyama, Hayaichi

    1996-01-01

    In this research, as for light water reactors and fast breeder reactors, for the object of all the processes from the mining, transport and refining of fuel, electric power generation to the treatment and disposal of waste, the amount of energy input and the quantity of CO 2 emission over the life cycle were analyzed, and regarding the influence that the technical progress of nuclear power generation exerted to environment, the effect of improvement was elucidated. Attention has been paid to nuclear power generation as its CO 2 emission is least, and the effect of global warming is smallest. In order to reduce the quantity of radioactive waste generation in LWRs and the cost of fuel cycle, and to extend the operation cycle, the technical development for heightening fuel burnup is in progress. The process of investigation of the new technologies of nuclear power generation taken up in this research is described. The analysis of the energy balance of various power generation methods is discussed. In the case of pluthermal process, the improvement of energy balance ratio is dependent on uranium enrichment technology. Nuclear power generation requires much materials and energy for the construction, and emits CO 2 indirectly. The CO 2 unit emission based on the analysis of energy balance was determined for the new technologies of nuclear power generation, and the results are shown. (K.I.)

  16. Optimized power generation in offshore wind parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Filho, J. de; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Electricity generation on offshore wind parks has an increasing economic importance - the European Commission foresees that 12% of the wind energy will be produced on offshore installations by 2020, and this share is likely to increase further in the following years. However, the continuously

  17. RF power generation for future linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowkes, W.R.; Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Caryotakis, G.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Farkas, Z.D.; Feinstein, J.; Ko, K.; Koontz, R.F.; Kroll, N.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Miller, R.H.; Pearson, C.; Spalek, G.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wilson, P.B.

    1990-06-01

    The next linear collider will require 200 MW of rf power per meter of linac structure at relatively high frequency to produce an accelerating gradient of about 100 MV/m. The higher frequencies result in a higher breakdown threshold in the accelerating structure hence permit higher accelerating gradients per meter of linac. The lower frequencies have the advantage that high peak power rf sources can be realized. 11.42 GHz appears to be a good compromise and the effort at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is being concentrated on rf sources operating at this frequency. The filling time of the accelerating structure for each rf feed is expected to be about 80 ns. Under serious consideration at SLAC is a conventional klystron followed by a multistage rf pulse compression system, and the Crossed-Field Amplifier. These are discussed in this paper

  18. Advanced power generation using biomass wastes from palm oil mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Kurniawan, Tedi; Oda, Takuya; Kashiwagi, Takao

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the energy-efficient utilization of both solid and liquid wastes from palm oil mills, particularly their use for power generation. It includes the integration of a power generation system using empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME). The proposed system mainly consists of three modules: EFB gasification, POME digestion, and additional organic Rankine cycle (ORC). EFBs are dried and converted into a syngas fuel with high calorific value through integrated drying and gasification processes. In addition, POME is converted into a biogas fuel for power generation. Biogas engine-based cogenerators are used for generating both electricity and heat. The remaining unused heat is recovered by ORC module to generate electricity. The influences of three EFB gasification temperatures (800, 900 and 1000 °C) in EFB gasification module; and working fluids and pressure in ORC module are evaluated. Higher EFB gasification leads to higher generated electricity and remaining heat for ORC module. Power generation efficiency increases from 11.2 to 24.6% in case of gasification temperature is increased from 800 to 1000 °C. In addition, cyclohexane shows highest energy efficiency compared to toluene and n-heptane in ORC module. Higher pressure in ORC module also leads to higher energy efficiency. Finally, the highest total generated power and power generation efficiency obtained by the system are 8.3 MW and 30.4%, respectively.

  19. An ABC analysis for power generation project

    OpenAIRE

    Batool Hasani; Younos Vakilalroaia

    2013-01-01

    One of the primary concerns on performance measurement is to know how much a particular project cost. However, using traditional method on project-based products often leads to inappropriate results. In this paper, we re-examine this issue by comparing the cost of a power station construction project using ABC versus traditional method. The results of survey show that ABC method is capable of providing better estimates for overhead costs compared with traditional method. In other words, ABC m...

  20. Power generating system and method utilizing hydropyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, R.

    1986-12-30

    A vapor transmission cycle is described which burns a slurry of coal and water with some of the air from the gas turbine compressor, cools and cleans the resulting low-Btu fuel gas, burns the clean fuel gas with the remaining air from the compressor, and extracts the available energy in the gas turbine. The cycle lends itself to combined-cycle cogeneration for the production of steam, absorption cooling, and electric power.

  1. Modeling of Thermoelectric Generator Power Characteristics for Motorcycle-Type Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipkov, Alexey; Poshekhonov, Roman; Arutyunyan, Georgy; Basov, Andrey; Safonov, Roman

    2017-10-01

    Thermoelectric generation in vehicles such as motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles, and snowmobiles opens the possibility of additional electrical energy generation by means of exhaust heat utilization. This is beneficial because replacing the mechanical generator used in such vehicles with a more powerful one in cases of electrical power deficiency is impossible. This paper proposes a calculation model for the thermoelectric generator (TEG) operational characteristics of the low-capacity internal combustion engines used in these vehicles. Two TEG structures are considered: (1) TEG with air cooling and (2) TEG with water cooling. Modeling consists of two calculation stages. In the first stage, the heat exchange coefficients of the hot and cold exchangers are determined using computational fluid dynamics. In the second stage, the TEG operational characteristics are modeled based on the nonlinear equations of the heat transfer and power balance. On the basis of the modeling results, the dependence of the TEG's major operating characteristics (such as the electrical power generated by the TEG and its efficiency and mass) on operating conditions or design parameters is determined. For example, the electrical power generated by a TEG for a Yamaha WR450F motorcycle engine with a volume of 0.449 × 10-3 m3 was calculated to be as much as 100 W. Use of the TEG arrangements proposed is justified by the additional electrical power generation for small capacity vehicles, without the need for internal combustion engine redesign.

  2. Internalization of external costs for nuclear power in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, Veronica; Ghita, Sorin; Ionita, Gheorghe; Gheorghe-Sorescu, Antonius; Glodeanu, Florin

    2006-01-01

    , for that impact. Externality is one type of failure that causes inefficiency.' Like other energy sources, nuclear energy has risks and benefits that need to be fully recognized and assessed to evaluate its external costs. The external costs of nuclear energy include: radioactive waste disposal, future financial liabilities arising from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities, health and environmental impact of radioactivity releases in routine operation and effects of severe accidents. Beyond the competitive generation costs of existing nuclear power plants in most markets, benefits of nuclear power, that are not reflected currently in prices, include: security of supply, cost stability and the quasi absence of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases, other pollutant gases and particulates. The capital and operating costs of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities already internalize a major portion of the above-mentioned potential external costs, and these are reflected in the prices paid by consumers of nuclear-generated electricity. This paper presents a few aspects on externalities of nuclear power and current approach on the internalization of external costs on radioactive waste disposal and decommissioning of the Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant. The paper contents as follows: 1. Introduction; 2. External costs; 3. Positive externalities of nuclear electricity; 4. Actions relevant to internalize future liabilities for nuclear power in Romania; 5. Conclusions. In conclusion the capital and operating costs of nuclear power plants already internalize a major portion of the above-mentioned potential external costs, and these are reflected in the prices paid by consumers of nuclear-generated electricity. If externalities such as: security of supply, cost stability and broad economic impacts on employment and balance of trade would be internalized, the effect would be positive for nuclear energy. In Romania, decommissioning and radioactive wastes

  3. Wind Turbine Generator Efficiency Based on Powertrain Combination and Annual Power Generation Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmyung Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine generators are eco-friendly generators that produce electric energy using wind energy. In this study, wind turbine generator efficiency is examined using a powertrain combination and annual power generation prediction, by employing an analysis model. Performance testing was conducted in order to analyze the efficiency of a hydraulic pump and a motor, which are key components, and so as to verify the analysis model. The annual wind speed occurrence frequency for the expected installation areas was used to predict the annual power generation of the wind turbine generators. It was found that the parallel combination of the induction motors exhibited a higher efficiency when the wind speed was low and the serial combination showed higher efficiency when wind speed was high. The results of predicting the annual power generation considering the regional characteristics showed that the power generation was the highest when the hydraulic motors were designed in parallel and the induction motors were designed in series.

  4. Large scale renewable power generation advances in technologies for generation, transmission and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the issues of integrating large-scale renewable power generation into existing grids. It includes a new protection technique for renewable generators along with the inclusion of current status of smart grid.

  5. International Monetary Power and China’s Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Lin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available International monetary power has become a new area of interest since the outbreak of the global financial crisis in 2008. The USA, the EU and China will pursue global monetary power in the future, and the USD, the EURO and the RMB will become the most important world reserve currencies. The pattern of international monetary power will shift from a unilateral-hegemony structure to a triangle-balance structure. This shift has a very strong influence on changes in the current international political system. As the largest emerging economy, China will speed up the globalization of the RMB to meet the challenges of the international monetary system.

  6. International environmental issues and requirements for new power projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, J.R. [Golder Associates Inc., Gainesville, FL (United States); Maltby, J.H. [Golder Associates Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this presentation was to discuss the emerging role of financial entities in determining environmental requirements for international power projects. The paper outlines the following: emerging conditions; examples of announced privatization energy projects by country; types of government and international financial entity sources; problems for IPPs; similarity and differences between the World Bank and the USEPA; comparison of the international standards and regulations for power plants; recent trends/issues involving international power project approval; and recommendations for understanding/expediting the financial entities` environmental approval process and how to expedite this process.

  7. Thermodynamic, energy efficiency, and power density analysis of reverse electrodialysis power generation with natural salinity gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yip, N.Y.; Vermaas, D.A.; Nijmeijer, K.; Elimelech, M.

    2014-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) can harness the Gibbs free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for sustainable power generation. In this study, we carry out a thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of RED power generation, and assess the membrane power density. First, we

  8. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the 12th generation

    OpenAIRE

    Thébault , Erwan; Finlay , Christopher ,; Beggan , Ciarán ,; Alken , Patrick; Aubert , Julien ,; Barrois , Olivier; Bertrand , François; Bondar , Tatiana; Boness , Axel; Brocco , Laura; Canet , Elisabeth ,; Chambodut , Aude; Chulliat , Arnaud ,; Coïsson , Pierdavide ,; Civet , François

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014 by the Working Group V-MOD appointed by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2010.0, a main field model for epoch 2015.0, and a linear annual predictive secular variation model for 2015.0-2020.0. Here, we present the equations defining the IGRF model, p...

  9. The optimization of longitudinal convective fins with internal heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razelos, P.

    1979-01-01

    The solution of the optimization problem for longitudinal convective fins of constant thickness, triangular or parabolic profile, and uniform internal heat generation, is presented. The cases considered are those of a given heat generation density, total heat generation and heat generation per unit width of the fin, when either the heat dissipation or the width of the fin is prescribed. The results are set forth in a nondimensional form, which are presented graphically. The effect of the fin's thermal conductivity upon the optimum dimensions is discussed, and limiting values for the heat generation and the heat dissipation, which may be imposed on the fin for a feasible optimization, are also obtained. (Auth.)

  10. Stabilized x-ray generator power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Subimal; Purushotham, K.V.; Bose, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analysis are very much adopted in laboratories to determine the type and structure of the constituent compounds in solid materials, chemical composition of materials, stress developed on metals etc. These experiments need X-ray beam of fixed intensity and wave length. This can only be achieved by X-ray generator having highly stabilized tube voltage and tube current. This paper describes how X-ray tube high voltage and electron beam current are stabilized. This paper also highlights generation of X-rays, diffractometry and X-ray fluorescence analysis and their wide applications. Principle of operation for stabilizing the X-ray tube voltage and current, different protection circuits adopted, special features of the mains H.V. transformer and H.T. tank are described in this report. (author)

  11. Distributed power generation, a market assessment; Marktaspekte der verteilten Energieerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, T.

    2001-03-01

    The article assesses in the light of current energy policy the development of distributed power generation in the future, and resulting impacts on the structure the deregulated power industry in Germany. The author defines the essential characteristics of distributed power generation as opposed to centralized power generation, explains the various existing and emerging power generation technologies, and discusses market penetration scenarios and marketing opportunities in the context of technological developments, environmental and energy efficiency aspects, and consumer attitudes. (orig./CB) [German] Der Artikel bietet wichtige Definitionen fuer eine zielfuehrende Diskussion ueber das gesamte Gebiet der verteilten und dezentralen Energieerzeugung. Er versucht, teilweise emotional besetzte Themen auf sachlich begruendbare Grundannahmen zurueckzufuehren und zieht erste Folgerungen fuer das Zusammenwirken von erneuerbaren Energien und verteilter Energieerzeugung. (orig./CB)

  12. Conceptual survey of generators and power electronics for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.H.; Helle, L.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a survey on generator concepts and power electronic concepts for wind turbines. The report is aimed as a tool for decision-makers and development people with respect to wind turbine manufactures, utilities, and independent systemoperators as well as manufactures of generators...... and power electronics. The survey is focused on the electric development of wind turbines and it yields an overview on: - State of the art on generators and power electronics. - future concepts andtechnologies within generators and power electronics. - market needs in the shape of requirements to the grid...... connection, and - consistent system solutions, plus an evaluation of these seen in the prospect of market needs. This survey on of generatorand power electronic concepts was carried out in co-operation between Aalborg University and Risø National Laboratory in the scope of the research programme Electric...

  13. A mechatronic power boosting design for piezoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haili; Liang, Junrui; Ge, Cong

    2015-01-01

    It was shown that the piezoelectric power generation can be boosted by using the synchronized switch power conditioning circuits. This letter reports a self-powered and self-sensing mechatronic design in substitute of the auxiliary electronics towards a compact and universal synchronized switch solution. The design criteria are derived based on the conceptual waveforms and a two-degree-of-freedom analytical model. Experimental result shows that, compared to the standard bridge rectifier interface, the mechatronic design leads to an extra 111% increase of generated power from the prototyped piezoelectric generator under the same deflection magnitude excitation. The proposed design has introduced a valuable physical insight of electromechanical synergy towards the improvement of piezoelectric power generation

  14. A mechatronic power boosting design for piezoelectric generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Haili; Liang, Junrui, E-mail: liangjr@shanghaitech.edu.cn; Ge, Cong [School of Information Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, No. 8 Building, 319 Yueyang Road, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2015-10-05

    It was shown that the piezoelectric power generation can be boosted by using the synchronized switch power conditioning circuits. This letter reports a self-powered and self-sensing mechatronic design in substitute of the auxiliary electronics towards a compact and universal synchronized switch solution. The design criteria are derived based on the conceptual waveforms and a two-degree-of-freedom analytical model. Experimental result shows that, compared to the standard bridge rectifier interface, the mechatronic design leads to an extra 111% increase of generated power from the prototyped piezoelectric generator under the same deflection magnitude excitation. The proposed design has introduced a valuable physical insight of electromechanical synergy towards the improvement of piezoelectric power generation.

  15. 78 FR 32385 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; CER Generation II, LLC; Constellation Mystic Power, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL13-64-000] Exelon Generation Company, LLC; CER Generation II, LLC; Constellation Mystic Power, LLC; Constellation NewEnergy...) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, Exelon Generation Company, LLC, CER Generation II, LLC...

  16. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  17. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO 2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  18. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  19. Optimization of power generation from shrouded wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, Tudor; Agarwal, Ramesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In past several years, several studies have shown that the shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of shrouded wind turbines for increased power generation by conducting numerical simulations. An analytical/computational study is performed by employing the well-known commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT. An actuator disc model is used to model the turbine. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations. The power coefficient Cp and generated power are calculated for a large number of cases for horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) of various diameters and wind speeds for both bare and shrouded turbines. The design of the shroud is optimized by employing a single objective genetic algorithm; the objective being the maximization of the power coefficient Cp. It was found that the shroud indeed increases the Cp beyond the Betz’s limit significantly and as a result the generated power; this effect is consistent with that found in the recent literature that the shrouded wind-turbines can generate greater power than the bare turbines. The optimized shape of the shroud or diffuser further increases the generated power and Cp.

  20. MHD generator performance analysis for the Advanced Power Train study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, C. C. P.; Hals, F. A.

    1984-01-01

    Comparative analyses of different MHD power train designs for early commercial MHD power plants were performed for plant sizes of 200, 500, and 1000 MWe. The work was conducted as part of the first phase of a planned three-phase program to formulate an MHD Advanced Power Train development program. This paper presents the results of the MHD generator design and part-load analyses. All of the MHD generator designs were based on burning of coal with oxygen-enriched air preheated to 1200 F. Sensitivities of the MHD generator design performance to variations in power plant size, coal type, oxygen enrichment level, combustor heat loss, channel length, and Mach number were investigated. Basd on these sensitivity analyses, together with the overall plant performance and cost-of-electricity analyses, as well as reliability and maintenance considerations, a recommended MHD generator design was selected for each of the three power plants. The generators for the 200 MWe and 500 MWe power plant sizes are supersonic designs. A subsonic generator design was selected for the 1000 MWe plant. Off-design analyses of part-load operation of the supersonic channel selected for the 200 MWe power plant were also conductd. The results showed that a relatively high overall net plant efficiency can be maintained during part-laod operation with a supersonic generator design.

  1. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Choi, Young Myung; Kim, Hwa Sup; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Kee Hwan; Kim, Seung Su; Chae, Kyu Nam

    1996-12-01

    The major contents in this study are as follows : (1) Efforts are made to examine the role of nuclear energy considering environmental regulation. An econometric model for energy demand and supply including carbon tax imposition is established. (2) Analysis for the learning effect of nuclear power plant operation is performed. The study is focused to measure the effect of technology homogeneity on the operation performance. (3) A preliminary capital cost of the KALIMER is estimated by using cost computer program, which is developed in this study. (author). 36 refs.,46 tabs., 15 figs.

  2. Safety of next generation power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings: Future needs of utilities regulators, government, and other energy users, PRA and reliability, LMR concepts, LWR design, Advanced reactor technology, What the industry can deliver: advanced LWRs, High temperature gas-cooled reactors, LMR whole-core experiments, Advanced LWR concepts, LWR technology, Forum: public perceptions, What the industry can deliver: LMRs and HTGRs, Criteria and licensing, LMR modeling, Light water reactor thermal-hydraulics, LMR technology, Working together to revitalize nuclear power, Appendix A, luncheon address, Appendix B, banquet address

  3. Restructuring in Turkish power generation and transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilli, B.

    2001-01-01

    Restructuring of power sector is an evolutionary process and it is in its early days. As the reform proceeds and the market evolve and become more efficient, a number of unresolved issues shall be overcomed through re-regulations. So, the most important point is the smooth transition to the liberalized markets. The solution is dependent upon the assimilation, acceptation and supporting of the reform by the parties concerned. Market participants' acceptance and actions will be the key element for the success of the new market. (author)

  4. Present status and problems of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear power generation in Japan began in 1963 with the successful power generation in the JPDR of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and since then, more than 20 years have elapsed. The Japan Atomic Power Co. started the operation of an imported Calder Hall type gas-cooled reactor with 166,000 kWe output in Tokai Nuclear Power Station in July, 1966. In 1983, the quantity of nuclear power generation was 113.1 billion kWh, which was equivalent to 21.4 % of the total power generation in Japan. As of April 1, 1984, 25 nuclear power plants with 18.28 million kW output were in operation, 12 plants of 11.8 million kW were under construction, and 7 plants of 6.05 million kW were in preparation phase. Besides, the ATR ''Fugen'' with 165,000 kW output has been in operation, and the FBR ''Monju'' with 280,000 kW output is under construction. The capacity ratio of Japanese nuclear power stations attained 71.5 % in 1983. According to the ''Long term energy demand and supply outlook'' revised in November, 1983, the nuclear power generation in 2000 will be about 62 million kW to cater for about 16 % of primary energy supply. The problems are the improvement of economy, the establishment of independent nuclear fuel cycle, the decommissioning of nuclear reactors and so on. (Kako, I.)

  5. Control technology for nuclear power system of next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report is the summary of the results obtained by the investigation activities for two years carried out by the expert committee on investigation of control technology for nuclear power system of next generation. The course of investigation is outlined, and as the results, as advanced control technologies, adaptive control. H sub (infinite) control, fuzzy control and the application of autonomous distributed system and genetic algorithm to control; as operation support technology, the operation and monitoring system for nuclear power plants and safety support system; as interface technology which is the basic technology of them, virtual reality, multimedia and so on; further, various problems due to human factors, computer technology, artificial intelligence and others were taken up, and the grasp of the present status and the future subjects was carried out, including the information in international conferences. The items of the investigation are roughly divided into measurement and control technologies, interface technology and operation support, human factors, computer technology and artificial intelligence, and the trend in foreign countries, and the results of investigation for respective items are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Optimization in the scale of nuclear power generation and the economy of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu

    1983-01-01

    In the not too distant future, the economy of nuclear power will have to be restudied. Various conditions and circumstances supporting this economy of nuclear power tend to change, such as the decrease in power demand and supply, the diversification in base load supply sources, etc. The fragility in the economic advantage of nuclear power may thus be revealed. In the above connection, on the basis of the future outlook of the scale of nuclear power generation, that is, the further reduction of the current nuclear power program, and of the corresponding supply and demand of nuclear fuel cycle quantities, the aspect of the economic advantage of nuclear power was examined, for the purpose of optimizing the future scale of nuclear power generation (the downward revision of the scale, the establishment of the schedule of nuclear fuel cycle the stagnation of power demand and nuclear power generation costs). (Mori, K.)

  7. The development situation of biomass gasification power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhaoqiu; Yin, Xiuli; Xu, Jie; Ma, Longlong

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the development situation of biomass gasification power generation technology in China and analyzes the difficulty and challenge in the development process. For China, a large agricultural country with abundant biomass resources, the utilization of biomass gasification power generation technology is of special importance, because it can contribute to the electricity structure diversification under the present coal-dominant electricity structure, ameliorate the environmental impact, provide energy to electricity-scarce regions and solve the problems facing agriculture. Up to now, China has developed biomass gasification power generation plants of different types and scales, including simple gas engine-based power generation systems with capacity from several kW to 3 MW and integrated gasification combined cycle systems with capacity of more than 5 MW. In recent years, due to the rising cost of biomass material, transportation, manpower, etc., the final cost of biomass power generation has increased greatly, resulting in a serious challenge in the Chinese electricity market even under present preferential policy for biomass power price. However, biomass gasification power generation technology is generally in accord with the characteristics of biomass resources in China, has relatively good adaptability and viability, and so has good prospect in China in the future. - Highlights: ► Biomass gasification power generation of 2 kW–2 MW has wide utilization in China. ► 5.5 MW biomass IGCC demonstration plant has maximum power efficiency of up to 30%. ► Biomass power generation is facing a serious challenge due to biomass cost increase.

  8. A study on economics of power generation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, S.; Saleem Shahid, M.; Anwar Khan, M.; Khushnood, S.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan is a developing country and has ever increasing requirement of electric power for its development process. Due to lack of timely and proper planning in this field, there has been acute shortage of power supply which has resulted into sever set back specially in industrial sector. To make up this deficiency government of Pakistan invited foreign and local companies for power generation, which has been purchased by WAPDA (water and power development authority-government of Pakistan) at exorbitant rates comparatively higher in this region. The Authors have thoroughly deliberated on the subject, collected the relative data from various government agencies, organizations and literature then carried out the comparative cost analysis of generation of electric power using various resources, keeping in mind the following factors: a) Fuel b) Plant Factor c) Investment Cost d) Operating and Maintenance Cost. The tariff rates of WAPDA have also been considered in this study. Recently two others organizations NEPRA (national electric power regulation authority) and PPIB (private power infrastructure board) has been constituted to regulate the tariffs and issuance of license to the private power generating companies. Now the efforts are in hand to regulate the purchase rate of electric power from the private companies by allowing reasonable profit without exploiting any body. The authors has concluded that timely planning, by providing necessary facilities to the power generation companies and regulating the tariff can facilitate the consumer and protecting them from paying exorbitant tariff. (authors)

  9. The privatization mosaic: International power development agendas and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeffer, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the international trend toward private ownership of state-owned power production, transmission and distribution systems. The topics of the article include trends towards private investment in electric power systems, alternative opportunities for private sector investment, investor objectives in private power development and utility privatization, and potential investors in overseas projects

  10. Issuing certifications of conformity to 'green' power. International approaches and European perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truffer, B.; Markard, J.

    1999-01-01

    The deregulation of the power markets results in an increasing challenge to individual power generators and distributors to place their products in the market. To do so, they need to actively and credibly describe the advantages of their offers to customers. In the sector of the nascent market for power generated from renewable energy sources, independent product certification is an important factor of support. The article analyses international trends in certification procedures for green power with a view to the future of European labelling. (orig.) [de

  11. Integrated biofuel facility, with carbon dioxide consumption and power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, E.E.; Hill, G.A. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This presentation provided details of an economical design for a large-scale integrated biofuel facility for coupled production of bioethanol and biodiesel, with carbon dioxide capture and power generation. Several designs were suggested for both batch and continuous culture operations, taking into account all costs and revenues associated with the complete plant integration. The microalgae species Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in a novel photobioreactor (PBR) in order to consume industrial carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This photosynthetic culture can also act as a biocathode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC), which when coupled to a typical yeast anodic half cell, results in a complete biological MFC. The photosynthetic MFC produces electricity as well as valuable biomass and by-products. The use of this novel photosynthetic microalgae cathodic half cell in an integrated biofuel facility was discussed. A series of novel PBRs for continuous operation can be integrated into a large-scale bioethanol facility, where the PBRs serve as cathodic half cells and are coupled to the existing yeast fermentation tanks which act as anodic half cells. These coupled MFCs generate electricity for use within the biofuel facility. The microalgae growth provides oil for biodiesel production, in addition to the bioethanol from the yeast fermentation. The photosynthetic cultivation in the cathodic PBR also requires carbon dioxide, resulting in consumption of carbon dioxide from bioethanol production. The paper also discussed the effect of plant design on net present worth and internal rate of return. tabs., figs.

  12. Promotion of public awareness relating nuclear power in young generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Although nuclear power presents problems of waste, safety and non-proliferation, many people understand that it is an essential energy for addressing the global climate and reducing CO2. However, a vague negative-image to the radiation and nuclear power is deep-rooted among the public. Young generation is not an exception. It is very important to transfer many information from the experienced generation in the industry to young generations. In this paper, the research that applied the information intelligence to nuclear power, which involves of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the communication related activities for the social acceptance and improvement. (author)

  13. Power generation in the 12-th five-year plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The state of electric power generation in the 11-th five-year plan is summed up. Perspectives of development of heat and electric power generation in the 12-th five-year plan are considered. Thermal power generation of NPPs in 1990 will increase by a factor of 8.4 as compared with 1975. The NPP development will be mainly realized on the basis of the WWER-1000 type reactors. It is planned to commission fast reactors of up to 800 MW

  14. Modeling and Simulation of Generator Side Converter of Doubly Fed Induction Generator-Based Wind Power Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2010-01-01

    A real wind power generation system is given in this paper. SVM control strategy and vector control is applied for generator side converter and doubly fed induction generator respectively. First the mathematical models of the wind turbine rotor, drive train, generator side converter are described...

  15. Stochastic reactive power dispatch in hybrid power system with intermittent wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghavi, Reza; Seifi, Ali Reza; Samet, Haidar

    2015-01-01

    Environmental concerns besides fuel costs are the predominant reasons for unprecedented escalating integration of wind turbine on power systems. Operation and planning of power systems are affected by this type of energy due to the intermittent nature of wind speed inputs with high uncertainty in the optimization output variables. Consequently, in order to model this high inherent uncertainty, a PRPO (probabilistic reactive power optimization) framework should be devised. Although MC (Monte-Carlo) techniques can solve the PRPO with high precision, PEMs (point estimate methods) can preserve the accuracy to attain reasonable results when diminishing the computational effort. Also, this paper introduces a methodology for optimally dispatching the reactive power in the transmission system, while minimizing the active power losses. The optimization problem is formulated as a LFP (linear fuzzy programing). The core of the problem lay on generation of 2m + 1 point estimates for solving PRPO, where n is the number of input stochastic variables. The proposed methodology is investigated using the IEEE-14 bus test system equipped with HVDC (high voltage direct current), UPFC (unified power flow controller) and DFIG (doubly fed induction generator) devices. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated in the case study. - Highlights: • This paper uses stochastic loads in optimization process. • AC–DC load flow is modified to use some advantages of DC part in optimization process. • UPFC and DFIG are simulated in a way that could be effective in optimization process. • Fuzzy set has been used as an uncertainty analysis tool in the optimization

  16. International experiences with power supply crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Many so-called deregulated power markets experience a hardened energy and power balance and some have had supply crises. This report discusses the crises, their impacts and their causes as well as the measures taken by the authorities to solve the crises. It also considers the similarities or dissimilarities with respect to the situation in Norway the winter 2002/2003. Like Norway, many of the countries have a considerable share of hydroelectric power. It is found, however, that the dependence on water of its own is not the reason for the crises, but that the inflow conditions give the market greater challenges. Furthermore, the Norwegian market has greater flexibility in the consumption, greater import capacity, better price security possibilities and less problems with market power than most of the countries here considered. Various factors influence a country's power consumption and production capacity. Economic growth and the availability of inexpensive power contribute to accelerate the consumption, while predictable external conditions and sufficient expected investment earnings are necessary to achieve an increase of the capacity - both through new investments and attendance to existing capacity. In a smooth power market there must be a certain correspondence between consumption and installed capacity, and the capacity must be such that it can cover the continuous demand for power and at the same time be flexible enough to deliver power at peak loads. This is also true of the transmission capacity. In addition, some extra capacity must be available for unexpected events. The basic problem is, in any power market, that the consumption may rise fast, while the investments in new capacity typically occurs in leaps, with long and costly construction phases. Many countries have lately experienced a hardening of the balance between consumption and capacity and so have been vulnerable to unexpected increases in consumption or resource failure. This was also the

  17. Nuclear power internationally, status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laue, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The recent events have stimulated the discussion concerning the human factor in nuclear engineering. Without a guarantee of the reliability and responsibility of everybody concerned, both directly and indirectly, the future of nuclear power will look bleak in an increasing number of countries. The present status and probable future development of nuclear power are outlined, and general trends are discussed. The future use of nuclear power will be concentrated in countries of high political stability which can assure safety, availability and economic efficiency. (orig.) [de

  18. Conflict between internal combustion engine and thermoelectric generator during waste heat recovery in cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhuev, M. A.

    2011-02-01

    It is shown that an internal combustion engine and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) arranged on the exhaust pipe of this engine come into the conflict of thermal machines that is related to using the same energy resource. The conflict grows with increasing useful electric power W e of the TEG, which leads to the limitation of both the maximum TEG output power ( W {e/max}) and the possibility of waste heat recovery in cars.

  19. Optimal generator bidding strategies for power and ancillary services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinec, Allen G.

    As the electric power industry transitions to a deregulated market, power transactions are made upon price rather than cost. Generator companies are interested in maximizing their profits rather than overall system efficiency. A method to equitably compensate generation providers for real power, and ancillary services such as reactive power and spinning reserve, will ensure a competitive market with an adequate number of suppliers. Optimizing the generation product mix during bidding is necessary to maximize a generator company's profits. The objective of this research work is to determine and formulate appropriate optimal bidding strategies for a generation company in both the energy and ancillary services markets. These strategies should incorporate the capability curves of their generators as constraints to define the optimal product mix and price offered in the day-ahead and real time spot markets. In order to achieve such a goal, a two-player model was composed to simulate market auctions for power generation. A dynamic game methodology was developed to identify Nash Equilibria and Mixed-Strategy Nash Equilibria solutions as optimal generation bidding strategies for two-player non-cooperative variable-sum matrix games with incomplete information. These games integrated the generation product mix of real power, reactive power, and spinning reserve with the generators's capability curves as constraints. The research includes simulations of market auctions, where strategies were tested for generators with different unit constraints, costs, types of competitors, strategies, and demand levels. Studies on the capability of large hydrogen cooled synchronous generators were utilized to derive useful equations that define the exact shape of the capability curve from the intersections of the arcs defined by the centers and radial vectors of the rotor, stator, and steady-state stability limits. The available reactive reserve and spinning reserve were calculated given a

  20. Nuclear power generation and nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walske, C.

    1978-01-01

    In the future outlook around year 2000 of nuclear power, thought must be given to fuel reprocessing and plutonium utilization. The adverse utilization of plutonium may be prevented by the means balanced with its economical value. As the method of less cost with lower effect of nonproliferation, combination of fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities and mixed plutonium/uranium processing are possible. As the method of more cost with higher effect of nonproliferation the maintenance of high radioactivity and inaccessibility of plutonium is conceivable. As for the agreeable methods in 2000, seven principles may be mentioned, such as the dependence upon the agreements among major nations and upon nuclear exporting countries. These are still inadequate, however. What is important is to provide with the sufficient safeguards to countries concerned to negate the need for nuclear weapons. Efforts are then necessary for leading nuclear countries to extend aids to other nuclear-oriented countries. (Mori, K.)

  1. An ABC analysis for power generation project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Hasani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on performance measurement is to know how much a particular project cost. However, using traditional method on project-based products often leads to inappropriate results. In this paper, we re-examine this issue by comparing the cost of a power station construction project using ABC versus traditional method. The results of survey show that ABC method is capable of providing better estimates for overhead costs compared with traditional method. In other words, ABC method helps reduce some of the unnecessary overhead cost items and increase on some other cost components. This helps increase the relative efficiency of the system by reducing total cost of project.

  2. Power quality improvement of unbalanced power system with distributed generation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Chen, Zhe; Excell, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a power electronic system for improving the power quality of the unbalanced distributed generation units in three-phase four-wire system. In the system, small renewable power generation units, such as small PV generator, small wind turbines may be configured as single phase...... and control of the converter are described. Simulation results have demonstrated that the system can effectively correct the unbalance and enhance the system power quality....... generation units. The random nature of renewable power sources may result in significant unbalance in the power network and affect the power quality. An electronic converter system is proposed to correct the system unbalance and harmonics so as to deal with the power quality problems. The operation...

  3. Assessment and analysis of wind energy generation and power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study concerns the evaluation of wind power potential and the choice of a wind turbine to be installed near Rabah Bitat international airport of Annaba. Furthermore, the performances of power control of this turbine are developed. For this, the wind speed data measured by meteorological station of th e airport are used.

  4. Future perspective of cost for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Ichiro

    1988-01-01

    The report presents and discussed results of evaluation of the cost for power generation in this and forthcoming years on the basis of an analysis of the current fuel prices and the economics of various power sources. Calculations show that nuclear power generation at present is inferior to coal-firing power generation in terms of required costs, but can become superior in the future due to an increased burn-up and reduced construction cost. Investigations are made of possible contributions of future technical improvements to reduction in the overall cost. Results suggest that nuclear power generation will be the most efficient among the various electric sources because of its technology-intensive feature. Development of improved light water reactors is of special importance to achieve a high burn-up and reduced construction costs. In general, the fixed cost accounts for a large part of the overall nuclear power generation cost, indicating that a reduction in construction cost can greatly increase the economic efficiency. Changes in the yen's exchange rate seem to have little effect on the economics of nuclear power generation, which represents another favorable aspect of this type of energy. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Economical photovoltaic power generation with heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, G.

    1977-01-01

    Three designs for conversion of solar radiation to electricity and thermal energy are analyzed. The objective of these converters is to increase the electric and thermal output for each photovoltaic array so as to lower the cell cost relative to the amount of energy delivered. An analysis of the economical aspects of conversion by photovoltaic cells with heat recovery is carried out in terms of hypothetical examples. Thus, it is shown that the original cost of say $40,000 per generated kilowat can be reduced to $572.00 per kilowatt by increasing the original electric output of 1 kW to 10 kW in electricity and 60 kW in thermal energy. The newly derived specific cost is only 1.4 percent of the original one. It is expected that a cost reduction of roughly 2% of the present specific cost per kilowatt will greatly stimulate public acceptance of photovoltaic terrestrial conversion to electricity.

  6. Environmental effects of the electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez Ocon, C.

    1991-01-01

    Every manner to generate electricity has effects on environment and on the way of life of human society. Nevertheless electricity is a way of secondary energy handy and clean and is also frequently the more efficient, and for its reason its use is growing in countries with a rate superior to the increase in national gross product. This is particularly remarkable in Mexico where still exist population sectors without electricity services and where the demand per capita is left behind with respect to other economic indicators. In the last years, preoccupation for environmental effects in human activities, especially that related with the production and use of energy, has been increasing. 'Acid rain', air and water pollution, destruction of stratospheric ozone layer, global heating, radioactive wastes storage, land use, destruction of tropical forest, inundation of archaeological ruins, extintion of animal and vegetable species, are examples of problems daily expound to society (Author)

  7. UF6 breeder reactor power plants for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, J.H.; Clement, J.D.; Hohl, F.

    1976-01-01

    The reactor concept analyzed is a 233 UF 6 core surrounded by a molten salt (Li 7 F, BeF 2 , ThF 4 ) blanket. Nuclear survey calculations were carried out for both spherical and cylindrical geometries. A maximum breeding ratio of 1.22 was found. Thermodynamic cycle calculations were performed for a variety of Rankine cycles. Optimization of a Rankine cycle for a gas core breeder reactor employing an intermediate heat exchanger gave a maximum efficiency of 37 percent. A conceptual design is presented along with a system layout for a 1000 MW stationary power plant. The advantages of the GCBR are as follows: (1) high efficiency, (2) simplified on-line reprocessing, (3) inherent safety considerations, (4) high breeding ratio, (5) possibility of burning all or most of the long-lived nuclear waste actinides, and (6) possibility of extrapolating the technology to higher temperatures and MHD direct conversion

  8. Virtual Seafloor Reduces Internal Wave Generation by Tidal Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Likun; Swinney, Harry L.

    2014-03-01

    Our numerical simulations of tidal flow of a stratified fluid over periodic knife-edge ridges and random topography reveal that the time-averaged tidal energy converted into internal gravity wave radiation arises only from the section of a ridge above a virtual seafloor. The average radiated power is approximated by the power predicted by linear theory if the height of the ridge is measured relative to the virtual floor. The concept of a virtual floor can extend the applicability of linear theory to global predictions of the conversion of tidal energy into internal wave energy in the oceans.

  9. Nuclear power generation alternative for a clean energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simionov, V; Ibadula, R.; Popescu, Ion.; Bobric, Elena

    2001-01-01

    World Energy Council stated that to raise the efficiency in which energy is provided is a huge challenge for power engineering. Over 60% of primary energy is in effect, wasted. At present 63% of the world's electricity comes from thermal power (coal, oil and gas), 19% from hydro, 17% from nuclear, 0.5% from geothermal and 0.1% from solar, wind and biomass. Nuclear power almost completely avoids all the problems associated within fossil fuels: no greenhouse effect, no acid rain, no air pollution with sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, no oil spills, etc. Its impact on health and environment is related to radiation and is relatively minor. Without pretending a high accuracy of numbers, if the first Romanian nuclear power reactor will be replaced by a coal plant of equivalent capacity, about 5 millions tons of CO 2 and large quantities of associated sulfur and nitrous oxides, would be discharged to the atmosphere each year. However, the acceptance of nuclear power is largely an emotional issue. Based on the environmental monitoring program this paper tries to demonstrate that the routine radioactive emissions of Cernavoda NPP, which are limited by competent national authority, constitutes an insignificant risk increase. The concept of sustainable development was elaborated in the late 1980s and defined as a development that fulfil the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development incorporates equity within and across countries as well as across generations, and integrates economic growth, environmental protection and social welfare. To analyze nuclear energy from a sustainable development perspective it is necessary to consider its economic, environmental and social impacts characteristics, both positive and negative. It is obvious that the development of nuclear energy broadens the natural resource base usable for energy production, and increases human and man-made capital. There are also

  10. IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Biomass for Power Generation and CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy. Biomass for Power Generation and CHP is the topic covered in this edition.

  11. Global analysis of a renewable micro hydro power generation plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Shad; Nabil, Imtiaz Muhammed; Alam, M. Mahbubul

    2017-12-01

    Hydroelectric power or Hydropower means the power generated by the help of flowing water with force. It is one the best source of renewable energy in the world. Water evaporates from the earth's surface, forms clouds, precipitates back to earth, and flows toward the ocean. Hydropower is considered a renewable energy resource because it uses the earth's water cycle to generate electricity. As far as Global is concerned, only a small fraction of electricity is generated by hydro-power. The aim of our analysis is to demonstrate and observe the hydropower of the Globe in micro-scale by our experimental setup which is completely new in concept. This paper consists of all the Global and National Scenario of Hydropower. And how we can more emphasize the generation of Hydroelectric power worldwide.

  12. Investment strategy for low-carbon power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Yukihiro; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Yoshida, Yoshikuni

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it is needed to reduce CO 2 emissions for prevention of global warming. In Japan, the power generation sector is the biggest part in terms of CO 2 emissions, therefore it is very important to cope with the reduction of the emissions from this sector. From this point of view, it is assumed that the nuclear power generation is the most practical option to reduce them. In order to evaluate the possibility of introduction of the nuclear power, we built a generation planning model and simulate to analyze the transition of the optimal generation mix. Also, we evaluate the investment in the introduction of the nuclear power quantitatively using the real option analysis. (author)

  13. World nuclear power generation market and prospects of industry reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoko

    2007-01-01

    In late years there are many trends placing nuclear energy with important energy in various countries in the world due to a remarkable rise to an energy price, importance of energy security and a surge of recognition to a global environment problem. Overseas nuclear industry's acquisition by a Japanese nuclear power plant maker and its capital or business tie-up with an overseas company, were announced in succession in 2006. A nuclear power plant maker has played an extremely important role supporting wide technology in all stages of a design, construction, operation and maintenance in a nuclear power generation business. After having surveyed the recent trend of world nuclear power generation situation, a background and the summary of these acquisition/tie-ups made were investigated and analyzed to consider the influence that movement of such an industry gives a world nuclear power generation market. (T. Tanaka)

  14. The regulation for delivery of subsidies for measures of promoting power source location for nuclear power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Regulation is based on the prescriptions of the Enforcement Order for the Law for Arrangement of Surrounding Areas of Power Generating Facilities, the Law for Proper Budget Enforcement Concerning Subsidies and its Enforcement Order. These rules apply to the subsidies concerning nuclear power generating facilities, reprocessing facilities and test and examination facilities for nuclear fuel materials used for power generating reactors, reactors used for research on the safety of power generating reactors, and experimental reactors for fast breeder reactors. The limits of subsidies are specified respectively for the cases that a unit of power generating facility or two and more units of such facilities are set up in a local municipality. The subsidies are delivered for the expenses occurred in the period, beginning from the fiscal year when construction of the generating facility concerned starts or the arrangement plan of the concerned project is approved, and ending in the fiscal year when such construction comes to an end. The subsidies are given as evenly as possible in each fiscal year. The applicants of the subsidies file the applications attached with the explanations of the projects to the chief of the competent ministry (Director General of the Science and Technology Agency or the Minister of International Trade and Industry). Terms of delivery, reports submitted by the receivers of the subsidies and other related matters are specified. (Okada, K.)

  15. A power conditioning system for thermoelectric generator based on interleaved Boost converter with MPPT control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, L.-X; Sun, K.; Zhang, L.

    2011-01-01

    The thermoelectric generation (TEG) system has its special charactristics of high stablility, low voltage and high current output, which is different from PV modules. The power conditioning system and control schemes used in PV applications cannot be directly applied to TEG applications. A power...... conditioning system for TEG based on interleaved Boost converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control is investigated in this paper. Since an internal resistance exists inside TEG modules, an improved perturbation and observation (P&O) MPPT control scheme with power limit is proposed to extract...... maximum power from TEG by matching the load with internal resistance. Since the battery is usually employed as the load for TEG systems, the interleaved Boost converter operates in two different modes for battery charging: before the battery is fully charged, the system outputs the maximum power (MPPT...

  16. Space photovoltaic power generation. Uchu taiyo hatsuden ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, I [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-07-20

    Introduction is made of space photovoltaic power generation which is the ultimate clean energy source. This is a system to obtain electric energy from the solar cells placed on a geostatic orbit and transmit the power onto the earth by microwave. The US formulates a plan of placing 60[times]5GW power generation satellites to obtain 300GW power on the earth in 2000. As for the scale of space structure, the array of solar cells is dimensionally 10km[times]5km and the power transmitting antenna is 1km in diameter. The electric energy is amplified to microwave and power-transmitted by wireless onto the earth. The ground rectenna which receives it is dimensionally 10km[times]13km. The biggest difficulty consists in transportation of construction materials onto the orbit. In Japan, activity comprises three matters, which are research committee organized three years ago by the Agency of Industrial Science and technology, 10MW class model conceptually designed by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, and experiment conducted by Kyoto University on the power transmission by wireless. Pertaining to the research on the space power generation, the following two points are judged still unclarified: Reason for which the electric power companies did not apply the power transmission by wireless regarded as high in transmission efficiency. Influence of the microwave on the ionosphere and biosystem. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Wind power integration into the automatic generation control of power systems with large-scale wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    2014-01-01

    Transmission system operators have an increased interest in the active participation of wind power plants (WPP) in the power balance control of power systems with large wind power penetration. The emphasis in this study is on the integration of WPPs into the automatic generation control (AGC......) of the power system. The present paper proposes a coordinated control strategy for the AGC between combined heat and power plants (CHPs) and WPPs to enhance the security and the reliability of a power system operation in the case of a large wind power penetration. The proposed strategy, described...... and exemplified for the future Danish power system, takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan for generation and power exchange with neighbouring power systems into account. The performance of the proposed strategy for coordinated secondary control is assessed and discussed by means of simulations for different...

  18. International Monetary Power and China’s Response

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyu Lin

    2013-01-01

    International monetary power has become a new area of interest since the outbreak of the global financial crisis in 2008. The USA, the EU and China will pursue global monetary power in the future, and the USD, the EURO and the RMB will become the most important world reserve currencies. The pattern of international monetary power will shift from a unilateral-hegemony structure to a triangle-balance structure. This shift has a very strong influence on changes in the current international polit...

  19. FEM Simulation of Small Wind Power Generating System Using PMSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesamaru, Katsumi; Ohno, Yoshihiro; Sonoda, Daisuke

    The paper describes a new approach to simulate the small wind power generating systems using PMSG, in which the output is connected to constant resistive load, such as heaters, through the rectifier and the dc chopper. The dynamics of the wind power generating system is presented, and it is shown by simulation results that this approach is useful for system dynamics, such as starting phenomena.

  20. Novel power saving architecture for FBG based OCDMA code generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadola, Tolulope B.; Idris, Siti K.; Glesk, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    A novel architecture for generating incoherent, 2-dimensional wavelength hopping-time spreading optical CDMA codes is presented. The architecture is designed to facilitate the reuse of optical source signal that is unused after an OCDMA code has been generated using fiber Bragg grating based encoders. Effective utilization of available optical power is therefore achieved by cascading several OCDMA encoders thereby enabling 3dB savings in optical power.

  1. Power transmission pricing: issues and international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenhoefer, H.J.; Wohlgemuth, N.

    2001-01-01

    A key aspect of electricity industry reorganization is transmission pricing because it heavily influences the degree of effective competition in 'liberalized' electricity markets. this paper presents an overview transmission pricing models, of issues related to an effective design of a transmission pricing approach, and presents approaches implemented internationally. A conclusion is that, due to the great number of institutional designs of electricity market organizations, particularly in Europe, it will be difficult to design/implement a model of cross-border transmission pricing that is capable of inducing a high degree of non-discriminatory international competition in electricity markets. (author)

  2. Process gas generator feeding internal combustion piston engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwantscheff, G; Kostka, H; Henkel, H J

    1978-10-26

    The invention relates to a process gas generator feeding gaseous fuel to internal combustion piston engines. The cylinder linings of the internal combustion engine are enclosed by the catalytic reaction chamber of the process gas generator which contains perforated sintered nozzle bricks as carriers of the catalysts needed for the conversion. The reaction chamber is surrounded by the exhaust gas chamber around which a tube coil is ound which feeds the fuel charge to the reaction chamber after evaporation and mixing with exhaust gas and air. The fuel which may be used for this purpose, e.g., is low-octane gasoline or diesel fuel. In the reaction chamber the fuel is catalytically converted at temperatures above 200/sup 0/C, e.g., into low-molecular paraffins, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Operation of the internal combustion engine with a process gas generator greatly reduces the pollutant content of the exhaust gases.

  3. Contributions of procoagulants and anticoagulants to the international normalized ratio and thrombin generation assay in patients treated with warfarin: potential role of protein Z as a powerful determinant of coagulation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Qute; Kim, Ji-Eun; Hyun, Jungwon; Han, Kyou-Sup; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2013-07-01

    The effects of warfarin are measured with the international normalized ratio (INR). However, the thrombin generation assay (TGA) may offer more information about global coagulation. We analyzed the monitoring performance of the TGA and INR and investigated the impact of procoagulants (fibrinogen, factor (F)II, FVII, FIX, and FX) and anticoagulants (proteins C, S, and Z) on them. The TGA was performed on a calibrated automated thrombogram, producing lag time, endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), and peak thrombin in 239 patients treated with warfarin. Pro- and anticoagulant levels were also measured. The INR was significantly and inversely correlated with ETP. The therapeutic range of ETP comparable to an INR range of 2.0-3.0 was 290.1-494.6. ETP showed comparable performance to the INR as a warfarin-monitoring parameter with respect to clinical complication rate. The median levels of FII, FVII, FIX, and FX and proteins C and Z tended to decrease gradually with increasing anticoagulation intensity according to the INR or ETP. Of note, protein Z levels decreased dramatically with increasing anticoagulation status. INRs were significantly determined by FII, FVII, and protein Z. ETP was significantly dependent on FVII, and proteins C and Z concentration. Protein Z significantly reduced the total amount of thrombin generation and prolonged PT value in vitro. The INR and ETP exhibit similar efficacy for warfarin monitoring according to the clinical complication rate. Protein Z is considered to be a significant determinant of INR and ETP in patients on warfarin therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. How is Electricity Generated from Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajnef, D.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power is a proven, safe and clean source of power generation. A nuclear power plant is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor. As is typical in all conventional thermal power stations the heat is used to generate steam which drives a steam turbine: the energy released from continuous fission of the atoms of the fuel is harnessed as heat in either a gas or water, and is used to produce steam. Nuclear Reactors are classified by several methods. It can be classified by type of nuclear reaction, by the moderator material, by coolant or by generation. There are several components common to most types of reactors: fuel, moderator, control rods, coolant, and containment. Nuclear reactor technology has been under continuous development since the first commercial exploitation of civil nuclear power in the 1950s. We can mention seven key reactor attributes that illuminate the essential differences between the various generations of reactors: cost effectiveness, safety, security and non-proliferation, fuel cycle, grid appropriateness and Economics. Today there are about 437 nuclear power reactors that are used to generate electricity in about 30 countries around the world. (author)

  5. A General Constant Power Generation Algorithm for Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafti, Hossein Dehghani; Maswood, Ali Iftekhar; Konstantinou, Georgios

    2018-01-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPPs) typically operate by tracking the maximum power point in order to maximize conversion efficiency. However, with the continuous increase of installed grid-connected PVPPs, power system operators have been experiencing new challenges, like overloading, overvoltages...... on a hysteresis band controller in order to obtain fast dynamic response under transients and low power oscillation during steady-state operation. The performance of the proposed algorithm for both single- and two-stage PVPPs is examined on a 50-kVA simulation setup of these topologies. Moreover, experimental...... and operation during grid voltage disturbances. Consequently, constant power generation (CPG) is imposed by grid codes. An algorithm for the calculation of the photovoltaic panel voltage reference, which generates a constant power from the PVPP, is introduced in this paper. The key novelty of the proposed...

  6. Utilizing the building envelope for power generation and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.C.; Kuo, C.H.; Wang, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Heat loading of the building envelope is caused by strong solar radiation and incorrect material selection. As a result of the heat loading of the building envelope, the indoor air temperature is increased, resulting in high energy consumption by air conditioners to maintain a comfortable indoor thermal environment. This study explores the use of a hybrid wall integrated with heat collectors (water piping system) and solar thermal power generators, which absorbs solar radiation through water to reduce heat transmission thereby saving energy and generating power. Power generation is achieved by an OD (oscillator device) that installed between a water tank (hot side) and building interior (cold side). The device acts by temperature differences between hot air (expansion) and cold air (contraction). CFD (computational dynamic simulation) was used to assess the effects of the hybrid wall on the interior environment. The results show that exterior heat is absorbed by cool water thereby reducing the heat transmission into the building, resulting in less energy consumption by air conditioners and power generation by use of temperature differences. - Highlights: • This study explores a hybrid building wall to save energy and generate power. • Power generators operated by air pressure change via hot tank and cool interior. • Less energy consumption by air conditioners and heating water. • Performance of CFD simulated results and experiment results are similar. • The energy saving efficiency is around 15 kWh/day via hybrid wall in west façade.

  7. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  8. Power generation from landfill gas workshop discussion of Session 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loning, A.; Bevan, G.; Moss, H.

    1992-01-01

    The discussion following presentations on the UK Dept. of Energy's involvement with power generation form landfill gas and the UK Government's attitude to pollution prevention from landfill gas power production is presented. The discussion focusses particularly on the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation. (UK)

  9. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    This book presents recent studies on the power electronics used for the next generation wind turbine system. Some criteria and tools for evaluating and improving the critical performances of the wind power converters have been proposed and established. The book addresses some emerging problems...

  10. Establishment of the International Power Institute. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julius E. Coles

    2000-08-04

    The International Power Institute, in collaboration with American industries, seeks to address technical, political, economic and cultural issues of developing countries in the interest of facilitating profitable transactions in power related infrastructure projects. IPI works with universities, governments and commercial organizations to render project-specific recommendations for private-sector investment considerations. IPI also established the following goals: Facilitate electric power infrastructure transactions between developing countries and the US power industry; Collaborate with developing countries to identify development strategies to achieve energy stability; and Encourage market driven solutions and work collaboratively with other international trade energy, technology and banking organizations.

  11. Market power and technological bias in electricity generation markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, Paul; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    It is difficult or very costly to avoid all market power in electricity markets. A recurring response is that a limited amount of market power is accepted with the justification that it is necessary to produce revenues to cover some of the fixed costs. It is assumed that all market participants benefit equally from the increased prices. However, this assumption is not satisfied if different production technologies are used. We assess the case of a generation mix of conventional generation and intermittent generation with exogenously varying production levels. If all output is sold in the spot market, then intermittent generation benefits less from market power than conventional generation. If forward contracts or option contracts are signed, then market power might be reduced but the bias against returns to intermittent generators persists. Thus allowing some level of market power as a means of encouraging investment in new generation may result in a bias against intermittent technologies or increase the costs of strategic deployment to achieve renewable quotas. (Author)

  12. Optimal investment strategies in decentralized renewable power generation under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleten, S.-E.; Maribu, K.M.; Wangensteen, I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating investments in decentralized renewable power generation under price un certainty. The analysis is applicable for a client with an electricity load and a renewable resource that can be utilized for power generation. The investor has a deferrable opportunity to invest in one local power generating unit, with the objective to maximize the profits from the opportunity. Renewable electricity generation can serve local load when generation and load coincide in time, and surplus power can be exported to the grid. The problem is to find the price intervals and the capacity of the generator at which to invest. Results from a case with wind power generation for an office building suggests it is optimal to wait for higher prices than the net present value break-even price under price uncertainty, and that capacity choice can depend on the current market price and the price volatility. With low price volatility there can be more than one investment price interval for different units with intermediate waiting regions between them. High price volatility increases the value of the investment opportunity, and therefore makes it more attractive to postpone investment until larger units are profitable. (author)

  13. Availability estimation of international nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, A.A.T.; Muniz, A.A.

    1978-11-01

    Results are presented of investigation on the factors influencing the availability of nuclear power plants of the PWR type; an estimation of expected values for the availability factor and the probability of its having lower values than a certain specified value are given. (Author) [pt

  14. The Carem reactor: Bridging the gap to nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    An idea is presented as an alternative for the introduction of nuclear power in presently non-nuclear countries. This idea involves going through an intermediate step between the traditional research reactor and the first commercial nuclear power plant. This intermediate step would consist of a very small nuclear power plant, with the principal goal of gaining in experience in the country on all the processes involved in introducing commercial nuclear generation. (author)

  15. A simple maximum power point tracker for thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraskevas, Alexandros; Koutroulis, Eftichios

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method for thermoelectric generators is proposed. • A power converter is controlled to operate on a pre-programmed locus. • The proposed MPPT technique has the advantage of operational and design simplicity. • The experimental average deviation from the MPP power of the TEG source is 1.87%. - Abstract: ThermoElectric Generators (TEGs) are capable to harvest the ambient thermal energy for power-supplying sensors, actuators, biomedical devices etc. in the μW up to several hundreds of Watts range. In this paper, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method for TEG elements is proposed, which is based on controlling a power converter such that it operates on a pre-programmed locus of operating points close to the MPPs of the power–voltage curves of the TEG power source. Compared to the past-proposed MPPT methods for TEGs, the technique presented in this paper has the advantage of operational and design simplicity. Thus, its implementation using off-the-shelf microelectronic components with low-power consumption characteristics is enabled, without being required to employ specialized integrated circuits or signal processing units of high development cost. Experimental results are presented, which demonstrate that for MPP power levels of the TEG source in the range of 1–17 mW, the average deviation of the power produced by the proposed system from the MPP power of the TEG source is 1.87%.

  16. Status of thermal power generation in India-Perspectives on capacity, generation and carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhodip

    2010-01-01

    India's reliance on fossil-fuel based electricity generation has aggravated the problem of high carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from combustion of fossil fuels, primarily coal, in the country's energy sector. The objective of this paper is to analyze thermal power generation in India for a four-year period and determine the net generation from thermal power stations and the total and specific CO 2 emissions. The installed generating capacity, net generation and CO 2 emissions figures for the plants have been compared and large generators, large emitters, fuel types and also plant vintage have been identified. Specific emissions and dates of commissioning of plants have been taken into account for assessing whether specific plants need to be modernized. The focus is to find out areas and stations which are contributing more to the total emissions from all thermal power generating stations in the country and identify the overall trends that are emerging.

  17. Power generation and power system development for the period after 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushtikj, Vangel

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the power generation and power system development worldwide in terms of forecast power and energy production. The conditions of power system ability to meet the changes, caused by the new technologies development and regulatory policy, in the next intensive energy period are also considered. Identified key issues are used to emphasize the guided concepts and principles in power system evolution. (Author)

  18. A Multi-Functional Power Electronic Converter in Distributed Generation Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2005-01-01

    of the converter interfacing a wind power generation unit is also given. The power electronic interface performs the optimal operation in the wind turbine system to extract the maximum wind power, while it also plays a key role in a hybrid compensation system that consists of the active power electronic converter......This paper presents a power electronic converter which is used as an interface for a distributed generation unit/energy storage device, and also functioned as an active power compensator in a hybrid compensation system. The operation and control of the converter have been described. An example...... and passive filters connected to each distorting load or distributed generation (DG) unit. The passive filters are distributely located to remove major harmonics and provide reactive power compensation. The active power electronic filter corrects the system unbalance, removes the remaining harmonic components...

  19. Network integration of distributed generation: international research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.

    2003-07-01

    This report provides information on privately and publicly funded research and development programmes in distributed generation (DG) in the USA, the European Union and Japan. Protection systems for the installation of DG, power electronics for the connection of DG to electricity distribution systems, reliability modelling, power quality issues, connection standards, and simulation and computer modelling are examined. The relevance of the programmes to the UK is considered.

  20. Low temperature heat source for power generation: Exhaustive analysis of a carbon dioxide transcritical power cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez, Fredy; Segovia, Jose; Chejne, Farid; Antolin, Gregorio; Quijano, Ana; Carmen Martin, M.

    2011-01-01

    The main results of a theoretical work on the use of a low temperature heat source for power generation through a carbon dioxide transcritical power cycle are reported in this paper. The procedure for analyzing the behaviour of the proposed cycle consisted in modifying the input pressure to the turbine from 66 bar, maintained constant each evaluated temperature (60 o C, 90 o C, 120 o C and 150 o C) until the net work was approximately zero. As a result, the maximum exergy efficiency was 50%, while the energy efficiencies obtained were 9.8%, 7.3%, 4.9% and 2.4% and the net specific work was 18.2 kJ/kg, 12.8 kJ/kg, 7.8 kJ/kg and 3.5 kJ/kg, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of the addition of an internal heat exchanger, which obviously supposed an increase in the efficiency, was analyzed. The analysis of the proposed system shows the viability of implementing this type of process as an energy alternative and/or strengthener of non-conventional energy sources in non-provided zones, or for increasing the energy efficiency in the industry. -- Highlights: → Energy and exergy analysis of a carbon dioxide transcritical power cycle is reported. → The effect of the inlet temperature to the turbine is evaluated. → Conditions of maximum efficiency and maximum net work are compared. → The inclusion of an IHX is also analysed.