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Sample records for international population based

  1. The International Adoption Project: population-based surveillance of Minnesota parents who adopted children internationally.

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    Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Madsen, Nikki J; Gunnar, Megan R; Grotevant, Harold D; Lee, Richard M; Johnson, Dana E

    2008-03-01

    To conduct the first population-based surveillance in the United States of parents who adopted children from countries outside of the United States. A 556-item survey was mailed to 2,977 parents who finalized an international adoption in Minnesota between January 1990 and December 1998; 1,834 (62%) parents returned a survey. Eighty-eight percent of the parents reported transracial adoptions (97% of the parents were white); 57% of the adopted children were Asian; 60% were female; and on average, the children were 18 months-old at the time of placement. Only 15% of the parents reported household annual incomes less than $50,000 and 71% reported they had college educations. Sixty-one percent traveled to their child's country of birth prior to the adoption. Almost three-quarters involved their children in experiences related to their birth countries and 98% would recommend international adoption. Three-quarters of the parents believe that parental leave was an issue for them as they adopted. This is the first population-based survey of U.S. parents who have adopted internationally. The adoptive parents were socioeconomically different than birth parents in Minnesota and their families are most likely to be transracial. Because international adoption has become more prevalent, it is important to understand the strengths and needs of families that are created through this unique form of migration.

  2. Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1 based sequence typing reveals phylogenetically distinct Ascaris population

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    Koushik Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic differentiation among morphologically identical Ascaris species is a debatable scientific issue in the context of Ascariasis epidemiology. To explain the disease epidemiology and also the taxonomic position of different Ascaris species, genome information of infecting strains from endemic areas throughout the world is certainly crucial. Ascaris population from human has been genetically characterized based on the widely used genetic marker, internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1. Along with previously reported and prevalent genotype G1, 8 new sequence variants of ITS1 have been identified. Genotype G1 was significantly present among female patients aged between 10 to 15 years. Intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD analysis at target locus within our study population has identified an incomplete LD value with potential recombination events. A separate cluster of Indian isolates with high bootstrap value indicate their distinct phylogenetic position in comparison to the global Ascaris population. Genetic shuffling through recombination could be a possible reason for high population diversity and frequent emergence of new sequence variants, identified in present and other previous studies. This study explores the genetic organization of Indian Ascaris population for the first time which certainly includes some fundamental information on the molecular epidemiology of Ascariasis.

  3. International incidence of childhood cancer, 2001-10: a population-based registry study.

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    Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Colombet, Murielle; Ries, Lynn A G; Moreno, Florencia; Dolya, Anastasia; Bray, Freddie; Hesseling, Peter; Shin, Hee Young; Stiller, Charles A

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is a major cause of death in children worldwide, and the recorded incidence tends to increase with time. Internationally comparable data on childhood cancer incidence in the past two decades are scarce. This study aimed to provide internationally comparable local data on the incidence of childhood cancer to promote research of causes and implementation of childhood cancer control. This population-based registry study, devised by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in collaboration with the International Association of Cancer Registries, collected data on all malignancies and non-malignant neoplasms of the CNS diagnosed before age 20 years in populations covered by high-quality cancer registries with complete data for 2001-10. Incidence rates per million person-years for the 0-14 years and 0-19 years age groups were age-adjusted using the world standard population to provide age-standardised incidence rates (WSRs), using the age-specific incidence rates (ASR) for individual age groups (0-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, and 15-19 years). All rates were reported for 19 geographical areas or ethnicities by sex, age group, and cancer type. The regional WSRs for children aged 0-14 years were compared with comparable data obtained in the 1980s. Of 532 invited cancer registries, 153 registries from 62 countries, departments, and territories met quality standards, and contributed data for the entire decade of 2001-10. 385 509 incident cases in children aged 0-19 years occurring in 2·64 billion person-years were included. The overall WSR was 140·6 per million person-years in children aged 0-14 years (based on 284 649 cases), and the most common cancers were leukaemia (WSR 46·4), followed by CNS tumours (WSR 28·2), and lymphomas (WSR 15·2). In children aged 15-19 years (based on 100 860 cases), the ASR was 185·3 per million person-years, the most common being lymphomas (ASR 41·8) and the group of epithelial tumours and melanoma (ASR 39·5

  4. Sleep quality among internally displaced Georgian adolescents and population-based controls.

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    Sakhelashvili, Irine; Eliozishvili, Marine; Lortkipanidze, Nani; Oniani, Nikoloz; Cervena, Katerina; Darchia, Nato

    2016-09-01

    Sleep problems in children and adolescents are a significant public health concern and may be linked to a variety of psychoemotional difficulties. This study aimed to evaluate sleep quality and associated factors in conflict-affected Georgian adolescents after 9 months of forced displacement. Thirty-three internally displaced adolescents (mean age 11.4 years) and 33 adolescents (mean age 10.8 years) from the general population completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Parents completed the Children's Sleep-Wake Scale and provided information on their socioeconomic status (SES) and the adolescents' sleep behavior, academic performance, and peer social relationships. The groups differed significantly in sleep quality, peer relationships, SES, and CDI scores. In the internally displaced group, the only significant predictor of sleep quality was SES, which increased the predictive capacity of the model (demographic and psychosocial variables) by 20% in the hierarchical analyses. The most significant predictor in the non-internally displaced group was CDI. This research indicates that displacement may affect sleep quality and psychosocial functioning. The importance of family SES as a contributing factor to displaced adolescents' poor sleep quality is highlighted. An integrated approach designed to improve the psychosocial environment of internally displaced adolescents is needed for their protection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Maternal underweight and obesity and risk of orofacial clefts in a large international consortium of population-based studies.

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    Kutbi, Hebah; Wehby, George L; Moreno Uribe, Lina M; Romitti, Paul A; Carmichael, Suzan; Shaw, Gary M; Olshan, Andrew F; DeRoo, Lisa; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Murray, Jeffrey C; Wilcox, Allen; Lie, Rolv T; Munger, Ronald G

    2017-02-01

    Evidence on association of maternal pre-pregnancy weight with risk of orofacial clefts is inconsistent. Six large case-control studies of orofacial clefts from Northern Europe and the USA were included in analyses pooling individual-level data. Cases included 4943 mothers of children with orofacial clefts (cleft lip only: 1135, cleft palate with cleft lip: 2081, cleft palate only: 1727) and controls included 10 592 mothers of unaffected children. Association of orofacial cleft risk with pre-pregnancy maternal weight classified by level of body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ) was evaluated using logistic regression adjusting for multiple covariates. Cleft palate, both alone and with cleft lip (CP+/-CL), was associated with maternal class II+ pre-pregnancy obesity (≥ 35)compared with normal weight [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16, 1.58]. CP+/-CL was marginally associated with maternal underweight (aOR = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.36). Cleft lip alone was not associated with BMI. In this largest population-based study to date, we found an increased risk of cleft palate, with or without cleft lip, in class II+ obese mothers compared with normal-weight mothers; underweight mothers may also have an increased risk, but this requires further study. These results also suggest that extremes of weight may have a specific effect on palatal development. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  6. International Students: A Vulnerable Student Population

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    Sherry, Mark; Thomas, Peter; Chui, Wing Hong

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the experiences of international students at The University of Toledo, where international students comprise approximately 10% of the student population. It highlights problems international students experience such as adapting to a new culture, English language problems, financial problems and lack of understanding from the…

  7. Investigation of the international comparability of population-based routine hospital data set derived comorbidity scores for patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Morris, Eva J A; Tataru, Daniela; Coupland, Victoria H; Smith, Andrew; Milne, Roger L; Te Marvelde, Luc; Baker, Deborah; Young, Jane; Turner, Donna; Nishri, Diane; Earle, Craig; Shack, Lorraine; Gavin, Anna; Fitzpatrick, Deirdre; Donnelly, Conan; Lin, Yulan; Møller, Bjørn; Brewster, David H; Deas, Andrew; Huws, Dyfed W; White, Ceri; Warlow, Janet; Rashbass, Jem; Peake, Michael D

    2018-04-01

    The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP) identified significant international differences in lung cancer survival. Differing levels of comorbid disease across ICBP countries has been suggested as a potential explanation of this variation but, to date, no studies have quantified its impact. This study investigated whether comparable, robust comorbidity scores can be derived from the different routine population-based cancer data sets available in the ICBP jurisdictions and, if so, use them to quantify international variation in comorbidity and determine its influence on outcome. Linked population-based lung cancer registry and hospital discharge data sets were acquired from nine ICBP jurisdictions in Australia, Canada, Norway and the UK providing a study population of 233 981 individuals. For each person in this cohort Charlson, Elixhauser and inpatient bed day Comorbidity Scores were derived relating to the 4-36 months prior to their lung cancer diagnosis. The scores were then compared to assess their validity and feasibility of use in international survival comparisons. It was feasible to generate the three comorbidity scores for each jurisdiction, which were found to have good content, face and concurrent validity. Predictive validity was limited and there was evidence that the reliability was questionable. The results presented here indicate that interjurisdictional comparability of recorded comorbidity was limited due to probable differences in coding and hospital admission practices in each area. Before the contribution of comorbidity on international differences in cancer survival can be investigated an internationally harmonised comorbidity index is required. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Population-based cancer screening programmes in low-income and middle-income countries: regional consultation of the International Cancer Screening Network in India.

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    Sivaram, Sudha; Majumdar, Gautam; Perin, Douglas; Nessa, Ashrafun; Broeders, Mireille; Lynge, Elsebeth; Saraiya, Mona; Segnan, Nereo; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Rajaraman, Preetha; Trimble, Edward; Taplin, Stephen; Rath, G K; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2018-02-01

    The reductions in cancer morbidity and mortality afforded by population-based cancer screening programmes have led many low-income and middle-income countries to consider the implementation of national screening programmes in the public sector. Screening at the population level, when planned and organised, can greatly benefit the population, whilst disorganised screening can increase costs and reduce benefits. The International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) was created to share lessons, experience, and evidence regarding cancer screening in countries with organised screening programmes. Organised screening programmes provide screening to an identifiable target population and use multidisciplinary delivery teams, coordinated clinical oversight committees, and regular review by a multidisciplinary evaluation board to maximise benefit to the target population. In this Series paper, we report outcomes of the first regional consultation of the ICSN held in Agartala, India (Sept 5-7, 2016), which included discussions from cancer screening programmes from Denmark, the Netherlands, USA, and Bangladesh. We outline six essential elements of population-based cancer screening programmes, and share recommendations from the meeting that policy makers might want to consider before implementation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Controlled population-based comparative study of USA and international adult [55-74] neurological deaths 1989-2014.

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    Pritchard, C; Rosenorn-Lanng, E; Silk, A; Hansen, L

    2017-12-01

    A population-based controlled study to determine whether adult (55-74 years) neurological disease deaths are continuing to rise and are there significant differences between America and the twenty developed countries 1989-91 and 2012-14. Total Neurological Deaths (TND) rates contrasted against control Cancer and Circulatory Disease Deaths (CDD) extrapolated from WHO data. Confidence intervals compare USA and the other countries over the period. The Over-75's TND and population increases are examined as a context for the 55-74 outcomes. Male neurological deaths rose >10% in eleven countries, the other countries average rose 20% the USA 43% over the period. Female neurological deaths rose >10% in ten counties, averaging 14%, the USA up 68%. USA male and female neurological deaths increased significantly more than twelve and seventeen countries, respectively. USA over-75s population increased by 49%, other countries 56%. Other countries TND up 187% the USA rose fourfold. Male and female cancer and CDD fell in every country averaging 26% and 21%, respectively, and 64% and 67% for CDD. Male neurological rates rose significantly more than Cancer and CCD in every country; Female neurological deaths rose significantly more than cancer in 17 countries and every country for CDD. There was no significant correlation between increases in neurological deaths and decreases in control mortalities. There are substantial increases in neurological deaths in most countries, significantly so in America. Rises in the 55-74 and over-75's rates are not primarily due to demographic changes and are a matter of concern warranting further investigation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Population-based evaluation of a suggested anatomic and clinical classification of congenital heart defects based on the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code

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    Goffinet François

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classification of the overall spectrum of congenital heart defects (CHD has always been challenging, in part because of the diversity of the cardiac phenotypes, but also because of the oft-complex associations. The purpose of our study was to establish a comprehensive and easy-to-use classification of CHD for clinical and epidemiological studies based on the long list of the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC. Methods We coded each individual malformation using six-digit codes from the long list of IPCCC. We then regrouped all lesions into 10 categories and 23 subcategories according to a multi-dimensional approach encompassing anatomic, diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. This anatomic and clinical classification of congenital heart disease (ACC-CHD was then applied to data acquired from a population-based cohort of patients with CHD in France, made up of 2867 cases (82% live births, 1.8% stillbirths and 16.2% pregnancy terminations. Results The majority of cases (79.5% could be identified with a single IPCCC code. The category "Heterotaxy, including isomerism and mirror-imagery" was the only one that typically required more than one code for identification of cases. The two largest categories were "ventricular septal defects" (52% and "anomalies of the outflow tracts and arterial valves" (20% of cases. Conclusion Our proposed classification is not new, but rather a regrouping of the known spectrum of CHD into a manageable number of categories based on anatomic and clinical criteria. The classification is designed to use the code numbers of the long list of IPCCC but can accommodate ICD-10 codes. Its exhaustiveness, simplicity, and anatomic basis make it useful for clinical and epidemiologic studies, including those aimed at assessment of risk factors and outcomes.

  11. Influence of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet quality in childhood on the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders during adolescence: a population-based cohort study.

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    Wu, XiuYun; Bastian, Kerry; Ohinmaa, Arto; Veugelers, Paul

    2018-02-01

    Studies among youth suggest that physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and poor diet quality are associated with poor mental health. Few population-based studies have investigated these relationships longitudinally. We examined the association between physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and diet quality in childhood and the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders throughout adolescence. We linked health behavior survey data from 2003 among 10- to 11-year-old children across Nova Scotia, Canada, with administrative health care data from 2003 to 2011. Students' diet quality was assessed using the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were self-reported, and internalizing and externalizing disorders were diagnosed by a physician. We applied Cox regression to examine the associations of the health behaviors with the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders between 2003 and 2011. Of the 4861 participating students, 23.7% and 9.4% had a diagnosis of internalizing and externalizing disorders, respectively. The incidences of internalizing and externalizing disorders were higher among students who were less physically active and spent more time using computers and video games. These findings suggest that promoting an active lifestyle in childhood may contribute to the prevention of both internalizing and externalizing disorders during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. International Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nowels, Larry; Veillette, Connie

    2006-01-01

    Since 1965, U.S. policy has supported international population planning based on principles of volunteerism and informed choice that gives participants access to information on all methods of birth control...

  13. International Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchfield, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    Since 1965, the U.S. Government has supported international population planning based on principles of volunteerism and informed choice that gives participants access to information on all methods of birth control...

  14. Childhood physical maltreatment, perceived social isolation, and internalizing symptoms: a longitudinal, three-wave, population-based study.

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    Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    A number of cross-sectional studies have consistently shown a correlation between childhood physical maltreatment, perceived social isolation and internalizing symptoms. Using a longitudinal, three-wave design, this study sought to assess the mediating role of perceived social isolation in adulthood in the association between childhood physical maltreatment and internalizing symptoms in adulthood. The study has a three-wave design. We used data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4530), a representative prospective cohort study of men and women. Perceived social isolation was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years, and internalizing symptoms were measured at a mean age of 61.7 years. The difference-in-coefficients method was used to assess the indirect effects and the proportion (%) of mediated effects. Childhood physical maltreatment was associated with an up to 68% [relative risk (RR) = 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-2.13] higher risk of perceived social isolation in adulthood. Childhood physical maltreatment and perceived social isolation in adulthood were associated with greater levels of internalizing symptoms in adulthood (p social isolation in adulthood mediated up to 14.89% (p social isolation into account when considering the impact of childhood physical maltreatment on internalizing symptoms.

  15. Commitment to action. Population Action International.

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    Squires, S

    1994-01-01

    The national chair of Population Action International (formerly the Population Crisis Committee), Robin Chandler Duke, is a crusader for women's reproductive rights. She was in Bangladesh in 1971 during its civil war. Soldiers would rape young Muslim women, and their families would reject them when they became pregnant. The head of the exiled government agreed to let physicians from IPPF perform abortions on these women, which allowed families to take them back. Opposition to the abortions arose, however. This experience in Bangladesh sparked Ms. Duke's interest in population control. Her years as the wife of a US diplomat granted her access to powerful people worldwide. Her predecessor, retired US Army General Bill Draper, called Ms. Duke from his death bed in 1974 to ask her to be national chair of PAI. She served as a delegate in various international meetings, e.g., the 1980 UNESCO meetings in Belgrade. Spain and Luxembourg honored her for her work of campaigning for women's reproductive rights. She believes that rapid population growth is the most significant problem in the world today. It exacerbates poverty, environmental destruction, and political instability. She believes that universal availability of high quality, voluntary family planning services, including safe abortion, is needed to save humanity from the vicious cycle. Since family planning, sex education, and abortion are the most personal and sensitive parts of people's lives, Population Action frames family planning in the context of basic health care. AIDS complicates the issue, because contraception is no longer limited to birth control. Even though the organization realizes that sexual abstinence is the best way to avoid AIDS, it tries to educate female teenagers not to let boys coerce them to have sex. If they do, have sex Population Action advocates condom use. Ms. Duke cites the family planning successes of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, and Thailand.

  16. International non-governmental organizations' provision of community-based tuberculosis care for hard-to-reach populations in Myanmar, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Kyaw Thu; Saw, Saw; van Griensven, Johan; Zhou, Shuisen; Win, Le; Chinnakali, Palanivel; Shah, Safieh; Mon, Myo Myo; Aung, Si Thu

    2017-03-24

    National tuberculosis (TB) programs increasingly engage with international non-governmental organizations (INGOs), especially to provide TB care in complex settings where community involvement might be required. In Myanmar, however, there is limited data on how such INGO community-based programs are organized and how effective they are. In this study, we describe four INGO strategies for providing community-based TB care to hard-to-reach populations in Myanmar, and assess their contribution to TB case detection. We conducted a descriptive study using program data from four INGOs and the National TB Program (NTP) in 2013-2014. For each INGO, we extracted information on its approach and key activities, the number of presumptive TB cases referred and undergoing TB testing, and the number of patients diagnosed with TB and their treatment outcomes. The contribution of INGOs to TB diagnosis in their selected townships was calculated as the proportion of INGO-diagnosed new TB cases out of the total NTP-diagnosed new TB cases in the same townships. All four INGOs implemented community-based TB care in challenging contexts, targeting migrants, post-conflict areas, the urban poor, and other vulnerable populations. Two recruited community volunteers via existing community health volunteers or health structures, one via existing community leaderships, and one directly involved TB infected/affected individuals. Two INGOs compensated volunteers via performance-based financing, and two provided financial and in-kind initiatives. All relied on NTP laboratories for diagnosis and TB drugs, but provided direct observation treatment support and treatment follow-up. A total of 21 995 presumptive TB cases were referred for TB diagnosis, with 7 383 (34%) new TB cases diagnosed and almost all (98%) successfully treated. The four INGOs contributed to the detection of, on average, 36% (7 383/20 663) of the total new TB cases in their respective townships (range: 15-52%). Community-based TB

  17. Latin America: population and internal unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiarda, J H; Siqueira Wiarda, I

    1985-09-01

    This discussion of population and internal unrest in Latin America covers the following: pressures on land and agriculture; economic frustrations; the youth and radicalism; rising social tensions; and political instability. At current growth rates, Latin America's population is projected to increases between 1981 2001 by 225 million people. This staggering population growth is likely to have serious political, economic, social, strategic, and other implications. The strong opposition to family planning which came principally from nationlists, the military, and the church during the 1960s has changed to general support for voluntary family planning programs in much of Latin America. Too rapid population growth now is viewed widely as aggravating the problems of development and putting severe strains on services and facilities. The wish to limit family size is particularly strong among women. Most of Latin America's untapped land is unusable, either so steeply mountainous, densely tropical, or barren of topsoil that it cannot support life at even the most meager level of subsistence. Food production in most of Latin America has not kept pace with population growth. Since most new agricultural production is oriented toward exports rather than home consumption, conditions for most rural populations are worsening. Economic dilemmas facing Latin America include widespread poverty, the world's highest per capita debt, unemployment and underemployment that may reach between 40-50% of the workforce, negative economic growth rates over the past 5 years, immense income inequalities, declining terms of trade, extensive capital flight, little new investment or foreign assistance, increased protectionism on the part of those countriews with whom Latin America must trade, rising prices for the goods Latin America must import, and (in some countries) devastation of the economic infrastrucutre by guerrilla forces. The unprecedent flow from the countryside has made Latin America the

  18. Cancer survival in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the UK, 1995–2007 (the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership): an analysis of population-based cancer registry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, MP; Forman, D; Bryant, H; Butler, J; Rachet, B; Maringe, C; Nur, U; Tracey, E; Coory, M; Hatcher, J; McGahan, CE; Turner, D; Marrett, L; Gjerstorff, ML; Johannesen, TB; Adolfsson, J; Lambe, M; Lawrence, G; Meechan, D; Morris, EJ; Middleton, R; Steward, J; Richards, MA

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Cancer survival is a key measure of the effectiveness of health-care systems. Persistent regional and international differences in survival represent many avoidable deaths. Differences in survival have prompted or guided cancer control strategies. This is the first study in a programme to investigate international survival disparities, with the aim of informing health policy to raise standards and reduce inequalities in survival. Methods Data from population-based cancer registries in 12 jurisdictions in six countries were provided for 2·4 million adults diagnosed with primary colorectal, lung, breast (women), or ovarian cancer during 1995–2007, with follow-up to Dec 31, 2007. Data quality control and analyses were done centrally with a common protocol, overseen by external experts. We estimated 1-year and 5-year relative survival, constructing 252 complete life tables to control for background mortality by age, sex, and calendar year. We report age-specific and age-standardised relative survival at 1 and 5 years, and 5-year survival conditional on survival to the first anniversary of diagnosis. We also examined incidence and mortality trends during 1985–2005. Findings Relative survival improved during 1995–2007 for all four cancers in all jurisdictions. Survival was persistently higher in Australia, Canada, and Sweden, intermediate in Norway, and lower in Denmark, England, Northern Ireland, and Wales, particularly in the first year after diagnosis and for patients aged 65 years and older. International differences narrowed at all ages for breast cancer, from about 9% to 5% at 1 year and from about 14% to 8% at 5 years, but less or not at all for the other cancers. For colorectal cancer, the international range narrowed only for patients aged 65 years and older, by 2–6% at 1 year and by 2–3% at 5 years. Interpretation Up-to-date survival trends show increases but persistent differences between countries. Trends in cancer incidence and

  19. Prevalence of disability in a composite ≥75 year-old population in Spain: A screening survey based on the International Classification of Functioning

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    Gascon-Bayarri Jordi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and predictors of functional status and disability of elderly people have been studied in several European countries including Spain. However, there has been no population-based study incorporating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF framework as the basis for assessing disability. The present study reports prevalence rates for mild, moderate, and severe/extreme disability by the domains of activities and participation of the ICF. Methods Nine populations surveyed in previous prevalence studies contributed probabilistic and geographically defined samples in June 2005. The study sample was composed of 503 subjects aged ≥75 years. We implemented a two-phase screening design using the MMSE and the World Health Organization-Disability Assessment Schedule 2nd edition (WHO-DAS II, 12 items as cognitive and disability screening tools, respectively. Participants scoring within the positive range of the disability screening were administered the full WHO-DAS II (36 items; score range: 0-100 assessing the following areas: Understanding and communication, Getting along with people, Life activities, Getting around, Participation in society, and Self-care. Each disability area assessed by WHO-DAS II (36 items was reported according to the ICF severity ranges (No problem, 0-4; Mild disability, 5-24; Moderate disability, 25-49; Severe/Extreme disability, 50-100. Results The age-adjusted disability prevalence figures were: 39.17 ± 2.18%, 15.31 ± 1.61%, and 10.14 ± 1.35% for mild, moderate, and severe/extreme disability, respectively. Severe and extreme disability prevalence in mobility and life activities was three times higher than the average, and highest among women. Sex variations were minimal, although life activities for women of 85 years and over had more severe/extreme disability as compared to men (OR = 5.15 95% CI 3.19-8.32. Conclusions Disability is highly prevalent among

  20. Is International or Asian Criteria-based Body Mass Index Associated with Maternal Anaemia, Low Birthweight, and Preterm Births among Thai Population?—An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    An observational study was conducted in the four southernmost provinces of Thailand aiming at determining the effect of international or Asian criteria-based body mass index (BMI) in predicting maternal anaemia, low birthweight (LBW), and preterm births among pregnant Thai women and the change in haemoglobin (Hb) level during pregnancy. Maternal anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin (Hb) level of Anaemia was detected in 27.4% and 26.9% of 1,192 pregnant women at their first prenatal visit and the third trimester respectively. The proportions of overweight and obese women according to the Asian criteria-based pre-pregnancy BMI were higher than the international criteria-based BMI (22.4% and 10.1% vs 15.5% and 3.4% respectively). No significant difference between pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy BMI at the first prenatal visit was demonstrated (mean±standard deviation=21.8±4.0 vs 22.8±4.1). Underweight women had a significantly higher prevalence of maternal anaemia, LBW, and preterm birth compared to women with normal weight. Overweight and obese women at pre-pregnancy by the Asian criteria-based BMI had a lower prevalence of anaemia. The Hb levels did not change significantly over time. In addition to BMI, maternal age, parity, and late prenatal visit were independently associated with maternal anaemia, low birthweight, and preterm birth. Underweight pregnant women classified by international or Asian criteria-based BMI increased the risk of maternal anaemia, low birthweight, and preterm birth. PMID:21766557

  1. Radiation Dose to the Esophagus From Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy, 1943-1996: An International Population-Based Study of 414 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamart, Stephanie, E-mail: stephanie.lamart@nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Simon, Steven L. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita E.; Howell, Rebecca M. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Curtis, Rochelle E. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Aleman, Berthe M.P. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Travis, Lois [Rubin Center for Cancer Survivorship and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Kwon, Deukwoo [Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Morton, Lindsay M. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To provide dosimetric data for an epidemiologic study on the risk of second primary esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors, by reconstructing the radiation dose incidentally delivered to the esophagus of 414 women treated with radiation therapy for breast cancer during 1943-1996 in North America and Europe. Methods and Materials: We abstracted the radiation therapy treatment parameters from each patient’s radiation therapy record. Treatment fields included direct chest wall (37% of patients), medial and lateral tangentials (45%), supraclavicular (SCV, 64%), internal mammary (IM, 44%), SCV and IM together (16%), axillary (52%), and breast/chest wall boosts (7%). The beam types used were {sup 60}Co (45% of fields), orthovoltage (33%), megavoltage photons (11%), and electrons (10%). The population median prescribed dose to the target volume ranged from 21 Gy to 40 Gy. We reconstructed the doses over the length of the esophagus using abstracted patient data, water phantom measurements, and a computational model of the human body. Results: Fields that treated the SCV and/or IM lymph nodes were used for 85% of the patients and delivered the highest doses within 3 regions of the esophagus: cervical (population median 38 Gy), upper thoracic (32 Gy), and middle thoracic (25 Gy). Other fields (direct chest wall, tangential, and axillary) contributed substantially lower doses (approximately 2 Gy). The cervical to middle thoracic esophagus received the highest dose because of its close proximity to the SCV and IM fields and less overlying tissue in that part of the chest. The location of the SCV field border relative to the midline was one of the most important determinants of the dose to the esophagus. Conclusions: Breast cancer patients in this study received relatively high incidental radiation therapy doses to the esophagus when the SCV and/or IM lymph nodes were treated, whereas direct chest wall, tangentials, and axillary fields contributed lower

  2. Radiation Dose to the Esophagus From Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy, 1943-1996: An International Population-Based Study of 414 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Stovall, Marilyn; Simon, Steven L.; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita E.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Curtis, Rochelle E.; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Travis, Lois; Kwon, Deukwoo; Morton, Lindsay M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To provide dosimetric data for an epidemiologic study on the risk of second primary esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors, by reconstructing the radiation dose incidentally delivered to the esophagus of 414 women treated with radiation therapy for breast cancer during 1943-1996 in North America and Europe. Methods and Materials: We abstracted the radiation therapy treatment parameters from each patient’s radiation therapy record. Treatment fields included direct chest wall (37% of patients), medial and lateral tangentials (45%), supraclavicular (SCV, 64%), internal mammary (IM, 44%), SCV and IM together (16%), axillary (52%), and breast/chest wall boosts (7%). The beam types used were 60 Co (45% of fields), orthovoltage (33%), megavoltage photons (11%), and electrons (10%). The population median prescribed dose to the target volume ranged from 21 Gy to 40 Gy. We reconstructed the doses over the length of the esophagus using abstracted patient data, water phantom measurements, and a computational model of the human body. Results: Fields that treated the SCV and/or IM lymph nodes were used for 85% of the patients and delivered the highest doses within 3 regions of the esophagus: cervical (population median 38 Gy), upper thoracic (32 Gy), and middle thoracic (25 Gy). Other fields (direct chest wall, tangential, and axillary) contributed substantially lower doses (approximately 2 Gy). The cervical to middle thoracic esophagus received the highest dose because of its close proximity to the SCV and IM fields and less overlying tissue in that part of the chest. The location of the SCV field border relative to the midline was one of the most important determinants of the dose to the esophagus. Conclusions: Breast cancer patients in this study received relatively high incidental radiation therapy doses to the esophagus when the SCV and/or IM lymph nodes were treated, whereas direct chest wall, tangentials, and axillary fields contributed lower doses

  3. Radiation dose to the esophagus from breast cancer radiation therapy, 1943-1996: an international population-based study of 414 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Stovall, Marilyn; Simon, Steven L; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita E; Howell, Rebecca M; Curtis, Rochelle E; Aleman, Berthe M P; Travis, Lois; Kwon, Deukwoo; Morton, Lindsay M

    2013-07-15

    To provide dosimetric data for an epidemiologic study on the risk of second primary esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors, by reconstructing the radiation dose incidentally delivered to the esophagus of 414 women treated with radiation therapy for breast cancer during 1943-1996 in North America and Europe. We abstracted the radiation therapy treatment parameters from each patient's radiation therapy record. Treatment fields included direct chest wall (37% of patients), medial and lateral tangentials (45%), supraclavicular (SCV, 64%), internal mammary (IM, 44%), SCV and IM together (16%), axillary (52%), and breast/chest wall boosts (7%). The beam types used were (60)Co (45% of fields), orthovoltage (33%), megavoltage photons (11%), and electrons (10%). The population median prescribed dose to the target volume ranged from 21 Gy to 40 Gy. We reconstructed the doses over the length of the esophagus using abstracted patient data, water phantom measurements, and a computational model of the human body. Fields that treated the SCV and/or IM lymph nodes were used for 85% of the patients and delivered the highest doses within 3 regions of the esophagus: cervical (population median 38 Gy), upper thoracic (32 Gy), and middle thoracic (25 Gy). Other fields (direct chest wall, tangential, and axillary) contributed substantially lower doses (approximately 2 Gy). The cervical to middle thoracic esophagus received the highest dose because of its close proximity to the SCV and IM fields and less overlying tissue in that part of the chest. The location of the SCV field border relative to the midline was one of the most important determinants of the dose to the esophagus. Breast cancer patients in this study received relatively high incidental radiation therapy doses to the esophagus when the SCV and/or IM lymph nodes were treated, whereas direct chest wall, tangentials, and axillary fields contributed lower doses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The World Population Conference: an international extravaganza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franda, M F

    1974-09-01

    The World Population Conference, held in Bucharest, Romania, August 19-30, 1974 is described. 1287 delegates representing 135 countries, pl us representatives of nongovernmental organizations, participants in related activities, and journalists attended. The task of the delegates was: 1) to decide on procedures; 2) to amend and approve a 20-page World Population Plan of Action (WPPA); and 3) to participate in 3 conference committees on social and economic development, natural resources and the environment, and family and human rights. The major political problem was that 106 of the 148 countries invited considered their population growth rates to be either satisfactory or too slow. The Chinese, Latin Americans, Africans, and the Holy See were opposed to family planning programs and directed most of their criticism toward the U.S. The Chinese and the U.S.S.R. both opposed the WPPA on most key votes, with both influencing much of the Third World. The U.S., Western Europe, Oceania, and most of Asia supported the draft WPPA. When the votes were counted, the draft WPPA had been weakened, although some strong statements favoring government family planning programs were retained. Perhaps the fact that such a conference was actually held is a step in the right direction.

  5. International Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nowels, Larry; Veillette, Connie

    2006-01-01

    .... international family planning programs. In 1984, controversy arose over U.S. population aid policy when the Reagan Administration introduced restrictions, which became known as the "Mexico City policy...

  6. International Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchfield, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    .... international family planning programs. In 1984, controversy arose over U.S. population aid policy when the Reagan Administration introduced restrictions, which became known as the "Mexico City policy...

  7. Illegality of international population movements in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolski, M

    2000-01-01

    Until the beginning of the 1990s Poland did not receive foreign migrants. Thereafter, the situation changed dramatically. A large part of the inflow proved to be illegal migrants, many of whom were in transit to Western Europe. Although these movements gradually declined in the second half of the decade, some became increasingly identified with relatively sophisticated smuggling of people. Foreigners smuggled from the South to the West, together with the international criminal networks assisting them, became typical of the migratory movements of people in Central and Eastern Europe during the 1990s. This article seeks to describe illegal migration from the perspective of Poland, a country often perceived as a major transit area in the smuggling of persons to Western Europe. The conclusions draw on the findings of several surveys recently carried out in Poland. Basic concepts related to illegal migration are defined and juxtaposed, and various myths and stereotypes concerning it that most often stem from the paucity of empirical evidence are examined. Finally, the trends observed in Poland are interpreted within the larger context of contemporary European migration.

  8. Interim Feed The Future Population Based Assessment of Cambodia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This is the interim population based survey of Feed the Future in Cambodia for 2015. The data is split into survey modules. Modules A through C includes location...

  9. Epilepsy-associated stigma in Bolivia: a community-based study among the Guarani population: an International League Against Epilepsy/International Bureau for Epilepsy/World Health Organization Global Campaign Against Epilepsy Regional Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Elisa; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Sofia, Vito; Rafael, Florentina; Magnelli, Donata; Padilla, Sandra; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Bartalesi, Filippo; Segundo, Higinio; Zappia, Mario; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2012-09-01

    Epilepsy is associated with a significant burden of social stigma that appears to be influenced by psychosocial and cultural factors. Stigma has a negative effect on the management of people with epilepsy (PWE), representing one of the major factors that contribute to the burden of epilepsy. To assess stigma perception among the Guarani population, one hundred thirty-two people living in Guaraní communities in Bolivia were invited to complete the Stigma Scale of Epilepsy questionnaire. The main determinants of stigma identified were: the fear linked to loss of control, the feelings of sadness and pity toward PWE, the difficulties faced by PWE in the professional and relationship fields, the level of education and type of seizure. Our study pointed out that, in this population, PWE face difficulties in everyday life because of epilepsy-associated stigma and the results attest to the importance of promoting community-based educational programs aimed at reducing the stigmatization process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Internal doses to Ukrainian populations using Dnieper River water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovski, V.; Ratia, G.; Nasvit, O.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of internal doses from 137 Cs and 90 Sr as a consequence of the use of Dnieper River water were calculated. Local peculiarities of municipal tap, irrigation, and fish consumption in the Ukraine were considered. The dynamics of 90 Sr accumulation in human bone as a result of the use of Dnieper water is simulated. The dose predictions are based on de facto data and the stochastic forecast of radionuclide concentrations in Dnieper reservoirs. A large array of statistical data on the age-structures of exposed populations, food consumption rate, agricultural production, fish contamination, and site-specific parameters were used. Exposures are estimated for 12 regions of the Dnieper basin and the Crimea Republic. The maximal individual annual committed effective doses are 1.7 x 10 -5 and 2.7 x 10 -5 Sv from 90 Sr and 137 Cs, respectively, due to the use of water in 1986 by members of the population in the Kievska region. Commercial fishermen on the Kievska reservoir, who consumed 360 kg y -1 of fish in 1986, received 4.7 x 10 -4 and 5 x 10 -3 Sv from 90 Sr and 137 Cs, respectively. The contributions to the collective (over 70 6) effective dose of irrigation, municipal tap water, and fish consumption for members of the general public, respectively, are 18%, 43%,39% in the Kievska region; 8%,25%,67% in the Poltavska region; 50% 50%, 0% (no Dnieper fish consumed) in the Crimea Republic. The predicted contribution of 90 Sr to collective dose resulting from the use of water is 80%. The collective dose to the population of the Dnieper regions (32.5 million people) is 3,000 person-Sv, due to the use of water. 14 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Population, internal migration, and economic growth: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, R S

    1982-01-01

    The role of population growth in the development process has received increasing attention during the last 15 years, as manifested in the literature in 3 broad categories. In the 1st category, the effects of rapid population growth on the growth of income have been studied with the use of simulation models, which sometimes include endogenous population growth. The 2nd category of the literature is concerned with theoretical and empirical studies of the economic determinants of various demographic rates--most usually fertility. Internal migration and dualism is the 3rd population development category to recieve attention. An attempt is made to synthesize developments in these 3 categories by estimating from a consistent set of data a 2 sector economic demographic model in which the major demographic rates are endogenous. Due to the fact that the interactions between economic and demographic variables are nonlinear and complex, the indirect effects of changes in a particular variable may depend upon the balance of numerical coefficients. For this reason it was felt that the model should be empirically grounded. A brief overview of the model is provided, and the model is compared to some similar existing models. Estimation of the model's 9 behavior equations is discussed, followed by a "base run" simulation of a developing country "stereotype" and a report of a number of policy experiments. The relatively new field of economic determinants of demographic variables was drawn upon in estimating equations to endogenize demographic phenomena that are frequently left exogenous in simulation models. The fertility and labor force participation rate functions are fairly standard, but a step beyong existing literature was taken in the life expectancy and intersectorial migration equations. On the economic side, sectoral savings functions were estimated, and it was found that the marginal propensity to save is lower in agriculture than in nonagriculture. Testing to see the

  12. [International conference on population and development in Cairo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Enk, A

    1994-11-05

    The UN Conference on Population and Development was held in Cairo in September 1994, and dealt with a range of sensitive issues that were eventually recorded in an action program. In addition, a sort of shadow conference was also held by various organizations. The precedents of this conference were the conferences held in Bucharest in 1974, which stressed the world crisis and population explosion, and in Mexico in 1984, where the first signs of the slackening of population growth induced less emphasis on family planning programs and more on the status of women. At Cairo again a crisis atmosphere reigned because rapid population growth has not been followed by rapid development. Birth control discussions also focused on ethical and religious norms, human rights, and emancipation problems. Most of all, the sustainability of development programs was stressed. Global decline of mortality combined with a continuing high birth rate has resulted in a population growth of 3% or more. In the course of 40 years the growth was 46% in industrialized countries as compared to 161% in the poorest lands. The total world population has reached 5 billion, of which only 20% live industrial countries. The influence of the AIDS epidemic on the demographic figures is not likely to be as much as anticipated a few years ago. Other problems are demographic aging, population decline (a below replacement fertility rate in Japan, Spain, and Italy), and uncontrolled internal and international migration (refugees in developing countries and flight to major cities). In the next 30 years almost two-thirds of the population of developing countries will be living in shabby, sprawling megacities. In 1989, in preparation for the Cairo conference, an international forum was held in Amsterdam on population. It dealt with the reproductive rights of women, the negative impact of structural readjustment programs on family planning, and the priority of women's education.

  13. University Response to Crisis Events Involving International Populations: The Case of Seven Directors of International Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, James P.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research study focuses on crisis events affecting university international populations. It explores how seven directors of university international offices at seven different geographical locations in Texas respond to those events. The study findings shed light on the current state of crisis preparedness in higher education from…

  14. International Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-24

    activities and USAID began to purchase contraceptives for distribution through its programs in the developing world. The first International Population...agenda of initiatives that include the promotion of gender equality, increasing adolescent education on sexuality and reproductive health, and...maintains family planning projects in more than 60 countries that include counseling and services, training of health workers, contraceptive supplies and

  15. Internal population displacement and its aftermath on Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper interrogated the corporate existence of Nigeria and raised some fundamental questions regarding reasons for discontent, violent conflicts and internal population displacement in Nigeria given her enormous resources, both human and material. The paper through intensive content analysis provided answers to ...

  16. Nationwide and population-based prescription patterns in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to describe prescription patterns and changes in these patterns over the last decade for patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder in mental healthcare, using population-based and nationwide data, and to relate the findings to recommendations from...... international guidelines. METHODS: A population-based, nationwide study was carried out. It included register-based longitudinal data on all patients with a first-ever contact with mental healthcare with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder from the entire Danish population, and all prescription data...

  17. Population-based screening versus case detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ravi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available India has a large burden of blindness and population-based screening is a strategy commonly employed to detect disease and prevent morbidity. However, not all diseases are amenable to screening. This communication examines the issue of "population-based screening" versus "case detection" in the Indian scenario. Using the example of glaucoma, it demonstrates that given the poor infrastructure, for a "rare" disease, case detection is more effective than population-based screening.

  18. Control of internal exposure doses of Belarus population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minenko, V.; Drozdovich, V.; Ulanovski, A.; Ternov, V.I.; Vasilyeva, I.

    1997-01-01

    Starting from May 1986 instrumental control of internal exposure is being carried out in Belarus using different equipment. In earlier, iodine period, the basic aim of the control was a mass screening of the population for defining of iodine content in thyroid. After the iodine period attention of the radiological control was focused on monitoring of caesium radionuclides content in human bodies of the inhabitants of radioactively contaminated territories. Goals of the control were changing, depending on the time that passed since the day of the accident. Nowadays the National Commission of Belarus recognizes entering of the, Republic into rehabilitation period of the accident of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Developed Conception of Protection Measures for the rehabilitation period for the population living at the territories affected by the radioactive contamination in the result of the Chernobyl catastrophe

  19. Feasibility, internal consistency and covariates of TICS-m (telephone interview for cognitive status-modified) in a population-based sample: findings from the KORA-Age study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Me; Emeny, Rt; Bickel, H; Linkohr, B; Ladwig, Kh

    2013-09-01

    Test the feasibility of the modified telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS-m) as a screening tool to detect cognitive impairment in a population-based sample of older subjects. Data were collected from 3,578 participants, age 65-94 years, of the KORA-Age study. We used analysis of covariance to test for significant sex, age and educational differences in raw TICS-m scores. Internal consistency was analysed by assessing Cronbach's alpha. Correction for education years was undertaken, and participants were divided in three subgroups following validated cut-offs. Finally, a logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of sex on cognition subgroups. Internal consistency of the TICS-m was 0.78. Study participants needed approximately 5.4 min to complete the interview. Lower raw TICS-m scores were associated with male sex, older age and lower education (all p education years, 2,851 (79%) had a non-impaired cognitive status (score >31). Male sex was independently associated with having a score equal to or below 27 and 31 (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.5 and OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.7, respectively). The TICS-m is a feasible questionnaire for community-dwelling older adults with normal cognitive function or moderate cognitive impairment. Lower cognitive performance was associated with being a man, being older, and having fewer years of formal education. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Understanding differences in access and use of healthcare between international immigrants to Chile and the Chilean-born: a repeated cross-sectional population-based study in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena; Pickett, Kate E; Gideon, Jasmine

    2012-11-16

    International evidence indicates consistently lower rates of access and use of healthcare by international immigrants. Factors associated with this phenomenon vary significantly depending on the context. Some research into the health of immigrants has been conducted in Latin America, mostly from a qualitative perspective. This population-based study is the first quantitative study to explore healthcare provision entitlement and use of healthcare services by immigrants in Chile and compare them to the Chilean-born. Data come from the nationally representative CASEN (Socioeconomic characterization of the population in Chile) surveys, conducted in 2006 and 2009. Self-reported immigrants were compared to the Chilean-born, by demographic characteristics (age, sex, urban/rural, household composition, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: education, household income, contractual status), healthcare provision entitlement (public, private, other, none), and use of primary services. Weighted descriptive, stratified and adjusted regression models were used to analyse factors associated with access to and use of healthcare. There was an increase in self-reported immigrant status and in household income inequality among immigrants between 2006 and 2009. Over time there was a decrease in the rate of immigrants reporting no healthcare provision and an increase in reporting of private healthcare provision entitlement. Compared to the Chilean-born, immigrants reported higher rates of use of antenatal and gynaecological care, lower use of well-baby care, and no difference in the use of Pap smears or the number of attentions received in the last three months. Immigrants in the bottom income quintile were four times more likely to report no healthcare provision than their equivalent Chilean-born group (with different health needs, i.e. vertical inequity). Disabled immigrants were more likely to have no healthcare provision compared to the disabled Chilean-born (with similar health

  1. 'Wildlife 2001: Populations', an International Conference on Population Dynamics and Management of Vertebrates

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Reginald

    1992-01-01

    In 1984, a conference called Wildlife 2000: Modeling habitat relationships of terrestrial vertebrates, was held at Stanford Sierra Camp at Fallen Leaf Lake in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. The conference was well-received, and the published volume (Verner, J. , M. L. Morrison, and C. J. Ralph, editors. 1986. Wildlife 2000: modeling habitat relationships of terrestrial vertebrates, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin, USA) proved to be a landmark publication that received a book award by The Wildlife Society. Wildlife 2001: populations was a followup conference with emphasis on the other major biological field of wildlife conservation and management, populations. It was held on July 29-31, 1991, at the Oakland Airport Hilton Hotel in Oakland, California, in accordance with our intent that this conference have a much stronger international representation than did Wildlife 2000. The goal of the conference was to bring together an international group of specialists to address the state ...

  2. Revising Sangiovanni's reciprocity-based internationalism: towards international egalitarian obligations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Heaney

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To whom do we owe obligations of socio-economic justice? How are such obligations generated? Internationalism denotes a range of approaches to these questions. This paper examines Andrea Sangiovanni's—an internationalist—response to these questions. Sangiovanni argues that we owe egalitarian obligations only to those in the state, and that egalitarian obligations are generated through relationships of ‘reciprocity’. His is a ‘reciprocity-based internationalism’ (RBI. RBI has two components—one normative and another empirical. In this paper, I will assume the normative component, but reject its empirical component. My rejection of the empirical component has normative implications for RBI, which generate egalitarian obligations beyond the state. In other words, my revision of RBI is an argument in favour of international egalitarian obligations not generated through cosmopolitanism, but through internationalism.

  3. Population-based contracting (population health): part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacofsky, D J

    2017-11-01

    Modern healthcare contracting is shifting the responsibility for improving quality, enhancing community health and controlling the total cost of care for patient populations from payers to providers. Population-based contracting involves capitated risk taken across an entire population, such that any included services within the contract are paid for by the risk-bearing entity throughout the term of the agreement. Under such contracts, a risk-bearing entity, which may be a provider group, a hospital or another payer, administers the contract and assumes risk for contractually defined services. These contracts can be structured in various ways, from professional fee capitation to full global per member per month diagnosis-based risk. The entity contracting with the payer must have downstream network contracts to provide the care and facilities that it has agreed to provide. Population health is a very powerful model to reduce waste and costs. It requires a deep understanding of the nuances of such contracting and the appropriate infrastructure to manage both networks and risk. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1431-4. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  4. International funding for malaria control in relation to populations at risk of stable Plasmodium falciparum transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Snow

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The international financing of malaria control has increased significantly in the last ten years in parallel with calls to halve the malaria burden by the year 2015. The allocation of funds to countries should reflect the size of the populations at risk of infection, disease, and death. To examine this relationship, we compare an audit of international commitments with an objective assessment of national need: the population at risk of stable Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in 2007.The national distributions of populations at risk of stable P. falciparum transmission were projected to the year 2007 for each of 87 P. falciparum-endemic countries. Systematic online- and literature-based searches were conducted to audit the international funding commitments made for malaria control by major donors between 2002 and 2007. These figures were used to generate annual malaria funding allocation (in US dollars per capita population at risk of stable P. falciparum in 2007. Almost US$1 billion are distributed each year to the 1.4 billion people exposed to stable P. falciparum malaria risk. This is less than US$1 per person at risk per year. Forty percent of this total comes from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Substantial regional and national variations in disbursements exist. While the distribution of funds is found to be broadly appropriate, specific high population density countries receive disproportionately less support to scale up malaria control. Additionally, an inadequacy of current financial commitments by the international community was found: under-funding could be from 50% to 450%, depending on which global assessment of the cost required to scale up malaria control is adopted.Without further increases in funding and appropriate targeting of global malaria control investment it is unlikely that international goals to halve disease burdens by 2015 will be achieved. Moreover, the additional financing

  5. Representativeness in population-based studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drivsholm, Thomas Bo; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Davidsen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Decreasing rates of participation in population-based studies increasingly challenge the interpretation of study results, in both analytic and descriptive epidemiology. Consequently, estimates of possible differences between participants and non-participants are increasingly important...... for the interpretation of study results and generalization to the background population....

  6. Internal migration and the health of the returned population: a nationally representative study of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Guoying; Wu, Shaolong

    2015-07-28

    China had 236 million internal migrants in 2012 and the majority of them migrated from rural to urban areas. The research based on medical and epidemical records found that the migrants had worse health than the urban residents, but the household and working place investigations reported better health status. The sick or unhealthy migrants are likely to return to their hometowns, which in turn may cause a report bias or over-estimation of the health status of rural-to-urban migrants in China. This paper explores the association of migration status and the physical and psychological health of Chinese internal migrants. Nationally representative household survey data from the China Labor-force Dynamics Survey 2012 (CLDS) were used to analyze the association between the migration status and the health status of internal migrants in China. Migration status of the respondents was measured by hukou status and migration experience and all respondents were divided into four groups: returned population, migrant population, urban residents, and rural residents. Health status of respondents was measured by self-reported physical and psychological health. Migration experience was associated with the physical health of the returned population. The physical health of the returned population was worse than the migrant population and was distinguished by age and sex. The physical health status of migrant population was significantly better than rural residents, but not significantly better than urban residents. However, the association between migration status and psychological health was not statistically significant. Besides migration status, the socioeconomic status (SES) had a positive correlation with both physical and psychological health status, while occupational hazards exerted negative influence. The results indicate a tight association between migration experience and health status. The internal unhealthy migrants were more likely to return to their hometown and the

  7. Model-based internal wave processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V.; Chambers, D.H.

    1995-06-09

    A model-based approach is proposed to solve the oceanic internal wave signal processing problem that is based on state-space representations of the normal-mode vertical velocity and plane wave horizontal velocity propagation models. It is shown that these representations can be utilized to spatially propagate the modal (dept) vertical velocity functions given the basic parameters (wave numbers, Brunt-Vaisala frequency profile etc.) developed from the solution of the associated boundary value problem as well as the horizontal velocity components. Based on this framework, investigations are made of model-based solutions to the signal enhancement problem for internal waves.

  8. International Conference “Ultraviolet Properties of Evolved Stellar Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Chavez Dagostino, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date collection of reviews and contributed articles in the field of ultraviolet astronomy. Its content has been mainly motivated by the recent access to the rest frame UV light of distant red galaxies, gained through large optical facilities. This driveway has derived in a renewed interest on the stars that presumably dominate or have important effects on the integrated UV properties of evolved systems of the nearby and faraway Universe. The topics included in this volume extend from the fresh spectroscopic analyses of high redshift early-type galaxies observed with the 8-10m class telescopes to the fundamental outcomes from various satellites, from the long-lived International Ultraviolet Explorer to current facilities, such as the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. This is one of the few volumes published in recent years devoted to UV astronomical research and the only one dedicated to the properties of evolved stellar populations at these wavelengths. This contemporary panorama will be ...

  9. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Population Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nwokediuko, Sylvester

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease varies in different parts of the world. There are no population based studies in Nigeria. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease in a population of Nigerian medical students. Methods The Carlsson-Dent questionnaire was administered to medical students in the clinical phase of their training at the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus. Some putative risk ...

  10. Understanding differences in access and use of healthcare between international immigrants to Chile and the Chilean-born: a repeated cross-sectional population-based study in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction International evidence indicates consistently lower rates of access and use of healthcare by international immigrants. Factors associated with this phenomenon vary significantly depending on the context. Some research into the health of immigrants has been conducted in Latin America, mostly from a qualitative perspective. This population-based study is the first quantitative study to explore healthcare provision entitlement and use of healthcare services by immigrants in Chile and compare them to the Chilean-born. Methods Data come from the nationally representative CASEN (Socioeconomic characterization of the population in Chile) surveys, conducted in 2006 and 2009. Self-reported immigrants were compared to the Chilean-born, by demographic characteristics (age, sex, urban/rural, household composition, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: education, household income, contractual status), healthcare provision entitlement (public, private, other, none), and use of primary services. Weighted descriptive, stratified and adjusted regression models were used to analyse factors associated with access to and use of healthcare. Results There was an increase in self-reported immigrant status and in household income inequality among immigrants between 2006 and 2009. Over time there was a decrease in the rate of immigrants reporting no healthcare provision and an increase in reporting of private healthcare provision entitlement. Compared to the Chilean-born, immigrants reported higher rates of use of antenatal and gynaecological care, lower use of well-baby care, and no difference in the use of Pap smears or the number of attentions received in the last three months. Immigrants in the bottom income quintile were four times more likely to report no healthcare provision than their equivalent Chilean-born group (with different health needs, i.e. vertical inequity). Disabled immigrants were more likely to have no healthcare provision compared to the disabled Chilean

  11. Understanding differences in access and use of healthcare between international immigrants to Chile and the Chilean-born: a repeated cross-sectional population-based study in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabieses Baltica

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction International evidence indicates consistently lower rates of access and use of healthcare by international immigrants. Factors associated with this phenomenon vary significantly depending on the context. Some research into the health of immigrants has been conducted in Latin America, mostly from a qualitative perspective. This population-based study is the first quantitative study to explore healthcare provision entitlement and use of healthcare services by immigrants in Chile and compare them to the Chilean-born. Methods Data come from the nationally representative CASEN (Socioeconomic characterization of the population in Chile surveys, conducted in 2006 and 2009. Self-reported immigrants were compared to the Chilean-born, by demographic characteristics (age, sex, urban/rural, household composition, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES: education, household income, contractual status, healthcare provision entitlement (public, private, other, none, and use of primary services. Weighted descriptive, stratified and adjusted regression models were used to analyse factors associated with access to and use of healthcare. Results There was an increase in self-reported immigrant status and in household income inequality among immigrants between 2006 and 2009. Over time there was a decrease in the rate of immigrants reporting no healthcare provision and an increase in reporting of private healthcare provision entitlement. Compared to the Chilean-born, immigrants reported higher rates of use of antenatal and gynaecological care, lower use of well-baby care, and no difference in the use of Pap smears or the number of attentions received in the last three months. Immigrants in the bottom income quintile were four times more likely to report no healthcare provision than their equivalent Chilean-born group (with different health needs, i.e. vertical inequity. Disabled immigrants were more likely to have no healthcare provision compared

  12. The Philippines: country statement prepared for the International Conference on Population, Mexico City, August 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    This statement, prepared for the 1984 International Conference on Population, summarizes the demographic situation in the Philippines, the Philippine position regarding implementation of the World Population Plan of Action, and current population policies. In 1980, the population of the Philippines stood at 48.1 million. The country's current population growth rate reflects the interplay between decreasing mortality and still high but declining fertility. The 1984-87 Philippine Development Plan aims to achieve sustainable economic growth, equitable distribution of the gains of development, and personal development. A net reproduction rate of unity by the year 2000 is sought, and preschool-age children, youth, premarriage-age groups, and married couples of reproductive age have been targeted for special outreach efforts. The national population program will concentrate on developing a network of public and private community-based organizations, strengthening the capacity of local government and community organizations to plan and manage the population program, developing community capacity to finance family planning services, upgrading the quality of natural family planning practice, continuing the promotion of effective contraceptive methods, developing a population data bank, and upgrading the technical and management capabilities of population program personnel. Increasing attention is being paid to regional development and spatial distribution. The average annual population growth rate is expected to decline from 2.8% in 1970-75 to 2.2% by 1987. The crude birth rate is expected to drop from 34/1000 in 1980 to 31/1000 in 1987. To help achieve this goal, the contraceptive prevalence rate should increase from 34% in 1983 to 41% in 1987 and 50% by 1993. In addition, attempts will be made to reduce the proportion of women marrying below the age of 20 years and to improve women's access to educational and employment opportunities.

  13. Population based reference intervals for common blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population based reference intervals for common blood haematological and biochemical parameters in the Akuapem north district. K.A Koram, M.M Addae, J.C Ocran, S Adu-amankwah, W.O Rogers, F.K Nkrumah ...

  14. Molecular phylogeny of Ranunculaceae based on internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The botanical family Ranunculaceae contains important medicinal plants. To obtain new evolutionary evidence regarding the systematic classification of Ranunculaceae plants, we used molecular phylogenies to test relationships based on the internal transcribed spacer region. The results of phylogenetic analysis of 92 ...

  15. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  16. Reference man models based on normal data from human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Gi-ichiro; Kawamura, Hisao

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative description of the physical, and metabolic parameters of the human body is the very basic for internal dosimetry. Compilation of anatomical and other types of data Asian populations for internal (and external) dosimetry is of grate significance because of the potential spread of nuclear energy use in the Asian region and the major contribution of the region to the world population (about 58%). It has been observed that some differences exist for habitat, race, body sizes and pattern of food consumption. In the early stage of revision of ICRP Reference man by the Task Group, Characteristics of the human body of non-European populations received considerable attention as well as those of the European populations of different sexes and ages. In this context, an IAEA-RCA Co-ordinated Research Program on Compilation of Anatomical, Physiological and Metabolic Characteristics for a Reference Asian Man endorsed. In later stages of reference Man revision, anatomical data for Asians was discusses together with those of European populations, presumably due to ICRP's decision of unanimous use of the Reference Man for radiation protection. Reference man models for adults and 15, 10, 5, 1, 0 year-old males and females of Asian populations were developed for use in internal and external dosimetry. Based on the concept of ICRP Reference Man (Publication 23), the reference values were derived from the normal organ mass data for Japanese and statistical data on the physique and nutrition of Japanese and Chinese. Also incorporated were variations in physical measurements, as observed in the above mentioned IAEA-RCA Co-ordinated Research Program. The work was partly carried out within the activities of the ICRP Task Group on Reference Man. The weight of the skeleton was adjusted following the revised values in Publication 70. This paper will report basic shared and non-shared characteristics of Reference Man' for Asians and ICRP Reference Man. (author)

  17. Internal exposure of populations to long-lived radionuclides released into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses the events that led to the contamination of environments with the long-lived radionuclides of caesium, strontium and other elements, and to the internal exposure of populations living in contaminated areas. Among these events are radioactive releases into the river Techa from the Soviet nuclear weapons facility Mayak in 1949-1956, thermonuclear weapons test in the 1950s and 1960s, the Kyshtim and Windscale accidents in 1957, and the Chernobyl and Tomsk-7 accidents in 1986 and 1993, respectively. Methods of environmental monitoring and individual internal dose monitoring of inhabitants are described. These are based on measuring the content of radionuclides not only in the air, drinking water and local food products, but also in humans using whole-body counters and analysing excreta and autopsy samples. The dynamics of internal exposure of people of different ages to radionuclides of caesium, strontium and plutonium from the environment are considered. Examples of radionuclide distributions in the environment, and of individual/collective internal doses and related medical effects are presented. (Author)

  18. Individual based population inference using tagging data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Baktoft, Henrik

    A hierarchical framework for simultaneous analysis of multiple related individual datasets is presented. The approach is very similar to mixed effects modelling as known from statistical theory. The model used at the individual level is, in principle, irrelevant as long as a maximum likelihood...... estimate and its uncertainty (Hessian) can be computed. The individual model used in this text is a hidden Markov model. A simulation study concerning a two-dimensional biased random walk is examined to verify the consistency of the hierarchical estimation framework. In addition, a study based on acoustic...... telemetry data from pike illustrates how the framework can identify individuals that deviate from the remaining population....

  19. Hospitalizations for cancer in international migrants versus local population in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarte, Marcela; Delgado, Iris; Pedrero, Víctor; Agar, Lorenzo; Cabieses, Báltica

    2018-04-09

    To compare cancer hospital morbidity among the local population and the immigrant population in Chile. This is a prevalence study based on the analysis of hospital discharges of all the health centers of Chile. Cancer hospital discharges were characterized in 2012 according to the migratory status. The crude and specific rates of hospital morbidity for this cause were estimated for the analysis of their association with migratory status using zero-inflated negative binomial regression, adjusted for sociodemographic variables. The neoplasms were the third cause of hospital discharges for immigrants and the seventh one for Chileans. The adjusted rate of cancer hospital discharges was higher for Chileans than immigrants, and the latter had fewer days of hospitalization and greater proportion of surgical interventions. In the group of immigrants, cancer hospital discharges mainly corresponded to patients belonging to the private system (46%), and in the group of Chileans they mainly corresponded to patients in the public system (71.1%). We observed a large difference in the proportion of cancer hospital discharges for patients with no health insurance between the two populations (22.6%: immigrants, 1.0%: Chileans). In both populations, the three most frequent types of cancer were: (i) lymphoid tissue, hematopoietic organs, and related tissues, (ii) digestive organs, and (iii) breast cancer. Models of differentiated care should be considered for immigrants, with the creation of specific programs of information, coverage, and protection against cancer. More information on this problem must be generated at the local and international level.

  20. Communication Adaptations for a Diverse International Patient Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Aditya; Joshi, Shashank; Ghosh, Amit K

    2017-11-01

    We live in an age of hyper connectivity, people from around the world are looking outside their own national borders to receive medical care. As more people are learning about the quality that the elite Indian hospitals provide at a competitive, and often more affordable, price compared to other institutions around the world, they are becoming increasingly interested in receiving their medical care in Indian hospitals. It is for this exact reason that it is very important to learn the importance of communicating effectively with people from a diverse background. Over the next decade, the number of international patients that Indian hospitals will provide care for is set to dramatically increase. In this new age of medicine in India, it is imperative that doctors are adequately equipped with the communication skills to appropriately connect with patients coming from very different cultural backgrounds. The interaction with an international patient can be tremendously deepened through effective communication that adheres to the cultural beliefs of the patient. In this article, we detail how to effectively communicate with people from different backgrounds. We explore how to speak with patients and connect on a deeper level and respect the cultural differences that exist. We will also discuss how to avoid offending your patients or miscommunicating your plans to them. Overall, improved awareness of cultural differences will ensure higher patient satisfaction as well as an improved doctor patient interaction. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  1. Alcohol dependence: international policy implications for prison populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gail Yvonne; Hoffmann, Norman G

    2006-11-08

    In light of the emphasis on drug abuse, this study explored the relative prevalence of substance use disorders among United Kingdom (UK) prison inmates in the context of findings from a general inmate population in the United States (US). The lead author of the report conducted a structured diagnostic interview with 155 new admissions to one of two prisons in the UK using the CAAPE (Comprehensive Addiction And Psychological Evaluation), a structured diagnostic interview, to ensure consistent assessments. The US sample consisted of 6,881 male inmates in a state prison system evaluated with an automated version of the SUDDS-IV (Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Schedule-IV) interview. Alcohol dependence emerged as the most prevalent substance use disorder in both UK prisons and in the US sample. Relative frequencies of abuse and dependence for alcohol and other drugs revealed that dependence on a given substance was more prevalent than abuse ad defined by the current diagnostic criteria. Despite the emphasis on drugs in correctional populations, alcohol dependence appears to be the most prominent substance use disorder among the incarcerated in both the US and UK and must be considered in developing treatment programs and policy priorities.

  2. Alcohol dependence: international policy implications for prison populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Norman G

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In light of the emphasis on drug abuse, this study explored the relative prevalence of substance use disorders among United Kingdom (UK prison inmates in the context of findings from a general inmate population in the United States (US. The lead author of the report conducted a structured diagnostic interview with 155 new admissions to one of two prisons in the UK using the CAAPE (Comprehensive Addiction And Psychological Evaluation, a structured diagnostic interview, to ensure consistent assessments. The US sample consisted of 6,881 male inmates in a state prison system evaluated with an automated version of the SUDDS-IV (Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Schedule-IV interview. Results Alcohol dependence emerged as the most prevalent substance use disorder in both UK prisons and in the US sample. Relative frequencies of abuse and dependence for alcohol and other drugs revealed that dependence on a given substance was more prevalent than abuse ad defined by the current diagnostic criteria. Conclusion Despite the emphasis on drugs in correctional populations, alcohol dependence appears to be the most prominent substance use disorder among the incarcerated in both the US and UK and must be considered in developing treatment programs and policy priorities.

  3. Does the Early Adopter of Drugs Exist? A Population Based Study of General Practitioners’ Prescribing of New Drugs.20 th International Conference on Pharmacoepiemiology and Risk Management. Bordeaux, France. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 2004;13:Sl 1:158

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdahl, Torben; Andersen, Morten; Søndergaard, Jens

    2004-01-01

    20 th International Conference on Pharmacoepiemiology and Risk Management. Bordeaux, France. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 2004;13:Sl 1:158......20 th International Conference on Pharmacoepiemiology and Risk Management. Bordeaux, France. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 2004;13:Sl 1:158...

  4. Mapping population-based structural connectomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengwu; Descoteaux, Maxime; Zhang, Jingwen; Girard, Gabriel; Chamberland, Maxime; Dunson, David; Srivastava, Anuj; Zhu, Hongtu

    2018-05-15

    Advances in understanding the structural connectomes of human brain require improved approaches for the construction, comparison and integration of high-dimensional whole-brain tractography data from a large number of individuals. This article develops a population-based structural connectome (PSC) mapping framework to address these challenges. PSC simultaneously characterizes a large number of white matter bundles within and across different subjects by registering different subjects' brains based on coarse cortical parcellations, compressing the bundles of each connection, and extracting novel connection weights. A robust tractography algorithm and streamline post-processing techniques, including dilation of gray matter regions, streamline cutting, and outlier streamline removal are applied to improve the robustness of the extracted structural connectomes. The developed PSC framework can be used to reproducibly extract binary networks, weighted networks and streamline-based brain connectomes. We apply the PSC to Human Connectome Project data to illustrate its application in characterizing normal variations and heritability of structural connectomes in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. THE BASES OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRIN IONEL GABRIEL

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Capitalism started as a consequence of the urban phenomena development, as well as of the commercial activities development. Thus, over this period of time, the attitude towards business also changed. This change was based also on certain economic reasons. The term „business” is defined in numerous dictionaries released until the present day in a restrictive and subjective manner, both from the perspective of the totalitarian communist ideology, which happened up to the year 1989, and also from the perspective of the different categories of meanings that were taken into consideration when compiling dictionaries in different international circulation languages. If an enterprise conducts business at an international level, then it will take into consideration the performance of different types of activities which differ greatly from the activities conducted at a national level. All these elements must be carefully studied by the company's management, in order to be able to act with high economic efficiency. It must be said that, in contemporary times, that „invisible hand of the market” from the past is none other than competition. As a consequence of the competitive phenomenon's manifestation, the prices are lower, the services are of a better quality and they are increasingly more diverse. Because of these positive arguments, Adam Smith was named „the father of economy”.

  6. [Penrose's law: reality or fiction? Mental health system and the size of prison population - international overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapos, Miklós Péter

    2009-07-12

    According to the Penrose's law, outlined on the basis of a comparative study of European statistics, there is an inverse relationship between the number of psychiatric beds and prison population. Based on international data, interrelationship among prison, asylum, psychiatric disease and criminal action are investigated in the present study, paying particular attention to the event of deinstitutionalization. Prevalence of mental and addictive diseases as well as psychological disturbances in prison is characterized by epidemiological data. As proposed by Penrose, an inverse relationship between the number of psychiatric beds and prison population can be observed in Hungary, too. To get a deeper insight into the mainstream of the events, economic, sociological, philosophical, as well as therapeutic aspects initializing deinstitutionalization are highlighted in the course of analysis. On the basis of data, it can be assumed that members the same population are confined to both systems. The author arrives at the conclusion that deinstitutionalization has in fact led to trans-institutionalization, because of, on one hand, the limited capacity of community treatment facilities; on the other hand, the community treatment itself cannot provide adequate treatment options to those suffering from severe, chronic mental diseases or comorbid states. In addition, the rate of financial support and the methods for prevention and treatment are insufficient to protect patients from the effects of revolving door.

  7. International Consortium on Mammographic Density: Methodology and Population Diversity captured across 22 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Valerie A.; Burton, Anya; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Hipwell, John H.; Dickens, Caroline; Salem, Dorria; Kamal, Rasha; Hartman, Mikael; Ling Lee, Charmaine Pei; Chia, Kee-Seng; Ozmen, Vahit; Aribal, Mustafa Erkin; Flugelman, Anath Arzee; Lajous, Martín; Lopez-Riduara, Ruy; Rice, Megan; Romieu, Isabelle; Ursin, Giske; Qureshi, Samera; Ma, Huiyan; Lee, Eunjung; van Gils, Carla H.; Wanders, Johanna O.P.; Vinayak, Sudhir; Ndumia, Rose; Allen, Steve; Vinnicombe, Sarah; Moss, Sue; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Jisun; Pereira, Ana; Garmendia, Maria Luisa; Sirous, Reza; Sirous, Mehri; Peplonska, Beata; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Bertrand, Kimberly; Nagata, Chisato; Kwong, Ava; Vachon, Celine; Scott, Christopher; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Pollan, Marina; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Giles, Graham; Hopper, John; Stone, Jennifer; Rajaram, Nadia; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Mariapun, Shivaani; Yaffe, Martin J.; Schüz, Joachim; Chiarelli, Anna; Linton, Linda; Boyd, Norman F.

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density (MD) is a quantitative trait, measurable in all women, and is among the strongest markers of breast cancer risk. The population-based epidemiology of MD has revealed genetic, lifestyle and societal/environmental determinants, but studies have largely been conducted in women with similar westernized lifestyles living in countries with high breast cancer incidence rates. To benefit from the heterogeneity in risk factors and their combinations worldwide, we created an International Consortium on Mammographic Density (ICMD) to pool individual-level epidemiological and MD data from general population studies worldwide. ICMD aims to characterize determinants of MD more precisely, and to evaluate whether they are consistent across populations worldwide. We included 11755 women, from 27 studies in 22 countries, on whom individual-level risk factor data were pooled and original mammographic images were re-read for ICMD by a core team to obtain standardized comparable MD data. In the present article, we present (i) the rationale for this consortium; (ii) characteristics of the studies and women included; and (iii) study methodology to obtain comparable MD data from original re-read films. We also highlight the risk factor heterogeneity captured by such an effort and, thus, the unique insight the pooled study promises to offer through wider exposure ranges, different confounding structures and enhanced power for sub-group analyses. PMID:26724463

  8. PENGARUH PELAKSANAAN RISK BASED INTERNAL AUDITING TERHADAP PENCEGAHAN FRAUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozmita Dewi Yuniarti Rozali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of implementation of risk based internal auditing on fraud prevention on internal audit Inspection Office Bank BRI Bandung Region. The sample used by 18 internal auditors in Inspection Office of Bank BRI Bandung Region saturated sampling method. Based on calculation of simple regression analysis obtained result that every increase of implementation of risk based internal auditing (X will lead to increase fraud prevention (Y. It shows that there is a positive influence between the implementation of risk based internal auditing on fraud prevention on the internal audit of Inspection Office of Bank BRI Bandung Region.

  9. DYNAMICS OF Cercospora zeina POPULATIONS IN MAIZE-BASED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    DYNAMICS OFCercospora zeina POPULATIONS IN MAIZE-BASED AGRO- ..... Population differentiation of Cercospora zeina in three districts of Uganda based on analysis of molecular variance ..... interactions: The example of the Erysiphe.

  10. Geometry-based populated chessboard recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Youye; Tang, Gongguo; Hoff, William

    2018-04-01

    Chessboards are commonly used to calibrate cameras, and many robust methods have been developed to recognize the unoccupied boards. However, when the chessboard is populated with chess pieces, such as during an actual game, the problem of recognizing the board is much harder. Challenges include occlusion caused by the chess pieces, the presence of outlier lines and low viewing angles of the chessboard. In this paper, we present a novel approach to address the above challenges and recognize the chessboard. The Canny edge detector and Hough transform are used to capture all possible lines in the scene. The k-means clustering and a k-nearest-neighbors inspired algorithm are applied to cluster and reject the outlier lines based on their Euclidean distances to the nearest neighbors in a scaled Hough transform space. Finally, based on prior knowledge of the chessboard structure, a geometric constraint is used to find the correspondences between image lines and the lines on the chessboard through the homography transformation. The proposed algorithm works for a wide range of the operating angles and achieves high accuracy in experiments.

  11. [Third preparatory committee for the International Conference on Population and Development. Peru presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, C

    1994-01-01

    This address by the Peruvian delegation to the Third Preparatory Committee Meeting for the International Conference on Population and Development focuses on four points in the proposed Plan of Action that might require further development. First, the link between drug trafficking and environmental degradation should be recognized. Cultivation of narcotic plants contributes to deforestation of the tropical forest and contamination of rivers, and along with terrorism has caused considerable population movement in Peru. The second point is that widespread poverty, limited investment in human capital, insufficient institutional capacity, and the external debt burden of the developing countries are clearly interrelated with sociodemographic processes and decisively affect the capacity of the nation to implement population policies and programs as a function of current and future international commitments. The third point is that, in the area of information, education, and communication, attention should be given to the entire life cycle and the entirety of themes related to population. Finally, coordinated programs between public and private institutions and nongovernmental organizations at the national level, and between the U.N. Population Fund, the Population Commission, and the Commission on Sustainable Development at the international level, should be organized to assure effective follow-up on Plan of Action proposals and agreements. Peru has participated in a wide variety of international conferences and activities related to population, and was a major participant in the subregional preparatory conference of the Andean nations.

  12. QTL mapping for combining ability in different population-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-13

    Dec 13, 2013 ... ability and for geneticists to research the genetic basis of combining ability. [Li L., Sun C., ... population-based NCII designs by a simulation study. J. Genet. ... combining ability could also be applied to other population- based NCII ... was to estimate how different base populations, sample sizes, heritability ...

  13. The long-term outcome after severe trauma of children in Flanders (Belgium): A population-based cohort study using the International Classification of Functioning-related outcome score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van de Voorde (Patrick); M. Sabbe (Marc); R. Tsonaka (Roula); D. Rizopoulos (Dimitris); P. Calle (Paul); A. de De Jaeger (Annick); E.M.E.H. Lesaffre (Emmanuel); D. Matthys (Dirk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractImportant long-term health problems have been described after severe paediatric trauma. The International Classification of Functioning (ICF) was developed as a universal framework to describe that health. We evaluated outcome in children after 'severe' trauma (defined as: hospitalised

  14. Hospitalizations for cancer in international migrants versus local population in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Oyarte

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To compare cancer hospital morbidity among the local population and the immigrant population in Chile. METHODS This is a prevalence study based on the analysis of hospital discharges of all the health centers of Chile. Cancer hospital discharges were characterized in 2012 according to the migratory status. The crude and specific rates of hospital morbidity for this cause were estimated for the analysis of their association with migratory status using zero-inflated negative binomial regression, adjusted for sociodemographic variables. RESULTS The neoplasms were the third cause of hospital discharges for immigrants and the seventh one for Chileans. The adjusted rate of cancer hospital discharges was higher for Chileans than immigrants, and the latter had fewer days of hospitalization and greater proportion of surgical interventions. In the group of immigrants, cancer hospital discharges mainly corresponded to patients belonging to the private system (46%, and in the group of Chileans they mainly corresponded to patients in the public system (71.1%. We observed a large difference in the proportion of cancer hospital discharges for patients with no health insurance between the two populations (22.6%: immigrants, 1.0%: Chileans. In both populations, the three most frequent types of cancer were: (i lymphoid tissue, hematopoietic organs, and related tissues, (ii digestive organs, and (iii breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS Models of differentiated care should be considered for immigrants, with the creation of specific programs of information, coverage, and protection against cancer. More information on this problem must be generated at the local and international level.

  15. Georeferenced Population Datasets of Mexico (GEO-MEX): Raster Based GIS Coverage of Mexican Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Raster Based GIS Coverage of Mexican Population is a gridded coverage (1 x 1 km) of Mexican population. The data were converted from vector into raster. The...

  16. Population-based strategies to control manufacturing epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    "The multinational corporations producing tobacco, alcohol, soft drinks, and processed foods have a role of vectors in the increase of chronic diseases, so that one can speak of manufacturing epidemics. The main aim of this paper is to conduct a literature review on different approaches in population-based interventions to stem the rise in consumption of unhealthy products. Different approaches were found: • command-and-control regulations: the route is definitely more advanced for tobacco with the implementation of an international treaty, which requires 180 ratifying states to implement a series of tobacco control policies. Similar regulations have been partially adopted to reduce alcohol use and to increase taxes of sugar-sweetened beverages; • multinational corporations in few Countries can voluntarily adopt recommendations on media campaigns and on labelling of soft drinks and processed foods; • in order to reduce salt in foods, many Countries developed voluntary agreements with industries with monitoring systems to assess compliance. Population-based interventions to try to align the interests of multinational corporations with those of public health are described in literature: • the "Health Footprint" programme; • the performance-based regulation which could oblige industry to take responsibility to reduce the harmful consequences of the use of their unhealthy commodities; • the price-cap regulation, usually applied to the utilities sector, would set a cap on the price of the tobacco industry, raising the tobacco taxes by 500 million euros per year. In order to reduce the burden of chronic disease, one of the objectives of the Italian National Prevention Plan, a working group including non-governmental organizations and experts in communication, social marketing, and lifestyles should be organized by the Ministry of Health in order to identify which population-based interventions could be implemented in Italy in next years to stem the rise of

  17. Febrile seizures: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane S. Dalbem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of benign febrile seizures of childhood and describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of this population. Methods: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study, carried out in the city of Barra do Bugres, MT, Brazil, from August 2012 to August 2013. Data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, a questionnaire that was previously validated in another Brazilian study was used to identify suspected cases of seizures. In the second phase, a neurological evaluation was performed to confirm diagnosis. Results: The prevalence was 6.4/1000 inhabitants (95% CI: 3.8–10.1. There was no difference between genders. Simple febrile seizures were found in 88.8% of cases. A family history of febrile seizures in first-degree relatives and history of epilepsy was present in 33.3% and 11.1% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of febrile seizures in Midwestern Brazil was lower than that found in other Brazilian regions, probably due to the inclusion only of febrile seizures with motor manifestations and differences in socioeconomic factors among the evaluated areas. Resumo: Objetivos: Estabelecer a prevalência das crises febris e descrever o perfil clínico e epidemiológico dessa população. Métodos: Estudo transversal de base populacional realizado na cidade de Barra do Bugres (MT, no período de agosto de 2012 a agosto de 2013. Os dados foram coletados em duas etapas. Na primeira fase utilizamos um questionário validado previamente em outro estudo brasileiro, para identificação de casos suspeitos de crises epilépticas. Na segunda etapa realizamos a avaliação neuroclínica para confirmação diagnóstica. Resultados: A prevalência de crise febril foi de 6,4/1000 habitantes (IC95% 3,8; 10,1. Não houve diferença entre os sexos. As crises febris simples foram encontradas em 88,8% dos casos. A história familiar de crise febril e epilepsia em parentes de 1° grau esteve

  18. GIS-based poverty and population distribution analysis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Wang, Yingjie; Yan, Hong

    2009-07-01

    Geographically, poverty status is not only related with social-economic factors but also strongly affected by geographical environment. In the paper, GIS-based poverty and population distribution analysis method is introduced for revealing their regional differences. More than 100000 poor villages and 592 national key poor counties are chosen for the analysis. The results show that poverty distribution tends to concentrate in most of west China and mountainous rural areas of mid China. Furthermore, the fifth census data are overlaid to those poor areas in order to gain its internal diversity of social-economic characteristics. By overlaying poverty related social-economic parameters, such as sex ratio, illiteracy, education level, percentage of ethnic minorities, family composition, finding shows that poverty distribution is strongly correlated with high illiteracy rate, high percentage minorities, and larger family member.

  19. Age- and Gender-Based Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... population increases the risks of cognitive decline and suicide. About 25% of older adults have some type of mental health problem, such as a mood disorder not associated with normal aging. Older adults with ...

  20. It’s a Dog’s Life: International Tourists’ Perceptions of the Stray Dog Population of Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Strickland

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the international tourists’ perception of the stray dog population of Bhutan as little or no mention of the increasing stray dog population and their impact on tourism has been documented. After personally visiting the Kingdom on many occasions, it is evident that the stray dog population is increasing in dog numbers in major cities. The problems arising are negative comments by tourists relating to the stray dog population that are starting to appear in social media that may impact the visitor experience and the perception of Bhutan’s tourism industry. Veterinary science is aware of both increasing dog populations and the control of diseases such as Rabies however the author can find no evidence regarding challenges for the tourism industry. The problem is aided by no local veterinary clinics, no laws regarding dog governance, little funding for sterilization programs and being predominately a Buddhist country that cannot ‘cull’ animals. Using qualitative analysis from international tourist focus groups who were visiting Bhutan, this study highlights the perceptions of tourists regarding the stray dog population and how it may impact on visitor expectations. The paper suggests options that local government, Bhutanese nationals and visitors can do to assist the issue based on visitor feedback. Future research may include comparisons with other cities or countries to examine if it is a global issue or unique to Bhutan.

  1. Factor structure and internal reliability of an exercise health belief model scale in a Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Armando Esparza-Del Villar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico is one of the countries with the highest rates of overweight and obesity around the world, with 68.8% of men and 73% of women reporting both. This is a public health problem since there are several health related consequences of not exercising, like having cardiovascular diseases or some types of cancers. All of these problems can be prevented by promoting exercise, so it is important to evaluate models of health behaviors to achieve this goal. Among several models the Health Belief Model is one of the most studied models to promote health related behaviors. This study validates the first exercise scale based on the Health Belief Model (HBM in Mexicans with the objective of studying and analyzing this model in Mexico. Methods Items for the scale called the Exercise Health Belief Model Scale (EHBMS were developed by a health research team, then the items were applied to a sample of 746 participants, male and female, from five cities in Mexico. The factor structure of the items was analyzed with an exploratory factor analysis and the internal reliability with Cronbach’s alpha. Results The exploratory factor analysis reported the expected factor structure based in the HBM. The KMO index (0.92 and the Barlett’s sphericity test (p < 0.01 indicated an adequate and normally distributed sample. Items had adequate factor loadings, ranging from 0.31 to 0.92, and the internal consistencies of the factors were also acceptable, with alpha values ranging from 0.67 to 0.91. Conclusions The EHBMS is a validated scale that can be used to measure exercise based on the HBM in Mexican populations.

  2. Internal migration effectiveness and income effectiveness in the most populous cities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambinakudige, Shrinidhi; Parisi, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    In this study, migration data compiled by the Internal Revenue Serve (IRS) and the US Census Bureau for 2006-07 were used to analyse internal migration patterns using migration and income effectiveness for the counties containing the 25 most populous cities in the United States. The results indicated that both large metropolitan and rural counties have lost population and income due to migration. Small metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties closer to cities gained population and income. Counties in South Florida attracted a large number of higher-income migrants from the largest cities in the US. In the last 13 years, New York, Los Angeles and Chicago, the three most populous cities in the US, had negative migration effectiveness. Suburban areas and second-tier cities continued to attract people from large metropolitan areas.

  3. Internal consistency, concurrent validity, and discriminant validity of a measure of public support for policies for active living in transportation (PAL-T) in a population-based sample of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Gauvin, Lise; Fournier, Michel; Kestens, Yan; Daniel, Mark; Morency, Patrick; Drouin, Louis

    2012-04-01

    Active living is a broad conceptualization of physical activity that incorporates domains of exercise; recreational, household, and occupational activities; and active transportation. Policy makers develop and implement a variety of transportation policies that can influence choices about how to travel from one location to another. In making such decisions, policy makers act in part in response to public opinion or support for proposed policies. Measures of the public's support for policies aimed at promoting active transportation can inform researchers and policy makers. This study examined the internal consistency, and concurrent and discriminant validity of a newly developed measure of the public's support for policies for active living in transportation (PAL-T). A series of 17 items representing potential policies for promoting active transportation was generated. Two samples of participants (n = 2,001 and n = 2,502) from Montreal, Canada, were recruited via random digit dialling. Analyses were conducted on the combined data set (n = 4,503). Participants were aged 18 through 94 years (58% female). The concurrent and discriminant validity of the PAL-T was assessed by examining relationships with physical activity and smoking. To explore the usability of the PAL-T, predicted scale scores were compared to the summed values of responses. Results showed that the internal consistency of the PAL-T was 0.70. Multilevel regression demonstrated no relationship between the PAL-T and smoking status (p > 0.05) but significant relationships with utilitarian walking (p public opinion can inform policy makers and support advocacy efforts aimed at making built environments more suitable for active transportation while allowing researchers to examine the antecedents and consequences of public support for policies.

  4. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Applying the WHO conceptual framework for the International Classification for Patient Safety to a surgical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, L M; Woods, D M; Yanes, A F; Skaro, A I; Daud, A; Curtis, T; Wymore, E; Holl, J L; Abecassis, M M; Ladner, D P

    2016-04-01

    Efforts to improve patient safety are challenged by the lack of universally agreed upon terms. The International Classification for Patient Safety (ICPS) was developed by the World Health Organization for this purpose. This study aimed to test the applicability of the ICPS to a surgical population. A web-based safety debriefing was sent to clinicians involved in surgical care of abdominal organ transplant patients. A multidisciplinary team of patient safety experts, surgeons and researchers used the data to develop a system of classification based on the ICPS. Disagreements were reconciled via consensus, and a codebook was developed for future use by researchers. A total of 320 debriefing responses were used for the initial review and codebook development. In total, the 320 debriefing responses contained 227 patient safety incidents (range: 0-7 per debriefing) and 156 contributing factors/hazards (0-5 per response). The most common severity classification was 'reportable circumstance,' followed by 'near miss.' The most common incident types were 'resources/organizational management,' followed by 'medical device/equipment.' Several aspects of surgical care were encompassed by more than one classification, including operating room scheduling, delays in care, trainee-related incidents, interruptions and handoffs. This study demonstrates that a framework for patient safety can be applied to facilitate the organization and analysis of surgical safety data. Several unique aspects of surgical care require consideration, and by using a standardized framework for describing concepts, research findings can be compared and disseminated across surgical specialties. The codebook is intended for use as a framework for other specialties and institutions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  6. Regression Discontinuity Designs Based on Population Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggers, Andrew C.; Freier, Ronny; Grembi, Veronica

    In many countries, important features of municipal government (such as the electoral system, mayors' salaries, and the number of councillors) depend on whether the municipality is above or below arbitrary population thresholds. Several papers have used a regression discontinuity design (RDD...

  7. Evolution of Web-based International Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Companies that have been doing international business do not usually make the transition from traditional marketers to full-blown Web marketers in one sharp step. In our study of Danish firms, we found that in terms of the evolution of their Web strategies, these Danish companies went through three...

  8. Combating Corruption Based on International Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Maskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a universal problem that is taking place all over the world, either in developed countries or developing or under developing countries. It is caused by some issues such as poorly designed economic policies, low levels of education, underdeveloped civil society, and the weak accountability of public institution. Those causes of corruption can be separated in some different types of corruption. The types are bureaucratic corruption, political corruption, grand corruption, and common corruption. In terms of tackling some problems of corruption, there are so many things to do including international law commitment. Some international law commitment can be seen like OAS Convention, OECD’s anti-bribery Convention, the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and the United Nation Convention against Corruption (UNCAC. Those laws must be analyzed not only in context of substantive of those laws but also how they are implemented in state practices.

  9. AUDIT OF FINANCIAL REPORTS, BASED ON INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Islom Kuziev

    2011-01-01

    In this article are given main notion about international standard of financial reporting, order of the auditing on the base of IFRS, scheduling the report of the auditor, auditor conclusions and are given analysis of reporting based on the auditor procedures. At the audit of financial reporting are taken into account international standard to financial reporting 29 "Financial reporting in hyperinflationary economies".

  10. The dynamics of fauna and population of birds in agricultural landscapes on the border of Kazan International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, A. F.; Belyaev, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of fauna and population of birds from agricultural lands near Kazan International Airport has been studied for one year. A total of 60 bird species have been registered, of which 26 species must be considered as highly dangerous to flying aircraft. With regard to seasonal activity, the nesting period (April - June) is the most hazardous, since it is characterized by maximum species richness and total population density of birds, as well as their high species diversity. Furthermore, a serious danger is posed by the period of postnesting nomadic movements and the onset of migrations (July - September) when the species diversity turns out to be the highest and the total population density begins to decrease. It has been recommended based on the obtained results that the current crops should be replaced by cultivars that will be less attractive to birds. In spring and autumn, certain bird hazing and frightening measures must be taken on a more regular basis.

  11. The International Migration of Population in the Current Phase: Tendencies and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurchenko Svitlana O.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the characteristics of contemporary international migration of population. It has been shown that international migration encompasses all countries over the world and is an important constituent of the globalization of the world-wide economy. Tendencies in the international migration have been described by regions of the world and by type of country. It has been shown that a concentration of international migrants is present in a relatively small number of world countries, while the developed world is more attractive to migrants than the developing countries. The structure of migrants by sex and age has been considered and the most attractive regions for the migration of women and men have been identified. The problems and tendencies of the forced migration of population have been identified. It has been determined that, in many developed countries, the migration inflow of population will increase in importance in the demographic situation. The need to develop a migration policy in the regions of different hierarchical levels and to implement it in practice has been indicated.

  12. International Journal of Web Based Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Special Issue on Knowledge Communication, culture and communities of practice in web based communities. ......Special Issue on Knowledge Communication, culture and communities of practice in web based communities. ...

  13. Age-related differences in internalizing psychopathology amongst the Australian general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Batterham, Philip; Buchan, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Two methodological criticisms have limited the reliability and validity of findings from previous studies that seek to examine change across the life span in levels of internalizing psychopathology using general population surveys. The first criticism involves the potential influence of cohort effects that confound true age-related changes whereas the second criticism involves the use of a single form of assessment to measure and compare levels of internalizing psychopathology. This study seeks to address these criticisms by modeling age-related change using multiple measures and multiple surveys. Data from 2 epidemiological surveys conducted 10 years apart in the Australian general population were combined and used for the current study. The latent construct of internalizing psychopathology was modeled using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) depression and anxiety diagnoses as well as items from the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10; Kessler et al., 2002). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a single internalizing dimension provided good model fit to the data. Multigroup CFA indicated that strict measurement invariance of the model can be assumed across survey administrations and age bands, justifying comparisons of mean differences in latent trait levels. Significant changes in mean levels of latent internalizing psychopathology were evident between respondents aged 30-39 years old in 1997 and respondents aged 40-49 years old in 2007, suggesting a minor but significant increase in psychopathology across middle age. By contrast, a minor but significant decrease in psychopathology was noted when transitioning from late middle age (50-59 years old) to old age (60-69 years old). The majority of individuals in the general population will experience constant levels of internalizing psychopathology as they age, suggesting that the construct is relatively

  14. Internal migration and regional differences of population aging: An empirical study of 287 cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Xu, Ping; Li, Fen; Song, Peipei

    2018-04-02

    In addition to birth and death, migration is also an important factor that determines the level of population aging in different regions, especially under the current context of low fertility and low mortality in China. Drawing upon data from the fifth and sixth national population census of 287 prefecture-level cities in China, this study explored the spatial patterns of population aging and its trends from 2000 to 2010 in China. We further examined how the large-scale internal migration was related to the spatial differences and the changes of aging by using multivariate quantitative models. Findings showed that the percentage of elder cities (i.e. proportion of individuals aged 65 and above to total population is higher than 7%) increased from 50% to 90% in the total 287 cities within the decade. We also found that regional imbalances of population aging have changed since 2000 in China. The gap of aging level between East zone and the other three zones (i.e. West, Central, and North-east) has considerably narrowed down. In 2000, Eastern region had the greatest number (65) of and the largest proportion (74.7%) of elder cities among all four regions. By 2010, the proportion (87.4%) of elder cities in the eastern region was slightly lower than Central (91.4%), Western (88.2%) and North-east sectors (91.2%). Results from multivariate quantitative models showed that the regional differences of population aging appear to be affected much more by the large-scale internal migration with clear age selectivity and orientation preference than by the impact of fertility and mortality. Population aging is expected to continue in China, which will in turn exacerbate regional imbalances. Policies and implications are discussed to face the challenges that the divergent aging population may present in China.

  15. Anxiety disorders in young people: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaíse Campos Mondin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders and associated factors in young adults. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study of individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 years randomly selected from 89 census-based sectors to ensure an adequate sample size. Household selection within the sectors was performed according to a systematic sampling process. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. The final sample comprised 1,560 young adults. Results: Of the participants who were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 12.3% had agoraphobia, 9.7% had generalised anxiety disorder, 4.0% had social phobia, 3.3% had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2.5% had panic disorder, and 2.1% had post-traumatic stress disorder; only 23.8% had received any previous treatment. Anxiety disorders were associated with sex, socioeconomic status, psychiatric problems in parents, alcohol abuse, and tobacco use. Conclusions: The identification of factors associated with anxiety disorders in young people enables us to develop intervention strategies. Anxiety disorders are not only highly prevalent but are also associated with significant functional impairment, significant reductions in quality of life, lower productivity, and higher rates of comorbidities.

  16. Data harmonization and federated analysis of population-based studies : the BioSHaRE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doiron, Dany; Burton, Paul; Marcon, Yannick; Gaye, Amadou; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Perola, Markus; Stolk, Ronald P; Foco, Luisa; Minelli, Cosetta; Waldenberger, Melanie; Holle, Rolf; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Hillege, Hans L; Tassé, Anne-Marie; Ferretti, Vincent; Fortier, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTS BACKGROUND: Individual-level data pooling of large population-based studies across research centres in international research projects faces many hurdles. The BioSHaRE (Biobank Standardisation and Harmonisation for Research Excellence in the European Union) project aims to address these

  17. Peculiarities of International Migration of Population in Europe at the Present Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurchenko Svitlana A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of globalization, international migration of population is steadily growing and significantly affects the socio-economic development of countries and regions. The aim of the article is to identify the features of international migration of population in Europe. The migration trends in the region and its subregions are analyzed. It is shown that Western Europe is leading according to the number of migrants residing on its territory, but the maximum growth of migrants for the period of 1990-2015 is observed in Southern Europe. The proportion of women and population of active age groups is increasing in the structure of migrants. In recent years the flow of refugees has increased. The impact of the migration crisis on the economies of the host countries is analyzed. Calculations of coefficients of multiple correlation demonstrated the level of dependence between the indicators of migration and GDP, population size, share of urban population. It is concluded that it is necessary to develop migration policies at different hierarchical levels.

  18. Social Media and Population Health Virtual Exchange for Senior Nursing Students: An International Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Paula M; Brixey, Juliana J; Honey, Michelle L L; Todhunter, Fern

    2016-01-01

    The authors have all engaged in using social media with students as a means for collaboration across national and international boundaries for various educational purposes. Following the explosion of big data in health the authors are now moving this concept forward within undergraduate and postgraduate nursing curricula for the development of population health virtual exchanges. Nursing has a global presence and yet it appears as though students have little knowledge of the health and social care needs and provision outside their local environment. This development will allow for explorative exchange amongst students in three countries, enhancing their understanding of their own and the selected international population health needs and solutions through asking and responding to questions amongst the learning community involved. The connection of the students will be recorded for their use in reflection; of particular interest will be the use of information included by the students to answer questions about their locality.

  19. Drivers of international performance of Brazilian technology-based firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Serpa Fagundes de Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For Technology-Based Firms, international expansion represents an opportunity for growth and value creation. The present study was designed to analyze the role of technology-based companies (TBCs internationalization drivers on international performance. Therefore, a descriptive research was carried out with a quantitative approach performed through a survey. Data collection happened with 53 Brazilian TBCs located in innovation habitats. These data were analyzed by multivariate statistical technique. The results showed that the determinants of the international performance of Brazilian TBCs, can be set by external influencers (localization in innovation habitats, integration into global productive chains, partnerships and strategic alliances for innovation and government policies and internal influencers (innovation capability, international market orientation and international marketing skills.

  20. Physical Activity of Croatian Population: Cross-sectional Study Using International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Jurakić, Danijel; Pedišić, Željko; Andrijašević, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    Aim To determine the physical activity level of the Croatian population in different domains of everyday life. Methods A random stratified sample of 1032 Croatians aged 15 years and older was interviewed using the official Croatian long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Total physical activity and physical activity in each of the 4 life domains – work, transport, domestic and garden, and leisure-time – were estimated. Physical activit...

  1. OA18 Population based end of life care - meeting the challenge of the ageing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Keri

    2015-04-01

    The key challenge for most developed countries is meeting the needs of our ageing population, in particular, those nearing the end of their lives - population-based end-of-life care. Building on a public health approach to meet needs of an area-wide population, and a practical approach of enabling generalist frontline staff care for all people in a variety of settings using the GSF Quality Improvement Programmes, we describe progress in a few GSF Cross-Boundary Care Foundation Sites taking a population-based view to meet the challenges of the ageing population. Taking a whole-system view, we explore ways to ensure all people receive quality care towards the final stages of life in line with their needs and wishes in a way that is cost-effective, responsive and compassionate. Expanding concepts of palliative/end-of-life care to include care for people with long-term conditions, dementia, and frailty. We describe practical progress in a number of GSF XBC Sites, enabling generalist frontline staff including: Identifying and prioritising people earlier Reducing 'diagnostic apartheid' Enabling more to live well and die well in the place and manner of their choosing Encouraging integrated person-centred care, reducing inappropriate over-Hospitalisation and prevention of over - medicalising. Use of GSF in various settings to enable generalist frontline staff is described, with key outcome measures and evaluations in the UK, and internationally. As the population ages, population-based end of life care will be one of the most significant developments to meet the challenges for a fit-for-purpose health service of the future. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Population-based assessment of heartburn in urban Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenberg, F K; Makipour, K; Palit, A; Shah, S; Vanar, V; Richter, J E

    2013-08-01

    Prevalence data for heartburn in the urban Black American community is lacking. In order to estimate prevalence for this community, we analyzed data from an ongoing cohort study in progress at our hospital. Comprehensive interviews allowed for exploration of factors associated with heartburn. Complex, stratified sampling design was the method used. Survey invitations are hand-delivered to random blocks in a single zip code tabulation area. One member per eligible household is invited to complete a computer-based survey. Heartburn was defined as ≥ 3 days/week of symptoms as defined by the Montreal Definition and Classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Scaling and weighting factors were utilized to estimate population level prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictor variables for heartburn. Enrolled 379 participants corresponding to a weighted sample size of 22,409 (20,888-23,930) citizens. Demographic characteristics of the sample closely matched those of the entire targeted population. Overall, the weighted prevalence of heartburn ≥ 3 times per week was 17.6% (16.4-18.8%). Variables independently associated with heartburn were body mass index, daily caloric and fat intake, diabetes mellitus (odds ratio = 2.95; 2.59-3.36), cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption (odds ratio = 2.55; 2.25-2.89). Factors inversely associated included illicit drug use and increased physical activity. Waist : hip ratio showed no relationship. The prevalence of heartburn ≥ 3 times per week is high in the Black American community. Adverse lifestyle behaviors showed particularly important associations. Our study needs to be replicated in other communities with similar demographics. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  3. Internal rotation for predicting conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane and 1,2-dichloroethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venâncio, Mateus F. [Laboratório de Química Computacional e Modelagem Molecular, Departamento de Química, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Campus Universitário, 31.270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Dos Santos, Hélio F. [Núcleo de Estudos em Química Computacional (NEQC), Departamento de Química, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Campus Universitário, Martelos, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-330 (Brazil); De Almeida, Wagner B., E-mail: wbdealmeida@gmail.com [Laboratório de Química Computacional (LQC), Departamento de Química Inorgânica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Campus do Valonguinho, Centro, Niterói, RJ CEP: 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Contribution of internal rotation to Gibbs free energy estimated using the quantum pendulum model. • Theoretical prediction of conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane and 1,2-dichloroethane. • The predicted populations are in excellent agreement with experimental gas phase data available. • QPM model account for low vibrational frequency modes effect on thermodynamic calculation. • Caution is needed when the RR–HO approach has to be used in conformational analysis studies. - Abstract: The contribution of internal rotation to the thermal correction of Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is estimated using the quantum pendulum model (QPM) to solve the characteristic Schrödinger equation. The procedure is applied to theoretical prediction of conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane (1,2-DFE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) molecules. The predicted population for the anti form was 37% and 75%, for 1,2-DFE and 1,2-DCE respectively, in excellent agreement with experimental gas phase data available, 37 ± 5% and 78 ± 5%. These results provide great support to the use of the QPM model to account for the low vibrational frequency modes effect on the calculation of thermodynamic properties.

  4. Using Web-Based Foreign Advertisements in International Marketing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The author examines the use of the Web-based foreign advertisements for enhancing the international awareness of undergraduate marketing students. An analysis compares the adaptation of advertisements for identical products to the cultural perceptions and values of consumers in different countries. In a sample of 110 international marketing…

  5. Comparing international and South African work-based assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing international and South African work-based assessment of medical interns' practice. ... in the finding that most studies in SA have dealt with the assessment of core procedural skills related to acute clinical care, while the assessment of non-clinical competencies and non-procedural skills was poorly addressed.

  6. Population policies in Southeast Asia and Australia: the international relevance of domestic affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G W

    1984-01-01

    There are 2 underlying themes to this paper: national perceptions of population circumstances at home and abroad are the crucial determinants of population policies adopted, and the differences in perceptions help explain why national reactions differ to circumtances which appear similar; and population policy, though an internal matter, has international repercussions and thus can become a sensitive issue in international relations. Until recently, ASEAN countries were united with Vietnam on at least 1 issue: attitudes toward the growth and changing distribution of their populations. The objectives were slower growth through lowered fertility, resistance to immigration from abroad except in very special circumstances, resettlement of population to undeveloped areas with potential for agriculture, and slowing the growth of big cities. The Australian situation differed. As a high income nation populated primarily through immigration and set in a region of far more populous and densely settled nations, Australia's policy favored population growth and used an immigration program as a way to realize this end. Yet, even so, population growth in most postwar years was slower than that of all Southeast Asian nations. And, although immigration was encouraged, the resistance to immigration that characterized Southeast Asian countries was shared by Australia with respect to all but North Western Europeans, an "acceptable" category progressively widened by dint of curcumstances to include Eastern Europeans, then Southern Europeans, then certain Middle Eastern peoples, and finally Asians and Latin Americans. Australia shared with Southeast Asian nations the concern with big-city growth and like the Southeast Asian nations searched for appropriate policies to contain this growth and promote that of smaller cities and towns. This search stopped in the 1970s when the report of the National Population showed that accepted projections of the populations of Sydney and Melbourne had

  7. Simulation-Based Internal Models for Safer Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Blum

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the potential of mobile robots with simulation-based internal models for safety in highly dynamic environments. We propose a robot with a simulation of itself, other dynamic actors and its environment, inside itself. Operating in real time, this simulation-based internal model is able to look ahead and predict the consequences of both the robot’s own actions and those of the other dynamic actors in its vicinity. Hence, the robot continuously modifies its own actions in order to actively maintain its own safety while also achieving its goal. Inspired by the problem of how mobile robots could move quickly and safely through crowds of moving humans, we present experimental results which compare the performance of our internal simulation-based controller with a purely reactive approach as a proof-of-concept study for the practical use of simulation-based internal models.

  8. Re-evaluation of internal exposure from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malatova, I.; Skrkal, J.

    2006-01-01

    Doses from internal and external exposure due to the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were estimated early in 1986. Later on, with more experimental results, doses from internal exposure were calculated more precisely. The initial predictions were rather conservative leading thus to higher doses than it appeared one year later. Monitoring of the environment, food chain and monitoring of internal contamination has been performed on the whole territory of the country since 1986 up to present time and has thus enabled reevaluation of the original estimates and also prediction of doses in future. This paper is focused mainly on evaluation of in vivo measurements of people. Use of the sophisticate software I.M.B.A. Professional Plus led to new estimation of committed effective doses and calculated inhalation intakes of radionuclides lead to estimation of content of radionuclides in the air. Ingestion intakes were also evaluated and compared with estimates from the results of measurements of food chain. Generally, the doses from the Chernobyl accident to the Czech population were low; however, as a few radionuclides have been measurable in environment, food chain and human body (137 Cs up to present), it is a unique chance for studying behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere. Experience and conclusions which follow from the monitoring of the Chernobyl accident are unique for running and development of monitoring networks. Re evaluation of internal doses to the Czech population from the Chernobyl accident, using alternative approach, gave generally smaller doses than original estimation; still, the difference was not significant. It was shown that the doses from inhalation of 131 I and 137 Cs were greater than originally estimated, whereas doses from ingestion intake were lower than the originally estimated ones. (authors)

  9. Statement by Minister Peng Peiyun at the International Conference on Population and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P

    1994-10-01

    The speech of Madam Peng Peiyun, state counselor and minister of the State Family Planning Commission in China, before the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994, emphasized 6 basic points about fertility decline. 1) Population as an issue is about development. The only solution is to work toward sustained development of productivity while promoting social and economic development in environmentally protected ways. 2) Governments should provide "acceptable, obtainable, and affordable" quality family planning services. Governments should help couples and individuals freely and responsibly decide on childbearing without coercion. 3) There is no one recommended model for reducing rapid population growth and enhancing development. Countries have different cultures, levels of economic development, population conditions, and historical traditions. 4) Women's status should be improved through expansion of opportunities for education, involvement in politics and economic development, legal protection of women's rights and interests, and "realization of gender equality." Women need more information, education, and counseling on reproductive health and family planning. Males need to take more responsibility for family planning. 5) International cooperation and government responsibility are required for stabilization of population growth and attainment of sustainable development. Developing countries need improved economic conditions, increased investment in population and development programs, and transfers of technology from developed countries. The principles of mutual respect and mutual benefit according to the spirit of the UN Charter should prevail. UN organizational support should function according to the principles of universality and neutrality. 6) China's goal is to achieve sustained economic growth and development, to meet the material and cultural needs of the Chinese people, and to improve the quality of Chinese life. Without

  10. Drivers of international performance of Brazilian technology-based firms

    OpenAIRE

    Serpa Fagundes de Oliveira, Maria Carolina; Scherer, Flavia Luciane; Schneider Hahn, Ivanete; de Moura Carpes, Aletéia; Brachak dos Santos, Maríndia; Nunes Piveta, Maíra

    2018-01-01

    For Technology-Based Firms, international expansion represents an opportunity for growth and value creation. The present study was designed to analyze the role of technology-based companies (TBCs) internationalization drivers on international performance. Therefore, a descriptive research was carried out with a quantitative approach performed through a survey. Data collection happened with 53 Brazilian TBCs located in innovation habitats. These data were analyzed by multivariate statistical t...

  11. Costs of detection bias in index-based population monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C.T.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Managers of wildlife populations commonly rely on indirect, count-based measures of the population in making decisions regarding conservation, harvest, or control. The main appeal in the use of such counts is their low material expense compared to methods that directly measure the population. However, their correct use rests on the rarely-tested but often-assumed premise that they proportionately reflect population size, i.e., that they constitute a population index. This study investigates forest management for the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) and the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia, U.S.A. Optimal decision policies for a joint species objective were derived for two alternative models of Wood Thrush population dynamics. Policies were simulated under scenarios of unbiasedness, consistent negative bias, and habitat-dependent negative bias in observed Wood Thrush densities. Differences in simulation outcomes between biased and unbiased detection scenarios indicated the expected loss in resource objectives (here, forest habitat and birds) through decision-making based on biased population counts. Given the models and objective function used in our analysis, expected losses were as great as 11%, a degree of loss perhaps not trivial for applications such as endangered species management. Our analysis demonstrates that costs of uncertainty about the relationship between the population and its observation can be measured in units of the resource, costs which may offset apparent savings achieved by collecting uncorrected population counts.

  12. Establishing and Scaling-Up Clinical Social Franchise Networks: Lessons Learned From Marie Stopes International and Population Services International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Sarah; Chakraborty, Nirali M; Hayes, Brendan; Mackay, Anna; Moon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In many low- and middle-income countries, a majority of people seek health care from the private sector. However, fragmentation, poor economies of scale, inadequate financing, political opposition, a bias toward curative services, and weak regulatory and quality control systems pose serious challenges for the private sector. Social franchising addresses a number of these challenges by organizing small, independent health care businesses into quality-assured networks. Global franchisors Marie Stopes International (MSI) and Population Services International (PSI) have rapidly scaled their family planning social franchising programs in recent years, jointly delivering over 10.8 million couple-years of protection (CYPs) in 2014—up 26% from 8.6 million CYPs just 1 year prior. Drawing on experience across MSI’s 17 and PSI’s 25 social franchise networks across Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, this article documents the organizations’ operational approaches, challenges faced, and solutions implemented. The organizations provide intensive capacity building and support for private-sector providers, including clinical training, branding, monitoring quality of franchised services, and commodity support. In addition, franchising programs engage providers and clients through behavior change communication (BCC) and demand generation activities to raise awareness and to attract clients, and they implement initiatives to ensure services are affordable for the lowest-income clients. Social franchise programs offer the private sector a collective platform to better engage government in health policy advocacy and for integrating into new public health care financing and procurement mechanisms. The future of social franchising will require developing approaches to scale-up and sustain the model cost-effectively, selectively integrating other health services into the franchise package, and being responsive to evolving health care financing approaches with the

  13. Population Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The scope of population research as carried on by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is set forth in this booklet. Population problems of the world, United States, and the individual are considered along with international population policies based on voluntary family planning programs. NICHD goals for biological…

  14. Comparison of the predictive performance of the BIG, TRISS, and PS09 score in an adult trauma population derived from multiple international trauma registries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brockamp, Thomas; Maegele, Marc; Gaarder, Christine; Goslings, J. Carel; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Lefering, Rolf; Joosse, Pieter; Naess, Paal A.; Skaga, Nils O.; Groat, Tahnee; Eaglestone, Simon; Borgman, Matthew A.; Spinella, Philip C.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Brohi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    The BIG score (Admission base deficit (B), International normalized ratio (I), and Glasgow Coma Scale (G)) has been shown to predict mortality on admission in pediatric trauma patients. The objective of this study was to assess its performance in predicting mortality in an adult trauma population,

  15. Managing incidental findings in population based biobank research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Solberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of whole genome sequencing in medical research, the debate on how to handle incidental findings is becoming omnipresent. Much of the literature on the topic so far, seems to defend the researcher’s duty to inform, the participant’s right to know combined with a thorough informed consent in order to protect and secure high ethical standards in research. In this paper, we argue that this ethical response to incidental findings and whole genome sequencing is appropriate in a clinical context, in what we call therapeutic research. However, we further argue, that it is rather inappropriate in basic research, like the research going on in public health oriented population based biobanks. Our argument is based on two premises: First, in population based biobank research the duties and rights involved are radically different from a clinical based setting. Second, to introduce the ethical framework from the clinical setting into population based basic research, is not only wrong, but it may lead to unethical consequences. A Norwegian population based biobank and the research-ethical debate in Norway on the regulation of whole genome sequencing is used as an illustrative case to demonstrate the pitfalls when approaching the debate on incidental findings in population based biobank research.

  16. Internal exposure to the population of coastal Karnataka of South India from dietary intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K. [Managlore Univ. (India). Dept. of Studies in Physics

    1995-12-31

    Systematic studies on radiation levels and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnatak, located on the south west coast of India, was initiated to provide baseline data on background radiation levels for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region. The paper presents the concentration of the prominent natural and artificial radionuclides in vegetarian and non-vegetarian composite diet samples of the region. The internal exposures to the population of the region were estimated from the concentration of prominent radionuclides in total diet. The results are discussed in the light of literature values reported for other environments. (Author).

  17. Internal exposure to the population of coastal Karnataka of South India from dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K.

    1995-01-01

    Systematic studies on radiation levels and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnatak, located on the south west coast of India, was initiated to provide baseline data on background radiation levels for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region. The paper presents the concentration of the prominent natural and artificial radionuclides in vegetarian and non-vegetarian composite diet samples of the region. The internal exposures to the population of the region were estimated from the concentration of prominent radionuclides in total diet. The results are discussed in the light of literature values reported for other environments. (Author)

  18. Population turnover and churn: enhancing understanding of internal migration in Britain through measures of stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Adam; Stillwell, John

    2008-01-01

    Net migration measures take account of the direction of migration flows, but our understanding of migration can be extended using population turnover and churn as measures of population stability. Turnover is a measure of the intensity of migration into and out of a district, whereas churn incorporates these flows and also includes the flows that take place within each district. Using districts of Britain and their type-based groupings, the highest levels of turnover and churn are found in London and some of the more dynamic urban areas, whereas the lowest levels are found in rural and previously industrial areas. Age has a significant effect on these measures with the population in their late teens and early twenties being the least stable and older populations being more stable.

  19. Linking Errors between Two Populations and Tests: A Case Study in International Surveys in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hastedt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This simulation study was prompted by the current increased interest in linking national studies to international large-scale assessments (ILSAs such as IEA's TIMSS, IEA's PIRLS, and OECD's PISA. Linkage in this scenario is achieved by including items from the international assessments in the national assessments on the premise that the average achievement scores from the latter can be linked to the international metric. In addition to raising issues associated with different testing conditions, administrative procedures, and the like, this approach also poses psychometric challenges. This paper endeavors to shed some light on the effects that can be expected, the linkage errors in particular, by countries using this practice. The ILSA selected for this simulation study was IEA TIMSS 2011, and the three countries used as the national assessment cases were Botswana, Honduras, and Tunisia, all of which participated in TIMSS 2011. The items selected as items common to the simulated national tests and the international test came from the Grade 4 TIMSS 2011 mathematics items that IEA released into the public domain after completion of this assessment. The findings of the current study show that linkage errors seemed to achieve acceptable levels if 30 or more items were used for the linkage, although the errors were still significantly higher compared to the TIMSS' cutoffs. Comparison of the estimated country averages based on the simulated national surveys and the averages based on the international TIMSS assessment revealed only one instance across the three countries of the estimates approaching parity. Also, the percentages of students in these countries who actually reached the defined benchmarks on the TIMSS achievement scale differed significantly from the results based on TIMSS and the results for the simulated national assessments. As a conclusion, we advise against using groups of released items from international assessments in national

  20. Hepatoblastoma incidence in Taiwan: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giun-Yi Hung

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of hepatoblastoma is not well known in Taiwan. The goal of this study was to investigate the incidence rates of hepatoblastoma by age and sex. Methods: The data of patients with hepatoblastoma diagnosed from 1995 to 2012 were obtained from the population-based Taiwan Cancer Registry. Incidence rates of hepatoblastoma according to sex and age were analyzed. This study employed the published methods of International Agency for Research on Cancer to calculate the age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs, standard errors, 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and standardized incidence rate ratios (SIRRs. Results: In total, 211 patients were diagnosed with hepatoblastoma during the 18-year study period. The ASIR was 0.76 per million person-years. Hepatoblastoma was predominantly diagnosed in children (n = 184, 87.2%. By contrast, adolescents/adults (n = 10, 4.7% and elderly people (n = 17, 8.1% were rarely affected. The incidence peaked at ages 0–4 years with corresponding ASIR of 7.3 per million person-years. A significant male predilection was only found in children and elderly people, with male-to-female SIRRs of 1.23 and 1.89, respectively. During 1995–2012, the overall incidence of hepatoblastoma significantly increased only in children (annual percent change: 7.4%, 95% CI 3.9%–11.1%, p < 0.05 and specifically in boys (annual percent change: 6.5%, 95% CI 1.9%–11.2%, p < 0.05. Conclusion: Only 27 patients aged ≥ 15 years with hepatoblastoma were identified in this study, the existence of adult hepatoblastoma still requires novel molecular tools to elucidate. The association between the upward trend of hepatoblastoma incidence in boys and increased survival of prematurity in Taiwan warrants further investigations. Keywords: Hepatoblastoma, Incidence, Taiwan

  1. Proceedings of the 2015 international summit on fibropapillomatosis: Global status, trends, and population impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Stacy A.; Work, Thierry M.; Brunson, Shandell; Foley, Allen M.; Balazs, George H.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 International Summit on Fibropapillomatosis (FP) was convened in Honolulu, Hawaii June 11-14, 2015. Scientists from around the world were invited to present results from sea turtle monitoring and research programs as they relate to the global status, trends, and population impacts of FP on green turtles. The participants engaged in discussions that resulted in the following conclusions: 1.Globally, FP has long been present in wild sea turtle populations the earliest mention was in the late 1800s in the Florida Keys. 2.FP primarily affects medium-sized immature turtles in coastal foraging pastures. 3.Expression of FP differs across ocean basins and to some degree within basins. Turtles in the Southeast US, Caribbean, Brazil, and Australia rarely have oral tumors (inside the mouth cavity), whereas they are common and often severe in Hawaii. Internal tumors (on vital organs) occur in the Atlantic and Hawaii, but only rarely in Australia. Liver tumors are common in Florida but not in Hawaii. 4.Recovery from FP through natural processes, when the affliction is not severe, has been documented in wild populations globally. 5.FP causes reduced survivorship, but documented mortality rates in Australia and Hawaii are low. The mortality impact of FP is not currently exceeding population growth rates in some intensively monitored populations (e.g., Florida, Hawaii) as evidenced by increasing nesting trends despite the incidence of FP in immature foraging populations. 6.Pathogens, hosts, and potential disease and environmental cofactors have the capacity to change; while we are having success now, there needs to be continued monitoring to detect changes in the distribution, occurrence, and severity of the disease. 7.While we do not have clear evidence to provide the direct link, globally, the preponderance of sites with a high frequency of FP tumors are areas with some degree of degradation resulting from altered watersheds. Watershed management and responsible coastal

  2. International Consortium on Mammographic Density : Methodology and population diversity captured across 22 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCormack, Valerie A; Burton, Anya; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Hipwell, John H; Dickens, Caroline; Salem, Dorria; Kamal, Rasha; Hartman, Mikael; Lee, Charmaine Pei Ling; Chia, Kee-Seng; Ozmen, Vahit; Aribal, Mustafa Erkin; Flugelman, Anath Arzee; Lajous, Martín; Lopez-Riduara, Ruy; Rice, Megan; Romieu, Isabelle; Ursin, Giske; Qureshi, Samera; Ma, Huiyan; Lee, Eunjung; van Gils, Carla H; Wanders, Johanna O P; Vinayak, Sudhir; Ndumia, Rose; Allen, Steve; Vinnicombe, Sarah; Moss, Sue; Won Lee, Jong; Kim, Jisun; Pereira, Ana; Garmendia, Maria Luisa; Sirous, Reza; Sirous, Mehri; Peplonska, Beata; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Tamimi, Rulla M; Bertrand, Kimberly; Nagata, Chisato; Kwong, Ava; Vachon, Celine; Scott, Christopher; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Pollan, Marina; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Giles, Graham; Hopper, John; Stone, Jennifer; Rajaram, Nadia; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Mariapun, Shivaani; Yaffe, Martin J; Schüz, Joachim; Chiarelli, Anna M; Linton, Linda; Boyd, Norman F

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density (MD) is a quantitative trait, measurable in all women, and is among the strongest markers of breast cancer risk. The population-based epidemiology of MD has revealed genetic, lifestyle and societal/environmental determinants, but studies have largely been conducted in women with

  3. Establishing and Scaling-Up Clinical Social Franchise Networks: Lessons Learned From Marie Stopes International and Population Services International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Sarah; Chakraborty, Nirali M; Hayes, Brendan; Mackay, Anna; Moon, Pierre

    2015-06-17

    In many low- and middle-income countries, a majority of people seek health care from the private sector. However, fragmentation, poor economies of scale, inadequate financing, political opposition, a bias toward curative services, and weak regulatory and quality control systems pose serious challenges for the private sector. Social franchising addresses a number of these challenges by organizing small, independent health care businesses into quality-assured networks. Global franchisors Marie Stopes International (MSI) and Population Services International (PSI) have rapidly scaled their family planning social franchising programs in recent years, jointly delivering over 10.8 million couple-years of protection (CYPs) in 2014-up 26% from 8.6 million CYPs just 1 year prior. Drawing on experience across MSI's 17 and PSI's 25 social franchise networks across Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, this article documents the organizations' operational approaches, challenges faced, and solutions implemented. The organizations provide intensive capacity building and support for private-sector providers, including clinical training, branding, monitoring quality of franchised services, and commodity support. In addition, franchising programs engage providers and clients through behavior change communication (BCC) and demand generation activities to raise awareness and to attract clients, and they implement initiatives to ensure services are affordable for the lowest-income clients. Social franchise programs offer the private sector a collective platform to better engage government in health policy advocacy and for integrating into new public health care financing and procurement mechanisms. The future of social franchising will require developing approaches to scale-up and sustain the model cost-effectively, selectively integrating other health services into the franchise package, and being responsive to evolving health care financing approaches with the potential

  4. The TSH levels and risk of hypothyroidism: Results from a population based prospective cohort study in an Iranian adult's population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminorroaya, Ashraf; Meamar, Rokhsareh; Amini, Massoud; Feizi, Awat; Nasri, Maryam; Tabatabaei, Azamosadat; Faghihimani, Elham

    2017-06-01

    The aim of current study was to assess the relationship between serum TSH levels and hypothyroidism risk in the euthyroid population. In a population-based cohort study, a total of 615 individuals with a normal baseline TSH, from of total population (n=2254) in 2006, were followed up for 6years. TSH, total T4, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) were measured. The relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated based on logistic regression. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis along with area under the curve (AUC) was used to prediction of future hypothyroidism. TSH level in 2006 was a significant predictor for overt hypothyroidism, in the total population (RR=3.5) and female (RR=1.37) (all, P valuehypothyroidism from euthyroid. However, this cut off was not observed when we included only negative TPO and TgAbs people in 2006. The RR of hypothyroidism increased gradually when TSH level increased from 2.06-3.6mIU/L to >3.6mIU/L in the total population and both sexes. In women, the risk of overt hypothyroidism was significantly higher in subjects with TSH above 3.6 than those subject with THS levels≤2.05 [RR: (CI95 %), 20.57(2.-207.04), P valuehypothyroidism in future. However, it was not applicable for people with negative TPOAb and negative TgAb. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating international development investments based on ecosystem services impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremier, A. K.; Brauman, K. A.; Mulligan, M.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Gordon, L.; Luedeling, E.; Jones, S. K.; DeClerck, F.

    2016-12-01

    Engineered water-control structures to supply water for agriculture are frequently funded by international development to an effort to improve human wellbeing. Dams, reservoirs, and other forms of water control frequently have negative impacts on other water users; however, their sustainability in the face of climate change and evolving watershed processes have been called into question. Increasingly, planning for and evaluation of investments in water control require integration of these larger scale impacts and dependencies. Ecosystem service approaches can use local to regional scale knowledge to integrate a broader scope of project impacts by quantifying trade-offs in multiple services across proposed development interventions and future scenarios (economic, climate, demographic). Here, we illustrate the role an ecosystem service approach can play in investment decision making to evaluate the impact of small reservoirs on human wellbeing in the Upper Volta Basin of West Africa. Our project has four components: (1) design of a spatially explicit regional-level social-ecological characterization; (2) construction of future scenario analyses for rainfed and irrigated production system interventions; (3) co-design and co-development of benefit sharing mechanisms at the reservoir catchment level and enhancing institutional capacity to implement these mechanisms through training, professional development and targeting tools; and (4) intervention decision analysis to identify benefits, costs and risks associated with decision options. We illustrate how this approach highlights different outcomes than standard cost-benefit analysis focused narrowly on the single project. Anticipated outcomes are development of ecosystem services-based methods for more equitably and sustainably evaluating development interventions and identifying management approaches to water-impoundment structures that promote a range of ecosystem services to provide food security to a broader

  6. Children with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease can be identified through population-based registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Gunnar; Hærskjold, Ann; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological research is facilitated in Sweden by a history of national health care registers, making large unselected national cohort studies possible. However, for complex clinical populations, such as children with congenital heart disease (CHD), register-based studies...... are challenged by registration limitations. For example, the diagnostic code system International Classification of Diseases, 10th version (ICD-10) does not indicate the clinical significance of abnormalities, therefore may be of limited use if used as the sole parameter in epidemiological research. Palivizumab...

  7. INTERNAL GOVERNANCE AND ROLE OF INTERNAL AUDIT IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS. CASE STUDY: RISK BASED PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Florin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis from 2008 was considered a trigger to reshape the financial systems and to enhance the risk management practices. Considering the developments and new guidelines that are now used it can be observed a “positive” effect of the crisis, in particular to strengthen the risk management culture and governance in all aspects. Comparing to 2008 year, the improvements that have been made to the risk management systems can be easily observed in the financial institutions. For the scope of the article, the subject of this review will be focused on the internal audit function. The main aspect is to capture the new practices that are now used in order to contribute to a performing internal governance system. A case study will be presented in order to better understand how the internal audit function is designed and acting as a “line” of defence in the internal governance system. Also, it is in the scope of the article to issue some recommendations for future developments of the audit function in order to better manage its mission and the objectives. A risk based model used in the planning activities is presented. The financial institutions improved significantly their internal governance system. The internal audit function is now better integrated in the internal structures and clear lines of communication were settled. As the conclusion of the article is illustrating, the internal governance was frequently not sufficiently developed causing a failure in the risk management systems from the systemically financial institutions. The content of the article has practical applicability, as the results and the recommendations could be used in the design of an audit function within a financial institution.

  8. [The decline in the population growth rate--a priority issue in international politics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, E

    1994-08-25

    The Third International UN Conference on Population and Development took place in Cairo in early September 1994 with the participation of 200 governments and 1000 nongovernmental organizations to discuss ways of stabilizing world population at the possible lowest level and how industrialized countries could contribute to this effort. As a consequence of the advances in reproductive medicine the use of contraceptives skyrocketed: in 1994 more than half of men and women were using contraception compared to only 5% in 1950. However, the demographic momentum would still increase world population for another 100 years, even if fertility would drop to 2.2 children per couple (compared to 4 children in 1990). Nevertheless, the present generation could be instrumental in deciding whether the world's population will remain around 8 billion or reach 12 billion between 2050 and 2150. Poor countries can no longer afford an annual growth rate of 2-4% while also trying to improve living standards; this would require an economic growth rate of 6-8%. For the control of population growth both a sustainable environmental policy in the North, with rapid transition to renewable energy and recycling, and a more effective population policy in the South are needed. Family planning (FP) is the precondition of stabilization. The global FP outlays are envisioned to double from the 1994 figure of $5 billion to over $10 billion in the year 2000, with donor contributions to increase from 20% to 40% of the total. The US contribution is to double from $500 million by 2000, while the European Commission decided to boost expenditures for FP from DM 30 million in 1994 to DM 600 million by 2000. Japan is also expending $3 billion during this period. Recent promising developments have emerged: national pronatalist policies have diminished sharply and the pronatalist influence of religions has also declined. Political commitment at the highest level is central to a successful population policy as

  9. Competency-based education and training in internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Steven E; Pereira, Anne G; Iobst, William F; Mechaber, Alex J; Bronze, Michael S

    2010-12-07

    Recent efforts to improve medical education include adopting a new framework based on 6 broad competencies defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. In this article, the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine Education Redesign Task Force II examines the advantages and challenges of a competency-based educational framework for medical residents. Efforts to refine specific competencies by developing detailed milestones are described, and examples of training program initiatives using a competency-based approach are presented. Meeting the challenges of a competency-based framework and supporting these educational innovations require a robust faculty development program. Challenges to competency-based education include teaching and evaluating the competencies related to practice-based learning and improvement and systems-based practice, as well as implementing a flexible time frame to achieve competencies. However, the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine Education Redesign Task Force II does not favor reducing internal medicine training to less than 36 months as part of competency-based education. Rather, the 36-month time frame should allow for remediation to address deficiencies in achieving competencies and for diverse enrichment experiences in such areas as quality of care and practice improvement for residents who have demonstrated skills in all required competencies.

  10. 16S partial gene mitochondrial DNA and internal transcribed spacers ribosomal DNA as differential markers of Trichuris discolor populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, R; Halajian, A; de Rojas, M; Marrugal, A; Guevara, D; Cutillas, C

    2012-05-25

    Comparative morphological, biometrical and molecular studies of Trichuris discolor isolated from Bos taurus from Spain and Iran was carried out. Furthermore, Trichuris ovis isolated from B. taurus and Capra hircus from Spain has been, molecularly, analyzed. Morphological studies revealed clear differences between T. ovis and T. discolor isolated from B. taurus but differences were not observed between populations of T. discolor isolated from different geographical regions. Nevertheless, the molecular studies based on the amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 ribosomal DNA and 16S partial gene mitochondrial DNA showed clear differences between both populations of T. discolor from Spain and Iran suggesting two cryptic species. Phylogenetic studies corroborated these data. Thus, phylogenetic trees based on ITS1, ITS2 and 16S partial gene sequences showed that individuals of T. discolor from B. taurus from Iran clustered together and separated, with high bootstrap values, of T. discolor isolated from B. taurus from Spain, while populations of T. ovis from B. taurus and C. hircus from Spain clustered together but separated with high bootstrap values of both populations of T. discolor. Furthermore, a comparative phylogenetic study has been carried out with the ITS1and ITS2 sequences of Trichuris species from different hosts. Three clades were observed: the first clustered all the species of Trichuris parasitizing herbivores (T. discolor, T. ovis, Trichuris leporis and Trichuris skrjabini), the second clustered all the species of Trichuris parasitizing omnivores (Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis) and finally, the third clustered species of Trichuris parasitizing carnivores (Trichuris muris, Trichuris arvicolae and Trichuris vulpis). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rationale for and protocol of a multi-national population-based bacteremia surveillance collaborative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Church Deirdre L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bloodstream infections are frequent causes of human illness and cause major morbidity and death. In order to best define the epidemiology of these infections and to track changes in occurrence, adverse outcome, and resistance rates over time, population based methodologies are optimal. However, few population-based surveillance systems exist worldwide, and because of differences in methodology inter-regional comparisons are limited. In this report we describe the rationale and propose first practical steps for developing an international collaborative approach to the epidemiologic study and surveillance for bacteremia. Findings The founding collaborative participants represent six regions in four countries in three continents with a combined annual surveillance population of more than 8 million residents. Conclusion Future studies from this collaborative should lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology of bloodstream infections.

  12. International market segmentation based on consumer-product relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hofstede, F; Steenkamp, JBEM; Wedel, M

    With increasing competition in the global marketplace, international segmentation has become an ever more important issue in developing, positioning, and selling products across national borders. The authors propose a methodology to identify cross-national market segments, based on means-end chain

  13. Population-based prevention of influenza in Dutch general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; Hermens, R P; van Essen, G A; Kuyvenhoven, M M; de Melker, R A

    BACKGROUND: Although the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in high-risk groups has been proven, vaccine coverage continues to be less than 50% in The Netherlands. To improve vaccination rates, data on the organizational factors, which should be targeted in population-based prevention of

  14. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n = 5504) the costs

  15. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; Graaf, de R.; Have, M. ten; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n ¼ 5504) the costs

  16. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n = 5504) the costs

  17. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acarturk, C.; Smit, H.F.E.; de Graaf, R.; van Straten, A.; ten Have, M.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based

  18. Individual based model of slug population and spatial dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, Y.H.; Bohan, D.A.; Potting, R.P.J.; Semenov, M.A.; Glen, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The slug, Deroceras reticulatum, is one of the most important pests of agricultural and horticultural crops in UK and Europe. In this paper, a spatially explicit individual based model (IbM) is developed to study the dynamics of a population of D. reticulatum. The IbM establishes a virtual field

  19. An example of population-level risk assessments for small mammals using individual-based population models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Walter; Auteri, Domenica; Bastiansen, Finn; Ebeling, Markus; Liu, Chun; Luttik, Robert; Mastitsky, Sergey; Nacci, Diane; Topping, Chris; Wang, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a case study demonstrating the application of 3 individual-based, spatially explicit population models (IBMs, also known as agent-based models) in ecological risk assessments to predict long-term effects of a pesticide to populations of small mammals. The 3 IBMs each used a hypothetical fungicide (FungicideX) in different scenarios: spraying in cereals (common vole, Microtus arvalis), spraying in orchards (field vole, Microtus agrestis), and cereal seed treatment (wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus). Each scenario used existing model landscapes, which differed greatly in size and structural complexity. The toxicological profile of FungicideX was defined so that the deterministic long-term first tier risk assessment would result in high risk to small mammals, thus providing the opportunity to use the IBMs for risk assessment refinement (i.e., higher tier risk assessment). Despite differing internal model design and scenarios, results indicated in all 3 cases low population sensitivity unless FungicideX was applied at very high (×10) rates. Recovery from local population impacts was generally fast. Only when patch extinctions occured in simulations of intentionally high acute toxic effects, recovery periods, then determined by recolonization, were of any concern. Conclusions include recommendations for the most important input considerations, including the selection of exposure levels, duration of simulations, statistically robust number of replicates, and endpoints to report. However, further investigation and agreement are needed to develop recommendations for landscape attributes such as size, structure, and crop rotation to define appropriate regulatory risk assessment scenarios. Overall, the application of IBMs provides multiple advantages to higher tier ecological risk assessments for small mammals, including consistent and transparent direct links to specific protection goals, and the consideration of more realistic scenarios. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. Gaussian process-based Bayesian nonparametric inference of population size trajectories from gene genealogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Julia A; Minin, Vladimir N

    2013-03-01

    Changes in population size influence genetic diversity of the population and, as a result, leave a signature of these changes in individual genomes in the population. We are interested in the inverse problem of reconstructing past population dynamics from genomic data. We start with a standard framework based on the coalescent, a stochastic process that generates genealogies connecting randomly sampled individuals from the population of interest. These genealogies serve as a glue between the population demographic history and genomic sequences. It turns out that only the times of genealogical lineage coalescences contain information about population size dynamics. Viewing these coalescent times as a point process, estimating population size trajectories is equivalent to estimating a conditional intensity of this point process. Therefore, our inverse problem is similar to estimating an inhomogeneous Poisson process intensity function. We demonstrate how recent advances in Gaussian process-based nonparametric inference for Poisson processes can be extended to Bayesian nonparametric estimation of population size dynamics under the coalescent. We compare our Gaussian process (GP) approach to one of the state-of-the-art Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) methods for estimating population trajectories. Using simulated data, we demonstrate that our method has better accuracy and precision. Next, we analyze two genealogies reconstructed from real sequences of hepatitis C and human Influenza A viruses. In both cases, we recover more believed aspects of the viral demographic histories than the GMRF approach. We also find that our GP method produces more reasonable uncertainty estimates than the GMRF method. Copyright © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  1. A large outbreak of shigellosis commencing in an internally displaced population, Papua New Guinea, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benny, Edwin; Mesere, Kelly; Pavlin, Boris I; Yakam, Logan; Ford, Rebecca; Yoannes, Mition; Kisa, Debbie; Abdad, Mohammad Y; Menda, Lincoln; Greenhill, Andrew R; Horwood, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a large outbreak of shigellosis in Papua New Guinea that began in a camp for internally displaced persons before spreading throughout the general community. Outbreak mitigation strategies were implemented in the affected area to curtail the spread of the disease. Data were collected from the surveillance system and analysed by time, place and person. Rectal swab samples were tested by standard culture methods and real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the etiology of the outbreak. Laboratory analysis at two independent institutions established that the outbreak was caused by Shigella sp., with one strain further characterized as Shigella flexneri serotype 2. Approximately 1200 suspected cases of shigellosis were reported in a two-month period from two townships in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. The outbreak resulted in at least five deaths, all in young children. This outbreak of shigellosis highlights the threat of enteric diseases to vulnerable populations such as internally displaced persons in Papua New Guinea, as has been observed in other global settings.

  2. A large outbreak of shigellosis commencing in an internally displaced population, Papua New Guinea, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Benny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate a large outbreak of shigellosis in Papua New Guinea that began in a camp for internally displaced persons before spreading throughout the general community. Methods: Outbreak mitigation strategies were implemented in the affected area to curtail the spread of the disease. Data were collected from the surveillance system and analysed by time, place and person. Rectal swab samples were tested by standard culture methods and real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the etiology of the outbreak. Results: Laboratory analysis at two independent institutions established that the outbreak was caused by Shigella sp., with one strain further characterized as Shigella flexneri serotype 2. Approximately 1200 suspected cases of shigellosis were reported in a two-month period from two townships in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. The outbreak resulted in at least five deaths, all in young children. Discussion: This outbreak of shigellosis highlights the threat of enteric diseases to vulnerable populations such as internally displaced persons in Papua New Guinea, as has been observed in other global settings.

  3. Hand Grip Strength: age and gender stratified normative data in a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anne W

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of people originally aged 18 years and over. The aim of this study was to describe normative data for hand grip strength in a community-based Australian population. Secondary aims were to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and hand grip strength, and to compare Australian data with international hand grip strength norms. Methods The sample was randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. Overall, 3 206 (81% of those recruited participants returned to the clinic during the second stage (2004-2006 which specifically focused on the collection of information relating to musculoskeletal conditions. Results Following the exclusion of 435 participants who had hand pain and/or arthritis, 1366 men and 1312 women participants provided hand grip strength measurement. The study population was relatively young, with 41.5% under 40 years; and their mean BMI was 28.1 kg/m2 (SD 5.5. Higher hand grip strength was weakly related to higher BMI in adults under the age of 30 and over the age of 70, but inversely related to higher BMI between these ages. Australian norms from this sample had amongst the lowest of the hand grip strength of the internationally published norms, except those from underweight populations. Conclusions This population demonstrated higher BMI and lower grip strength in younger participants than much of the international published, population data. A complete exploration of the relationship between BMI and hand grip strength was not fully explored as there were very few participants with BMI in the underweight range. The age and gender grip strength values are lower in younger adults than those reported in international literature.

  4. GIS-Based Population Model Applied to Nevada Transportation Routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a model based on geographic information system (GIS) processing of US Census Block data has made high-resolution population analysis for transportation risk analysis technically and economically feasible. Population density bordering each kilometer of a route may be tabulated with specific route sections falling into each of three categories (Rural, Suburban or Urban) identified for separate risk analysis. In addition to the improvement in resolution of Urban areas along a route, the model provides a statistically-based correction to population densities in Rural and Suburban areas where Census Block dimensions may greatly exceed the 800-meter scale of interest. A semi-automated application of the GIS model to a subset of routes in Nevada (related to the Yucca Mountain project) are presented, and the results compared to previous models including a model based on published Census and other data. These comparisons demonstrate that meaningful improvement in accuracy and specificity of transportation risk analyses is dependent on correspondingly accurate and geographically-specific population density data

  5. The International Coal Statistics Data Base program maintenance guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The International Coal Statistics Data Base (ICSD) is a microcomputer-based system which contains information related to international coal trade. This includes coal production, consumption, imports and exports information. The ICSD is a secondary data base, meaning that information contained therein is derived entirely from other primary sources. It uses dBase III+ and Lotus 1-2-3 to locate, report and display data. The system is used for analysis in preparing the Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade (DOE/EIA-0363) publication. The ICSD system is menu driven and also permits the user who is familiar with dBase and Lotus operations to leave the menu structure to perform independent queries. Documentation for the ICSD consists of three manuals -- the User's Guide, the Operations Manual, and the Program Maintenance Manual. This Program Maintenance Manual provides the information necessary to maintain and update the ICSD system. Two major types of program maintenance documentation are presented in this manual. The first is the source code for the dBase III+ routines and related non-dBase programs used in operating the ICSD. The second is listings of the major component database field structures. A third important consideration for dBase programming, the structure of index files, is presented in the listing of source code for the index maintenance program. 1 fig

  6. Assessment of military population-based psychological resilience programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brenda J; Bibb, Sandra C Garmon

    2011-09-01

    Active duty service members' (ADSMs) seemingly poor adaptability to traumatic stressors is a risk to force health. Enhancing the psychological resilience of ADSMs has become a key focus of Department of Defense (DoD) leaders and the numbers of military programs for enhancing psychological resilience have increased. The purpose of this article is to describe the results of an assessment conducted to determine comprehensiveness of current psychological resilience building programs that target ADSMs. A modified six-step, population-based needs assessment was used to evaluate resilience programs designed to meet the psychological needs of the ADSM population. The assessment results revealed a gap in published literature regarding program outcomes. DoD leaders may benefit from targeted predictive research that assesses program effectiveness outcomes. The necessity of including preventive, evidence-based interventions in new programs, such as positive emotion interventions shown to enhance psychological resilience in civilian samples, is also recommended.

  7. Lack of Population Structure in Coriander Populations Based on SDS (Seed Storage Protein Page Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsüm Yaldiz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation is prerequisite for plant breeding. Nothing information existed in the literature for available diversity of Coriander accession in Turkey. Plant breeding activities are negligible in Turkey. So in order to start effective plant breeding program in Turkey, information on the available genetic diversity is viable. Therefore we planned to study the genetic variation and population structure of 29 Coriander accessions by seed storage protein (SDS. SDS analysis elaborated the lack of population structure and genetic bottleneck in the Coriander accessions in Turkey. Based on the results of this study, it was clear that sampling strategy was not appropriate and plant introduction should be made from different sources and diverse genotypes should be used as parents to initialize the effective Turkish Coriander breeding program.

  8. Internal Communication and Social Dialogue in Knowledge-Based Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Diana-Maria CISMARU; Cristina LEOVARIDIS

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of...

  9. Uranium internal exposure evaluation based on urine assay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.N.P.

    1984-09-01

    The difficulties in assessing internal exposures to uranium from urine assay data are described. A simplified application of the ICRP-30 and ICRP Lung Model concepts to the estimation of uranium intake is presented. A discussion follows on the development of a computer code utilizing the ICRP-30-based uranium elimination model with the existing urine assay information. The calculated uranium exposures from 1949 through 1983 are discussed. 13 references, 1 table

  10. International centres of excellence based on research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alldred, K.; Tozser, S.M.; Adelfang, P.

    2013-01-01

    A number of high flux research reactors were, or will be constructed. Each of these high flux facilities has the potential to be an important regional or International Centre of Excellence based on Research Reactors (ICERR) and scientific hub for research and materials investigations. Some are so organized currently, but for many there is a strongly national focus and scope for a significant expansion of their international role. There are manifold benefits of an expanded international role both for the ICERR's themselves and for the institutes that affiliate with them. These benefits include increased utilization and financial stability, increased international prestige, and enhanced scientific resources and capabilities. There are significant hurdles to obtaining the benefits from an expanded international role. For example, to achieve its full potential an ICERR must accommodate scientists from other nations, and include the plans and aspirations of the international community in the ICERR governance. The ICERR must also fully meet the national responsibilities for safety and security. Balancing these potentially conflicting requirements and finding a path through the organisational and legal issues is a significant challenge for any institute. The existing ICERR's therefore provide important case studies and examples of best practice that could inform the actions of other potential ICERR's. This paper describes an IAEA initiative to encourage and support the formation of new ICERR's, strengthen existing ones, and increase training resources available to Member States. The initiative will seek to share best practice and facilitate meetings and technical exchanges between the existing and potential ICERRs, and between the potential ICERR's and potential subscribing or affiliating institutes. (orig.)

  11. International Centers of Excellence based on Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alldred, K.; Tozser, S. M.; Adelfang, P.

    2012-01-01

    A number of high flux research reactors were, or will be constructed. Each of these high flux facilities has the potential to be an important regional or International Centre of Excellence based on Research Reactors (ICERR) and scientific hub for research and materials investigations. Some are so organized currently, but for many there is a strongly national focus and scope for a significant expansion of their international role. There are manifold benefits of an expanded international role both for the ICERR's themselves and for the institutes that affiliate with them. These benefits include increased utilization and financial stability, increased international prestige, and enhanced scientific resources and capabilities. There are significant hurdles to obtaining the benefits from an expanded international role. For example, to achieve its full potential an ICERR must accommodate scientists from other nations, and include the plans and aspirations of the international community in the ICERR governance. The ICERR must also fully meet the national responsibilities for safety and security. Balancing these potentially conflicting requirements and finding a path through the organisational and legal issues is a significant challenge for any institute. The existing ICERR's therefore provide important case studies and examples of best practice that could inform the actions of other potential ICERR's. This paper describes an IAEA initiative to encourage and support the formation of new ICERR's, strengthen existing ones, and increase training resources available to Member States. The initiative will seek to share best practice and facilitate meetings and technical exchanges between the existing and potential ICERRs, and between the potential ICERR's and potential subscribing or affiliating institutes. (authors)

  12. Molecular analysis of fungal populations in patients with oral candidiasis using internal transcribed spacer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieda, Shinsuke; Moriyama, Masafumi; Takeshita, Toru; Takashita, Toru; Maehara, Takashi; Imabayashi, Yumi; Shinozaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Furukawa, Sachiko; Ohta, Miho; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is closely associated with changes in the oral fungal flora and is caused primarily by Candida albicans. Conventional methods of fungal culture are time-consuming and not always conclusive. However, molecular genetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA is rapid, reproducible and simple to perform. In this study we examined the fungal flora in patients with oral candidiasis and investigated changes in the flora after antifungal treatment using length heterogeneity-polymerization chain reaction (LH-PCR) analysis of ITS regions. Fifty-two patients with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis (POC) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Fungal DNA from oral rinse was examined for fungal species diversity by LH-PCR. Fungal populations were quantified by real-time PCR and previously-unidentified signals were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Relationships between the oral fungal flora and treatment-resistant factors were also examined. POC patients showed significantly more fungal species and a greater density of fungi than control individuals. Sixteen fungi were newly identified. The fungal populations from both groups were composed predominantly of C. albicans, though the ratio of C. dubliniensis was significantly higher in POC patients than in controls. The diversity and density of fungi were significantly reduced after treatment. Furthermore, fungal diversity and the proportion of C. dubliniensis were positively correlated with treatment duration. These results suggest that C. dubliniensis and high fungal flora diversity might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. We therefore conclude that LH-PCR is a useful technique for diagnosing and assessing the severity of oral candidal infection.

  13. The fairness, predictive validity and acceptability of multiple mini interview in an internationally diverse student population- a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Maureen E.; Dowell, Jon; Husbands, Adrian; Newell, John; O'Flynn, Siun; Kropmans, Thomas; Dunne, Fidelma P.; Murphy, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Background International medical students, those attending medical school outside of their country of citizenship, account for a growing proportion of medical undergraduates worldwide. This study aimed to establish the fairness, predictive validity and acceptability of Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) in an internationally diverse student population. Methods This was an explanatory sequential, mixed methods study. All students in First Year Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway 2012 we...

  14. A comprehensive gaze stabilization controller based on cerebellar internal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannucci, Lorenzo; Falotico, Egidio; Tolu, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    . The VOR works in conjunction with the opto-kinetic reflex (OKR), which is a visual feedback mechanism that allows to move the eye at the same speed as the observed scene. Together they keep the image stationary on the retina. In this work we implement on a humanoid robot a model of gaze stabilization...... based on the coordination of VCR and VOR and OKR. The model, inspired by neuroscientific cerebellar theories, is provided with learning and adaptation capabilities based on internal models. We present the results for the gaze stabilization model on three sets of experiments conducted on the SABIAN robot...

  15. 4D CT sorting based on patient internal anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H.; Cerviño, Laura I.; Jiang, Steve B.

    2009-08-01

    Respiratory motion during free-breathing computed tomography (CT) scan may cause significant errors in target definition for tumors in the thorax and upper abdomen. A four-dimensional (4D) CT technique has been widely used for treatment simulation of thoracic and abdominal cancer radiotherapy. The current 4D CT techniques require retrospective sorting of the reconstructed CT slices oversampled at the same couch position. Most sorting methods depend on external surrogates of respiratory motion recorded by extra instruments. However, respiratory signals obtained from these external surrogates may not always accurately represent the internal target motion, especially when irregular breathing patterns occur. We have proposed a new sorting method based on multiple internal anatomical features for multi-slice CT scan acquired in the cine mode. Four features are analyzed in this study, including the air content, lung area, lung density and body area. We use a measure called spatial coherence to select the optimal internal feature at each couch position and to generate the respiratory signals for 4D CT sorting. The proposed method has been evaluated for ten cancer patients (eight with thoracic cancer and two with abdominal cancer). For nine patients, the respiratory signals generated from the combined internal features are well correlated to those from external surrogates recorded by the real-time position management (RPM) system (average correlation: 0.95 ± 0.02), which is better than any individual internal measures at 95% confidence level. For these nine patients, the 4D CT images sorted by the combined internal features are almost identical to those sorted by the RPM signal. For one patient with an irregular breathing pattern, the respiratory signals given by the combined internal features do not correlate well with those from RPM (correlation: 0.68 ± 0.42). In this case, the 4D CT image sorted by our method presents fewer artifacts than that from the RPM signal. Our

  16. Development of Web based system for individual internal monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Vanessa Rogeria de

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of the internal monitoring, in general, are to verify and document that each worker is protected adequately against risks from radionuclide intakes and the protection complies with legal requirements. Therefore, an overall radiation protection programme, starts with an assessment to identify work situations in which there is a risk of internal contamination of workers and to quantify the likely intake of radioactive material and the resulting committed effective dose. As a part of a continuous improvement of the monitoring programme for occupationally exposed workers at IPEN, it is being developed a Web based system to access the internal dosimetry database. The system was implemented using Hypertext Preprocessor, PHP, and a PostgreSQL database. This system will introduce a new paradigm in the routine of the internal dosimetry service, providing a fast access to the information among the measurement laboratories staff, dose evaluation group and the radiation protection supervisor. The database maintains information about worker identification, physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclide, type of monitoring, measurement data and the dose. Moreover, this information will be readily available to provide support for regulatory compliance and quality control requirements. (author)

  17. Wealth Inequality and Mental Disability Among the Chinese Population: A Population Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    In the study described herein, we investigated and explored the association between wealth inequality and the risk of mental disability in the Chinese population. We used nationally represented, population-based data from the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, conducted in 2006. A total of 1,724,398 study subjects between the ages of 15 and 64, including 10,095 subjects with mental disability only, were used for the analysis. Wealth status was estimated by a wealth index that was derived from a principal component analysis of 10 household assets and four other variables related to wealth. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for mental disability for each category, with the lowest quintile category as the referent. Confounding variables under consideration were age, gender, residence area, marital status, ethnicity, education, current employment status, household size, house type, homeownership and living arrangement. The distribution of various types and severities of mental disability differed significantly by wealth index category in the present population. Wealth index category had a positive association with mild mental disability (p for trend wealth index category had a significant, inverse association with mental disability when all severities of mental disability were taken into consideration. This study’s results suggest that wealth is a significant factor in the distribution of mental disability and it might have different influences on various types and severities of mental disability. PMID:26492258

  18. Wealth Inequality and Mental Disability Among the Chinese Population: A Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-10-19

    In the study described herein, we investigated and explored the association between wealth inequality and the risk of mental disability in the Chinese population. We used nationally represented, population-based data from the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, conducted in 2006. A total of 1,724,398 study subjects between the ages of 15 and 64, including 10,095 subjects with mental disability only, were used for the analysis. Wealth status was estimated by a wealth index that was derived from a principal component analysis of 10 household assets and four other variables related to wealth. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for mental disability for each category, with the lowest quintile category as the referent. Confounding variables under consideration were age, gender, residence area, marital status, ethnicity, education, current employment status, household size, house type, homeownership and living arrangement. The distribution of various types and severities of mental disability differed significantly by wealth index category in the present population. Wealth index category had a positive association with mild mental disability (p for trend disability (p for trend disability when all severities of mental disability were taken into consideration. This study's results suggest that wealth is a significant factor in the distribution of mental disability and it might have different influences on various types and severities of mental disability.

  19. Ashkenazi Jewish population screening for Tay-Sachs disease: the international and Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Raelia M; Burnett, Leslie; Proos, Anné L; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Delatycki, Martin B; Bankier, Agnes; Aizenberg, Harry; Field, Michael J; Berman, Yemima; Fleischer, Ronald; Fietz, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Internationally, Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) preconception screening of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) individuals and couples has led to effective primary prevention of TSD. In Australia, adolescent preconception genetic screening programs operate mainly in Jewish community high schools. These existing programs offer an effective means of primary prevention of TSD, are cost effective and safe. However, in the broader Australian community TSD screening is not systematically performed and cases still occur in unscreened AJ individuals. In order to improve the effectiveness of Australian screening, there is a need for definitive guidelines for healthcare professionals to facilitate extension of the proven benefits of preconception TSD screening to all AJ individuals at risk. We performed a systematic review of the relevant literature relating to AJ pre-conception and antenatal screening for TSD. The evidence was assessed using an established National Health and Medical Research Council evidence grading system. Evaluations of efficacy of TSD screening programs design and execution, cost-benefit and cost-utility health economic evaluation, and population outcomes were undertaken. The results have been used to propose a model for universal AJ TSD preconception and antenatal screening for the primary care setting. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Time Trends in Breast Cancer Among Indian Women Population: An Analysis of Population Based Cancer Registry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Meesha; Vaitheeswaran, K; Satishkumar, K; Das, Priyanka; Stephen, S; Nandakumar, A

    2015-12-01

    The trends observed in cancer breast among Indian women are an indication of effect of changing lifestyle in population. To draw an appropriate inference regarding the trends of a particular type of cancer in a country, it is imperative to glance at the reliable data collected by Population Based Cancer Registries over a period of time. To give an insight of changing trends of breast cancer which have taken place over a period of time among women in Cancer Registries of India. Breast Cancer trends for invasive breast cancer in women in Indian Registries have varied during the selected period. Occurrence of breast cancers has also shown geographical variation in India. This data was collected by means of a 'Standard Core Proforma' designed by NCRP conforming to the data fields as suggested by International norms. The Proforma was filled by trained Registry workers based on interview/ hospital medical records/ supplementing data by inputs from treating surgeons/radiation oncologists/involved physicians/pathologists. The contents of the Proforma are entered into specifically created software and transmitted electronically to the coordinating center at Bangalore. The registries contributing to more number of years of data are called as older registries, while other recently established registries are called newer registries. While there has been an increase recorded in breast cancer in most of the registries, some of them have recorded an insignificant increase. Comparison of Age Adjusted Rates (AARs) among Indian Registries has been carried out after which trends observed in populations covered by Indian Registries are depicted. A variation in broad age groups of females and the proneness of females developing breast cancer over the period 1982 to 2010 has been shown. Comparisons of Indian registries with International counterparts have also been carried out. There are marked changes in incidence rates of cancer breast which have occurred in respective registries in a

  1. Prospects of implementation of "Basel III" international standards for domestic banks based on international experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baha Oksana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the main requirements of the "Basel III" new standards in the context of banks capital regulation and identifies prospects for implementation of domestic banks based on analysis of international experience. The urgency of the problem is formulated in the need to restore the stability of the banking system of Ukraine with the new standards, which purpose is to increase the stability of banks and to protect the rights of financial services consumers. The main threats faced by the banking systems of developed countries and possible for the Ukrainian financial system were determined. The ways of achieving maximum benefits of new banking reform introduction were proposed.

  2. Nanotechnology strength indicators: international rankings based on US patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Dora; McAleer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Technological strength indicators (TSIs) based on patent statistics for 1975-2000 are used to analyse patenting of nanotechnology in the USA, and to compile international rankings for the top 12 foreign patenting countries (namely Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Taiwan). As the indicators are not directly observable, various proxy variables are used, namely the technological specialization index for national priorities, patent shares for international presence, citation rate for the contribution of patents to knowledge development and rate of assigned patents for potential commercial benefits. The best performing country is France, followed by Japan and Canada. It is shown that expertise and strength in nanotechnology are not evenly distributed among the technologically advanced countries, with the TSIs revealing different emphases in the development of nanotechnology.

  3. Internal quality control of PCR-based genotyping methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Gram, Jørgen; Jespersen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Internal quality control programmes for genetic analyses are needed. We have focused on quality control aspects of selected polymorphism analyses used in thrombosis research. DNA was isolated from EDTA-blood (n = 500) and analysed for 18 polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), i...... because of positive reagent blanks (controls (Control of data handling revealed 0.1% reading mistakes and 0.5% entry mistakes. Based on our experiences, we propose an internal quality control programme......, electrophoresis (analytical factors), result reading and entry into a database (post-analytical factors). Furthermore, we evaluated a procedure for result confirmation. Isolated DNA was of good quality (42 micrograms/ml blood, A260/A280 ratio > 1.75, negative DNAsis tests). Occasionally, results were reanalysed...

  4. [[The global significance of the Cairo conference: the new program of action of the International Conference on Population and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoh, M

    1994-10-01

    "The [1994] International Conference on Population and Development was held in Cairo, Egypt.... In this essay I briefly described global population trends and [their] economic and ecological implications, stated the temporal progress from arguments in the three Preparatory Committees toward the achievement of consensus at the end of the Cairo Conference, summarized and commented [on] each chapter of the Programme of Action, clarified the major characteristics of the Cairo document compared to the documents in Bucharest and Mexico City, and finally discussed the effectiveness of the strategy suggested in the Cairo document for addressing population and development issues in the context of sustainability." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  5. National nephrectomy registries: Reviewing the need for population-based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, John; Williamson, Timothy; Ischia, Joseph; Bolton, Damien M; Frydenberg, Mark; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2015-09-01

    Nephrectomy is the cornerstone therapy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and continued refinement of the procedure through research may enhance patient outcomes. A national nephrectomy registry may provide the key information needed to assess the procedure at a national level. The aim of this study was to review nephrectomy data available at a population-based level in Australia and to benchmark these data against data from the rest of the world as an examination of the national nephrectomy registry model. A PubMed search identified records pertaining to RCC nephrectomy in Australia. A similar search identified records relating to established nephrectomy registries internationally and other surgical registries of clinical importance. These records were reviewed to address the stated aims of this article. Population-based data within Australia for nephrectomy were lacking. Key issues identified were the difficulty in benchmarking outcomes and no ongoing monitoring of trends. The care centralization debate, which questions whether small-volume centers provide comparable outcomes to high-volume centers, is ongoing. Patterns of adherence and the effectiveness of existing protocols are uncertain. A review of established international registries demonstrated that the registry model can effectively address issues comparable to those identified in the Australian literature. A national nephrectomy registry could address deficiencies identified in a given nation's nephrectomy field. The model is supported by evidence from international examples and will provide the population-based data needed for studies. Scope exists for possible integration with other registries to develop a more encompassing urological or surgical registry. Need remains for further exploration of the feasibility and practicalities of initiating such a registry including a minimum data set, outcome indicators, and auditing of data.

  6. A Population-Based Clinical Trial of Irinotecan and Carboplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derick Lau

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Phase I trials of anticancer drugs are commonly conducted using the method of modified Fibonacci. We have developed a population-based design for phase I trials of combining anticancer drugs such as irinotecan and carboplatin. Patients and Methods. Intrapatient dose escalation of irinotecan and carboplatin was performed according to a predetermined schema to reach individual dose-limiting toxicity (DLT in 50 patients with solid tumors refractory to previous chemotherapy. The individual toxicity-limiting dose levels were analyzed for normal distribution using the method of Ryan-Joiner and subsequently used to determine a population-based maximum tolerated dose (pMTD. For comparison, a simulation study was performed using the method of modified Fibonacci. Results. The most common dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs included neutropenia (58%, thrombocytopenia (16%, and diarrhea (8%. The frequency of individual toxicity-limiting dose levels of 50 patients approximated a normal distribution. The dose levels associated with individual limiting toxicities ranged from level 1 (irinotecan 100 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC = 4 mg/mL x min to level 8 (irinotecan 350 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC = 6. The pMTD was determined to be dose level 3 (150 mg/m2 for irinotecan and AUC = 5 for carboplatin. In contrast, the MTD was determined to be dose level 4 (200 mg/m2 for irinotecan and AUC 5 for carboplatin by modified-Fibonacci simulation. Conclusions. The population-based design of phase I trial allows optimization of dose intensity and derivation of a pMTD. The pMTD has been applied in phase II trial of irinotecan and carboplatin in patients with small-cell lung cancer.

  7. Internal Communication and Social Dialogue in Knowledge-Based Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria CISMARU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of Eurofound shows that knowledge-based organizations have a low number of trade unions, while professional associations are more relevant for them. There is no tradition to defend through negotiation the working conditions of employees, thus it is important for managers to use the best practices, in order to increase the employees’ loyalty. We conducted a qualitative research concerning the quality of professional life of employees in five sectors of knowledge-based services: advertising-marketing, IT, banking and finance, research and development, and higher education; 15-20 employees from each sector were interviewed. Some of the questions referred directly to trade unions and affiliation, and also to internal communication. Although the results showed a different situation in each of the five sectors, there are few common characteristics: descendant communication is more frequent than ascendant communication, trade unions were reported as missing, unrepresentative or not very active, and the greatest part of employees in this sector are not affiliated, facts that limits the possibility of maintaining employees’ motivation on long term.

  8. Detecting population recovery using gametic disequilibrium-based effective population size estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Tallmon; Robin S. Waples; Dave Gregovich; Michael K. Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    Recovering populations often must meet specific growth rate or abundance targets before their legal status can be changed from endangered or threatened. While the efficacy, power, and performance of population metrics to infer trends in declining populations has received considerable attention, how these same metrics perform when populations are increasing is less...

  9. Development of web based system for internal monitoring programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Vanessa R. de; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando; Todo, Alberto S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: vrlima@ipen.br; rodrijr@ipen.br; astodo@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The purposes of monitoring in general are to verify and to document that each worker is protected adequately against risks from radionuclide intakes and the protection complies with legal requirements. Therefore, it forms part of the overall radiation protection programme, which starts with an assessment to identify work situations in which there is a risk of internal contamination of workers and to quantify the likely intake of radioactive material and the resulting committed effective dose. As a part of a continuous improvement of the monitoring programme for occupationally exposed workers at IPEN, it is being developed a Web based system to access the internal dosimetry database. The system was implemented using Hypertext Preprocessor, PHP, and a PostgreSQL database. This system will introduce a new paradigm in the routine of the internal dosimetry service, providing a fast access to the information among the measurement laboratories staff, dose evaluation group and the radiation protection supervisor. The database maintains information about worker identification, physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclide, type of monitoring, measurement data and the dose. Moreover, this information will be readily available to provide support for regulatory compliance and quality control requirements. (author)

  10. Study of internal oxidation kinetics of molybdenum base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krushinskij, Yu.Yu.; Belyakov, B.G.; Belomyttsev, M.Yu.

    1989-01-01

    Metallographic and microdurometric method as well as new technique were used to study kinetics of internal oxidation (IO). It is shown that study of IO kinetics on the base of metallographic measurements of layers depth is not correct because it is related with insufficient sensitivity of the method. IO kinetics under conditions of formation of molybdenum oxide layer on saturated material surface as well as IO of alloy with high carbon content were investigated. Oxide film formation does not affect the IO kinetics; decarburization observed along with oxidation increases the apparent activation energy and K exponent on time dependence of diffusion layer depth

  11. International Workshop on Evidence-Based Technology Enhanced Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Gennari, Rosella; Marenzi, Ivana; Prieta, Fernando; Rodríguez, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Research on Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) investigates how information and communication technologies can be designed in order to support pedagogical activities. The workshop proceedings collects contributions concerning evidence based TEL systems, like their design following EBD principles as well as studies or best practices that educators, education stakeholders or psychologists used to diagnose or improve their students' learning skills, including students with specific difficulties. The international ebTEL’12 workshop wants to be a forum in which TEL researchers and practitioners alike can discuss ideas, projects, and lessons related to ebTEL. The workshop takes place in Salamanca, Spain, on March 28th-30th 2012.  

  12. The International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie

    2015-05-01

    I report on the opening ceremony of the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies 2015 (IYL2015), which took place at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, France, on 19-20 January 2015. Over the two days, more than 1000 participants from all over the world learned more about the fundamental properties of light and advanced photonics applications, the history of optics and its applications through the centuries, light poverty and light pollution, and light for everyday life, health and research.

  13. Validity and feasibility of a satellite imagery-based method for rapid estimation of displaced populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checchi, Francesco; Stewart, Barclay T; Palmer, Jennifer J; Grundy, Chris

    2013-01-23

    Estimating the size of forcibly displaced populations is key to documenting their plight and allocating sufficient resources to their assistance, but is often not done, particularly during the acute phase of displacement, due to methodological challenges and inaccessibility. In this study, we explored the potential use of very high resolution satellite imagery to remotely estimate forcibly displaced populations. Our method consisted of multiplying (i) manual counts of assumed residential structures on a satellite image and (ii) estimates of the mean number of people per structure (structure occupancy) obtained from publicly available reports. We computed population estimates for 11 sites in Bangladesh, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya and Mozambique (six refugee camps, three internally displaced persons' camps and two urban neighbourhoods with a mixture of residents and displaced) ranging in population from 1,969 to 90,547, and compared these to "gold standard" reference population figures from census or other robust methods. Structure counts by independent analysts were reasonably consistent. Between one and 11 occupancy reports were available per site and most of these reported people per household rather than per structure. The imagery-based method had a precision relative to reference population figures of layout. For each site, estimates were produced in 2-5 working person-days. In settings with clearly distinguishable individual structures, the remote, imagery-based method had reasonable accuracy for the purposes of rapid estimation, was simple and quick to implement, and would likely perform better in more current application. However, it may have insurmountable limitations in settings featuring connected buildings or shelters, a complex pattern of roofs and multi-level buildings. Based on these results, we discuss possible ways forward for the method's development.

  14. Population-based absolute risk estimation with survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute risk is the probability that a cause-specific event occurs in a given time interval in the presence of competing events. We present methods to estimate population-based absolute risk from a complex survey cohort that can accommodate multiple exposure-specific competing risks. The hazard function for each event type consists of an individualized relative risk multiplied by a baseline hazard function, which is modeled nonparametrically or parametrically with a piecewise exponential model. An influence method is used to derive a Taylor-linearized variance estimate for the absolute risk estimates. We introduce novel measures of the cause-specific influences that can guide modeling choices for the competing event components of the model. To illustrate our methodology, we build and validate cause-specific absolute risk models for cardiovascular and cancer deaths using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our applications demonstrate the usefulness of survey-based risk prediction models for predicting health outcomes and quantifying the potential impact of disease prevention programs at the population level. PMID:23686614

  15. On estimation of time-dependent attributable fraction from population-based case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Chen, Ying Qing; Hsu, Li

    2017-09-01

    Population attributable fraction (PAF) is widely used to quantify the disease burden associated with a modifiable exposure in a population. It has been extended to a time-varying measure that provides additional information on when and how the exposure's impact varies over time for cohort studies. However, there is no estimation procedure for PAF using data that are collected from population-based case-control studies, which, because of time and cost efficiency, are commonly used for studying genetic and environmental risk factors of disease incidences. In this article, we show that time-varying PAF is identifiable from a case-control study and develop a novel estimator of PAF. Our estimator combines odds ratio estimates from logistic regression models and density estimates of the risk factor distribution conditional on failure times in cases from a kernel smoother. The proposed estimator is shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal with asymptotic variance that can be estimated empirically from the data. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed estimator performs well in finite sample sizes. Finally, the method is illustrated by a population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  16. Internal migration and urbanization in China: impacts on population exposure to household air pollution (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunan, Kristin; Wang, Shuxiao

    2014-05-15

    Exposure to fine particles ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) from incomplete combustion of solid fuels in household stoves, denoted household air pollution (HAP), is a major contributor to ill health in China and globally. Chinese households are, however, undergoing a massive transition to cleaner household fuels. The objective of the present study is to establish the importance of internal migration when it comes to the changing household fuel use pattern and the associated exposure to PM2.5 for the period 2000 to 2010. We also estimate health benefits of the fuel transition in terms of avoided premature deaths. Using China Census data on population, migration, and household fuel use for 2000 and 2010 we identify the size, place of residence, and main cooking fuel of sub-populations in 2000 and 2010, respectively. We combine these data with estimated exposure levels for the sub-populations and estimate changes in population exposure over the decade. We find that the population weighted exposure (PWE) for the Chinese population as a whole was reduced by 52 (36-70) μg/m(3) PM2.5 over the decade, and that about 60% of the reduction can be linked to internal migration. During the same period the migrant population, in total 261 million people, was subject to a reduced population weighted exposure (ΔPWE) of 123 (87-165) μg/m(3) PM2.5. The corresponding figure for non-migrants is 34 (23-47) μg/m(3). The largest ΔPWE was estimated for rural-to-urban migrants (138 million people), 214 (154-283) μg/m(3). The estimated annual health benefit associated with the reduced exposure in the total population is 31 (26-37) billion USD, corresponding to 0.4% of the Chinese GDP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation between patients' reasons for encounters/health problems and population density in Japan: a systematic review of observational studies coded by the International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care (ICHPPC) and the International Classification of Primary care (ICPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Makoto; Ohta, Ryuichi; Nago, Naoki; Fukushi, Motoharu; Matsushima, Masato

    2017-09-13

    The Japanese health care system has yet to establish structured training for primary care physicians; therefore, physicians who received an internal medicine based training program continue to play a principal role in the primary care setting. To promote the development of a more efficient primary health care system, the assessment of its current status in regard to the spectrum of patients' reasons for encounters (RFEs) and health problems is an important step. Recognizing the proportions of patients' RFEs and health problems, which are not generally covered by an internist, can provide valuable information to promote the development of a primary care physician-centered system. We conducted a systematic review in which we searched six databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Ichushi-Web, JDreamIII and CiNii) for observational studies in Japan coded by International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care (ICHPPC) and International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) up to March 2015. We employed population density as index of accessibility. We calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficient to examine the correlation between the proportion of "non-internal medicine-related" RFEs and health problems in each study area in consideration of the population density. We found 17 studies with diverse designs and settings. Among these studies, "non-internal medicine-related" RFEs, which was not thought to be covered by internists, ranged from about 4% to 40%. In addition, "non-internal medicine-related" health problems ranged from about 10% to 40%. However, no significant correlation was found between population density and the proportion of "non-internal medicine-related" RFEs and health problems. This is the first systematic review on RFEs and health problems coded by ICHPPC and ICPC undertaken to reveal the diversity of health problems in Japanese primary care. These results suggest that primary care physicians in some rural areas of Japan

  18. Morphing Wing Structural Optimization Using Opposite-Based Population-Based Incremental Learning and Multigrid Ground Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sleesongsom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has twin aims. Firstly, a multigrid design approach for optimization of an unconventional morphing wing is proposed. The structural design problem is assigned to optimize wing mass, lift effectiveness, and buckling factor subject to structural safety requirements. Design variables consist of partial topology, nodal positions, and component sizes of a wing internal structure. Such a design process can be accomplished by using multiple resolutions of ground elements, which is called a multigrid approach. Secondly, an opposite-based multiobjective population-based incremental learning (OMPBIL is proposed for comparison with the original multiobjective population-based incremental learning (MPBIL. Multiobjective design problems with single-grid and multigrid design variables are then posed and tackled by OMPBIL and MPBIL. The results show that using OMPBIL in combination with a multigrid design approach is the best design strategy. OMPBIL is superior to MPBIL since the former provides better population diversity. Aeroelastic trim for an elastic morphing wing is also presented.

  19. Lower urinary tract symptoms and urinary incontinence in a geriatric cohort - a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrberger, Clemens; Madersbacher, Stephan; Jungwirth, Susanne; Fischer, Peter; Tragl, Karl-Heinz

    2012-11-01

    To assess prevalence and severity of lower urinary tract function in 85-year-old men and women. Little is known on the prevalence of lower urinary tract dysfunction in this geriatric age group, which is now the fastest growing sector of the population worldwide. The Vienna Trans-Danube Aging study (VITA) is a longitudinal, population-based study initiated in 2000 that included men/women aged 75 years living in a well-defined area in Vienna. The main purpose of the VITA study was to identify risk factors for incident Alzheimer's disease. All study participants alive in 2010 were contacted by mail to complete a detailed questionnaire on various aspects of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary incontinence (UI). The response rate was 68%, resulting in a total of 262 questionnaires available for analysis (men n= 96; women n= 166). All study participants were 85 years of age. Urinary incontinence defined as any involuntary loss during the past 4 weeks was reported by 24% of men and 35% of women (P= 0.04). Stress UI was more frequent in women (39%) than in men (14%, P 0.05). Nocturia more often than twice was more prevalent in men (69%) than in women (49%) (P= 0.02). Overactive bladder, according to International Continence Society criteria, was present in 55% of women and 50% of men. No difference regarding quality of life impairment as the result of LUTS and UI was noticed between sexes. A few co-morbidities were identified to correlate with UI and storage symptoms. These data provide insights into the prevalence and severity of LUTS and UI in individuals in their eighties, to our knowledge the largest population-based study in this age group. Demographic changes in upcoming decades underline the importance of a thorough understanding of lower urinary tract dysfunction in a geriatric population. © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  20. Spike-based population coding and working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Boerlin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Compelling behavioral evidence suggests that humans can make optimal decisions despite the uncertainty inherent in perceptual or motor tasks. A key question in neuroscience is how populations of spiking neurons can implement such probabilistic computations. In this article, we develop a comprehensive framework for optimal, spike-based sensory integration and working memory in a dynamic environment. We propose that probability distributions are inferred spike-per-spike in recurrently connected networks of integrate-and-fire neurons. As a result, these networks can combine sensory cues optimally, track the state of a time-varying stimulus and memorize accumulated evidence over periods much longer than the time constant of single neurons. Importantly, we propose that population responses and persistent working memory states represent entire probability distributions and not only single stimulus values. These memories are reflected by sustained, asynchronous patterns of activity which make relevant information available to downstream neurons within their short time window of integration. Model neurons act as predictive encoders, only firing spikes which account for new information that has not yet been signaled. Thus, spike times signal deterministically a prediction error, contrary to rate codes in which spike times are considered to be random samples of an underlying firing rate. As a consequence of this coding scheme, a multitude of spike patterns can reliably encode the same information. This results in weakly correlated, Poisson-like spike trains that are sensitive to initial conditions but robust to even high levels of external neural noise. This spike train variability reproduces the one observed in cortical sensory spike trains, but cannot be equated to noise. On the contrary, it is a consequence of optimal spike-based inference. In contrast, we show that rate-based models perform poorly when implemented with stochastically spiking neurons.

  1. Estimating glomerular filtration rate in a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Shankar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anoop Shankar1, Kristine E Lee2, Barbara EK Klein2, Paul Muntner3, Peter C Brazy4, Karen J Cruickshanks2,5, F Javier Nieto5, Lorraine G Danforth2, Carla R Schubert2,5, Michael Y Tsai6, Ronald Klein21Department of Community Medicine, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 4Department of Medicine, 5Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA; 3Department of Community Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY, USA; 6Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USABackground: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR-estimating equations are used to determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in population-based studies. However, it has been suggested that since the commonly used GFR equations were originally developed from samples of patients with CKD, they underestimate GFR in healthy populations. Few studies have made side-by-side comparisons of the effect of various estimating equations on the prevalence estimates of CKD in a general population sample.Patients and methods: We examined a population-based sample comprising adults from Wisconsin (age, 43–86 years; 56% women. We compared the prevalence of CKD, defined as a GFR of <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine, by applying various commonly used equations including the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD equation, Cockcroft–Gault (CG equation, and the Mayo equation. We compared the performance of these equations against the CKD definition of cystatin C >1.23 mg/L.Results: We found that the prevalence of CKD varied widely among different GFR equations. Although the prevalence of CKD was 17.2% with the MDRD equation and 16.5% with the CG equation, it was only 4.8% with the Mayo equation. Only 24% of those identified to have GFR in the range of 50–59 mL/min per 1

  2. Portable atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fan; Yang, Renfu; Nian, Feng; Zhang, Zhenwei; Cui, Yongshun; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Nuanrang; Feng, Keming

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a portable atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping is designed and demonstrated. To achieve a portable prototype, in the system, a single transverse mode 795nm VCSEL modulated by a 3.4GHz RF source is used as a pump laser which generates coherent light fields. The pump beams pass through a vapor cell containing atom gas and buffer gas. This vapor cell is surrounded by a magnetic shield and placed inside a solenoid which applies a longitudinal magnetic field to lift the Zeeman energy levels' degeneracy and to separate the resonance signal, which has no first-order magnetic field dependence, from the field-dependent resonances. The electrical control system comprises two control loops. The first one locks the laser wavelength to the minimum of the absorption spectrum; the second one locks the modulation frequency and output standard frequency. Furthermore, we designed the micro physical package and realized the locking of a coherent population trapping atomic frequency standard portable prototype successfully. The short-term frequency stability of the whole system is measured to be 6×10-11 for averaging times of 1s, and reaches 5×10-12 at an averaging time of 1000s.

  3. Comorbidity profile of poliomyelitis survivors in a Chinese population: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2011-06-01

    Previous reports of comorbid conditions in poliomyelitis survivors mainly focused on some disease categories, such as respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, psychiatric diseases, neurological diseases and cancer. Data regarding a wide spectrum of medical comorbidities in patients with poliomyelitis is still sparse. This study aimed to investigate and profile the wide range of comorbidities among the survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in a Chinese population. In total, 2,032 paralytic poliomyelitis patients were selected as the study group and the comparison group consisted of 10,160 randomly selected enrollees. The comorbidities for analysis were based on a modified version of the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index. Conditional logistic regression analyses were computed to investigate the risk of comorbidities for these two groups. As compared to controls, patients with paralytic poliomyelitis had significantly higher prevalence of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, peripheral vascular disorder, stroke, paralysis, migraines, Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, pulmonary circulation disorders, chronic pulmonary disease, liver disease, peptic ulcers, hepatitis B or C, deficiency anemias, depression, and lymphoma. Most of the differences are of clinical interest, ORs often being between 2 and 3. No significant difference between poliomyelitis patients and controls was observed in the prevalence of SLE, tuberculosis, alcohol abuse and drug abuse. Our findings demonstrate that survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in Taiwan are at higher risk of having multiple medical comorbidities although some potential confounding factors including educational level, marital status, obesity and physical activity are not available in our database. The pattern is generally consistent with previous observations from Western populations. Nevertheless, we found several novel associations

  4. Linking Errors between Two Populations and Tests: A Case Study in International Surveys in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastedt, Dirk; Desa, Deana

    2015-01-01

    This simulation study was prompted by the current increased interest in linking national studies to international large-scale assessments (ILSAs) such as IEA's TIMSS, IEA's PIRLS, and OECD's PISA. Linkage in this scenario is achieved by including items from the international assessments in the national assessments on the premise that the average…

  5. International migration patterns of Red-throated Loons (Gavia stellata) from four breeding populations in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Sarah E.; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Fondell, Thomas F.

    2018-01-01

    Identifying post-breeding migration and wintering distributions of migratory birds is important for understanding factors that may drive population dynamics. Red-throated Loons (Gavia stellata) are widely distributed across Alaska and currently have varying population trends, including some populations with recent periods of decline. To investigate population differentiation and the location of migration pathways and wintering areas, which may inform population trend patterns, we used satellite transmitters (n = 32) to describe migration patterns of four geographically separate breeding populations of Red-throated Loons in Alaska. On average (± SD) Red-throated Loons underwent long (6,288 ± 1,825 km) fall and spring migrations predominantly along coastlines. The most northern population (Arctic Coastal Plain) migrated westward to East Asia and traveled approximately 2,000 km farther to wintering sites than the three more southerly populations (Seward Peninsula, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and Copper River Delta) which migrated south along the Pacific coast of North America. These migration paths are consistent with the hypothesis that Red-throated Loons from the Arctic Coastal Plain are exposed to contaminants in East Asia. The three more southerly breeding populations demonstrated a chain migration pattern in which the more northerly breeding populations generally wintered in more northerly latitudes. Collectively, the migration paths observed in this study demonstrate that some geographically distinct breeding populations overlap in wintering distribution while others use highly different wintering areas. Red-throated Loon population trends in Alaska may therefore be driven by a wide range of effects throughout the annual cycle.

  6. Childhood blindness in India: a population based perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, R; Dandona, L

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness in children in the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Methods: These data were obtained as part of two population based studies in which 6935 children ≤15 years of age participated. Blindness was defined as presenting distance visual acuity <6/60 in the better eye. Results: The prevalence of childhood blindness was 0.17% (95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.30). Treatable refractive error caused 33.3% of the blindness, followed by 16.6% due to preventable causes (8.3% each due to vitamin A deficiency and amblyopia after cataract surgery). The major causes of the remaining blindness included congenital eye anomalies (16.7%) and retinal degeneration (16.7%). Conclusion: In the context of Vision 2020, the priorities for action to reduce childhood blindness in India are refractive error, cataract related amblyopia, and corneal diseases. PMID:12598433

  7. A population-based prospective study of optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, K; Jarius, S; Skejoe, Hanne Pernille Bro

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Optic neuritis (ON) is often associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Early diagnosis is critical to optimal patient management. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of acute ON and the rates of conversion to MS and antibody-mediated ON. METHOD: Population-based prospective study......-specific incidence was 3.28 (2.44-4.31) per 100,000 person years, 2.02 for men and 4.57 for women. At follow-up, 20 patients met the diagnostic criteria for MS, MRI lesions disseminated in space and time in 17/20 patients. AQP4-IgG was detected in none, MOG-IgG was detected in two patients. CONCLUSION...

  8. [Consolidation of international guidelines for the management of canine populations in urban areas and proposal of performance indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rita de Cassia Maria; Calderón, Néstor; Ferreira, Fernando

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a generic program for the management of urban canine populations with suggestion of performance indicators. The following international guidelines on canine population management were revised and consolidated: World Health Organization, World Organisation for Animal Health, World Society for the Protection of Animals, International Companion Animal Management Coalition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Management programs should cover: situation diagnosis, including estimates of population size; social participation with involvement of various sectors in the planning and execution of strategies; educational actions to promote humane values, animal welfare, community health, and responsible ownership (through purchase or adoption); environmental and waste management to eliminate sources of food and shelter; registration and identification of animals; animal health care, reproductive control; prevention and control of zoonoses; control of animal commerce; management of animal behavior and adequate solutions for abandoned animals; and laws regulating responsible ownership, prevention of abandonment and zoonoses. To monitor these actions, four groups of indicators are suggested: animal population indicators, human/animal interaction indicators, public service indicators, and zoonosis indicators. The management of stray canine populations requires political, sanitary, ethologic, ecologic, and humanitarian strategies that are socially acceptable and environmentally sustainable. Such measures must also include the control of zoonoses such as rabies and leishmaniasis, considering the concept of "one health," which benefits both the animals and people in the community.

  9. Scleroderma prevalence: demographic variations in a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatsky, S; Joseph, L; Pineau, C A; Belisle, P; Hudson, M; Clarke, A E

    2009-03-15

    To estimate the prevalence of systemic sclerosis (SSc) using population-based administrative data, and to assess the sensitivity of case ascertainment approaches. We ascertained SSc cases from Quebec physician billing and hospitalization databases (covering approximately 7.5 million individuals). Three case definition algorithms were compared, and statistical methods accounting for imperfect case ascertainment were used to estimate SSc prevalence and case ascertainment sensitivity. A hierarchical Bayesian latent class regression model that accounted for possible between-test dependence conditional on disease status estimated the effect of patient characteristics on SSc prevalence and the sensitivity of the 3 ascertainment algorithms. Accounting for error inherent in both the billing and the hospitalization data, we estimated SSc prevalence in 2003 at 74.4 cases per 100,000 women (95% credible interval [95% CrI] 69.3-79.7) and 13.3 cases per 100,000 men (95% CrI 11.1-16.1). Prevalence was higher for older individuals, particularly in urban women (161.2 cases per 100,000, 95% CrI 148.6-175.0). Prevalence was lowest in young men (in rural areas, as low as 2.8 cases per 100,000, 95% CrI 1.4-4.8). In general, no single algorithm was very sensitive, with point estimates for sensitivity ranging from 20-73%. We found marked differences in SSc prevalence according to age, sex, and region. In general, no single case ascertainment approach was very sensitive for SSc. Therefore, using data from multiple sources, with adjustment for the imperfect nature of each, is an important strategy in population-based studies of SSc and similar conditions.

  10. Energy demand forecasting method based on international statistical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glanc, Z.; Kerner, A.

    1997-01-01

    Poland is in a transition phase from a centrally planned to a market economy; data collected under former economic conditions do not reflect a market economy. Final energy demand forecasts are based on the assumption that the economic transformation in Poland will gradually lead the Polish economy, technologies and modes of energy use, to the same conditions as mature market economy countries. The starting point has a significant influence on the future energy demand and supply structure: final energy consumption per capita in 1992 was almost half the average of OECD countries; energy intensity, based on Purchasing Power Parities (PPP) and referred to GDP, is more than 3 times higher in Poland. A method of final energy demand forecasting based on regression analysis is described in this paper. The input data are: output of macroeconomic and population growth forecast; time series 1970-1992 of OECD countries concerning both macroeconomic characteristics and energy consumption; and energy balance of Poland for the base year of the forecast horizon. (author). 1 ref., 19 figs, 4 tabs

  11. Energy demand forecasting method based on international statistical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanc, Z; Kerner, A [Energy Information Centre, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-09-01

    Poland is in a transition phase from a centrally planned to a market economy; data collected under former economic conditions do not reflect a market economy. Final energy demand forecasts are based on the assumption that the economic transformation in Poland will gradually lead the Polish economy, technologies and modes of energy use, to the same conditions as mature market economy countries. The starting point has a significant influence on the future energy demand and supply structure: final energy consumption per capita in 1992 was almost half the average of OECD countries; energy intensity, based on Purchasing Power Parities (PPP) and referred to GDP, is more than 3 times higher in Poland. A method of final energy demand forecasting based on regression analysis is described in this paper. The input data are: output of macroeconomic and population growth forecast; time series 1970-1992 of OECD countries concerning both macroeconomic characteristics and energy consumption; and energy balance of Poland for the base year of the forecast horizon. (author). 1 ref., 19 figs, 4 tabs.

  12. The internal radiation dose calculations based on Chinese mathematical phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiyan; Li Junli; Cheng Jianping; Fan Jiajin

    2006-01-01

    The internal radiation dose calculations built on Chinese facts become more and more important according to the development of nuclear medicine. the MIRD method developed and consummated by the society of Nuclear Medicine (America) is based on the European and American mathematical phantom and can't fit Chinese well. The transport of γ-ray in the Chinese mathematical phantom was simulated with Monte Carlo method in programs as MCNP4C. the specific absorbed fraction (Φ) of Chinese were calculated and the Chinese Φ database was created. The results were compared with the recommended values by ORNL. the method was proved correct by the coherence when the target organ was the same with the source organ. Else, the difference was due to the different phantom and the choice of different physical model. (authors)

  13. Mental health differences between German gay and bisexual men and population-based controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Frank A; Franke, Gabriele H; Christiansen, Hanna

    2017-07-21

    International studies have revealed that gay and bisexual men present more mental health problems than the general male population. Furthermore, there is evidence that minority stress predicts mental health problems in gay and bisexual men. The aim of the present study is to provide initial data on mental health differences in Germany and to analyze the effect of minority stress. Mental health data on n = 1903 German gay and bisexual men and n = 958 men from a population-based sample were assessed using a shortened version of the SCL-90-S. The mental health of the two samples was compared. Furthermore, a linear regression was conducted for the gay and bisexual sample: mental health was used as the criterion and minority stressors as predictors. As compared to our population sample, gay and bisexual men demonstrated more mental health problems with a moderate effect size. In the regression, minority stress predicted mental health problems in the gay and bisexual sample. We observed pronounced mental health differences between gay and bisexual men versus the population sample. These differences could be at least partly due to the minority stress gay and bisexual men face. Research should focus on how to reduce and cope with minority stress.

  14. Impact of selection strategies on representation of underserved populations and intention to practise: international findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkins, Sarah; Michielsen, Kristien; Iputo, Jehu; Elsanousi, Salwa; Mammen, Marykutty; Graves, Lisa; Willems, Sara; Cristobal, Fortunato L; Samson, Rex; Ellaway, Rachel; Ross, Simone; Johnston, Karen; Derese, Anselme; Neusy, André-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Socially accountable medical schools aim to reduce health inequalities by training workforces responsive to the priority health needs of underserved communities. One key strategy involves recruiting students from underserved and unequally represented communities on the basis that they may be more likely to return and address local health priorities. This study describes the impacts of different selection strategies of medical schools that aspire to social accountability on the presence of students from underserved communities in their medical education programmes and on student practice intentions. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to students starting medical education in five institutions with a social accountability mandate in five different countries. The questionnaire assessed students' background characteristics, rurality of background, and practice intentions (location, discipline of practice and population to be served). The results were compared with the characteristics of students entering medical education in schools with standard selection procedures, and with publicly available socio-economic data. The selection processes of all five schools included strategies that extended beyond the assessment of academic achievement. Four distinct strategies were identified: the quota system; selection based on personal attributes; community involvement, and school marketing strategies. Questionnaire data from 944 students showed that students at the five schools were more likely to be of non-urban origin, of lower socio-economic status and to come from underserved groups. A total of 407 of 810 (50.2%) students indicated an intention to practise in a non-urban area after graduation and the likelihood of this increased with increasing rurality of primary schooling (p = 0.000). Those of rural origin were statistically less likely to express an intention to work abroad (p = 0.003). Selection strategies to ensure that members of underserved communities

  15. International cooperation on methanol-based fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    An international agreement on co-operation to study the use of cars powered by methanol-based fuel cells was signed in September 2000. This indicates that gas will have to compete on the future fuel market. According to the agreement, measures will be taken to ease the introduction of such cars when they are commercialized. Methanol represents a fuel that can be distributed throughout most of the world within realistic economical bounds by means of the existing infrastructure. A global market analysis based on the assumption that there will be a billion cars in the world by 2020 shows the great potential for the use of fuel cells. In addition, they are environmentally sound. Technological developments of fuel cells during the latest decade may render traditional combustion engines obsolete. Methanol is a liquid at room temperature and can be stored in the fuel tank just like ordinary fuels. Petrol, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, ethanol and methanol can all be used in a fuel cell engine, but since the technology is based on chemical energy conversion, the most suitable fuel is one that is hydrogen-rich and easily stored. Many experts favour liquid hydrogen. However, liquid hydrogen has many problems in common with liquefied natural gas or cooled liquid natural gas: about 25% of the energy is used in keeping the fuel in the liquid state

  16. Insurance problems among inflammatory bowel disease patients: results of a Dutch population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russel, M G V M; Ryan, B M; Dagnelie, P C; de Rooij, M; Sijbrandij, J; Feleus, A; Hesselink, M; Muris, J W; Stockbrugger, R

    2003-03-01

    The majority of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a normal life expectancy and therefore should not be weighted when applying for life assurance. There is scant literature on this topic. In this study our aim was to document and compare the incidence of difficulties in application for life and medical insurance in a population based cohort of IBD patients and matched population controls. A population based case control study of 1126 IBD patients and 1723 controls. Based on a detailed questionnaire, the frequency and type of difficulties encountered when applying for life and medical insurance in matched IBD and control populations were appraised. In comparison with controls, IBD patients had an 87-fold increased risk of encountering difficulties when applying for life assurance (odds ratio (OR) 87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 31-246)), with a heavily weighted premium being the most common problem. Patients of high educational status, with continuous disease activity, and who smoked had the highest odds of encountering such problems. Medical insurance difficulties were fivefold more common in IBD patients compared with controls (OR 5.4 (95% CI 2.3-13)) although no specific disease or patient characteristics were identified as associated with such difficulties. This is the first detailed case control study that has investigated insurance difficulties among IBD patients. Acquiring life and medical insurance constituted a major problem for IBD patients in this study. These results are likely to be more widely representative given that most insurance companies use international guidelines for risk assessment. In view of the recent advances in therapy and promising survival data on IBD patients, evidence based guidelines for risk assessment of IBD patients by insurance companies should be drawn up to prevent possible discriminatory practices.

  17. Contribution of various of manufacturing of food products to internal exposure dose of population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajrashevskaya, D.A.; Goncharova, N.V.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1986, considerable data have been produced and published on all the above aspects of the Cs 137 from soils to agricultural products. Today no critical evaluation of the available information has been undertaken. There is an obvious need to evaluate the relative importance of agricultural foodstuffs as a source of internal dose. The importance of food from different production systems to the internal dose from radiocaesium was investigated in selected study sites in Belarus. This work considers approaches and methods of internal exposure dose evaluation for citizens of radioactive contaminated territories consuming food products of radioactive contaminated forests. (authors)

  18. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based on International Space Station Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  19. A population-based study of homicide deaths in Ontario, Canada using linked death records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaud, James; Donnelly, Peter D; Henry, David; Kornas, Kathy; Calzavara, Andrew; Bornbaum, Catherine; Rosella, Laura

    2017-07-24

    Homicide - a lethal expression of violence - has garnered little attention from public health researchers and health policy makers, despite the fact that homicides are a cause of preventable and premature death. Identifying populations at risk and the upstream determinants of homicide are important for addressing inequalities that hinder population health. This population-based study investigates the public health significance of homicides in Ontario, Canada, over the period of 1999-2012. We quantified the relative burden of homicides by comparing the socioeconomic gradient in homicides with the leading causes of death, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and neoplasm, and estimated the potential years of life lost (PYLL) due to homicide. We linked vital statistics from the Office of the Registrar General Deaths register (ORG-D) with Census and administrative data for all Ontario residents. We extracted all homicide, neoplasm, and cardiovascular deaths from 1999 to 2012, using International Classification of Diseases codes. For socioeconomic status (SES), we used two dimensions of the Ontario Marginalization Index (ON-Marg): material deprivation and residential instability. Trends were summarized across deprivation indices using age-specific rates, rate ratios, and PYLL. Young males, 15-29 years old, were the main victims of homicide with a rate of 3.85 [IC 95%: 3.56; 4.13] per 100,000 population and experienced an upward trend over the study period. The socioeconomic neighbourhood gradient was substantial and higher than the gradient for both cardiovascular and neoplasms. Finally, the PYLL due to homicide were 63,512 and 24,066 years for males and females, respectively. Homicides are an important cause of death among young males, and populations living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Our findings raise concerns about the burden of homicides in the Canadian population and the importance of addressing social determinants to address these premature deaths.

  20. Mercury risk assessment combining internal and external exposure methods for a population living near a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chunyan; Xie, Han; Ye, Xuejie; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Maodian; Tong, Yindong; Ou, Langbo; Yuan, Wen; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2016-12-01

    Risk assessments for human health have been conducted for municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in many western countries, whereas only a few risk assessments have been performed for MSWIs in developing countries such as China where the use of waste incineration is increasing rapidly. To assess the mercury exposure risks of a population living near the largest MSWI in South China, we combined internal exposure and external exposure assessment with an individual-specific questionnaire. The mercury concentrations in air, soil, and locally collected food around the MSWI were assessed. The total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) of 447 blood samples from a control group, residential exposure group, and MSWI workers were measured. The internal and external exposures of the subject population were analyzed. Significant difference in MeHg concentrations was observed between the control group and the exposed group, between the control group and the MSWI workers, and between the exposed group and the MSWI workers (median levels: 0.70 μg/L, 0.81 μg/L, and 1.02 μg/L for the control group, exposed group, and MSWI workers, respectively). The MeHg/T-Hg ratio was 0.51 ± 0.19, 0.59 ± 0.17 and 0.58 ± 0.25, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that MeHg concentrations were positively correlated with the gaseous mercury in the air. Combining internal and external exposure assessment showed that the direct contribution of MSWI emissions was minor compared with the dietary contribution. The external and internal exposures were well matched with each other. This study also suggested that an integrated method combining internal and external exposure assessment with an individual-specific questionnaire is feasible to assess the risks for a population living near a MSWI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Neglected Population: Media Consumption, Perceived Risk, and Fear of Crime Among International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Luzi

    2018-03-01

    The 4.5 million international students worldwide bring in multifold benefits to the advancement of culture, economy, and national security in education host countries. Surprisingly, few prior studies have explored international students' fear of crime, which may harm their mental and physical health and undermine their educational achievements. The current study aims to fill in this research void by investigating international students' fear of crime in line with the cultivation theoretical framework, which postulates that media consumption cultivates fear of crime. The analyses draw on a sample of 398 international students attending nine different public and private universities across the United States. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), I investigate the extent and correlates of students' fear of crime. The findings reveal that international students are more fearful in the United States than in their home countries. SEM results show that controlling for students' fear in their home countries, attention paid to crime news is positively related to fear in the United States, through perceived victimization risk. The SEM results also suggest that exposure to non-U.S. social media (e.g., WeChat and Weibo) is positively related to respondents' fear of crime, whereas exposure to U.S. social media (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) is not related to fear of crime. The current study highlights the importance of studying the impact of fear of crime and social media use on international students.

  2. Validation of internal dosimetry protocols based on stochastic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Bruno M.; Fonseca, Telma C.F.; Almeida, Iassudara G.; Trindade, Bruno M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Computational phantoms adapted to Monte Carlo codes have been applied successfully in radiation dosimetry fields. NRI research group has been developing Internal Dosimetry Protocols - IDPs, addressing distinct methodologies, software and computational human-simulators, to perform internal dosimetry, especially for new radiopharmaceuticals. Validation of the IDPs is critical to ensure the reliability of the simulations results. Inter comparisons of data from literature with those produced by our IDPs is a suitable method for validation. The aim of this study was to validate the IDPs following such inter comparison procedure. The Golem phantom has been reconfigured to run on MCNP5. The specific absorbed fractions (SAF) for photon at 30, 100 and 1000 keV energies were simulated based on the IDPs and compared with reference values (RV) published by Zankl and Petoussi-Henss, 1998. The SAF average differences from RV and those obtained in IDP simulations was 2.3 %. The SAF largest differences were found in situations involving low energy photons at 30 keV. The Adrenals and thyroid, i.e. the lowest mass organs, had the highest SAF discrepancies towards RV as 7.2 % and 3.8 %, respectively. The statistic differences of SAF applying our IDPs from reference values were considered acceptable at the 30, 100 and 1000 keV spectra. We believe that the main reason for the discrepancies in IDPs run, found in lower masses organs, was due to our source definition methodology. Improvements of source spatial distribution in the voxels may provide outputs more consistent with reference values for lower masses organs. (author)

  3. Validation of internal dosimetry protocols based on stochastic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Bruno M.; Fonseca, Telma C.F., E-mail: bmm@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Almeida, Iassudara G.; Trindade, Bruno M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Computational phantoms adapted to Monte Carlo codes have been applied successfully in radiation dosimetry fields. NRI research group has been developing Internal Dosimetry Protocols - IDPs, addressing distinct methodologies, software and computational human-simulators, to perform internal dosimetry, especially for new radiopharmaceuticals. Validation of the IDPs is critical to ensure the reliability of the simulations results. Inter comparisons of data from literature with those produced by our IDPs is a suitable method for validation. The aim of this study was to validate the IDPs following such inter comparison procedure. The Golem phantom has been reconfigured to run on MCNP5. The specific absorbed fractions (SAF) for photon at 30, 100 and 1000 keV energies were simulated based on the IDPs and compared with reference values (RV) published by Zankl and Petoussi-Henss, 1998. The SAF average differences from RV and those obtained in IDP simulations was 2.3 %. The SAF largest differences were found in situations involving low energy photons at 30 keV. The Adrenals and thyroid, i.e. the lowest mass organs, had the highest SAF discrepancies towards RV as 7.2 % and 3.8 %, respectively. The statistic differences of SAF applying our IDPs from reference values were considered acceptable at the 30, 100 and 1000 keV spectra. We believe that the main reason for the discrepancies in IDPs run, found in lower masses organs, was due to our source definition methodology. Improvements of source spatial distribution in the voxels may provide outputs more consistent with reference values for lower masses organs. (author)

  4. Population-based study of Hodgkin's lymphoma in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshemmari, S; Sajnani, K P; Refaat, S; Albassami, A

    2011-01-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) comprises about 25% of all malignant nodal lymphomas worldwide. Incidence of HL has been increasing in many countries around the world, in the western countries in particular. Cancer incidence variations in different ethnic groups in the same country can lead to some important information about the search of etiological factors. Some researchers found an association between ethnicity and increased risk of HL. In this study, we evaluated the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of patients with HL and the HL subtypes in Kuwait who were diagnosed between 1998 and 2006 and we analyzed the changes in the incidence of HL over time based on age, sex, and ethnicity. The Kuwait Cancer Control Center is a tertiary referral hospital and the only cancer hospital in the entire state of Kuwait. We identified 293 patients who were newly diagnosed with HL by histopathology between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2006, at the Kuwait Cancer Control Center. Incidence data were crossvalidated with the population-based Cancer Registry of Kuwait. Clinical data were obtained by reviewing the patients' medical records. The median age at diagnosis was 39 years (range, 10-85 years) for patients with cHL and 36 years (range, 14-51 years) for patients with NLPHL. The age-adjusted incidence rate was 2.1 cases (range, 1.2-2.9) per 100,000 people per year in the period between 1998 and 2006. NLPHL and cHL were predominant in men with a male to female ratio of 2:1. However, the mean annual percentage change in HL incidence among Kuwaiti patients and non-Kuwaiti patients per year showed unexplained higher percentage in females both Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti. cHL comprised 92.5% of all HL cases and NLPHL comprised 7.5%. Nodular sclerosis was the predominant histologic subtype of cHL (58.9%), whereas mixed cellularity was the second most frequent histologic subtype of cHL, (25.9%). Although the incidence of HL was slightly lower in Kuwait than the worldwide incidence; it

  5. Roadmap for the international, accelerator-based neutrino programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, J. [Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. (China); de Gouvêa, A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Duchesneau, D. [CNRS/IN2P3. Univ. Paris (France). Observatoire de Paris. AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC); Geer, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gomes, R. [Federal University of Goias (Brazil); Kim, S. B. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Kobayashi, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Long, K. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL); Maltoni, M. [Autonomous Univ. of Madrid (Spain); Mezzetto, M. [Univ. of Padua (Italy); Mondal, N. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Shiozawa, M. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Sobczyk, J. [Univ. of Wroclaw (Poland); Tanaka, H. A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Wascko, M. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Zeller, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-04-26

    In line with its terms of reference the ICFA Neutrino Panel has developed a roadmap for the international, accelerator-based neutrino programme. A "roadmap discussion document" was presented in May 2016 taking into account the peer-group-consultation described in the Panel's initial report. The "roadmap discussion document" was used to solicit feedback from the neutrino community---and more broadly, the particle- and astroparticle-physics communities---and the various stakeholders in the programme. The roadmap, the conclusions and recommendations presented in this document take into account the comments received following the publication of the roadmap discussion document. With its roadmap the Panel documents the approved objectives and milestones of the experiments that are presently in operation or under construction. Approval, construction and exploitation milestones are presented for experiments that are being considered for approval. The timetable proposed by the proponents is presented for experiments that are not yet being considered formally for approval. Based on this information, the evolution of the precision with which the critical parameters governinger the neutrino are known has been evaluated. Branch or decision points have been identified based on the anticipated evolution in precision. The branch or decision points have in turn been used to identify desirable timelines for the neutrino-nucleus cross section and hadro-production measurements that are required to maximise the integrated scientific output of the programme. The branch points have also been used to identify the timeline for the R&D required to take the programme beyond the horizon of the next generation of experiments. The theory and phenomenology programme, including nuclear theory, required to ensure that maximum benefit is derived from the experimental programme is also discussed.

  6. Consensus Among International Ethical Guidelines for the Provision of Videoconferencing-Based Mental Health Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Claire E; McGill, Brittany C; Wilson, Helen L; Patterson, Pandora

    2016-01-01

    Background Online technologies may reduce barriers to evidence-based mental health care, yet they also create numerous ethical challenges. Recently, numerous professional organizations and expert groups have produced best-practice guidelines to assist mental health professionals in delivering online interventions in an ethically and clinically sound manner. However, there has been little critical examination of these international best-practice guidelines regarding appropriate electronic mental health (e-mental health) service delivery via technologies such as videoconferencing (including Skype), particularly for specific, vulnerable populations. Further, the extent to which concordance exists between these guidelines remains unclear. Synthesizing this literature to provide clear guidance to both mental health professionals and researchers is critical to ensure continued progress in the field of e-mental health. Objective This study aims to review all currently available ethical and best-practice guidelines relating to videoconferencing-delivered mental health treatments in order to ascertain the recommendations for which international consensus could be found. Additionally, this review examines the extent to which each set of guidance addresses several key special populations, including children and young people, and populations living with illness. Methods This systematic review examined guidelines using a two-armed search strategy, examining (1) professional organizations’ published guidance; and (2) MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE for the past ten years. In order to determine consensus for best-practice, a recommendation was considered "firm" if 50% or more of the reviewed guidelines endorsed it and "tentative" if recommended by fewer guidelines than these. The professional guidelines were also scored by two raters using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE-II) criteria. Results In the study, 19 guidelines were included, yielding 11

  7. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria: systematic review of population-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuonye II

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Innocent Ijezie Chukwuonye,1 Okechukwu Samuel Ogah,2 Ernest Ndukaife Anyabolu,3 Kenneth Arinze Ohagwu,1 Ogbonna Collins Nwabuko,4 Uwa Onwuchekwa,5 Miracle Erinma Chukwuonye,6 Emmanuel Chukwuebuka Obi,1 Efosa Oviasu7 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Abia State, 2Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University College Hospital Ibadan, Oyo State 3Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital Awka, Anambra State, 4Department of Haematology, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, 5Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, 6Department of Family Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, 7Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria Background: The aim of this study was to identify and discuss published population-based studies carried out in Nigeria that have information on the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and have also used the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI practice guidelines in defining CKD, with emphasis on the performance of three estimating equations for glomerular filtration rate (GFR – Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD, Cockcroft–Gault, and CKD epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI creatinine equation. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search was carried out in Google, MEDLINE, PubMed, and AJOL database, with the aim of identifying relevant population-based studies with information on the prevalence of CKD in a location in Nigeria. Results: Seven cross-sectional population-based studies were identified. Two of the studies used the Cockcroft–Gault and observed a prevalence of 24.4% and 26%. Four of the studies used the MDRD and the prevalences observed were 12.3%, 14.2%, 2.5%, and 13.4%. One of the studies used the CKD

  8. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acarturk, C; Smit, Filip; de Graaf, R; van Straten, A; Ten Have, M; Cuijpers, P

    2009-06-01

    Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based prospective study (n=4,789). Costs related to health service uptake, patients' out-of-pocket expenses, and costs arising from production losses were calculated for the reference year 2003. The costs for people with social phobia were compared with the costs for people with no mental disorder. The annual per capita total costs of social phobia were euro 11,952 (95% CI=7,891-16,013) which is significantly higher than the total costs for people with no mental disorder, euro 2957 (95% CI=2690-3224). When adjusting for mental and somatic co-morbidity, the costs decreased to euro 6,100 (95% CI=2681-9519), or 136 million euro per year per 1 million inhabitants, which was still significantly higher than the costs for people with no mental disorder. The costs of subthreshold social phobia were also significantly higher than the costs for people without any mental disorder, at euro 4,687 (95% CI=2557-6816). The costs presented here are conservative lower estimates because we only included costs related to mental health services. The economic costs associated with social phobia are substantial, and those of subthreshold social phobia approach those of the full-blown disorder.

  9. Population-Based Study of Trachoma in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Juan Carlos; Diaz, Marco Antonio; Maul, Eugenio; Munoz, Beatriz E; West, Sheila K

    2015-01-01

    A prevalence survey for active trachoma in children aged under 10 years and trichiasis in women aged 40 years and older was carried out in four districts in the Sololá region in Guatemala, which is suspected of still having a trachoma problem. Population-based surveys were undertaken in three districts, within 15 randomly selected communities in each district. In addition, in a fourth district that borders the third district chosen, we surveyed the small northern sub-district, by randomly selecting three communities in each community, 100 children aged under 10 years were randomly selected, and all females over 40 years. Five survey teams were trained and standardized. Trachoma was graded using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme and ocular swabs were taken in cases of clinical follicular or inflammatory trachoma. Prevalence estimates were calculated at district and sub-district level. Trachoma rates at district level varied from 0-5.1%. There were only two sub-districts where active trachoma approached 10% (Nahualá Costa, 8.1%, and Santa Catarina Costa, 7.3%). Trichiasis rates in females aged 40 years and older varied from 0-3%. Trachoma was likely a problem in the past. Trachoma is disappearing in the Sololá region in Guatemala. Health leadership may consider further mapping of villages around the areas with an especially high rate of trachoma and infection, and instituting trichiasis surgery and active trachoma intervention where needed.

  10. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assumpção, Daniela; Dias, Marcia Regina Messaggi Gomes; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Fisberg, Regina Mara; de Azevedo Barros Filho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2). The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  12. [Population-based study of diabetic retinopathy in Wolfsburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, L; Grüsser, M; Hoffstadt, K; Jörgens, V; Hartmann, P; Kroll, P

    2001-11-01

    Since November 1997 the complete documentation of an ophthalmological examination of diabetics has been annually subsidized by the Volkswagen Corporation Health Maintenance Organization (VW-HMO). The results of an annual ophthalmological examination were recorded in a standardised history sheet developed by the Initiative Group for Early Detection of Diabetic Eye Diseases. These data included visual acuity, intraocular pressure, lens status and a description of fundus abnormalities. Within 26 months ophthalmological examinations of 2,801 patients were completed which represented 4.5% of all VW-HMO insured patients. On average, patients suffered from diabetes for 9.6 years (SD +/- 8.3), artificial intraocular lenses were present in 357 eyes (6.4%) and 1,216 eyes (12.0%) were diagnosed with cataract or posterior capsule opacification impairing visual acuity. Out of 263 patients younger than 40 years old, 18.8% had a mild or moderate and 3.3% a severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). A proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was found in 2.2% of the younger patients. Of 2,228 patients aged 40 years and older, 11.9% had a mild or moderate and 2.6% a severe NPDR. In 0.9% of this group PDR was diagnosed. An annual ophthalmological screening based on a survey sheet of the Initiative Group was successfully introduced. For the first time a population-based evaluation on the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was carried out for inhabitants of a German city. The prevalence of PDR was found to be lower than previously published in comparable studied.

  13. 47 CFR 63.23 - Resale-based international common carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... presumption that they lack market power in particular foreign points are available on the International Bureau... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resale-based international common carriers. 63... Supplements § 63.23 Resale-based international common carriers. The following conditions apply to carriers...

  14. Reference population for international comparisons and time trend surveillance of preterm delivery proportions in three countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morken, N.H.; Vogel, I.; Kallen, K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International comparison and time trend surveillance of preterm delivery rates is complex. New techniques that could facilitate interpretation of such rates are needed. METHODS: We studied all live births and stillbirths (>or= 28 weeks gestation) registered in the medical birth...

  15. Control of the population growth and women in Mexico: international organizations, civil society and public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ileana García Gossio

    2015-07-01

    subjects of the public demographic policies. For their part, the international organizations considered them, at first, as the key factor in birth control, but also as a beginning of development. Later, women were identified in public discourse according to feminist demands: as subjects with rights and with positions with a generic perspective.

  16. Indigenous Population Mobilities and School Achievement: International Educational Research Itineraries, Issues and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper situates the articles in this special theme issue of the "International Journal of Educational Research" within the broader global literature regarding the educational experiences and opportunities of mobile communities. The paper distils those articles' contributions to extending current understandings about the specific…

  17. The Relationship between Teaching Presence and Student Course Outcomes in an Online International Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Jillian; Courduff, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    A causal comparative research design was utilized in this study to examine the relationship between international students' perceptions of teacher presence in the online learning environment and students' achievement as measured by end of course grades. Spearman's analysis indicated no statistically significant correlation between the composite…

  18. Multinational Population-Based Health Surveys Linked to Outcome Data: An Untapped Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Fisher

    2017-04-01

    This study provides initial support for the methodological feasibility of pooling linked population health surveys however, challenges introduced by dissimilarities will require the use of innovative methodologies, and discussions regarding how to manage jurisdictional data restrictions and privacy issues are needed. Pooled population health data has the potential to improve national and international health surveillance and public health.

  19. Travel medicine advice to UK based international motor sport teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, A

    2000-01-01

    International motor sport teams travel extensively. Over the years, the design and build of racing cars has improved so that morbidity and mortality in motor sport has been lessened. Those team members supporting the competitors need to be physically and mentally fit to perform complicated tasks, despite having traveled. This group of travelers has not been studied to any extent previously. An anonymous questionnaire asking some basic travel medicine related questions was distributed to the support team members of a Rally team, and Formula One Grand Prix team. Both teams were based in the UK, and competed in all the rounds of their respective world championships. Ten Rally team members and 18 Formula One team members responded to the questionnaire. The results showed moderate coverage of commonly used vaccinations; appropriate use of antimalarials and insect repellents, but by no means by all team members; little or no problems with traveler's diarrhea; some tendencies to problems related to jet lag, but no real attempt to prevent the problem; and finally some attempt at skin protection against solar damage. Support teams are reasonably well prepared for the combination of, the rigors of frequent travel, and a demanding job. There is a deficit in vaccine coverage, especially of both hepatitis A and B, some education is needed in preventing skin problems later in life due to sun exposure, and further study of jet lag and its implications might be appropriate.

  20. Improved Concrete Materials with Hydrogel-Based Internal Curing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Krafcik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research article will describe the design and use of polyelectrolyte hydrogel particles as internal curing agents in concrete and present new results on relevant hydrogel-ion interactions. When incorporated into concrete, hydrogel particles release their stored water to fuel the curing reaction, resulting in reduced volumetric shrinkage and cracking and thus increasing concrete service life. The hydrogel’s swelling performance and mechanical properties are strongly sensitive to multivalent cations that are naturally present in concrete mixtures, including calcium and aluminum. Model poly(acrylic acid(AA-acrylamide(AM-based hydrogel particles with different chemical compositions (AA:AM monomer ratio were synthesized and immersed in sodium, calcium, and aluminum salt solutions. The presence of multivalent cations resulted in decreased swelling capacity and altered swelling kinetics to the point where some hydrogel compositions displayed rapid deswelling behavior and the formation of a mechanically stiff shell. Interestingly, when incorporated into mortar, hydrogel particles reduced mixture shrinkage while encouraging the formation of specific inorganic phases (calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate within the void space previously occupied by the swollen particle.

  1. AMOVA-based clustering of population genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meirmans, P.G.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the genetic structure of populations is becoming an increasingly important aspect of genetic studies. One of the most frequently used methods is the calculation of F-statistics using an Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA). However, this has the drawback that the population hierarchy

  2. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Large, Population-Based Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boekel, Naomi B.; Schaapveld, Michael [Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gietema, Jourik A. [Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Russell, Nicola S. [Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Poortmans, Philip [Radiation Oncology, Institute Verbeeten, Tilburg (Netherlands); Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Theuws, Jacqueline C.M. [Radiotherapy, Catharina Hospital Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schinagl, Dominic A.X. [Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rietveld, Derek H.F. [Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Versteegh, Michel I.M. [Steering Committee Cardiac Interventions Netherlands, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Visser, Otto [Registration and Research, Comprehensive Cancer Center The Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rutgers, Emiel J.T. [Surgery, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aleman, Berthe M.P. [Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Flora E. van, E-mail: f.v.leeuwen@nki.nl [Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: To conduct a large, population-based study on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in breast cancer (BC) survivors treated in 1989 or later. Methods and Materials: A large, population-based cohort comprising 70,230 surgically treated stage I to III BC patients diagnosed before age 75 years between 1989 and 2005 was linked with population-based registries for CVD. Cardiovascular disease risks were compared with the general population, and within the cohort using competing risk analyses. Results: Compared with the general Dutch population, BC patients had a slightly lower CVD mortality risk (standardized mortality ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.97). Only death due to valvular heart disease was more frequent (standardized mortality ratio 1.28, 95% CI 1.08-1.52). Left-sided radiation therapy after mastectomy increased the risk of any cardiovascular event compared with both surgery alone (subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) 1.23, 95% CI 1.11-1.36) and right-sided radiation therapy (sHR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36). Radiation-associated risks were found for not only ischemic heart disease, but also for valvular heart disease and congestive heart failure (CHF). Risks were more pronounced in patients aged <50 years at BC diagnosis (sHR 1.48, 95% CI 1.07-2.04 for left- vs right-sided radiation therapy after mastectomy). Left- versus right-sided radiation therapy after wide local excision did not increase the risk of all CVD combined, yet an increased ischemic heart disease risk was found (sHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28). Analyses including detailed radiation therapy information showed an increased CVD risk for left-sided chest wall irradiation alone, left-sided breast irradiation alone, and internal mammary chain field irradiation, all compared with right-sided breast irradiation alone. Compared with patients not treated with chemotherapy, chemotherapy used ≥1997 (ie, anthracyline-based chemotherapy) increased the risk of CHF (sHR 1.35, 95% CI 1

  3. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Large, Population-Based Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boekel, Naomi B.; Schaapveld, Michael; Gietema, Jourik A.; Russell, Nicola S.; Poortmans, Philip; Theuws, Jacqueline C.M.; Schinagl, Dominic A.X.; Rietveld, Derek H.F.; Versteegh, Michel I.M.; Visser, Otto; Rutgers, Emiel J.T.; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Leeuwen, Flora E. van

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct a large, population-based study on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in breast cancer (BC) survivors treated in 1989 or later. Methods and Materials: A large, population-based cohort comprising 70,230 surgically treated stage I to III BC patients diagnosed before age 75 years between 1989 and 2005 was linked with population-based registries for CVD. Cardiovascular disease risks were compared with the general population, and within the cohort using competing risk analyses. Results: Compared with the general Dutch population, BC patients had a slightly lower CVD mortality risk (standardized mortality ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.97). Only death due to valvular heart disease was more frequent (standardized mortality ratio 1.28, 95% CI 1.08-1.52). Left-sided radiation therapy after mastectomy increased the risk of any cardiovascular event compared with both surgery alone (subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) 1.23, 95% CI 1.11-1.36) and right-sided radiation therapy (sHR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36). Radiation-associated risks were found for not only ischemic heart disease, but also for valvular heart disease and congestive heart failure (CHF). Risks were more pronounced in patients aged <50 years at BC diagnosis (sHR 1.48, 95% CI 1.07-2.04 for left- vs right-sided radiation therapy after mastectomy). Left- versus right-sided radiation therapy after wide local excision did not increase the risk of all CVD combined, yet an increased ischemic heart disease risk was found (sHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28). Analyses including detailed radiation therapy information showed an increased CVD risk for left-sided chest wall irradiation alone, left-sided breast irradiation alone, and internal mammary chain field irradiation, all compared with right-sided breast irradiation alone. Compared with patients not treated with chemotherapy, chemotherapy used ≥1997 (ie, anthracyline-based chemotherapy) increased the risk of CHF (sHR 1.35, 95% CI 1

  4. INTERNATIONAL SURVEY OF PUBLICATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS: RISING THROUGH THE BASE OF WEB SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Carpes, Aletéia de Moura; Velter, Aline Nadalin; Scherer, Flavia Luciane; Lütz, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Internationalization is an alternative to business growth, allowing its exposure to international standards of products, technologies and management methods, generating significant returns for domestic transactions (STAL, 2010). The evolution of commercial transactions between the countries have brought a lot of issues to be understood, that seek to check the reflection of international activity in the individual, company and nation experiencing this context of globalization. This article was...

  5. Recurrent pain is associated with decreased selective attention in a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsen, C P; Dijkstra, J B; van Boxtel, M P J

    2011-01-01

    Studies which have examined the impact of pain on cognitive functioning in the general population are scarce. In the present study we assessed the predictive value of recurrent pain on cognitive functioning in a population-based study (N=1400). Furthermore, we investigated the effect of pain on cognitive functioning in individuals with specific pain complaints (i.e. back pain, gastric pain, muscle pain and headache). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Stroop Color-Word Interference test (Stroop interference), the Letter-Digit-Substitution test (LDST) and the Visual Verbal learning Task (VVLT). Pain was measured with the COOP/WONCA pain scale (Dartmouth Primary Care Cooperative Information Project/World Organization of National Colleges, Academies, and Academic Associations of General Practice /Family Physicians). We controlled for the effects of age, sex, level of education and depressive symptoms. It was demonstrated that pain had a negative impact on the performance on the Stroop interference but not on the VVLT and the LDST. This indicates that subjects who reported extreme pain had more problems with selective attention and were more easily distracted. Effects were in general larger in the specific pain groups when compared to the associations found in the total group. Implications of these findings are discussed. The experience of recurrent pain has a negative influence on selective attention in a healthy population. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Familial risk of epilepsy: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peljto, Anna L.; Barker-Cummings, Christie; Vasoli, Vincent M.; Leibson, Cynthia L.; Hauser, W. Allen; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Almost all previous studies of familial risk of epilepsy have had potentially serious methodological limitations. Our goal was to address these limitations and provide more rigorous estimates of familial risk in a population-based study. We used the unique resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all 660 Rochester, Minnesota residents born in 1920 or later with incidence of epilepsy from 1935–94 (probands) and their 2439 first-degree relatives who resided in Olmsted County. We assessed incidence of epilepsy in relatives by comprehensive review of the relatives’ medical records, and estimated age-specific cumulative incidence and standardized incidence ratios for epilepsy in relatives compared with the general population, according to proband and relative characteristics. Among relatives of all probands, cumulative incidence of epilepsy to age 40 was 4.7%, and risk was increased 3.3-fold (95% confidence interval 2.75–5.99) compared with population incidence. Risk was increased to the greatest extent in relatives of probands with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (standardized incidence ratio 6.0) and epilepsies associated with intellectual or motor disability presumed present from birth, which we denoted ‘prenatal/developmental cause’ (standardized incidence ratio 4.3). Among relatives of probands with epilepsy without identified cause (including epilepsies classified as ‘idiopathic’ or ‘unknown cause’), risk was significantly increased for epilepsy of prenatal/developmental cause (standardized incidence ratio 4.1). Similarly, among relatives of probands with prenatal/developmental cause, risk was significantly increased for epilepsies without identified cause (standardized incidence ratio 3.8). In relatives of probands with generalized epilepsy, standardized incidence ratios were 8.3 (95% confidence interval 2.93–15.31) for generalized epilepsy and 2.5 (95% confidence interval 0.92–4.00) for focal epilepsy. In relatives of

  7. International Collaboration for the Epidemiology of eGFR in Low and Middle Income Populations - Rationale and core protocol for the Disadvantaged Populations eGFR Epidemiology Study (DEGREE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplin, Ben; Jakobsson, Kristina; Glaser, Jason; Nitsch, Dorothea; Jha, Vivekanand; Singh, Ajay; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Pearce, Neil

    2017-01-03

    There is an increasing recognition of epidemics of primarily tubular-interstitial chronic kidney disease (CKD) clustering in agricultural communities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although it is currently unclear whether there is a unified underlying aetiology, these conditions have been collectively termed CKD of undetermined cause (CKDu). CKDu is estimated to have led to the premature deaths of tens to hundreds of thousands of young men and women over the last 2 decades. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the aetiology and pathophysiology of these condition (s). International comparisons have provided the first steps in understanding many chronic diseases, but such comparisons rely on the availability of standardised tools to estimate disease prevalence. This is a particular problem with CKD, since the disease is asymptomatic until the late stages, and the biases inherent in the methods used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in population studies are highly variable across populations. We therefore propose a simple standardised protocol to estimate the distribution of GFR in LMIC populations - The Disadvantaged Populations eGFR Epidemiology (DEGREE) Study. This involves the quantification of renal function in a representative adult population-based sample and a requirement for standardisation of serum creatinine measurements, along with storage of samples for future measurements of cystatin C and ascertainment of estimates of body composition, in order to obtain valid comparisons of estimated GFR (eGFR) within and between populations. The methodology we present is potentially applicable anywhere, but our particular focus is on disadvantaged populations in LMICs, since these appear to be most susceptible to CKDu. Although the protocol could also be used in specific groups (e.g. occupational groups, thought to be at excess risk of CKDu) the primary aim of the DEGREE project is characterise the population distribution of e

  8. Forensic Medicine and the Military Population: International Dental Records and Personal Identification Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Guimarães

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: This article reinforces the need for mandatory quality dental records in all countries, which must be efficiently stored and easily accessible in case dental identification is necessary. For the military population, these requirements are especially important, due to the added risks to which this group is subject.

  9. Human migration is important in the international spread of exotic Salmonella serovars in animal and human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, J B; Bradshaw, S D; How, R A; Smith, D W

    2014-11-01

    The exposure of indigenous humans and native fauna in Australia and the Wallacea zoogeographical region of Indonesia to exotic Salmonella serovars commenced during the colonial period and has accelerated with urbanization and international travel. In this study, the distribution and prevalence of exotic Salmonella serovars are mapped to assess the extent to which introduced infections are invading native wildlife in areas of high natural biodiversity under threat from expanding human activity. The major exotic Salmonella serovars, Bovismorbificans, Derby, Javiana, Newport, Panama, Saintpaul and Typhimurium, isolated from wildlife on populated coastal islands in southern temperate areas of Western Australia, were mostly absent from reptiles and native mammals in less populated tropical areas of the state. They were also not recorded on the uninhabited Mitchell Plateau or islands of the Bonaparte Archipelago, adjacent to south-eastern Indonesia. Exotic serovars were, however, isolated in wildlife on 14/17 islands sampled in the Wallacea region of Indonesia and several islands off the west coast of Perth. Increases in international tourism, involving islands such as Bali, have resulted in the isolation of a high proportion of exotic serovar infections suggesting that densely populated island resorts in the Asian region are acting as staging posts for the interchange of Salmonella infections between tropical and temperate regions.

  10. A spatial analysis of patterns of growth and concentration of population based on homogeneous population censuses: Spain (1877-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Franch Auladell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work constitutes a contribution to the analysis of long term patterns of population concentration applied to the case of Spain. The proposed methodology is based on the homogenisation of both data and administrative units which takes the municipal structure of the 2001 census as its base reference. This work seeks to show how applying spatial analysis techniques to this type of homogeneous data series allows us to make more detailed studies of population patterns within a given territory. The most important conclusions that we reached was that, in Spain, sustained population growth has followed a spatial pattern that has become increasingly consolidated over time. The tendencies observed have produced an uneven distribution of population within the national territory marked by the existence of a series of well-defined, and often very localised, areas that spread beyond the limits of the official administrative boundaries.

  11. Sexuality after a cancer diagnosis: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah E; Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew; Fisher, Abigail

    2016-12-15

    This study explored differences in sexual activity, function, and concerns between cancer survivors and cancer-free controls in a population-based study. The data were from 2982 men and 3708 women who were 50 years old or older and were participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Sexual well-being was assessed with the Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire, and cancer diagnoses were self-reported. There were no differences between cancer survivors and controls in levels of sexual activity (76.0% vs 78.5% for men and 58.2% vs 55.5% for women) or sexual function. Men and women with cancer diagnoses were more dissatisfied with their sex lives than controls (age-adjusted percentages: 30.9% vs 19.8% for men [P = .023] and 18.2% vs 11.8% for women [P = .034]), and women with cancer were more concerned about levels of sexual desire (10.2% vs 7.1%; P = .006). Women diagnosed sexual desire (14.8% vs 7.1%; P = .007) and orgasmic experience (17.6% vs 7.1%; P = .042) than controls, but there were no differences in men. Self-reports of sexual activity and functioning in older people with cancer are broadly comparable to age-matched, cancer-free controls. There is a need to identify the causes of sexual dissatisfaction among long-term cancer survivors despite apparently normal levels of sexual activity and function for their age. The development of interventions addressing low sexual desire and problems with sexual functioning in women is also important and may be particularly relevant for cancer survivors after treatment. Cancer 2016;122:3883-3891. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  12. Falls and Depression in Men: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Amanda L; Pasco, Julie A; Jacka, Felice N; Berk, Michael; Williams, Lana J

    2018-01-01

    The link between falls and depression has been researched in the elderly; however, little information is available on this association in younger adults, particularly men. This study sought to investigate the link between major depressive disorder (MDD) and falls in a population-based sample of 952 men (24-97 years). MDD was diagnosed utilizing the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Research Version, Non-Patient edition, and categorized as 12-month/past/never. Body mass index and gait were measured; falls, smoking status, psychotropic medication use, and alcohol intake were self-reported as part of the Geelong Osteoporosis Study 5-year follow-up assessment. Thirty-four (3.6%) men met criteria for 12-month MDD, and 110 (11.6%) for past MDD. Of the 952 men, 175 (18.4%) reported falling at least once during the past 12 months. Fallers were older (66 [interquartile range: 48-79] vs. 59 [45-72] years, p = .001) and more likely to have uneven gait ( n = 16, 10% vs. n = 31, 4%, p = .003) than nonfallers. Participants with 12-month MDD had more than twice the odds of falling (age-adjusted odds ratio: 2.22, 95% confidence interval [1.03, 4.80]). The odds of falling were not associated with past depression ( p = .4). Further adjustments for psychotropic drug use, gait, body mass index, smoking status, blood pressure, and alcohol did not explain these associations. Given the 2.2-fold greater likelihood of falling associated with depression was not explained by age or psychotropic drug use, further research is warranted.

  13. Predictors of fibromyalgia: a population-based twin cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkula, Ritva A; Kalso, Eija A; Kaprio, Jaakko A

    2016-01-15

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a pain syndrome, the mechanisms and predictors of which are still unclear. We have earlier validated a set of FM-symptom questions for detecting possible FM in an epidemiological survey and thereby identified a cluster with "possible FM". This study explores prospectively predictors for membership of that FM-symptom cluster. A population-based sample of 8343 subjects of the older Finnish Twin Cohort replied to health questionnaires in 1975, 1981, and 1990. Their answers to the set of FM-symptom questions in 1990 classified them in three latent classes (LC): LC1 with no or few symptoms, LC2 with some symptoms, and LC3 with many FM symptoms. We analysed putative predictors for these symptom classes using baseline (1975 and 1981) data on regional pain, headache, migraine, sleeping, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking, and zygosity, adjusted for age, gender, and education. Those with a high likelihood of having fibromyalgia at baseline were excluded from the analysis. In the final multivariate regression model, regional pain, sleeping problems, and overweight were all predictors for membership in the class with many FM symptoms. The strongest non-genetic predictor was frequent headache (OR 8.6, CI 95% 3.8-19.2), followed by persistent back pain (OR 4.7, CI 95% 3.3-6.7) and persistent neck pain (OR 3.3, CI 95% 1.8-6.0). Regional pain, frequent headache, and persistent back or neck pain, sleeping problems, and overweight are predictors for having a cluster of symptoms consistent with fibromyalgia.

  14. Predictors of medication use in the Roma population in Spain: a population-based national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pérez, M; Hernández Barrera, V; López de Andrés, A; Jiménez-Trujillo, I; Jiménez-García, R; Carrasco-Garrido, P

    2015-05-01

    To describe the prevalence of prescribed and self-medicated use of medication in the Spanish Roma population, and identify the associated factors. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Data from the first National Health Survey conducted on the Roma population in Spain were used. The sample comprised 1000 Spanish Roma adults of both sexes aged ≥16 years. Answers (yes/no) to the question, 'In the last two weeks have you taken the following medicines [in reference to a list of medicines that might be used by the population] and were they prescribed for you by a doctor?' were used to ascertain 'medication use'. 'Self-medication' referred to use of these medicines without medical prescription. Using multivariate logistic regression models, odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to identify associated factors. The overall prevalence of medication use in the Roma population for both sexes was 69.1%, and 38.7% was self-medicated. Females reported higher use of medication than males (75.1% vs 62.3%); however, self-medication was higher among males. Analgesics and antipyretics were used most often (35.8%). Among males, the variables that were independently and significantly associated with a higher probability of medication use were: age; negative perception of health; presence of chronic disease (OR 2.81; 95% CI 1.67-4.73); and medical visits (OR 4.51; 95% CI 2.54-8.01). The variables were the same among females, except for age. A high percentage of the Spanish Roma population use medication, and a significant proportion of them self-medicate. The presence of chronic diseases, a negative perception of health and medical consultations were associated with increased use of medication in the study population. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Safety from Crime and Physical Activity among Older Adults: A Population-Based Study in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corseuil, M.W.; Schneider, I.J.C.; Orsi, E.; Hallal, P.C.; Corseuil, H.X.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the association between safety from crime and physical activity among older adults. Methods. A population-based survey including 1,656 older adults (60+ years) took place in Florianopolis, Brazil, in 2009-2010. Commuting and leisure time physical activity were assessed through the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Perception of safety from crime was assessed using the Neighbourhood Environment Walk ability Scale. Results. Perceiving the neighbourhood as safe during the day was related to a 25% increased likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.02-1.53); general perception of safety was also associated with a 25% increase in the likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.01-1.54). Street lighting was related to higher levels of commuting physical activity (prevalence ratio: 1.89; 95% CI 1.28-2.80). Conclusions. Safety investments are essential for promoting physical activity among older adults in Brazil

  16. Internalized HIV Stigma and Disclosure Concerns: Development and Validation of Two Scales in Spanish-Speaking Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernansaiz-Garrido, Helena; Alonso-Tapia, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Internalized stigma and disclosure concerns are key elements for the study of mental health in people living with HIV. Since no measures of these constructs were available for Spanish population, this study sought to develop such instruments, to analyze their reliability and validity and to provide a short version. A heterogeneous sample of 458 adults from different Spanish-speaking countries completed the HIV-Internalized Stigma Scale and the HIV-Disclosure Concerns Scale, along with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale and other socio-demographic variables. Reliability and correlation analyses, exploratory factor analyses, path analyses with latent variables, and ANOVAs were conducted to test the scales' psychometric properties. The scales showed good reliability in terms of internal consistency and temporal stability, as well as good sensitivity and factorial and criterion validity. The HIV-Internalized Stigma Scale and the HIV-Disclosure Concerns Scale are reliable and valid means to assess these variables in several contexts.

  17. Measuring limitations in activities of daily living: a population-based validation of a short questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Cronenberg, Sonja; Grebner, Simone; Tamcan, Oezguer; Müller, Urs

    2017-12-01

    A newly developed questionnaire assessing limitations in activity of daily living (LADL-Q) that should improve assessment of LADL is tested in a large population-based validation study. This survey was paper-based. Overall, 16,634 individuals who were representative of the working population in the German-speaking part of Switzerland participated in the study. Item analysis was used the final version of the LADL-Q to four items per subscale that correspond to potential problems in three body regions (back and neck, upper extremities, lower extremities). Analysis included tests for reliability, internal consistency, dimensionality and convergent validity. Test-retest reliability coefficients after 2 weeks ranged from 0.82 to 0.99 (Mdn = 0.87), with no item having a coefficient below 0.60. The median item-total coefficients ranged between moderate and good. Correlation coefficients between LADL-Q subscales and three validated clinical instruments (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index, shoulder pain disability index, Oswestry) ranged from 0.63 to 0.81. In structural equation modeling the three subscales were significantly related with two important outcomes in occupational rehabilitation: self-reported general health and daily task performance. The new LADL-Q is a brief, reliable and valid tool for assessment of LADL in studies on musculoskeletal health.

  18. The American Board of Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification Examination and State Medical Board Disciplinary Actions: a Population Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Furman S; Duhigg, Lauren M; Arnold, Gerald K; Hafer, Ruth M; Lipner, Rebecca S

    2018-03-07

    Some have questioned whether successful performance in the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program is meaningful. The association of the ABIM Internal Medicine (IM) MOC examination with state medical board disciplinary actions is unknown. To assess risk of disciplinary actions among general internists who did and did not pass the MOC examination within 10 years of initial certification. Historical population cohort study. The population of internists certified in internal medicine, but not a subspecialty, from 1990 through 2003 (n = 47,971). ABIM IM MOC examination. General internal medicine in the USA. The primary outcome measure was time to disciplinary action assessed in association with whether the physician passed the ABIM IM MOC examination within 10 years of initial certification, adjusted for training, certification, demographic, and regulatory variables including state medical board Continuing Medical Education (CME) requirements. The risk for discipline among physicians who did not pass the IM MOC examination within the 10 year requirement window was more than double than that of those who did pass the examination (adjusted HR 2.09; 95% CI, 1.83 to 2.39). Disciplinary actions did not vary by state CME requirements (adjusted HR 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.16), but declined with increasing MOC examination scores (Kendall's tau-b coefficient = - 0.98 for trend, p actions were less severe among those passing the IM MOC examination within the 10-year requirement window than among those who did not pass the examination. Passing a periodic assessment of medical knowledge is associated with decreased state medical board disciplinary actions, an important quality outcome of relevance to patients and the profession.

  19. The international performance of healthcare systems in population health: capabilities of pooled cross-sectional time series methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibling, Nadine

    2013-09-01

    This paper outlines the capabilities of pooled cross-sectional time series methodology for the international comparison of health system performance in population health. It shows how common model specifications can be improved so that they not only better address the specific nature of time series data on population health but are also more closely aligned with our theoretical expectations of the effect of healthcare systems. Three methodological innovations for this field of applied research are discussed: (1) how dynamic models help us understand the timing of effects, (2) how parameter heterogeneity can be used to compare performance across countries, and (3) how multiple imputation can be used to deal with incomplete data. We illustrate these methodological strategies with an analysis of infant mortality rates in 21 OECD countries between 1960 and 2008 using OECD Health Data. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Preventing Gender-based Violence in Senegal | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... agreements that protect women from violence and has the laws, strategies, and ... and giving them an opportunity to increase their skills in the areas of gender ... conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development.

  1. Pulse-based internal calibration of polarimetric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Skou, Niels; Christensen, Erik Lintz

    1994-01-01

    Internal calibration greatly diminishes the dependence on calibration target deployment compared to external calibration. Therefore the Electromagnetics Institute (EMI) at the Technical University of Denmark (TUD) has equipped its polarimetric SAR, EMISAR, with several calibration loops and devel......Internal calibration greatly diminishes the dependence on calibration target deployment compared to external calibration. Therefore the Electromagnetics Institute (EMI) at the Technical University of Denmark (TUD) has equipped its polarimetric SAR, EMISAR, with several calibration loops...

  2. DNA methylation-based variation between human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Farzeen; Ghai, Meenu

    2017-02-01

    Several studies have proved that DNA methylation affects regulation of gene expression and development. Epigenome-wide studies have reported variation in methylation patterns between populations, including Caucasians, non-Caucasians (Blacks), Hispanics, Arabs, and numerous populations of the African continent. Not only has DNA methylation differences shown to impact externally visible characteristics, but is also a potential biomarker for underlying racial health disparities between human populations. Ethnicity-related methylation differences set their mark during early embryonic development. Genetic variations, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms and environmental factors, such as age, dietary folate, socioeconomic status, and smoking, impacts DNA methylation levels, which reciprocally impacts expression of phenotypes. Studies show that it is necessary to address these external influences when attempting to differentiate between populations since the relative impacts of these factors on the human methylome remain uncertain. The present review summarises several reported attempts to establish the contribution of differential DNA methylation to natural human variation, and shows that DNA methylation could represent new opportunities for risk stratification and prevention of several diseases amongst populations world-wide. Variation of methylation patterns between human populations is an exciting prospect which inspires further valuable research to apply the concept in routine medical and forensic casework. However, trans-generational inheritance needs to be quantified to decipher the proportion of variation contributed by DNA methylation. The future holds thorough evaluation of the epigenome to understand quantification, heritability, and the effect of DNA methylation on phenotypes. In addition, methylation profiling of the same ethnic groups across geographical locations will shed light on conserved methylation differences in populations.

  3. Mobile application to induce lifestyle modifications in type 2 diabetic patients: prototype based on international guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jaramillo, M.; Delgado, J. S.; León-Vargas, F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a prototype app to induce lifestyle modifications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. The app design is based on International Diabetes Federation guidelines and recommendations from clinical studies related to diabetes health-care. Two main approaches, lifestyle modification and self-management education are used owing to significant benefits reported. The method used is based on setting goals under medical support related to physical activity, nutritional habits and weight loss, in addition to educational messages. This is specially implemented to address the main challenges that have limited the success of similar mobile applications already validated on diabetic patients. A traffic light is used to show the overall state of the goals compliance. This state could be understood as excellent (green), there are aspects to improve (yellow), or some individual goals are not carrying out (red). An example of how works this method is presented in results. Furthermore, the app provides recommendations to the user in case the overall state was in yellow or red. The recommendations pretend to induce the user to make changes in their eating habits and physical activity. According to international guidelines and clinical studies, a prototype of mobile application to induce a lifestyle modification in order to prevent adverse risk factors related to diabetes was presented. The resulting application is apparently consistent with clinical judgments, but a formal clinical validation is required. The effectiveness of this app is currently under consideration for the Colombian population with type 2 diabetes.

  4. Population and labour force projections for 27 European countries, 2002-052: impact of international migration on population ageing: Projections de population et de population active pour 27 pays européens 2002-052: impact de la migration internationale sur le vieillissement de la population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijak, Jakub; Kupiszewska, Dorota; Kupiszewski, Marek; Saczuk, Katarzyna; Kicinger, Anna

    2007-03-01

    Population and labour force projections are made for 27 selected European countries for 2002-052, focussing on the impact of international migration on population and labour force dynamics. Starting from single scenarios for fertility, mortality and economic activity, three sets of assumptions are explored regarding migration flows, taking into account probable policy developments in Europe following the enlargement of the EU. In addition to age structures, various support ratio indicators are analysed. The results indicate that plausible immigration cannot offset the negative effects of population and labour force ageing.

  5. Cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of population-based, epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moylan Steven

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies have demonstrated that rates of smoking and nicotine dependence are increased in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, significant variability exists in the epidemiological literature exploring this relationship, including study design (cross-sectional versus prospective, the population assessed (random sample versus clinical population and diagnostic instrument utilized. Methods We undertook a systematic review of population-based observational studies that utilized recognized structured clinical diagnostic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM or International Classification of Diseases (ICD for anxiety disorder diagnosis to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders. Results In total, 47 studies met the predefined inclusion criteria, with 12 studies providing prospective information and 5 studies providing quasiprospective information. The available evidence suggests that some baseline anxiety disorders are a risk factor for initiation of smoking and nicotine dependence, although the evidence is heterogeneous and many studies did not control for the effect of comorbid substance use disorders. The identified evidence however appeared to more consistently support cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence as being a risk factor for development of some anxiety disorders (for example, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, although these findings were not replicated in all studies. A number of inconsistencies in the literature were identified. Conclusions Although many studies have demonstrated increased rates of smoking and nicotine dependence in individuals with anxiety disorders, there is a limited and heterogeneous literature that has prospectively examined this relationship in population studies using validated diagnostic criteria. The most consistent evidence supports smoking and nicotine dependence as

  6. Internal dose assessment data management system for a large population of Pu workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertelli, L.; Miller, G.; Little, T.; Guilmette, R.A.; Glasser, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) dose assessment (DA) data system. Dose calculations for the most important radionuclides at LANL, namely plutonium, americium, uranium and tritium, are performed through the Microsoft Access DA database. DA includes specially developed forms and macros that perform a variety of tasks, such as retrieving bioassay data, launching the FORTRAN internal dosimetry applications and displaying dose results in the form of text summaries and plots. The DA software involves the following major processes: (1) downloading of bioassay data from a remote data source, (2) editing local and remote databases, (3) setting up and carrying out internal dose calculations using the UF code or the ID code, (3) importing results of the dose calculations into local results databases, (4) producing a secondary database of 'official results' and (5) automatically creating and e-mailing reports. The software also provides summary status and reports of the pending DAs, which are useful for managing the cases in process. (authors)

  7. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindfors Pirjo L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey. The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%; and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%. Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying

  8. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey). The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%); and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%). Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying exposure differed between

  9. A population-based study of glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszat, Lawrence; Laperriere, Normand; Groome, Patti; Schulze, Karleen; Mackillop, William; Holowaty, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To describe (1) the use of surgery and radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) in Ontario, (2) survival, and (3) proportion of survival time spent in the hospital after diagnosis. Methods and Materials: We performed a population-based cohort study of all Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) cases of GBM diagnosed between 1982 and 1994. We linked OCR records, hospital files containing surgical procedure codes from the Canadian Institute for Health Information, and province-wide RT records. We studied the odds of treatment using multivariate logistic regression. We expressed the time spent in the hospital as the mean number of days per case, and as a proportion of the interval between diagnosis and death, or 24 months following diagnosis, whichever came first. We used the life-table method and Cox proportional hazards regression to describe survival. Results: The proportion of patients with GBM undergoing any surgery directed at the tumor varied with age (p<0.0001) and region of residence (p<0.0001). The proportion undergoing RT varied with age (p<0.0001), region of residence (p<0.0001), and year of diagnosis (p=0.01). RT dose ≥53.5 Gy varied with age (p<0.0001), region of residence (p<0.0001), and year of diagnosis (p=0.0002). Median survival was 11 months among patients receiving RT and 3 months among those not receiving RT. The percentage of survival time spent in the hospital was similar among those who received from 49.5 to <53.5 Gy, compared to ≥53.5 Gy. Overall survival and the adjusted relative risk of death varied with age and region of residence. Conclusion: We observed practice variation in the treatment of patients with GBM according to age, region of residence, and year of diagnosis. Survival did not increase during the study period. The variation in RT dose between those receiving from 49.5 to <53.5 Gy compared to ≥53.5 Gy was not paralleled by variation in survival between regions where one or the other of the

  10. Primary intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuyang; Garzon-Muvdi, Tomas; Braileanu, Maria; Porras, Jose L; Caplan, Justin M; Rong, Xiaoming; Huang, Judy; Jallo, George I

    2017-03-01

    Primary intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma (PISCL) is a rare diagnosis with poorly understood disease progression. Clarification of the factors associated with survival in PISCL patients is warranted. We conducted a population-based cohort study utilizing prospectively collected data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients with histological diagnosis of primary lymphoma in spinal cord (C72.0) from 1973 to 2012 in the SEER database were included. Multivariable survival analysis between patient, lesion characteristics, and PISCL-related death was performed to adjust for confounding factors. We included 346 PISCL patients in our study. Average age was 56.5 ± 17.8 years, with 62.7% being male. Racial distribution of these patients was white (87.6%), black (8.0%), and other (4.3%). More than half (55.8%) of patients were married. The most prevalent histology of PISCL was diffuse B-cell (46.2%), and the majority (55.2%) were low stage (Ann Arbor stage I/II). Most patients (67.9%) received radiation therapy. Average survival interval of patients with PISCL-related death (n=135, 39.0%) was 27.8 months. General cumulative survival probability at 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years was 73.8%, 67.9%, and 63.1%, respectively. Multivariable accelerated failure time (AFT) regression showed follicular lymphoma (HR:0.25, P=.008) and more recent diagnosis (HR:0.96, P<.001) was positively associated with PISCL-related survival. Conversely, nonwhite race (HR:1.69, P=.046), older age (HR:1.02, P<.001), unmarried status (HR:2.14, P<.001), and higher stage (HR:1.54, P=.022) were negatively associated with survival. Age, race, marital status, tumor histology, tumor stage, and year of diagnosis were associated with survival of PISCL. While most PISCL-related deaths occur within a 1-year period, subsequent slow progression was observed after the first year of survival. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  11. Intergenerational teen pregnancy: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Vigod, Simone N; Farrugia, M Michèle; Urquia, Marcelo L; Ray, Joel G

    2018-05-22

    To estimate the intergenerational association in teenage pregnancy, and whether there is a coupling tendency between a mother and daughter in how their teen pregnancies end, such as an induced abortion (IA) vs. a livebirth. Population-based cohort study. Ontario, Canada. 15,097 mothers and their 16,177 daughters. Generalized estimating equations generated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of a daughter experiencing a teen pregnancy in relation to the number of teen pregnancies her mother had. Multinomial logistic regression estimated the odds that a teen pregnancy ended with IA among both mother and daughter. All models were adjusted for maternal age and world region of origin, the daughter's socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidities, mother-daughter cohabitation, and neighborhood-level teen pregnancy rate. Teen pregnancy in the daughter, between ages 15-19 years, and also the nature of the daughter's teen pregnancy, categorized as i) no teen pregnancy, ii) at least one teen pregnancy, all exclusively ending with a livebirth, and iii) at least one teen pregnancy, with at least one teen pregnancy ending with an IA. The proportion of daughters having a teen pregnancy among those whose mother had 0, 1, 2, or ≥ 3 teen pregnancies was 16.3%, 24.9%, 33.5% and 36.3%, respectively. The aOR of a daughter having a teen pregnancy was 1.42 (95% CI 1.25-1.61) if her mother had 1, 1.97 (95% CI 1.71-2.26) if she had 2, and 2.17 (95% CI 1.84-2.56) if her mother had ≥ 3 teen pregnancies, relative to none. If a mother had ≥ 1 teen pregnancy ending with IA, then her daughter had an aOR of 2.12 (95% CI 1.76-2.56) for having a teen pregnancy also ending with IA; whereas, if a mother had ≥ 1 teen pregnancy, all ending with a livebirth, then her daughter had an aOR of 1.73 (95% CI 1.46-2.05) for that same outcome. There is a strong intergenerational occurrence of teenage pregnancy between a mother and daughter, including a coupling tendency in how the pregnancy ends. This

  12. Achieving population-level violence declines: implications of the international crime drop for prevention programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Manuel; Nivette, Amy; Murray, Aja Louise; Krisch, Maria

    2016-09-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations for the period 2016-2030 aim to achieve a substantial reduction of interpersonal violence. An increasing body of evidence of what works, emerging from randomized controlled trials, can inform public health policy decisions. However, there is very limited evidence on the kinds of mechanisms that lead to sustained declines in interpersonal violence at the population level. We discuss the implications of what is known about recent major declines in violence to guide violence-reduction policies.

  13. Dynamics of Cercospora zeina populations in maize-based agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La variation dans le temps au sein d'une population, est fonction de facteurs relatifs à l'écologie, la biologie et l'histoire de vie des pathogènes. Elle varie d'un être vivant à un autre et d'un écosystème à un autre. L'objectif de cette étude était d'évaluer la variabilité génétique au sein des populations de Cercospora zeina ...

  14. Long term reduction of Caesium and Strontium transfer factors from soil in foodstuff and dynamics of internal doses for a russian population after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutov, V.N.; Bruk, J.Ja.; Travnikova, I.G.; Balonov, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    The model of the formation of the internal doses for the population living on the territory contaminated after the Chernobyl accident is described. Model parameters were obtained on the base of natural measurements results implemented in the different terms after the accident. The data on the caesium radionuclides content in the bodies of the inhabitants measurements were priority for the internal exposure dose estimation. In the case of the absence of such information, the results of the radionuclides content in the food products analysis or the data on the soil types prevailing in the areas of settlements, were used for the calculations. The data were obtained during 1986-2001 as a result of monitoring of contaminated areas in Russia that considerably differ in their soil and climate conditions, the levels of 1 37C s and 9 0S r surface activity on soil and types of countermeasures applied. A summary of effective half-lives (T 1/2 ) of 1 37C s and 9 0S r aggregated transfer factors (Tag) from soil into agricultural and natural products observed after the Chernobyl fallout is given. The short term decrease of 1 37C s Tag from soil into milk and beef during two months after fallout were observed - T 1/2 varied from 13 d to 36 d in depend on the part of dry and wet fallout. The studies between autumn 1986 and 1991 suggest a decrease in the 1 37C s Tag with T 1/2 /2 =1-2 years. From 5-6 years after deposition onwards T 1/2 /2 of 1 37 Cs and 9 0S r Tag's in the range of 8 to 21 years were observed. Effective half-lives of 1 37C s Tag's for foods from semi-natural ecosystems (mushrooms, berries, game, fish) are longer (up to tens years). On at least for some natural products the decrease seems to be only to radioactive decay. Comparison of the data on the dynamics of 1 37C s content in agricultural and natural food products indicates that the contribution of the latter in the internal dose of population grows with each year after fallout, and can reach in the remote

  15. INTERNATIONAL SURVEY OF PUBLICATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS: RISING THROUGH THE BASE OF WEB SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletéia de Moura Carpes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization is an alternative to business growth, allowing its exposure to international standards of products, technologies and management methods, generating significant returns for domestic transactions (STAL, 2010. The evolution of commercial transactions between the countries have brought a lot of issues to be understood, that seek to check the reflection of international activity in the individual, company and nation experiencing this context of globalization. This article was developed from the perspective of a bibliometric research, aiming to increase awareness in the study area related to International Business (International Business and determine which topics studied by the administration on this issue are being investigated further and which are most relevant (hot topics. Analysis of data held on the approaches of qualitative and quantitative research. Qualitatively analyzed the issues addressed in the publications surveyed regarding the content, keywords and relevance of topics. As regards the figures sought to investigate the following variables: total number of publications, authors, subject areas, types of documents, the sources title, year of publications, institutions, funding agencies, languages, countries and analysis of the number of times each publication was cited by the hb index and the index m. According to Hirsch (2005, the total number of articles published measures the productivity of the author, but does not measure the importance and / or impact of their publications. Already the impact of publications is measured by the number of citations that each one receives can be measured by the h-index. The survey of publications housed in the Web of Science citation index with the ISI Citation Indexes from 1997 to 2010 (14 years resulted in 5,355 jobs related to international business, which were entered, especially in the areas of business (business and management (management and the studies analyzed showed a

  16. Testing the Latino paradox in Latin America: a population-based study of Intra-regional immigrants in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena; Pickett, Kate

    2013-10-01

    Several studies in high-income countries report better health status of immigrants compared to the local population ("healthy migrant" effect), regardless of their socioeconomic deprivation. This is known as the Latino paradox. To test the Latino paradox within Latin America by assessing the health of international immigrants to Chile, most of them from Latin American countries, and comparing them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the population-based CASEN survey-2006. Three health outcomes were included: disability, illness/accident, and cancer/chronic condition (dichotomous). Demographics (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic-status (SES: educational level, employment status and household income per-capita), and material standards (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality). Crude and adjusted weighted regression models were performed. One percent of Chile's population were immigrants, mainly from other Latin American countries. A "healthy migrant" effect appeared within the total immigrant population: this group had a significantly lower crude prevalence of almost all health indicators than the Chilean-born, which remained after adjusting for various demographic characteristics. However, this effect lost significance when adjusting by SES for most outcomes. The Latino paradox was not observed for international immigrants compared to the local population in Chile. Also, health of immigrants with the longest time of residency showed similar health rates to the Chilean-born. The Latino paradox was not observed in Chile. Protecting low SES immigrants in Chile could have large positive effects in their health at arrival and over time.

  17. Hip Fracture in People with Erectile Dysfunction: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Hsin Wu

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the risk of hip fracture and contributing factors in patients with erectile dysfunction(ED. This population-based study was performed using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The analysis included 4636 patients aged ≥ 40 years who had been diagnosed with ED (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 302.72, 607.84 during 1996-2010. The control group included 18,544 randomly selected age-matched patients without ED (1:4 ratio. The association between ED and hip fracture risk was estimated using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. During the follow-up period, 59 (1.27% patients in the ED group and 140 (0.75% patients in the non-ED group developed hip fracture. After adjusting for covariates, the overall incidence of hip fracture was 3.74-times higher in the ED group than in the non-ED group (2.03 vs. 0.50 per 1000 person-years, respectively. The difference in the overall incidence of hip fracture was largest during the 3-year follow-up period (hazard ratio = 7.85; 95% confidence interval = 2.94-20.96; P <0.0001. To the best of our knowledge, this nationwide population-based study is the first to investigate the relationship between ED and subsequent hip fracture in an Asian population. The results showed that ED patients had a higher risk of developing hip fracture. Patients with ED, particularly those aged 40-59 years, should undergo bone mineral density examinations as early as possible and should take measures to reduce the risk of falls.

  18. A study on the causal effect of urban population growth and international trade on environmental pollution: evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Kofi Baah; Du, Jianguo; Boamah, Angela Jacinta; Appiah, Kingsley

    2018-02-01

    This study seeks to contribute to the recent literature by empirically investigating the causal effect of urban population growth and international trade on environmental pollution of China, for the period 1980-2014. The Johansen cointegration confirmed a long-run cointegration association among the utilised variables for the case of China. The direction of causality among the variables was, consequently, investigated using the recent bootstrapped Granger causality test. This bootstrapped Granger causality approach is preferred as it provides robust and accurate critical values for statistical inferences. The findings from the causality analysis revealed the existence of a bi-directional causality between import and urban population. The three most paramount variables that explain the environmental pollution in China, according to the impulse response function, are imports, urbanisation and energy consumption. Our study further established the presence of an N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve relationship between economic growth and environmental pollution of China. Hence, our study recommends that China should adhere to stricter environmental regulations in international trade, as well as enforce policies that promote energy efficiency in the urban residential and commercial sector, in the quest to mitigate environmental pollution issues as the economy advances.

  19. Genetic diversity of Ghanaian local chicken populations based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, local chickens are raised across distinct agro-ecological zones and constitute unique populations with variable phenotypes that need to be characterized to provide needed information for the conservation of useful genotypes against future needs. In particular, the Interior Savannah (GHIS) in the north, the Forest ...

  20. Genetic structure of Balearic honeybee populations based on microsatellite polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Robin FA

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic variation of honeybee colonies collected in 22 localities on the Balearic Islands (Spain was analysed using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. Previous studies have demonstrated that these colonies belong either to the African or west European evolutionary lineages. These populations display low variability estimated from both the number of alleles and heterozygosity values, as expected for the honeybee island populations. Although genetic differentiation within the islands is low, significant heterozygote deficiency is present, indicating a subpopulation genetic structure. According to the genetic differentiation test, the honeybee populations of the Balearic Islands cluster into two groups: Gimnesias (Mallorca and Menorca and Pitiusas (Ibiza and Formentera, which agrees with the biogeography postulated for this archipelago. The phylogenetic analysis suggests an Iberian origin of the Balearic honeybees, thus confirming the postulated evolutionary scenario for Apis mellifera in the Mediterranean basin. The microsatellite data from Formentera, Ibiza and Menorca show that ancestral populations are threatened by queen importations, indicating that adequate conservation measures should be developed for protecting Balearic bees.

  1. Genetic diversity of Kenyan Prosopis populations based on random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine whether naturally established stands consist of a single or mixture of species, six populations from Bamburi, Bura, Isiolo, Marigat, Taveta and Turkwel were compared for relatedness with reference to Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis juliflora and Prosopis pallida using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers.

  2. Vascular Pathology And Osteoarthritis Population-based studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Hoeven (Theun)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent joint disorder worldwide and causes a considerable burden of pain, disability, and ever increasing costs to society. Due to rapid ageing and the epidemic of obesity in western populations, prevalence of OA is expected

  3. A stage-based model of manatee population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M.C.; Langtimm, C.A.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    A stage-structured population model for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) was developed that explicitly incorporates uncertainty in parameter estimates. The growth rates calculated with this model reflect the status of the regional populations over the most recent 10-yr period. The Northwest and Upper St. Johns River regions have growth rates (8) of 1.037 (95% interval, 1.016?1.056) and 1.062 (1.037?1.081), respectively. The Southwest region has a growth rate of 0.989 (0.946?1.024), suggesting this population has been declining at about 1.1% per year. The estimated growth rate in the Atlantic region is 1.010 (0.988?1.029), but there is some uncertainty about whether adult survival rates have been constant over the last 10 yr; using the mean survival rates from the most recent 5-yr period, the estimated growth rate in this region is 0.970 (0.938?0.998). Elasticity analysis indicates that the most effective management actions should seek to increase adult survival rates. Decomposition of the uncertainty in the growth rates indicates that uncertainty about population status can best be reduced through increased monitoring of adult survival rate.

  4. Sleep in later life: a population-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. van den Berg (Julia)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation includes six epidemiological studies of sleep in a normal elderly population. The research was conducted within the setting of the Rotterdam Study, a large prospective cohort study of community-dwelling inhabitants of a district of Rotterdam, aged 55 and over. A total

  5. Population and antenatal-based HIV prevalence estimates in a high contracepting female population in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnighausen Till

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To present and compare population-based and antenatal-care (ANC sentinel surveillance HIV prevalence estimates among women in a rural South African population where both provision of ANC services and family planning is prevalent and fertility is declining. With a need, in such settings, to understand how to appropriately adjust ANC sentinel surveillance estimates to represent HIV prevalence in general populations, and with evidence of possible biases inherent to both surveillance systems, we explore differences between the two systems. There is particular emphasis on unrepresentative selection of ANC clinics and unrepresentative testing in the population. Methods HIV sero-prevalence amongst blood samples collected from women consenting to test during the 2005 annual longitudinal population-based serological survey was compared to anonymous unlinked HIV sero-prevalence amongst women attending antenatal care (ANC first visits in six clinics (January to May 2005. Both surveillance systems were conducted as part of the Africa Centre Demographic Information System. Results Population-based HIV prevalence estimates for all women (25.2% and pregnant women (23.7% were significantly lower than that for ANC attendees (37.7%. A large proportion of women attending urban or peri-urban clinics would be predicted to be resident within rural areas. Although overall estimates remained significantly different, presenting and standardising estimates by age and location (clinic for ANC-based estimates and individual-residence for population-based estimates made some group-specific estimates from the two surveillance systems more predictive of one another. Conclusion It is likely that where ANC coverage and contraceptive use is widespread and fertility is low, population-based surveillance under-estimates HIV prevalence due to unrepresentative testing by age, residence and also probably by HIV status, and that ANC sentinel surveillance over

  6. Enhancing health care equity with Indigenous populations: evidence-based strategies from an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Annette J; Varcoe, Colleen; Lavoie, Josée; Smye, Victoria; Wong, Sabrina T; Krause, Murry; Tu, David; Godwin, Olive; Khan, Koushambhi; Fridkin, Alycia

    2016-10-04

    Structural violence shapes the health of Indigenous peoples globally, and is deeply embedded in history, individual and institutional racism, and inequitable social policies and practices. Many Indigenous communities have flourished, however, the impact of colonialism continues to have profound health effects for Indigenous peoples in Canada and internationally. Despite increasing evidence of health status inequities affecting Indigenous populations, health services often fail to address health and social inequities as routine aspects of health care delivery. In this paper, we discuss an evidence-based framework and specific strategies for promoting health care equity for Indigenous populations. Using an ethnographic design and mixed methods, this study was conducted at two Urban Aboriginal Health Centres located in two inner cities in Canada, which serve a combined patient population of 5,500. Data collection included in-depth interviews with a total of 114 patients and staff (n = 73 patients; n = 41 staff), and over 900 h of participant observation focused on staff members' interactions and patterns of relating with patients. Four key dimensions of equity-oriented health services are foundational to supporting the health and well-being of Indigenous peoples: inequity-responsive care, culturally safe care, trauma- and violence-informed care, and contextually tailored care. Partnerships with Indigenous leaders, agencies, and communities are required to operationalize and tailor these key dimensions to local contexts. We discuss 10 strategies that intersect to optimize effectiveness of health care services for Indigenous peoples, and provide examples of how they can be implemented in a variety of health care settings. While the key dimensions of equity-oriented care and 10 strategies may be most optimally operationalized in the context of interdisciplinary teamwork, they also serve as health equity guidelines for organizations and providers working in

  7. Electromagnetic Marchenko scheme based internal multiple elimination for lossless media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Slob, E.C.

    2017-01-01

    Iterative substitution of the Marchenko equation has been introduced recently to integrate internal multiple reflection in the seismic and electromagnetic imaging process. In the so-called Marchenko imaging, solving the Marchenko equation at each imaging point is required to meet this objective.

  8. Method of characteristics - Based sensitivity calculations for international PWR benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslov, I. R.; Tormyshev, I. V.; Komlev, O. G.

    2013-01-01

    Method to calculate sensitivity of fractional-linear neutron flux functionals to transport equation coefficients is proposed. Implementation of the method on the basis of MOC code MCCG3D is developed. Sensitivity calculations for fission intensity for international PWR benchmark are performed. (authors)

  9. Experience-based typology of spectators at an international cricket ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This innovative research on managing and marketing team sport events was completed for the first time at an international Cricket Sixes tournament held in South Africa (SA). A visitor survey was conducted at SuperSport Park in Centurion during the Global Softech Sixes Tournament in 2014. Finally, spectators, who were ...

  10. Emotional development in children with tics: a longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, P J; Lundervold, A J; Lie, S A; Gillberg, C; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2013-03-01

    Children with tics often experience accompanying problems that may have more impact on their well being and quality of life than the tics themselves. The present study investigates characteristics and the course of associated problems. In a population-based follow-up study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of children with and without tics when they were 7-9 years old. Parents and teachers completed the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) when the children were 7-9 years (wave 1) and 4 years later (wave 2). Using strict criteria, we identified 38 children with tics in the cohort of 4,025 children (0.94% of the total cohort) with a preponderance of boys (78.9%). 22 children (57.9%) in the group with tics had only motor tics, and 16 (42.1%) had both motor and vocal tics. Children with tics had significantly higher parent- and teacher-rated SDQ total difficulty scores and subscale scores in both waves. Children with tics experienced an increase in emotional problems and in peer problems between the first and the second wave. This study in a general population indicates that the presence of tics is associated with a range of internalizing and externalizing difficulties, as well as problems in peer relationships. Moreover, our study indicates that emotional and peer problems tend to increase over time in the group of children with tics.

  11. Landscape-based population viability models demonstrate importance of strategic conservation planning for birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Bonnot; Frank R. Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh; D. Todd. Jones-Farland

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to conserve regional biodiversity in the face of global climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation will depend on approaches that consider population processes at multiple scales. By combining habitat and demographic modeling, landscape-based population viability models effectively relate small-scale habitat and landscape patterns to regional population...

  12. Social marketing and the fight against malaria in Africa: population services international (PSI) and insecticide treated nets (ITNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omona, Julius

    2009-12-01

    This textual analyses on Social marketing, Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) and Population Services International (PSI) were undertaken to achieve two objectives: (a) to contribute to the continuing debate and search for a better strategy for combating malaria in sub-Saharan Africa; and (b) to contribute to theory building on social marketing. The analyses revealed that Malaria has reached an epidemic proportion and despite major inroads by PSI in combating malaria on the principles of social marketing, the strategies of pricing and segmentation of the clients are not appropriate for Sub-Saharan African countries that are mired in absolute poverty where majority of the rural communities eke a living on less than a dollar per day and the health sector does not receive priority attention from policy makers and politicians. The descriptive statistics and a one sample t test for the sampled countries suggest that sub-Saharan countries have not even met the hypothesized 5% investment of their GDP on health, compared to their counterparts, the developed countries, who are all above this figure. The null hypothesis that there is no significant different between the population and the sample means of both developed and a developing country in their investments in the health sector was also tested and rejected. Though the elements in some of the existent models and theories of social marketing such as Health Belief Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Social Cognitive Theory and Trans-theoretical Models all attempt to advocate for elimination of constraints and barriers to effective access to a service or product, PSI is adamant to these and try to generalize these principles in all contexts, including in Sub-Saharan Africa. The African scenario, where about 90% of Malaria related deaths cases in the world occur, demands more than what these theories present. Accordingly, it was concluded that however good intentioned social marketing is, in the case of ITNs in this region, it

  13. Bayesian Population Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK Approach for a Physiologically Realistic Characterization of Interindividual Variability in Clinically Relevant Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Krauss

    Full Text Available Interindividual variability in anatomical and physiological properties results in significant differences in drug pharmacokinetics. The consideration of such pharmacokinetic variability supports optimal drug efficacy and safety for each single individual, e.g. by identification of individual-specific dosings. One clear objective in clinical drug development is therefore a thorough characterization of the physiological sources of interindividual variability. In this work, we present a Bayesian population physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK approach for the mechanistically and physiologically realistic identification of interindividual variability. The consideration of a generic and highly detailed mechanistic PBPK model structure enables the integration of large amounts of prior physiological knowledge, which is then updated with new experimental data in a Bayesian framework. A covariate model integrates known relationships of physiological parameters to age, gender and body height. We further provide a framework for estimation of the a posteriori parameter dependency structure at the population level. The approach is demonstrated considering a cohort of healthy individuals and theophylline as an application example. The variability and co-variability of physiological parameters are specified within the population; respectively. Significant correlations are identified between population parameters and are applied for individual- and population-specific visual predictive checks of the pharmacokinetic behavior, which leads to improved results compared to present population approaches. In the future, the integration of a generic PBPK model into an hierarchical approach allows for extrapolations to other populations or drugs, while the Bayesian paradigm allows for an iterative application of the approach and thereby a continuous updating of physiological knowledge with new data. This will facilitate decision making e.g. from preclinical to

  14. Population based study of fatigue and psychological distress.

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlikowska, T.; Chalder, T.; Hirsch, S. R.; Wallace, P.; Wright, D. J.; Wessely, S. C.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the prevalence of fatigue in the general population and the factors associated with fatigue. DESIGN--Postal survey. SETTING--Six general practices in southern England. SUBJECTS--31,651 men and women aged 18-45 years registered with the practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Responses to the 12 item general health questionnaire and a fatigue questionnaire which included self reported measures of duration, severity, and causes of fatigue. RESULTS--15,283 valid questionnaires...

  15. "Health divide" between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Kerala, India: population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Slim; Mohindra, Katia Sarla; Siekmans, Kendra; Màk, Geneviève; Narayana, Delampady

    2012-05-29

    The objective of this study is to investigate the magnitude and nature of health inequalities between indigenous (Scheduled Tribes) and non-indigenous populations, as well as between different indigenous groups, in a rural district of Kerala State, India. A health survey was carried out in a rural community (N = 1660 men and women, 18-96 years). Age- and sex-standardised prevalence of underweight (BMI populations. Multi-level weighted logistic regression models were used to estimate the predicted prevalence of morbidity for each age and social group. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition was used to further explore the health gap between tribes and non-tribes, and between subgroups of tribes. Social stratification remains a strong determinant of health in the progressive social policy environment of Kerala. The tribal groups are bearing a higher burden of underweight (46.1 vs. 24.3%), anaemia (9.9 vs. 3.5%) and goitre (8.5 vs. 3.6%) compared to non-tribes, but have similar levels of tuberculosis (21.4 vs. 20.4%) and hypertension (23.5 vs. 20.1%). Significant health inequalities also exist within tribal populations; the Paniya have higher levels of underweight (54.8 vs. 40.7%) and anaemia (17.2 vs. 5.7%) than other Scheduled Tribes. The social gradient in health is evident in each age group, with the exception of hypertension. The predicted prevalence of underweight is 31 and 13 percentage points higher for Paniya and other Scheduled Tribe members, respectively, compared to Forward Caste members 18-30 y (27.1%). Higher hypertension is only evident among Paniya adults 18-30 y (10 percentage points higher than Forward Caste adults of the same age group (5.4%)). The decomposition analysis shows that poverty and other determinants of health only explain 51% and 42% of the health gap between tribes and non-tribes for underweight and goitre, respectively. Policies and programmes designed to benefit the Scheduled Tribes need to promote their well-being in general but

  16. Friendship-based partner switching promotes cooperation in heterogeneous populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wu, Te; Li, Zhiwu; Wang, Long

    2016-02-01

    The forming of human social ties tends to be with similar individuals. This study concentrates on the emergence of cooperation among heterogeneous populations. A simple model is proposed by considering the impact of interplay between the evolution of strategies and that of social partnerships on cooperation dynamics. Whenever two individuals acquire the rewards by playing prisoner's dilemma game with each other, the friendship (friendship is quantified as the weight of a link) between the two individuals deepens. Individuals can switch off the social ties with the partners who are unfriendly and rewire to similar new ones. Under this partner switching mechanism, population structure is divided into several groups and cooperation can prevail. It is observed that the frequent tendency of partner switching can lead to the enhancement of cooperative behavior under the enormous temptation to defect. Moreover, the influence of discounting the relationship between different individuals is also investigated. Meanwhile, the cooperation prevails when the adjustment of friendships mainly depends on the incomes of selected individuals rather than that of their partners. Finally, it is found that too similar population fail to maximize the cooperation and there exists a moderate similarity that can optimize cooperation.

  17. Hurricane Loss Analysis Based on the Population-Weighted Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Kakareko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses different measures for quantifying regional hurricane loss. The main measures used in the past are normalized percentage loss and dollar value loss. In this research, we show that these measures are useful but may not properly reflect the size of the population influenced by hurricanes. A new loss measure is proposed that reflects the hurricane impact on people occupying the structure. For demonstrating the differences among these metrics, regional loss analysis was conducted for Florida. The regional analysis was composed of three modules: the hazard module stochastically modeled the wind occurrence in the region; the vulnerability module utilized vulnerability functions developed in this research to calculate the loss; and the financial module quantified the hurricane loss. In the financial module, we calculated three loss metrics for certain region. The first metric is the average annual loss (AAL which represents the expected loss per year in percentage. The second is the average annual dollar loss which represents the expected dollar amount loss per year. The third is the average annual population-weighted loss (AAPL—a new measure proposed in this research. Compared with the AAL, the AAPL reflects the number of people influenced by the hurricane. The advantages of the AAPL are illustrated using three different analysis examples: (1 conventional regional loss analysis, (2 mitigation potential analysis, and (3 forecasted future loss analysis due to the change in population.

  18. Synthesis of the expert group meetings convened as part of the substantive preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    As part of the preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development to be sponsored by the UN in Cairo, 6 expert groups were convened to consider 1) population growth; 2) population policies and programs; 3) population, development, and the environment; 4) migration; 5) the status of women; and 6) family planning programs, health, and family well-being. Each group included 15 experts representing a full range of relevant scientific disciplines and geographic regions. Each meeting lasted 5 days and included a substantive background paper prepared by the Population Division as well as technical papers. Each meeting concluded with the drafting of between 18 and 37 recommendations (a total of 162). The meeting on population, the environment, and development focused on the implications of current trends in population and the environment for sustained economic growth and sustainable development. The meeting on population policies and programs observed that, since 1984, there has been a growing convergence of views about population growth among the nations of the world and that the stabilization of world population as soon as possible is now an internationally recognized goal. The group on population and women identified practical steps that agencies could take to empower women in order to achieve beneficial effects on health, population trends, and development. The meeting on FP, health, and family well-being reviewed policy-oriented issues emerging from the experience of FP programs. The meeting on population growth and development reviewed trends and prospects of population growth and age structure and their consequences for global sustainability. The population distribution and migration experts appraised current trends and their interrelationship with development. In nearly all of the group meetings, common issues emerged. Concern was universally voiced for sustainable development and sustained economic growth, relevance of past experience

  19. Comparison of the COPD Population Screener and International Primary Care Airway Group questionnaires in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukuya, Go; Samukawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Koichiro; Fukuyama, Satoru; Kumamoto, Tomohiro; Uchida, Akifumi; Koriyama, Chihaya; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing worldwide. In Japan and other countries, epidemiological studies have found that many patients with COPD are underdiagnosed and untreated, and thus, early detection and treatment of COPD has been emphasized. Screening questionnaires may have utility in the initial detection of COPD. This study aimed to validate and compare the COPD Population Screener (COPD-PS) and the International Primary Care Airway Group (IPAG) questionnaires in a general Japanese population. Eligible subjects 40 years of age and older living in the town of Hisayama were solicited to participate in a health checkup in 2012. All subjects 40-79 years of age without physician-diagnosed asthma or lung resection were recruited, and 2,336 subjects who fully completed both questionnaires and who had valid spirometry measurements were analyzed. Persistent airflow obstruction (AO) was defined by a postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity questionnaires to discriminate between subjects with and without AO. The overall area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the COPD-PS questionnaire was 0.747 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.707-0.788) and for the IPAG was 0.775 (95% CI, 0.735-0.816), with no significant difference (P=0.09). The net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement were -0.107 (95% CI, -0.273-0.058; P=0.203) and -0.014 (95% CI, -0.033-0.006; P=0.182), respectively. The five-item COPD-PS questionnaire was comparable to the eight-item IPAG for discriminating between subjects with and without AO. The COPD-PS is a simple and useful screening questionnaire for persistent AO.

  20. Depression, Sex and Gender Roles in Older Adult Populations: The International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei, Afshin; Ahmed, Tamer; Freire, Aline do N Falcão; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo O

    2016-01-01

    To assess the associations between gender roles and depression in older men and women and whether gender roles are independent risk factors for depression. International cross-sectional study of adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,967). Depression was defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A validated 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants in gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using research site medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regressions were fitted to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of depression for each gender role compared to the masculine role, adjusting for sex, sufficiency of income, education, marital status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions. Among men, 31.2% were androgynous, 26% were masculine, 14.4% were feminine, and 28.4% were undifferentiated; among women, the corresponding percentages were 32.7%, 14.9%, 27%, and 25.4%. Both in men and in women, depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were more prevalent in those endorsing the undifferentiated type, compared to masculine, feminine or androgynous groups. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the masculine group only those endorsing the androgynous role were 28% less likely to suffer from depression: PR of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55-0.93). In fully adjusted models, prevalence rates of depression were not different from masculine participants in the two other gender groups of feminine and undifferentiated. Androgynous roles were associated with lower rates of depression in older adults, independently of being a man or a woman.

  1. Depression, Sex and Gender Roles in Older Adult Populations: The International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Vafaei

    Full Text Available To assess the associations between gender roles and depression in older men and women and whether gender roles are independent risk factors for depression.International cross-sectional study of adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,967. Depression was defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. A validated 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI was used to classify participants in gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated using research site medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regressions were fitted to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR of depression for each gender role compared to the masculine role, adjusting for sex, sufficiency of income, education, marital status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions.Among men, 31.2% were androgynous, 26% were masculine, 14.4% were feminine, and 28.4% were undifferentiated; among women, the corresponding percentages were 32.7%, 14.9%, 27%, and 25.4%. Both in men and in women, depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16 were more prevalent in those endorsing the undifferentiated type, compared to masculine, feminine or androgynous groups. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the masculine group only those endorsing the androgynous role were 28% less likely to suffer from depression: PR of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55-0.93. In fully adjusted models, prevalence rates of depression were not different from masculine participants in the two other gender groups of feminine and undifferentiated.Androgynous roles were associated with lower rates of depression in older adults, independently of being a man or a woman.

  2. A simplified questionnaire for self-assessment of hirsutism in population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Ligia; Aquino, Estela M L

    2015-04-01

    The measurement of excess body hair is not straightforward. As the modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score is unsuitable for self-assessment and requires specialist training, a short, self-administered questionnaire to identify hirsutism was constructed and validated for large-scale application, particularly targeting population-based studies. A validation study was conducted to assess a new hirsutism questionnaire. A total of 90 women aged 35-72 years who were enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) were evaluated. A self-administered instrument containing four questions was designed to evaluate five body areas: upper lip, chin, chest, lower abdomen, and thighs with respect to the current distribution of body hair and that before 35 years of age. A score of 0-4 was attributed to each region based on drawings provided in the instrument. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by reformulating the initial questions. An independent medical examination was conducted to apply the gold standard, the mFG score. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.87-0.99). A cut-off score of 5 showed the best balance between sensitivity (85%) and specificity (90%), with 88.9% accuracy. Spearman's correlation between current and past body hair score was calculated at 0.82 (P=0.000), and showed a test-retest reliability of 0.49, with a trend toward similar answers regarding changes in the quantity of body hair over time, irrespective of how the questions were asked (P=0.000). The accuracy and internal consistency of this self-administered questionnaire for the identification of hirsutism were good. Therefore, this questionnaire represents a useful tool for self-assessment of hirsutism in population-based studies. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  3. HOW INTERNAL RISK - BASED AUDIT APPRAISES THE EVALUATION OF RISKS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dorosh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the nature and function of the internal risk-based audit process approach to create patterns of risks and methods of evaluation. Deals with the relationship between the level of maturity of the risk of the company and the method of risk-based internal audit. it was emphasized that internal auditing provides an independent and objective opinion to an organization’s management as to whether its risks are being managed to acceptable levels.

  4. Introduction: gender-based violence and international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brysk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women (according to the WHO, one in three women worldwide suffers from gender violence is an issue of global security as well as of human rights. Because these human security violations have a very significant impact on development, conflict, public health and transnational flows, they merit study from the international relations perspective. We find that academic research into the links between neoliberal development and insecurity, the response via the mobilisation of international institutions for legal and public policy reform, and the rise of transnational social movements contributes and enriches our understanding of the dynamics and the direction to of globalisation, as well as the well-being of over a billion of our planet’s female inhabitants.

  5. Development of Proliferation Resistance Assessment Methodology Based on International Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Deok; Lee, Jung Won; Lee, Kwang Seok

    2009-03-01

    Proliferation resistance is one of the requirement to be met in GEN IV and INPRO for next generation nuclear energy system. Internationally, the evaluation methodology on PR had been already initiated from 1980, but the systematic development was started at 2000s. In Korea, for the export of nuclear energy system and the increase of international credibility and transparence of domestic nuclear system and fuel cycle development, the independent development of PR evaluation methodology was started in 2007 as a nuclear long term R and D project and the development is being performed for the model of PR evaluation methodology. In 1st year, comparative study of GEN-IV/INPRO, PR indicator development, quantification of indicator and evaluation model development, analysis of technology system and international technology development trend had been performed. In 2nd year, feasibility study of indicator, allowable limit of indicator, review of technical requirement of indicator were done. The results of PR evaluation must be applied in the beginning of conceptual design of nuclear system. Through the technology development of PR evaluation methodology, the methodology will be applied in the regulatory requirement for authorization and permission to be developed

  6. Which Triple Aim related measures are being used to evaluate population management initiatives? An international comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Roy J P; Drewes, Hanneke W; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Ruwaard, Dirk; Struijs, Jeroen N; Baan, Caroline A

    2016-05-01

    Population management (PM) initiatives are introduced in order to create sustainable health care systems. These initiatives should focus on the continuum of health and well-being of a population by introducing interventions that integrate various services. To be successful they should pursue the Triple Aim, i.e. simultaneously improve population health and quality of care while reducing costs per capita. This study explores how PM initiatives measure the Triple Aim in practice. An exploratory search was combined with expert consultations to identify relevant PM initiatives. These were analyzed based on general characteristics, utilized measures and related selection criteria. In total 865 measures were used by 20 PM initiatives. All quality of care domains were included by at least 11 PM initiatives, while most domains of population health and costs were included by less than 7 PM initiatives. Although their goals showed substantial overlap, the measures applied showed few similarities between PM initiatives and were predominantly selected based on local priority areas and data availability. Most PM initiatives do not measure the full scope of the Triple Aim. Additionally, variety between measures limits comparability between PM initiatives. Consensus on the coverage of Triple Aim domains and a set of standardized measures could further both the inclusion of the various domains as well as the comparability between PM initiatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  8. 76 FR 6128 - Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2730-000] Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding Energy Exchange International, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  9. International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Alexander; Krommer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The papers in this volume present and discuss the frontiers in the mechanics of controlled machines and structures. They are based on papers presented at the International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines held in Vienna in September 2015. The workshop continues a series of international workshops held in Linz (2008) and St. Petersburg (2010).

  10. Population based ranking of frameless CT-MRI registration methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opposits, Gabor; Kis, Sandor A.; Tron, Lajos; Emri, Miklos [Debrecen Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Berenyi, Ervin [Debrecen Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Biomedical Laboratory and Imaging Science; Takacs, Endre [Rotating Gamma Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary); Dobai, Jozsef G.; Bognar, Laszlo [Debrecen Univ., Medical Center (Hungary). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Szuecs, Bernadett [ScanoMed Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary)

    2015-07-01

    Clinical practice often requires simultaneous information obtained by two different imaging modalities. Registration algorithms are commonly used for this purpose. Automated procedures are very helpful in cases when the same kind of registration has to be performed on images of a high number of subjects. Radiotherapists would prefer to use the best automated method to assist therapy planning, however there are not accepted procedures for ranking the different registration algorithms. We were interested in developing a method to measure the population level performance of CT-MRI registration algorithms by a parameter of values in the [0,1] interval. Pairs of CT and MRI images were collected from 1051 subjects. Results of an automated registration were corrected manually until a radiologist and a neurosurgeon expert both accepted the result as good. This way 1051 registered MRI images were produced by the same pair of experts to be used as gold standards for the evaluation of the performance of other registration algorithms. Pearson correlation coefficient, mutual information, normalized mutual information, Kullback-Leibler divergence, L{sub 1} norm and square L{sub 2} norm (dis)similarity measures were tested for sensitivity to indicate the extent of (dis)similarity of a pair of individual mismatched images. The square Hellinger distance proved suitable to grade the performance of registration algorithms at population level providing the developers with a valuable tool to rank algorithms. The developed procedure provides an objective method to find the registration algorithm performing the best on the population level out of newly constructed or available preselected ones.

  11. The implementation of DRG-based hospital reimbursement in Switzerland: A population-based perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, André; von Below, Georg

    2010-10-16

    Switzerland introduces a DRG (Diagnosis Related Groups) based system for hospital financing in 2012 in order to increase efficiency and transparency of Swiss health care. DRG-based hospital reimbursement is not simultaneously realized in all Swiss cantons and several cantons already implemented DRG-based financing irrespective of the national agenda, a setting that provides an opportunity to compare the situation in different cantons. Effects of introducing DRGs anticipated for providers and insurers are relatively well known but it remains less clear what effects DRGs will have on served populations. The objective of the study is therefore to analyze differences of volume and major quality indicators of care between areas with or without DRG-based hospital reimbursement from a population based perspective. Small area analysis of all hospitalizations in acute care hospitals and of all consultations reimbursed by mandatory basic health insurance for physicians in own practice during 2003-2007. The results show fewer hospitalizations and a relocation of resources to outpatient care in areas with DRG reimbursement. Overall burden of disease expressed as per capita DRG cost weights was almost identical between the two types of hospital reimbursement and no distinct temporal differences were detected in this respect. But the results show considerably higher 90-day rehospitalization rates in DRG areas. The study provides evidence of both desired and harmful effects related to the implementation of DRGs. Systematic monitoring of outcomes and quality of care are therefore essential elements to maintain in the Swiss health system after DRG's are implemented on a nationwide basis in 2012.

  12. Transgender Population Size in the United States: a Meta-Regression of Population-Based Probability Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevelius, Jae M.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Transgender individuals have a gender identity that differs from the sex they were assigned at birth. The population size of transgender individuals in the United States is not well-known, in part because official records, including the US Census, do not include data on gender identity. Population surveys today more often collect transgender-inclusive gender-identity data, and secular trends in culture and the media have created a somewhat more favorable environment for transgender people. Objectives. To estimate the current population size of transgender individuals in the United States and evaluate any trend over time. Search methods. In June and July 2016, we searched PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Web of Science for national surveys, as well as “gray” literature, through an Internet search. We limited the search to 2006 through 2016. Selection criteria. We selected population-based surveys that used probability sampling and included self-reported transgender-identity data. Data collection and analysis. We used random-effects meta-analysis to pool eligible surveys and used meta-regression to address our hypothesis that the transgender population size estimate would increase over time. We used subsample and leave-one-out analysis to assess for bias. Main results. Our meta-regression model, based on 12 surveys covering 2007 to 2015, explained 62.5% of model heterogeneity, with a significant effect for each unit increase in survey year (F = 17.122; df = 1,10; b = 0.026%; P = .002). Extrapolating these results to 2016 suggested a current US population size of 390 adults per 100 000, or almost 1 million adults nationally. This estimate may be more indicative for younger adults, who represented more than 50% of the respondents in our analysis. Authors’ conclusions. Future national surveys are likely to observe higher numbers of transgender people. The large variety in questions used to ask

  13. Use of Mobile Device Data To Better Estimate Dynamic Population Size for Wastewater-Based Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin V; Amador, Arturo; Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio; Reid, Malcolm

    2017-10-03

    Wastewater-based epidemiology is an established approach for quantifying community drug use and has recently been applied to estimate population exposure to contaminants such as pesticides and phthalate plasticizers. A major source of uncertainty in the population weighted biomarker loads generated is related to estimating the number of people present in a sewer catchment at the time of sample collection. Here, the population quantified from mobile device-based population activity patterns was used to provide dynamic population normalized loads of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals during a known period of high net fluctuation in the catchment population. Mobile device-based population activity patterns have for the first time quantified the high degree of intraday, week, and month variability within a specific sewer catchment. Dynamic population normalization showed that per capita pharmaceutical use remained unchanged during the period when static normalization would have indicated an average reduction of up to 31%. Per capita illicit drug use increased significantly during the monitoring period, an observation that was only possible to measure using dynamic population normalization. The study quantitatively confirms previous assessments that population estimates can account for uncertainties of up to 55% in static normalized data. Mobile device-based population activity patterns allow for dynamic normalization that yields much improved temporal and spatial trend analysis.

  14. Development of internal dose calculation model and the data base updated IDES (Internal Dose Estimation System)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Shozo; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Hiroshi; Iwai, Satoshi.

    1994-01-01

    A computer program named IDES is developed by BASIC language for a personal computer and translated to C language of engineering work station. The IDES carries out internal dose calculations described in ICRP Publication 30 and it installs the program of transformation method which is an empirical method to estimate absorbed fractions of different physiques from ICRP Referenceman. The program consists of three tasks: productions of SAF for Japanese including children, productions of SEE, Specific Effective Energy, and calculation of effective dose equivalents. Each task and corresponding data file appear as a module so as to meet future requirement for revisions of the related data. Usefulness of IDES is discussed by exemplifying the case that 5 age groups of Japanese intake orally Co-60 or Mn-54. (author)

  15. Epidemiology of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Brevern, M; Radtke, A; Lezius, F; Feldmann, M; Ziese, T; Lempert, T; Neuhauser, H

    2007-07-01

    To examine the prevalence and incidence, clinical presentation, societal impact and comorbid conditions of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in the general population. Cross-sectional, nationally representative neurotological survey of the general adult population in Germany with a two stage sampling design: screening of 4869 participants from the German National Telephone Health Interview Survey 2003 (response rate 52%) for moderate or severe dizziness or vertigo, followed by validated neurotological interviews (n = 1003; response rate 87%). Diagnostic criteria for BPPV were at least five attacks of vestibular vertigo lasting vertigo. The lifetime prevalence of BPPV was 2.4%, the 1 year prevalence was 1.6% and the 1 year incidence was 0.6%. The median duration of an episode was 2 weeks. In 86% of affected individuals, BPPV led to medical consultation, interruption of daily activities or sick leave. In total, only 8% of affected participants received effective treatment. On multivariate analysis, age, migraine, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and stroke were independently associated with BPPV. BPPV is a common vestibular disorder leading to significant morbidity, psychosocial impact and medical costs.

  16. Research training of students in minority and international settings: lessons learned from cancer epidemiology education in special populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Amr S; Mullan, Patricia B; Chamberlain, Robert M

    2010-06-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of an NCI-sponsored short-term summer cancer research education program. The study questions examined: the feasibility of conducting a cancer education program in special populations at multiple US and international field sites for masters students; the merit and worth that students and faculty attribute to the program; and students' scholarly and cancer-related career outcomes. Developing a new curriculum, increasing the pool of mentors, utilizing and increasing the number of field sites, and program dissemination were also evaluated. Evidence of the program's success included students' completion of field experiences at multiple sites and their subsequent 70% project-related publication rate, with 79% of trainees reporting themselves as likely to pursue future cancer-related careers. Evaluation-guided future plans for the program include implementing faculty development to further enhance the program outcomes.

  17. Necrotizing Fasciitis Associated with Pregnancy: a Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi; Watkins, Phillip

    2014-12-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rare complication in pregnant women. There have been no population-level data reported to date on its epidemiology, clinical features, resource utilization, and outcomes. This was a retrospective, population-based cohort study, using the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File to identify pregnancy-associated hospitalizations for the years 2001-2010. Hospitalizations with a diagnosis of NF were then identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 728.86. Denominator data for incidence estimates were derived from the Texas Center for Health Statistics reports of live births, abortions and fetal deaths, and previously reported population-based, age-specific linkage data on miscarriage, and were used to estimate the annual total number of pregnancies (TEP). The incidence of pregnancy-associated NF (PANF), hospitalization type, clinical features, resource utilization and outcomes were examined. There were 4,060,201 pregnancy-associated hospitalizations and 148 PANF hospitalizations during study period. Postpartum hospitalizations accounted for 82.4% of all PANF events, and intensive care unit care was required in 61.5%. The key trends noted between 2001-2002 and 2009-2010 included rising incidence of PANF from 1.1 vs. 3.8 per 100,000 TEP-years (P = 0.0001), chronic comorbidities 0% vs. 31.7% (P = 0.0777), and development of organ failure in 9.1% vs. 31.7% (P = 0.0302). There was no significant change in total hospital charges or hospital length of stay. Three patients (2%) died in the hospital and 55% of survivors had routine home discharge. The present cohort of PANF is the largest reported to date. The incidence of PANF rose nearly 3.5-fold over the past decade, with most events developing following delivery hospitalization. Chronic illness has been increasingly present, along with rising severity of illness. The majority of patients required ICU care. Hospital mortality was

  18. Regional cooperation based on multilateral international agreements in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcic, I.

    1996-01-01

    Multilateral international agreements have defined the framework of behavior and cooperation in various fields and aspects of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Thus, obligations have been defined in the following areas: nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, physical protection of nuclear material, liability for nuclear damage, nuclear safety, early notification about a nuclear accident and assistance in case of nuclear accident. Obligations regarding radioactive waste management should be defined soon. This paper gives a review of obligations from particular agreements with a special emphasis on those which are being realized through mutual cooperation of concerned countries and are important for safe use of nuclear energy. (author)

  19. Normative static grip strength of population of Turkey, effects of various factors and a comparison with international norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekşioğlu, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    Normative data are of importance in ergonomics and clinical settings. Applying normative data internationally is questionable. To this end, this study aimed to establish gender- and age-specific reference values for static (isometric) hand grip strength of normal population of Turkey with special regard to occupational demand, and compare them with the international norms. The secondary aims were to investigate the effects of gender, age-group, weight-group, job-group, hand and several anthropometric variables on static grip strength. A sample of 211 (128 male and 83 female) volunteers aged between 18 and 69 with various occupations participated in the study. Grip strength data were collected using a Jamar dynamometer with standard testing position, protocol and instructions. The mean and std deviation of maximum voluntary static grip strength values (in N) for dominant and non-dominant hands respectively were 455.2 ± 73.6 and 441.5 ± 72.6 for males, and 258 ± 46.1 and 246.2 ± 49.1 for females. The mean female strength was about 57% of the mean male strength value for both dominant and non-dominant hands. There was a curvilinear relationship of grip strength to age, significant differences between genders, hands, and some age-groups, and a correlation to height, body-mass, BMI and hand dimensions depending on the gender. The comparisons with the norms of other world populations indicate that there are cross-national grip strength variations among some nations but not all. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Human capital on the move: Education as a determinant of internal migration in selected INDEPTH surveillance populations in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carren Ginsburg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education, as a key indicator of human capital, is considered one of the major determinants of internal migration, with previous studies suggesting that human capital accumulates in urban areas at the expense of rural areas. However, there is fragmentary evidence concerning the educational correlates of internal migration in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: The study questions whether more precise measures of migration in Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS populations support the hypothesis that migrants are self-selected on human capital and more educated people are more likely to leave rural areas or enter urban areas within a geographical region. Methods: Using unique longitudinal data representing approximately 900,000 people living in eight sub-Saharan African HDSS sites that are members of the INDEPTH Network, the paper uses Event History Analysis techniques to examine the relationship between formal educational attainment and in- and out-migration, over the period 2009 to 2011. Results: Between 7Š and 27Š of these local populations are moving in or out of the HDSS area over this period. Education is positively associated with both in- and out-migration in the Kenyan HDSS areas; however, the education effect has no clear pattern in the HDSS sites in Burkina Faso, Mozambique, and South Africa. Conclusions: Empirical results presented in this paper confirm a strong age profile of migration consistent with human capital expectation, yet the results point to variability in the association of education and the propensity to migrate. In particular, the hypothesis of a shift of human capital from rural to urban areas is not universally valid.

  1. The prevalence of diagnosed tourette syndrome in Canada: A national population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaeun; Hirsch, Lauren; Martino, Davide; Jette, Nathalie; Roberts, Jodie; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine: (1) the prevalence of diagnosed Tourette syndrome in Canada by sex in youth (aged 12-17) and adults and (2) socioeconomic factors in this population. The majority of epidemiological studies of tics have focused on children and youth, with few studies describing the prevalence of tics in adult populations. Canadian data on Tourette syndrome prevalence were derived from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2010 and 2011 cycles, a Statistics Canada population-based cross-sectional survey that collects information related to health status. We determined the prevalence of diagnosed Tourette syndrome and examined sociodemographic factors, including age, sex, education, income, employment, and birthplace. Overall, 122,884 Canadians participated in the surveys, with 122 participants diagnosed with Tourette syndrome. The prevalence of Tourette syndrome was higher in males in youth: 6.03 per 1000 (95% confidence interval: 3.24-8.81) in males versus 0.48 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.91) in females, with a prevalence risk ratio of 5.31 (95% confidence interval: 2.38-11.81). In adults, the prevalence of Tourette syndrome was 0.89 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval: 0.48-1.29) in males versus 0.44 (95% confidence interval: 0.16.0-0.71) in females, with a prevalence risk ratio of 1.93 (95% confidence interval: 1.21-3.08). After adjusting for age and sex, adults with Tourette syndrome had lower odds of receiving postsecondary education or being employed and higher odds of having income lower than the median and receiving governmental support. Data on the prevalence of Tourette syndrome in adults are scarce because most studies focus on children. Our data demonstrate a decreasing prevalence risk ratio for sex in adults compared to children. A diagnosis of Tourette syndrome is associated with lower education, income, and employment in adulthood. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016

  2. Population-based treatment and outcomes of Stage I uterine serous carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, L.J.M. van der; Hoskins, P.; Tinker, A.; Lim, P.; Aquino-Parsons, C.; Kwon, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is a rare type of endometrial cancer that often recurs in patients with Stage I disease. Our objective was to evaluate treatment and outcomes in Stage I USC in the context of a population-based study. METHODS: This was a population-based retrospective cohort

  3. Extension of landscape-based population viability models to ecoregional scales for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Bonnot; Frank R. III Thompson; Joshua Millspaugh

    2011-01-01

    Landscape-based population models are potentially valuable tools in facilitating conservation planning and actions at large scales. However, such models have rarely been applied at ecoregional scales. We extended landscape-based population models to ecoregional scales for three species of concern in the Central Hardwoods Bird Conservation Region and compared model...

  4. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Large, Population-Based Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, Naomi B.; Schaapveld, Michael; Gietema, Jourik A.; Russell, Nicola S.; Poortmans, Philip; Theuws, Jacqueline C. M.; Schinagl, Dominic A. X.; Rietveld, Derek H. F.; Versteegh, Michel I. M.; Visser, Otto; Rutgers, Emiel J. T.; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct a large, population-based study on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in breast cancer (BC) survivors treated in 1989 or later. Methods and Materials: A large, population-based cohort comprising 70,230 surgically treated stage I to III BC patients diagnosed before age 75 years between

  5. Model-based estimation of finite population total in stratified sampling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work presented in this paper concerns the estimation of finite population total under model – based framework. Nonparametric regression approach as a method of estimating finite population total is explored. The asymptotic properties of the estimators based on nonparametric regression are also developed under ...

  6. Chronic headache and comorbidities: a two-phase, population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ariovaldo; Costa, Esther Coelho; Gomes, João Bosco; Leite, Frederico Motta; Gomez, Rodrigo Santiago; Vasconcelos, Luiz Paulo; Krymchantowski, Abouch; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2010-09-01

    Studies using resources of a public family health program to estimate the prevalence of chronic daily headaches (CDH) are lacking. To estimate the 1-year prevalence of CDH, as well as the presence of associated psychiatric and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) comorbidities, on the entire population of a city representative of the rural area of Brazil. This was a cross-sectional, population-based, 2-phase study. In the first phase, health agents interviewed all individuals older than 10 years, in a rural area of Brazil. In the second stage, all individuals who reported headaches on 4 or more days per week were then evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. CDH were classified according to the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2). Medication overuse headache was diagnosed, as per the ICHD-2, after detoxification trials. Psychiatric comorbidities and TMD were diagnosed based on the DSM-IV and on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders criteria, respectively. A total of 1631 subjects participated in the direct interviews. Of them, 57 (3.6%) had CDH. Chronic migraine was the most common of the CDH (21, 36.8%). Chronic tension-type headache (10, 17.5%), medication overuse headache (13, 22.8%) and probable medication overuse headache (10, 17.5%) were also common. Psychiatric disorders were observed in 38 (67.3%) of the CDH subjects. TMD were seen in 33 (58.1)% of them. The prevalence of CDH in the rural area of Brazil is similar to what has been reported in previous studies. A significant proportion of them have psychiatric comorbidities and/or TMD. In this sample, comorbidities were as frequent as reported in convenience samples from tertiary headache centers.

  7. Relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status and venous thromboembolism: results from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, D; van Rein, N; van der Meer, F J M; Vermaas, H W; Wiersma, N; Cannegieter, S C; Lijfering, W M

    2017-12-01

    Essentials Literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is scarce. We assessed neighborhood SES with VTE risk in a population of over 1.4 million inhabitants. Higher neighborhood SES was associated with lower incidence of VTE. These findings are helpful to inform policy and resource allocation in health systems. Background The association between socioeconomic status and arterial cardiovascular disease is well established. However, despite its high burden of disability-adjusted life years, little research has been carried out to determine whether socioeconomic status is associated with venous thromboembolism. Objective To determine if neighborhood socioeconomic status is associated with venous thromboembolism in a population-based study from the Netherlands. Methods We identified all patients aged 15 years and older with a first event of venous thromboembolism from inhabitants who lived in the urban districts of The Hague, Leiden and Utrecht in the Netherlands in 2008-2012. Neighborhood socioeconomic status was based on the status score, which combines educational level, income and unemployment on a four-digit postal code level. Incidence rate ratios of venous thromboembolism were calculated for different levels of neighborhood socioeconomic status, with adjustments for age and sex. Results A total of 7373 patients with a first venous thromboembolism (median age 61 years; 50% deep vein thrombosis) were identified among more than 1.4 million inhabitants. Higher neighborhood SES was associated with lower incidence of VTE. In the two highest status score groups (i.e. the 95-99th and > 99th percentile), the adjusted incidence rate ratios were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.00) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69-0.93), respectively, compared with the reference status score group (i.e. 30-70th percentile). Conclusions High neighborhood socioeconomic status is associated with a lower risk of first venous thromboembolism. © 2017

  8. Migraine and Mental Health in a Population-Based Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Serena L; Potter, Beth K; Ma, Jinhui; Colman, Ian

    2017-01-01

    To explore the relationship between migraine and anxiety disorders, mood disorders and perceived mental health in a population-based sample of adolescents. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) is a cross-sectional health survey sampling a nationally representative group of Canadians. In this observational study, data on all 61,375 participants aged 12-19 years from six survey cycles were analyzed. The relationships between self-reported migraine, perceived mental health, and mood/anxiety disorders were modeled using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The migraine-depression association was also explored in a subset of participants using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form (CIDI-SF) depression scale. The odds of migraine were higher among those with mood disorders, with the strongest association in 2011-2 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=4.59; 95% confidence interval [CI 95%]=3.44-6.12), and the weakest in 2009-10 (aOR=3.06, CI 95%=2.06-4.55). The migraine-mood disorders association was also significant throughout all cycles, other than 2011-2, when the CIDI-SF depression scale was employed. The odds of migraine were higher among those with anxiety disorders, with the strongest association in 2011-2 (aOR=4.21, CI 95%=3.31-5.35) and the weakest in 2010 (aOR=1.87, CI 95%=1.10-3.37). The inverse association between high perceived mental health and the odds of migraine was observed in all CCHS cycles, with the strongest association in 2011-2 (aOR=0.58, CI 95%=0.48-0.69) and the weakest in 2003-4 (aOR=0.75, CI 95%=0.62-0.91). This study provides evidence, derived from a large population-based sample of adolescents, for a link between migraine and mood/anxiety disorders.

  9. Maximum Regional Emission Reduction Potential in Residential Sector Based on Spatial Distribution of Population and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winijkul, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    In the residential sector, major activities that generate emissions are cooking and heating, and fuels ranging from traditional (wood) to modern (natural gas, or electricity) are used. Direct air pollutant emissions from this sector are low when natural gas or electricity are the dominant energy sources, as is the case in developed countries. However, in developing countries, people may rely on solid fuels and this sector can contribute a large fraction of emissions. The magnitude of the health loss associated with exposure to indoor smoke as well as its concentration among rural population in developing countries have recently put preventive measures high on the agenda of international development and public health organizations. This study focuses on these developing regions: Central America, Africa, and Asia. Current and future emissions from the residential sector depend on both fuel and cooking device (stove) type. Availability of fuels, stoves, and interventions depends strongly on spatial distribution. However, regional emission calculations do not consider this spatial dependence. Fuel consumption data is presented at country level, without information about where different types of fuel are used. Moreover, information about stove types that are currently used and can be used in the future is not available. In this study, we first spatially allocate current emissions within residential sector. We use Geographic Information System maps of temperature, electricity availability, forest area, and population to determine the distribution of fuel types and availability of stoves. Within each country, consumption of different fuel types, such as fuelwood, coal, and LPG is distributed among different area types (urban, peri-urban, and rural area). Then, the cleanest stove technologies which could be used in the area are selected based on the constraints of each area, i.e. availability of resources. Using this map, the maximum emission reduction compared with

  10. Population-based imaging biobanks as source of big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatidis, Sergios; Heber, Sophia D; Storz, Corinna; Bamberg, Fabian

    2017-06-01

    Advances of computational sciences over the last decades have enabled the introduction of novel methodological approaches in biomedical research. Acquiring extensive and comprehensive data about a research subject and subsequently extracting significant information has opened new possibilities in gaining insight into biological and medical processes. This so-called big data approach has recently found entrance into medical imaging and numerous epidemiological studies have been implementing advanced imaging to identify imaging biomarkers that provide information about physiological processes, including normal development and aging but also on the development of pathological disease states. The purpose of this article is to present existing epidemiological imaging studies and to discuss opportunities, methodological and organizational aspects, and challenges that population imaging poses to the field of big data research.

  11. Epidemiology of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: a population based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Brevern, M; Radtke, A; Lezius, F; Feldmann, M; Ziese, T; Lempert, T; Neuhauser, H

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence and incidence, clinical presentation, societal impact and comorbid conditions of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in the general population. Methods Cross‐sectional, nationally representative neurotological survey of the general adult population in Germany with a two stage sampling design: screening of 4869 participants from the German National Telephone Health Interview Survey 2003 (response rate 52%) for moderate or severe dizziness or vertigo, followed by validated neurotological interviews (n = 1003; response rate 87%). Diagnostic criteria for BPPV were at least five attacks of vestibular vertigo lasting <1 min without concomitant neurological symptoms and invariably provoked by typical changes in head position. In a concurrent validation study (n = 61) conducted in two specialised dizziness clinics, BPPV was detected by our telephone interview with a specificity of 92% and a sensitivity of 88% (positive predictive value 88%, negative predictive value 92%). Results BPPV accounted for 8% of individuals with moderate or severe dizziness/vertigo. The lifetime prevalence of BPPV was 2.4%, the 1 year prevalence was 1.6% and the 1 year incidence was 0.6%. The median duration of an episode was 2 weeks. In 86% of affected individuals, BPPV led to medical consultation, interruption of daily activities or sick leave. In total, only 8% of affected participants received effective treatment. On multivariate analysis, age, migraine, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and stroke were independently associated with BPPV. Conclusion BPPV is a common vestibular disorder leading to significant morbidity, psychosocial impact and medical costs. PMID:17135456

  12. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Serrano-Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99% raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75% agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy’s diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9. Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6. No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies.

  13. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J.; Mauri-Llerda, Jose Angel; Hernández-Ramos, Francisco José; Sánchez-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Parejo-Carbonell, Beatriz; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Vázquez-Gutierrez, Fernando; Santos-Lasaosa, Sonia; Mendez-Lucena, Carolina; Redondo-Verge, Luis; Tejero-Juste, Carlos; Morandeira-Rivas, Clara; Sancho-Rieger, Jerónimo; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville) between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire) over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99%) raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75%) agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy's diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9). Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6). No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies. PMID:26783554

  14. Assessment of 137Cs exposure in Marshallese populations based on whole-body counting measurements (1989-1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    137 Cs has been measured in the Marshallese using a shadow shield whole-body counting system. One of the important techniques employed in assessing the internally deposited radionuclides for the Marshallese is whole-body counting. Data from the period of 1989 to 1995 have been analyzed in an attempt to assess current and potential future exposure to 137 Cs. During this period, 3,764 measurements were made at Encwetak, Rongelap, and Utirik. The cesium body burdens were assumed to be the result of a series of chronic intakes. It was also assumed that the measured cesium activity is maintained in the body over a 365-d interval. Committed effective dose to age 70 y, and the annual effective dose rate for each population, were estimated based on the approach recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in its Publications 56 and 67. The average 137 Cs dose rates vary from one population to another; it was found to be correlated with the cesium concentration in the soil. The analysis indicates that, based on limited data, there is no statistical support for seasonal effect on 137 Cs uptake. The critical population group for cesium uptake is shown to be the male adult. Within the 6-y monitoring period, all exposures to 137 Cs were less than 0.2 mSv y -1 . A persistent average exposure of 2 μSv y -1 was determined for the Majuro residents

  15. Electron beam fluorescence spectrometry of internal state populations in nozzle beams of nitrogen and nitrogen/rare gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faubel, M.; Weiner, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    Rotational level populations of N 2 were measured downstream from the skimmer in beams of pure N 2 and in mixtures of N 2 with He, Ne, and Ar expanded from room temperature nozzles. The range of p 0 D was from 5 to 50 Torr cm. The formation of dimers and higher condensates of beam species was monitored during the runs. The effect of condensation energy release on rotational populations and parallel temperatures was readily observed. Two different methods for evaluating the rotational population distributions were compared. One method is based on a dipole-excitation model and the other on an excitation matrix obtained empirically. Neither method proved clearly superior. Both methods indicated nonequilibrium rotational populations for all of our room temperature nozzle expansion conditions. Much of the nonequilibrium character appears to be due to the behavior of the K = 2 and K = 4 levels, which may be accounted for in terms of the rotational energy level spacing. In particular, the overpopulation of the K = 4 level is explained by a near-resonant transfer of rotational energy between molecules in the K = 6 and K = 0 states, to give two molecules in the K = 4 state. Rotational and vibrational temperatures were determined for pure N 2 beams from nozzles heated up to 1700 0 K. The heated nozzle experiments indicated a 40% increase in the rotational collision number between 300 and 1700 0 K

  16. Comparison of the predictive performance of the BIG, TRISS, and PS09 score in an adult trauma population derived from multiple international trauma registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockamp, Thomas; Maegele, Marc; Gaarder, Christine; Goslings, J Carel; Cohen, Mitchell J; Lefering, Rolf; Joosse, Pieter; Naess, Paal A; Skaga, Nils O; Groat, Tahnee; Eaglestone, Simon; Borgman, Matthew A; Spinella, Philip C; Schreiber, Martin A; Brohi, Karim

    2013-07-11

    The BIG score (Admission base deficit (B), International normalized ratio (I), and Glasgow Coma Scale (G)) has been shown to predict mortality on admission in pediatric trauma patients. The objective of this study was to assess its performance in predicting mortality in an adult trauma population, and to compare it with the existing Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and probability of survival (PS09) score. A retrospective analysis using data collected between 2005 and 2010 from seven trauma centers and registries in Europe and the United States of America was performed. We compared the BIG score with TRISS and PS09 scores in a population of blunt and penetrating trauma patients. We then assessed the discrimination ability of all scores via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and compared the expected mortality rate (precision) of all scores with the observed mortality rate. In total, 12,206 datasets were retrieved to validate the BIG score. The mean ISS was 15 ± 11, and the mean 30-day mortality rate was 4.8%. With an AUROC of 0.892 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.879 to 0.906), the BIG score performed well in an adult population. TRISS had an area under ROC (AUROC) of 0.922 (0.913 to 0.932) and the PS09 score of 0.825 (0.915 to 0.934). On a penetrating-trauma population, the BIG score had an AUROC result of 0.920 (0.898 to 0.942) compared with the PS09 score (AUROC of 0.921; 0.902 to 0.939) and TRISS (0.929; 0.912 to 0.947). The BIG score is a good predictor of mortality in the adult trauma population. It performed well compared with TRISS and the PS09 score, although it has significantly less discriminative ability. In a penetrating-trauma population, the BIG score performed better than in a population with blunt trauma. The BIG score has the advantage of being available shortly after admission and may be used to predict clinical prognosis or as a research tool to risk stratify trauma patients into clinical trials.

  17. Performance of the international physical activity questionnaire (short form) in subgroups of the Hong Kong chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) has been validated and recommended as an efficient method to assess physical activity, but its validity has not been investigated in different population subgroups. We examined variations in IPAQ validity in the Hong Kong Chinese population by six factors: sex, age, job status, educational level, body mass index (BMI), and visceral fat level (VFL). Methods A total of 1,270 adults (aged 42.9 ± SD 14.4 years, 46.1% male) completed the Chinese version of IPAQ (IPAQ-C) and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph) for four days afterwards. The IPAQ-C and the ActiGraph were compared in terms of estimated Metabolic Equivalent Task minutes per week (MET-min/wk), minutes spent in activity of moderate or vigorous intensity (MVPA), and agreement in the classification of physical activity. Results The overall Spearman correlation (ρ) of between the IPAQ-C and ActiGraph was low (0.11 ± 0.03; range in subgroups 0.06-0.24) and was the highest among high VFL participants (0.24 ± 0.05). Difference between self-reported and ActiGraph-derived MET-min/wk (overall 2966 ± 140) was the smallest among participants with tertiary education (1804 ± 208). When physical activity was categorized into over or under 150 min/wk, overall agreement between self-report and accelerometer was 81.3% (± 1.1%; subgroup range: 77.2%-91.4%); agreement was the highest among those who were employed full-time in physically demanding jobs (91.4% ± 2.7%). Conclusions Sex, age, job status, educational level, and obesity were found to influence the criterion validity of IPAQ-C, yet none of the subgroups showed good validity (ρ = 0.06 to 0.24). IPAQ-SF validity is questionable in our Chinese population. PMID:21801461

  18. Estimation of internal radiation dose to the adult Asian population from the dietary intakes of two long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.; Kawamura, H.; Dang, H.S.; Parr, R.M.; Wang, J.W.; Akhter, Perveen; Cho, S.Y.; Natera, E.; Miah, F.K.; Nguyen, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Daily dietary intakes of two naturally occurring long-lived radionuclides, 232 Th and 238 U, were estimated for the adult population living in a number of Asian countries, using highly sensitive analytical methods such as instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Asian countries that participated in the study were Bangladesh (BGD), China (CPR), India (IND), Japan (JPN), Pakistan (PAK), Philippines (PHI), Republic of Korea (ROK) and Vietnam (VIE). Altogether, these countries represent more than 50% of the world population. The median daily intakes of 232 Th ranged between 0.6 and 14.4 mBq, the lowest being for Philippines and the highest for Bangladesh, and daily intakes of 238 U ranged between 6.7 and 62.5 mBq, lowest and the highest being for India and China, respectively. The Asian median intakes were obtained as 4.2 mBq for 232 Th and 12.7 mBq for 238 U. Although the Asian intakes were lower than intakes of 12.3 mBq (3.0 μg) 232 Th and 23.6 mBq (1.9 μg) 238 U proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the ICRP Reference Man, they were comparable to the global intake values of 4.6 mBq 232 Th and 15.6 mBq 238 U proposed by the United Nation Scientific Commission on Effects of Radiation (UNSCEAR). The annual committed effective doses to Asian population from the dietary intake of 232 Th and 238 U were calculated to be 0.34 and 0.20 μSv, respectively, which are three orders of magnitude lower than the global average annual radiation dose of 2400 μSv to man from the natural radiation sources as proposed by UNSCEAR

  19. Evidence-based clinical guidelines for eating disorders : International comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hoek, Hans W.; Schmidt, Ricarda

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: The current systematic review sought to compare available evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for all specific eating disorders. Recent findings: Nine evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for eating disorders were located through a systematic search. The

  20. A micromegas-based TPC for the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Deb Sankar; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Majumdar, Nayana; Sarkar, Sandip; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Bhattacharya, Purba; Colas, Paul; Attié, David; Ganjour, Serguei; Bhattacharya, Aparajita

    2016-01-01

    One of the two detector concepts for the ILC is the International Large Detector (ILD). The central tracking at the ILD is foreseen to be accomplished by a TPC (the ILD-TPC). A TPC has the benefits of truly continuous 3-D tracking and robust pattern recognition. In the baseline design, the length and the diameter of the ILD-TPC are 4.6 m and 3.6 m respectively. It will work in a 3.5 T magnetic field. Micromegas is a promising candidate for the ILD-TPC. Like any other MPGD, track reconstruction at the LPTPC with Micromegas has challenges. The electric field inhomogeneity near the gap between the modules results in track distortion and affects the performance of the TPC. The causes and effects of this distortion have been thoroughly studied by numerical methods. The results match closely with experiment. Possible hardware modifications to mitigate distortion effect have been explored in simulation

  1. Physical multimorbidity and loneliness: A population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Stickley

    Full Text Available Multimorbidity has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes although as yet, there has been little research on its association with loneliness. This study examined the association between physical multimorbidity (≥ 2 physical diseases and loneliness in the general population and its potential mediators. Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N = 7403, aged ≥16 years. Information was obtained on 20 doctor diagnosed physical conditions that were present in the previous year. An item from the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ was used to obtain information on loneliness. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. An increasing number of physical diseases was associated with higher odds for loneliness. Compared to no physical diseases, the odds ratio (OR (95% confidence interval: CI for loneliness increased from 1.34 (1.13-1.59 to 2.82 (2.11-3.78 between one and ≥5 physical diseases. This association was particularly strong in the youngest age group (i.e. 16-44 years. The loneliness-physical multimorbidity association was significantly mediated by stressful life events (% mediated 11.1%-30.5%, anxiety (30.2%, and depression (15.4%. Physical multimorbidity is associated with increased odds for loneliness. Prospective research is now needed to further elucidate this association and the factors that underlie it.

  2. Physical multimorbidity and loneliness: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai

    2018-01-01

    Multimorbidity has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes although as yet, there has been little research on its association with loneliness. This study examined the association between physical multimorbidity (≥ 2 physical diseases) and loneliness in the general population and its potential mediators. Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N = 7403, aged ≥16 years). Information was obtained on 20 doctor diagnosed physical conditions that were present in the previous year. An item from the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) was used to obtain information on loneliness. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. An increasing number of physical diseases was associated with higher odds for loneliness. Compared to no physical diseases, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval: CI) for loneliness increased from 1.34 (1.13-1.59) to 2.82 (2.11-3.78) between one and ≥5 physical diseases. This association was particularly strong in the youngest age group (i.e. 16-44 years). The loneliness-physical multimorbidity association was significantly mediated by stressful life events (% mediated 11.1%-30.5%), anxiety (30.2%), and depression (15.4%). Physical multimorbidity is associated with increased odds for loneliness. Prospective research is now needed to further elucidate this association and the factors that underlie it.

  3. Suicidal Decapitation by Hanging-A Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Gilbert, John D

    2018-05-01

    A prospective study was undertaken at Forensic Science SA over a 15-year period from July 2002 to June 2017 for all cases of adult (>18 years) suicidal hangings with decapitation. A total of 1446 cases of suicidal hangings were identified from a general population of approximately 1.5 million (1206 males-age range 18-97 years, average 42.6; and 240 females-age range 18-96 years, average 40.1). Only three cases of decapitation were found, all from long-drop hangings; these consisted of three males (ages 32-55 years; average 45 years). Spinal transections had occurred between the first and second, second and third, and third and fourth cervical vertebrae, respectively. In this study, the number of suicidal hangings with decapitation represented only 0.2% of the total number of hangings. These events are therefore extremely rare, most likely due to most suicidal hangings occurring from relatively low levels in a domestic environment. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  5. Birth order and mortality: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kieron; Kolk, Martin

    2015-04-01

    This study uses Swedish population register data to investigate the relationship between birth order and mortality at ages 30 to 69 for Swedish cohorts born between 1938 and 1960, using a within-family comparison. The main analyses are conducted with discrete-time survival analysis using a within-family comparison, and the estimates are adjusted for age, mother's age at the time of birth, and cohort. Focusing on sibships ranging in size from two to six, we find that mortality risk in adulthood increases with later birth order. The results show that the relative effect of birth order is greater among women than among men. This pattern is consistent for all the major causes of death but is particularly pronounced for mortality attributable to cancers of the respiratory system and to external causes. Further analyses in which we adjust for adult socioeconomic status and adult educational attainment suggest that social pathways only mediate the relationship between birth order and mortality risk in adulthood to a limited degree.

  6. Coexistence of structured populations with size-based prey selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Martin; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Species with a large adult-offspring size ratio and a preferred predator–prey mass ratio undergo ontogenetic trophic niche shift(s) throughout life. Trophic interactions between such species vary throughout life, resulting in different species-level interaction motifs depending on the ma......Abstract Species with a large adult-offspring size ratio and a preferred predator–prey mass ratio undergo ontogenetic trophic niche shift(s) throughout life. Trophic interactions between such species vary throughout life, resulting in different species-level interaction motifs depending...... on the maximum adult sizes and population size distributions. We explore the assembly and potential for coexistence of small communities where all species experience ontogenetic trophic niche shifts. The life-history of each species is described by a physiologically structured model and species identity...... there is a large scope for coexistence of two species, the scope for coexistence of three species is limited and we conclude that further trait differentiation is required for coexistence of more species-rich size-structured communities....

  7. OCCUPATION AND EPICONDYLITIS: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T; Reading, Isabel C; Coggon, David; Cooper, Cyrus

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore the relationship between occupational exposures and lateral and medial epicondylitis and the effect of epicondylitis on sickness absence in a population sample of working aged adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 9696 randomly selected adults aged 25-64 years involving a screening questionnaire and standardised physical examination. Age- and sex-specific prevalence rates of epicondylitis were estimated and associations with occupational risk factors explored. Results Among 6038 respondents, 636 (11%) reported elbow pain in the last week. 0.7% of those surveyed were diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis and 0.6% with medial epicondylitis. Lateral epicondylitis was associated with manual work (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.9-8.4). In multivariate analyses, repetitive bending/straightening elbow > 1 hour day was independently associated with lateral (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.5) and medial epicondylitis (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.8-14.3). 5% of adults with epicondylitis took sickness absence because of their elbow symptoms in the past 12 months (median 29 days). Conclusions Repetitive exposure to bending/straightening the elbow was a significant risk factor for medial and lateral epicondylitis. Epicondylitis is associated with prolonged sickness absence in 5% of affected working-aged adults. PMID:22019808

  8. QTL mapping for combining ability in different population-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    based NCII designs: a simulation study. Lanzhi Li, Congwei Sun, Yuan Chen, Zhijun Dai, Zhen Qu, Xingfei Zheng, Sibin Yu,. Tongmin Mou, Chenwu Xu and Zhongli Hu. J. Genet. 92, 529–543. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 92, No. 3, December 2013 ...

  9. Experiences of gender based violence among refugee populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and concealment that are associated with numerous capacity challenges in access and utilisation of the available services. The extreme conditions that refugees go through during displacement, flight and resettlement tend to exacerbate and sustain GBV. Keywords: Experiences, Gender Based Violence, Refugee Camps ...

  10. Using Mindfulness-Based Strengths Practices with Gifted Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Jennifer E.; Niemiec, Ryan M.; Lawrence, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness and character strengths are synergistic tools that work together to cultivate well-being. Mindfulness-Based Strengths Practice (MBSP) combines the research and practice of these constructs to enhance well-being, meaning, and engagement. In this article, research supporting how mindfulness and character strengths may benefit the gifted…

  11. An agent-based computational model for tuberculosis spreading on age-structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciani Rodrigues, C. C.; Espíndola, Aquino L.; Penna, T. J. P.

    2015-06-01

    In this work we present an agent-based computational model to study the spreading of the tuberculosis (TB) disease on age-structured populations. The model proposed is a merge of two previous models: an agent-based computational model for the spreading of tuberculosis and a bit-string model for biological aging. The combination of TB with the population aging, reproduces the coexistence of health states, as seen in real populations. In addition, the universal exponential behavior of mortalities curves is still preserved. Finally, the population distribution as function of age shows the prevalence of TB mostly in elders, for high efficacy treatments.

  12. International NMR-based Environmental Metabolomics Intercomparison Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several fundamental requirements must be met so that NMR-based metabolomics and the related technique of metabonomics can be formally adopted into environmental monitoring and chemical risk assessment. Here we report an intercomparison exercise which has evaluated the effectivene...

  13. Population-based resequencing of experimentally evolved populations reveals the genetic basis of body size variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L Turner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Body size is a classic quantitative trait with evolutionarily significant variation within many species. Locating the alleles responsible for this variation would help understand the maintenance of variation in body size in particular, as well as quantitative traits in general. However, successful genome-wide association of genotype and phenotype may require very large sample sizes if alleles have low population frequencies or modest effects. As a complementary approach, we propose that population-based resequencing of experimentally evolved populations allows for considerable power to map functional variation. Here, we use this technique to investigate the genetic basis of natural variation in body size in Drosophila melanogaster. Significant differentiation of hundreds of loci in replicate selection populations supports the hypothesis that the genetic basis of body size variation is very polygenic in D. melanogaster. Significantly differentiated variants are limited to single genes at some loci, allowing precise hypotheses to be formed regarding causal polymorphisms, while other significant regions are large and contain many genes. By using significantly associated polymorphisms as a priori candidates in follow-up studies, these data are expected to provide considerable power to determine the genetic basis of natural variation in body size.

  14. Consequences of population topology for studying gene flow using link-based landscape genetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, Maarten J

    2017-07-01

    Many landscape genetic studies aim to determine the effect of landscape on gene flow between populations. These studies frequently employ link-based methods that relate pairwise measures of historical gene flow to measures of the landscape and the geographical distance between populations. However, apart from landscape and distance, there is a third important factor that can influence historical gene flow, that is, population topology (i.e., the arrangement of populations throughout a landscape). As the population topology is determined in part by the landscape configuration, I argue that it should play a more prominent role in landscape genetics. Making use of existing literature and theoretical examples, I discuss how population topology can influence results in landscape genetic studies and how it can be taken into account to improve the accuracy of these results. In support of my arguments, I have performed a literature review of landscape genetic studies published during the first half of 2015 as well as several computer simulations of gene flow between populations. First, I argue why one should carefully consider which population pairs should be included in link-based analyses. Second, I discuss several ways in which the population topology can be incorporated in response and explanatory variables. Third, I outline why it is important to sample populations in such a way that a good representation of the population topology is obtained. Fourth, I discuss how statistical testing for link-based approaches could be influenced by the population topology. I conclude the article with six recommendations geared toward better incorporating population topology in link-based landscape genetic studies.

  15. Online Internal Temperature Estimation for Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Kalman Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Jinlei Sun; Guo Wei; Lei Pei; Rengui Lu; Kai Song; Chao Wu; Chunbo Zhu

    2015-01-01

    The battery internal temperature estimation is important for the thermal safety in applications, because the internal temperature is hard to measure directly. In this work, an online internal temperature estimation method based on a simplified thermal model using a Kalman filter is proposed. As an improvement, the influences of entropy change and overpotential on heat generation are analyzed quantitatively. The model parameters are identified through a current pulse test. The charge/discharg...

  16. Building a population-based diabetes register: an Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballotari, Paola; Chiatamone Ranieri, Sofia; Vicentini, Massimo; Caroli, Stefania; Gardini, Andrea; Rodolfi, Rossella; Crucco, Roberto; Greci, Marina; Manicardi, Valeria; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    To describe the methodology used to set up the Reggio Emilia (northern Italy) Diabetes Register. The prevalence estimates on December 31st, 2009 are also provided. The Diabetes Register covers all residents in the Reggio Emilia province. The register was created by deterministic linkage of six routinely collected data sources through a definite algorithm able to ascertain cases and to distinguish type of diabetes and model of care: Hospital Discharge, Drug Dispensation, Biochemistry Laboratory, Disease-specific Exemption, Diabetes Outpatient Clinics, and Mortality databases. Using these data, we estimated crude prevalence on December 31st, 2009 by sex, age groups, and type of diabetes. There were 25,425 ascertained prevalent cases on December 31st, 2009. Drug Dispensation and Exemption databases made the greatest contribution to prevalence. Analyzing overlapping sources, more than 80% of cases were reported by at least two sources. Crude prevalence was 4.8% and 5.9% for the whole population and for people aged 18 years and over, respectively. Males accounted for 53.6%. Type 1 diabetes accounted for 3.8% of cases, while people with Type 2 diabetes were the overriding majority (91.2%), and Diabetes Outpatient Clinics treated 75.4% of people with Type 2 diabetes. The Register is able to quantify the burden of disease, the first step in planning, implementing, and monitoring appropriate interventions. All data sources contributed to completeness and/or accuracy of the Register. Although all cases are identified by deterministic record linkage, manual revision and General Practitioner involvement are still necessary when information is insufficient or conflicting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy drinks consumption in Erbil city: A population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassin A. Asaad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Energy drinks have become increasingly prevalent among young adults and adolescents in recent years, particularly young students and athletes who see the consumption of energy drinks as an easy and quick way to boost academic and athletic performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of consumption of energy drinks in a sample of adolescent and adults in Erbil city as well as perceived benefits and its health hazards. Methods: A convenience sample of 600 individuals from different sectors and social groups of Erbil city was selected. Data was obtained through direct interview. The data was managed through SPSS program version 18, using appropriate statistical tests. Results: The prevalence of energy drinks consumption among the study population was 42.7%, especially adolescents and young adults (those ≤ 25 years and was more common among males than females (55.7% and 29.8%, respectively. The main reasons for its consumption were related to getting energy and improving the mood and performance (66.0% and 30.4%, respectively. 62.7% of participants think that it is harmful and could have adverse effects such as heartbeat irregularity and blood pressure swinging, addiction, and osteoporosis (46.2%, 33.7% and 13.2%, respectively. Televisions were the major source of advertisement (71.45. A significant statistical association had been found between the age, gender and educational status of the participants and consuming energy drinks (P = 0.001, 0.001 and 0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption found to be highly prevalent in adolescents and young adults in Erbil city, which calls for review and regulating the sale of these drinks including adolescents' education, raising community’s awareness, banning selling it in public places and increasing taxes.

  18. Population-based study on use of chemotherapy in men with castration resistant prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lissbrant, Ingela Franck; Garmo, Hans; Widmark, Anders; Stattin, P?r

    2013-01-01

    Background. Chemotherapy prolongs life and relieves symptoms in men with castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). There is limited information on a population level on the use of chemotherapy for CRPC. Material and methods. To assess the use of chemotherapy in men with CRPC we conducted a register-based nationwide population-based study in Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe) and a nationwide in-patient drug register (SALT database) between May 2009 and December 2010. We assumed that...

  19. Homogeneity and internal defects detect of infrared Se-based chalcogenide glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zupana; Wu, Ligang; Lin, Changgui; Song, Bao'an; Wang, Xunsi; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shixunb

    2011-10-01

    Ge-Sb-Se chalcogenide glasses is a kind of excellent infrared optical material, which has been enviromental friendly and widely used in infrared thermal imaging systems. However, due to the opaque feature of Se-based glasses in visible spectral region, it's difficult to measure their homogeneity and internal defect as the common oxide ones. In this study, a measurement was proposed to observe the homogeneity and internal defect of these glasses based on near-IR imaging technique and an effective measurement system was also constructed. The testing result indicated the method can gives the information of homogeneity and internal defect of infrared Se-based chalcogenide glass clearly and intuitionally.

  20. Development of proliferation resistance assessment methodology based on international standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W. I.; Chang, H. L.; Lee, Y. D.; Lee, J. W.; Park, J. H.; Kim, Y. I.; Ryu, J. S.; Ko, H. S.; Lee, K. W.

    2012-04-01

    Nonproliferation is one of the main requirements to be satisfied by the advanced future nuclear energy systems that have been developed in the Generation IV and INPRO studies. The methodologies to evaluate proliferation resistance has been developed since 1980s, however, the systematic evaluation approach has begun from around 2000. Domestically a study to develop national method to evaluate proliferation resistance (PR) of advanced future nuclear energy systems has started in 2007 as one of the long-term nuclear R and D subjects in order to promote export and international credibility and transparency of national nuclear energy systems and nuclear fuel cycle technology development program. In the first phase (2007-2010) development and improvement of intrinsic evaluation parameters for the evaluation of proliferation resistance, quantification of evaluation parameters, development of evaluation models, and development of permissible ranges of evaluation parameters have been carried out. In the second phase (2010-2012) generic principle of to evaluate PR was established, and techincal guidelines, nuclear material diversion pathway analysis method, and a method to integrate evaluation parameters have been developed. which were applied to 5 alternative nuclear fuel cycles to estimate their appicability and objectivity. In addition, measures to enhance PR of advanced future nuclear energy systems and technical guidelines of PR assessment using intrinsic PR evaluation parameters were developed. Lastly, requlatory requirements to secure nonproliferation requirements of nuclear energy systems from the early design stage, operation and to decommissioning which will support the export of newly developed advanced future nuclear energy system

  1. 137Cs exposure in the Marshallese populations: An assessment based on whole-body counting measurements (1989-1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1997-01-01

    The Marshall Islands were the site of numerous tests of nuclear weapons by the United States. From 1946 to 1958, nuclear devices were detonated at Enemetak and Bikini Atolls. Following the inadvertent contamination of the northern islands downwind of the 1954 Bravo Test, Brookhaven National Laboratory became involved in the medical care and the radiological safety of the affected populations. One important technique employed in assessing the internally deposited radionuclides is whole-body counting. To estimate current and future exposures to 1376, data from 1989 to 1994 were analyzed and are reported in this paper. During this period, 3,618 measurements were made for the Marshallese. The cesium body contents were assumed to result from a series of chronic intakes. Also, it was assumed that cesium activity in the body reaches a plateau that is maintained over 365 d. We estimated the annual effective dose rate for each population, derived from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The average 137 Cs uptake measured by the whole-body counting method varies from one population to another; it was consistent with measurements of external exposure rate. The analysis. though based on limited data, indicates that there is no statistical support for a seasonal effect on 137 Cs uptake. The critical population group for cesium uptake is adult males. Within the 5-y monitoring period, all internal exposures to 137 Cs mere less than 0.2 mSv y -1 . Similarly, a persistent average cesium effective dose rate of 2 μSv y -1 was determined for Majuro residents. 73 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  2. 137Cs exposure in the Marshallese populations: an assessment based on whole-body counting measurements (1989-1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L C; Clinton, J H; Kaplan, E; Meinhold, C B

    1997-07-01

    The Marshall Islands were the site of numerous tests of nuclear weapons by the United States. From 1946 to 1958, nuclear devices were detonated at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. Following the inadvertent contamination of the northern islands downwind of the 1954 Bravo Test, Brookhaven National Laboratory became involved in the medical care and the radiological safety of the affected populations. One important technique employed in assessing the internally deposited radionuclides is whole-body counting. To estimate current and future exposures to 137Cs, data from 1989 to 1994 were analyzed and are reported in this paper. During this period, 3,618 measurements were made for the Marshallese. The cesium body contents were assumed to result from a series of chronic intakes. Also, it was assumed that cesium activity in the body reaches a plateau that is maintained over 365 d. We estimated the annual effective dose rate for each population, derived from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The average 137Cs uptake measured by the whole-body counting method varies from one population to another; it was consistent with measurements of external exposure rate. The analysis, though based on limited data, indicates that there is no statistical support for a seasonal effect on 137Cs uptake. The critical population group for cesium uptake is adult males. Within the 5-y monitoring period, all internal exposures to 137Cs were less than 0.2 mSv y(-1). Similarly, a persistent average cesium effective dose rate of 2 microSv y(-1) was determined for Majuro residents.

  3. International Conference on Robust Rank-Based and Nonparametric Methods

    CERN Document Server

    McKean, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The contributors to this volume include many of the distinguished researchers in this area. Many of these scholars have collaborated with Joseph McKean to develop underlying theory for these methods, obtain small sample corrections, and develop efficient algorithms for their computation. The papers cover the scope of the area, including robust nonparametric rank-based procedures through Bayesian and big data rank-based analyses. Areas of application include biostatistics and spatial areas. Over the last 30 years, robust rank-based and nonparametric methods have developed considerably. These procedures generalize traditional Wilcoxon-type methods for one- and two-sample location problems. Research into these procedures has culminated in complete analyses for many of the models used in practice including linear, generalized linear, mixed, and nonlinear models. Settings are both multivariate and univariate. With the development of R packages in these areas, computation of these procedures is easily shared with r...

  4. Load management: Model-based control of aggregate power for populations of thermostatically controlled loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfumo, Cristian; Kofman, Ernesto; Braslavsky, Julio H.; Ward, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Characterisation of power response of a population of air conditioners. ► Implementation of demand side management on a group of air conditioners. ► Design of a controller for the power output of a group of air conditioners. ► Quantification of comfort impact of demand side management. - Abstract: Large groups of electrical loads can be controlled as a single entity to reduce their aggregate power demand in the electricity network. This approach, known as load management (LM) or demand response, offers an alternative to the traditional paradigm in the electricity market, where matching supply and demand is achieved solely by regulating how much generation is dispatched. Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), such as air conditioners (ACs) and fridges, are particularly suitable for LM, which can be implemented using feedback control techniques to regulate their aggregate power. To achieve high performance, such feedback control techniques require an accurate mathematical model of the TCL aggregate dynamics. Although such models have been developed, they appear too complex to be effectively used in control design. In this paper we develop a mathematical model aimed at the design of a model-based feedback control strategy. The proposed model analytically characterises the aggregate power response of a population of ACs to a simultaneous step change in temperature set points. Based on this model, we then derive, and completely parametrise in terms of the ACs ensemble properties, a reduced-order mathematical model to design an internal-model controller that regulates aggregate power by broadcasting temperature set-point offset changes. The proposed controller achieves high LM performance provided the ACs are equipped with high resolution thermostats. With coarser resolution thermostats, which are typical in present commercial and residential ACs, performance deteriorates significantly. This limitation is overcome by subdividing the population

  5. Dynamic managerial capability of technology-based international new ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altshuler, Liliya

    2014-01-01

    case study of a technology-based INV conducted over the period of 3.5 years, starting 8 years into the firm’s history. This unique design has enabled close observation of the specific events and challenges the firm has been facing after its initial success, and of the aspects in the firm’s management...... to resource availability. The study takes the dynamic capability perspective and focuses on INVs’ management, which are seen as founders and builders of the processes, rules and structures that lay the basis for long-term competitive advantage for such firms. Based on the findings, specific aspects...

  6. Addendum to "Population-Based Prevention of Child Maltreatment: The U.S. Triple P System Population Trial".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Ronald J; Sanders, Matthew R; Shapiro, Cheri J; Whitaker, Daniel J; Lutzker, John R

    2016-04-01

    A previous article published several years ago (Prinz et al. Prevention Science, 10, 1-12, 2009) described the main results of a place-randomized-design study focused on the prevention of child-maltreatment-related outcomes at a population level through the implementation of a multilevel system of parenting and family support (the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program). The current report, prepared at the encouragement of the journal, provides additional details about procedures, measures, and design-related decisions, presents an additional analysis of the main outcome variables, and poses questions about the study and its implications. We also offer guidance about how the field can move forward to build on this line of research. From the outset, the three designated primary child maltreatment outcomes were county-wide rates for substantiated child maltreatment cases, out-of-home placements, and hospital-treated child maltreatment injuries, derived from independent data sources available through administrative archival records. Baseline equivalence between the two intervention conditions was reaffirmed. The additional analysis, which made use of a 5-year baseline (replacing a 1-year baseline) and ANCOVA, yielded large effect sizes for all three outcomes that converged with those from the original analyses. Overall, the study underscored the potential for community-wide parenting and family support to produce population-level preventive impact on child maltreatment. Issues addressed included (1) the need for replication of population-oriented maltreatment prevention strategies like the one tested in this randomized experiment, (2) the need to demonstrate that a parenting-based population approach to maltreatment prevention can also impact children's adjustment apart from child abuse, and (3) the role of implementation science for achieving greater population reach and maintenance over time.

  7. Effect of socioeconomic inequalities on cholecystectomy outcomes: a 10-year population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Yang, Nan-Ping; Chang, Nien-Tzu; Lai, K Robert; Lin, Kai-Biao; Chan, Chien-Lung

    2018-02-13

    Although numerous epidemiological studies on cholecystectomy have been conducted worldwide, only a few have considered the effect of socioeconomic inequalities on cholecystectomy outcomes. Specifically, few studies have focused on the low-income population (LIP). A nationwide prospective study based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance dataset was conducted during 2003-2012. The International Classification of ICD-9-CM procedure codes 51.2 and 51.21-51.24 were identified as the inclusion criteria for cholecystectomy. Temporal trends were analyzed using a joinpoint regression, and the hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) method was used as an analytical strategy to evaluate the group-level and individual-level factors. Interactions between age, gender and SES were also tested in HLM model. Analyses were conducted on 225,558 patients. The incidence rates were 167.81 (95% CI: 159.78-175.83) per 100,000 individuals per year for the LIP and 123.24 (95% CI: 116.37-130.12) per 100,000 individuals per year for the general population (GP). After cholecystectomy, LIP patients showed higher rates of 30-day mortality, in-hospital complications, and readmission for complications, but a lower rate of routine discharge than GP patients. The hospital costs and length of stay for LIP patients were higher than those for GP patients. The multilevel analysis using HLM revealed that adverse socioeconomic status significantly negatively affects the outcomes of patients undergoing cholecystectomy. Additionally, male sex, advanced age, and high Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) scores were associated with higher rates of in-hospital complications and 30-day mortality. We also observed that the 30-day mortality rates for patients who underwent cholecystectomy in regional hospitals and district hospitals were significantly higher than those of patients receiving care in a medical center. Patients with a disadvantaged finance status appeared to be more vulnerable to cholecystectomy surgery

  8. Outcomes of nutritional interventions to treat dysphagia in esophageal cancer: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, R M; Mikhail, S; Ciombor, K; Perry, K A; Hinton, A; Stanich, P P; Zhang, C; Conwell, D L; Krishna, S G

    2017-11-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is increasing in prevalence due to rising incidence and improved treatment strategies. Dysphagia is a significant morbidity in patients with EC requiring nutritional intervention. We sought to evaluate outcomes of nutritional interventions for EC patients hospitalized with dysphagia at a population level. The National Inpatient Sample (2002-2012) was utilized to include all adult inpatients (≥18 years of age) with EC and presence of dysphagia and stricture that underwent nutritional interventions including feeding tube (FT) placement, esophageal stenting, or parenteral nutrition (PN). Temporal trends were examined with multivariate analysis performed for mortality, length of stay (LOS), and cost of hospitalization. A total of 509,593 EC patients had 12,205 hospitalizations related to dysphagia. The hospitalization rates doubled over the study period (1.52% vs. 3.28%, p esophageal stenting (13%), and PN (11%). PN was more frequently associated with a diagnosis of sepsis (6.1%, p = 0.023) compared to FT (2.5%) or esophageal stenting (1.8%). Multivariate analysis demonstrated FT and esophageal stenting had comparable mortality (OR 1.06, 95% CI: 0.49, 2.32); however, PN was associated with higher mortality (OR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.22, 4.63), cost of hospitalization ($5,510, 95% CI: 2,262, 8,759), and LOS (2.13 days, 95% CI: 0.72, 3.54). This study shows that hospitalizations for EC with dysphagia and related nutritional interventions are increasing. As a single modality, parenteral nutrition should be avoided. Among our esophageal stent and FT population, further studies are necessary to determine adequate interventions based on disease stage. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Evaluating the Investment Benefit of Multinational Enterprises' International Projects Based on Risk Adjustment: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the international risks faced by multinational enterprises to understand their impact on the evaluation of investment projects. Moreover, it establishes a 'three-dimensional' theoretical framework of risk identification to analyse the composition of international risk indicators of multinational enterprises based on the theory…

  10. Factors Related to the Acculturation Stress of International Students in a Faith-Based Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Liane Videres

    2012-01-01

    The number of international students attending American educational institutions is increasing annually. Based upon Maslow theory of needs, it was hypothesized that the acculturation process contributes to stress and anxiety among international students; therefore, it is important to understand some of the variables that influence this process for…

  11. Updating and using the international non-neutron experimental nuclear data base in ''Generalized EXFOR'' format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravleva, G.M.; Chukreev, F.E.

    1985-10-01

    A software system for the automatic preparation of non-formalized textual information for the international exchange of nuclear data in the ''Generalized Exchange Format (EXFOR)'' is described. The ''Generalized EXFOR'' format is briefly outlined and data are given on the size of the international non-neutron experimental data base in this format. (author)

  12. Bootstrap embedding: An internally consistent fragment-based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welborn, Matthew; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    Strong correlation poses a difficult problem for electronic structure theory, with computational cost scaling quickly with system size. Fragment embedding is an attractive approach to this problem. By dividing a large complicated system into smaller manageable fragments “embedded” in an approximate description of the rest of the system, we can hope to ameliorate the steep cost of correlated calculations. While appealing, these methods often converge slowly with fragment size because of small errors at the boundary between fragment and bath. We describe a new electronic embedding method, dubbed “Bootstrap Embedding,” a self-consistent wavefunction-in-wavefunction embedding theory that uses overlapping fragments to improve the description of fragment edges. We apply this method to the one dimensional Hubbard model and a translationally asymmetric variant, and find that it performs very well for energies and populations. We find Bootstrap Embedding converges rapidly with embedded fragment size, overcoming the surface-area-to-volume-ratio error typical of many embedding methods. We anticipate that this method may lead to a low-scaling, high accuracy treatment of electron correlation in large molecular systems.

  13. LifeSteps: An Evidence-based Health Promotion Program for Underserved Populations – A Community Service Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Austin-McCain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the most common, costly, and preventable of all health problems in the United States. Chronic diseases represent the leading causes of death and are experienced at higher rates by minority populations (CDC, 2012. Innovative community-based health promotion programs are recommended that meet the diverse needs of underserved populations (Yeary, et al., 2011. LifeSteps is being developed as an evidence-based health promotion program focusing on health and wellness, a domain area defined within the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework (OTPF, 2008. LifeSteps will utilize a client-centered approach to coach individuals in making health behavior changes. Fieldwork and service-learning components are incorporated integrating clinical practice, academic study, and collaboration with community providers. Program evaluation measures based on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM have been identified to address all phases of program planning. The LifeSteps health promotion program aligns with local, national, and international objectives and addresses the need for programs that meet the diverse needs of underserved populations. Occupational therapists are in a unique position for implementing community-based interventions that promote health and contribute to a healthier society.

  14. Oncogenic human papillomavirus genital infection in southern Iranian women: population-based study versus clinic-based data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eghbali Seyed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies on genital human papilloma viruses infection (HPVs in general population are crucial for the implementation of health policy guidelines for developing the strategies to prevent the primary and secondary cervical cancer. In different parts of Iran, there is a lack of population-based studies to determine the prevalence of HPV in the general population. The aim of this population-based study is to compare the prevalence rate of genital HPV infection among reproductive women with our previous clinic-based data, which showed a prevalence rate of 5% in women in southern Iran. Results Using general primers for all genotypes of HPV, of 799 randomly selected women, five (0.63%, 95% CI 0.23-1.55% tested positive for HPV DNA. Overall, seven different HPV genotypes were detected: six types (16, 18, 31, 33, 51 and 56 were carcinogenic, or “high risk genotypes” and one genotype (HPV-66 was “probably carcinogenic.” Conclusions In a population-based study, the prevalence of HPV infection among southern Iranian women was lower than that observed worldwide. However, our gynaecological clinic-based study on the prevalence of HPV infection showed results comparable with other studies in the Middle East and Persian Gulf countries. Since gynaecological clinic-based data may generally overestimate HPV prevalence, estimates of prevalence according to clinic-based data should be adjusted downward by the population-based survey estimates.

  15. Online Dispatching Rules For Vehicle-Based Internal Transport Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Le-Anh (Tuan); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOn-line vehicles dispatching rules are widely used in many facilities such as warehouses to control vehicles' movements. Single-attribute dispatching rules, which dispatch vehicles based on only one parameter, are used commonly. However, multi-attribute dispatching rules prove to be

  16. Feasibility and validity of International Classification of Diseases based case mix indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Che-Ming; Reinke, William

    2006-10-06

    Severity of illness is an omnipresent confounder in health services research. Resource consumption can be applied as a proxy of severity. The most commonly cited hospital resource consumption measure is the case mix index (CMI) and the best-known illustration of the CMI is the Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) CMI used by Medicare in the U.S. For countries that do not have DRG type CMIs, the adjustment for severity has been troublesome for either reimbursement or research purposes. The research objective of this study is to ascertain the construct validity of CMIs derived from International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in comparison with DRG CMI. The study population included 551 acute care hospitals in Taiwan and 2,462,006 inpatient reimbursement claims. The 18th version of GROUPER, the Medicare DRG classification software, was applied to Taiwan's 1998 National Health Insurance (NHI) inpatient claim data to derive the Medicare DRG CMI. The same weighting principles were then applied to determine the ICD principal diagnoses and procedures based costliness and length of stay (LOS) CMIs. Further analyses were conducted based on stratifications according to teaching status, accreditation levels, and ownership categories. The best ICD-based substitute for the DRG costliness CMI (DRGCMI) is the ICD principal diagnosis costliness CMI (ICDCMI-DC) in general and in most categories with Spearman's correlation coefficients ranging from 0.938-0.462. The highest correlation appeared in the non-profit sector. ICD procedure costliness CMI (ICDCMI-PC) outperformed ICDCMI-DC only at the medical center level, which consists of tertiary care hospitals and is more procedure intensive. The results of our study indicate that an ICD-based CMI can quite fairly approximate the DRGCMI, especially ICDCMI-DC. Therefore, substituting ICDs for DRGs in computing the CMI ought to be feasible and valid in countries that have not implemented DRGs.

  17. Feasibility and validity of International Classification of Diseases based case mix indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinke William

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severity of illness is an omnipresent confounder in health services research. Resource consumption can be applied as a proxy of severity. The most commonly cited hospital resource consumption measure is the case mix index (CMI and the best-known illustration of the CMI is the Diagnosis Related Group (DRG CMI used by Medicare in the U.S. For countries that do not have DRG type CMIs, the adjustment for severity has been troublesome for either reimbursement or research purposes. The research objective of this study is to ascertain the construct validity of CMIs derived from International Classification of Diseases (ICD in comparison with DRG CMI. Methods The study population included 551 acute care hospitals in Taiwan and 2,462,006 inpatient reimbursement claims. The 18th version of GROUPER, the Medicare DRG classification software, was applied to Taiwan's 1998 National Health Insurance (NHI inpatient claim data to derive the Medicare DRG CMI. The same weighting principles were then applied to determine the ICD principal diagnoses and procedures based costliness and length of stay (LOS CMIs. Further analyses were conducted based on stratifications according to teaching status, accreditation levels, and ownership categories. Results The best ICD-based substitute for the DRG costliness CMI (DRGCMI is the ICD principal diagnosis costliness CMI (ICDCMI-DC in general and in most categories with Spearman's correlation coefficients ranging from 0.938-0.462. The highest correlation appeared in the non-profit sector. ICD procedure costliness CMI (ICDCMI-PC outperformed ICDCMI-DC only at the medical center level, which consists of tertiary care hospitals and is more procedure intensive. Conclusion The results of our study indicate that an ICD-based CMI can quite fairly approximate the DRGCMI, especially ICDCMI-DC. Therefore, substituting ICDs for DRGs in computing the CMI ought to be feasible and valid in countries that have not

  18. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in twins: a population-based survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel O; Thomsen, Karsten; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A questionnaire-based identification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients in a twin cohort. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to establish a scoliosis twin cohort to provide data on the heritability of AIS. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The etiology of AIS is still...... environmental factors. METHODS: All 46,418 twins registered in the Danish Twin Registry born from 1931 to 1982 were sent a questionnaire, which included questions about scoliosis. A total of 34,944 (75.3%) representing 23,204 pairs returned the questionnaire. RESULTS: A subgroup of 220 subjects considered...... of monozygotic and dizygotic pairs was significantly different (P scoliosis in 1 twin whose other twin has scoliosis is smaller than believed up until now....

  19. Planning Critical Infrastructure based on Population Growth and Environmental Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabawiya Khamis Al Masuudi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of public school location/distribution and surrounding build environment based on its distance from the main street, service road, petrol stations in Sohar, Oman using GIS. Data have been collected from various official sources to fulfil the requirements of this study, which helped in constructing the geodatabase for this project. The results of this study demonstrated that there is an apparent inconsistency in public schools distribution, as most public schools are concentrated in one location. The study concludes with suggestions and recommendations to use GIS and spatial planning by the decision makers to make future sound decisions of building public schools. It is desirable to build schools in areas with lower percentages of highways and commercial sectors.

  20. International cooperation and coordination of activities to rehabilitate the population, ecology and economic development of Semipalatinsk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrstock, H.

    1998-01-01

    It is in this context that international cooperation and coordination took important steps forward in 1997 and 1998. At the last session of the United Nations General Assembly in December 1997, a Resolution was submitted with nearly 50 co-sponsors and adopted unanimously which called for an assessment to be conducted of the humanitarian effects of the nuclear testing in the Semipalatinsk region. It requested the United nations Secretary General, U N organizations and agencies, with the support of the international community, to collaborate in carrying out this assessment and to report back to the General Assembly at its next regular session which shall begin later this month in New York. This was a remarkable turning point in the global awareness about Semipalatinsk. The resolution also implicitly drew attention to the fact that Kazakstan and its populations, as victims of an extraordinary chapter of the nuclear era, should have the knowledge and the benefits that might come from an appropriate assessment of the consequences and the needs resulting from 40 years of nuclear testing, as well as the rise and fall of the Polygon. The total package of priority needs includes some $43.2 million dollars of projects: $33.7 are deemed to be relatively highest priority, but many could be effectively implemented in phases or stages and would still make a most significant contribution and impact. The breakdown is - health diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation - $24 million; - urgent humanitarian needs - $3.3 million; - ecological stabilization and environmental protection - $7.8 million; - economic rehabilitation - $6.6 million; - information dissemination - $1.3 million

  1. Patterns in place of cancer death in the State of Qatar: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Hassan; Haddad, Pascale; Allam, Ayman; Hassan, Azza

    2014-01-01

    International studies show that most people prefer to die at home; however, hospitals remain the most common place of death (PoD). This study aims to investigate the patterns in PoD and the associated factors, which are crucial for end-of-life cancer care enhancement. This retrospective, population-based study analyzed all registered cancer deaths in Qatar between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2012 (n = 1,224). The main outcome measures were patient characteristics: age, gender, nationality, cancer diagnosis, year of death, and PoD. Time trends for age-standardized proportions of death in individual PoDs were evaluated using chi-square analysis. Odds ratio (OR) were determined for variables associated with the most preferred (acute palliative care unit [APCU] and hematology/oncology ward) versus least preferred (ICU and general medicine ward) PoDs in Qatar, stratified by nationality. The hematology/oncology ward was the most common PoD (32.4%; 95% CI 26.7-35.3%) followed by ICU (31.4%; 95% CI 28.7-34.3%), APCU (26.9%; 95% CI 24.3-29.6%), and general medicine ward (9.2%; 95% CI 7.6-11.1%). APCU trended upward (+0.057/year; pQatar occur in hospital. As home was the preferred PoD for most people, effective home care and hospice programs are needed to improve end-of-life cancer care.

  2. Childhood trauma and increased peripheral cytokines in young adults with major depressive: Population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti Moreira, Fernanda; Wiener, Carolina David; Jansen, Karen; Portela, Luis Valmor; Lara, Diogo R; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre

    2018-06-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of childhood trauma in cytokine serum levels of individuals with MDD. This was a cross-sectional study population-based, with people aged 18 to 35. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) measured to current major depressive disorder (MDD). To evaluate traumatic experiences during childhood, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was applied. Serum TNF- α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA using a commercial kit. The total sample comprised 166 young adults, of these: 40.4% were subjects with MDD and childhood trauma and 59.6% were diagnosed with MDD without childhood trauma. In relation to serum interleukin levels, subjects with childhood trauma showed a significantly higher serum IL-6 (p = 0.013) and IL-10 levels (p = 0.022) to compare no childhood trauma. Subjects with childhood trauma was observed positive correlation between serum IL-6 and physical abuse (r = 0.232, p = 0.035) and emotional abuse (r = 0.460, p ≤ 0.001). Moreover, IL-10 were positive correlation with physical abuse (r = 0.258, p = 0.013). TNF- α was not associated with childhood trauma. Childhood maltreatment may result higher inflammation dysregulation in individuals with depression than individuals that no has childhood maltreatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The association between Internet addiction and personality disorders in a general population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadra, Sina; Bischof, Gallus; Besser, Bettina; Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims Data on Internet addiction (IA) and its association with personality disorder are rare. Previous studies are largely restricted to clinical samples and insufficient measurement of IA. Methods Cross-sectional analysis data are based on a German sub-sample (n = 168; 86 males; 71 meeting criteria for IA) with increased levels of excessive Internet use derived from a general population sample (n = 15,023). IA was assessed with a comprehensive standardized interview using the structure of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the criteria of Internet Gaming Disorder as suggested in DSM-5. Impulsivity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and self-esteem were assessed with the widely used questionnaires. Results Participants with IA showed higher frequencies of personality disorders (29.6%) compared to those without IA (9.3%; p < .001). In males with IA, Cluster C personality disorders were more prevalent than among non-addicted males. Compared to participants who had IA only, lower rates of remission of IA were found among participants with IA and additional cluster B personality disorder. Personality disorders were significantly associated with IA in multivariate analysis. Comorbidity of IA and personality disorders must be considered in prevention and treatment.

  4. Occupational Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Danish Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtz, Else Toft; Schlünssen, Vivi; Malling, Tine Halsen; Hansen, Jens Georg; Omland, Øyvind

    2015-08-01

    The aim was to explore the impact of occupation on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a cross-sectional population-based study among subjects aged 45 to 84 years. In a stratified sampling 89 general practitioners practices (GPP) in Denmark recruited 3106 males and 1636 females through the Danish Civil Registration System. COPD was defined by spirometry by the 2.5(th)-centile Lower Limit of Normal of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. Information about smoking, occupational exposure and the respective occupations were obtained from questionnaires. Occupations followed the Danish adaptation of The International Standard Classification of Occupations, revision 1988 (DISCO-88). Exposure to vapour, gas, dust (organic and inorganic), and fume (VGDF) in each occupation (yes/no) was evaluated by two independent specialist in occupational medicine. Exposures were divided in no, low, medium, and high exposure as 0, occupation with VGDF exposure. Adjusted for smoking, age, sex, and GPP a dose-dependent association of COPD was found among workers in jobs with high organic dust exposure, with OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.09-2.24). Restricted to agriculture the OR was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33). No association was observed for workers in jobs with inorganic dust, fume/gas, or vapour exposures. In summary, occupational organic dust exposure was associated to the prevalence of COPD.

  5. Eating Behavior and Childhood Overweight Among Population-Based Elementary Schoolchildren in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akatsuki Kokaze

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between eating behavior and childhood overweight among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Data was collected from fourth graders (9 or 10 years of age from Ina Town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan from 1999 to 2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, and lifestyle, including eating behaviors (eating until full and chewing thoroughly, was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire, and height and weight were measured directly. Overweight was determined according to the definition established by the International Obesity Task Force. Data from 4027 subjects (2079 boys and 1948 girls were analyzed. Chewing thoroughly was associated with a significantly decreased odds ratio (OR for being overweight, whereas eating until full significantly increased the OR for being overweight (OR: 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.16–1.94 among boys. However, eating until full was not associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight among the group that reported chewing thoroughly, whereas it was associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight (2.02, 1.38–2.94 among boys who did not chew thoroughly. In conclusion, eating until full or not chewing thoroughly was associated with being overweight among elementary schoolchildren. Results of this study suggest that chewing thoroughly may be an avenue to explore childhood overweight prevention efforts.

  6. Unsolved homicides in Sweden: A population-based study of 264 homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturup, Joakim; Karlberg, Daniel; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2015-12-01

    The clearance rates for homicides have decreased internationally. This retrospective population-based study of all Swedish homicide incidents between 2007 and 2009 (n=264) aims to investigate factors associated with solvability in homicides. Victims were identified in an autopsy registry and offenders in a criminal-conviction registry. Autopsy reports, police files, court verdicts and criminal records were systematically collected and linked. The clearance rate was 86.4% (n=228), and almost three quarters of cases (71.9%) were solved within the first week. Nine factors were significantly associated with the case status; however, only four factors remained significant in the multivariate logistic-regression model. Cases were more likely to be solved if there was an eyewitness and if the victim was intoxicated with alcohol. Moreover, cases were less likely to be solved if the victim had a criminal record in the past five years and was killed by a firearm. In the final model, a Cox proportional-hazards model, where time to arrest was taken into account, only alcohol intoxication were positively and firearms negatively significantly associated with clearance status. The study concludes that cases involving these factors should be granted extra, intensive and lasting resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Liang; Cheng, Shih-Ping; Lin, Hui-Wen; Lai, Yuen-Liang

    2014-03-01

    The causative relationship between autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer remains a controversial issue. The aim of this population-based study was to investigate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis. From the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005) of Taiwan, we identified adult patients newly diagnosed with thyroiditis between 2004 and 2009 (n = 1,654). The comparison cohort (n = 8,270) included five randomly selected age- and sex-matched controls for each patient in the study cohort. All patients were followed up from the date of cohort entry until they developed thyroid cancer or to the end of 2010. Multivariate Cox regression was used to assess the risk of developing thyroid cancer. A total of 1,000 bootstrap replicates were created for internal validation. A total of 35 patients developed thyroid cancer during the study period, of whom 24 were from the thyroiditis cohort and 11 were from the comparison cohort (incidence 353 and 22 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the hazard ratio (HR) for thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis was 13.24 (95 % CI 6.40-27.39). Excluding cancers occurring within 1 year of follow-up, the HR remained significantly increased (6.64; 95 % CI 2.35-18.75). Hypothyroidism was not an independent factor associated with the occurrence of thyroid cancer. We found an increased risk for the development of thyroid cancer after a diagnosis of thyroiditis, independent of comorbidities.

  8. Population-based evaluation of the effectiveness of two regimens for emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Vivian W Y; Soon, Judith A; Lynd, Larry D; Marra, Carlo A; Levine, Marc

    2016-06-01

    To estimate and compare the effectiveness of the levonorgestrel and Yuzpe regimens for hormonal emergency contraception in routine clinical practice. A retrospective population-based study included women who accessed emergency contraceptives for immediate use prescribed by community pharmacists in British Columbia, Canada, between December 2000 and December 2002. Linked administrative healthcare data were used to discern the timings of menses, unprotected intercourse, and any pregnancy-related health services. A panel of experts evaluated the compatibility of observed pregnancies with the timing of events. The two regimens were compared with statistical adjustments for potential confounding. Among 7493 women in the cohort, 4470 (59.7%) received levonorgestrel and 3023 (40.3%) the Yuzpe regimen. There were 99 (2.2%) compatible pregnancies in the levonorgestrel group and 94 (3.1%) in the Yuzpe group (P=0.017). The estimated odds ratio for levonorgestrel compared with the Yuzpe regimen after adjusting for potential confounders was 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.47-0.87). Against an expected pregnancy rate of approximately 5%, the relative and absolute risk reductions were 56.0% and 2.8%, respectively, for levonorgestrel and 36.7% and 1.8% for the Yuzpe regimen. The levonorgestrel regimen is more effective than the Yuzpe regimen in routine use. The data suggest that both regimens are less effective than has been observed in randomized trials. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk of Parkinson's disease following zolpidem use: a retrospective, population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Chon-Haw; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Lin, Kang-Hsu; Lu, Ming-Kuei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of long-term zolpidem use on the incidence of developing Parkinson's disease. 2,961 subjects who used zolpidem for the first time longer than 3 months between 1998 and 2000 were identified in the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan. Subjects without a history of zolpidem use were randomly selected as a comparison cohort and frequency matched to zolpidem users based on age, sex, and index date. The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease was based on the criteria of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Its incidence until the end of 2009 was calculated and its hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models and Kaplan-Meier analysis. The overall incidence of Parkinson's disease was greater among zolpidem users than in the comparison cohort (HR = 1.88; 95% CI, 1.45-2.45). However, there was no difference in Parkinson's disease incidence between these 2 cohorts after 5 years of observation. The risk of Parkinson's disease increased with increasing zolpidem dose, with an HR of 0.70 for low-dose users (zolpidem only (HR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.66-3.33) compared to those using benzodiazepines only (HR = 1.31; 95% CI, 0.91-1.90). By stratified analysis, zolpidem use with concurrent depression (HR = 4.79) increased the risk of Parkinson's disease compared to that of zolpidem users without concurrent depression. Zolpidem use might unmask preclinical Parkinson's disease, especially in patients with depression. However, large population-based, unbiased, randomized trials are warranted to confirm this finding. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. Population attributable risk for chlamydia infection in a cohort of young international travellers (backpackers) and residents in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Handan; Guy, Rebecca; Donovan, Basil; McNulty, Anna

    2011-02-23

    To estimate the population attributable risk (PAR) for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in young men and women in Sydney, Australia. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between demographic, sexual behaviour and other potential risk factors and chlamydia positivity in young (≤ 30 years) heterosexual international travellers (backpackers) and Australian residents attending a sexual health clinic. Point and interval estimates of PAR were calculated to quantify the proportion of chlamydia infections that can theoretically be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. In males, the PAR associated with inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months was 65% (95% CI 56% to 71%) in backpackers compared to 50% (95% CI 41% to 56%) in non-backpackers and the PAR associated with reporting three or more female sexual partners in the past 3 months was similar between male backpackers and non-backpackers (33% (95% CI 28% to 40%) and 36% (95% CI 32% to 41%), respectively). In females, the PAR associated with inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months was 51% (95% CI 42% to 59%) in backpackers compared to 41% (95% CI 31% to 51%) in non-backpackers, and the PAR associated with reporting three or more male sexual partners in the past 3 months was 14% (95% CI 11% to 18%) in backpackers compared to 30% (95% CI 25% to 37%) in non-backpackers. These findings suggest that the largest number of chlamydia infections could be avoided by increasing condom use, particularly in backpackers. Reporting multiple partners was also associated with a large proportion of infections and the risk associated with this behaviour should be considered in health promotion strategies.

  11. Population attributable risk for chlamydia infection in a cohort of young international travellers (backpackers) and residents in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Rebecca; Donovan, Basil; McNulty, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Aim To estimate the population attributable risk (PAR) for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in young men and women in Sydney, Australia. Method Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between demographic, sexual behaviour and other potential risk factors and chlamydia positivity in young (≤30 years) heterosexual international travellers (backpackers) and Australian residents attending a sexual health clinic. Point and interval estimates of PAR were calculated to quantify the proportion of chlamydia infections that can theoretically be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. Results In males, the PAR associated with inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months was 65% (95% CI 56% to 71%) in backpackers compared to 50% (95% CI 41% to 56%) in non-backpackers and the PAR associated with reporting three or more female sexual partners in the past 3 months was similar between male backpackers and non-backpackers (33% (95% CI 28% to 40%) and 36% (95% CI 32% to 41%), respectively). In females, the PAR associated with inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months was 51% (95% CI 42% to 59%) in backpackers compared to 41% (95% CI 31% to 51%) in non-backpackers, and the PAR associated with reporting three or more male sexual partners in the past 3 months was 14% (95% CI 11% to 18%) in backpackers compared to 30% (95% CI 25% to 37%) in non-backpackers. Conclusion These findings suggest that the largest number of chlamydia infections could be avoided by increasing condom use, particularly in backpackers. Reporting multiple partners was also associated with a large proportion of infections and the risk associated with this behaviour should be considered in health promotion strategies. PMID:22021720

  12. Harmonising measures of knee and hip osteoarthritis in population-based cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyland, K M; Gates, L S; Nevitt, M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Population-based osteoarthritis (OA) cohorts provide vital data on risk factors and outcomes of OA, however the methods to define OA vary between cohorts. We aimed to provide recommendations for combining knee and hip OA data in extant and future population cohort studies, in order to ...

  13. Building the Evidence Base for Population-Level Interventions: Barriers and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifsey, Sarah; Cash, Amanda; Anthony, Jodi; Mathis, Sheryl; Silva, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Population-level interventions focused on policy, systems, and environmental change strategies are increasingly being used to affect and improve the health of populations. At the same time, emphasis on implementing evidence-based public health practices and programming is increasing, particularly at the federal level. Valuing strategies in the…

  14. Mechanosensory based orienting behaviors in fluvial and lacustrine populations of mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl Coombs; Gary D. Grossman

    2006-01-01

    We compared prey-orienting and rheotactic behaviors in a fluvial (Coweeta Creek) and lacustrine (Lake Michigan) population of mottled sculpin. Blinded sculpin from both populations exhibited unconditioned, mechanosensory based rheotaxis to low velocity flows. Whereas Lake Michigan sculpin generally showed increasing levels of positive rheotaxis to increasing velocities...

  15. Epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae bacteremia: A multi-national population-based assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laupland, Kevin B; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Østergaard, Christian

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of invasive infection but contemporary data in non-selected populations is limited. METHODS: Population-based surveillance for Haemophilus influenzae bacteremia was conducted in seven regions in Australia, Canada, and Denmark during 2000-20...

  16. Sensor, a population-based cohort study on gastroenteritis in the Netherlands: incidence and etiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Wannet, W.J.B.; Vinje, J; Leusden, F. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case- control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from december 1998 to

  17. Relationship Status among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Brian H.; Kalb, Luther G.; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite speculation about an 80% divorce rate among parents of children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), very little empirical and no epidemiological research has addressed the issue of separation and divorce among this population. Data for this study was taken from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a population-based,…

  18. An individual-based model for population viability analysis of humpback chub in Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, William Pine; Healy, Brian; Smith, Emily Omana; Trammell, Melissa; Speas, Dave; Valdez, Rich; Yard, Mike; Walters, Carl; Ahrens, Rob; Vanhaverbeke, Randy; Stone, Dennis; Wilson, Wade

    2013-01-01

    We developed an individual-based population viability analysis model (females only) for evaluating risk to populations from catastrophic events or conservation and research actions. This model tracks attributes (size, weight, viability, etc.) for individual fish through time and then compiles this information to assess the extinction risk of the population across large numbers of simulation trials. Using a case history for the Little Colorado River population of Humpback Chub Gila cypha in Grand Canyon, Arizona, we assessed extinction risk and resiliency to a catastrophic event for this population and then assessed a series of conservation actions related to removing specific numbers of Humpback Chub at different sizes for conservation purposes, such as translocating individuals to establish other spawning populations or hatchery refuge development. Our results suggested that the Little Colorado River population is generally resilient to a single catastrophic event and also to removals of larvae and juveniles for conservation purposes, including translocations to establish new populations. Our results also suggested that translocation success is dependent on similar survival rates in receiving and donor streams and low emigration rates from recipient streams. In addition, translocating either large numbers of larvae or small numbers of large juveniles has generally an equal likelihood of successful population establishment at similar extinction risk levels to the Little Colorado River donor population. Our model created a transparent platform to consider extinction risk to populations from catastrophe or conservation actions and should prove useful to managers assessing these risks for endangered species such as Humpback Chub.

  19. Spatial structure of food contamination with 137Cs and estimation of long-term internal dose loads on population of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchko, K.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of 53,207 records of 137 Cs contents in 83 types of food products obtained in 1993 in Belarus was carried out. Internal exposure by eight selected food components has been estimated. To map the non-uniformly distributed data, different types of geostatical approaches are used. The results of spatial analysis of long term internal dose loads on populations under high radiation risk could be used in decision making. (author)

  20. Rare cancers in The Netherlands: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Jan M; van Dijk, Boukje A C; Visser, Otto; van Krieken, Han J H J M; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Siesling, Sabine

    2018-07-01

    The conventional definition for rare disease is based on prevalence. Because of differences in prognosis, a definition on the basis of incidence was deemed to be more appropriate for rare cancers. Within the European RARECARE project, a definition was introduced that defines cancers as rare when the crude incidence rate is less than six per 100 000 per year. In this study, we applied the RARECARE definition for rare cancer to the Netherlands; this to identify the usefulness of the definition in a single country and to provide more insight into the burden of rare cancers in the Netherlands. Data for 2004 through 2008 were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer Registry and classified according to the RARECARE entities (tumour groupings). Crude and European standardized incidence rates were calculated. Out of the 260 entities, 223 (86%) were rare according to the definition, accounting for 14 000 cancers (17% of all). Considerable fluctuations in crude rates over years were observed for the major group of cancers. Rare tumours in the Netherlands constituted 17% of all newly diagnosed tumours, but were divided over 223 different entities, indicating the challenge that faces clinicians. To make the definition of rare cancers better applicable, it should be refined by taking into consideration the sex-specific incidence for sex-specific cancer sites. Moreover, a mean incidence over 5 years will provide more solid insight into the burden, eliminating large fluctuations in time of most of the cancers.

  1. Multicenter Patch Testing With a Resol Resin Based on Phenol and Formaldehyde Within the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Marléne; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus; Diepgen, Thomas; Elsner, Peter; Goossens, An; Goh, Chee-Leok; Jerajani, Hemangi; Maibach, Howard; Matsunaga, Kayoko; McFadden, John; Nixon, Rosemary; Sasseville, Denis; Bruze, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Contact allergy to phenol-formaldehyde resins (PFRs) based on phenol and formaldehyde is not detected by a p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin included in most baseline patch test series. The aims of this study were to investigate the contact allergy rate to PFR-2 in an international population and to investigate associated simultaneous allergic reactions. Thirteen centers representing the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group included PFR-2 into their patch test baseline series during a period of 6 months in 2012. Of 2259 patients tested, 28 (1.2%) reacted to PFR-2. Of those 28 individuals, one had a positive reaction to formaldehyde and 2 to p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin. Simultaneous allergic reactions were noted to colophonium in 3, to Myroxylon pereirae in 5, and to fragrance mix I in 8. The contact allergy frequency in the tested population (1.2%) merits its inclusion into the international baseline series and possibly also into other baseline series after appropriate investigations. Significantly, overrepresented simultaneous allergic reactions were noted for M. pereirae and fragrance mix I.

  2. Population based allele frequencies of disease associated polymorphisms in the Personalized Medicine Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Deanna S; Ivacic, Lynn C; Stefanski, Elisha L; McCarty, Catherine A

    2010-06-17

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the frequency of disease associated polymorphisms in populations and population attributable risk for many populations remains unknown. Factors that could affect the association of the allele with disease, either positively or negatively, such as race, ethnicity, and gender, may not be possible to determine without population based allele frequencies.Here we used a panel of 51 polymorphisms previously associated with at least one disease and determined the allele frequencies within the entire Personalized Medicine Research Project population based cohort. We compared these allele frequencies to those in dbSNP and other data sources stratified by race. Differences in allele frequencies between self reported race, region of origin, and sex were determined. There were 19544 individuals who self reported a single racial category, 19027 or (97.4%) self reported white Caucasian, and 11205 (57.3%) individuals were female. Of the 11,208 (57%) individuals with an identifiable region of origin 8337 or (74.4%) were German.41 polymorphisms were significantly different between self reported race at the 0.05 level. Stratification of our Caucasian population by self reported region of origin revealed 19 polymorphisms that were significantly different (p = 0.05) between individuals of different origins. Further stratification of the population by gender revealed few significant differences in allele frequencies between the genders. This represents one of the largest population based allele frequency studies to date. Stratification by self reported race and region of origin revealed wide differences in allele frequencies not only by race but also by region of origin within a single racial group. We report allele frequencies for our Asian/Hmong and American Indian populations; these two minority groups are not typically selected for population allele frequency detection. Population wide allele frequencies are important for the design and

  3. Gating based on internal/external signals with dynamic correlation updates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huanmei; Zhao Qingya; Berbeco, Ross I; Nishioka, Seiko; Shirato, Hiroki; Jiang, Steve B

    2008-01-01

    Precise localization of mobile tumor positions in real time is critical to the success of gated radiotherapy. Tumor positions are usually derived from either internal or external surrogates. Fluoroscopic gating based on internal surrogates, such as implanted fiducial markers, is accurate however requiring a large amount of imaging dose. Gating based on external surrogates, such as patient abdominal surface motion, is non-invasive however less accurate due to the uncertainty in the correlation between tumor location and external surrogates. To address these complications, we propose to investigate an approach based on hybrid gating with dynamic internal/external correlation updates. In this approach, the external signal is acquired at high frequency (such as 30 Hz) while the internal signal is sparsely acquired (such as 0.5 Hz or less). The internal signal is used to validate and update the internal/external correlation during treatment. Tumor positions are derived from the external signal based on the newly updated correlation. Two dynamic correlation updating algorithms are introduced. One is based on the motion amplitude and the other is based on the motion phase. Nine patients with synchronized internal/external motion signals are simulated retrospectively to evaluate the effectiveness of hybrid gating. The influences of different clinical conditions on hybrid gating, such as the size of gating windows, the optimal timing for internal signal acquisition and the acquisition frequency are investigated. The results demonstrate that dynamically updating the internal/external correlation in or around the gating window will reduce false positive with relatively diminished treatment efficiency. This improvement will benefit patients with mobile tumors, especially greater for early stage lung cancers, for which the tumors are less attached or freely floating in the lung.

  4. Gating based on internal/external signals with dynamic correlation updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Huanmei [Purdue School of Engineering and Technology, Indiana University School of Informatics, IUPUI, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Zhao Qingya [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Berbeco, Ross I [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Womens Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Nishioka, Seiko [NTT East-Japan Sapporo Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Jiang, Steve B [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States)], E-mail: hw9@iupui.edu, E-mail: sbjiang@ucsd.edu

    2008-12-21

    Precise localization of mobile tumor positions in real time is critical to the success of gated radiotherapy. Tumor positions are usually derived from either internal or external surrogates. Fluoroscopic gating based on internal surrogates, such as implanted fiducial markers, is accurate however requiring a large amount of imaging dose. Gating based on external surrogates, such as patient abdominal surface motion, is non-invasive however less accurate due to the uncertainty in the correlation between tumor location and external surrogates. To address these complications, we propose to investigate an approach based on hybrid gating with dynamic internal/external correlation updates. In this approach, the external signal is acquired at high frequency (such as 30 Hz) while the internal signal is sparsely acquired (such as 0.5 Hz or less). The internal signal is used to validate and update the internal/external correlation during treatment. Tumor positions are derived from the external signal based on the newly updated correlation. Two dynamic correlation updating algorithms are introduced. One is based on the motion amplitude and the other is based on the motion phase. Nine patients with synchronized internal/external motion signals are simulated retrospectively to evaluate the effectiveness of hybrid gating. The influences of different clinical conditions on hybrid gating, such as the size of gating windows, the optimal timing for internal signal acquisition and the acquisition frequency are investigated. The results demonstrate that dynamically updating the internal/external correlation in or around the gating window will reduce false positive with relatively diminished treatment efficiency. This improvement will benefit patients with mobile tumors, especially greater for early stage lung cancers, for which the tumors are less attached or freely floating in the lung.

  5. Comparing population and incident data for optimal air ambulance base locations in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røislien, Jo; van den Berg, Pieter L; Lindner, Thomas; Zakariassen, Erik; Uleberg, Oddvar; Aardal, Karen; van Essen, J Theresia

    2018-05-24

    Helicopter emergency medical services are important in many health care systems. Norway has a nationwide physician manned air ambulance service servicing a country with large geographical variations in population density and incident frequencies. The aim of the study was to compare optimal air ambulance base locations using both population and incident data. We used municipality population and incident data for Norway from 2015. The 428 municipalities had a median (5-95 percentile) of 4675 (940-36,264) inhabitants and 10 (2-38) incidents. Optimal helicopter base locations were estimated using the Maximal Covering Location Problem (MCLP) optimization model, exploring the number and location of bases needed to cover various fractions of the population for time thresholds 30 and 45 min, in green field scenarios and conditioned on the existing base structure. The existing bases covered 96.90% of the population and 91.86% of the incidents for time threshold 45 min. Correlation between municipality population and incident frequencies was -0.0027, and optimal base locations varied markedly between the two data types, particularly when lowering the target time. The optimal solution using population density data put focus on the greater Oslo area, where one third of Norwegians live, while using incident data put focus on low population high incident areas, such as northern Norway and winter sport resorts. Using population density data as a proxy for incident frequency is not recommended, as the two data types lead to different optimal base locations. Lowering the target time increases the sensitivity to choice of data.

  6. PLACEMENT APPLICATIONS SCHEDULING LECTURE IN INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM UNIKOM BASED ANDROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Sahata Sitanggang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One who determines life of a classroom namely mapping scheduling courses especially at college. The process scheduling has included time or schedule of a class of available, room available, lecture who is scheduled for, and schedule for lecturer going to teach. Hopefully with a scheduling it will facilitate the students and teachers in obtaining information lecture schedule. With the emergence of the android application ( is implanted in mobile phones , the public can now use the internet so fast that is based .So with that researchers give one a technology based solutions to build android application .This is because one of the technology has given the functions which may make it easier for students and university lecturers in terms of access to information. In building this application used method of the prototype consisting 2 access namely access user and admin , where module user consisting of modules register , login , scheduling module , while for admin given module login , register and arrangement information scheduling courses both the administration and lecturers .Application made will be integrated with internet so that this program is real-time application.

  7. Estimation of internal radiation dose to the adult Asian population from the dietary intakes of two long-lived radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, G.V. E-mail: v.iyengar@iaea.org; Kawamura, H.; Dang, H.S.; Parr, R.M.; Wang, J.W.; Akhter, Perveen; Cho, S.Y.; Natera, E.; Miah, F.K.; Nguyen, M.S

    2004-07-01

    Daily dietary intakes of two naturally occurring long-lived radionuclides, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, were estimated for the adult population living in a number of Asian countries, using highly sensitive analytical methods such as instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The Asian countries that participated in the study were Bangladesh (BGD), China (CPR), India (IND), Japan (JPN), Pakistan (PAK), Philippines (PHI), Republic of Korea (ROK) and Vietnam (VIE). Altogether, these countries represent more than 50% of the world population. The median daily intakes of {sup 232}Th ranged between 0.6 and 14.4 mBq, the lowest being for Philippines and the highest for Bangladesh, and daily intakes of {sup 238}U ranged between 6.7 and 62.5 mBq, lowest and the highest being for India and China, respectively. The Asian median intakes were obtained as 4.2 mBq for {sup 232}Th and 12.7 mBq for {sup 238}U. Although the Asian intakes were lower than intakes of 12.3 mBq (3.0 {mu}g) {sup 232}Th and 23.6 mBq (1.9 {mu}g) {sup 238}U proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the ICRP Reference Man, they were comparable to the global intake values of 4.6 mBq {sup 232}Th and 15.6 mBq {sup 238}U proposed by the United Nation Scientific Commission on Effects of Radiation (UNSCEAR). The annual committed effective doses to Asian population from the dietary intake of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U were calculated to be 0.34 and 0.20 {mu}Sv, respectively, which are three orders of magnitude lower than the global average annual radiation dose of 2400 {mu}Sv to man from the natural radiation sources as proposed by UNSCEAR.

  8. Occupational risk and chronic kidney disease: a population-based study in the United States adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Sofia; Wang, Chengwei; Qu, Wenchun

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on occupational risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) have analyzed a limited range of occupations and focused on nephrotoxins. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relative risk for the occurrence of CKD between different occupations in the US adult population. This was a population-based survey study of 91,340 participants in the US, who completed the National Health Interview Survey, 2004 through 2008. The outcome variable, CKD, was defined as having weakening/failing kidneys in the past 12 months, as diagnosed by a physician. The predictor variable, occupation, was obtained using the census occupational codes, regrouped according to North American Industrial Classification System. After controlling for age, gender, hypertension, and education, and with the category Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations as a reference group, the likelihood of developing CKD was 4.3 times higher in respondents working in Building, Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations, 4.4 times higher in Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations, 4.7 times higher in Transportation and Material Moving Occupations and in Computer and Mathematical Occupations, 4.8 times higher in Production Occupations, 5.3 times higher in Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations, and 6.1 times higher in Healthcare Support Occupations and in Legal Occupations. This study identified occupation groups in US adult population with increased risk for CKD. Alleviation of workplace stress is suggested as a goal for behavioral intervention in high-risk occupations.

  9. Anatomical variants of the internal spermatic vein discovered during the percutaneous embolization of left varicoceles in a pediatric population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garel, L.; Dubois, J.; Rypens, F.; Ouimet, A.; Yazbeck, S.

    2004-01-01

    To report on the high incidence of anatomical variants of the origin and course of the internal spermatic vein (ISV) discovered at the time of percutaneous embolization of left varicoceles in a pediatric population. We reviewed retrospectively the 65 cases of left varicocele treated by percutaneous embolization (grade II and III) in our institution between 1990 and 2000. The course of the left renal vein (LRV), the origin of the ISV, and the number of ISVs and their pathway were recorded in all cases, according to the B ren classification. In 37/65 (57%), the ISV was single and arose from a normal LRV (type I).The following variants were encountered: type V - circumaortic LRV 9/65 (14%); type IVb - intrarenal origin of ISV 8/65 (12%); type II - multiple ISV 5/65 (8%); and pelvic collaterals 6/65 (9%). Venous anatomical variants are frequently encountered (43%) at the time of left varicocele embolization in children. Such variants often impose some adjustments to the technique of embolization and, at times, hamper the procedure. (author)

  10. Sleep Quality and Factors Influencing Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Quality in the General Internal Medicine Inpatient Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Dobing

    Full Text Available Sleep quality in hospitalized Canadian General Internal Medicine patients is not well characterized. Our goals were to characterize hospital sleep quality in this population and identify potentially modifiable barriers to good sleep.GIM inpatients at a quaternary centre in Edmonton, Canada completed a survey, including the Verran-Snyder Halpern (VSH questionnaire, to characterize the previous night's sleep within 48 hours prior to discharge. A chart review was also completed to assess comorbidities, discharge diagnoses, and pharmaceutical sleep aid use.Patients reported significantly worse nighttime sleep duration in hospital compared with home (mean 5.5 versus 7.0 hours per night, p < 0.0001. Sleep quality was poor, as measured by the VSH disturbance (mean 371, effectiveness (190, and supplementation (115 subscales. Variables independently associated with poorer sleep duration in multivariable regression include prior diagnosis of sleep disorder and multi-patient occupancy rooms. Age, sex, admitting diagnosis, length of stay, frequency of vital checks, and use of sleep pharmaceuticals during the index hospitalization were not associated with sleep duration. The most frequently reported reasons for poor sleep included noise (59%, nursing interruptions (30%, uncomfortable beds (18%, bright lights (16%, unfamiliar surroundings (14%, and pain (9%.Sleep quality for GIM inpatients is significantly worse in hospital than at home. There is a need to test non-pharmacologic interventions to address the most frequently identified factors causing poor sleep hygiene for GIM inpatients.

  11. Feasibility of wear compensation in micro EDM milling based on discharge counting and discharge population characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tristo, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of real time wear compensation in micro EDM milling based on discharge counting and discharge population characterization. Experiments were performed involving discharge counting and tool electrode wear measurement in a wide range of process parameters...

  12. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in childhood and use of MDMA: prospective, population based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Ferdinand, R.F.; Ende, J. van den; Verhulst, F.C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether using ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) is preceded by symptoms of behavioural and emotional problems in childhood and early adolescence. Design Prospective, longitudinal, population based study. Setting The Dutch province of

  13. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in childhood and use of MDMA: prospective, population based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); R.F. Ferdinand (Robert); J. van der Ende (Jan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To investigate whether using ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) is preceded by symptoms of behavioural and emotional problems in childhood and early adolescence. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal, population based study SETTING: The Dutch

  14. An investigation of the statistical power of neutrality tests based on comparative and population genetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, Weiwei; Nielsen, Rasmus; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we investigate the statistical power of several tests of selective neutrality based on patterns of genetic diversity within and between species. The goal is to compare tests based solely on population genetic data with tests using comparative data or a combination of comparative...... and population genetic data. We show that in the presence of repeated selective sweeps on relatively neutral background, tests based on the d(N)/d(S) ratios in comparative data almost always have more power to detect selection than tests based on population genetic data, even if the overall level of divergence...... selection. The Hudson-Kreitman-Aguadé test is the most powerful test for detecting positive selection among the population genetic tests investigated, whereas McDonald-Kreitman test typically has more power to detect negative selection. We discuss our findings in the light of the discordant results obtained...

  15. Spironolactone and risk of upper gastrointestinal events: population based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); G. Mosis (Georgio); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To confirm and quantify any association between spironolactone and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: A primary care information database in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: All people on the

  16. Long-term oxygen therapy in COPD patients: population-based cohort study on mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov N

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nikolay Pavlov,1 Alan Gary Haynes,2,3 Armin Stucki,4 Peter Jüni,5 Sebastian Robert Ott1 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University Hospital (Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 2CTU Bern, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Spital Thun, Thun, Switzerland; 5Applied Health Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael’s Hospital, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and is associated with a growing and substantial socioeconomic burden. Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT, recommended by current treatment guidelines for COPD patients with severe chronic hypoxemia, has shown to reduce mortality in this population. The aim of our study was to assess the standardized mortality ratios of incident and prevalent LTOT users and to identify predictors of mortality. Patients and methods: We conducted a 2-year follow-up population-based cohort study comprising all COPD patients receiving LTOT in the canton of Bern, Switzerland. Comparing age- and sex-adjusted standardized mortality ratios, we examined associations between all-cause mortality and patient characteristics at baseline. To avoid immortal time bias, data for incident (receiving LTOT <6 months and prevalent users were analyzed separately. Results: At baseline, 475 patients (20% incident users, n=93 were receiving LTOT because of COPD (48/100,000 inhabitants. Mortality of incident and prevalent LTOT users was 41% versus 27%, respectively, p<0.007, and standardized mortality ratios were 8.02 (95% CI: 5.64–11.41 versus 5.90 (95% CI: 4.79–7.25, respectively. Type 2 respiratory failure was associated with higher standardized mortality ratios among incident LTOT users (60.57, 95% CI: 11.82–310.45, p=0

  17. The predictive power of family history measures of alcohol and drug problems and internalizing disorders in a college population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The protocols for the 10/66 dementia research group population-based research programme

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Aquiles; Rodriguez Juan; McKeigue Paul; Jacob KS; Krishnamoorthy ES; Huang Yueqin; Guerra Mariella; Gavrilova Svetlana I; Dewey Michael; Arizaga Raul; Albanese Emiliano; Acosta Daisy; Ferri Cleusa P; Prince Martin; Sosa Ana

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Latin America, China and India are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic ageing with an increasing number of people with dementia. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group's title refers to the 66% of people with dementia that live in developing countries and the less than one tenth of population-based research carried out in those settings. This paper describes the protocols for the 10/66 population-based and intervention studies that aim to redress this imbalance. Meth...

  19. Community-based population-level interventions for promoting child oral health.

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva, AM; Hegde, S; Akudo Nwagbara, B; Calache, H; Gussy, MG; Nasser, M; Morrice, HR; Riggs, E; Leong, PM; Meyenn, LK; Yousefi-Nooraie, R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dental caries and gingival and periodontal disease are commonly occurring, preventable chronic conditions. Even though much is known about how to treat oral disease, currently we do not know which community-based population-level interventions are most effective and equitable in preventing poor oral health. OBJECTIVES: Primary • To determine the effectiveness of community-based population-level oral health promotion interventions in preventing dental caries and gingival and period...

  20. Optimal Hydrophobicity in Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization-Based Protein Mimics Required for siRNA Internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRonde, Brittany M; Posey, Nicholas D; Otter, Ronja; Caffrey, Leah M; Minter, Lisa M; Tew, Gregory N

    2016-06-13

    Exploring the role of polymer structure for the internalization of biologically relevant cargo, specifically siRNA, is of critical importance to the development of improved delivery reagents. Herein, we report guanidinium-rich protein transduction domain mimics (PTDMs) based on a ring-opening metathesis polymerization scaffold containing tunable hydrophobic moieties that promote siRNA internalization. Structure-activity relationships using Jurkat T cells and HeLa cells were explored to determine how the length of the hydrophobic block and the hydrophobic side chain compositions of these PTDMs impacted siRNA internalization. To explore the hydrophobic block length, two different series of diblock copolymers were synthesized: one series with symmetric block lengths and one with asymmetric block lengths. At similar cationic block lengths, asymmetric and symmetric PTDMs promoted siRNA internalization in the same percentages of the cell population regardless of the hydrophobic block length; however, with 20 repeat units of cationic charge, the asymmetric block length had greater siRNA internalization, highlighting the nontrivial relationships between hydrophobicity and overall cationic charge. To further probe how the hydrophobic side chains impacted siRNA internalization, an additional series of asymmetric PTDMs was synthesized that featured a fixed hydrophobic block length of five repeat units that contained either dimethyl (dMe), methyl phenyl (MePh), or diphenyl (dPh) side chains and varied cationic block lengths. This series was further expanded to incorporate hydrophobic blocks consisting of diethyl (dEt), diisobutyl (diBu), and dicyclohexyl (dCy) based repeat units to better define the hydrophobic window for which our PTDMs had optimal activity. High-performance liquid chromatography retention times quantified the relative hydrophobicities of the noncationic building blocks. PTDMs containing the MePh, diBu, and dPh hydrophobic blocks were shown to have superior

  1. Neighborhood deprivation is strongly associated with participation in a population-based health check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Anne Mette; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jørgensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We sought to examine whether neighborhood deprivation is associated with participation in a large population-based health check. Such analyses will help answer the question whether health checks, which are designed to meet the needs of residents in deprived neighborhoods, may increase...... participation and prove to be more effective in preventing disease. In Europe, no study has previously looked at the association between neighborhood deprivation and participation in a population-based health check. METHODS: The study population comprised 12,768 persons invited for a health check including...... screening for ischemic heart disease and lifestyle counseling. The study population was randomly drawn from a population of 179,097 persons living in 73 neighborhoods in Denmark. Data on neighborhood deprivation (percentage with basic education, with low income and not in work) and individual socioeconomic...

  2. Quality is the key for emerging issues of population-based colonoscopy screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Young Yoon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonoscopy is currently regarded as the gold standard and preferred method of screening for colorectal cancer (CRC. However, the benefit of colonoscopy screening may be blunted by low participation rates in population-based screening programs. Harmful effects of population-based colonoscopy screening may include complications induced by colonoscopy itself and by sedation, psychosocial distress, potential over-diagnosis, and socioeconomic burden. In addition, harmful effects of colonoscopy may increase with age and comorbidities. As the risk of adverse events in population-based colonoscopy screening may offset the benefit, the adverse events should be managed and monitored. To adopt population-based colonoscopy screening, consensus on the risks and benefits should be developed, focusing on potential harm, patient preference, socioeconomic considerations, and quality improvement of colonoscopy, as well as efficacy for CRC prevention. As suboptimal colonoscopy quality is a major pitfall of population-based screening, adequate training and regulation of screening colonoscopists should be the first step in minimizing variations in quality. Gastroenterologists should promote quality improvement, auditing, and training for colonoscopy in a population-based screening program.

  3. Mapping Optimal Charge Density and Length of ROMP-Based PTDMs for siRNA Internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Leah M; deRonde, Brittany M; Minter, Lisa M; Tew, Gregory N

    2016-10-10

    A fundamental understanding of how polymer structure impacts internalization and delivery of biologically relevant cargoes, particularly small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA), is of critical importance to the successful design of improved delivery reagents. Herein we report the use of ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) methods to synthesize two series of guanidinium-rich protein transduction domain mimics (PTDMs): one based on an imide scaffold that contains one guanidinium moiety per repeat unit, and another based on a diester scaffold that contains two guanidinium moieties per repeat unit. By varying both the degree of polymerization and, in effect, the relative number of cationic charges in each PTDM, the performances of the two ROMP backbones for siRNA internalization were evaluated and compared. Internalization of fluorescently labeled siRNA into Jurkat T cells demonstrated that fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-siRNA internalization had a charge content dependence, with PTDMs containing approximately 40 to 60 cationic charges facilitating the most internalization. Despite this charge content dependence, the imide scaffold yielded much lower viabilities in Jurkat T cells than the corresponding diester PTDMs with similar numbers of cationic charges, suggesting that the diester scaffold is preferred for siRNA internalization and delivery applications. These developments will not only improve our understanding of the structural factors necessary for optimal siRNA internalization, but will also guide the future development of optimized PTDMs for siRNA internalization and delivery.

  4. Benefits and challenges of international clinical education from a US-based physiotherapist faculty perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechak, Celia; Black, Jill D

    2013-12-01

    The influence of internationalization on physiotherapist education in at least North American-based programmes has become more apparent. Faculty and students have been involved in various international activities. One category of activities includes international clinical education (ICE), where students earn clinical education credit for their learning activities at international sites. Although this educational strategy appears to be increasingly used in at least the United States and Canada, the related literature is limited in scope. The purpose of this portion of the present study was to investigate the benefits and challenges of ICE for US-based students, US-based physiotherapy programmes and international partners from the perspective of US-based faculty sending students for clinical education internationally. Content analysis was used for this qualitative study. Fifteen US-based faculty members who had experience in sending physiotherapist students for ICE were recruited. The primary researcher conducted semi-structured phone interviews, averaging approximately 60 minutes in length. The primary and secondary researchers completed data analysis using NVivo 8 software (QSR International Inc., Cambridge, MA). Benefits of ICE to the students included exposure to alternate health systems, broadening of student perspectives and clinical competence. Challenges consisted of funding and possible language barrier. Increased visibility, expanded global perspective and faculty collaborations were benefits to the programme. Ensuring a quality learning experience was the greatest programme challenge. Benefits to the international site included education and faculty collaborations/exchanges; challenges were language, student clinical preparation and unfamiliarity with the student evaluation tool. Because the sample was limited to 15 US-based faculty members, the results may not be relevant to all programmes inside or outside of the United States. Additionally, the study

  5. Study on a Threat-Countermeasure Model Based on International Standard Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Horacio Ramirez Caceres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Many international standards exist in the field of IT security. This research is based on the ISO/IEC 15408, 15446, 19791, 13335 and 17799 standards. In this paper, we propose a knowledge base comprising a threat countermeasure model based on international standards for identifying and specifying threats which affect IT environments. In addition, the proposed knowledge base system aims at fusing similar security control policies and objectives in order to create effective security guidelines for specific IT environments. As a result, a knowledge base of security objectives was developed on the basis of the relationships inside the standards as well as the relationships between different standards. In addition, a web application was developed which displays details about the most common threats to information systems, and for each threat presents a set of related security control policies from different international standards, including ISO/IEC 27002.

  6. Emergency Department Length of Stay for Critical Care Admissions. A Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; Scales, Damon C; Atzema, Clare; Burns, Karen E A; Gray, Sara; Doing, Christina; Kiss, Alex; Rubenfeld, Gordon; Lee, Jacques S

    2016-08-01

    Hospital emergency department (ED) strain is common in North America. Excessive strain may result in prolonged ED length of stay and may lead to worse outcomes for patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). To describe patient, ED, and hospital characteristics associated with prolonged ED length of stay for adult patients admitted from EDs to ICUs. We conducted a population-based cohort study in the Province of Ontario, Canada, including patients admitted to an adult ICU from an ED and excluding only interhospital transfers and scheduled visits. Using regression modeling, we examined associations between patient- and hospital-level characteristics and two ED performance measures: length of stay in the ED of more than 6 hours and 90-day mortality. From April 2007 to March 2012, 261,274 adults presented to 118 EDs in Ontario, generating 314,836 ICU admissions. This activity represented 4.1% of all adult ED visits (incidence, 1,374 ICU admissions/100,000 ED visits). Median (interquartile range) ED length of stay was 7 (4-13) hours. Less than half (41.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 41.2-41.5) of these patients had an ED length of stay of 6 hours or less, whereas 10.5% (95% CI, 10.4-10.6) stayed 24 hours or longer. Hospital characteristics associated with ED length of stay more than 6 hours included shift-level ED crowding (mean length of stay of patients of similar acuity registering during same 8 h epoch) (odds ratio [OR], 1.19/h; 95% CI, 1.19-1.19), ED annual visit volume (OR, 1.01/1,000 patients; 95% CI, 1.01-1.01), time of ED presentation (00:00-07:59) (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.38-1.45), and ICU functioning at greater than 20% above the average annual census (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.08-1.12). ED length of stay more than 6 hours was not associated with 90-day mortality after adjustment for selected confounders (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.02). In this population-based study, less than half of adult ED patients were admitted to an ICU 6 hours or less after arrival to

  7. Problem-based learning in internal medicine: virtual patients or paper-based problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobocan, Monika; Turk, Neja; Dinevski, Dejan; Hojs, Radovan; Pecovnik Balon, Breda

    2017-01-01

    Teaching using paper problem-based learning (p-PBL) sessions has left some students fatigued with the learning process. Therefore, attempts have been made to replace p-PBL with digitally enhanced, decision-making PBL in the form of virtual patients (VP). Student enthusiasm for substituting p-PBL with VP has not been quantitatively evaluated on the intended educational effects. To determine the educational effects of substituting p-PBL sessions with VP on undergraduate medical students in their internal medicine course. We conducted a randomised controlled study on 34 third-year undergraduate medical students in the academic year 2015-2016. Student performance after an intervention substituting p-PBL sessions with VP was analysed. The educational outcomes were measured with knowledge exams and the Diagnostic Thinking Inventory. There was no difference in exam performance between groups (P > 0.833) immediately after the intervention, or in long term. Nor was there a significant difference in improvement of diagnostic thinking between groups (P > 0.935 and P > 0.320). Our study showed no significant improvement in diagnostic thinking abilities or knowledge exam results with the use of VP. Educators can add VP to sessions to motivate students, but a significant improvement to educational outcome should not be expected. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  8. [The Bellagio Model: an evidence-informed, international framework for population-oriented primary care. First experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlette, Sophia; Lisac, Melanie; Wagner, Ed; Gensichen, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    The Bellagio Model for Population-oriented Primary Care is an evidence-informed framework to assess accessible care for sick, vulnerable, and healthy people. The model was developed in spring 2008 by a multidisciplinary group of 24 experts from nine countries. The purpose of their gathering was to determine success factors for effective 21st century primary care based on state-of-the-art research findings, models, and empirical experience, and to assist with its implementation in practice, management, and health policy. Against the backdrop of "partialization", fragmentation in open health care systems, and the growing numbers of chronically ill or fragile people or those in need of any other kind of care, today's health care systems do not provide the much needed anchor point for continuing coordination and assistance prior, during and following an episode of illness. The Bellagio Model consists of ten key elements, which can make a substantial contribution to identify and overcome current gaps in primary care by using a synergetic approach. These elements are Shared Leadership, Public Trust, Horizontal and Vertical Integration, Networking of Professionals, Standardized Measurement, Research and Development, Payment Mix, Infrastructure, Programmes for Practice Improvement, and Population-oriented Management. All of these elements, which have been identified as being equally necessary, are also alike in that they involve all those responsible for health care: providers, managers, and policymakers.

  9. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population: a latent class analysis in a Danish population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasen M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marie Eliasen,1 Torben Jørgensen,1–3 Andreas Schröder,4 Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Per Fink,4 Chalotte Heinsvig Poulsen,1,5 Nanna Borup Johansen,1 Lene Falgaard Eplov,5 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Svend Kreiner2 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Centre for Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, 4Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, The Capital Region of Denmark, Hellerup, Denmark Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms.Methods: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark (55.4% women. The participants stated whether they had been considerably bothered by each symptom within 14 days prior to answering the questionnaire. We used latent class analysis to identify the somatic symptom profiles. The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Results: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0% had a profile characterized by no considerable bothering symptoms, while a minor group of 3.9% had profiles defined by a high risk of multiple somatic symptoms. The remaining profiles were more likely to be characterized by a few specific symptoms. The profiles could further be described by their associations with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Conclusion: The identified somatic symptom profiles could be distinguished by number, type, and site of

  10. WE-H-207A-07: Image-Based Versus Atlas-Based Internal Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahpoor, M; Abbasi, M [Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parach, A [Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalantari, F [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is known as the gold standard method for internal dosimetry. It requires radionuclide distribution from PET or SPECT and body structure from CT for accurate dose calculation. The manual or semi-automatic segmentation of organs from CT images is a major obstacle. The aim of this study is to compare the dosimetry results based on patient’s own CT and a digital humanoid phantom as an atlas with pre-specified organs. Methods: SPECT-CT images of a 50 year old woman who underwent bone pain palliation with Samarium-153 EDTMP for osseous metastases from breast cancer were used. The anatomical date and attenuation map were extracted from SPECT/CT and three XCAT digital phantoms with different BMIs (i.e. matched (38.8) and unmatched (35.5 and 36.7) with patient’s BMI that was 38.3). Segmentation of patient’s organs in CT image was performed using itk-SNAP software. GATE MC Simulator was used for dose calculation. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) and S-values were calculated for the segmented organs. Results: The differences between SAFs and S-values are high using different anatomical data and range from −13% to 39% for SAF values and −109% to 79% for S-values in different organs. In the spine, the clinically important target organ for Samarium Therapy, the differences in the S-values and SAF values are higher between XCAT phantom and CT when the phantom with identical BMI is employed (53.8% relative difference in S-value and 26.8% difference in SAF). However, the whole body dose values were the same between the calculations based on the CT and XCAT with different BMIs. Conclusion: The results indicated that atlas-based dosimetry using XCAT phantom even with matched BMI for patient leads to considerable errors as compared to image-based dosimetry that uses the patient’s own CT Patient-specific dosimetry using CT image is essential for accurate results.

  11. Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz, Karla I; Harden, Samantha M; Smith, Erin; Blackman, Kacie Ca; Berrey, Leanna M; Mama, Scherezade K; Almeida, Fabio A; Lee, Rebecca E; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2014-06-17

    The purpose of this review was to determine the degree to which physical activity interventions for Latin American populations reported on internal and external validity factors using the RE-AIM framework (reach & representativeness, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). We systematically identified English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) language studies published between 2001 and 2012 that tested physical activity, exercise, or fitness promotion interventions in Latin American populations. Cross-sectional/descriptive studies, conducted in Brazil or Spain, published in Portuguese, not including a physical activity/fitness/exercise outcome, and with one time point assessment were excluded. We reviewed 192 abstracts and identified 46 studies that met the eligibility criteria (34 in English, 12 in Spanish). A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool was used to determine the quality of reporting across studies (0-7 = low, 8-14 = moderate, and 15-21 = high). The number of indicators reported ranged from 3-14 (mean = 8.1 ± 2.6), with the majority of studies falling in the moderate quality reporting category. English and Spanish language articles did not differ on the number of indicators reported (8.1 vs. 8.3, respectively). However, Spanish articles reported more across reach indicators (62% vs. 43% of indicators), while English articles reported more across effectiveness indicators (69% vs 62%). Across RE-AIM dimensions, indicators for reach (48%), efficacy/effectiveness (67%), and implementation (41%) were reported more often than indicators of adoption (25%) and maintenance (10%). Few studies reported on the representativeness of participants, staff that delivered interventions, or the settings where interventions were adopted. Only 13% of the studies reported on quality of life and/or potential negative outcomes, 20% reported on intervention fidelity, and 11% on cost of implementation

  12. An Improved Real-Coded Population-Based Extremal Optimization Method for Continuous Unconstrained Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qiang Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a novel evolutionary optimization method, extremal optimization (EO has been successfully applied to a variety of combinatorial optimization problems. However, the applications of EO in continuous optimization problems are relatively rare. This paper proposes an improved real-coded population-based EO method (IRPEO for continuous unconstrained optimization problems. The key operations of IRPEO include generation of real-coded random initial population, evaluation of individual and population fitness, selection of bad elements according to power-law probability distribution, generation of new population based on uniform random mutation, and updating the population by accepting the new population unconditionally. The experimental results on 10 benchmark test functions with the dimension N=30 have shown that IRPEO is competitive or even better than the recently reported various genetic algorithm (GA versions with different mutation operations in terms of simplicity, effectiveness, and efficiency. Furthermore, the superiority of IRPEO to other evolutionary algorithms such as original population-based EO, particle swarm optimization (PSO, and the hybrid PSO-EO is also demonstrated by the experimental results on some benchmark functions.

  13. Genetic diversity and structure analysis based on hordein protein polymorphism in barley landrace populations from jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, A.W.; Ali, M.; Baloch, A.M.; Mangan, B.U.N.; Song, W

    2014-01-01

    Jordan is unanimously considered to be one of the centers of genetic diversity for barley, where wild and landraces of barley has been grown under different climatic conditions. The genetic diversity and genetic structure based on hordein polymorphism was assessed in 90 different accessions collected from four different sites of Jordan. A-PAGE was used to reveal hordein polymorphism among the genotypes. A total of 29 distinct bands were identified, out of them 9 bands were distinguished for D, 11 for C, and 9 for the B hordein regions. The observed genetic similarity was an exceptionally high between the populations than expected, which is probably due to high gene flow estimated between them. The genetic diversity parameters were not differ largely among the populations, indicating that local selection of a particular site did not play a key role in shaping genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed significant population structure when accessions were structured according to population site. There was 94% of hordein variation resided within the populations and only 8% present among the populations. Both Bayesian and Principale Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) concordantly demonstrated admixture genotypes of the landraces barley populations. Consequently, none of the population found to be clustered separately according to its population site. It is concluded that this approach can be useful to explore the germplasm for genetic diversity but perhaps is not suitable for determining phylogenic relations in barley. (author)

  14. Mood disorder, anxiety, and suicide risk among subjects with alcohol abuse and/or dependence: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina D. Wiener

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and/or dependence in a population-based sample of young adults and assess the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders, anxiety, and suicide risk in this population. Methods: This cross-sectional, population-based study enrolled 1,953 young adults aged 18-35 years. The CAGE questionnaire was used to screen for alcohol abuse and/or dependence, with CAGE scores ≥ 2 considered positive. Psychiatric disorders were investigated through the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Results: Alcohol abuse and/or dependence was identified in 187 (9.60% individuals (5.10% among women and 15.20% among men. Alcohol abuse and/or dependence were more prevalent among men than women, as well as among those who used tobacco, illicit drugs or presented with anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and suicide risk. Conclusion: These findings suggest that alcohol abuse and/or dependence are consistently associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, could be considered important predictors of other psychiatric disorders, and deserve greater public heath attention, pointing to the need for alcohol abuse prevention programs.

  15. Mood disorder, anxiety, and suicide risk among subjects with alcohol abuse and/or dependence: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Carolina D; Moreira, Fernanda P; Zago, Alethea; Souza, Luciano M; Branco, Jeronimo C; Oliveira, Jacqueline F de; Silva, Ricardo A da; Portela, Luis V; Lara, Diogo R; Jansen, Karen; Oses, Jean P

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and/or dependence in a population-based sample of young adults and assess the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders, anxiety, and suicide risk in this population. This cross-sectional, population-based study enrolled 1,953 young adults aged 18-35 years. The CAGE questionnaire was used to screen for alcohol abuse and/or dependence, with CAGE scores ≥ 2 considered positive. Psychiatric disorders were investigated through the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Alcohol abuse and/or dependence was identified in 187 (9.60%) individuals (5.10% among women and 15.20% among men). Alcohol abuse and/or dependence were more prevalent among men than women, as well as among those who used tobacco, illicit drugs or presented with anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and suicide risk. These findings suggest that alcohol abuse and/or dependence are consistently associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, could be considered important predictors of other psychiatric disorders, and deserve greater public heath attention, pointing to the need for alcohol abuse prevention programs.

  16. Temporal trends in obesity, osteoporosis treatment, bone mineral density, and fracture rates: a population-based historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, William D; Lix, Lisa M; Yogendran, Marina S; Morin, Suzanne N; Metge, Colleen J; Majumdar, Sumit R

    2014-04-01

    Diverging international trends in fracture rates have been observed, with most reports showing that fracture rates have stabilized or decreased in North American and many European populations. We studied two complementary population-based historical cohorts from the Province of Manitoba, Canada (1996-2006) to determine whether declining osteoporotic fracture rates in Canada are attributable to trends in obesity, osteoporosis treatment, or bone mineral density (BMD). The Population Fracture Registry included women aged 50 years and older with major osteoporotic fractures, and was used to assess impact of changes in osteoporosis treatment. The BMD Registry included all women aged 50 years and older undergoing BMD tests, and was used to assess impact of changes in obesity and BMD. Model-based estimates of temporal changes in fracture rates (Fracture Registry) were calculated. Temporal changes in obesity and BMD and their association with fracture rates (BMD Registry) were estimated. In the Fracture Registry (n=27,341), fracture rates declined 1.6% per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3% to 2.0%). Although osteoporosis treatment increased from 5.6% to 17.4%, the decline in fractures was independent of osteoporosis treatment. In the BMD Registry (n=36,587), obesity increased from 12.7% to 27.4%. Femoral neck BMD increased 0.52% per year and lumbar spine BMD increased 0.32% per year after covariate adjustment (pobesity or osteoporosis treatment. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. Occupational risk and chronic kidney disease: a population-based study in the United States adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinstein S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sofia Rubinstein,1 Chengwei Wang,1 Wenchun Qu2 1Department of Medicine, Nassau University Medical Center, East Meadow, NY, USA; 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Objective: Previous studies on occupational risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD have analyzed a limited range of occupations and focused on nephrotoxins. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relative risk for the occurrence of CKD between different occupations in the US adult population. Materials and methods: This was a population-based survey study of 91,340 participants in the US, who completed the National Health Interview Survey, 2004 through 2008. The outcome variable, CKD, was defined as having weakening/failing kidneys in the past 12 months, as diagnosed by a physician. The predictor variable, occupation, was obtained using the census occupational codes, regrouped according to North American Industrial Classification System. Results: After controlling for age, gender, hypertension, and education, and with the category Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations as a reference group, the likelihood of developing CKD was 4.3 times higher in respondents working in Building, Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations, 4.4 times higher in Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations, 4.7 times higher in Transportation and Material Moving Occupations and in Computer and Mathematical Occupations, 4.8 times higher in Production Occupations, 5.3 times higher in Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations, and 6.1 times higher in Healthcare Support Occupations and in Legal Occupations. Conclusion: This study identified occupation groups in US adult population with increased risk for CKD. Alleviation of workplace stress is suggested as a goal for behavioral intervention in high-risk occupations. Keywords: CKD, risk factors, occupations

  18. Superior performance of liquid-based versus conventional cytology in a population-based cervical cancer screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerman, H.; van Dorst, E. B. L.; Kuenen-Boumeester, V.; Hogendoorn, P. C. W.

    Objective. Liquid-based cytology may offer improvements over conventional cytology for cervical cancer screening. The two cytology techniques were compared in a group of 86,469 women who participated in a population-based screening program. Using a nation-wide pathology database containing both

  19. PC-based control of the internal target station at the Nuclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilman, J [and others

    1996-12-31

    A PC-based control system of the internal target at the Nuclotron is described. The system is based on CAMAC-control of the step motor of the station and screen representation of information about needed beam parameters and space-time position of targets relative to a beam. 6 refs.; 4 figs.

  20. Internalizing versus Externalizing Control: Different Ways to Perform a Time-Based Prospective Memory Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tracy; Loft, Shayne; Humphreys, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    "Time-based prospective memory" (PM) refers to performing intended actions at a future time. Participants with time-based PM tasks can be slower to perform ongoing tasks (costs) than participants without PM tasks because internal control is required to maintain the PM intention or to make prospective-timing estimates. However, external…

  1. Combining Internal and External Evaluation: A Case for School-Based Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, David

    1994-01-01

    School-based evaluation, the focus of this article, is conceived of as neither a synonym for internal evaluation nor an antonym for external evaluation, but as a combination that is examined through a review of recent research. A school-based evaluation in Israel illustrates combining these approaches in a complementary way. (SLD)

  2. Small-displacement sensing system based on multiple total internal reflections in heterodyne interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shinn-Fwu; Chiu, Ming-Hung; Chen, Wei-Wu; Kao, Fu-Hsi; Chang, Rong-Seng

    2009-05-01

    A small-displacement sensing system based on multiple total internal reflections in heterodyne interferometry is proposed. In this paper, a small displacement can be obtained only by measuring the variation in phase difference between s- and p-polarization states for the total internal reflection effect. In order to improve the sensitivity, we increase the number of total internal reflections by using a parallelogram prism. The theoretical resolution of the method is better than 0.417 nm. The method has some merits, e.g., high resolution, high sensitivity, and real-time measurement. Also, its feasibility is demonstrated.

  3. Constitution of a centralised data base for the internal quality control in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fau, P.; Rodrigues, C.; Ruchaud, R.; Bravetti, J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project was to implement a centralised data base of internal quality control in radiotherapy according to the criteria of the decree of A.f.s.s.a.p.s. (French agency of sanitary safety of health products on 27 july 2007, about the internal quality control of external radiotherapy facilities. The software on one year meets the objectives: compliance by comparison with A.f.s.s.a.p.s. criteria but particularly optimization of the centralisation and analysis of the internal quality controls. (N.C.)

  4. Health Service Quality Based On Dabholkar Dimension At Ward Room Of Internal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Supriyanto, Stefanus; Rahmawati, Alfi Febriana

    2013-01-01

    The NDR average at ward room of internal disease of Bojonegoro General Hospital during 2009-2011 was 58,6 ‰ (more than standard < 25 ‰). This research was aimed to analyze the importance and satisfaction rating of health service quality based on Dabholkar dimension. It used observational approach with cross sectional design. Interview was conducted to 37 patients in internal disease ward room of Bojonegoro General Hospital which selected by simple random sampling. This study found some issues...

  5. IBD in the elderly population: results from a population-based study in Western Hungary, 1977-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; David, Gyula; Pandur, Tunde; Erdelyi, Zsuzsanna; Mester, Gabor; Balogh, Mihaly; Szipocs, Istvan; Molnar, Csaba; Komaromi, Erzsebet; Kiss, Lajos S; Lakatos, Laszlo

    2011-02-01

    Limited data are available on the incidence and disease course of IBD in the elderly population. Our aim was to analyze the incidence and disease course of IBD according to the age at diagnosis in the population-based Veszprem province database, which included incident patients diagnosed between January 1, 1977 and December 31, 2008. Data of 1420 incident patients were analyzed (UC: 914, age at diagnosis: 38.9 SD 15.9 years; CD: 506, age at diagnosis: 31.5 SD 13.8 years). Both hospital and outpatient records were collected and comprehensively reviewed. 106 (11.6%) of UC patients and 21 (4.2%) of CD patients were diagnosed with >60 years of age. In UC, the incidence increased from 1.09 to 10.8/10(5) in the elderly, while CD increased to 3.04/10(5) in 2002-2007. In CD, colonic location (elderly: 61.9% vs. pediatric: 24.3%, p=0.001, and adults: 36.8%, p=0.02) and stenosing disease (elderly: 42.9% vs. pediatric: 14.9%, p=0.005, and adults: 19.5%, p=0.01) were more frequent in the elderly. A change in disease behavior was absent in the elderly, while in pediatric and adult CD population it was 20.3% (p=0.037), 19.8% (p=0.036) after 5 years. In UC, extensive disease was more frequent in pediatric patients compared to the elderly (p=0.003, OR: 2.73, 95%CI: 1.38-5.41). In addition, pediatric (57.3%, p<0.001, OR: 6.58; 95%CI: 3.22-12.9) and adult (39.8%, p<0.001, OR: 3.24; 95%CI: 1.91-5.49) patients required more often systemic steroids during follow-up compared to the elderly (17%). Proximal extension at 10 years was 11.6%, but time to extension was not different according to the age at onset. Elderly patients represent an increasing proportion of the IBD population. Stenosing and colon-only disease were characteristic for elderly CD patients, while the disease course in UC was milder. Copyright © 2010 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Population-based reference values for bone mineral density in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M; Nielsen, Torben Leo; Wraae, K

    2007-01-01

    -energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) equipment. METHODS: The aim of the present study was 1) to establish population-based reference values for BMD in young men and 2) to study subgroups based on variables with suspected impact on bone metabolism. We included 783 young Caucasian men aged 20 to 30 years...... in the Odense Androgen Study (OAS). RESULTS: Peak BMD was attained within the third decade. Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) was associated with higher BMD. Abuse of anabolic steroids as well as chronic illness was associated with lower BMD. Our population-based reference values for BMD of the total hip (1.078 +/- 0...

  7. Recurrent bacteraemia: A 10-year regional population-based study of clinical and microbiological risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, U.S.; Knudsen, J.D.; Andersen, Christian Østergaard

    2010-01-01

    Background: A population-based nested case-control study was conducted in order to characterize patient factors and microbial species associated with recurrent bacteraemia. Methods: All patients with bacteraemia in a Danish region during 1996-2006 were investigated. Recurrence was defined based o...

  8. Actomyosin-based Self-organization of cell internalization during C. elegans gastrulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pohl Christian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrulation is a key transition in embryogenesis; it requires self-organized cellular coordination, which has to be both robust to allow efficient development and plastic to provide adaptability. Despite the conservation of gastrulation as a key event in Metazoan embryogenesis, the morphogenetic mechanisms of self-organization (how global order or coordination can arise from local interactions are poorly understood. Results We report a modular structure of cell internalization in Caenorhabditis elegans gastrulation that reveals mechanisms of self-organization. Cells that internalize during gastrulation show apical contractile flows, which are correlated with centripetal extensions from surrounding cells. These extensions converge to seal over the internalizing cells in the form of rosettes. This process represents a distinct mode of monolayer remodeling, with gradual extrusion of the internalizing cells and simultaneous tissue closure without an actin purse-string. We further report that this self-organizing module can adapt to severe topological alterations, providing evidence of scalability and plasticity of actomyosin-based patterning. Finally, we show that globally, the surface cell layer undergoes coplanar division to thin out and spread over the internalizing mass, which resembles epiboly. Conclusions The combination of coplanar division-based spreading and recurrent local modules for piecemeal internalization constitutes a system-level solution of gradual volume rearrangement under spatial constraint. Our results suggest that the mode of C. elegans gastrulation can be unified with the general notions of monolayer remodeling and with distinct cellular mechanisms of actomyosin-based morphogenesis.

  9. Patterns in Place of Cancer Death in the State of Qatar: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Hassan; Haddad, Pascale; Allam, Ayman; Hassan, Azza

    2014-01-01

    Background International studies show that most people prefer to die at home; however, hospitals remain the most common place of death (PoD). This study aims to investigate the patterns in PoD and the associated factors, which are crucial for end-of-life cancer care enhancement. Method This retrospective, population-based study analyzed all registered cancer deaths in Qatar between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2012 (n = 1,224). The main outcome measures were patient characteristics: age, gender, nationality, cancer diagnosis, year of death, and PoD. Time trends for age-standardized proportions of death in individual PoDs were evaluated using chi-square analysis. Odds ratio (OR) were determined for variables associated with the most preferred (acute palliative care unit [APCU] and hematology/oncology ward) versus least preferred (ICU and general medicine ward) PoDs in Qatar, stratified by nationality. Results The hematology/oncology ward was the most common PoD (32.4%; 95% CI 26.7–35.3%) followed by ICU (31.4%; 95% CI 28.7–34.3%), APCU (26.9%; 95% CI 24.3–29.6%), and general medicine ward (9.2%; 95% CI 7.6–11.1%). APCU trended upward (+0.057/year; pQatar occur in hospital. As home was the preferred PoD for most people, effective home care and hospice programs are needed to improve end-of-life cancer care. PMID:25536076

  10. Headache complaints associated with psychiatric comorbidity in a population-based sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benseñor I.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency at which people complain of any type of headache, and its relationship with sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in São Paulo, Brazil. A three-step cluster sampling method was used to select 1,464 subjects aged 18 years or older. They were mainly from families of middle and upper socioeconomic levels living in the catchment area of Instituto de Psiquiatria. However, this area also contains some slums and shantytowns. The subjects were interviewed using the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 1.1. (CIDI 1.1 by a lay trained interviewer. Answers to CIDI 1.1 questions allowed us to classify people according to their psychiatric condition and their headaches based on their own ideas about the nature of their illness. The lifetime prevalence of "a lot of problems with" headache was 37.4% (76.2% of which were attributed to use of medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, and 23.8% attributed to nervousness, tension or mental illness. The odds ratio (OR for headache among participants with "nervousness, tension or mental illness" was elevated for depressive episodes (OR, 2.1; 95%CI, 1.4-3.4, dysthymia (OR, 3.4; 95%CI, 1.6-7.4 and generalized anxiety disorder (OR, 4.3; 95%CI, 2.1-8.6, when compared with patients without headache. For "a lot of problems with" headaches attributed to medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, the risk was also increased for dysthymia but not for generalized anxiety disorder. These data show a high association between headache and chronic psychiatric disorders in this Brazilian population sample.

  11. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Poststroke Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnod, Tomor; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2018-01-10

    This nationwide population-based cohort study evaluated the risk of and risk factors for suicide attempt in poststroke patients in Taiwan. The poststroke and nonstroke cohorts consisted of 713 690 patients and 1 426 009 controls, respectively. Adults (aged >18 years) who received new stroke diagnoses according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM ; codes 430-438) between 2000 and 2011 were included in the poststroke cohort. We calculated the adjusted hazard ratio for suicide attempt ( ICD-9-CM codes E950-E959) after adjustment for age, sex, monthly income, urbanization level, occupation category, and various comorbidities. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to measure the cumulative incidence of suicide attempt, and the Fine and Gray method was used as a competing event when estimating death subhazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals between groups. The cumulative incidence of suicide attempt was higher in the poststroke cohort, and the adjusted hazard ratio of suicide attempt was 2.20 (95% confidence interval, 2.04-2.37) compared with that of the controls. The leading risk factors for poststroke suicide attempt were earning low monthly income (US dollars), living in less urbanized regions, doing manual labor, and having a stroke before age 50 years. The attempted suicide risk did not differ significantly between male and female patients in this study. These results convey crucial information to clinicians and governments for preventing suicide attempt in poststroke patients in Taiwan and other Asian countries. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  12. Neonatal encephalopathy and socioeconomic status: population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Heidi K; Loch, Christian M; Li, Christopher I

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the association between maternal socioeconomic status and the risk of encephalopathy in full-term newborns. Population-based case-control study. Washington State births from 1994 through 2002 recorded in the linked Washington State Birth Registry and Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System. Cases (n = 1060) were singleton full-term newborns with Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnoses of seizures, birth asphyxia, central nervous system dysfunction, or cerebral irritability. Control cases (n = 5330) were singleton full-term newborns selected from the same database. Main Exposures Socioeconomic status was defined by median income of the census tract of the mother's residence, number of years of maternal educational achievement, or maternal insurance status. Odds ratios estimating the risk of encephalopathy associated with disadvantaged socioeconomic status were calculated in 3 separate analyses using multivariate adjusted logistic regression. Newborns of mothers living in neighborhoods in which residents have a low median income were at increased risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns in neighborhoods in which residents have a median income more than 3 times the poverty level (adjusted odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.3). There was also a trend for increasing risk of encephalopathy associated with decreasing neighborhood income (PNewborns of mothers with less than 12 years of educational achievement had a higher risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns of mothers with more than 16 years of educational achievement (adjusted odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3). Newborns of mothers receiving public insurance also had a higher risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns of mothers who have commercial insurance (adjusted odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.7). Disadvantaged socioeconomic status was independently

  13. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a north Indian hospital-based population with obstructive sleep apnoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Swastik; Sharma, Surendra K.; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is known to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome (MS). The burden of MS in patients with OSA in India is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of MS and its components in a cross-sectional study in patients with and without OSA in a hospital-based population of a tertiary health care centre in New Delhi, India. Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing overnight polysomnography in the Sleep Laboratory of the Department of Internal Medicine of All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) hospital, New Delhi, were studied. Anthropometry and body composition analysis, blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and fasting blood lipid profile were measured. MS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult treatment panel III criteria, with Asian cut-off values for abdominal obesity. Results: Of the 272 subjects recruited, 187 (82%) had OSA [apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI)>5 events/h] while 40 (18%) had a normal sleep study. Prevalence of MS in OSA patients was 79 per cent compared to 48 per cent in non-OSA individuals [OR 4.15, (2.05-8.56), P<0.001]. Prevalence of OSA in mild, moderate and severe OSA was 66, 72 and 86 per cent, respectively (P<0.001). Patients with OSA were more likely to have higher BP [OR: 1.06 (1.02-1.11)], fasting insulin [OR: 1.18 (1.05-1.32)], HOMA-IR [OR: 1.61 (1.11-2.33)] and waist circumference [OR: 1.20 (1.13-1.27)]. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings suggest that OSA is associated with a 4-fold higher occurrence of MS than patients without OSA. The prevalence of MS increases with increasing severity of OSA, therefore, early detection will be beneficial. PMID:22199102

  14. Pregnancy weight gain by gestational age and stillbirth: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, K; Hutcheon, J A; Bodnar, L M; Cnattingius, S; Stephansson, O

    2017-11-21

    To study the association between total and early pregnancy (gain and risk of stillbirth, stratified by early-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Population-based cohort study. Stockholm-Gotland Region, Sweden. Pregnant women with singleton births (n = 160 560). Pregnancy weight gain was standardised into gestational age-specific z-scores. For analyses of total pregnancy weight gain, a matched design with an incidence density sampling approach was used. Findings were also contrasted with current Institute of Medicine (IOM) weight gain recommendations. Stillbirth defined as fetal death at ≥22 completed weeks of gestation. For all BMI categories, there was no statistical association between total or early pregnancy weight gain and stillbirth within the range of a weight gain z-score of -2.0 SD to +2.0 SD. Among normal-weight women, the adjusted odds ratio of stillbirth for lower (-2.0 to -1.0 SD) and higher (+1.0 to +1.9 SD) total weight gain was 0.85 (95% CI; 0.48-1.49) and 1.03 (0.60-1.77), respectively, as compared with the reference category. Further, there were no associations between total or early pregnancy weight gain and stillbirth within the range of weight gain currently recommended by the IOM. For the majority of the BMI categories, the point estimates at the extremes of weight gain values (gain and increased risks of high weight gain, but estimates were imprecise and not statistically significant. We found no associations between total or early pregnancy weight gain and stillbirth across the range of weight gain experienced by most women. There was no association between weight gain during pregnancy and stillbirth among most women. © 2017 Karolinska Institutet. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Economic burden of cancer across the European Union: a population-based cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Leal, Jose; Gray, Alastair; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-11-01

    In 2008, 2·45 million people were diagnosed with cancer and 1·23 million died because of cancer in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU). We aimed to estimate the economic burden of cancer in the EU. In a population-based cost analysis, we evaluated the cost of all cancers and also those associated with breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers. We obtained country-specific aggregate data for morbidity, mortality, and health-care resource use from international and national sources. We estimated health-care costs from expenditure on care in the primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient settings, and also drugs. Additionally, we estimated the costs of unpaid care provided by relatives or friends of patients (ie, informal care), lost earnings after premature death, and costs associated with individuals who temporarily or permanently left employment because of illness. Cancer cost the EU €126 billion in 2009, with health care accounting for €51·0 billion (40%). Across the EU, the health-care costs of cancer were equivalent to €102 per citizen, but varied substantially from €16 per person in Bulgaria to €184 per person in Luxembourg. Productivity losses because of early death cost €42·6 billion and lost working days €9·43 billion. Informal care cost €23·2 billion. Lung cancer had the highest economic cost (€18·8 billion, 15% of overall cancer costs), followed by breast cancer (€15·0 billion, 12%), colorectal cancer (€13·1 billion, 10%), and prostate cancer (€8·43 billion, 7%). Our results show wide differences between countries, the reasons for which need further investigation. These data contribute to public health and policy intelligence, which is required to deliver affordable cancer care systems and inform effective public research funds allocation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Implementing a Childhood Cancer Outcomes Surveillance System Within a Population-Based Cancer Registry

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    Oscar Ramirez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Approximately 80% of cases of childhood cancer occur in low- and middle-income countries and are associated with high mortality rates. Assessing outcomes is essential for designing effective strategies to improve outcomes equally worldwide. We implemented a real-time surveillance system, VIGICANCER, embedded in a population-based cancer registry (PBCR to assess childhood cancer outcomes. Methods: VIGICANCER was established in 2009 as an integral part of Cali’s PBCR to collect real-time data on outcomes of patients (age < 19 years with a new diagnosis of cancer treated in pediatric oncology units in Cali, Colombia. Baseline and follow-up data (death, relapse, treatment abandonment, second neoplasms were collected from medical records, hospital discharge logs, pathology reports, death certificates, and the National Public Health Insurance database. A quality assurance process was implemented for the system. Results: From 2009 to 2013, data from 1,242 patients were included in VIGICANCER: 32% of patients were younger than 5 years, 55% were male, and 15% were Afro-descendants. International Classification of Childhood Cancer group I diagnoses predominated in all age groups except children younger than 1 year old, in whom CNS tumors predominated. Five-year overall survival for all cancers was 51.7% (95% CI, 47.9% to 55.4% for children (< 15 years, and 39.4% (95% CI, 29.8% to 50.5% for adolescents (15 to 18.9 years. Five-year overall survival for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was 55.6% (95% CI, 48.5% to 62.2%. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the feasibility of implementing a real-time childhood cancer outcomes surveillance system embedded in a PBCR that can guide interventions to improve clinical outcomes in low- and middle-income countries.

  17. Cost effectiveness of population based BRCA1 founder mutation testing in Sephardi Jewish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreeya; Legood, Rosa; Evans, D Gareth; Turnbull, Clare; Antoniou, Antonis C; Menon, Usha; Jacobs, Ian; Manchanda, Ranjit

    2018-04-01

    Population-based BRCA1/BRCA2 founder-mutation testing has been demonstrated as cost effective compared with family history based testing in Ashkenazi Jewish women. However, only 1 of the 3 Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1/BRCA2 founder mutations (185delAG[c.68_69delAG]), 5382insC[c.5266dupC]), and 6174delT[c.5946delT]) is found in the Sephardi Jewish population (185delAG[c.68_69delAG]), and the overall prevalence of BRCA mutations in the Sephardi Jewish population is accordingly lower (0.7% compared with 2.5% in the Ashkenazi Jewish population). Cost-effectiveness analyses of BRCA testing have not previously been performed at these lower BRCA prevalence levels seen in the Sephardi Jewish population. Here we present a cost-effectiveness analysis for UK and US populations comparing population testing with clinical criteria/family history-based testing in Sephardi Jewish women. A Markov model was built comparing the lifetime costs and effects of population-based BRCA1 testing, with testing using family history-based clinical criteria in Sephardi Jewish women aged ≥30 years. BRCA1 carriers identified were offered magnetic resonance imaging/mammograms and risk-reducing surgery. Costs are reported at 2015 prices. Outcomes include breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and excess deaths from heart disease. All costs and outcomes are discounted at 3.5%. The time horizon is lifetime, and perspective is payer. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per quality-adjusted life-year was calculated. Parameter uncertainty was evaluated through 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Population testing resulted in gain in life expectancy of 12 months (quality-adjusted life-year = 1.00). The baseline discounted incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for UK population-based testing was £67.04/quality-adjusted life-year and for US population was $308.42/quality-adjusted life-year. Results were robust in the 1-way sensitivity analysis. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed 100% of

  18. Population-based biomedical sexually transmitted infection control interventions for reducing HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Brian E; Butler, Lisa M; Horvath, Tara; Rutherford, George W

    2011-03-16

    The transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is closely related to the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Similar risk behaviours, such as frequent unprotected intercourse with different partners, place people at high risk of HIV and STIs, and there is clear evidence that many STIs increase the likelihood of HIV transmission. STI control, especially at the population or community level, may have the potential to contribute substantially to HIV prevention.This is an update of an existing Cochrane review. The review's search methods were updated and its inclusion and exclusion criteria modified so that the focus would be on one well-defined outcome. This review now focuses explicitly on population-based biomedical interventions for STI control, with change in HIV incidence being an outcome necessary for a study's inclusion. To determine the impact of population-based biomedical STI interventions on the incidence of HIV infection. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science/Social Science, PsycINFO, and Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), for the period of 1 January1980 - 16 August 2010. We initially identified 6003 articles and abstracts. After removing 776 duplicates, one author (TH) removed an additional 3268 citations that were clearly irrelevant. Rigorously applying the inclusion criteria, three authors then independently screened the remaining 1959 citations and abstracts. Forty-six articles were chosen for full-text scrutiny by two authors. Ultimately, four studies were included in the review.We also searched the Aegis database of conference abstracts, which includes the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), the International AIDS Conference (IAC), and International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS) meetings from their inception dates (1993, 1985 and

  19. Population structure of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in Thailand based on PCR-RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaenkham, Urusa; Pakdee, Wallop; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit; Sa-Nguankiat, Surapol; Komalamisra, Chalit

    2012-05-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the causative agent of angiostrongyliasis, which is widely distributed throughout the world. It can specifically infect many species of intermediate and definitive hosts. This study examined the genetic differentiation and population structure using the RAPD-PCR method of parasites obtained from 8 different geographical areas of Thailand. Based on 8 primers, high levels of genetic diversity and low levels of gene flow among populations were found. Using genetic distance and neighbor-joining dendrogram methods, A. cantonensis in Thailand could be divided into two groups with statistically significant genetic differentiation of the two populations. However, genotypic variations and haplotype relationships need to be further elucidated using other markers.

  20. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo after Dental Procedures: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Tzu-Pu; Lin, Yueh-Wen; Sung, Pi-Yu; Chuang, Hsun-Yang; Chung, Hsien-Yang; Liao, Wen-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common type of vertigo in the general population, is thought to be caused by dislodgement of otoliths from otolithic organs into the semicircular canals. In most cases, however, the cause behind the otolith dislodgement is unknown. Dental procedures, one of the most common medical treatments, are considered to be a possible cause of BPPV, although this has yet to be proven. This study is the first nationwide population-based cas...

  1. A design-based approximation to the Bayes Information Criterion in finite population sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Fabrizi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, various issues related to the implementation of the usual Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC are critically examined in the context of modelling a finite population. A suitable design-based approximation to the BIC is proposed in order to avoid the derivation of the exact likelihood of the sample which is often very complex in a finite population sampling. The approximation is justified using a theoretical argument and a Monte Carlo simulation study.

  2. Demographic factors associated with knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms in a UK population-based survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Yardley, C.; Glover, C.; Allen-Mersh, T. G.

    2000-01-01

    Greater public awareness of colorectal cancer symptoms might result in earlier presentation with improved cure by available treatments, but little is known about the extent of public knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms. We asked a sample of the general population about knowledge of colorectal cancer symptoms and assessed demographic characteristics associated with differences in knowledge. A population-based telephone enquiry into knowledge of colorectal cancer-associated symptoms was con...

  3. Genetic diversity of Iranian honey bee (Apis mellifera meda Skorikow, 1829) populations based on ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A; Mirmoayedi, A; Kahrizi, D; Zarei, L; Jamali, S

    2016-04-30

    Honey bee is one of the most important insects considering its role in agriculture,ecology and economy as a whole. In this study, the genetic diversity of different Iranian honey bee populations was evaluated using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. During May to September 2014, 108 young worker honey bees were collected from six different populations in 30 different geoclimatic locations from Golestan, Mazendaran, Guilan, West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan, Ardebil provinces of Iran. DNA was extracted from the worker honey bees. The quality and quantity of extracted DNA were measured. A set of ten primers were screened with the laboratory populations of honey bees. The number of fragments produced in the different honey bee populations varied from 3 to 10, varying within 150 to 1500 bp. The used ten ISSR primers generated 40 polymorphic fragments, and the average heterozygosity for each primer was 0.266. Maximum numbers of bands were recorded for primer A1. A dendrogram based on the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method generated two sub-clusters. Honey bee populations of Golestan, Mazendaran, Guilan provinces were located in the first group. The second group included honey bee populations of Ardebil, West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan provinces, but this group showed a close relationship with other populations. The results showed obviously the ability of the ISSR marker technique to detect the genetic diversity among the honey bee populations.

  4. The evaluation of a population based diffusion tensor image atlas using a ground truth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Wim; Leemans, Alexander; D'Agostino, Emiliano; De Backer, Steve; Vandervliet, Evert; Parizel, Paul M.; Sijbers, Jan

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is increasingly being used to detect diffusion tensor (DT) image abnormalities in patients for different pathologies. An important requisite for these VBM studies is the use of a high-dimensional, non-rigid coregistration technique, which is able to align both the spatial and the orientational information. Recent studies furthermore indicate that high-dimensional DT information should be included during coregistration for an optimal alignment. In this context, a population based DTI atlas is created that preserves the orientational DT information robustly and contains a minimal bias towards any specific individual data set. Methods: A ground truth evaluation method is developed using a single subject DT image that is deformed with 20 deformation fields. Thereafter, an atlas is constructed based on these 20 resulting images. Thereby, the non-rigid coregistration algorithm is based on a viscous fluid model and on mutual information. The fractional anisotropy (FA) maps as well as the DT elements are used as DT image information during the coregistration algorithm, in order to minimize the orientational alignment inaccuracies. Results: The population based DT atlas is compared with the ground truth image using accuracy and precision measures of spatial and orientational dependent metrics. Results indicate that the population based atlas preserves the orientational information in a robust way. Conclusion: A subject independent population based DT atlas is constructed and evaluated with a ground truth method. This atlas contains all available orientational information and can be used in future VBM studies as a reference system.

  5. Prediction of critical illness in elderly outpatients using elder risk assessment: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biehl M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Biehl,1 Paul Y Takahashi,2 Stephen S Cha,3 Rajeev Chaudhry,2 Ognjen Gajic,1 Bjorg Thorsteinsdottir2 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, 2Division of Primary Care Internal Medicine, 3Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Rationale: Identifying patients at high risk of critical illness is necessary for the development and testing of strategies to prevent critical illness. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between high elder risk assessment (ERA score and critical illness requiring intensive care and to see if the ERA can be used as a prediction tool to identify elderly patients at the primary care visit who are at high risk of critical illness. Methods: A population-based historical cohort study was conducted in elderly patients (age >65 years identified at the time of primary care visit in Rochester, MN, USA. Predictors including age, previous hospital days, and comorbid health conditions were identified from routine administrative data available in the electronic medical record. The main outcome was critical illness, defined as sepsis, need for mechanical ventilation, or death within 2 years of initial visit. Patients with an ERA score of 16 were considered to be at high risk. The discrimination of the ERA score was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: Of the 13,457 eligible patients, 9,872 gave consent for medical record review and had full information on intensive care unit utilization. The mean age was 75.8 years (standard deviation ±7.6 years, and 58% were female, 94% were Caucasian, 62% were married, and 13% were living in nursing homes. In the overall group, 417 patients (4.2% suffered from critical illness. In the 1,134 patients with ERA >16, 154 (14% suffered from critical illness. An ERA score ≥16 predicted critical illness (odds ratio 6.35; 95% confidence interval 3.51–11.48. The area under the

  6. Locus of control and frequency of physician visits: Results of a population-based longitudinal study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-09-01

    To examine the role of internal and external locus of control (LOC) in the frequency of physician visits longitudinally. A nationally representative, longitudinal cohort study of German households. Data were used from the years 2005 and 2010. Data were gathered from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). The ten internal and external LOC items in the SOEP are based on a scale by Krampen. The number of physician visits in the last 3 months was used as outcome variable. According to Andersen's behavioural model, predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, and need factors were included as control variables. Fixed-effects Poisson regressions showed that physician visits increased with increasing external LOC, whereas changes in internal LOC were not associated with changes in physician visits. Furthermore, physician visits increased with need factors (decreased self-rated health; onset of disability), whereas predisposing characteristics and the enabling resources were not associated with physician visits. Our findings emphasize the meaning of changes in external LOC for physician visits. As there is evidence that interventions can change the LOC, efforts to modify external LOC might be beneficial for the health care system. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? A few cross-sectional studies have investigated the association between locus of control (LOC) and health care use. Longitudinal studies are needed to get a deeper understanding of the causal relationship between these factors. What does this study add? Our longitudinal study provides insights into the impact of general internal and external LOC on physician visits. This is the first study examining the long-term relation in Germany using a population-based sample. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Productivity losses in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Marta; Johannessen, Ane; Askildsen, Jan Erik; Eagan, Tomas; Gulsvik, Amund; Grønseth, Rune

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to estimate incremental productivity losses (sick leave and disability) of spirometry-defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a population-based sample and in hospital-recruited patients with COPD. Furthermore, we examined predictors of productivity losses by multivariate analyses. We performed four quarterly telephone interviews of 53 and 107 population-based patients with COPD and controls, as well as 102 hospital-recruited patients with COPD below retirement age. Information was gathered regarding annual productivity loss, exacerbations of respiratory symptoms and comorbidities. Incremental productivity losses were estimated by multivariate quantile median regression according to the human capital approach, adjusting for sex, age, smoking habits, education and lung function. Main effect variables were COPD/control status, number of comorbidities and exacerbations of respiratory symptoms. Altogether 55%, 87% and 31% of population-based COPD cases, controls and hospital patients, respectively, had a paid job at baseline. The annual incremental productivity losses were 5.8 (95% CI 1.4 to 10.1) and 330.6 (95% CI 327.8 to 333.3) days, comparing population-recruited and hospital-recruited patients with COPD to controls, respectively. There were significantly higher productivity losses associated with female sex and less education. Additional adjustments for comorbidities, exacerbations and FEV1% predicted explained all productivity losses in the population-based sample, as well as nearly 40% of the productivity losses in hospital-recruited patients. Annual incremental productivity losses were more than 50 times higher in hospital-recruited patients with COPD than that of population-recruited patients with COPD. To ensure a precise estimation of societal burden, studies on patients with COPD should be population-based.

  8. Residual Motion and Duty Time in Respiratory Gating Radiotherapy Using Individualized or Population-Based Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji, Hiroshi; Asada, Yoshihiro; Numano, Masumi; Yamashita, Haruo; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Harada, Hideyuki; Asakura, Hirofumi; Murayama, Shigeyuki

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The efficiency and precision of respiratory gated radiation therapy for tumors is affected by variations in respiration-induced tumor motion. We evaluated the use of individualized and population-based parameters for such treatment. Methods and Materials: External respiratory signal records and images of respiration-induced tumor motion were obtained from 42 patients undergoing respiratory gated radiation therapy for liver tumors. Gating window widths were calculated for each patient, with 2, 4, and 10 mm of residual motion, and the mean was defined as the population-based window width. Residual motions based on population-based and predefined window widths were compared. Duty times based on whole treatment sessions, at various window levels, were calculated. The window level giving the longest duty time was defined as the individualized most efficient level (MEL). MELs were also calculated based on the first 10 breathing cycles. The duty times for population-based MELs (defined as mean MELs) and individualized MELs were compared. Results: Tracks of respiration-induced tumor motion ranged from 3 to 50 mm. Half of the patients had larger actual residual motions than the assigned residual motions. Duty times were greater when based on individualized, rather than population-based, window widths. The MELs established during whole treatment sessions for 2 mm and 4 mm of residual motion gave significantly increased duty times, whereas those calculated using the first 10 breathing cycles showed only marginal increases. Conclusions: Using individualized window widths and levels provided more precise and efficient respiratory gated radiation therapy. However, methods for predicting individualized window levels before treatment remain to be explored.

  9. Donor-specific cell-based assays in studying sensitivity to low-dose radiation: a population-based perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora eIl'yasova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a linear no-threshold model is used to estimate health risks associated with exposure to low-dose radiation, a prevalent exposure in the general population, because the direct estimation from epidemiological studies suffers from uncertainty. This model has been criticized based on unique biology of low-dose radiation. Whether the departure from linearity is toward increased or decreased risk is intensely debated. We present an approach based on individual radiosensitivity testing and discuss how individual radiosensitivity can be assessed with the goal to develop a quantifiable measure of cellular response that can be conducted via high-throughput population testing.

  10. Quality assessment of state land internal audit agency of Ukraine based on risk-oriented approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Vugovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article stipulates that in modern conditions of development and reform of the national system of state financial control to the fore the issue of quality, which is an integral part of - or the provision of a service or product produced. In the context of our study on the evaluation of the quality of the internal audit system of the State Land Agency, is the efficiency of its operation. The authors have developed scientific and methodical approach to assessing the quality of the internal audit system of the State Land Agency of Ukraine by specifying the list of evaluation criteria and the implementation of risk-based model selection controlled entities, which allowed to determine the potential risk of financial irregularities and frequency of inspections by the State Financial Inspection. Determined that the planned inspections of the state Land Agency should be not less than once every two years. Applying the above approach will reduce the number of violations in budgetary institutions, improve the quality control organization by the internal audit work, increase the responsibility of the head of an effective, legitimate and proper use of funds. The authors were asked to form a report on the results of the internal audit quality in budgetary institutions and determined that for the cooperation of internal audit bodies of the State financial inspection need to be able to use the latest internal audit report to provide recommendations to improve the functioning of the internal control systems in controlled entities.

  11. Internal and external environmental factors affecting the performance of hospital-based home nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, J-W; Kwon, Y-D; Yoon, S-J; Hwang, J-I

    2011-06-01

    Numerous studies on HNC services have been carried out by signifying their needs, efficiency and effectiveness. However, no study has ever been performed to determine the critical factors associated with HNC's positive results despite the deluge of positive studies on the service. This study included all of the 89 training hospitals that were practising HNC service in Korea as of November 2006. The input factors affecting the performance were classified as either internal or external environmental factors. This analysis was conducted to understand the impact that the corresponding factors had on performance. Data were analysed by using multiple linear regressions. The internal and external environment variables affected the performance of HNC based on univariate analysis. The meaningful variables were internal environmental factors. Specifically, managerial resource (the number of operating beds and the outpatient/inpatient ratio) were meaningful when the multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Indeed, the importance of organizational culture (the passion of HNC nurses) was significant. This study, considering the limited market size of Korea, illustrates that the critical factor for the development of hospital-led HNC lies with internal environmental factors rather than external ones. Among the internal environmental factors, the hospitals' managerial resource-related factors (specifically, the passion of nurses) were the most important contributing element. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  12. Evaluation of "Office-based" Course of Intern Students at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

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    Behrokh Mahmoudzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: "Office-based" course in General Medical Curriculum of Shahid Beheshti School of medicine (the reform program is a four-month course that is presented in the last six months of the program for interns. Office is a major practice setting after graduation for general practitioner in Iran and for this purpose physicians' offices in health care centers have been selected. Purpose of the course is to prepare interns to work independently and they have passed all their courses and had adequate knowledge to practice but they had not enough experience of office-based practice in the community and outpatient settings. This study was designed and implemented aimed to determine the program’s weaknesses and strengths in the range of the course stakeholders ‘questions (5 major questions, and provide proposed solutions to policy-makers in order to improve and promote the program of "office- based education internship" of Shahid Beheshti School of Medicine.Methods: The assessment was conducted in 3 descriptive study and the population under study included 44 interns and 36 physician mentor in 36 health care centers which were all centers under office based education plan in Shahid Beheshti medical school from October till December of 2014.The instruments used for data collection were questionnaires (mentor physician and intern students and a check list made by the researcher. Mentor physician questionnaire contained 23 items, student questionnaire contained 20 items and documentations review check list and evidence included contained 30 items. Twenty items were on a 4-point Likert-type (weak, less than expected, as expected as and higher than expected, 14 items on a 3-point Likert-type (none, partially, totally, 33 items on two-choice question (Yes/No and 6 as an open question. All items had the same value. Face and content validity were checked by Scientific Committee and evaluations of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical

  13. The German Version of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties, Measurement Invariance, and Population-Based Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Michaela; Hilbert, Anja; de Zwaan, Martina; Braehler, Elmar; Kersting, Anette

    The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire is an internationally widely used instrument assessing different eating styles that may contribute to weight gain and overweight: emotional eating, external eating, and restraint. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the 30-item German version of the DEBQ including its measurement invariance across gender, age, and BMI-status in a representative German population sample. Furthermore, we examined the distribution of eating styles in the general population and provide population-based norms for DEBQ scales. A representative sample of the German general population (N = 2513, age ≥ 14 years) was assessed with the German version of the DEBQ along with information on sociodemographic characteristics and body weight and height. The German version of the DEQB demonstrates good item characteristics and reliability (restraint: α = .92, emotional eating: α = .94, external eating: α = .89). The 3-factor structure of the DEBQ could be replicated in exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and results of multi-group confirmatory factor analyses supported its metric and scalar measurement invariance across gender, age, and BMI-status. External eating was the most prevalent eating style in the German general population. Women scored higher on emotional and restrained eating scales than men, and overweight individuals scored higher in all three eating styles compared to normal weight individuals. Small differences across age were found for external eating. Norms were provided according to gender, age, and BMI-status. Our findings suggest that the German version of the DEBQ has good reliability and construct validity, and is suitable to reliably measure eating styles across age, gender, and BMI-status. Furthermore, the results demonstrate a considerable variation of eating styles across gender and BMI-status.

  14. [Highlights of hospital-based internal medicine in 2010: chief residents' perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Marc; Burnard, Jérôme; Cosma Rochat, Monica; Gabus, Vincent; Micheloud, Valérie Geiser; Gobin, Niels; Laurent, Jean-Christophe; Marino, Laura; Méan, Marie; Merz, Laurent; Regamey, Julien; Stadelmann, Raphaël

    2011-02-02

    Applying knowledge acquired from recent medical studies to patient care poses a daily challenge to physicians. Chief residents from the Department of Internal Medicine at the University Hospital of Lausanne carried out a review of some of the issues they considered important. The conclusions of these various publications may have a significant impact on the daily practice of hospital-based internal medicine. Modern medicine based on scientific studies is a reminder that in spite of the essential importance of clinical experience, it is crucial to confront it with the results of relevant publications from the medical literature.

  15. Health of an ex situ population of raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes in Mexico: diagnosis of internal parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Successful programs for ex situ and in situ conservation and management of raptors require detailed knowledge about their pathogens. The purpose of this study was to identify the internal parasites of some captive raptors in Mexico, as well as to verify their impact in the health status of infected birds. Birds of prey were confiscated and kept in captivity at the Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS in Los Reyes La Paz, Mexico State. For this, fecal and blood samples from 74 birds of prey (66 Falconiformes and eight Strigiformes of 15 species, juveniles and adults from both sexes (39 males and 35 female, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. Besides, the oropharyngeal cavity was macroscopically examined for the presence of lesions compatible with trichomoniasis. Among our results we found that lesions compatible with Trichomonas gallinae infection were detected only in two Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis (2.7%; nevertheless, infected birds were in good physical condition. Overall, gastrointestinal parasites were found in 10 (13.5% raptors: nine falconiforms (13.6% and one strigiform (12.5%, which mainly presented a single type of gastrointestinal parasite (90%. Eimeria spp. was detected in Harris’s hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus, Swainson’s hawk (Buteo swainsoni, Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicensis and Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus; whereas trematodes eggs were found in Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus and Swainson’s hawk (B. swainsoni. Furthermore, eggs of Capillaria spp. were found in one Swainson’s hawk (B. swainsoni, which was also infected by trematodes. Hemoprotozoarian were detected in five (6.7% falconiforms: Haemoproteus spp. in American kestrel (F. sparverius and Leucocytozoon spp. in Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicencis. Despite this, no clinical signs referable to gastrointestinal or blood parasite infection were observed in any birds. All parasites identified were

  16. Study population and treatment titration in the International Nifedipine GITS Study: Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M J; Castaigne, A; de Leeuw, P W; Mancia, G; Rosenthal, T; Ruilope, L M

    1998-12-01

    To ascertain the baseline characteristics of the high-risk hypertensive patients entering the International Nifedipine GITS Study: Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT). To determine the success of single and combination therapy in achieving target blood pressures in such a population. INSIGHT is a double-blind, prospective outcome trial comparing the efficacy of the calcium channel blocker, nifedipine GITS, and the thiazide, co-amilozide, in preventing myocardial infarction and stroke. We recruited 2996 men and 3454 women, aged 55-80 years, with blood pressure during placebo run-in >150/95 mmHg or isolated systolic blood pressure >160 mmHg from nine countries. Treatment allocation to nifedipine GITS 30 mg daily or co-amilozide (hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg/amiloride 5 mg) once daily was performed by minimization rather than randomization to balance additional risk factors. This was followed by four optional increases in treatment: dose-doubling of the primary drug, addition of atenolol 25/50 mg or enalapril 5/10 mg, and then any other hypotensive drug excluding calcium blockers or diuretics. Target blood pressure was 140/90 mmHg or a fall > or = 20/10 mmHg. Blood pressure at randomization was 172+/-15 / 99+/-9 mmHg. Thirteen per cent of the patients were previously untreated. The proportions of each additional risk factors were: smoking > 10/day, 29%; cholesterol > 6.43 mmol/l, 52%; family history of premature myocardial infarction or stroke, 21%; diabetes mellitus 20%; left ventricular hypertrophy, 10%; previous myocardial infarction, other presentations of coronary heart disease, and peripheral vascular disease, each 6%; proteinuria, 3%. Fifty-five per cent of patients had one additional risk factor, whereas 33%, 9% and 3% had two, three or more additional risk factors, respectively. The blood pressure (and falls in blood pressure) at the end of titration and at 1 year after minimization was 139+/-12 / 82+/-7 mmHg (33+/-15 / 17+/-9) in the 5226

  17. Health of an ex situ population of raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes) in Mexico: diagnosis of internal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tiziano; de Oliveira, Jaqueline B; Vaughan, Christopher; Santiago, Heber

    2011-09-01

    Successful programs for ex situ and in situ conservation and management of raptors require detailed knowledge about their pathogens. The purpose of this study was to identify the internal parasites of some captive raptors in Mexico, as well as to verify their impact in the health status of infected birds. Birds of prey were confiscated and kept in captivity at the Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS) in Los Reyes La Paz, Mexico State. For this, fecal and blood samples from 74 birds of prey (66 Falconiformes and eight Strigiformes) of 15 species, juveniles and adults from both sexes (39 males and 35 female), were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. Besides, the oropharyngeal cavity was macroscopically examined for the presence of lesions compatible with trichomoniasis. Among our results we found that lesions compatible with Trichomonas gallinae infection were detected only in two Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (2.7%); nevertheless, infected birds were in good physical condition. Overall, gastrointestinal parasites were found in 10 (13.5%) raptors: nine falconiforms (13.6%) and one strigiform (12.5%), which mainly presented a single type of gastrointestinal parasite (90%). Eimeria spp. was detected in Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), Swainson's hawk (Buteo swainsoni), Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicensis) and Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus); whereas trematodes eggs were found in Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and Swainson's hawk (B. swainsoni). Furthermore, eggs of Capillaria spp. were found in one Swainson's hawk (B. swainsoni), which was also infected by trematodes. Hemoprotozoarian were detected in five (6.7%) falconiforms: Haemoproteus spp. in American kestrel (F. sparverius) and Leucocytozoon spp. in Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicencis). Despite this, no clinical signs referable to gastrointestinal or blood parasite infection were observed in any birds. All parasites identified were recorded

  18. Genetic affinities of north and northeastern populations of India: inference from HLA-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S; Srivastava, S K; Borkar, M; Chaudhuri, T K

    2008-08-01

    India is like a microcosm of the world in terms of its diversity; religion, climate and ethnicity which leads to genetic variations in the populations. As a highly polymorphic marker, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system plays an important role in the genetic differentiation studies. To assess the genetic diversity of HLA class II loci, we studied a total of 1336 individuals from north India using DNA-based techniques. The study included four endogamous castes (Kayastha, Mathurs, Rastogies and Vaishyas), two inbreeding Muslim populations (Shias and Sunnis) from north India and three northeast Indian populations (Lachung, Mech and Rajbanshi). A total of 36 alleles were observed at DRB1 locus in both Hindu castes and Muslims from north, while 21 alleles were seen in northeast Indians. At the DQA1 locus, the number of alleles ranged from 11 to 17 in the studied populations. The total number of alleles at DQB1 was 19, 12 and 20 in the studied castes, Muslims and northeastern populations, respectively. The most frequent haplotypes observed in all the studied populations were DRB1*0701-DQA1*0201-DQB1*0201 and DRB1*1501-DQA1*0103-DQB1*0601. Upon comparing our results with other world populations, we observed the presence of Caucasoid element in north Indian population. However, differential admixturing among Sunnis and Shias with the other north Indians was evident. Northeastern populations showed genetic affinity with Mongoloids from southeast Asia. When genetic distances were calculated, we found the north Indians and northeastern populations to be markedly unrelated.

  19. Modelling population distribution using remote sensing imagery and location-based data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J.; Prishchepov, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Detailed spatial distribution of population density is essential for city studies such as urban planning, environmental pollution and city emergency, even estimate pressure on the environment and human exposure and risks to health. However, most of the researches used census data as the detailed dynamic population distribution are difficult to acquire, especially in microscale research. This research describes a method using remote sensing imagery and location-based data to model population distribution at the function zone level. Firstly, urban functional zones within a city were mapped by high-resolution remote sensing images and POIs. The workflow of functional zones extraction includes five parts: (1) Urban land use classification. (2) Segmenting images in built-up area. (3) Identification of functional segments by POIs. (4) Identification of functional blocks by functional segmentation and weight coefficients. (5) Assessing accuracy by validation points. The result showed as Fig.1. Secondly, we applied ordinary least square and geographically weighted regression to assess spatial nonstationary relationship between light digital number (DN) and population density of sampling points. The two methods were employed to predict the population distribution over the research area. The R²of GWR model were in the order of 0.7 and typically showed significant variations over the region than traditional OLS model. The result showed as Fig.2.Validation with sampling points of population density demonstrated that the result predicted by the GWR model correlated well with light value. The result showed as Fig.3. Results showed: (1) Population density is not linear correlated with light brightness using global model. (2) VIIRS night-time light data could estimate population density integrating functional zones at city level. (3) GWR is a robust model to map population distribution, the adjusted R2 of corresponding GWR models were higher than the optimal OLS models

  20. Thyroid disorders and breast cancer risk in Asian population: a nationwide population-based case-control study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Huei; Lin, Ching-Heng; Luo, Xun; Lin, Tseng-Hsi

    2018-03-30

    To evaluate whether hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism increases the risk of subsequent breast cancer in an Asian population. Nationwide population-based case-control study. All healthcare facilities in Taiwan. A total of 103 466 women (mean age 53.3 years) were enrolled. 51 733 adult women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer without a previous cancer history between 2006 and 2011 were identified and included in our study. 51 733 women with no cancer diagnosis prior to the index date were age matched as controls. Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism prior to the diagnosis of breast cancer or the same index date was identified, age, histories of thyroid disease treatment, oestrogen use and radioactive iodine treatment were adjusted. To identify risk differences in developing breast cancer among patients with a medical history of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. There was a significantly increased risk of breast cancer in women with hyperthyroidism under the age of 55 years (age hypothyroidism also showed an increased risk of breast cancer (OR 1.19, P=0.029) without statistical significance after stratification by age group (age 55 years). Treatment for thyroid disorders did not alter the association in subgroup analyses (P=0.857; 0.262, respectively). Asian women under 55 years of age with history of hyperthyroidism have a significantly increased risk of breast cancer regardless of treatment. Women with history of hypothyroidism may also have an increased risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the association with socio-demographic characteristics and physical activity in urban population of Iranian adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian-Tilaki, K; Heidari, B; Firouzjahi, A; Bagherzadeh, M; Hajian-Tilaki, A; Halalkhor, S

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the main concern of health problem in transition population. The objective was to determine the prevalence of MetS and its association with socio-demographic and physical activity in Iranian adults. A population-based cross-sectional study of 1000 representative samples aged 20-70 years was conducted in urban area in northern Iran. The socio-demographic data were collected by interview and the physical activity was assessed by standard International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Weight, height, waist circumference and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured by standard methods. Fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and low density lipoprotein cholesterol level were measured using enzymatic method. The ATP III criteria were used for diagnosis of MetS. The prevalence rate of MetS was 42.3% (36.5% men and 47.1% women, p=0.001). The higher education at university level was appeared inversely associated with MetS (age adjusted OR=0.34, p=0.001) compared with illiterate. The prevalence rates of MetS were 49.0%, 42.5% and 22.6% in low, moderate and vigorous physical activity level respectively (p=0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with MetS compared with low level (adjusted OR=0.46, p=0.001). These results highlight an immediate action of preventive measures programs for modification of cardio metabolic risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Online Internal Temperature Estimation for Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlei Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The battery internal temperature estimation is important for the thermal safety in applications, because the internal temperature is hard to measure directly. In this work, an online internal temperature estimation method based on a simplified thermal model using a Kalman filter is proposed. As an improvement, the influences of entropy change and overpotential on heat generation are analyzed quantitatively. The model parameters are identified through a current pulse test. The charge/discharge experiments under different current rates are carried out on the same battery to verify the estimation results. The internal and surface temperatures are measured with thermocouples for result validation and model construction. The accuracy of the estimated result is validated with a maximum estimation error of around 1 K.

  3. SSR and morphological trait based population structure analysis of 130 diverse flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Shashi Bhushan; Sharma, Hariom Kumar; Kumar, Arroju Anil; Maruthi, Rangappa Thimmaiah; Mitra, Jiban; Chowdhury, Isholeena; Singh, Binay Kumar; Karmakar, Pran Gobinda

    2017-02-01

    A total of 130 flax accessions of diverse morphotypes and worldwide origin were assessed for genetic diversity and population structure using 11 morphological traits and microsatellite markers (15 gSSRs and 7 EST-SSRs). Analysis performed after classifying these accessions on the basis of plant height, branching pattern, seed size, Indian/foreign origin into six categories called sub-populations viz. fibre type exotic, fibre type indigenous, intermediate type exotic, intermediate type indigenous, linseed type exotic and linseed type indigenous. The study assessed different diversity indices, AMOVA, population structure and included a principal coordinate analysis based on different marker systems. The highest diversity was exhibited by gSSR markers (SI=0.46; He=0.31; P=85.11). AMOVA based on all markers explained significant difference among fibre type, intermediate type and linseed type populations of flax. In terms of variation explained by different markers, EST-SSR markers (12%) better differentiated flax populations compared to morphological (9%) and gSSR (6%) markers at P=0.01. The maximum Nei's unbiased genetic distance (D=0.11) was observed between fibre type and linseed type exotic sub-populations based on EST-SSR markers. The combined structure analysis by using all markers grouped Indian fibre type accessions (63.4%) in a separate cluster along with the Indian intermediate type (48.7%), whereas Indian accessions (82.16%) of linseed type constituted an independent cluster. These findings were supported by the results of the principal coordinate analysis. Morphological markers employed in the study found complementary with microsatellite based markers in deciphering genetic diversity and population structure of the flax germplasm. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigating the Association between Autistic-Like and Internalizing Traits in a Community-Based Twin Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Victoria; Ronald, Angelica; Happe, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The phenotypic and etiologic relation between internalizing and autistic-like traits is studied using a community-based twin sample. Internalizing and autistic-like traits showed moderate phenotypic overlap but have specific genetic influences.

  5. Population Estimation in Singapore Based on Remote Sensing and Open Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H.; Cao, K.; Wang, P.

    2017-09-01

    Population estimation statistics are widely used in government, commercial and educational sectors for a variety of purposes. With growing emphases on real-time and detailed population information, data users nowadays have switched from traditional census data to more technology-based data source such as LiDAR point cloud and High-Resolution Satellite Imagery. Nevertheless, such data are costly and periodically unavailable. In this paper, the authors use West Coast District, Singapore as a case study to investigate the applicability and effectiveness of using satellite image from Google Earth for extraction of building footprint and population estimation. At the same time, volunteered geographic information (VGI) is also utilized as ancillary data for building footprint extraction. Open data such as Open Street Map OSM could be employed to enhance the extraction process. In view of challenges in building shadow extraction, this paper discusses several methods including buffer, mask and shape index to improve accuracy. It also illustrates population estimation methods based on building height and number of floor estimates. The results show that the accuracy level of housing unit method on population estimation can reach 92.5 %, which is remarkably accurate. This paper thus provides insights into techniques for building extraction and fine-scale population estimation, which will benefit users such as urban planners in terms of policymaking and urban planning of Singapore.

  6. Maintenance of algal endosymbionts in Paramecium bursaria: a simple model based on population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Sosuke; Fujiwara, Kenji; Tamura, Takuro

    2016-09-01

    Algal endosymbiosis is widely distributed in eukaryotes including many protists and metazoans, and plays important roles in aquatic ecosystems, combining phagotrophy and phototrophy. To maintain a stable symbiotic relationship, endosymbiont population size in the host must be properly regulated and maintained at a constant level; however, the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of algal endosymbionts are still largely unknown. Here we investigate the population dynamics of the unicellular ciliate Paramecium bursaria and its Chlorella-like algal endosymbiont under various experimental conditions in a simple culture system. Our results suggest that endosymbiont population size in P. bursaria was not regulated by active processes such as cell division coupling between the two organisms, or partitioning of the endosymbionts at host cell division. Regardless, endosymbiont population size was eventually adjusted to a nearly constant level once cells were grown with light and nutrients. To explain this apparent regulation of population size, we propose a simple mechanism based on the different growth properties (specifically the nutrient requirements) of the two organisms, and based from this develop a mathematical model to describe the population dynamics of host and endosymbiont. The proposed mechanism and model may provide a basis for understanding the maintenance of algal endosymbionts. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Design of PREVENCION: a population-based study of cardiovascular disease in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Chirinos, Julio A; Zea Díaz, Humberto; Morey, Oscar; Bolanos, Juan F; Munoz-Atahualpa, Edgar; Chirinos-Pacheco, Julio

    2005-11-02

    Latin America is undergoing the epidemiologic transition that occurred earlier in developed countries, and is likely to face a gigantic epidemic of heart disease in the next few years unless urgent action is taken. The first essential component of any effective cardiovascular disease (CVD) control program is to establish reliable estimates of cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. However, such data from population-based studies in Latin America are still lacking. In this paper, we present the design and operation of PREVENCION (Estudio Peruano de Prevalencia de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, for Peruvian Study of the Prevalence of Cardiovascular diseases). PREVENCION is an ongoing population-based study on a representative sample of the civilian non-institutionalized population of the second largest city in Peru. Its population is comparable to the rest of the Peruvian urban population and closely resembles other Latin American populations in countries such as Bolivia and Ecuador. Our study will contribute to the enormous task of understanding and preventing CVD in Latin America.

  8. POPULATION ESTIMATION IN SINGAPORE BASED ON REMOTE SENSING AND OPEN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Population estimation statistics are widely used in government, commercial and educational sectors for a variety of purposes. With growing emphases on real-time and detailed population information, data users nowadays have switched from traditional census data to more technology-based data source such as LiDAR point cloud and High-Resolution Satellite Imagery. Nevertheless, such data are costly and periodically unavailable. In this paper, the authors use West Coast District, Singapore as a case study to investigate the applicability and effectiveness of using satellite image from Google Earth for extraction of building footprint and population estimation. At the same time, volunteered geographic information (VGI is also utilized as ancillary data for building footprint extraction. Open data such as Open Street Map(OSM)could be employed to enhance the extraction process. In view of challenges in building shadow extraction, this paper discusses several methods including buffer, mask and shape index to improve accuracy. It also illustrates population estimation methods based on building height and number of floor estimates. The results show that the accuracy level of housing unit method on population estimation can reach 92.5 %, which is remarkably accurate. This paper thus provides insights into techniques for building extraction and fine-scale population estimation, which will benefit users such as urban planners in terms of policymaking and urban planning of Singapore.

  9. Building an International Geosciences Network (i-GEON) for cyberinfrastructure-based Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seber, D.; Baru, C.

    2007-05-01

    The Geosciences Network (GEON) project is a collaboration among multiple institutions to develop a cyberinfrastructure (CI) platform in support of integrative geoscience research activities. Taking advantage of the state-of-the-art information technology resources GEON researchers are building a cyberinfrastructure designed to enable data sharing, resource discovery, semantic data integration, high-end computations and 4D visualization in an easy-to-use web-based environment. The cyberinfrastructure in GEON is required to support an inherently distributed system, since the scientists, who are users as well as providers of resources, are themselves distributed. International collaborations are a natural extension of GEON; the geoscience research requires strong international collaborations. The goals of the i-GEON activities are to collaborate with international partners and jointly build a cyberinfrastructure for the geosciences to enable collaborative work environments. International partners can participate in GEON efforts, establish GEON nodes at their universities, institutes, or agencies and also contribute data and tools to the network. Via jointly run cyberinfrastructure workshops, the GEON team also introduces students, scientists, and research professionals to the concepts of IT-based geoscience research and education. Currently, joint activities are underway with the Chinese Academy of Sciences in China, the GEO Grid project at AIST in Japan, and the University of Hyderabad in India (where the activity is funded by the Indo-US Science and Technology Forum). Several other potential international partnerships are under consideration. iGEON is open to all international partners who are interested in working towards the goal of data sharing, managing and integration via IT-based platforms. Information about GEON and its international activities can be found at http:www.geongrid.org/

  10. Dialysis Modality and Readmission Following Hospital Discharge: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Jeffrey; McArthur, Eric; Bell, Chaim; Garg, Amit X; Bargman, Joanne M; Chan, Christopher T; Harel, Shai; Li, Lihua; Jain, Arsh K; Nash, Danielle M; Harel, Ziv

    2017-07-01

    Readmissions following hospital discharge among maintenance dialysis patients are common, potentially modifiable, and costly. Compared with patients receiving in-center hemodialysis (HD), patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) have fewer routine dialysis clinic encounters and as a result may be more susceptible to a hospital readmission following discharge. Population-based retrospective-cohort observational study. Patients treated with maintenance dialysis who were discharged following an acute-care hospitalization during January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2013, across 164 acute-care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. For those with multiple hospitalizations, we randomly selected a single hospitalization as the index hospitalization. Dialysis modality PD or in-center HD. Propensity scores were used to match each patient on PD therapy to 2 patients on in-center HD therapy to ensure that baseline indicators of health were similar between the 2 groups. All-cause 30-day readmission following the index hospital discharge. 28,026 dialysis patients were included in the study. 4,013 PD patients were matched to 8,026 in-center HD patients. Among the matched cohort, 30-day readmission rates were 7.1 (95% CI, 6.6-7.6) per 1,000 person-days for patients on PD therapy and 6.0 (95% CI, 5.7-6.3) per 1,000 person-days for patients on in-center HD therapy. The risk for a 30-day readmission among patients on PD therapy was higher compared with those on in-center HD therapy (adjusted HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.08-1.31). The primary results were consistent across several key prespecified subgroups. Lack of information for the frequency of nephrology physician encounters following discharge from the hospital in both the PD and in-center HD cohorts. Limited validation of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes. The risk for 30-day readmission is higher for patients on home-based PD compared to in-center HD therapy. Interventions to improve transitions in care between the

  11. The use of customised versus population-based birthweight standards in predicting perinatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Platt, R W; Cnattingius, S; Joseph, K S; Kramer, M S

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to critically examine potential artifacts and biases underlying the use of 'customised' standards of birthweight for gestational age (GA). Population-based cohort study. Sweden. A total of 782,303 singletons > or =28 weeks of gestation born in 1992-2001 to Nordic mothers with complete data on birthweight; GA; and maternal age, parity, height, and pre-pregnancy weight. We compared perinatal mortality in four groups of infants based on the following classification of small for gestational age (SGA): non-SGA based on either population-based or customised standards (the reference group), SGA based on the population-based standard only, SGA based on the customised standard only, and SGA according to both standards. We used graphical methods to compare GA-specific birthweight cutoffs for SGA using the two standards and also used logistic regression to control for differences in GA and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) in the four groups. Perinatal mortality, including stillbirth and neonatal death. Customisation led to a large artifactual increase in the proportion of SGA infants born preterm. Adjustment for differences in GA and maternal BMI markedly reduced the excess risk among infants classified as SGA by customised standards only. The large increase in perinatal mortality risk among infants classified as SGA based on customised standards is largely an artifact due to inclusion of more preterm births.

  12. Population based reference intervals for common blood haematological and biochemical parameters in the akuapem north district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koram, Ka; Addae, Mm; Ocran, Jc; Adu-Amankwah, S; Rogers, Wo; Nkrumah, Fk

    2007-12-01

    To estimate the reference intervals for commonly used blood haematology and biochemical parameters in an adult (18-55yrs) population of residents of Mampong Akuapem. This was a population based cross sectional study of a randomly selected sample of the adult population of Mampong. The sample was selected from an updated census list of the Mampong area. Median values (95% range) for measured parameters were established as follows: Haemoglobin, (males) 14.2 g/dl (females) 12.0 g/dl Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), (female) 19.6 U/L (males) 26.1 U/L and Creatinine, (males) 108 mmol/L (females) 93 mmol/L. In comparison to reference values that are commonly used in Ghana, the haemoglobulin levels from this study were lower, and liver function parameters higher. This could be a result of genetic or environmental differences and calls for the need to establish site specific reference values applicable to our population.

  13. SELECTION OF FISÁLIS POPULATIONS FOR HIBRIDIZATIONS, BASED ON FRUIT TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLE TREVISANI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic variability in fisális populations and select promising parents based on fruit traits. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, with six populations. Five plants per treatment were sampled. The evaluated traits were fruit weight, capsule weight, 1000- seed weight and fruit diameter. The data were subjected to multivariate analysis of variance with error specification between and within (p <0.05. Mahalanobis’ distance was used as a measure of genetic dissimilarity. Significant differences for the assessed traits were detected between fisális populations. The ratio error among by within indicated no need for sampling within the experimental unit. Dissimilarity was greatest between Lages and Vacaria. The most discriminating traits were capsule weight, fruit weight and fruit diameter. The multivariate contrasts indicated differences between the populations of Vacaria and from Caçador, Lages and Peru, selected for hybridizations.

  14. Invitation strategies and coverage in the population-based cancer screening programmes in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Diama B; Anttila, Ahti; Ponti, Antonio; Senore, Carlo; Sankaranaryanan, Rengaswamy; Ronco, Guglielmo; Segnan, Nereo; Tomatis, Mariano; Žakelj, Maja P; Elfström, Klara M; Lönnberg, Stefan; Dillner, Joakim; Basu, Partha

    2018-03-21

    The aim of this study was to describe the compliance of the population-based cancer screening programmes in the European Union Member States to the invitation strategies enumerated in the European Guidelines and the impact of such strategies on the invitational coverage. Experts in screening programme monitoring from the respective countries provided data. Coverage by invitation was calculated as the proportion of individuals in the target age range receiving a screening invitation over the total number of annualized eligible population. The invitation strategies of 30 breasts, 25 cervical and 27 colorectal national or regional population-based screening programmes are described. Individual mail invitations are sent by 28 breasts, 20 cervical and 25 colorectal screening programmes. Faecal occult blood test kits are sent by post in 17 of the colorectal cancer screening programmes. The majority of programmes claimed to have a population registry, although some use health insurance data as the database for sending invitations. At least 95% invitation coverage was reached by 16 breast, six cervical and five colorectal screening programmes. Majority of the programmes comply with the invitation strategies enumerated in the European guidelines, although there is still scope for improvements. Coverage by invitation is below the desirable level in many population-based cancer screening programmes in European Union.

  15. Epidemiology of Pediatric Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in a Population-Based Cohort, 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Lee L; Selassie, Anbesaw; Cao, Yue; Zebracki, Kathy; Vogel, Lawrence C

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) that occurs in children and adolescents who are still developing represents a different challenge than SCI in adults. However, information on the epidemiology and incidence of SCI in a population-based cohort is lacking. To describe the epidemiology of pediatric SCI in a population-based cohort in the United States and to assess trend in incidence over a 15-year period (1998-2012). Children and adolescents (0-21 years) with SCI were identified through the South Carolina SCI Surveillance Registry using hospital discharge records from 1998 to 2012. Overall age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated for each year, and incidence rates were stratified by age, gender, and race. The overall age-adjusted incidence rate was 26.9 per million population, and there was a trend (P = .0583) toward decreasing incidence of pediatric SCI. When stratified by race, there was a significant decrease in incidence among Whites(P = .0052) but not among non-Whites. Younger participants were more likely to be female, to be injured through sports, and to be more likely to have concomitant traumatic brain injury. Since 1998, the proportion of older pediatric patients (16-22 years) with SCI has increased, as has the proportion of non-White patients. Although there was an overall trend toward decreasing incidence in this population-based cohort, when stratified by race, this trend only occurred in the White population.

  16. Hippocampal atrophy in people with memory deficits: results from the population-based IPREA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Luca; van Lew, Baldur; Reiber, Johan H C; Gandin, Claudia; Galluzzo, Lucia; Scafato, Emanuele; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Milles, Julien; Pievani, Michela

    2014-07-01

    Clinical studies have shown that hippocampal atrophy is present before dementia in people with memory deficits and can predict dementia development. The question remains whether this association holds in the general population. This is of interest for the possible use of hippocampal atrophy to screen population for preventive interventions. The aim of this study was to assess hippocampal volume and shape abnormalities in elderly adults with memory deficits in a cross-sectional population-based study. We included individuals participating in the Italian Project on the Epidemiology of Alzheimer Disease (IPREA) study: 75 cognitively normal individuals (HC), 31 individuals with memory deficits (MEM), and 31 individuals with memory deficits not otherwise specified (MEMnos). Hippocampal volumes and shape were extracted through manual tracing and the growing and adaptive meshes (GAMEs) shape-modeling algorithm. We investigated between-group differences in hippocampal volume and shape, and correlations with memory deficits. In MEM participants, hippocampal volumes were significantly smaller than in HC and were mildly associated with worse memory scores. Memory-associated shape changes mapped to the anterior hippocampus. Shape-based analysis detected no significant difference between MEM and HC, while MEMnos showed shape changes in the posterior hippocampus compared with HC and MEM groups. These findings support the discriminant validity of hippocampal volumetry as a biomarker of memory impairment in the general population. The detection of shape changes in MEMnos but not in MEM participants suggests that shape-based biomarkers might lack sensitivity to detect Alzheimer's-like pathology in the general population.

  17. Adherence to physical activity recommendations and its associated factors: an interregional population-based study